WorldWideScience

Sample records for random pitch tool

  1. Establishment of expanded and streamlined pipeline of PITCh knock-in - a web-based design tool for MMEJ-mediated gene knock-in, PITCh designer, and the variations of PITCh, PITCh-TG and PITCh-KIKO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamae, Kazuki; Nishimura, Yuki; Takenaga, Mitsumasa; Nakade, Shota; Sakamoto, Naoaki; Ide, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2017-05-04

    The emerging genome editing technology has enabled the creation of gene knock-in cells easily, efficiently, and rapidly, which has dramatically accelerated research in the field of mammalian functional genomics, including in humans. We recently developed a microhomology-mediated end-joining-based gene knock-in method, termed the PITCh system, and presented various examples of its application. Since the PITCh system only requires very short microhomologies (up to 40 bp) and single-guide RNA target sites on the donor vector, the targeting construct can be rapidly prepared compared with the conventional targeting vector for homologous recombination-based knock-in. Here, we established a streamlined pipeline to design and perform PITCh knock-in to further expand the availability of this method by creating web-based design software, PITCh designer ( http://www.mls.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/smg/PITChdesigner/index.html ), as well as presenting an experimental example of versatile gene cassette knock-in. PITCh designer can automatically design not only the appropriate microhomologies but also the primers to construct locus-specific donor vectors for PITCh knock-in. By using our newly established pipeline, a reporter cell line for monitoring endogenous gene expression, and transgenesis (TG) or knock-in/knockout (KIKO) cell line can be produced systematically. Using these new variations of PITCh, an exogenous promoter-driven gene cassette expressing fluorescent protein gene and drug resistance gene can be integrated into a safe harbor or a specific gene locus to create transgenic reporter cells (PITCh-TG) or knockout cells with reporter knock-in (PITCh-KIKO), respectively.

  2. Orthogonal experiment and analysis of power spectral density on process parameters of pitch tool polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Kai; Wan, Yongjian; Wu, Fan; Shen, Lijun; Wu, Hsing-Yu

    2017-02-01

    Mid to high spatial frequency error (MSFR and HSFR) should be strictly controlled in modern optical systems. Pitch tool polishing (PTP) is an effective ultra-smoothing surface manufacturing method to control MSFR and HSFR. But it is difficult to control because it is affected by a lot of factors. The present paper describes the pitch tool polishing study based on eighteen well-planned orthogonal experiments (OA18 matrix). Five main process factors (abrasive particle size, slurry concentration, pad rotation speed, acidity and polishing time) in pitch tool polishing process were investigated. In this study, power spectral density (PSD) based on Fourier analysis of surface topography data obtained by white light interferometer was used as the results of orthogonal experiments instead of material removal rate and surface roughness. A normalization method of PSD was proposed as the range analysis rule. Three parts of spatial frequency bandwidth were selected and discussed. Acidity is the most important factor in part 1 and slurry concentration is the most significant one in part 2; while acidity is the least influenced one in part 3. The result in each part was explained by two-step material removal mechanism. At last, suggestions in low and high spatial frequency are given for pitch tool polishing.

  3. Research on controlling middle spatial frequency error of high gradient precise aspheric by pitch tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Hou, Xi; Wan, Yongjian; Shi, Chunyan; Zhong, Xianyun

    2016-09-01

    Extreme optical fabrication projects known as EUV and X-ray optic systems, which are representative of today's advanced optical manufacturing technology level, have special requirements for the optical surface quality. In synchroton radiation (SR) beamlines, mirrors of high shape accuracy is always used in grazing incidence. In nanolithograph systems, middle spatial frequency errors always lead to small-angle scattering or flare that reduces the contrast of the image. The slope error is defined for a given horizontal length, the increase or decrease in form error at the end point relative to the starting point is measured. The quality of reflective optical elements can be described by their deviation from ideal shape at different spatial frequencies. Usually one distinguishes between the figure error, the low spatial error part ranging from aperture length to 1mm frequencies, and the mid-high spatial error part from 1mm to 1 μm and from1 μm to some 10 nm spatial frequencies, respectively. Firstly, this paper will disscuss the relationship between slope error and middle spatial frequency error, which both describe the optical surface error along with the form profile. Then, experimental researches will be conducted on a high gradient precise aspheric with pitch tool, which aim to restraining the middle spatial frequency error.

  4. Two-Dimensional Video Analysis of Youth and Adolescent Pitching Biomechanics: A Tool For the Common Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFroda, Steven F; Thigpen, Charles A; Kriz, Peter K

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis is the gold standard for analyzing the biomechanics of the baseball pitching motion. Historically, 3D analysis has been available primarily to elite athletes, requiring advanced cameras, and sophisticated facilities with expensive software. The advent of newer technology, and increased affordability of video recording devices, and smartphone/tablet-based applications has led to increased access to this technology for youth/amateur athletes and sports medicine professionals. Two-dimensional (2D) video analysis is an emerging tool for the kinematic assessment and observational measurement of pitching biomechanics. It is important for providers, coaches, and players to be aware of this technology, its application in identifying causes of arm pain and preventing injury, as well as its limitations. This review provides an in-depth assessment of 2D video analysis studies for pitching, a direct comparison of 2D video versus 3D motion analysis, and a practical introduction to assessing pitching biomechanics using 2D video analysis.

  5. Absolute Pitch in Oral Transmission of Folk Tunes as Constrained Random Walks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Frieler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this commentary, I would like to add a few of our own, still unpublished, empirical observations concerning the possible role of absolute pitch memory (APM in the oral transmission of folksongs. This empirical data poses some questions about the likelihood of the observed inter-recording tonic pitch consistency of Olthof, Janssen & Honing (2015 and how these observations could come about. Based on simulations of absolute pitch class of tonics during oral transmission of folk songs, I argue that the interplay of melodic range and vocal range might actually be the main reason for the observed non-uniformity, in contrast to the conclusions presented in Olthof et al. (2015. However, this does not invalidate the therein-presented evidence, but makes the case more puzzling, consequently calling for more empirical research on the interaction of melodic and vocal range and latent APM as well as for more detailed modeling of oral transmission of folk songs.

  6. Can You Help Me with My Pitch? Studying a Tool for Real-Time Automated Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jan; Borner, Dirk; van Rosmalen, Peter; Specht, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    In our pursue to study effective real-time feedback in Technology Enhanced Learning, we developed the Presentation Trainer, a tool designed to support the practice of nonverbal communication skills for public speaking. The tool tracks the user's voice and body to analyze her performance, and selects the type of real-time feedback to be presented.…

  7. Consonance and pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Neil; Marco, David; Light, Maria; Wilson, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    To date, no consensus exists in the literature as to theories of consonance and dissonance. Experimental data collected over the last century have raised questions about the dominant theories that are based on frequency relationships between the harmonics of music chords. This study provides experimental evidence that strongly challenges these theories and suggests a new theory of dissonance based on relationships between pitch perception and recognition. Experiment 1 shows that dissonance does not increase with increasing numbers of harmonics in chords as predicted by Helmholtz's (1863/1954) roughness theory, nor does it increase with fewer pitch-matching errors as predicted by Stumpf's (1898) tonal fusion theory. Dissonance was strongly correlated with pitch-matching error for chords, which in turn was reduced by chord familiarity and greater music training. This led to the proposition that long-term memory templates for common chords assist the perception of pitches in chords by providing an estimate of the chord intervals from spectral information. When recognition mechanisms based on these templates fail, the spectral pitch estimate is inconsistent with the period of the waveform, leading to cognitive incongruence and the negative affect of dissonance. The cognitive incongruence theory of dissonance was rigorously tested in Experiment 2, in which nonmusicians were trained to match the pitches of a random selection of 2-pitch chords. After 10 training sessions, they rated the chords they had learned to pitch match as less dissonant than the unlearned chords, irrespective of their tuning, providing strong support for a cognitive mechanism of dissonance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Pitch Fork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Peter Leslie; Overholt, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Pitch Fork is a prototype of an alternate, actuated digital musical instrument (DMI). It uses 5 infra-red and 4 piezoelectric sensors to control an additive synthesis engine. Iron bars are used as the physical point of contact in interaction with the aim of using this materials natural acoustic p...... properties as a control signal for aspects of the digitally produced sound. This choice of material was also chosen to affect player experience. Sensor readings are relayed to a Macbook via an Arduino Mega. Mappings and audio output signal is carried out with Pure Data Extended....

  9. Spatial Random Sampling: A Structure-Preserving Data Sketching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Mostafa; Atia, George K.

    2017-09-01

    Random column sampling is not guaranteed to yield data sketches that preserve the underlying structures of the data and may not sample sufficiently from less-populated data clusters. Also, adaptive sampling can often provide accurate low rank approximations, yet may fall short of producing descriptive data sketches, especially when the cluster centers are linearly dependent. Motivated by that, this paper introduces a novel randomized column sampling tool dubbed Spatial Random Sampling (SRS), in which data points are sampled based on their proximity to randomly sampled points on the unit sphere. The most compelling feature of SRS is that the corresponding probability of sampling from a given data cluster is proportional to the surface area the cluster occupies on the unit sphere, independently from the size of the cluster population. Although it is fully randomized, SRS is shown to provide descriptive and balanced data representations. The proposed idea addresses a pressing need in data science and holds potential to inspire many novel approaches for analysis of big data.

  10. Pseudo-random tool paths for CNC sub-aperture polishing and other applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Christina R; Walker, David D

    2008-11-10

    In this paper we first contrast classical and CNC polishing techniques in regard to the repetitiveness of the machine motions. We then present a pseudo-random tool path for use with CNC sub-aperture polishing techniques and report polishing results from equivalent random and raster tool-paths. The random tool-path used - the unicursal random tool-path - employs a random seed to generate a pattern which never crosses itself. Because of this property, this tool-path is directly compatible with dwell time maps for corrective polishing. The tool-path can be used to polish any continuous area of any boundary shape, including surfaces with interior perforations.

  11. Pitch and pitch variation in lesbian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Borsel, John; Vandaele, Jana; Corthals, Paul

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent lesbian women demonstrate pitch and pitch variation that is different from that of heterosexual women. Static group comparison. The average pitch and pitch variation of a group of 34 self-identified lesbian women and an age-matched group of 68 heterosexual women were compared. The speech sample consisted of read speech. Acoustic analysis was performed by means of PRAAT. Mean fundamental frequency in the group of lesbian women was significantly lower than that of the group of heterosexual women. The lesbian woman also showed significantly less pitch variation. Lesbian women tend to demonstrate a lower average pitch and less pitch variation than heterosexual women, but this does not mean a confirmation of the popular stereotype that lesbian women are masculine women. In their assessment of clients with voice disorders, clinicians should reckon with the sociophonetic variation that is associated with sexual orientation. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Computerized Tool to Manage Dental Anxiety: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, M; Potter, C M; Kinner, D G; Jensen, D; Waldron, E; Heimberg, R G; Myers Virtue, S; Zhao, H; Ismail, A I

    2015-09-01

    Anxiety regarding dental and physical health is a common and potentially distressing problem, for both patients and health care providers. Anxiety has been identified as a barrier to regular dental visits and as an important target for enhancement of oral health-related quality of life. The study aimed to develop and evaluate a computerized cognitive-behavioral therapy dental anxiety intervention that could be easily implemented in dental health care settings. A cognitive-behavioral protocol based on psychoeducation, exposure to feared dental procedures, and cognitive restructuring was developed. A randomized controlled trial was conducted (N = 151) to test its efficacy. Consenting adult dental patients who met inclusion criteria (e.g., high dental anxiety) were randomized to 1 of 2 groups: immediate treatment (n = 74) or a wait-list control (n = 77). Analyses of covariance based on intention-to-treat analyses were used to compare the 2 groups on dental anxiety, fear, avoidance, and overall severity of dental phobia. Baseline scores on these outcomes were entered into the analyses as covariates. Groups were equivalent at baseline but differed at 1-mo follow-up. Both groups showed improvement in outcomes, but analyses of covariance demonstrated significant differences in dental anxiety, fear, avoidance, and overall severity of dental phobia in favor of immediate treatment at the follow-up assessment. Of the patients who met diagnostic criteria for phobia at baseline, fewer patients in the immediate treatment group continued to meet criteria for dental phobia at follow-up as compared with the wait-list group. A new computer-based tool seems to be efficacious in reducing dental anxiety and fear/avoidance of dental procedures. Examination of its effectiveness when administered in dental offices under less controlled conditions is warranted (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02081365). © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  13. Cleaning large correlation matrices: Tools from Random Matrix Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bun, Joël; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Potters, Marc

    2017-01-01

    This review covers recent results concerning the estimation of large covariance matrices using tools from Random Matrix Theory (RMT). We introduce several RMT methods and analytical techniques, such as the Replica formalism and Free Probability, with an emphasis on the Marčenko-Pastur equation that provides information on the resolvent of multiplicatively corrupted noisy matrices. Special care is devoted to the statistics of the eigenvectors of the empirical correlation matrix, which turn out to be crucial for many applications. We show in particular how these results can be used to build consistent "Rotationally Invariant" estimators (RIE) for large correlation matrices when there is no prior on the structure of the underlying process. The last part of this review is dedicated to some real-world applications within financial markets as a case in point. We establish empirically the efficacy of the RIE framework, which is found to be superior in this case to all previously proposed methods. The case of additively (rather than multiplicatively) corrupted noisy matrices is also dealt with in a special Appendix. Several open problems and interesting technical developments are discussed throughout the paper.

  14. Reflexive and volitional voice fundamental frequency responses to an anticipated feedback pitch error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Theresa A; McCurdy, Katie E; Bright, Jessica C

    2008-11-01

    The pitch-shift reflex is a corrective voice fundamental frequency (F0) response triggered by a sudden shift or "error" in auditory feedback pitch. We investigated how anticipating a voice pitch error affects the pitch-shift reflex and volitional voice F0 responses. Adults sustained the vowel/u/at a comfortable pitch and pressed a button to deliver a 100 cent, 100 ms auditory feedback pitch shift immediately or after a random delay. Pitch shift direction was either constant (up) or randomized (up or down). Onset anticipation often resulted in an anticipatory voice F0 change, but stimulus direction predictability did not affect the responses. When pitch error onset and direction were both anticipated, some participants produced an ideomotor voice F0 change that partially imitated the error, but they produced no apparent pitch-shift reflex. Results imply that when voice pitch errors are anticipated, volitional voice F0 responses may reduce or enhance voice F0 stability.

  15. Chatter Prediction for Variable Pitch and Variable Helix Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative chatter is a self-excited vibration that can occur during milling, which shortens the lifetime of the tool and results in unacceptable surface quality. In this paper, an improved semidiscretization method for modeling and simulation with variable pitch and variable helix milling is proposed. Because the delay between each flute varies along the axial depth of the tool in milling, the cutting tool is discrete into some axial layers to simplify calculation. A comparison of the predicted and observed performance of variable pitch and variable helix against uniform pitch and uniform helix milling is presented. It is shown that variable pitch and variable helix milling can obtain larger stable cutting area than uniform pitch and uniform helix milling. Thus, it is concluded that variable pitch and variable helix milling are an effective way for suppressing chatter.

  16. First steps in random walks from tools to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Klafter, J

    2011-01-01

    The name ""random walk"" for a problem of a displacement of a point in a sequence of independent random steps was coined by Karl Pearson in 1905 in a question posed to readers of ""Nature"". The same year, a similar problem was formulated by Albert Einstein in one of his Annus Mirabilis works. Even earlier such a problem was posed by Louis Bachelier in his thesis devoted to the theory of financial speculations in 1900. Nowadays the theory of random walks has proved useful in physics andchemistry (diffusion, reactions, mixing in flows), economics, biology (from animal spread to motion of subcel

  17. Dial A440 for absolute pitch: absolute pitch memory by non-absolute pitch possessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas A; Schmuckler, Mark A

    2008-04-01

    Listeners without absolute (or "perfect") pitch have difficulty identifying or producing isolated musical pitches from memory. Instead, they process the relative pattern of pitches, which remains invariant across pitch transposition. Musically untrained non-absolute pitch possessors demonstrated absolute pitch memory for the telephone dial tone, a stimulus that is always heard at the same absolute frequency. Listeners accurately classified pitch-shifted versions of the dial tone as "normal," "higher than normal" or "lower than normal." However, the role of relative pitch processing was also evident, in that listeners' pitch judgments were also sensitive to the frequency range of stimuli.

  18. Perfect pitch reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Calum

    2014-10-01

    Perfect pitch, or absolute pitch (AP), is defined as the ability to identify or produce the pitch of a sound without need for a reference pitch, and is generally regarded as a valuable asset to the musician. However, there has been no recent review of the literature examining its aetiology and its utility taking into account emerging scientific advances in AP research, notably in functional imaging. This review analyses the key empirical research on AP, focusing on genetic and neuroimaging studies. The review concludes that: AP probably has a genetic predisposition, although this is based on limited evidence; early musical training is almost certainly essential for AP acquisition; and, although there is evidence that it may be relevant to speech processing, AP can interfere with relative pitch, an ability on which humans rely to communicate effectively. The review calls into question the value of AP to musicians and non-musicians alike. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.

  19. Octave Bias in Pitch Perception: The Influence of Pitch Height on Pitch Class Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prpic, Valter; Murgia, Mauro; De Tommaso, Matteo; Boschetti, Giulia; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2016-09-01

    Pitch height and pitch class are different, but strictly related, percepts of music tones. To investigate the influence of pitch height in a pitch class identification task, we systematically analyzed the errors-in terms of direction and amount-committed by a group of musicians. The aim of our study was to verify the existence of constant errors in the identification of pitch classes across consecutive octaves. Stimuli were single piano tones from the C major scale executed in two consecutive octaves. Participants showed different response patterns in the two octaves. The direction of errors revealed a constant tendency to underestimate pitch classes in the lowest octave and to overestimate pitch classes in the highest octave. Thus, pitch height showed to influence pitch class identification. We called this bias "pitch class polarization", since the same pitch class was judged to be respectively lower and higher, depending on relatively low or high pitch height. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. User-Friendly Tools for Random Matrices: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    independent random matrices. We might even dream that the classical methods for studying the scalar concentration problem (1.6.1) extend to (1.6.2...matrix Gaussian series exhibit the behavior described in Theo- rem 4.1.1. Afterward, we show how to adapt the argument to address matrix Rademacher...bound. This behavior emerges from the next theorem, which closely parallels the scalar Chernoff theo- rem . Theorem 5.1.1 (Matrix Chernoff). Consider a

  1. T3, a Combinator-based Random Testing Tool for Java: Benchmarking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prasetya, I.S.W.B.

    2014-01-01

    T3 is the next generation of the light weight automated testing tool T2 for Java. In the heart T3 is still a random testing tool; but it now comes with some new features: pair-wise testing, concurrent generators, and a combinator-based approach ala QuickCheck. This paper presents the result of

  2. Randomized Test of an Implementation Intention-Based Tool to Reduce Stress-Induced Eating

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, DB; Armitage, CJ; Ferguson, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stress may indirectly contribute to disease (e.g., cardiovascular disease, cancer by producing deleterious changes to diet. Purpose: To test effectiveness of a stress management support (SMS) tool to reduce stress-related unhealthy snacking and to promote stress-related healthy snacking. Methods: Participants were randomized to complete a SMS tool with instruction to link stressful situations with healthy snack alternatives (experimental) or a SMS tool without a linking instructio...

  3. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    -max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  4. Wind turbine pitch optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Juelsgaard, Morten; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    We consider a static wind model for a three-bladed, horizontal-axis, pitch-controlled wind turbine. When placed in a wind field, the turbine experiences several mechanical loads, which generate power but also create structural fatigue. We address the problem of finding blade pitch profiles......% compared to any constant pitch profile while sacrificing at most 7% of the maximum attainable output power. Using iterative learning, we show that very similar performance can be achieved by using only load measurements, with no knowledge of the wind field or wind turbine model....... for maximizing power production while simultaneously minimizing fatigue loads. In this paper, we show how this problem can be approximately solved using convex optimization. When there is full knowledge of the wind field, numerical simulations show that force and torque RMS variation can be reduced by over 96...

  5. Pitch memory and exposure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Eitan, Zohar; Chajut, Eran

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that the ability to represent absolute pitch values in long-term memory, long believed to be the possession of a small minority of trained musicians endowed with "absolute pitch," is in fact shared to some extent by a considerable proportion of the population. The current study examined whether this newly discovered ability affects aspects of music and auditory cognition, particularly pitch learning and evaluation. Our starting points are two well-established premises: (1) frequency of occurrence has an influence on the way we process stimuli; (2) in Western music, some pitches and musical keys are much more frequent than others. Based on these premises, we hypothesize that if absolute pitch values are indeed represented in long-term memory, pitch frequency of occurrence in music would significantly affect cognitive processes, in particular pitch learning and evaluation. Two experiments were designed to test this hypothesis in participants with no absolute pitch, most with little or no musical training. Experiment 1 demonstrated a faster response and a learning advantage for frequent pitches over infrequent pitches in an identification task. In Experiment 2, participants evaluated infrequent pitches as more pleasing than frequent pitches when presented in isolation. These results suggest that absolute pitch representation in memory may play a substantial, hitherto unacknowledged role in auditory (and specifically musical) cognition. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Vocal Pitch Shift in Congenital Amusia (Pitch Deafness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Sean; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether congenital amusics, who exhibit pitch perception deficits, nevertheless adjust the pitch of their voice in response to a sudden pitch shift applied to vocal feedback. Nine amusics and matched controls imitated their own previously-recorded speech or singing, while the online feedback they received was shifted mid-utterance by 25…

  7. Norwegian Pitched Roof Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Gullbrekken

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The building constructions investigated in this work are pitched wooden roofs with exterior vertical drainpipes and wooden load-bearing system. The aim of this research is to further investigate the building defects of pitched wooden roofs and obtain an overview of typical roof defects. The work involves an analysis of the building defect archive from the research institute SINTEF Building and Infrastructure. The findings from the SINTEF archive show that moisture is a dominant exposure factor, especially in roof constructions. In pitched wooden roofs, more than half of the defects are caused by deficiencies in design, materials, or workmanship, where these deficiencies allow moisture from precipitation or indoor moisture into the structure. Hence, it is important to increase the focus on robust and durable solutions to avoid defects both from exterior and interior moisture sources in pitched wooden roofs. Proper design of interior ventilation and vapour retarders seem to be the main ways to control entry from interior moisture sources into attic and roof spaces.

  8. Changes in pitching mechanics after ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction in major league baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portney, Daniel A; Lazaroff, Jake M; Buchler, Lucas T; Gryzlo, Stephen M; Saltzman, Matthew D

    2017-08-01

    Medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction is a common procedure performed on Major League Baseball pitchers. Variations in pitching mechanics before and after UCL reconstructive surgery are not well understood. Publicly available pitch tracking data (PITCHf/x) were compared for all Major League Baseball pitchers who underwent UCL reconstruction between 2008 and 2013. Specific parameters analyzed were fastball percentage, release location, velocity, and movement of each pitch type. These data were compared before and after UCL reconstructive surgery and compared with a randomly selected control cohort. There were no statistically significant changes in pitch selection or pitch accuracy after UCL reconstruction, nor was there a decrease in pitch velocity. The average pitch release location for 4-seam and 2-seam fastballs, curveballs, and changeups is more medial after UCL reconstruction (P < .01). Four-seam fastballs and sliders showed decreased horizontal breaking movement after surgery (P < .05), whereas curveballs showed increased downward breaking movement after surgery (P < .05). Pitch selection, pitch velocity, and pitch accuracy do not significantly change after UCL reconstruction, nor do players who require UCL reconstruction have significantly different pitch selection, velocity, or accuracy than a randomly selected control cohort. Pitch release location is more medial after UCL reconstruction for all pitch types except sliders. Breaking movement of fastballs, sliders, and curveballs changes after UCL reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The neurocognitive components of pitch processing: insights from absolute pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah J; Lusher, Dean; Wan, Catherine Y; Dudgeon, Paul; Reutens, David C

    2009-03-01

    The natural variability of pitch naming ability in the population (known as absolute pitch or AP) provides an ideal method for investigating individual differences in pitch processing and auditory knowledge formation and representation. We have demonstrated the involvement of different cognitive processes in AP ability that reflects varying skill expertise in the presence of similar early age of onset of music tuition. These processes were related to different regions of brain activity, including those involved in pitch working memory (right prefrontal cortex) and the long-term representation of pitch (superior temporal gyrus). They reflected expertise through the use of context dependent pitch cues and the level of automaticity of pitch naming. They impart functional significance to structural asymmetry differences in the planum temporale of musicians and establish a neurobiological basis for an AP template. More generally, they indicate variability of knowledge representation in the presence of environmental fostering of early cognitive development that translates to differences in cognitive ability.

  10. Evaluation of the Cochrane tool for assessing risk of bias in randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L; Paludan-Müller, A. S.; Laursen, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized clinical trials was introduced in 2008 and has frequently been commented on and used in systematic reviews. We wanted to evaluate the tool by reviewing published comments on its strengths and challenges and by describing and analysing how...... the tool is applied to both Cochrane and non-Cochrane systematic reviews. Methods: A review of published comments (searches in PubMed, The Cochrane Methodology Register and Google Scholar) and an observational study (100 Cochrane and 100 non-Cochrane reviews from 2014). Results: Our review included 68...... in non-Cochrane reviews (31/100). Both types of reviews frequently implemented the tool in non-recommended ways. Most Cochrane reviews planned to use risk of bias assessments as basis for sensitivity analyses (70 %), but only a minority conducted such analyses (19 %) because, in many cases, few trials...

  11. Impact of an online writing aid tool for writing a randomized trial report: the COBWEB (Consort-based WEB tool) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Caroline; Boutron, Isabelle; Giraudeau, Bruno; Porcher, Raphael; Altman, Douglas G; Ravaud, Philippe

    2015-09-15

    Incomplete reporting is a frequent waste in research. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of a writing aid tool (WAT) based on the CONSORT statement and its extension for non-pharmacologic treatments on the completeness of reporting of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We performed a 'split-manuscript' RCT with blinded outcome assessment. Participants were masters and doctoral students in public health. They were asked to write, over a 4-hour period, the methods section of a manuscript based on a real RCT protocol, with a different protocol provided to each participant. Methods sections were divided into six different domains: 'trial design', 'randomization', 'blinding', 'participants', 'interventions', and 'outcomes'. Participants had to draft all six domains with access to the WAT for a random three of six domains. The random sequence was computer-generated and concealed. For each domain, the WAT comprised reminders of the corresponding CONSORT item(s), bullet points detailing all the key elements to be reported, and examples of good reporting. The control intervention consisted of no reminders. The primary outcome was the mean global score for completeness of reporting (scale 0-10) for all domains written with or without the WAT. Forty-one participants wrote 41 different manuscripts of RCT methods sections, corresponding to 246 domains (six for each of the 41 protocols). All domains were analyzed. For the primary outcome, the mean (SD) global score for completeness of reporting was higher with than without use of the WAT: 7.1 (1.2) versus 5.0 (1.6), with a mean (95 % CI) difference 2.1 (1.5-2.7; P <0.01). Completeness of reporting was significantly higher with the WAT for all domains except for blinding and outcomes. Use of the WAT could improve the completeness of manuscripts reporting the results of RCTs. Clinicaltrials.gov ( http://clinicaltrials.gov NCT02127567 , registration date first received April 29, 2014).

  12. Difficulties with pitch discrimination influences pitch memory performance: evidence from congenital amusia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiang, Cunmei; Lim, Vanessa K; Wang, Hang; Hamm, Jeff P

    2013-01-01

    Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases...

  13. Efficacy of Sleep Tool Education During Hospitalization: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrehi, Peter M; Clore, Kristen R; Scott, J Ryan; Vanini, Giancarlo; Clauw, Daniel J

    2016-12-01

    Patients are commonly provided tools in the hospital to overcome poor sleep. Whether education on use of sleep tools can impact health outcomes from a patient perspective is not known. We recruited 120 adults admitted to a nonintensive care unit cardiac-monitored floor. All patients received a set of sleep-enhancing tools (eye mask, ear plugs, and a white noise machine) and were randomized to receive direct education on use of and benefit of these sleep-enhancing tools (intervention), or an equal amount of time was spent discussing general benefits of sleep (control). Measurement of several symptom domains was assessed daily by health outcome survey responses, and change from baseline was assessed for differences between groups. Inpatient opioid use and length of stay were also measured. Participants randomized to receive the education intervention had a significantly greater decrease in fatigue scores over the 3 days, compared with controls (5.30 ± 6.93 vs 1.81 ± 6.96, t = 2.32, P = .028). There was a trend toward improvements in multiple other sleep-related domains, including sleep disturbance, sleep-related impairment, physical functioning, pain severity, or pain interference (all P >.140). There was no difference in length of stay between intervention and control groups (7.40 ± 7.29 vs 7.71 ± 6.06 days, P = .996). The change in number of opioid equivalents taken did not differ use between the groups (P = .688). In a randomized trial of education in the use of sleep-enhancing tools while hospitalized, patient fatigue was significantly improved, whereas several other patient-reported outcomes showed a trend toward improvements. Implementation of this very low-cost approach to improving sleep and well-being could substantially improve the patient care experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Spiral model of pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James D.

    2003-10-01

    A spiral model of pitch interrelates tone chroma, tone height, equal temperament scales, and a cochlear map. Donkin suggested in 1870 that the pitch of tones could be well represented by an equiangular spiral. More recently, the cylindrical helix has been popular for representing tone chroma and tone height. Here it is shown that tone chroma, tone height, and cochlear position can be conveniently related to tone frequency via a planar spiral. For this ``equal-temperament spiral,'' (ET Spiral) tone chroma is conceived as a circular array with semitones at 30° intervals. The frequency of sound on the cent scale (re 16.351 Hz) is represented by the radius of the spiral defined by r=(1200/2π)θr, where θr is in radians. By these definitions, one revolution represents one octave, 1200 cents, 30° represents a semitone, the radius relates θ to cents in accordance with equal temperament (ET) tuning, and the arclength of the spiral matches the mapping of sound frequency to the basilar membrane. Thus, the ET Spiral gives tone chroma as θ, tone height as the cent scale, and the cochlear map as the arclength. The possible implications and directions for further work are discussed.

  15. GPURFSCREEN: a GPU based virtual screening tool using random forest classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, P B; Ajay, Mathias K; Nufail, M; Gopakumar, G; Jaleel, U C A

    2016-01-01

    In-silico methods are an integral part of modern drug discovery paradigm. Virtual screening, an in-silico method, is used to refine data models and reduce the chemical space on which wet lab experiments need to be performed. Virtual screening of a ligand data model requires large scale computations, making it a highly time consuming task. This process can be speeded up by implementing parallelized algorithms on a Graphical Processing Unit (GPU). Random Forest is a robust classification algorithm that can be employed in the virtual screening. A ligand based virtual screening tool (GPURFSCREEN) that uses random forests on GPU systems has been proposed and evaluated in this paper. This tool produces optimized results at a lower execution time for large bioassay data sets. The quality of results produced by our tool on GPU is same as that on a regular serial environment. Considering the magnitude of data to be screened, the parallelized virtual screening has a significantly lower running time at high throughput. The proposed parallel tool outperforms its serial counterpart by successfully screening billions of molecules in training and prediction phases.

  16. Multimedia learning tools for teaching undergraduate ophthalmology: results of a randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steedman, Michael; Abouammoh, Marwan; Sharma, Sanjay

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a novel multimedia learning tool (MMLT) for teaching a method of approaching common ophthalmologic presentations. Randomized clinical study. 25 second-year medical students at Queen's University. We evaluated 2 MMLTs pertaining to common ophthalmologic presentations--acute visual loss and cataract--through the use of a randomized clinical study. Subjects were randomized either to watch a short-form video or to read a textbook excerpt for both cataract and acute visual loss. If randomized to one MMLT for the first module, the subject was allocated to the other modality for the second module. The main outcomes of interest were knowledge retention as measured by a short multiple-choice questionnaire, efficiency, and user preference. A trend was noted whereby subjects randomized to an MMLT had higher composite scores on multiple-choice questionnaires (mean score MMLT = 75.2% vs text = 67.5%; t test = 1.535; df = 22; p value = 0.139). Additionally, those who watched an MMLT spent 72% less time reviewing the education content (29 min vs 8 min; t test = 3.955, p value = 0.0003). Of the sample, 87% preferred the MMLT over the text. MMLTs can significantly reduce learning time without sacrificing knowledge retention in undergraduate students of ophthalmology. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethnicity effects in relative pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, Michael J; Sutherland, Mary Elizabeth; Krumhansl, Carol L

    2010-06-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the rare ability to identify a musical pitch, occurs at a higher rate among East Asian musicians. This has stimulated considerable research on the comparative contributions of genetic and environmental factors. Two studies examined whether a similar ethnicity effect is found for relative pitch (RP), identifying the distance or interval between two tones. Nonmusicians (n = 103) were trained to label musical intervals and were subsequently tested on interval identification. We establish similar ethnicity effects: Chinese and Korean participants consistently outperformed other participants in RP tasks, but not in a "relative rhythm" control task. This effect is not driven by previous musical or tone-language experience. The parallel with the East Asian advantage for AP suggests that enhanced perceptual-cognitive processing of pitch is more general and is not limited to highly trained musicians. This effect opens up many research questions concerning the environmental and genetic contributions related to this more general pitch-based ability.

  18. Comparison of tool feed influence in CNC polishing between a novel circular-random path and other pseudo-random paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Ken; Beaucamp, Anthony

    2017-09-18

    A new category of circular pseudo-random paths is proposed in order to suppress repetitive patterns and improve surface waviness on ultra-precision polished surfaces. Random paths in prior research had many corners, therefore deceleration of the polishing tool affected the surface waviness. The new random path can suppress velocity changes of the polishing tool and thus restrict degradation of the surface waviness, making it suitable for applications with stringent mid-spatial-frequency requirements such as photomask blanks for EUV lithography.

  19. Real-time random safety audits: A transforming tool adapted to new times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodí, M; Oliva, I; Martín, M C; Sirgo, G

    Real-time random safety audits constitute a tool designed to transfer knowledge from the sources of scientific evidence to the patient bedside. It has proven useful in critically ill patients, improving safety in the process of critical patient care, turning unsafe situations into safe ones in daily practice, and ensuring adherence to scientific evidence. In parallel, the design and methodology involved affords process indicators that will make it possible to know how we provide care for our patients, evolution over time (with regular feedback for professionals), the impact of our interventions, and benchmarking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  20. Randomized test of an implementation intention-based tool to reduce stress-induced eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Armitage, Christopher J; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    Stress may indirectly contribute to disease (e.g. cardiovascular disease, cancer) by producing deleterious changes to diet. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a stress management support (SMS) tool to reduce stress-related unhealthy snacking and to promote stress-related healthy snacking. Participants were randomized to complete a SMS tool with instruction to link stressful situations with healthy snack alternatives (experimental) or a SMS tool without a linking instruction (control). On-line daily reports of stressors and snacking were completed for 7 days. Daily stressors were associated with unhealthy snack consumption in the control condition but not in the experimental condition. Participants highly motivated towards healthy eating consumed a greater number of healthy snacks in the experimental condition on stressful days compared to participants in the experimental condition with low and mean levels of motivation. This tool is an effective, theory driven, intervention that helps to protect against stress-induced high-calorie snack consumption.

  1. Pitch Perfect: How Fruit Flies Control their Body Pitch Angle

    CERN Document Server

    Whitehead, Samuel C; Canale, Luca; Cohen, Itai

    2015-01-01

    Flapping insect flight is a complex and beautiful phenomenon that relies on fast, active control mechanisms to counter aerodynamic instability. To directly investigate how freely-flying D. melanogaster control their body pitch angle against such instability, we perturb them using impulsive mechanical torques and film their corrective maneuvers with high-speed video. Combining experimental observations and numerical simulation, we find that flies correct for pitch deflections of up to 40 degrees in 29 +/- 8 ms by bilaterally modulating their wings' front-most stroke angle in a manner well-described by a linear proportional-integral (PI) controller. Flies initiate this corrective process after only 10 +/- 2 ms, indicating that pitch stabilization involves a fast reflex response. Remarkably, flies can also correct for very large-amplitude pitch perturbations--greater than 150 degrees--providing a regime in which to probe the limits of the linear-response framework. Together with previous studies regarding yaw an...

  2. Pitch perception beyond the traditional existence region of pitch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenham, Andrew J.; Micheyl, Christophe; Keebler, Michael V.

    2011-01-01

    Humans’ ability to recognize musical melodies is generally limited to pure-tone frequencies below 4 or 5 kHz. This limit coincides with the highest notes on modern musical instruments and is widely believed to reflect the upper limit of precise stimulusdriven spike timing in the auditory nerve. We...... tested the upper limits of pitch and melody perception in humans using pure and harmonic complex tones, such as those produced by the human voice and musical instruments, in melody recognition and pitchmatching tasks. We found that robust pitch perception can be elicited by harmonic complex tones...... with fundamental frequencies below 2 kHz, even when all of the individual harmonics are above 6 kHz—well above the currently accepted existence region of pitch and above the currently accepted limits of neural phase locking. The results suggest that the perception of musical pitch at high frequencies...

  3. A multimedia consent tool for research participants in the Gambia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Muhammed Olanrewaju; McGrath, Nuala; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Kampmann, Beate; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Ravinetto, Raffaella M; Alexander, Neal; Larson, Heidi J; Chandramohan, Daniel; Bojang, Kalifa

    2015-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a multimedia informed consent tool for adults participating in a clinical trial in the Gambia. Adults eligible for inclusion in a malaria treatment trial (n = 311) were randomized to receive information needed for informed consent using either a multimedia tool (intervention arm) or a standard procedure (control arm). A computerized, audio questionnaire was used to assess participants' comprehension of informed consent. This was done immediately after consent had been obtained (at day 0) and at subsequent follow-up visits (days 7, 14, 21 and 28). The acceptability and ease of use of the multimedia tool were assessed in focus groups. On day 0, the median comprehension score in the intervention arm was 64% compared with 40% in the control arm (P = 0.042). The difference remained significant at all follow-up visits. Poorer comprehension was independently associated with female sex (odds ratio, OR: 0.29; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.12-0.70) and residing in Jahaly rather than Basse province (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.13-0.82). There was no significant independent association with educational level. The risk that a participant's comprehension score would drop to half of the initial value was lower in the intervention arm (hazard ratio 0.22, 95% CI: 0.16-0.31). Overall, 70% (42/60) of focus group participants from the intervention arm found the multimedia tool clear and easy to understand. A multimedia informed consent tool significantly improved comprehension and retention of consent information by research participants with low levels of literacy.

  4. A multimedia consent tool for research participants in the Gambia: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Nuala; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Kampmann, Beate; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Ravinetto, Raffaella M; Alexander, Neal; Larson, Heidi J; Chandramohan, Daniel; Bojang, Kalifa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effectiveness of a multimedia informed consent tool for adults participating in a clinical trial in the Gambia. Methods Adults eligible for inclusion in a malaria treatment trial (n = 311) were randomized to receive information needed for informed consent using either a multimedia tool (intervention arm) or a standard procedure (control arm). A computerized, audio questionnaire was used to assess participants’ comprehension of informed consent. This was done immediately after consent had been obtained (at day 0) and at subsequent follow-up visits (days 7, 14, 21 and 28). The acceptability and ease of use of the multimedia tool were assessed in focus groups. Findings On day 0, the median comprehension score in the intervention arm was 64% compared with 40% in the control arm (P = 0.042). The difference remained significant at all follow-up visits. Poorer comprehension was independently associated with female sex (odds ratio, OR: 0.29; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.12–0.70) and residing in Jahaly rather than Basse province (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.13–0.82). There was no significant independent association with educational level. The risk that a participant’s comprehension score would drop to half of the initial value was lower in the intervention arm (hazard ratio 0.22, 95% CI: 0.16–0.31). Overall, 70% (42/60) of focus group participants from the intervention arm found the multimedia tool clear and easy to understand. Conclusion A multimedia informed consent tool significantly improved comprehension and retention of consent information by research participants with low levels of literacy. PMID:26229203

  5. The effects of a digital formative assessment tool on mathematics achievement and student motivation: Results of a randomized experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Janke; Luyten, Johannes W.; Visscher, Arend J.

    2017-01-01

    In this study a randomized experimental design was used to examine the effects of a digital formative assessment tool on mathematics achievement and motivation in grade three primary education (n schools = 79, n students = 1808). Experimental schools used a digital formative assessment tool whereas

  6. High-frequency complex pitch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Harmonics in a complex tone are typically considered unresolved when they interact with neighboring harmonics in the cochlea and cannot be heard out separately. Recent studies have suggested that the low pitch evoked by unresolved high-frequency harmonics may be coded via temporal fine-structure ......Harmonics in a complex tone are typically considered unresolved when they interact with neighboring harmonics in the cochlea and cannot be heard out separately. Recent studies have suggested that the low pitch evoked by unresolved high-frequency harmonics may be coded via temporal fine......-structure cues. However, these conclusions rely on the assumptions that combination tones were properly masked and that the ability of listeners to hear out individual partials provides an adequate measure of resolvability. Those assumptions were tested by measuring the audibility of combination tones...... and their effects on pitch matches, the effects of relative component phases and of dichotic presentation, and listeners' ability to hear out individual partials. The results confirmed that combination tones affected pitch, but pitch remained salient when they were masked. The lack of dependence of pitch...

  7. Effects of a Simulated Game on Upper Extremity Pitching Mechanics and Muscle Activations Among Various Pitch Types in Youth Baseball Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Plummer, Hillary; Henning, Lisa; Saper, Michael; Glimer, Gabrielle; Brambeck, Allison; Andrews, James R

    2017-03-21

    Throwing requires proper stability and orientation of the pelvis and scapula for efficient energy transfer during pitching. Fatigue of the pelvis and scapular musculature throughout the course of a game can impair pitching performance, and place excessive demands on the throwing arm leading to injury. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in pelvis, torso, and upper extremity pitching mechanics and muscle activations between the fastball, change-up, and curveball pitches in youth baseball pitchers following a simulated game. Fourteen youth baseball pitchers with no history of injury participated. Pitching mechanics were collected using an electromagnetic tracking system. Surface electromyography data were collected on the bilateral gluteus medius and maximus; and throwing arm side latissimus dorsi, lower trapezius, upper trapezius, and serratus anterior. Participants were instructed to throw maximum effort pitches during a simulated game that provided random game situations similar to those that occur in competition. Participants were limited to 85 pitches based on age-restricted pitch counts. Data from 3 fastballs, curveballs, and change-ups thrown in the first and last innings were selected for analysis. Repeated measures multivariate analyses of variance revealed that neither pitch type nor the effect of a simulated game resulted in statistically significant changes in pitching mechanics (F(10,600)=0.55, P=0.85), or muscle activations (pelvic: F(4,195)=0.07, P=0.85; scapular: F(4,118)=0.09, P=0.52). The principle findings of this study revealed that pitching to the age-restricted pitch count limit did not result in altered pitching mechanics or muscle activations, and no differences occurred between the 3 pitches. These results support previous research that indicate the curveball pitch is no more dangerous for youth than the other pitches commonly thrown. This is supported by the pitcher's ability to maintain a proper arm slot during all 3

  8. Impaired memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Nathalie; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Peretz, Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    We examined memory for pitch in congenital amusia in two tasks. In one task, we varied the pitch distance between the target and comparison tone from 4 to 9 semitones and inserted either a silence or 6 interpolated tones between the tones to be compared. In a second task, we manipulated the number of pitches to be retained in sequences of length 1, 3, or 5. Amusics' sensitivity to pitch distance was exacerbated by the presence of interpolated tones, and amusics' performance was more strongly affected by the number of pitches to maintain in memory than controls. A pitch perception deficit could not account for the pitch memory deficit of amusics.

  9. Voice responses to changes in pitch of voice or tone auditory feedbacka)

    OpenAIRE

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Bauer, Jay J.; Babu, Tara; Charles R Larson

    2005-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine if a subject’s voice F0 responded not only to perturbations in pitch of voice feedback but also to changes in pitch of a side tone presented congruent with voice feedback. Small magnitude brief duration perturbations in pitch of voice or tone auditory feedback were randomly introduced during sustained vowel phonations. Results demonstrated a higher rate and larger magnitude of voice F0 responses to changes in pitch of the voice compared with a trian...

  10. The Low Pitch of High-Frequency Complex Tones Relies on Temporal Fine Structure Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    structure (TFS) cues has been a matter of debate. It is also controversial up to which frequency TFS information remains available, and to what extent envelope cues become dominant as frequency increases. Using a pitch-matching paradigm, this study investigated whether the pitch of transposed tones...... the envelope rate fenv), or whether (C) no salient pitch is evoked (random matches). Six musically-trained normal-hearing subjects matched the fundamental pitch of a broadband pulse train to that of transposed tones with carrier frequencies fc = [3, 4, 5, 6, 7] kHz and envelope rates fenv = [fc/11.5, fc/14...

  11. Perceiving pitch absolutely: comparing absolute and relative pitch possessors in a pitch memory task

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schulze, Katrin; Gaab, Nadine; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2009-01-01

    .... The aim of this fMRI study was to examine the neural network underlying AP using a pitch memory experiment and contrasting two groups of musicians with each other, those that have AP and those that do...

  12. Pitch perfect: how fruit flies control their body pitch angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Samuel C; Beatus, Tsevi; Canale, Luca; Cohen, Itai

    2015-11-01

    Flapping insect flight is a complex and beautiful phenomenon that relies on fast, active control mechanisms to counter aerodynamic instability. To directly investigate how freely flying Drosophila melanogaster control their body pitch angle against such instability, we perturbed them using impulsive mechanical torques and filmed their corrective maneuvers with high-speed video. Combining experimental observations and numerical simulation, we found that flies correct for pitch deflections of up to 40 deg in 29±8 ms by bilaterally modulating their wings' front-most stroke angle in a manner well described by a linear proportional-integral (PI) controller. Flies initiate this corrective process only 10±2 ms after the perturbation onset, indicating that pitch stabilization involves a fast reflex response. Remarkably, flies can also correct for very large-amplitude pitch perturbations--greater than 150 deg--providing a regime in which to probe the limits of the linear-response framework. Together with previous studies regarding yaw and roll control, our results on pitch show that flies' stabilization of each of these body angles is consistent with PI control. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Pitch strength of normal and dysphonic voices

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastav, Rahul; Eddins, David A.; Anand, Supraja

    2012-01-01

    Two sounds with the same pitch may vary from each other based on saliency of their pitch sensation. This perceptual attribute is called “pitch strength.” The study of voice pitch strength may be important in quantifying of normal and pathological qualities. The present study investigated how pitch strength varies across normal and dysphonic voices. A set of voices (vowel /a/) selected from the Kay Elemetrics Disordered Voice Database served as the stimuli. These stimuli demonstrated a wide ra...

  14. Phonological Processing in Adults with Deficits in Musical Pitch Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer L.; Lucker, Jay; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Drayna, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    We identified individuals with deficits in musical pitch recognition by screening a large random population using the Distorted Tunes Test (DTT), and enrolled individuals who had DTT scores in the lowest 10th percentile, classified as tune deaf. We examined phonological processing abilities in 35 tune deaf and 34 normal control individuals. Eight…

  15. Social networking technologies as an emerging tool for HIV prevention: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Cumberland, William G; Lee, Sung-Jae; Jaganath, Devan; Szekeres, Greg; Coates, Thomas

    2013-09-03

    Social networking technologies are an emerging tool for HIV prevention. To determine whether social networking communities can increase HIV testing among African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). Randomized, controlled trial with concealed allocation. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01701206). Online. 112 MSM based in Los Angeles, more than 85% of whom were African American or Latino. Sixteen peer leaders were randomly assigned to deliver information about HIV or general health to participants via Facebook groups over 12 weeks. After participants accepted a request to join the group, participation was voluntary. Group participation and engagement were monitored. Participants could request a free, home-based HIV testing kit and completed questionnaires at baseline and 12-week follow-up. Participant acceptance of and engagement in the intervention and social network participation, rates of home-based HIV testing, and sexual risk behaviors. Almost 95% of intervention participants and 73% of control participants voluntarily communicated using the social platform. Twenty-five of 57 intervention participants (44%) requested home-based HIV testing kits compared with 11 of 55 control participants (20%) (difference, 24 percentage points [95% CI, 8 to 41 percentage points]). Nine of the 25 intervention participants (36%) who requested the test took it and mailed it back compared with 2 of the 11 control participants (18%) who requested the test. Retention at study follow-up was more than 93%. Only 2 Facebook communities were included for each group. Social networking communities are acceptable and effective tools to increase home-based HIV testing among at-risk populations. National Institute of Mental Health.

  16. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation of Valsa mali: An Efficient Tool for Random Insertion Mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Valsa mali is a causal agent of apple and pear trees canker disease, which is a destructive disease that causes serious economic losses in eastern Asia, especially in China. The lack of an efficient transformation system for Valsa mali retards its investigation, which poses difficulties to control the disease. In this research, a transformation system for this pathogen was established for the first time using A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT, with the optimal transformation conditions as follows: 106/mL conidia suspension, cocultivation temperature 22°C, cocultivation time 72 hours, and 200 μM acetosyringone (AS in the inductive medium. The average transformation efficiency was 1015.00 ± 37.35 transformants per 106 recipient conidia. Thirty transformants were randomly selected for further confirmation and the results showed the presence of T-DNA in all hygromycin B resistant transformants and also revealed random and single gene integration with genetic stability. Compared with wild-type strain, those transformants exhibited various differences in morphology, conidia production, and conidia germination ability. In addition, pathogenicity assays revealed that 14 transformants had mitigated pathogenicity, while one had enhanced infection ability. The results suggest that ATMT of V. mali is a useful tool to gain novel insight into this economically important pathogen at molecular levels.

  17. Mobile application as a prenatal education and engagement tool: A randomized controlled pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Christy J W; Canzona, Mollie Rose; Cafferty, Lauren A; Hodge, Joshua A

    2016-04-01

    Research has shown that mobile applications provide a powerful alternative to traditional paper diaries; however, little data exists in comparing apps to the traditional mode of paper as a patient education and engagement tool in the clinical setting. This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of a mobile app versus a spiral-notebook guide throughout prenatal care. This randomized (n=173) controlled pilot was conducted at an East Coast community hospital. Chi-square and repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test intervention effects in the sample of 127 pregnant mothers who completed their prenatal care in the healthcare system. Patients who were distributed the mobile application used the tool to record information about pregnancy more frequently (p=.04) and developed greater patient activation (p=.02) than patients who were distributed notebooks. No difference was detected on interpersonal clinical communication. A mobile application successfully activated a patient population in which self-management is a critical factor. This study shows that mobile apps can prompt greater use and result in more activated patients. Findings may be translated to other patient populations who receive recurring care for chronic disease. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Clinical decision support tools for osteoporosis disease management: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Monika; Straus, Sharon E

    2008-12-01

    Studies indicate a gap between evidence and clinical practice in osteoporosis management. Tools that facilitate clinical decision making at the point of care are promising strategies for closing these practice gaps. To systematically review the literature to identify and describe the effectiveness of tools that support clinical decision making in osteoporosis disease management. Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and EBM Reviews (CDSR, DARE, CCTR, and ACP J Club), and contact with experts in the field. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in any language from 1966 to July 2006 investigating disease management interventions in patients at risk for osteoporosis. Outcomes included fractures and bone mineral density (BMD) testing. Two investigators independently assessed articles for relevance and study quality, and extracted data using standardized forms. Of 1,246 citations that were screened for relevance, 13 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Reported study quality was generally poor. Meta-analysis was not done because of methodological and clinical heterogeneity; 77% of studies included a reminder or education as a component of their intervention. Three studies of reminders plus education targeted to physicians and patients showed increased BMD testing (RR range 1.43 to 8.67) and osteoporosis medication use (RR range 1.60 to 8.67). A physician reminder plus a patient risk assessment strategy found reduced fractures [RR 0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37 to 0.90] and increased osteoporosis therapy (RR 2.44, CI 1.43 to 4.17). Multi-component tools that are targeted to physicians and patients may be effective for supporting clinical decision making in osteoporosis disease management.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Mesophase Pitch via Co-Carbonization of Waste Polyethylene]Petroleum Pitch

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Youliang Cheng Lu Yang Tao Luo Changqing Fang Jian Su Jian Hui

    2015-01-01

    The low-cost petroleum pitch and waste polyethylene (WPE) were used as raw materials to prepare the mesophase pitch by co-carbonization method and the forming mechanization of mesophase pitch was also investigated...

  20. Disorders of pitch production in tone deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eDalla Bella

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10-15% are inaccurate singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as tone deafness, has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that pitch production (or imitation is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory on poor-pitch singing suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language.

  1. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...... these abilities. Using a novel computerized pitch adjustment test, we investigated active AP ability in musicians with and without AP (ages 18-43). We found a significant correlation between active and passive AP indicating that AP possessors (APs) identify and produce pitch equally well. Furthermore, we found...... that APs generally undershoot when adjusting musical pitch, a tendency that decreases when musical activity increases. Finally, APs are less accurate when adjusting the pitch to black key targets than to white key targets. Hence, AP ability may be partly practice-dependent and we speculate that APs may...

  2. Tools for teen moms to reduce infant obesity: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Silk, Kami; Hsieh, Gary; Hoffman, Alice; Robson, Mackenzie

    2015-01-21

    Unhealthy infant feeding practices, such as a combination of formula feeding and early introduction of solids may lead to rapid or excessive weight gain in early infancy. Adolescent mothers' feeding behaviors are most directly related to infant weight gain in the first year of life. Compared to adult mothers, adolescent mothers are less knowledgeable, less responsive, more controlling, and less skilled in infant feeding, which interferes with infants' healthy growth. The Tools for Teen Moms trial aims to compare the effect of a social media intervention for low-income adolescent, first-time mothers of infants 2 months of age or younger, versus standard care on infant weight, maternal responsiveness, and feeding style and practices. The intervention is conducted during the infant's first four months of life to promote healthy transition to solids during their first year. Tools for Teen Moms is an intervention delivered via a social media platform that actively engages and coaches low-income adolescent mothers in infant-centered feeding to reduce rapid/excessive infant weight gain in the first six months of life. We describe our study protocol for a randomized control trial with an anticipated sample of 100 low-income African- American and Caucasian adolescent, first-time mothers of infants. Participants are recruited through Maternal-Infant Health Programs in four counties in Michigan, USA. Participants are randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. The intervention provides infant feeding information to mothers via a web-based application, and includes daily behavioral challenges, text message reminders, discussion forums, and website information as a comprehensive social media strategy over 6 weeks. Participants continue to receive usual care during the intervention. Main maternal outcomes include: (a) maternal responsiveness, (b) feeding style, and (c) feeding practices. The primary infant outcome is infant weight. Data collection occurs at

  3. Reliable Fluid Power Pitch Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liniger, Jesper; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    The key objectives of wind turbine manufactures and buyers are to reduce the Total Cost of Ownership and Total Cost of Energy. Among others, low downtime of a wind turbine is important to increase the amount of energy produced during its lifetime. Historical data indicate that pitch systems accou...

  4. Dissociation of procedural and semantic memory in absolute-pitch processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, I-Hui; Saberi, Kourosh

    2008-06-01

    We describe two memory-retrieval systems in absolute-pitch (AP) processing and propose existence of a universal internal pitch template to which subpopulations of musicians selectively gain access through the two systems. In Experiment I, AP and control musicians adjusted the frequency of a pure tone to match the pitch of a visually displayed randomly selected musical note. In Experiment II the same subjects vocally produced within 2s the pitch associated with a randomly selected musical note label. AP musicians, but not controls, were highly accurate in frequency matching. Surprisingly, both AP and non-AP groups were extremely accurate in voicing the target pitch as determined from an FFT of the recorded voiced notes (i.e., sigma=0.97, 0.90 semitones, respectively). Spectrogram analysis showed that notes voiced by non-AP musicians are accurate from onset of voicing suggesting that pitch accuracy does not result from an auditory-motor feedback loop. Findings support existence of two memory-retrieval systems for musical pitch: a semantic associative form of memory used by AP musicians, and a more widespread form of procedural memory which allows precise access to internal pitch representations through the vocal-motor system.

  5. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the supramarginal gyrus facilitates pitch memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Nora K; Williamson, Victoria J; Banissy, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have shown activation of the supramarginal gyrus during pitch memory tasks. A previous transcranial direct current stimulation study using cathodal stimulation over the left supramarginal gyrus reported a detrimental effect on short-term pitch memory performance, indicating an important role of the supramarginal gyrus in pitch memory. The current study aimed to determine whether pitch memory could be improved following anodal stimulation of the left supramarginal gyrus. The performances of non-musicians on two pitch memory tasks (pitch recognition and recall) and a visual memory control task following anodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation were compared. The results show that, post-stimulation, the anodal group but not the control group performed significantly better on both pitch memory tasks; performance did not differ on the face memory task. These findings provide strong support for the causal involvement of the left supramarginal gyrus in the pitch memory process, and highlight the potential efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation as a tool to improve pitch memory. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Absolute Pitch Twin Study and Segregation Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theusch, Elizabeth; Gitschier, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Absolute pitch is a rare pitch-naming ability with unknown etiology. Some scientists maintain that its manifestation depends solely on environmental factors, while others suggest that genetic factors contribute...

  7. Transformasi Pitch Suara Manusia Menggunakan Metode PSOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSETYO BAGAS BHASKORO

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Kemampuan pengubahan suara yang dilakukan Dubber untuk beragam bentuk suara menjadi perhatian khusus dengan melakukan rekayasa suara, di dalam perkembangan teknologi di kenal sebuah teknikpitch shifting yang digunakan untuk mengubah suara manusia di bagian timbre dan pitch. Penelitian ini menggunakan metodepitch shifting PSOLA (Pitch Synchronous Overlap Add untuk merubah pitch sekaligus timbre suara. Proses yang dilakukan meliputi perekaman suara sehingga didapatkan sinyal suara. Sinyal hasil perekaman kemudian diolah untuk menemukan posisi pitch dari sinyal pada domain waktu. Setelah posisi pitch diketahui, jarak antar pitch akan dikalikan dengan bilangan skala pergeseran yang sudah ditentukan. Hasil dari perkalian tersebut adalah perubahan pada pitch suara, sehingga menghasilkan suara yang lebih tinggi atau lebih rendah. Perubahan juga terjadi pada timbre sehingga menghasilkan karakter suara yang berbeda dengan suara aselinya.Hasil pengujian pitch dan timbre dengan menggunakan metode PSOLA menunjukkan keberhasilan mencapai 98% berdasarkan sinyal sinus. Kata kunci: Pitch, Timbre,Pitch Shifting, PSOLA. Abstract The ability of converts sound done in various forms of a dubber sound, becomes a special attention in doing an engineering design sound. In the development of technology the pitch of shifting know a technique that is used to turn the human voice in the timbre and  pitch. This study using methods  pitch  shifting psola (pitch synchronous overlap add to change the pitch as well as the timbre sound. The process was about recording a sound so obtained up a noise. Recording signals then processed the results to find the position of the pitch signals on the domain of time. After the position of the pitch known, the distance between the pitch will be multiplied by the number of the scale of a shift that had been determined. The result of the multiplication of the sound is a change in pitch , so producing a higher or lower, Also

  8. Encoding pitch contours using current steering

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Xin; Landsberger, David M.; Padilla, Monica; Srinivasan, Arthi G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cochlear implant (CI) users’ ability to perceive pitch cues from time-varying virtual channels (VCs) to identify pitch contours. Seven CI users were tested on apical, medial, and basal electrode pairs with stimulus durations from 100 to 1000 ms. In one stimulus set, 9 pitch contours were created by steering current between the component electrodes and the VC halfway between the electrodes. Another stimulus set only contained 3 pitch contours (flat, falling, and rising)...

  9. From tone to pitch in Sepedi

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available " or "low". Automatic pitch extraction was then used to estimate the fundamental frequencies of the voiced segments of each of these syllables. Statistical analysis of the resulting pitch contours confirms that the mean pitch frequencies of the syllabic...

  10. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Pitch Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    We examined effects of age and culture on children's memory for the pitch level of familiar music. Canadian 9- and 10-year-olds distinguished the original pitch level of familiar television theme songs from foils that were pitch-shifted by one semitone, whereas 5- to 8-year-olds failed to do so (Experiment 1). In contrast, Japanese 5- and…

  11. When high pitches sound low: Children’s acquisition of space-pitch metaphors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolscheid, S.J.; Hunnius, S.; Majid, A.; Noelle, D.C.; Dale, R.; Warlaumont, A.S.; Yoshimi, J.; Matlock, T.; Jennings, C.D.; Maglio, P.P.

    2015-01-01

    Some languages describe musical pitch in terms of spatial height; others in terms of thickness. Differences in pitch metaphors also shape adults’ nonlinguistic space-pitch representations. At the same time, 4-month-old infants have both types of space-pitch mappings available. This tension between

  12. Pitch and Plasticity: Insights from the Pitch Matching of Chords by Musicians with Absolute and Relative Pitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M. McLachlan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Absolute pitch (AP is a form of sound recognition in which musical note names are associated with discrete musical pitch categories. The accuracy of pitch matching by non-AP musicians for chords has recently been shown to depend on stimulus familiarity, pointing to a role of spectral recognition mechanisms in the early stages of pitch processing. Here we show that pitch matching accuracy by AP musicians was also dependent on their familiarity with the chord stimulus. This suggests that the pitch matching abilities of both AP and non-AP musicians for concurrently presented pitches are dependent on initial recognition of the chord. The dual mechanism model of pitch perception previously proposed by the authors suggests that spectral processing associated with sound recognition primes waveform processing to extract stimulus periodicity and refine pitch perception. The findings presented in this paper are consistent with the dual mechanism model of pitch, and in the case of AP musicians, the formation of nominal pitch categories based on both spectral and periodicity information.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of ultra-high pitch computed tomography enterography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardie, Andrew D.; Horst, Nicole D.; Mayes, Nicholas [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston (United States)], E-mail: andrewdhardie@gmail.com

    2012-12-15

    Background. CT enterography (CTE) is a valuable tool in the management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Reducing imaging time, reduced motion artifacts, and decreased radiation exposure are important goals for optimizing CTE examinations. Purpose. To assess the potential impact of new CT technology (ultra-high pitch CTE) for the ability to reduce scan time and also potentially reduce radiation exposure while maintaining image quality. Material and Methods. This retrospective study compared 13 patients who underwent ultra-high pitch CTE with 25 patients who underwent routine CTE on the same CT scanner with identical radiation emission settings. Total scan time and radiation exposure were recorded for each patient. Image quality was assessed by measurement of image noise and also qualitatively by two independent observers. Results. Total scan time was significantly lower for patients who underwent ultra-high pitch CTE (2.1 s {+-} 0.2) than by routine CTE (18.6 s {+-} 0.9) (P < 0.0001). The mean radiation exposure for ultra-high pitch CTE was also significantly lower (10.1 mGy {+-} 1.0) than routine CTE (15.8 mGy {+-} 4.5) (P < 0.0001). No significant difference in image noise was found between ultra-high pitch CTE (16.0 HU {+-} 2.5) and routine CTE (15.5 HU {+-} 3.7) (P > 0.74). There was also no significant difference in image quality noted by either of the two readers. Conclusion. Ultra-high pitch CTE can be performed more rapidly than standard CTE and offers the potential for radiation exposure reduction while maintaining image quality.

  14. Tone language fluency impairs pitch discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle ePeretz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we present evidence that native speakers of a tone language, in which pitch contributes to word meaning, are impaired in the discrimination of falling pitches in tone sequences, as compared to speakers of a non-tone language. Both groups were presented with monotonic and isochronous sequences of five tones (i.e., constant pitch and intertone interval. They were required to detect when the fourth tone was displaced in pitch or time. While speakers of a tone language performed more poorly in the detection of downward pitch changes, they did not differ from non-tone language speakers in their perception of upward pitch changes or in their perception of subtle time changes. Moreover, this impairment cannot be attributed to low musical aptitude since the impairment remains unchanged when individual differences in musical pitch-based processing is taken into account. Thus, the impairment appears highly specific and may reflect the influence of statistical regularities of tone languages.

  15. Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert

    Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.

  16. Variable Pitch Darrieus Water Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirke, Brian; Lazauskas, Leo

    In recent years the Darrieus wind turbine concept has been adapted for use in water, either as a hydrokinetic turbine converting the kinetic energy of a moving fluid in open flow like an underwater wind turbine, or in a low head or ducted arrangement where flow is confined, streamtube expansion is controlled and efficiency is not subject to the Betz limit. Conventional fixed pitch Darrieus turbines suffer from two drawbacks, (i) low starting torque and (ii) shaking due to cyclical variations in blade angle of attack. Ventilation and cavitation can also cause problems in water turbines when blade velocities are high. Shaking can be largely overcome by the use of helical blades, but these do not produce large starting torque. Variable pitch can produce high starting torque and high efficiency, and by suitable choice of pitch regime, shaking can be minimized but not entirely eliminated. Ventilation can be prevented by avoiding operation close to a free surface, and cavitation can be prevented by limiting blade velocities. This paper summarizes recent developments in Darrieus water turbines, some problems and some possible solutions.

  17. Perceiving pitch absolutely: Comparing absolute and relative pitch possessors in a pitch memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlaug Gottfried

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The perceptual-cognitive mechanisms and neural correlates of Absolute Pitch (AP are not fully understood. The aim of this fMRI study was to examine the neural network underlying AP using a pitch memory experiment and contrasting two groups of musicians with each other, those that have AP and those that do not. Results We found a common activation pattern for both groups that included the superior temporal gyrus (STG extending into the adjacent superior temporal sulcus (STS, the inferior parietal lobule (IPL extending into the adjacent intraparietal sulcus (IPS, the posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA, and superior lateral cerebellar regions. Significant between-group differences were seen in the left STS during the early encoding phase of the pitch memory task (more activation in AP musicians and in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL/intraparietal sulcus (IPS during the early perceptual phase (ITP 0–3 and later working memory/multimodal encoding phase of the pitch memory task (more activation in non-AP musicians. Non-significant between-group trends were seen in the posterior IFG (more in AP musicians and the IPL (more anterior activations in the non-AP group and more posterior activations in the AP group. Conclusion Since the increased activation of the left STS in AP musicians was observed during the early perceptual encoding phase and since the STS has been shown to be involved in categorization tasks, its activation might suggest that AP musicians involve categorization regions in tonal tasks. The increased activation of the right SPL/IPS in non-AP musicians indicates either an increased use of regions that are part of a tonal working memory (WM network, or the use of a multimodal encoding strategy such as the utilization of a visual-spatial mapping scheme (i.e., imagining notes on a staff or using a spatial coding for their relative pitch height for pitch

  18. NullSeq: A Tool for Generating Random Coding Sequences with Desired Amino Acid and GC Contents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia S Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The existence of over- and under-represented sequence motifs in genomes provides evidence of selective evolutionary pressures on biological mechanisms such as transcription, translation, ligand-substrate binding, and host immunity. In order to accurately identify motifs and other genome-scale patterns of interest, it is essential to be able to generate accurate null models that are appropriate for the sequences under study. While many tools have been developed to create random nucleotide sequences, protein coding sequences are subject to a unique set of constraints that complicates the process of generating appropriate null models. There are currently no tools available that allow users to create random coding sequences with specified amino acid composition and GC content for the purpose of hypothesis testing. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we developed a method that generates unbiased random sequences with pre-specified amino acid and GC content, which we have developed into a python package. Our method is the simplest way to obtain maximally unbiased random sequences that are subject to GC usage and primary amino acid sequence constraints. Furthermore, this approach can easily be expanded to create unbiased random sequences that incorporate more complicated constraints such as individual nucleotide usage or even di-nucleotide frequencies. The ability to generate correctly specified null models will allow researchers to accurately identify sequence motifs which will lead to a better understanding of biological processes as well as more effective engineering of biological systems.

  19. The effect of a biofeedback-based stress management tool on physician stress: a randomized controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lemaire, Jane B; Wallace, Jean E; Lewin, Adriane M; de Grood, Jill; Schaefer, Jeffrey P

    2011-01-01

    Background Physicians often experience work-related stress that may lead to personal harm and impaired professional performance. Biofeedback has been used to manage stress in various populations. Objective To determine whether a biofeedback-based stress management tool, consisting of rhythmic breathing, actively self-generated positive emotions and a portable biofeedback device, reduces physician stress. Design Randomized controlled trial measuring efficacy of a stress-reduction intervention ...

  20. Multimedia educational tools for cognitive surgical skill acquisition in open and laparoscopic colorectal surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, U; Kullar, N; Haray, P N; Dorudi, S; Balasubramanian, S P

    2015-05-01

    Conventional teaching in surgical training programmes is constrained by time and cost, and has room for improvement. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a multimedia educational tool developed for an index colorectal surgical procedure (anterior resection) in teaching and assessment of cognitive skills and to evaluate its acceptability amongst general surgical trainees. Multimedia educational tools in open and laparoscopic anterior resection were developed by filming multiple operations which were edited into procedural steps and substeps and then integrated onto interactive navigational platforms using Adobe® Flash® Professional CS5 10.1. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on general surgical trainees to evaluate the effectiveness of online multimedia in comparison with conventional 'study day' teaching for the acquisition of cognitive skills. All trainees were assessed before and after the study period. Trainees in the multimedia group evaluated the tools by completing a survey. Fifty-nine trainees were randomized but 27% dropped out, leaving 43 trainees randomized to the multimedia group (n = 25) and study day group (n = 18) who were available for analysis. Posttest scores improved significantly in both groups (P multimedia group was not significantly different from the study day group (6.02 ± 5.12 and 5.31 ± 3.42, respectively; P = 0.61). Twenty-five trainees completed the evaluation survey and experienced an improvement in their decision making (67%) and in factual and anatomical knowledge (88%); 96% agreed that the multimedia tool was a useful additional educational resource. Multimedia tools are effective for the acquisition of cognitive skills in colorectal surgery and are well accepted as an educational resource. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. The SEMATECH Berkeley MET: extending EUV learning to 16-nm half pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Christopher N.; Baclea-an, Lorie Mae; Denham, Paul E.; George, Simi; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Jones, Michael; Smith, Nathan; Wallow, Thomas; Montgomery, Warren; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2011-03-18

    Several high-performing resists identified in the past two years have been exposed at the 0.3-numerical-aperture (NA) SEMATECH Berkeley Microfield Exposure Tool (BMET) with an engineered dipole illumination optimized for 18-nm half pitch. Five chemically amplified platforms were found to support 20-nm dense patterning at a film thickness of approximately 45 nm. At 19-nm half pitch, however, scattered bridging kept all of these resists from cleanly resolving larger areas of dense features. At 18-nm half pitch, none of the resists were are able to cleanly resolve a single line within a bulk pattern. With this same illumination a directly imageable metal oxide hardmask showed excellent performance from 22-nm half pitch to 17-nm half pitch, and good performance at 16-nm half pitch, closely following the predicted aerial image contrast. This indicates that observed limitations of the chemically amplified resists are indeed coming from the resist and not from a shortcoming of the exposure tool. The imageable hardmask was also exposed using a Pseudo Phase-Shift-Mask technique and achieved clean printing of 15-nm half pitch lines and modulation all the way down to the theoretical 12.5-nm resolution limit of the 0.3-NA SEMATECH BMET.

  2. Opposing and following vocal responses to pitch-shifted auditory feedback: evidence for different mechanisms of voice pitch control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Korzyukov, Oleg; Sattler, Lindsey; Larson, Charles R

    2012-10-01

    The present study describes a technique for analysis of vocal responses to auditory feedback pitch perturbations in which individual trials are first sorted according to response direction and then separately averaged in groups of upward or downward responses. In experiment 1, the stimulus direction was predictable (all upward) but magnitude was randomized between +100, +200, or +500 cents (unpredictable). Results showed that pitch-shift stimuli (PSS) of +100 and +200 cents elicited significantly larger opposing (compensatory) responses than +500 cent stimuli, but no such effect was observed for "following" responses. In experiment 2, subjects were tested in three blocks of trials where for the first two, PSS magnitude and direction were predictable (block 1+100 and block 2-100 cents), and in block 3, the magnitude was predictable (±100 cents) but direction was randomized (upward or downward). Results showed there were slightly more opposing than following responses for predictable PSS direction, but randomized directions led to significantly more opposing than following responses. Results suggest that predictability of stimulus direction and magnitude can modulate vocal responses to feedback pitch perturbations. The function and causes of the opposing and following responses are unknown, but there may be two different neural mechanisms involved in their production.

  3. Difficulties with pitch discrimination influences pitch memory performance: evidence from congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cunmei; Lim, Vanessa K; Wang, Hang; Hamm, Jeff P

    2013-01-01

    Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases. This study examined whether or not the difficulty of pitch discrimination influences pitch retention by testing individuals with congenital amusia. Pitch discrimination difficulty was equated by determining an individual's threshold with a two down one up staircase procedure and using this to create conditions where two pitches (the standard and the comparison tones) differed by 1x, 2x, and 3x the threshold setting. For comparison with the literature a condition that employed a constant pitch difference of four semitones was also included. The results showed that pitch memory performance improved as the discrimination between the standard and the comparison tones was made easier for both amusic and control groups, and more importantly, that amusics did not show any pitch retention deficits when the discrimination difficulty was equated. In contrast, consistent with previous literature, amusics performed worse than controls when the physical pitch distance was held constant at four semitones. This impaired performance has been interpreted as evidence for pitch memory impairment in the past. However, employing a constant pitch distance always makes the difference closer to the discrimination threshold for the amusic group than for the control group. Therefore, reduced performance in this condition may simply reflect differences in the perceptual difficulty of the discrimination. The findings indicate the importance of equating the discrimination difficulty when investigating memory.

  4. Difficulties with pitch discrimination influences pitch memory performance: evidence from congenital amusia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunmei Jiang

    Full Text Available Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases. This study examined whether or not the difficulty of pitch discrimination influences pitch retention by testing individuals with congenital amusia. Pitch discrimination difficulty was equated by determining an individual's threshold with a two down one up staircase procedure and using this to create conditions where two pitches (the standard and the comparison tones differed by 1x, 2x, and 3x the threshold setting. For comparison with the literature a condition that employed a constant pitch difference of four semitones was also included. The results showed that pitch memory performance improved as the discrimination between the standard and the comparison tones was made easier for both amusic and control groups, and more importantly, that amusics did not show any pitch retention deficits when the discrimination difficulty was equated. In contrast, consistent with previous literature, amusics performed worse than controls when the physical pitch distance was held constant at four semitones. This impaired performance has been interpreted as evidence for pitch memory impairment in the past. However, employing a constant pitch distance always makes the difference closer to the discrimination threshold for the amusic group than for the control group. Therefore, reduced performance in this condition may simply reflect differences in the perceptual difficulty of the discrimination. The findings indicate the importance of equating the discrimination difficulty when investigating memory.

  5. Nozzle designs with pitch precursor ablatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, H. R.; Bedard, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Recent developments in carbon phenolic ablatives for solid rocket motor nozzles have yielded a pitch precursor carbon fiber offering significant raw material availability and cost saving advantages as compared to conventional rayon precursor material. This paper discusses the results of an experimental program conducted to assess the thermal performance and characterize the thermal properties of pitch precursor carbon phenolic ablatives. The end result of this program is the complete thermal characterization of pitch fabric, pitch mat, hybrid pitch/rayon fabric and pitch mat molding compound. With these properties determined an analytic capability now exists for predicting the thermal performance of these materials in rocket nozzle liner applications. Further planned efforts to verify material performance and analytical prediction procedures through actual rocket motor firings are also discussed.

  6. Fluorescent Random Amplified Microsatellites (F-RAMS) analysis of mushrooms as a forensic investigative tool

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kallifatidis, B.; Borovička, Jan; Stránská, J.; Drábek, J.; Mills, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, MAR (2014), s. 25-32 ISSN 1872-4973 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : random amplified microsatellites * hallucinogenic mashrooms * DNA profiling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.604, year: 2014

  7. Heavy vehicle pitch dynamics and suspension tuning

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Dongpu; Rakheja, Subhash; Su, Chun-Yi

    2008-01-01

    The influence of suspension tuning of passenger cars on bounce and pitch ride performance has been explored in a number of studies, while only minimal efforts have been made for establishing similar rules for heavy vehicles. This study aims to explore pitch dynamics and suspension tunings of a two-axle heavy vehicle with unconnected suspension, which could also provide valuable information for heavy vehicles with coupled suspensions. Based on a generalised pitch-plane model of a two-axle heav...

  8. The effect of intensity on relative pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William Forde; Peter, Varghese; Olsen, Kirk N; Stevens, Catherine J

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effect of intensity and intensity change on judgements of pitch differences or interval size. In Experiment 1, 39 musically untrained participants rated the size of the interval spanned by two pitches within individual gliding tones. Tones were presented at high intensity, low intensity, looming intensity (up-ramp), and fading intensity (down-ramp) and glided between two pitches spanning either 6 or 7 semitones (a tritone or a perfect fifth interval). The pitch shift occurred in either ascending or descending directions. Experiment 2 repeated the conditions of Experiment 1 but the shifts in pitch and intensity occurred across two discrete tones (i.e., a melodic interval). Results indicated that participants were sensitive to the differences in interval size presented: Ratings were significantly higher when two pitches differed by 7 semitones than when they differed by 6 semitones. However, ratings were also dependent on whether the interval was high or low in intensity, whether it increased or decreased in intensity across the two pitches, and whether the interval was ascending or descending in pitch. Such influences illustrate that the perception of pitch relations does not always adhere to a logarithmic function as implied by their musical labels, but that identical intervals are perceived as substantially different in size depending on other attributes of the sound source.

  9. Tools for teen moms to reduce infant obesity: a randomized clinical trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Silk, Kami; Hsieh, Gary; Hoffman, Alice; Robson, Mackenzie

    2015-01-01

    .... The Tools for Teen Moms trial aims to compare the effect of a social media intervention for low-income adolescent, first-time mothers of infants 2 months of age or younger, versus standard care...

  10. Cortical pitch response components index stimulus onset/offset and dynamic features of pitch contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Ananthakrishnan, Saradha; Vijayaraghavan, Venkatakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Voice pitch is an important information-bearing component of language that is subject to experience dependent plasticity at both early cortical and subcortical stages of processing. We’ve already demonstrated that pitch onset component (Na) of the cortical pitch response (CPR) is sensitive to flat pitch and its salience. In regards to dynamic pitch, we do not yet know whether the multiple pitch-related transient components of the CPR reflect specific temporal attributes of such stimuli. Here we examine the sensitivity of the multiple transient components of CPR to changes in pitch acceleration associated with the Mandarin high rising lexical tone. CPR responses from Chinese listeners were elicited by three citation forms varying in pitch acceleration and duration. Results showed that the pitch onset component (Na) was invariant to changes in acceleration. In contrast, Na-Pb and Pb-Nb showed a systematic increase in the interpeak latency and decrease in amplitude with increase in pitch acceleration that followed the time course of pitch change across the three stimuli. A strong correlation with pitch acceleration was observed for these two components only – a putative index of pitch-relevant neural activity associated with the more rapidly-changing portions of the pitch contour. Pc-Nc marks unambiguously the stimulus offset. We therefore propose that in the early stages of cortical sensory processing, a series of neural markers flag different temporal attributes of a dynamic pitch contour: onset of temporal regularity (Na); changes in temporal regularity between onset and offset (Na-Pb, Pb-Nb); and offset of temporal regularity (Pc-Nc). At the temporal electrode sites, the stimulus with the most gradual change in pitch acceleration evoked a rightward asymmetry. Yet within the left hemisphere, stimuli with more gradual change were indistinguishable. These findings highlight the emergence of early hemispheric preferences and their functional roles as related to

  11. Parasites pitched against nature: Pitch Lake water protects guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from microbial and gyrodactylid infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkle, Bettina; Mohammed, Ryan S; Coogan, Michael P; McMullan, Mark; Gillingham, Emma L; VAN Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Joanne

    2012-11-01

    SUMMARY The enemy release hypothesis proposes that in parasite depleted habitats, populations will experience relaxed selection and become more susceptible (or less tolerant) to pathogenic infections. Here, we focus on a population of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) that are found in an extreme environment (the Pitch Lake, Trinidad) and examine whether this habitat represents a refuge from parasites. We investigated the efficacy of pitch in preventing microbial infections in Pitch Lake guppies, by exposing them to dechlorinated water, and reducing gyrodactylid infections on non-Pitch Lake guppies by transferring them to Pitch Lake water. We show that (i) natural prevalence of ectoparasites in the Pitch Lake is low compared to reference populations, (ii) Pitch Lake guppies transferred into aquarium water develop microbial infections, and (iii) experimentally infected guppies are cured of their gyrodactylid infections both by natural Pitch Lake water and by dechlorinated water containing solid pitch. These results indicate a role for Pitch Lake water in the defence of guppies from their parasites and suggest that Pitch Lake guppies might have undergone enemy release in this extreme environment. The Pitch Lake provides an ideal ecosystem for studies on immune gene evolution in the absence of parasites and long-term evolutionary implications of hydrocarbon pollution for vertebrates.

  12. Random Forests as a tool for estimating uncertainty at pixel-level in SAR image classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loosvelt, Lien; Peters, Jan; Skriver, Henning

    2012-01-01

    , we introduce Random Forests for the probabilistic mapping of vegetation from high-dimensional remote sensing data and present a comprehensive methodology to assess and analyze classification uncertainty based on the local probabilities of class membership. We apply this method to SAR image data......It is widely acknowledged that model inputs can cause considerable errors in the model output. Since land cover maps obtained from the classification of remote sensing data are frequently used as input to spatially explicit environmental models, it is important to provide information regarding...... be easily assessed when using the Random Forests algorithm....

  13. Development of a Pitch Discrimination Screening Test for Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Maria Kulick; Lloyd, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    There is a critical need for tests of auditory discrimination for young children as this skill plays a fundamental role in the development of speaking, prereading, reading, language, and more complex auditory processes. Frequency discrimination is important with regard to basic sensory processing affecting phonological processing, dyslexia, measurements of intelligence, auditory memory, Asperger syndrome, and specific language impairment. This study was performed to determine the clinical feasibility of the Pitch Discrimination Test (PDT) to screen the preschool child's ability to discriminate some of the acoustic demands of speech perception, primarily pitch discrimination, without linguistic content. The PDT used brief speech frequency tones to gather normative data from preschool children aged 3 to 5 yrs. A cross-sectional study was used to gather data regarding the pitch discrimination abilities of a sample of typically developing preschool children, between 3 and 5 yrs of age. The PDT consists of ten trials using two pure tones of 100-msec duration each, and was administered in an AA or AB forced-choice response format. Data from 90 typically developing preschool children between the ages of 3 and 5 yrs were used to provide normative data. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-testing was used to examine the effects of age as a continuous variable on pitch discrimination. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine the significance of age on performance on the PDT. Spearman rank was used to determine the correlation of age and performance on the PDT. Pitch discrimination of brief tones improved significantly from age 3 yrs to age 4 yrs, as well as from age 3 yrs to the age 4- and 5-yrs group. Results indicated that between ages 3 and 4 yrs, children's auditory discrimination of pitch improved on the PDT. The data showed that children can be screened for auditory discrimination of pitch beginning with age 4 yrs. The PDT proved to be a time efficient, feasible tool for

  14. Voice responses to changes in pitch of voice or tone auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Bauer, Jay J; Babu, Tara; Larson, Charles R

    2005-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine if a subject's voice F0 responded not only to perturbations in pitch of voice feedback but also to changes in pitch of a side tone presented congruent with voice feedback. Small magnitude brief duration perturbations in pitch of voice or tone auditory feedback were randomly introduced during sustained vowel phonations. Results demonstrated a higher rate and larger magnitude of voice F0 responses to changes in pitch of the voice compared with a triangular-shaped tone (experiment 1) or a pure tone (experiment 2). However, response latencies did not differ across voice or tone conditions. Data suggest that subjects responded to the change in F0 rather than harmonic frequencies of auditory feedback because voice F0 response prevalence, magnitude, or latency did not statistically differ across triangular-shaped tone or pure-tone feedback. Results indicate the audio-vocal system is sensitive to the change in pitch of a variety of sounds, which may represent a flexible system capable of adapting to changes in the subject's voice. However, lower prevalence and smaller responses to tone pitch-shifted signals suggest that the audio-vocal system may resist changes to the pitch of other environmental sounds when voice feedback is present.

  15. Objective correlates of pitch salience using pupillometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Santurette, Sébastien; Wendt, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Although objective correlates of pitch salience have been investigated in several neuroimaging studies, the results remain controversial. In the present study, a novel approach to objectively estimate pitch salience was used. Pupil dilation was measured as an indicator of the required effort in p...

  16. Individual Pitch Control Using LIDAR Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Henriksen, Lars Christian; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2012-01-01

    In this work the problem of individual pitch control of a variable-speed variable-pitch wind turbine in the full load region is considered. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve the problem. However as the plant is nonlinear and time varying, a new approach is proposed to simplify...

  17. Learning Novel Musical Pitch via Distributional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jia Hoong; Burnham, Denis; Stevens, Catherine J.

    2017-01-01

    Because different musical scales use different sets of intervals and, hence, different musical pitches, how do music listeners learn those that are in their native musical system? One possibility is that musical pitches are acquired in the same way as phonemes, that is, via distributional learning, in which learners infer knowledge from the…

  18. Effectiveness of a medication-adherence tool: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbink-Smolders, M.; Lacroix, J.; Bremer-van der Heiden, L.; Halteren, A. van; Teichert, M.; Lieshout, J. van

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research shows that more than half of the people taking medication for a chronic condition are non-adherent. Nonadherence hinders disease control with a burden on patient quality of life and healthcare systems. We developed a tool that provides insight into nonadherence risks and

  19. Absence of modulatory action on haptic height perception with musical pitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eGeronazzo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although acoustic frequency is not a spatial property of physical objects, in common language, pitch, i.e., the psychological correlated of frequency, is often labeled spatially (i.e., high in pitch or low in pitch. Pitch-height is known to modulate (and interact with the response of participants when they are asked to judge spatial properties of non-auditory stimuli (e.g., visual in a variety of behavioral tasks. In the current study we investigated whether the modulatory action of pitch-height extended to the haptic estimation of height of a virtual step.We implemented a HW/SW setup which is able to render virtual 3D objects (stair-steps haptically through a PHANTOM device, and to provide real-time continuous auditory feedback depending on the user interaction with the object. The haptic exploration was associated with a sinusoidal tone whose pitch varied as a function of the interaction point’s height within (i a narrower and (ii a wider pitch range, or (iii a random pitch variation acting as a control audio condition. Explorations were also performed with no sound (haptic only. Participants were instructed to explore the virtual step freely, and to communicate height estimation by opening their thumb and index finger to mimic the step riser height, or verbally by reporting the height in centimeters of the step riser. We analyzed the role of musical expertise by dividing participants into non musicians and musicians. Results showed no effects of musical pitch on high-realistic haptic feedback. Overall there is no difference between the two groups in the proposed multimodal conditions. Additionally, we observed a different haptic response distribution between musicians and non musicians when estimations of the auditory conditions are matched with estimations in the no sound condition.

  20. Tools for teen moms to reduce infant obesity: a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Silk, Kami; Hsieh, Gary; Hoffman, Alice; Robson, Mackenzie

    2015-01-01

    Background Unhealthy infant feeding practices, such as a combination of formula feeding and early introduction of solids may lead to rapid or excessive weight gain in early infancy. Adolescent mothers? feeding behaviors are most directly related to infant weight gain in the first year of life. Compared to adult mothers, adolescent mothers are less knowledgeable, less responsive, more controlling, and less skilled in infant feeding, which interferes with infants? healthy growth. The Tools for ...

  1. Convolutional Pitch Target Approximation Model for Speech Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Xingyu; Garner, Philip N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate pitch contour modelling in speech synthesis based on segmental units. A convolutional pitch target approximation model is proposed. This model allows jointly stochastic modelling of framewise pitch and pitch contour of longer units, of which the intuitive relations are revealed by a convolutional target approximation filter. The pitch contour is stylized by a linear representation called pitch target. In synthesis stage, the likelihood of the framewise model and ...

  2. An Experimental Investigation of Passive Variable-Pitch Vertical-Axis Ocean Current Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridho Hantoro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertical-axis hydrokinetic turbines with fixed pitch blades typically suffer from poor starting torque, low efficiency and shaking due to large fluctuations in both radial and tangential force with azimuth angle. Maximizing the turbine power output can be achieved only if the mechanism of generation of the hydrodynamic force on the blades is clearly identified and tools to design high-performance rotors are developed. This paper describes an initial experimental investigation to understand more of the performance on vertical-axis turbine related to the effect of fixed-pitch and passive variable-pitch application using airfoil NACA 0018. Comparative analysis according to aspects of rotation and tip speed ratios was discussed. Information regarding the changes of foil position in passive variable-pitch during rotation at a limited range of flow velocity variations test was obtained and analyzed.

  3. CORRELATION BETWEEN PARAMETERS AND KINEMATICS ON THE DESIGN OF CONSTANT PITCH SPIRAL-TURNED ORNAMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan CISMARU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Execution of spiral-turned ornaments with constant pitch represents the movement of the tool on the helical trajectories (main trajectory along a cylinder during manufacturing process. The processing tool has the profile shape of the helical winding (generated trajectory on the cutting knives. The main and the generated trajectories are the basic elements in processing of spiral-turned ornaments with constant pitch. If the generated trajectory is materialized on the cutting knives of the tools (profiled router milling tools, the main trajectory must be kinematic generated by combining the movements performed by the tool and the workpiece. Generating the main trajectory means to combine the linear and angular movements, correlated with parameters as function of geometrical characteristics of the spiral-turned ornament: wrapping angle and winding pitch (axial pitch. This paper aims to present the links and parametric correlations between the working tool and the workpiece according to the geometric characteristics that must result to ensure the aesthetics of the ornament. The correlation of parameters results also in obtaining the desired quality of machined surfaces. All these require the development of correlation between kinematics and parameters of the machine tools that process such ornaments.

  4. Randomized trial of exercise and an online recovery tool to improve rehabilitation outcomes of cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Anna L; Biddle-Newberry, Mary; de Heer, Hendrik Dirk

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effects of a cancer survivor exercise program and an online recovery awareness program (Restwise) on physical outcomes of aerobic capacity and muscle strength. Randomized controlled trial design. Treasure Valley Family YMCA, Boise, ID. Fifty cancer survivors. Subjects were randomly assigned to the 12-week exercise program or the exercise program and Restwise. Restwise required users to complete daily objective and subjective ratings. Restwise compiles these data to provide individualized feedback recommending the exercise dose to maximize recovery and minimize fatigue. Baseline and posttest measures of physical performance (6-minute walk, 1-repetition maximum of lower and upper body strength). The exercise plus Restwise group demonstrated significant improvements (P exercise-only group demonstrated significant within-group improvement only on the 6-minute walk. The exercise plus Restwise group demonstrated an 18.5% greater improvement in the 6-minute walk, and a 35.2% and 45%, respectively, greater improvement on the leg and chest press than the exercise-only group. However, the between-group differences were not significant. Cancer survivors who use the Restwise online recovery program in conjunction with an exercise program demonstrated minimal clinically important differences compared with other clinical populations on all 3 measures, whereas the exercise-only group had improvements only on the 6-minute walk. Patient adherence to the Restwise program was good, and patients provided positive feedback.

  5. Couple relationship education: A randomized controlled trial of professional contact and self-directed tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, Martina; Merz, Corina A; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W; Halford, W Kim; Schaer Gmelch, Marcel; Bodenmann, Guy

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the efficacy of an evidence-based relationship distress prevention program, the Couples Coping Enhancement Training (CCET), in dual well-earning couples and to investigate whether effects vary by (a) hours of professional contact and (b) mode of delivery (face to face vs. self-learning DVD). N = 159 couples were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 intervention conditions: (1) standard CCET (15 hours face to face), (2) compact CCET (12 hr face to face), (3) short CCET (self-learning DVD + 8 hr face to face), or (4) wait-list control group. Relationship satisfaction and dyadic coping skills were assessed by means of questionnaires completed prior to and 2 weeks after completion of the treatment, at 3-month follow-up, and at 6-month follow-up. Baseline latent change models for 2 factors showed that the CCET enhanced relationship satisfaction and dyadic coping skills in couples relative to the wait-list control group, albeit effects were small. The standard format of the CCET was not more effective than the compact or the short format indicating that reduced amount of professional contact did not decrease the treatment's efficacy and that the self-learning DVD successfully replaced the psycho-educational part of the program. Since dual earner couples usually face multiple stressors, it is a promising finding that they can strengthen their relationship with a relatively short time investment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Encoding pitch contours using current steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Landsberger, David M; Padilla, Monica; Srinivasan, Arthi G

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated cochlear implant (CI) users' ability to perceive pitch cues from time-varying virtual channels (VCs) to identify pitch contours. Seven CI users were tested on apical, medial, and basal electrode pairs with stimulus durations from 100 to 1000 ms. In one stimulus set, 9 pitch contours were created by steering current between the component electrodes and the VC halfway between the electrodes. Another stimulus set only contained 3 pitch contours (flat, falling, and rising). VC discrimination was also tested on the same electrodes. The total current level of dual-electrode stimuli was linearly interpolated between those of single-electrode stimuli to minimize loudness changes. The results showed that pitch contour identification (PCI) scores were similar across electrode locations, and significantly improved at longer durations. For durations longer than 300 ms, 2 subjects had nearly perfect 9-contour identification, and 5 subjects perfectly identified the 3 basic contours. Both PCI and VC discrimination varied greatly across subjects. Cumulative d(') values for VC discrimination were significantly correlated with 100-, 200-, and 500-ms PCI scores. These results verify the feasibility of encoding pitch contours using current steering, and suggest that identification of such pitch contours strongly relies on CI users' sensitivity to VCs.

  7. Timing matters: the processing of pitch relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Annekathrin; Grimm, Sabine; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J.; Schröger, Erich

    2014-01-01

    The human central auditory system can automatically extract abstract regularities from a variant auditory input. To this end, temporarily separated events need to be related. This study tested whether the timing between events, falling either within or outside the temporal window of integration (~350 ms), impacts the extraction of abstract feature relations. We utilized tone pairs for which tones within but not across pairs revealed a constant pitch relation (e.g., pitch of second tone of a pair higher than pitch of first tone, while absolute pitch values varied across pairs). We measured the mismatch negativity (MMN; the brain’s error signal to auditory regularity violations) to second tones that rarely violated the pitch relation (e.g., pitch of second tone lower). A Short condition in which tone duration (90 ms) and stimulus onset asynchrony between the tones of a pair were short (110 ms) was compared to two conditions, where this onset asynchrony was long (510 ms). In the Long Gap condition, the tone durations were identical to Short (90 ms), but the silent interval was prolonged by 400 ms. In Long Tone, the duration of the first tone was prolonged by 400 ms, while the silent interval was comparable to Short (20 ms). Results show a frontocentral MMN of comparable amplitude in all conditions. Thus, abstract pitch relations can be extracted even when the within-pair timing exceeds the integration period. Source analyses indicate MMN generators in the supratemporal cortex. Interestingly, they were located more anterior in Long Gap than in Short and Long Tone. Moreover, frontal generator activity was found for Long Gap and Long Tone. Thus, the way in which the system automatically registers irregular abstract pitch relations depends on the timing of the events to be linked. Pending that the current MMN data mirror established abstract rule representations coding the regular pitch relation, neural processes building these templates vary with timing. PMID:24966823

  8. Timing matters: The processing of pitch relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekathrin eWeise

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The human central auditory system can automatically extract abstract regularities from a variant auditory input. To this end, temporarily separated events need to be related. This study tested whether the timing between events, falling either within or outside the temporal window of integration (~350 ms, impacts the extraction of abstract feature relations. We utilized tone pairs for which tones within but not across pairs revealed a constant pitch relation (e.g. pitch of 2nd tone of a pair higher than pitch of 1st tone, while absolute pitch values varied across pairs. We measured the Mismatch Negativity (MMN; the brain’s error signal to auditory regularity violations to 2nd tones that rarely violated the pitch relation (e.g. pitch of 2nd tone lower. A Short condition in which tone duration (90 ms and stimulus onset asynchrony between the tones of a pair were short (110 ms was compared to two conditions, where this onset asynchrony was long (510 ms. In the Long Gap condition the tone durations were identical to Short (90 ms, but the silent interval was prolonged by 400 ms. In Long Tone the duration of the first tone was prolonged by 400 ms, while the silent interval was comparable to Short (20 ms. Results show a frontocentral MMN of comparable amplitude in all conditions. Thus, abstract pitch relations can be extracted even when the within-pair timing exceeds the integration period. Source analyses indicate MMN generators in the supratemporal cortex. Interestingly, they were located more anterior in Long Gap than in Short and Long Tone. Moreover, frontal generator activity was found for Long Gap and Long Tone. Thus, the way in which the system automatically registers irregular abstract pitch relations depends on the timing of the events to be linked. Pending that the current MMN data mirror established abstract rule representations coding the regular pitch relation, neural processes building these templates vary with timing.

  9. Effects of harmonic roving on pitch discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; de Kérangal, Mathilde le Gal; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    2015-01-01

    external noise in the physical stimulus (Lu and Dosher, 2008). The present study used this approach to attempt to quantify the “internal noise” involved in pitch coding of harmonic complex tones by estimating the amount of harmonic roving required to impair pitch discrimination performance. It remains...... performance may help clarify pitch coding mechanisms. As training on frequency discrimination tasks has been found to result in a reduction of internal noise (Jones et al., 2013), it was also investigated whether the effect of harmonic roving varied with musical training...

  10. Inconsistency in the items included in tools used in general health research and physical therapy to evaluate the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials: a descriptive analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Fuentes, Jorge; Ospina, Maria; Saltaji, Humam; Hartling, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Background Assessing the risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is crucial to understand how biases affect treatment effect estimates. A number of tools have been developed to evaluate risk of bias of RCTs; however, it is unknown how these tools compare to each other in the items included. The main objective of this study was to describe which individual items are included in RCT quality tools used in general health and physical therapy (PT) research, and how these items compare ...

  11. Pitch enhancement facilitates word learning across visual contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera eFilippi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates word-learning using a new model that integrates three processes: a extracting a word out of a continuous sound sequence, b inferring its referential meanings in context, c mapping the segmented word onto its broader intended referent, such as other objects of the same semantic category, and to novel utterances. Previous work has examined the role of statistical learning and/or of prosody in each of these processes separately. Here, we combine these strands of investigation into a single experimental approach, in which participants viewed a photograph belonging to one of three semantic categories while hearing a complex, five-syllable utterance containing a one-syllable target word. Six between-subjects conditions were tested with 20 adult participants each. In condition 1, the only cue to word-meaning mapping was the co-occurrence of word and referents. This statistical cue was present in all conditions. In condition 2, the target word was sounded at a higher pitch. In condition 3, random one-syllable words were sounded at a higher pitch, creating an inconsistent cue. In condition 4, the duration of the target word was lengthened. In conditions 5 and 6, an extraneous acoustic cue and a visual cue were associated with the target word, respectively. Performance in this word-learning task was significantly higher than that observed with simple co-occurrence only when pitch prominence consistently marked the target word. We discuss implications for the intentional value of pitch marking as well as the relevance of our findings to language acquisition and language evolution.

  12. Accuracy of pitch matching significantly improved by live voice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Roni Y; Israel-Kolatt, Rona; Gilboa, Avi; Kolatt, Tsafrir

    2013-05-01

    Singing is, undoubtedly, the most fundamental expression of our musical capacity, yet an estimated 10-15% of Western population sings "out-of-tune (OOT)." Previous research in children and adults suggests, albeit inconsistently, that imitating a human voice can improve pitch matching. In the present study, we focus on the potentially beneficial effects of the human voice and especially the live human voice. Eighteen participants varying in their singing abilities were required to imitate in singing a set of nine ascending and descending intervals presented to them in five different randomized blocked conditions: live piano, recorded piano, live voice using optimal voice production, recorded voice using optimal voice production, and recorded voice using artificial forced voice production. Pitch and interval matching in singing were much more accurate when participants repeated sung intervals as compared with intervals played to them on the piano. The advantage of the vocal over the piano stimuli was robust and emerged clearly regardless of whether piano tones were played live and in full view or were presented via recording. Live vocal stimuli elicited higher accuracy than recorded vocal stimuli, especially when the recorded vocal stimuli were produced in a forced vocal production. Remarkably, even those who would be considered OOT singers on the basis of their performance when repeating piano tones were able to pitch match live vocal sounds, with deviations well within the range of what is considered accurate singing (M=46.0, standard deviation=39.2 cents). In fact, those participants who were most OOT gained the most from the live voice model. Results are discussed in light of the dual auditory-motor encoding of pitch analogous to that found in speech. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prospective, randomized evaluation of a personal digital assistant-based research tool in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinizio Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personal digital assistants (PDA offer putative advantages over paper for collecting research data. However, there are no data prospectively comparing PDA and paper in the emergency department. The aim of this study was to prospectively compare the performance of PDA and paper enrollment instruments with respect to time required and errors generated. Methods We randomized consecutive patients enrolled in an ongoing prospective study to having their data recorded either on a PDA or a paper data collection instrument. For each method, we recorded the total time required for enrollment, and the time required for manual transcription (paper onto a computer database. We compared data error rates by examining missing data, nonsensical data, and errors made during the transcription of paper forms. Statistical comparisons were performed by Kruskal-Wallis and Poisson regression analyses for time and errors, respectively. Results We enrolled 68 patients (37 PDA, 31 paper. Two of 31 paper forms were not available for analysis. Total data gathering times, inclusive of transcription, were significantly less for PDA (6:13 min per patient compared to paper (9:12 min per patient; p Conclusion Using a PDA-based data collection instrument for clinical research reduces the time required for data gathering and significantly improves data integrity.

  14. Voice Pitch Influences Perceptions of Sexual Infidelity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connor, Jillian J.M; Re, Daniel E; Feinberg, David R

    2011-01-01

    .... Among men, testosterone is inversely related to voice pitch, relationship and offspring investment, and is positively related to the pursuit of short-term relationships, including extra-pair sex...

  15. Major League Baseball pitch velocity and pitch type associated with risk of ulnar collateral ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Robert A; Marshall, Nathan E; Guest, John-Michael; Okoroha, Kelechi R; Jung, Edward K; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2016-04-01

    The number of Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers requiring ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstructions is increasing. Recent literature has attempted to correlate specific stresses placed on the throwing arm to risk for UCL injury, with limited results. Eighty-three MLB pitchers who underwent primary UCL reconstruction were evaluated. Pitching velocity and percent of pitch type thrown (fastball, curve ball, slider, and change-up) were evaluated 2 years before and after surgery. Data were compared with control pitchers matched for age, position, size, innings pitched, and experience. The evaluation of pitch velocity compared with matched controls found no differences in pre-UCL reconstruction pitch velocities for fastballs (91.5 vs. 91.2 miles per hour [mph], P = .69), curveballs (78.2 vs. 77.9 mph, P = .92), sliders (83.3 vs. 83.5 mph, P = .88), or change-ups (83.9 vs. 83.8 mph, P = .96). When the percentage of pitches thrown was evaluated, UCL reconstructed pitchers pitch significantly more fastballs than controls (46.7% vs. 39.4%, P = .035). This correlated to a 2% increase in risk for UCL injury for every 1% increase in fastballs thrown. Pitching more than 48% fastballs was a significant predictor of UCL injury, because pitchers over this threshold required reconstruction (P = .006). MLB pitchers requiring UCL reconstruction do not pitch at higher velocities than matched controls, and pitch velocity does not appear to be a risk factor for UCL reconstruction. However, MLB pitchers who pitch a high percentage of fastballs may be at increased risk for UCL injury because pitching a higher percent of fastballs appears to be a risk factor for UCL reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pitch matching psychometrics in electric acoustic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Uwe; Rader, Tobias; Helbig, Silke; Bahmer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Combined electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) is a therapeutic option for patients with severe to profound mid- and high-frequency hearing loss while low-frequency hearing is mostly unaffected. The present study investigates bimodal pitch matching in EAS users as a function of the angular placement of electrodes. Results are compared with data obtained from previous pitch matching studies. Knowledge of electric and acoustic pitch mapping may be important for effective fitting to control the frequency range of acoustic and electric processing. Pitch adjustment experiments were conducted in eight subjects with residual hearing in the opposite ear as well as in the implanted ear. Four subjects received a standard 31.5-mm electrode array and four subjects received the shorter, more flexible 24-mm FLEX electrode array (PULSARCI100 or SONATATI100 stimulator, MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria). The subjects' task was to listen to single-electrode stimuli presented at a fixed rate (800 pulses per second) via the cochlear implant and to adjust the frequency of the acoustic stimulus until the perceived pitch matched the perception of the electrically conveyed stimulus. Two to four of the most apical electrodes were tested depending on the range of the individual's residual hearing. Postoperative x rays (modified Stenver's view) were analyzed to compare individual pitch matching data in terms of the electrode arrays' insertion angle. The average mean frequency match for the most apical electrode 1 in EAS subjects implanted with the FLEX array was 583 Hz, while for the two subjects with a deep insertion of the 31.5-mm standard electrode array, the matches were 128 and 223 Hz. Because the residual hearing in the EAS subgroup was rather limited in the high-frequency range, a limited number of basal electrodes were assessed to determine the slope of the electric place/pitch function. A considerable variation in terms of the individual pitch function was observed. The slope of the pitch

  17. The effect of a biofeedback-based stress management tool on physician stress: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Jane B; Wallace, Jean E; Lewin, Adriane M; de Grood, Jill; Schaefer, Jeffrey P

    2011-01-01

    Physicians often experience work-related stress that may lead to personal harm and impaired professional performance. Biofeedback has been used to manage stress in various populations. To determine whether a biofeedback-based stress management tool, consisting of rhythmic breathing, actively self-generated positive emotions and a portable biofeedback device, reduces physician stress. Randomized controlled trial measuring efficacy of a stress-reduction intervention over 28 days, with a 28-day open-label trial extension to assess effectiveness. Urban tertiary care hospital. Forty staff physicians (23 men and 17 women) from various medical practices (1 from primary care, 30 from a medical specialty and 9 from a surgical specialty) were recruited by means of electronic mail, regular mail and posters placed in the physicians' lounge and throughout the hospital. Physicians in the intervention group were instructed to use a biofeedback-based stress management tool three times daily. Participants in both the control and intervention groups received twice-weekly support visits from the research team over 28 days, with the intervention group also receiving re-inforcement in the use of the stress management tool during these support visits. During the 28-day extension period, both the control and the intervention groups received the intervention, but without intensive support from the research team. Stress was measured with a scale developed to capture short-term changes in global perceptions of stress for physicians (maximum score 200). During the randomized controlled trial (days 0 to 28), the mean stress score declined significantly for the intervention group (change -14.7, standard deviation [SD] 23.8; p = 0.013) but not for the control group (change -2.2, SD 8.4; p = 0.30). The difference in mean score change between the groups was 12.5 (p = 0.048). The lower mean stress scores in the intervention group were maintained during the trial extension to day 56. The mean

  18. The Effect of Timbre and Vibrato on Vocal Pitch Matching Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvvuru, Sirisha

    Research has shown that singers are better able to match pitch when the target stimulus has a timbre close to their own voice. This study seeks to answer the following questions: (1) Do classically trained female singers more accurately match pitch when the target stimulus is more similar to their own timbre? (2) Does the ability to match pitch vary with increasing pitch? (3) Does the ability to match pitch differ depending on whether the target stimulus is produced with or without vibrato? (4) Are mezzo sopranos less accurate than sopranos? Stimuli. Source signals were synthesized with a source slope of -12dB/octave using vibrato and without vibrato at each of the frequencies, C4, B4 and F5. These source signals were filtered using 5 formant patterns (A-E) of vowel /a/ constituting a total of 30 stimuli (5 formant patterns*3pitches*2 vibrato conditions). Procedure. Ten sopranos and 10 mezzo-sopranos with at least 3 years of individual voice training were recruited from the University Of Tennessee School Of Music and the Knoxville Opera Company. Each singer attempted to vocally match the pitch of all 30 stimuli presented twice in a random order. Analysis and results. Pitch matching accuracy was measured in terms of the difference in cents between the target and the experimental productions at two locations, (1) pre-phonatory set (2) mid-point of the vowel. Accuracy of pitch matching was compared across vibrato and non-vibrato conditions. Results indicated that there was no significant effect of formant pattern on pitch matching accuracy. With increasing pitch from C4 to F5, pitch matching accuracy increased in mid-point of the vowel condition but not in pre-phonatory set condition. Mezzo-sopranos moved towards being in tune from pre-phonatory to mid-point of the vowel. However, sopranos at C4, sang closer to being in tune at pre-phonatory, but lowered the pitch at the mid-point of the vowel. Presence or absence of vibrato did not affect the pitch matching accuracy

  19. Pitch synchronous transform warping in voice conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Vích, R. (Robert); Vondra, M. (Martin)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a new voice conversion algorithm is presented, which transforms the utterance of a source speaker into the utterance of a target speaker. The voice conversion approach is based on pitch synchronous speech analysis, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), nonlinear spectral warping with spectrum interpolation and pitch synchronous speech synthesis with overlapping using the speech production model. The DCT speech model contains also information about the phase properties of the modeled ...

  20. Effects of culture on musical pitch perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick C M; Ciocca, Valter; Chan, Alice H D; Ha, Louisa Y Y; Tan, Li-Hai; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association--the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders--remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch) that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic) comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm) processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada) were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means 'teacher' and 'to try' when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively). Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages). This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population), we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of culture

  1. Effects of culture on musical pitch perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C M Wong

    Full Text Available The strong association between music and speech has been supported by recent research focusing on musicians' superior abilities in second language learning and neural encoding of foreign speech sounds. However, evidence for a double association--the influence of linguistic background on music pitch processing and disorders--remains elusive. Because languages differ in their usage of elements (e.g., pitch that are also essential for music, a unique opportunity for examining such language-to-music associations comes from a cross-cultural (linguistic comparison of congenital amusia, a neurogenetic disorder affecting the music (pitch and rhythm processing of about 5% of the Western population. In the present study, two populations (Hong Kong and Canada were compared. One spoke a tone language in which differences in voice pitch correspond to differences in word meaning (in Hong Kong Cantonese, /si/ means 'teacher' and 'to try' when spoken in a high and mid pitch pattern, respectively. Using the On-line Identification Test of Congenital Amusia, we found Cantonese speakers as a group tend to show enhanced pitch perception ability compared to speakers of Canadian French and English (non-tone languages. This enhanced ability occurs in the absence of differences in rhythmic perception and persists even after relevant factors such as musical background and age were controlled. Following a common definition of amusia (5% of the population, we found Hong Kong pitch amusics also show enhanced pitch abilities relative to their Canadian counterparts. These findings not only provide critical evidence for a double association of music and speech, but also argue for the reconceptualization of communicative disorders within a cultural framework. Along with recent studies documenting cultural differences in visual perception, our auditory evidence challenges the common assumption of universality of basic mental processes and speaks to the domain generality of

  2. Determination of football pitch locations from video footage and official pitch markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Alison; Hunter, Adam; Brown, Nicholas

    2009-06-01

    The ability to determine a specific location on a football (soccer) pitch from television footage would provide a cost-effective method of obtaining competition-specific information on many professional and international teams. This study presents the accuracy and reliability of a new method of calculating ball location from simulated television coverage and known pitch markings. The coordinates of 99 markers of known location on a football pitch were digitized from video. An intersection point was determined from the equations of two lines that form pitch markings and the relationship from this point to other known pitch coordinates was calculated using a curve-fitting based method. Average error between known and reconstructed measures was 0.21 m for pitch width and 0.11 m for pitch length from a view simulating television coverage. Inter- and intra-rater reliability analyses showed researchers could consistently reconstruct pitch locations to within less than half a metre. The accuracy and reliability of this method will be sufficient for most practical uses in an applied sport environment, although the level of accuracy required will depend on the specific application. This method could be applied to other sports to determine specific locations on a pitch or court or to improve current competition analysis systems.

  3. Perceptual Pitch Deficits Coexist with Pitch Production Difficulties in Music but Not Mandarin Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-xia eYang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics. To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, 8 amusics, 8 tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent.

  4. Perceptual pitch deficits coexist with pitch production difficulties in music but not Mandarin speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu-Xia; Feng, Jie; Huang, Wan-Ting; Zhang, Cheng-Xiang; Nan, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics). To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, eight amusics, eight tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent.

  5. Multi-pitch Estimation using Semidefinite Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2017-01-01

    Multi-pitch estimation concerns the problem of estimating the fundamental frequencies (pitches) and amplitudes/phases of multiple superimposed harmonic signals with application in music, speech, vibration analysis etc. In this paper we formulate a complex-valued multi-pitch estimator via a semide......Multi-pitch estimation concerns the problem of estimating the fundamental frequencies (pitches) and amplitudes/phases of multiple superimposed harmonic signals with application in music, speech, vibration analysis etc. In this paper we formulate a complex-valued multi-pitch estimator via...... a semidefinite programming representation of an atomic decomposition over a continuous dictionary of complex exponentials and extend this to real-valued data via a real semidefinite pro-ram with the same dimensions (i.e. half the size). We further impose a continuous frequency constraint naturally occurring from...... assuming a Nyquist sampled signal by adding an additional semidefinite constraint. We show that the proposed estimator has superior performance compared to state- of-the-art methods for separating two closely spaced fundamentals and approximately achieves the asymptotic Cramér-Rao lower bound....

  6. On the Perceptual Subprocess of Absolute Pitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Goo Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Absolute pitch (AP is the rare ability of musicians to identify the pitch of tonal sound without external reference. While there have been behavioral and neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of AP, how the AP is implemented in human brains remains largely unknown. AP can be viewed as comprising of two subprocesses: perceptual (processing auditory input to extract a pitch chroma and associative (linking an auditory representation of pitch chroma with a verbal/non-verbal label. In this review, we focus on the nature of the perceptual subprocess of AP. Two different models on how the perceptual subprocess works have been proposed: either via absolute pitch categorization (APC or based on absolute pitch memory (APM. A major distinction between the two views is that whether the AP uses unique auditory processing (i.e., APC that exists only in musicians with AP or it is rooted in a common phenomenon (i.e., APM, only with heightened efficiency. We review relevant behavioral and neuroimaging evidence that supports each notion. Lastly, we list open questions and potential ideas to address them.

  7. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Guignardia citricarpa: an efficient tool to gene transfer and random mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Maria Beatriz Calderan; Fávaro, Léia Cecília de Lima; Pallu, Ana Paula de Souza; Ferreira, Anderson; Sebastianes, Fernanda de Souza; Rodrigues, Maria Juliana Calderan; Spósito, Marcel Bellato; de Araújo, Welington Luiz; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Guignardia citricarpa is the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot (CBS), an important disease in Citriculture. Due to the expressive value of this activity worldwide, especially in Brazil, understanding more about the functioning of this fungus is of utmost relevance, making possible the elucidation of its infection mechanisms, and providing tools to control CBS. This work describes for the first time an efficient and successful methodology for genetic transformation of G. citricarpa mycelia, which generated transformants expressing the gene encoding for the gfp (green fluorescent protein) and also their interaction with citrus plant. Mycelia of G. citricarpa were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which carried the plasmid pFAT-gfp, contains the genes for hygromycin resistance (hph) as well as gfp. The optimization of the agrotransformation protocol was performed testing different conditions (type of membrane; inductor agent concentration [acetosyringone - AS] and cocultivation time). Results demonstrated that the best condition occurred with the utilization of cellulose's ester membrane; 200 μM of AS and 96 h as cocultivation time. High mitotic stability (82 %) was displayed by transformants using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique to confirm the hph gene insertion. In addition, the presence of gfp was observed inside mycelia by epifluorescence optical microscopy. This technique easy visualization of the behaviour of the pathogen interacting with the plant for the first time, allowing future studies on the pathogenesis of this fungus. The establishment of a transformation method for G. citricarpa opens a range of possibilities and facilitates the study of insertional mutagenesis and genetic knockouts, in order to identify the most important genes involved in the pathogenesis mechanisms and plant-pathogen interaction. Copyright © 2013 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Uncovering phenotypes of poor-pitch singing: The Sung Performance Battery (SPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena eBerkowska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Singing is as natural as speaking for humans. Increasing evidence shows that the layman can carry a tune (e.g., when asked to sing a well-known song or to imitate single pitches, intervals and short melodies. Yet, important individual differences exist in the general population with regard to singing proficiency. Some individuals are particularly inaccurate or imprecise in producing or imitating pitch information (poor-pitch singers, thus showing a variety of singing phenotypes. Unfortunately, so far there is not a standard set of tasks for assessing singing proficiency in the general population, allowing to uncover and characterize individual profiles of poor-pitch singing. Different tasks and analysis methods are typically used in various experiments, making the comparison of the results across studies arduous. To fill this gap we propose here a new tool for assessing singing proficiency (the Sung Performance Battery, SPB. The SPB starts from the assessment of participants’ vocal range followed by five tasks: 1 single-pitch matching, 2 pitch-interval matching, 3 novel-melody matching, 4 singing from memory of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable, and 5 singing of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable at a slow tempo indicated by a metronome. Data analysis via acoustical methods provides objective measures of pitch accuracy and precision in terms of absolute and relative pitch. The SPB has been tested in a group of 50 occasional singers. The results indicate that the battery is useful for characterizing proficient singing and for detecting cases of inaccurate and/or imprecise singing.

  9. Thermal Reactivity and Structure of Carbonized Binder Pitches

    OpenAIRE

    Madshus, Stian

    2005-01-01

    Pitches are used on a large scale in the manufacture of carbon anodes for the production of primary aluminium. The role of the pitch is to act as a binder between the petroleum coke grains. The structure of the carbonized pitch binder (pitch coke) has an important impact on the overall performance of the anode. Even though the binder pitch is the minor constituent in an anode, it is impossible to make a good quality anode without a good quality binder pitch. Pitch is an extremely complex ...

  10. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a video game as a child pedestrian educational tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Helen; Burke, Rita V; Muller, Valerie; Ruiz, Pearl; Knudson, M Margaret; Knudson, Margaret M; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2014-05-01

    Injury is the number one cause of death and disability in children in the United States and an increasingly important public health problem globally. While prevention of injuries is an important goal, prevention efforts are currently fragmented, poorly funded, and rarely studied. Among school-aged children, pedestrian crashes are a major mechanism of injury. We hypothesized that we could develop a game-based educational tool that would be effective in teaching elementary school children the principles of pedestrian safety. Between November 2011 and June 2013, second- and third-grade children in Los Angeles Unified School District were randomly assigned to play a unique interactive video game (Ace's Adventure) about pedestrian safety or to a traditional didactic session about pedestrian safety. A pretest and posttest were administered to the study participants. Afterward, study participants were observed for appropriate pedestrian behavior on a simulated street set called Street Smarts. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS version 9.2. A total of 348 study participants took the pretest and posttest. There were 180 who were randomized to the didactic and 168 who were randomized to the video game. The didactic group demonstrated a higher mean score increase (1.01, p video game group (0.44, p video game, as compared with the didactic group, more frequently exhibited appropriate behavior during the following: exiting a parked car (p = 0.01), signaling to a car that was backing up (p = 0.01), signaling to a stopped car (p = 0.0002), and crossing the street (p = 0.01). Students who played the educational video game about pedestrian safety performed similarly to those who attended a more traditional and labor-intensive didactic learning. Innovative educational methods, such as game playing, could significantly change our approach to injury prevention and have the potential to decrease the burden of injury among children worldwide.

  11. The learning effectiveness of nursing students using online testing as an assistant tool: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiang-Yang; Chuang, Chao-Hua

    2012-04-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet, online testing is becoming more widely-used in education. The purpose of this study is to explore the learning effectiveness of nursing students using online testing as an assistant tool. The participants were 146 junior college nursing students aged 19 to 20 taking the community health nursing course. With a class as the unit, three classes were randomized and allocated to one experimental group and two control groups. Two structured questionnaires were used to obtain the basic data, and the groups' examination results were also collected. The results of this study showed that before the intervention, there were no significant differences between the experimental and two control groups. After the intervention and adjusting for potential confounders, the score of midterm test in the experimental group was significantly better than those of the control groups. Over half of the students felt that answering 21 to 30 questions in 31 to 60 min for one unit of testing were appropriate. The results of this study showed that online testing is feasible for use as an assistant tool for learning. However, the positive effects of this approach appeared to be short- rather than long-term, and thus more studies are required in future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Randomized Comparison of Mobile and Web-Tools to Provide Dementia Risk Reduction Education: Use, Engagement and Participant Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Elodie; Farrow, Maree; Hatherly, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging middle-aged adults to maintain their physical and cognitive health may have a significant impact on reducing the prevalence of dementia in the future. Mobile phone apps and interactive websites may be one effective way to target this age group. However, to date there has been little research investigating the user experience of dementia risk reduction tools delivered in this way. The aim of this study was to explore participant engagement and evaluations of three different targeted smartphone and Web-based dementia risk reduction tools following a four-week intervention. Participants completed a Web-based screening questionnaire to collect eligibility information. Eligible participants were asked to complete a Web-based baseline questionnaire and were then randomly assigned to use one of the three dementia risk reduction tools for a period of four weeks: (1) a mobile phone application; (2) an information-based website; and (3) an interactive website. User evaluations were obtained via a Web-based follow-up questionnaire after completion of the intervention. Of 415 eligible participants, 370 (89.16%) completed the baseline questionnaire and were assigned to an intervention group; 200 (54.05%) completed the post-intervention questionnaire. The average age of participants was 52 years, and 149 (75%) were female. Findings indicated that participants from all three intervention groups reported a generally positive impression of the tools across a range of domains. Participants using the information-based website reported higher ratings of their overall impression of the tool, F2,191=4.12, P=.02; how interesting the information was, F2,189=3.53, P=.03; how helpful the information was, F2,192=4.15, P=.02; and how much they learned, F2,188=3.86, P=.02. Group differences were significant between the mobile phone app and information-based website users, but not between the interactive website users and the other two groups. Additionally, participants using the

  13. Adverse events analysis as an educational tool to improve patient safety culture in primary care: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Formoso, Clara; Martín-Miguel, María Victoria; Fernández-Domínguez, Ma José; Rial, Antonio; Lago-Deibe, Fernando Isidro; Ramil-Hermida, Luis; Pérez-García, Margarita; Clavería, Ana

    2011-06-14

    Patient safety is a leading item on the policy agenda of both major international health organizations and advanced countries generally. The quantitative description of the phenomena has given rise to intense concern with the issue in institutions and organizations, leading to a number of initiatives and research projects and the promotion of patient safety culture, with training becoming a priority both in Spain and internationally. To date, most studies have been conducted in a hospital setting, even though primary care is the type most commonly used by the public, in our experience. Our study aims to achieve the following:--Assess the registry of adverse events as an education tool to improve patient safety culture in the Family and Community Teaching Units of Galicia.--Find and analyze educational tools to improve patient safety culture in primary care.--Evaluate the applicability of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Spanish version, in the context of primary health care. Experimental unifactorial study of two groups, control and intervention. Tutors and residents in Family and Community Medicine in last year of studies in Galicia, Spain. From the population universe through voluntary participation. Twenty-seven tutor-resident units in each group required, randomly assigned. Residents and their respective tutor (tutor-resident pair) in teaching units on Family and Community Medicine from throughout Galicia will be invited to participate. Tutor-resident pair that agrees to participate will be sent the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Then, tutor-resident pair will be assigned to each group--either intervention or control--through simple random sampling. The intervention group will receive specific training to record the adverse effects found in patients under their care, with subsequent feedback, after receiving instruction on the process. No action will be taken in the control group. After

  14. Sensorimotor Mismapping in Poor-pitch Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2017-09-01

    This study proposes that there are two types of sensorimotor mismapping in poor-pitch singing: erroneous mapping and no mapping. We created operational definitions for the two types of mismapping based on the precision of pitch-matching and predicted that in the two types of mismapping, phonation differs in terms of accuracy and the dependence on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action. The study aimed to test this hypothesis by examining the reliability and criterion-related validity of the operational definitions. A within-subject design was used in this study. Thirty-two participants identified as poor-pitch singers were instructed to vocally imitate pure tones and to imitate their own vocal recordings with the same articulation as self-targets and with different articulation from self-targets. Definitions of the types of mismapping were demonstrated to be reliable with the split-half approach and to have good criterion-related validity with findings that pitch-matching with no mapping was less accurate and more dependent on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action than pitch-matching with erroneous mapping was. Furthermore, the precision of pitch-matching was positively associated with its accuracy and its dependence on articulation consistency when mismapping was analyzed on a continuum. Additionally, the data indicated that the self-imitation advantage was a function of articulation consistency. Types of sensorimotor mismapping lead to pitch-matching that differs in accuracy and its dependence on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action. Additionally, articulation consistency produces the self-advantage. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Memory for pitch in congenital amusia: beyond a fine-grained pitch discrimination problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria Jane; Stewart, Lauren

    2010-08-01

    Congenital amusia is a disorder that affects the perception and production of music. While amusia has been associated with deficits in pitch discrimination, several reports suggest that memory deficits also play a role. The present study investigated short-term memory span for pitch-based and verbal information in 14 individuals with amusia and matched controls. Analogous adaptive-tracking procedures were used to generate tone and digit spans using stimuli that exceeded psychophysically measured pitch perception thresholds. Individuals with amusia had significantly smaller tone spans, whereas their digits spans were a similar size to those of controls. An automated operation span task was used to determine working memory capacity. Working memory deficits were seen in only a small subgroup of individuals with amusia. These findings support the existence of a pitch-specific component within short-term memory and suggest that congenital amusia is more than a disorder of fine-grained pitch discrimination.

  16. Functional role of delta and theta band oscillations for auditory feedback processing during vocal pitch motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Ibrahim, Nadine; Korzyukov, Oleg; Robin, Donald A; Larson, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    The answer to the question of how the brain incorporates sensory feedback and links it with motor function to achieve goal-directed movement during vocalization remains unclear. We investigated the mechanisms of voice pitch motor control by examining the spectro-temporal dynamics of EEG signals when non-musicians (NM), relative pitch (RP), and absolute pitch (AP) musicians maintained vocalizations of a vowel sound and received randomized ± 100 cents pitch-shift stimuli in their auditory feedback. We identified a phase-synchronized (evoked) fronto-central activation within the theta band (5-8 Hz) that temporally overlapped with compensatory vocal responses to pitch-shifted auditory feedback and was significantly stronger in RP and AP musicians compared with non-musicians. A second component involved a non-phase-synchronized (induced) frontal activation within the delta band (1-4 Hz) that emerged at approximately 1 s after the stimulus onset. The delta activation was significantly stronger in the NM compared with RP and AP groups and correlated with the pitch rebound error (PRE), indicating the degree to which subjects failed to re-adjust their voice pitch to baseline after the stimulus offset. We propose that the evoked theta is a neurophysiological marker of enhanced pitch processing in musicians and reflects mechanisms by which humans incorporate auditory feedback to control their voice pitch. We also suggest that the delta activation reflects adaptive neural processes by which vocal production errors are monitored and used to update the state of sensory-motor networks for driving subsequent vocal behaviors. This notion is corroborated by our findings showing that larger PREs were associated with greater delta band activity in the NM compared with RP and AP groups. These findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of auditory feedback processing for vocal pitch motor control.

  17. Functional role of delta and theta band oscillations for auditory feedback processing during vocal pitch motor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh eBehroozmand

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The answer to the question of how the brain incorporates sensory feedback and links it with motor function to achieve goal-directed movement during vocalization remains unclear. We investigated the mechanisms of voice pitch motor control by examining the spectro-temporal dynamics of EEG signals when non-musicians (NM, relative pitch (RP and absolute pitch (AP musicians maintained vocalizations of a vowel sound and received randomized ±100 cents pitch-shift stimuli in their auditory feedback. We identified a phase-synchronized (evoked fronto-central activation within the theta band (5-8 Hz that temporally overlapped with compensatory vocal responses to pitch-shifted auditory feedback and was significantly stronger in RP and AP musicians compared with non-musicians. A second component involved a non-phase-synchronized (induced frontal activation within the delta band (1-4 Hz that emerged at approximately 1 second after the stimulus onset. The delta activation was significantly stronger in the NM compared with RP and AP groups and correlated with the pitch rebound error (PRE, indicating the degree to which subjects failed to re-adjust their voice pitch to baseline after the stimulus offset. We propose that the evoked theta is a neurophysiological marker of enhanced pitch processing in musicians and reflects mechanisms by which humans incorporate auditory feedback to control their voice pitch. We also suggest that the delta activation reflects adaptive neural processes by which vocal production errors are monitored and used to update the state of sensory-motor networks for driving subsequent vocal behaviors. This notion is corroborated by our findings showing that larger PREs were associated with greater delta band activity in the NM compared with RP and AP groups. These findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of auditory feedback processing for vocal pitch motor control.

  18. Pitch perception deficits in nonverbal learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Prieto, I; Caprile, C; Tinoco-González, D; Ristol-Orriols, B; López-Sala, A; Póo-Argüelles, P; Pons, F; Navarra, J

    2016-12-01

    The nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is a neurological dysfunction that affects cognitive functions predominantly related to the right hemisphere such as spatial and abstract reasoning. Previous evidence in healthy adults suggests that acoustic pitch (i.e., the relative difference in frequency between sounds) is, under certain conditions, encoded in specific areas of the right hemisphere that also encode the spatial elevation of external objects (e.g., high vs. low position). Taking this evidence into account, we explored the perception of pitch in preadolescents and adolescents with NLD and in a group of healthy participants matched by age, gender, musical knowledge and handedness. Participants performed four speeded tests: a stimulus detection test and three perceptual categorization tests based on colour, spatial position and pitch. Results revealed that both groups were equally fast at detecting visual targets and categorizing visual stimuli according to their colour. In contrast, the NLD group showed slower responses than the control group when categorizing space (direction of a visual object) and pitch (direction of a change in sound frequency). This pattern of results suggests the presence of a subtle deficit at judging pitch in NLD along with the traditionally-described difficulties in spatial processing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The mental space of pitch height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Elena; Kwan, Bonnie; Giordano, Bruno; Umiltà, Carlo; Butterworth, Brian

    2005-12-01

    Through stimulus-response compatibility we tested whether sound frequency (pitch height) elicits a mental spatial representation. Musically untrained and, mostly, trained participants were shown a stimulus-response compatibility effect (Spatial-Musical Association of Response Codes or SMARC effect). When response alternatives were either vertically or horizontally aligned, performance was better when the lower (or leftward) button had to be pressed in response to a low sound and the upper (or rightward) button had to be pressed in response to a high sound, even when pitch height was irrelevant to the task.

  20. Complex-Tone Pitch Discrimination in Listeners With Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Fereczkowski, Michal; Zaar, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Physiological studies have shown that noise-induced sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) enhances the amplitude of envelope coding in auditory-nerve fibers. As pitch coding of unresolved complex tones is assumed to rely on temporal envelope coding mechanisms, this study investigated pitch......-discrimination performance in listeners with SNHL. Pitch-discrimination thresholds were obtained for 14 normal-hearing (NH) and 10 hearing-impaired (HI) listeners for sine-phase (SP) and random-phase (RP) complex tones. When all harmonics were unresolved, the HI listeners performed, on average, worse than NH listeners...... estimated in the same listeners. The estimated reduction of cochlear compression was significantly correlated with the increase in the F0DL ratio, while no correlation was found with filter bandwidth. The effects of degraded frequency selectivity and loss of compression were considered in a simplified...

  1. Absolute pitch in Costa Rica: Distribution of pitch identification ability and implications for its genetic basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria-Soley, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    Absolute pitch is the unusual ability to recognize a pitch without an external reference. The current view is that both environmental and genetic factors are involved in the acquisition of the trait. In the present study, 127 adult musicians were subjected to a musical tone identification test. Subjects were university music students and volunteers who responded to a newspaper article. The test consisted of the identification of 40 piano and 40 pure tones. Subjects were classified in three categories according to their pitch naming ability: absolute pitch (AP), high accuracy of tone identification (HA), and non-absolute pitch (non-AP). Both the percentage of correct responses and the mean absolute deviation showed a statistically significant variation between categories. A very clear pattern of higher accuracy for white than for black key notes was observed for the HA and the non-AP groups. Meanwhile, the AP group had an almost perfect pitch naming accuracy for both kinds of tones. Each category presented a very different pattern of deviation around the correct response. The age at the beginning of musical training did not differ between categories. The distribution of pitch identification ability in this study suggests a complex inheritance of the trait.

  2. Vocal perfection in yodelling--pitch stabilities and transition times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echternach, Matthias; Richter, Bernhard

    2010-04-01

    Yodelling is a special kind of vocal performance in traditional music which consists of rapid and repeated changes in pitch. It is assumed that these pitch changes are accompanied by register changes. We analysed, using the laryngograph, yodelling on different vowels by four professional yodelling teachers (two male, two female), four professional classically trained singers, and four untrained voices. Results reveal that pitch changes in yodelling are associated with decrease of electroglottograpgic (EGG) contact quotient for the upper pitch, indicating a register shift. Furthermore, in contrast to untrained voices, for the yodellers lower and upper pitches were more stable with respect to fundamental frequency and perturbation values, and the pitch transitions were faster.

  3. Adverse events analysis as an educational tool to improve patient safety culture in primary care: A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramil-Hermida Luis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient safety is a leading item on the policy agenda of both major international health organizations and advanced countries generally. The quantitative description of the phenomena has given rise to intense concern with the issue in institutions and organizations, leading to a number of initiatives and research projects and the promotion of patient safety culture, with training becoming a priority both in Spain and internationally. To date, most studies have been conducted in a hospital setting, even though primary care is the type most commonly used by the public, in our experience. Our study aims to achieve the following: - Assess the registry of adverse events as an education tool to improve patient safety culture in the Family and Community Teaching Units of Galicia. - Find and analyze educational tools to improve patient safety culture in primary care. - Evaluate the applicability of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Spanish version, in the context of primary health care. Design and methods Design Experimental unifactorial study of two groups, control and intervention. Study population Tutors and residents in Family and Community Medicine in last year of studies in Galicia, Spain. Sample From the population universe through voluntary participation. Twenty-seven tutor-resident units in each group required, randomly assigned. Intervention Residents and their respective tutor (tutor-resident pair in teaching units on Family and Community Medicine from throughout Galicia will be invited to participate. Tutor-resident pair that agrees to participate will be sent the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Then, tutor-resident pair will be assigned to each group-either intervention or control-through simple random sampling. The intervention group will receive specific training to record the adverse effects found in patients under their care, with subsequent

  4. New machine learning tools for predictive vegetation mapping after climate change: Bagging and Random Forest perform better than Regression Tree Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.R. Iverson; A.M. Prasad; A. Liaw

    2004-01-01

    More and better machine learning tools are becoming available for landscape ecologists to aid in understanding species-environment relationships and to map probable species occurrence now and potentially into the future. To thal end, we evaluated three statistical models: Regression Tree Analybib (RTA), Bagging Trees (BT) and Random Forest (RF) for their utility in...

  5. Impaired encoding of rapid pitch information underlies perception and memory deficits in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albouy, Philippe; Cousineau, Marion; Caclin, Anne; Tillmann, Barbara; Peretz, Isabelle

    2016-01-06

    Recent theories suggest that the basis of neurodevelopmental auditory disorders such as dyslexia or specific language impairment might be a low-level sensory dysfunction. In the present study we test this hypothesis in congenital amusia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe deficits in the processing of pitch-based material. We manipulated the temporal characteristics of auditory stimuli and investigated the influence of the time given to encode pitch information on participants' performance in discrimination and short-term memory. Our results show that amusics' performance in such tasks scales with the duration available to encode acoustic information. This suggests that in auditory neuro-developmental disorders, abnormalities in early steps of the auditory processing can underlie the high-level deficits (here musical disabilities). Observing that the slowing down of temporal dynamics improves amusics' pitch abilities allows considering this approach as a potential tool for remediation in developmental auditory disorders.

  6. [Discrimination of musical pitch with cochlear implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haumann, S; Mühler, R; Ziese, M; von Specht, H

    2007-08-01

    Numerous people with cochlear implants (CI) report difficulties in listening to music even though they understand speech quite well. One reason for this is a limited perception of pitch and timbre. In this study ability of adult CI subjects to discriminate musical pitch is investigated. In two psychoacoustic experiments, each conducted in 10 adult CI subjects provided with MED-EL Combi 40+ cochlear implant devices and a control group of subjects with normal hearing, individual discrimination abilities for musical pitch perception were determined. To investigate the influence of the group of instruments on discrimination ability, stimuli representing four different groups of instruments were used: woodwind (clarinet), brass (trumpet), strings (violin) and keyboard instruments (piano). The discrimination thresholds determined varied between individual CI subjects, and on average they were significantly higher for the piano than for the other three instruments. The results show that in subjects with CI pitch perception differs from instrument to instrument and is in general worse than in persons with normal hearing.

  7. Lower extremity muscle activation during baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brian M; Stodden, David F; Nixon, Megan K

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation levels of select lower extremity muscles during the pitching motion. Bilateral surface electromyography data on 5 lower extremity muscles (biceps femoris, rectus femoris, gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, and gastrocnemius) were collected on 11 highly skilled baseball pitchers and compared with individual maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) data. The pitching motion was divided into 4 distinct phases: phase 1, initiation of pitching motion to maximum stride leg knee height; phase 2, maximum stride leg knee height to stride foot contact (SFC); phase 3, SFC to ball release; and phase 4, ball release to 0.5 seconds after ball release (follow-through). Results indicated that trail leg musculature elicited moderate to high activity levels during phases 2 and 3 (38-172% of MVIC). Muscle activity levels of the stride leg were moderate to high during phases 2-4 (23-170% of MVIC). These data indicate a high demand for lower extremity strength and endurance. Specifically, coaches should incorporate unilateral and bilateral lower extremity exercises for strength improvement or maintenance and to facilitate dynamic stabilization of the lower extremities during the pitching motion.

  8. Individual blade pitch for yaw control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navalkar, S.T.; Van Wingerden, J.W.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Individual pitch control (IPC) for reducing blade loads has been investigated and proven successful in recent literature. For IPC, the multi-blade co-ordinate (MBC) transformation is used to process the blade load signals from the rotating to a stationary frame of reference. In the stationary frame

  9. Multi-Channel Maximum Likelihood Pitch Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a method for multi-channel pitch estimation is proposed. The method is a maximum likelihood estimator and is based on a parametric model where the signals in the various channels share the same fundamental frequency but can have different amplitudes, phases, and noise characteristi...

  10. Silvical characteristics of pitch pine (Pinus rigida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little

    1959-01-01

    Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) grows over a wide geographical range - from central Maine to New York and extreme southeastern Ontario, south to Virginia and southern Ohio, and in the mountains to eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia, and western South Carolina. Because it grows mostly on the poorer soils, its distribution is spotty.

  11. Relative Pitch Perception and the Detection of Deviant Tone Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Susan L; Coath, Martin; Háden, Gábor P; Murray, Fiona; Winkler, István

    2016-01-01

    Most people are able to recognise familiar tunes even when played in a different key. It is assumed that this depends on a general capacity for relative pitch perception; the ability to recognise the pattern of inter-note intervals that characterises the tune. However, when healthy adults are required to detect rare deviant melodic patterns in a sequence of randomly transposed standard patterns they perform close to chance. Musically experienced participants perform better than naïve participants, but even they find the task difficult, despite the fact that musical education includes training in interval recognition.To understand the source of this difficulty we designed an experiment to explore the relative influence of the size of within-pattern intervals and between-pattern transpositions on detecting deviant melodic patterns. We found that task difficulty increases when patterns contain large intervals (5-7 semitones) rather than small intervals (1-3 semitones). While task difficulty increases substantially when transpositions are introduced, the effect of transposition size (large vs small) is weaker. Increasing the range of permissible intervals to be used also makes the task more difficult. Furthermore, providing an initial exact repetition followed by subsequent transpositions does not improve performance. Although musical training correlates with task performance, we find no evidence that violations to musical intervals important in Western music (i.e. the perfect fifth or fourth) are more easily detected. In summary, relative pitch perception does not appear to be conducive to simple explanations based exclusively on invariant physical ratios.

  12. Two LQRI based Blade Pitch Controls for Wind Turbines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Sungsu; Nam, Yoonsu

    2012-01-01

    ..., we present a separate set of collective and individual pitch control algorithms. Both pitch control algorithms use the LQR control technique with integral action (LQRI), and utilize Kalman filters t...

  13. Gray- and white-matter anatomy of absolute pitch possessors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Hansen, Mads; Lerch, Jason P; Vuust, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to identify a musical pitch without a reference, has been examined behaviorally in numerous studies for more than a century, yet only a few studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of AP...

  14. Pitch-verticality and pitch-size cross-modal interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonetti, Leonardo; Costa, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Two studies were conducted on cross-modal matching between pitch and sound source localization on the vertical axis, and pitch and size. In the first study 100 Hz, 200 Hz, 600 Hz, and 800 Hz tones were emitted by a loudspeaker positioned 60 cm above or below to the participant’s ear level. Using...... a speeded classification task, 30 participants had to indicate the sound source, in 160 trials. Both reaction times and errors were analyzed. The results showed that in the congruent condition of high-pitched tones emitted from the upper loudspeaker, reaction times were significantly faster and the number...... of errors was significantly lower. Pitch is mapped on the vertical axis for sound localization. A main effect for sound source direction was also found. Tones coming from the upper loudspeaker were recognized faster and more accurately. Males were faster than females in identifying sound source direction...

  15. Perceptual pitch deficits coexist with pitch production difficulties in music but not Mandarin speech

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wu-xia; Feng, Jie; Huang, Wan-ting; Zhang, Cheng-xiang; Nan, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics). To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, eight amusics, eight tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The ...

  16. Octave bias in an absolute pitch identification task

    OpenAIRE

    Boschetti, Giulia; Prpic, Valter; De Tommaso, Matteo; Murgia, Mauro; Agostini, Tiziano

    2014-01-01

    Octave errors are common within musicians, even among absolute pitch possessors. Overall, evidence shows pitch class and octave to be perceived in a different way, even if they are highly connected. We investigated whether pitch class perception, in an absolute pitch identification task, can be influenced by the octave context, examined among two consecutive octaves. Participants, all musicians with formal musical education, showed different response patterns in the tw...

  17. Contour identification with pitch and loudness cues using cochlear implants

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Xin; Masterson, Megan E.; Wu, Ching-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Different from speech, pitch and loudness cues may or may not co-vary in music. Cochlear implant (CI) users with poor pitch perception may use loudness contour cues more than normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Contour identification was tested in CI users and NH listeners; the five-note contours contained either pitch cues alone, loudness cues alone, or both. Results showed that NH listeners' contour identification was better with pitch cues than with loudness cues; CI users performed similarly w...

  18. Hydraulic Motor Driving Variable-Pitch System for Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Ye HUANG; JiBao QI

    2013-01-01

    The present hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism of wind turbine uses three hydraulic cylinders to drive three crank and connecting rod mechanisms respectively; the blades are moved with the cranks. The hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism has complex structure, occupies a lot of space and its maintenance is trouble. In order to make up for the shortcomings of hydraulic cylinder variable-pitch system, the present hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism should be changed as follows: hydraulic motors ar...

  19. Impaired pitch identification as a potential marker for depression

    OpenAIRE

    Schwenzer Michael; Zattarin Eva; Grözinger Michael; Mathiak Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Impaired auditory performance has been considered as marker for depression. The present study tested whether pitch perception is affected in depression and whether the impairment is task-specific or reflects global dysfunction. Methods Twelve depressive in-patients and 12 non-depressive participants, half of the sample women, volunteered. The participants performed pitch identification using a four-choice reaction task, pitch contour perception, and pitch discrimination. R...

  20. Commentary on William Thomson's "Pitch Frames as Melodic Archetypes"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Temperley

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available While the concept of the perceptual “pitch frame” resembles leading theories of pitch structure in music in some respects, it contains some innovative elements that are discussed in this commentary. Additionally, the commentary focuses on the question of whether the “pitch frame” is a temporal or atemporal construct.

  1. Spatial Representation of Pitch Height: The SMARC Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Elena; Kwan, Bonnie; Giordano, Bruno L.; Umilta, Carlo; Butterworth, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Through the preferential pairing of response positions to pitch, here we show that the internal representation of pitch height is spatial in nature and affects performance, especially in musically trained participants, when response alternatives are either vertically or horizontally aligned. The finding that our cognitive system maps pitch height…

  2. Acquisition of pitch in Chinese by Danish learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloos, Marjoleine; Liang, Jie; Yan, Mengzhu; Zhang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Native speakers recognize a second language accent mainly by prosodic features. Pitch, pitch range, and pitch variability are language-specific and have to be acquired in L2 acquisition (usually without explicit teaching). Until now, results remain inconclusive as to whether L2 speakers are able to

  3. Memory for Melody: Infants Use a Relative Pitch Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Judy; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2005-01-01

    Pitch perception is fundamental to melody in music and prosody in speech. Unlike many animals, the vast majority of human adults store melodic information primarily in terms of relative not absolute pitch, and readily recognize a melody whether rendered in a high or a low pitch range. We show that at 6 months infants are also primarily relative…

  4. Size matters : Pitch dimensions constrain interactive team behaviour in soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, W.; Van der Plaats, J.; Visscher, C.; Lemmink, K.

    2013-01-01

    Pitch size varies in official soccer matches and differently sized pitches are adopted for tactical purposes in small-sided training games. Since interactive team behaviour emerges under constraints, the authors evaluate the effect of pitch size (task) manipulations on interactive team behaviour in

  5. Size matters : Pitch dimensions constrain interactive team behaviour in soccer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, Wouter; Van der Plaats, Jorrit; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen

    Pitch size varies in official soccer matches and differently sized pitches are adopted for tactical purposes in small-sided training games. Since interactive team behaviour emerges under constraints, the authors evaluate the effect of pitch size (task) manipulations on interactive team behaviour in

  6. Relating binaural pitch perception to the individual listener's auditory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-04-01

    The ability of eight normal-hearing listeners and fourteen listeners with sensorineural hearing loss to detect and identify pitch contours was measured for binaural-pitch stimuli and salience-matched monaurally detectable pitches. In an effort to determine whether impaired binaural pitch perception was linked to a specific deficit, the auditory profiles of the individual listeners were characterized using measures of loudness perception, cognitive ability, binaural processing, temporal fine structure processing, and frequency selectivity, in addition to common audiometric measures. Two of the listeners were found not to perceive binaural pitch at all, despite a clear detection of monaural pitch. While both binaural and monaural pitches were detectable by all other listeners, identification scores were significantly lower for binaural than for monaural pitch. A total absence of binaural pitch sensation coexisted with a loss of a binaural signal-detection advantage in noise, without implying reduced cognitive function. Auditory filter bandwidths did not correlate with the difference in pitch identification scores between binaural and monaural pitches. However, subjects with impaired binaural pitch perception showed deficits in temporal fine structure processing. Whether the observed deficits stemmed from peripheral or central mechanisms could not be resolved here, but the present findings may be useful for hearing loss characterization.

  7. Passive cyclic pitch control for horizontal axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrell, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    A flexible rotor concept, called the balanced pitch rotor, is described. The system provides passive adjustment of cyclic pitch in response to unbalanced pitching moments across the rotor disk. Various applications are described and performance predictions are made for wind shear and cross wind operating conditions. Comparisons with the teetered hub are made and significant cost savings are predicted.

  8. Impaired pitch identification as a potential marker for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenzer, Michael; Zattarin, Eva; Grözinger, Michael; Mathiak, Klaus

    2012-04-19

    Impaired auditory performance has been considered as marker for depression. The present study tested whether pitch perception is affected in depression and whether the impairment is task-specific or reflects global dysfunction. Twelve depressive in-patients and 12 non-depressive participants, half of the sample women, volunteered. The participants performed pitch identification using a four-choice reaction task, pitch contour perception, and pitch discrimination. During pitch identification but not during pitch contour perception or pitch discrimination, depressive patients responded less accurate than non-depressive participants (F = 3.3, p = 0.047). An analysis of covariates revealed that only female but not male depressive patients identified pitches poorly (Z = -2.2, p = 0.025) and inaccurate pitch identification correlated with high scores in the Beck Depression Inventory in women (r = -0.8, p = 0.001) but not in men (r = -0.1, p = 0.745). Patients did not differ from controls in reaction time or responsiveness. Impaired pitch perception in depression is task-specific. Therefore, cognitive deficits in depression are circumscribed and not global. Reduced pitch identification in depression was associated with female sex. We suggest that impaired pitch identification merits attention as a potential marker for depression in women.

  9. Impaired pitch identification as a potential marker for depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwenzer Michael

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impaired auditory performance has been considered as marker for depression. The present study tested whether pitch perception is affected in depression and whether the impairment is task-specific or reflects global dysfunction. Methods Twelve depressive in-patients and 12 non-depressive participants, half of the sample women, volunteered. The participants performed pitch identification using a four-choice reaction task, pitch contour perception, and pitch discrimination. Results During pitch identification but not during pitch contour perception or pitch discrimination, depressive patients responded less accurate than non-depressive participants (F = 3.3, p = 0.047. An analysis of covariates revealed that only female but not male depressive patients identified pitches poorly (Z = −2.2, p = 0.025 and inaccurate pitch identification correlated with high scores in the Beck Depression Inventory in women (r = −0.8, p = 0.001 but not in men (r = −0.1, p = 0.745. Patients did not differ from controls in reaction time or responsiveness. Conclusions Impaired pitch perception in depression is task-specific. Therefore, cognitive deficits in depression are circumscribed and not global. Reduced pitch identification in depression was associated with female sex. We suggest that impaired pitch identification merits attention as a potential marker for depression in women.

  10. Analysis of pitch system data for condition monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; van de Pieterman, René P.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    at a constant pitch velocity, but the 10 min maximum values are only approximately proportional, because the maximum values occur during acceleration and not simultaneously. These findings are important to consider, if using the pitch motor current or torque as an indicator for the pitch system health...

  11. Sensitivity of the cortical pitch onset response to height, time-variance, and directionality of dynamic pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2015-08-31

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) demonstrate that human auditory cortical responses are sensitive to changes in static pitch as indexed by the pitch onset response (POR), a negativity generated at the initiation of acoustic periodicity. Yet, it is still unclear if this brain signature is sensitive to dynamic, time-varying properties of pitch more characteristic of those found in naturalistic speech and music. Neuroelectric PORs were recorded in response to contrastive pitch patterns differing in their pitch height, time-variance, and directionality (i.e., rise vs. fall). Broadband noise followed by contiguous iterated rippled noise (producing salient pitch sweeps) was used to temporally separate neural activity coding the onset of acoustic energy from the onset of time-varying pitch. Analysis of PORs revealed distinct modulations in response latency that distinguished static from time-varying pitch contours (steady-statepitch height (highpitch sweeps (rise=fall). Our findings suggest that the POR signature provides a useful neural index of auditory cortical pitch processing for some, but not all pitch-evoking stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid pitch correction in choir singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grell, Anke; Sundberg, Johan; Ternström, Sten; Ptok, Martin; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2009-07-01

    Highly and moderately skilled choral singers listened to a perfect fifth reference, with the instruction to complement the fifth such that a major triad resulted. The fifth was suddenly and unexpectedly shifted in pitch, and the singers' task was to shift the fundamental frequency of the sung tone accordingly. The F0 curves during the transitions often showed two phases, an initial quick and large change followed by a slower and smaller change, apparently intended to fine-tune voice F0 to complement the fifth. Anesthetizing the vocal folds of moderately skilled singers tended to delay the reaction. The means of the response times varied in the range 197- 259 ms depending on direction and size of the pitch shifts, as well as on skill and anesthetization.

  13. A perceptual pitch boundary in a non-human primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eJoly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pitch is an auditory percept critical to the perception of music and speech, and for these harmonic sounds, pitch is closely related to the repetition rate of the acoustic wave. This paper reports a test of the assumption that non-human primates and especially rhesus monkeys perceive the pitch of these harmonic sounds much as humans do. A new procedure was developed to train macaques to discriminate the pitch of harmonic sounds and thereby demonstrate that the lower limit for pitch perception in macaques is close to 30 Hz, as it is in humans. Moreover, when the phases of successive harmonics are alternated to cause a pseudo-doubling of the repetition rate, the lower pitch boundary in macaques decreases substantially, as it does in humans. The results suggest that both species use neural firing times to discriminate pitch, at least for sounds with relatively low repetition rates.

  14. Relating binaural pitch perception to the individual listener's auditory profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    The ability of eight normal-hearing listeners and fourteen listeners with sensorineural hearing loss to detect and identify pitch contours was measured for binaural-pitch stimuli and salience-matched monaurally detectable pitches. In an effort to determine whether impaired binaural pitch perception...... sensation coexisted with a loss of a binaural signal-detection advantage in noise, without implying reduced cognitive function. Auditory filter bandwidths did not correlate with the difference in pitch identification scores between binaural and monaural pitches. However, subjects with impaired binaural...... pitch perception showed deficits in temporal fine structure processing. Whether the observed deficits stemmed from peripheral or central mechanisms could not be resolved here, but the present findings may be useful for hearing loss characterization. (C) 2012 Acoustical Society of America. [http...

  15. Review of the windmill pitch: biomechanics and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Faith M

    2004-01-01

    To review the literature of the biomechanics of the windmill fast-pitch and its implications for injury. This information may be utilized in treating youth windmill pitchers. A MEDLINE search was conducted to retrieve articles regarding the windmill pitch. Key terms were then taken from the pilot search and used to conduct a systematic search and review of the literature. Articles containing information on the windmill pitch and injuries associated with the motion were reviewed. Additional information pertaining to the overhand baseball pitch and overuse injuries in youth were analyzed and synthesized into the body of information. A complex sequence of actions is required to successfully perform the windmill pitch. Overuse injuries are common in windmill pitchers. A well-designed conditioning schedule and the regulation of the frequency and volume of pitching in youth fast-pitch may assist with managing injury associated with this activity. Further investigation of specific treatment methods is needed.

  16. Pitched Blade Turbine Efficiency at Particle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ceres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixing suspensions is a very important hydraulic operation. The pitched six-blade turbine is a widely-used axial-flow impeller. This paper deals with effect relative impeller size and particle content on theefficiency of a pitched six-blade turbine at particle suspension. Two pitched six-blade turbines were used in model measurements of just suspension impeller speed. The ratios of the vessel to agitator diameter D/d were 3 and 4.5. The measurements were carried out in a dish-bottomed vessel 300 mm in diameter. The just suspension impeller speeds were measured using an electrochemical method, and were checked visually. A 2.5 % NaCl water solution was used as the liquid phase, and glass particles with four equivalent diameters between 0.18 and 0.89 mmand volumetric concentration from 2.5 % to 40% were usedasthesolid phase. The criterion values πs=Po√Fr'3(d/D7 were calculated from the particle suspension and power consumption measurements. The dependencies of πs on particle content cv show that larger agitators are more efficient for higher particle content.

  17. Individual blade pitch for yaw control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navalkar, S. T.; van Wingerden, J. W.; van Kuik, G. A. M.

    2014-06-01

    Individual pitch control (IPC) for reducing blade loads has been investigated and proven successful in recent literature. For IPC, the multi-blade co-ordinate (MBC) transformation is used to process the blade load signals from the rotating to a stationary frame of reference. In the stationary frame of reference, the yaw error of a turbine can be appended to generate IPC actions that are able to achieve turbine yaw control for a turbine in free yaw. In this paper, IPC for yaw control is tested on a high-fidelity numerical model of a commercially produced wind turbine in free yaw. The tests show that yaw control using IPC has the distinct advantage that the yaw system loads and support structure loading are substantially reduced. However, IPC for yaw control also shows a reduction in IPC blade load reduction potential and causes a slight increase in pitch activity. Thus, the key contribution of this paper is the concept demonstration of IPC for yaw control. Further, using IPC for yaw as a tuning parameter, it is shown how the best trade-off between blade loading, pitch activity and support structure loading can be achieved for wind turbine design.

  18. Voice Pitch Influences Perceptions of Sexual Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian J.M. O'Connor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual infidelity can be costly to members of both the extra-pair and the paired couple. Thus, detecting infidelity risk is potentially adaptive if it aids in avoiding cuckoldry or loss of parental and relationship investment. Among men, testosterone is inversely related to voice pitch, relationship and offspring investment, and is positively related to the pursuit of short-term relationships, including extra-pair sex. Among women, estrogen is positively related to voice pitch, attractiveness, and the likelihood of extra-pair involvement. Although prior work has demonstrated a positive relationship between men's testosterone levels and infidelity, this study is the first to investigate attributions of infidelity as a function of sexual dimorphism in male and female voices. We found that men attributed high infidelity risk to feminized women's voices, but not significantly more often than did women. Women attributed high infidelity risk to masculinized men's voices at significantly higher rates than did men. These data suggest that voice pitch is used as an indicator of sexual strategy in addition to underlying mate value. The aforementioned attributions may be adaptive if they prevent cuckoldry and/or loss of parental and relationship investment via avoidance of partners who may be more likely to be unfaithful.

  19. Voice pitch influences perceptions of sexual infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jillian J M; Re, Daniel E; Feinberg, David R

    2011-02-28

    Sexual infidelity can be costly to members of both the extra-pair and the paired couple. Thus, detecting infidelity risk is potentially adaptive if it aids in avoiding cuckoldry or loss of parental and relationship investment. Among men, testosterone is inversely related to voice pitch, relationship and offspring investment, and is positively related to the pursuit of short-term relationships, including extra-pair sex. Among women, estrogen is positively related to voice pitch, attractiveness, and the likelihood of extra-pair involvement. Although prior work has demonstrated a positive relationship between men's testosterone levels and infidelity, this study is the first to investigate attributions of infidelity as a function of sexual dimorphism in male and female voices. We found that men attributed high infidelity risk to feminized women's voices, but not significantly more often than did women. Women attributed high infidelity risk to masculinized men's voices at significantly higher rates than did men. These data suggest that voice pitch is used as an indicator of sexual strategy in addition to underlying mate value. The aforementioned attributions may be adaptive if they prevent cuckoldry and/or loss of parental and relationship investment via avoidance of partners who may be more likely to be unfaithful.

  20. Biomechanics of youth windmill softball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Sherry L; Guido, John A; McNeice, Ryan P; Richardson, Jasper L; Delude, Neil A; Stewart, Gregory W

    2005-04-01

    Limited research attention has been paid to the potentially harmful windmill softball pitch. No information is available regarding lower extremity kinetics in softball pitching. The stresses on the throwing arm of youth windmill pitchers are clinically significant and similar to those found for college softball pitchers. Descriptive laboratory study. Three-dimensional, high-speed (240-Hz) video and stride foot force plate (1200 Hz) data were collected on fastballs from 53 youth softball pitchers. Kinematic parameters related to pitching mechanics and resultant kinetics on the throwing-arm elbow and shoulder joints were calculated. Kinetic parameters were compared to those reported for baseball pitchers. Elbow and shoulder joint loads were similar to those found for baseball pitchers and college softball pitchers. Shoulder distraction stress averaged 94% body weight for the youth pitchers. Stride foot ground reaction force patterns were not similar to those reported for baseball pitchers. Vertical and braking force components under the stride foot were in excess of body weight. Excessive distraction stress and joint torques at the throwing-arm elbow and shoulder are similar to those found in baseball pitchers, which suggests that windmill softball pitchers are at risk for overuse injuries. Normative information regarding upper and lower extremity kinematics and kinetics for 12- to 19-year-old softball pitchers has been established.

  1. A Cluster Randomized-Controlled Trial of the Impact of the Tools of the Mind Curriculum on Self-Regulation in Canadian Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Tracy; Plamondon, Andre; O’Hara, Arland; Finch, Heather; Goco, Geraldine; Chaban, Peter; Huggins, Lorrie; Ferguson, Bruce; Tannock, Rosemary

    2018-01-01

    Early self-regulation predicts school readiness, academic success, and quality of life in adulthood. Its development in the preschool years is rapid and also malleable. Thus, preschool curricula that promote the development of self-regulation may help set children on a more positive developmental trajectory. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial of the Tools of the Mind preschool curriculum, a program that targets self-regulation through imaginative play and self-regulatory language (Tools; clinical trials identifier NCT02462733). Previous research with Tools is limited, with mixed evidence of its effectiveness. Moreover, it is unclear whether it would benefit all preschoolers or primarily those with poorly developed cognitive capacities (e.g., language, executive function, attention). The study goals were to ascertain whether the Tools program leads to greater gains in self-regulation compared to Playing to Learn (YMCA PTL), another play based program that does not target self-regulation specifically, and whether the effects were moderated by children’s initial language and hyperactivity/inattention. Two hundred and sixty 3- to 4-year-olds attending 20 largely urban daycares were randomly assigned, at the site level, to receive either Tools or YMCA PTL (the business-as-usual curriculum) for 15 months. We assessed self-regulation at pre-, mid and post intervention, using two executive function tasks, and two questionnaires regarding behavior at home and at school, to capture development in cognitive as well as socio-emotional aspects of self-regulation. Fidelity data showed that only the teachers at the Tools sites implemented Tools, and did so with reasonable success. We found that children who received Tools made greater gains on a behavioral measure of executive function than their YMCA PTL peers, but the difference was significant only for those children whose parents rated them high in hyperactivity/inattention initially. The effect of Tools did

  2. The effect of paired pitch, rhythm, and speech on working memory as measured by sequential digit recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Educational and therapeutic objectives are often paired with music to facilitate the recall of information. The purpose of this study was to isolate and determine the effect of paired pitch, rhythm, and speech on undergraduate's memory as measured by sequential digit recall performance. Participants (N = 120) listened to 4 completely counterbalanced treatment conditions each consisting of 9 randomized monosyllabic digits paired with speech, pitch, rhythm, and the combination of pitch and rhythm. No statistically significant learning or order effects were found across the 4 trials. A 3-way repeated-measures ANOVA indicated a statistically significant difference in digit recall performance across treatment conditions, positions, groups, and treatment by position. No other comparisons resulted in statistically significant differences. Participants were able to recall digits from the rhythm condition most accurately while recalling digits from the speech and pitch only conditions the least accurately. Consistent with previous research, the music major participants scored significantly higher than non-music major participants and the main effect associated with serial position indicated that recall performance was best during primacy and recency positions. Analyses indicated an interaction between serial position and treatment condition, also a result consistent with previous research. The results of this study suggest that pairing information with rhythm can facilitate recall but pairing information with pitch or the combination of pitch and rhythm may not enhance recall more than speech when participants listen to an unfamiliar musical selection only once. Implications for practice in therapy and education are made as well as suggestions for future research.

  3. Time course and hemispheric lateralization effects of complex pitch processing: evoked magnetic fields in response to rippled noise stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertrich, Ingo; Mathiak, Klaus; Lutzenberger, Werner; Ackermann, Hermann

    2004-01-01

    To delineate the time course and processing stages of pitch encoding at the level of the supratemporal plane, the present study recorded evoked magnetic fields in response to rippled noise (RN) stimuli. RN largely masks simple tonotopic representations and addresses pitch processing within the temporal domain (periodicity encoding). Four dichotic stimulus types (111 or 133 Hz RN at one ear, white noise to the other one) were applied in randomized order during either visual distraction or selective auditory attention. Strictly periodic signals, noise-like events, and mixtures of both signals served as control conditions. (1) Attention-dependent ear x hemisphere interactions were observed within the time domain of the M50 field, indicating early streaming of auditory information. (2) M100 responses to strictly periodic stimuli were found lateralized to the right hemisphere. Furthermore, the higher-pitched stimuli yielded enhanced activation as compared to the lower-pitch signals (pitch scaling), conceivably reflecting sensory memory operations. (3) Besides right-hemisphere pitch scaling, the relatively late M100 component in association with the RN condition (latency = 136 ms) showed significantly stronger field strengths over the left hemisphere. Control experiments revealed this lateralization effect to be related to noise rather than pitch processing. Furthermore, subtle noise variations interacted with signal periodicity. Obviously, thus, complex task demands such as RN encoding give rise to functional segregation of auditory processing across the two hemispheres (left hemisphere: noise, right hemisphere: periodicity representation). The observed noise/periodicity interactions, furthermore, might reflect pitch-synchronous spectral evaluation at the level of the left supratemporal plane, triggered by right-hemisphere representation of signal periodicity. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. How pragmatic or explanatory is the randomized, controlled trial? The application and enhancement of the PRECIS tool to the evaluation of a smoking cessation trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selby Peter

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous explanatory randomized trials support the efficacy of chronic disease interventions, including smoking cessation treatments. However, there is often inadequate adoption of these interventions for various reasons, one being the limitation of generalizability of the explanatory studies in real-world settings. Randomized controlled trials can be rated as more explanatory versus pragmatic along 10 dimensions. Pragmatic randomized clinical trials generate more realistic estimates of effectiveness with greater relevance to clinical practice and for health resource allocation decisions. However, there is no clear method to scale each dimension during the trial design phase to ensure that the design matches the intended purpose of the study. Methods We designed a pragmatic, randomized, controlled study to maximize external validity by addressing several barriers to smoking cessation therapy in ambulatory care. We analyzed our design and methods using the recently published ‘Pragmatic–Explanatory Continuum Indicatory Summary (PRECIS’ tool, a qualitative method to assess trial design across 10 domains. We added a 20-point numerical rating scale and a modified Delphi process to improve consensus in rating these domains. Results After two rounds of review, there was consensus on all 10 domains of study design. No single domain was scored as either fully pragmatic or fully explanatory; but overall, the study scored high on pragmatism. Conclusions This addition to the PRECIS tool may assist other trial designers working with interdisciplinary co-investigators to rate their study design while building consensus.

  5. EUV mask blank defect inspection strategies for 32-nm half-pitch and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, Stefan; Han, Hakseung; Kearney, Patrick; Cho, Wonil; Jeon, Chan-Uk; Gullikson, Eric

    2007-05-01

    The availability of defect-free masks remains one of the key challenges for inserting extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) into manufacturing. Evidently, the success of the industry's mask blank defect reduction effort will critically depend on the timely availability of defect inspection tools that can find ever smaller defects. The first generation of defect inspection tools enabled SEMATECH's Mask Blank Development Center (MBDC) to reduce mask blank defects to a level sufficient for use in EUV alpha tools. The second tool generation is currently enabling the MBDC to meet EUV pilot line requirements by the end of 2007. However, to meet high volume manufacturing (HVM) mask blank defect requirements for 32 nm half-pitch (hp) patterning, the industry needs a third generation of defect inspection tools. This next EUV inspection tool generation must be able to find defects of tools will also need to support extendibility assessments of low defect deposition technologies and the associated infrastructure towards meeting 22 nm half-pitch defect specifications. While visible light inspection is likely to support defect inspection needs for mask substrates over several technology nodes, the industry must explore other options for mask blanks and patterned masks. Evaluating the use of inexpensive printing tools and wafer-based inspection to search for repeating defects must be part of an overall strategy to address mask blank and patterned mask defect inspection.

  6. Vowel identity between note labels confuses pitch identification in non-absolute pitch possessors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Brancucci

    Full Text Available The simplest and likeliest assumption concerning the cognitive bases of absolute pitch (AP is that at its origin there is a particularly skilled function which matches the height of the perceived pitch to the verbal label of the musical tone. Since there is no difference in sound frequency resolution between AP and non-AP (NAP musicians, the hypothesis of the present study is that the failure of NAP musicians in pitch identification relies mainly in an inability to retrieve the correct verbal label to be assigned to the perceived musical note. The primary hypothesis is that, when asked to identify tones, NAP musicians confuse the verbal labels to be attached to the stimulus on the basis of their phonetic content. Data from two AP tests are reported, in which subjects had to respond in the presence or in the absence of visually presented verbal note labels (fixed Do solmization. Results show that NAP musicians confuse more frequently notes having a similar vowel in the note label. They tend to confuse e.g. a 261 Hz tone (Do more often with Sol than, e.g., with La. As a second goal, we wondered whether this effect is lateralized, i.e. whether one hemisphere is more responsible than the other in the confusion of notes with similar labels. This question was addressed by observing pitch identification during dichotic listening. Results showed that there is a right hemispheric disadvantage, in NAP but not AP musicians, in the retrieval of the verbal label to be assigned to the perceived pitch. The present results indicate that absolute pitch has strong verbal bases, at least from a cognitive point of view.

  7. EUV actinic defect inspection and defect printability at the sub-32 nm half pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Sungmin; Kearney, Patrick; Wurm, Stefan; Goodwin, Frank; Han, Hakseung; Goldberg, Kenneth; Mochi, Iacopp; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2009-08-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask blanks with embedded phase defects were inspected with a reticle actinic inspection tool (AIT) and the Lasertec M7360. The Lasertec M7360, operated at SEMA TECH's Mask Blank Development Center (MBDC) in Albany, NY, has a sensitivity to multilayer defects down to 40-45 nm, which is not likely sufficient for mask blank development below the 32 nm half-pitch node. Phase defect printability was simulated to calculate the required defect sensitivity for a next generation blank inspection tool to support reticle development for the sub-32 nm half-pitch technology node. Defect mitigation technology is proposed to take advantage of mask blanks with some defects. This technology will reduce the cost of ownership of EUV mask blanks. This paper will also discuss the kind of infrastructure that will be required for the development and mass production stages.

  8. Impact of pitch angle fluctuations on airborne lidar forward sensing along the flight direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeevich Gurvich, Alexander; Alexeevich Kulikov, Victor

    2017-10-01

    Airborne lidar forward sensing along the flight direction can serve for notification of clear air turbulence (CAT) and help to prevent injuries or fatal air accidents. The validation of this concept was presented in the framework of the DELICAT (DEmonstration of LIdar-based CAT detection) project. However, the strong variations in signal level, which were observed during the DELICAT measurements but not explained, sometimes indicated the need of a better understanding the observational errors due to geometrical factors. In this paper, we discuss possible error sources pertinent to this technique, related to fluctuations of the flight parameters, which may lead to strong signal variations caused by the random deviations of the sensing beam from the forward flight trajectory. We analyze the variations in backscattered lidar signal caused by fluctuations of the most important forward-sensing flight parameter, the pitch angle. The fluctuation values considered in the paper correspond to the error limits of the compensational gyro platform used in civil aviation. The part of the pitch angle fluctuations not compensated for by the beam-steering device in the presence of aerosol concentration variations can lead to noticeable signal variations that can be mistakenly attributed to wind shear, turbulence, or fast evolution of the aerosol layer. We formulate the criteria that allow the recognition of signal variations caused by pitch angle fluctuations. Influence of these fluctuations is shown to be stronger for aerosol variations on smaller vertical scales. An example of DELICAT observations indicating a noticeable pitch angle fluctuation impact is presented.

  9. The Seamless Transfer-of-Care Protocol: a randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of an electronic transfer-of-care communication tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoniewska Barbara M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transition between acute care and community care represents a vulnerable period in health care delivery. The vulnerability of this period has been attributed to changes to patients’ medication regimens during hospitalization, failure to reconcile discrepancies between admission and discharge and the burdening of patients/families to take over care responsibilities at discharge and to relay important information to the primary care physician. Electronic communication platforms can provide an immediate link between acute care and community care physicians (and other community providers, designed to ensure consistent information transfer. This study examines whether a transfer-of-care (TOC communication tool is efficacious and cost-effective for reducing hospital readmission, adverse events and adverse drug events as well as reducing death. Methods A randomized controlled trial conducted on the Medical Teaching Unit of a Canadian tertiary care centre will evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a TOC communication tool. Medical in-patients admitted to the unit will be considered for this study. Data will be collected upon admission, and a total of 1400 patients will be randomized. The control group’s acute care stay will be summarized using a traditional dictated summary, while the intervention group will have a summary generated using the TOC communication tool. The primary outcome will be a composite, at 3 months, of death or readmission to any Alberta acute-care hospital. Secondary outcomes will be the occurrence of post-discharge adverse events and adverse drug events at 1 month post discharge. Patients with adverse outcomes will have their cases reviewed by two Royal College certified internists or College-certified family physicians, blinded to patients’ group assignments, to determine the type, severity, preventability and ameliorability of all detected adverse outcomes. An accompanying economic

  10. How to pitch a brilliant idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsbach, Kimberly D

    2003-09-01

    Coming up with creative ideas is easy; selling them to strangers is hard. Entrepreneurs, sales executives, and marketing managers often go to great lengths to demonstrate how their new concepts are practical and profitable--only to be rejected by corporate decision makers who don't seem to understand the value of the ideas. Why does this happen? Having studied Hollywood executives who assess screenplay pitches, the author says the person on the receiving end--the "catcher"--tends to gauge the pitcher's creativity as well as the proposal itself. An impression of the pitcher's ability to come up with workable ideas can quickly and permanently overshadow the catcher's feelings about an idea's worth. To determine whether these observations apply to business settings beyond Hollywood, the author attended product design, marketing, and venture-capital pitch sessions and conducted interviews with executives responsible for judging new ideas. The results in those environments were similar to her observations in Hollywood, she says. Catchers subconsciously categorize successful pitchers as showrunners (smooth and professional), artists (quirky and unpolished), or neophytes (inexperienced and naive). The research also reveals that catchers tend to respond well when they believe they are participating in an idea's development. As Oscar-winning writer, director, and producer Oliver Stone puts it, screen-writers pitching an idea should "pull back and project what he needs onto your idea in order to make the story whole for him." To become a successful pitcher, portray yourself as one of the three creative types and engage your catchers in the creative process. By finding ways to give your catchers a chance to shine, you sell yourself as a likable collaborator.

  11. Finger forces in fastball baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Obata, Satoshi; Nasu, Daiki; Kadota, Koji; Matsuo, Tomoyuki; Fleisig, Glenn S

    2017-08-01

    Forces imparted by the fingers onto a baseball are the final, critical aspects for pitching, however these forces have not been quantified previously as no biomechanical technology was available. In this study, an instrumented baseball was developed for direct measurement of ball reaction force by individual fingers and used to provide fundamental information on the forces during a fastball pitch. A tri-axial force transducer with a cable having an easily-detachable connector were installed in an official baseball. Data were collected from 11 pitchers who placed the fingertip of their index, middle, ring, or thumb on the transducer, and threw four-seam fastballs to a target cage from a flat mound. For the index and middle fingers, resultant ball reaction force exhibited a bimodal pattern with initial and second peaks at 38-39ms and 6-7ms before ball release, and their amplitudes were around 97N each. The ring finger and thumb produced single-peak forces of approximately 50 and 83N, respectively. Shear forces for the index and middle fingers formed distinct peak at 4-5ms before release, and the peaks summed to 102N; a kinetic source for backspin on the ball. An additional experiment with submaximal pitching effort showed a linear relationship of peak forces with ball velocity. The peak ball reaction force for fastballs exceeded 80% of maximum finger strength measured, suggesting that strengthening of the distal muscles is important both for enhancing performance and for avoiding injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Left-hemisphere activation is associated with enhanced vocal pitch error detection in musicians with absolute pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Ibrahim, Nadine; Korzyukov, Oleg; Robin, Donald A; Larson, Charles R

    2014-02-01

    The ability to process auditory feedback for vocal pitch control is crucial during speaking and singing. Previous studies have suggested that musicians with absolute pitch (AP) develop specialized left-hemisphere mechanisms for pitch processing. The present study adopted an auditory feedback pitch perturbation paradigm combined with ERP recordings to test the hypothesis whether the neural mechanisms of the left-hemisphere enhance vocal pitch error detection and control in AP musicians compared with relative pitch (RP) musicians and non-musicians (NM). Results showed a stronger N1 response to pitch-shifted voice feedback in the right-hemisphere for both AP and RP musicians compared with the NM group. However, the left-hemisphere P2 component activation was greater in AP and RP musicians compared with NMs and also for the AP compared with RP musicians. The NM group was slower in generating compensatory vocal reactions to feedback pitch perturbation compared with musicians, and they failed to re-adjust their vocal pitch after the feedback perturbation was removed. These findings suggest that in the earlier stages of cortical neural processing, the right hemisphere is more active in musicians for detecting pitch changes in voice feedback. In the later stages, the left-hemisphere is more active during the processing of auditory feedback for vocal motor control and seems to involve specialized mechanisms that facilitate pitch processing in the AP compared with RP musicians. These findings indicate that the left hemisphere mechanisms of AP ability are associated with improved auditory feedback pitch processing during vocal pitch control in tasks such as speaking or singing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of Pitch Gear Deterioration using Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Jessen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    . This deterioration is expected to cause larger loads, because increased play causes dynamic loads. At some point, the increased loads can be expected to cause a failure somewhere in the pitch system. If the loads increase with the size of the damage, the loads can be used as indicators of the size of the damage....... This hypothesis was supported by results from a measurement campaign where measurements were available both before and after maintenance was performed. The loads dramatically decreased after the maintenance. However, after a few more months of measurements, and by including data from the SCADA system, it became...

  14. Effects of harmonic roving on pitch discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; de Kérangal, Mathilde le Gal; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    2015-01-01

    to impair pitch discrimination performance. Fundamental-frequency difference limens (F0DLs) were obtained in normal-hearing listeners with and without musical training for complex tones filtered between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz with F0s of 300 Hz (resolved harmonics) and 75 Hz (unresolved harmonics). The harmonicity...... of the tone complexes was varied by systematically roving the frequency of individual harmonics, which was taken from a Gaussian distribution centered on the nominal frequency in every stimulus presentation. The amount of roving was determined by the standard deviation of this distribution, which varied...

  15. [The perfect pitch. Birth, delights and death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwang, G

    1990-01-01

    The absolute pitch, AP, is the capacity of identifying and/or producing (singing) exact music notes without any prior indication. It appears in prone subjects owing to the assiduous practice of music, and is ruled by the temperament and diapason. It provides an incomparable subjective self-realization and makes it much easier to listen to, understand, write and read music. The false 415 compass, which spread widely as the baroque style became fashionable, stresses the subjects gifted with AP and prevents its appearance in children. This should be a cause of alarm for the medical, as well as administrative, authorities.

  16. Kinematics and constraints associated with swashplate blade pitch control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyland, Jane A.

    1993-01-01

    An important class of techniques to reduce helicopter vibration is based on using a Higher Harmonic controller to optimally define the Higher Harmonic blade pitch. These techniques typically require solution of a general optimization problem requiring the determination of a control vector which minimizes a performance index where functions of the control vector are subject to inequality constraints. Six possible constraint functions associated with swashplate blade pitch control were identified and defined. These functions constrain: (1) blade pitch Fourier Coefficients expressed in the Rotating System, (2) blade pitch Fourier Coefficients expressed in the Nonrotating System, (3) stroke of the individual actuators expressed in the Nonrotating System, (4) blade pitch expressed as a function of blade azimuth and actuator stroke, (5) time rate-of-change of the aforementioned parameters, and (6) required actuator power. The aforementioned constraints and the associated kinematics of swashplate blade pitch control by means of the strokes of the individual actuators are documented.

  17. A developmental study of latent absolute pitch memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Stewart, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    The ability to recall the absolute pitch level of familiar music (latent absolute pitch memory) is widespread in adults, in contrast to the rare ability to label single pitches without a reference tone (overt absolute pitch memory). The present research investigated the developmental profile of latent absolute pitch (AP) memory and explored individual differences related to this ability. In two experiments, 288 children from 4 to12 years of age performed significantly above chance at recognizing the absolute pitch level of familiar melodies. No age-related improvement or decline, nor effects of musical training, gender, or familiarity with the stimuli were found in regard to latent AP task performance. These findings suggest that latent AP memory is a stable ability that is developed from as early as age 4 and persists into adulthood.

  18. Voice pitch predicts reproductive success in male hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apicella, C L; Feinberg, D R; Marlowe, F W

    2007-12-22

    The validity of evolutionary explanations of vocal sexual dimorphism hinges upon whether or not individuals with more sexually dimorphic voices have higher reproductive success than individuals with less dimorphic voices. However, due to modern birth control methods, these data are rarely described, and mating success is often used as a second-rate proxy. Here, we test whether voice pitch predicts reproductive success, number of children born and child mortality in an evolutionarily relevant population of hunter-gatherers. While we find that voice pitch is not related to reproductive outcomes in women, we find that men with low voice pitch have higher reproductive success and more children born to them. However, voice pitch in men does not predict child mortality. These findings suggest that the association between voice pitch and reproductive success in men is mediated by differential access to fecund women. Furthermore, they show that there is currently selection pressure for low-pitch voices in men.

  19. Processing of Binaural Pitch Stimuli in Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Binaural pitch is a tonal sensation produced by introducing a frequency-dependent interaural phase shift in binaurally presented white noise. As no spectral cues are present in the physical stimulus, binaural pitch perception is assumed to rely on accurate temporal fine structure coding and intact...... binaural integration mechanisms. This study investigated to what extent basic auditory measures of binaural processing as well as cognitive abilities are correlated with the ability of hearing-impaired listeners to perceive binaural pitch. Subjects from three groups (1: normal-hearing; 2: cochlear...... hearingloss; 3: retro-cochlear impairment) were asked to identify the pitch contour of series of five notes of equal duration, ranging from 523 to 784 Hz, played either with Huggins’ binaural pitch stimuli (BP) or perceptually similar, but monaurally detectable, pitches (MP). All subjects from groups 1 and 2...

  20. Target pitch angle for the microburst escape maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgund, Sandeep S.; Stengel, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    Recovery performance of a commuter-type aircraft in a microburst encounter is studied using a constant-pitch-attitude strategy and flight path optimization. Results obtained indicate that the pitch attitude which maximized climb rate in a wind shear condition is strongly dependent on whether the aircraft is subjected to a horizontal shear or a downdraft. The pitch attitude which maximizes ground clearance depends on the altitude of the encounter, the strength of the microburst, and the initial position of the aircraft with respect to the downburst core. Best results are obtained at relatively low target pitch angles, in severe wind shear encounters at very low altitudes. A technique for maximizing ground clearance involves maintaining a low pitch attitude early in the encounter, followed by a gradual pitch-up that ceases when the wind shear has been excited.

  1. Robust Pitch Estimation Using an Optimal Filter on Frequency Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimian-Azari, Sam; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    In many scenarios, a periodic signal of interest is often contaminated by different types of noise that may render many existing pitch estimation methods suboptimal, e.g., due to an incorrect white Gaussian noise assumption. In this paper, a method is established to estimate the pitch of such sig......In many scenarios, a periodic signal of interest is often contaminated by different types of noise that may render many existing pitch estimation methods suboptimal, e.g., due to an incorrect white Gaussian noise assumption. In this paper, a method is established to estimate the pitch...... against different noise situations. The simulation results confirm that the proposed MVDR method outperforms the state-of-the-art weighted least squares (WLS) pitch estimator in colored noise and has robust pitch estimates against missing harmonics in some time-frames....

  2. Prosodic Transfer: From Chinese Lexical tone to English Pitch Accent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ploquin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese tones are associated with a syllable to convey meaning, English pitch accents are prominence markers associated with stressed syllables.  As both are created by pitch modulation, their pitch contours can be quite similar.  The experiment reported here examines whether native speakers of Chinese produce, when speaking English, the Chinese tone whose phonetic contour most closely matches the contour of the intended English pitch accent.  Six native speakers of Chinese recorded English and Chinese sentences, all including the segment [fan].  Results show that the subjects produced a Chinese tone 2 where a rising pitch accents was required and thus that speakers of Chinese rely on their lexical tones inventory to produce English prosody. The results obtained with falling pitch accents are much less conclusive partly because of the difficulty in measuring tone 3 due to the high level of creak that accompanies it.

  3. Pitch-Responsive Cortical Regions in Congenital Amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman-Haignere, Sam V; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne; McDermott, Josh H; Kanwisher, Nancy G; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-03-09

    Congenital amusia is a lifelong deficit in music perception thought to reflect an underlying impairment in the perception and memory of pitch. The neural basis of amusic impairments is actively debated. Some prior studies have suggested that amusia stems from impaired connectivity between auditory and frontal cortex. However, it remains possible that impairments in pitch coding within auditory cortex also contribute to the disorder, in part because prior studies have not measured responses from the cortical regions most implicated in pitch perception in normal individuals. We addressed this question by measuring fMRI responses in 11 subjects with amusia and 11 age- and education-matched controls to a stimulus contrast that reliably identifies pitch-responsive regions in normal individuals: harmonic tones versus frequency-matched noise. Our findings demonstrate that amusic individuals with a substantial pitch perception deficit exhibit clusters of pitch-responsive voxels that are comparable in extent, selectivity, and anatomical location to those of control participants. We discuss possible explanations for why amusics might be impaired at perceiving pitch relations despite exhibiting normal fMRI responses to pitch in their auditory cortex: (1) individual neurons within the pitch-responsive region might exhibit abnormal tuning or temporal coding not detectable with fMRI, (2) anatomical tracts that link pitch-responsive regions to other brain areas (e.g., frontal cortex) might be altered, and (3) cortical regions outside of pitch-responsive cortex might be abnormal. The ability to identify pitch-responsive regions in individual amusic subjects will make it possible to ask more precise questions about their role in amusia in future work. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362986-09$15.00/0.

  4. Statistically Efficient Methods for Pitch and DOA Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, direction-of-arrival (DOA) and pitch estimation of multichannel, periodic sources have been considered as two separate problems. Separate estimation may render the task of resolving sources with similar DOA or pitch impossible, and it may decrease the estimation accuracy. Therefore......, it was recently considered to estimate the DOA and pitch jointly. In this paper, we propose two novel methods for DOA and pitch estimation. They both yield maximum-likelihood estimates in white Gaussian noise scenar- ios, where the SNR may be different across channels, as opposed to state-of-the-art methods...

  5. Stochastic wind turbine modeling for individual pitch control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sven Creutz; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    By pitching the blades of a wind turbine individually it is possible to attenuate the asymmetric loads caused by a non-uniform wind field - this is denoted individual pitch control. In this work we investigate how to set up a simplified stochastic and deterministic description of the wind...... and a simplified description of the aerodynamics with sufficient detail to design model-based individual pitch controllers. Combined with a simplified model of the wind turbine, we exemplify how to use the model elements to systematically design an individual pitch controller. The design is investigated...

  6. Pitch discrimination associated with phonological awareness: Evidence from congenital amusia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanan; Lu, Xuejing; Ho, Hao Tam; Thompson, William Forde

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that musical skills are associated with phonological abilities. To further investigate this association, we examined whether phonological impairments are evident in individuals with poor music abilities. Twenty individuals with congenital amusia and 20 matched controls were assessed on a pure-tone pitch discrimination task, a rhythm discrimination task, and four phonological tests. Amusic participants showed deficits in discriminating pitch and discriminating rhythmic patterns that involve a regular beat. At a group level, these individuals performed similarly to controls on all phonological tests. However, eight amusics with severe pitch impairment, as identified by the pitch discrimination task, exhibited significantly worse performance than all other participants in phonological awareness. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that pitch discrimination thresholds predicted phonological awareness beyond that predicted by phonological short-term memory and rhythm discrimination. In contrast, our rhythm discrimination task did not predict phonological awareness beyond that predicted by pitch discrimination thresholds. These findings suggest that accurate pitch discrimination is critical for phonological processing. We propose that deficits in early-stage pitch discrimination may be associated with impaired phonological awareness and we discuss the shared role of pitch discrimination for processing music and speech. PMID:28287166

  7. Perception of words and pitch patterns in song and speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eMerrill

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This fMRI study examines shared and distinct cortical areas involved in the auditory perception of song and speech at the level of their underlying constituents: words, pitch and rhythm. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on the brain activity patterns of six conditions, arranged in a subtractive hierarchy: sung sentences including words, pitch and rhythm; hummed speech prosody and song melody containing only pitch patterns and rhythm; as well as the pure musical or speech rhythm.Systematic contrasts between these balanced conditions following their hierarchical organization showed a great overlap between song and speech at all levels in the bilateral temporal lobe, but suggested a differential role of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and intraparietal sulcus (IPS in processing song and speech. The left IFG was involved in word- and pitch-related processing in speech, the right IFG in processing pitch in song.Furthermore, the IPS showed sensitivity to discrete pitch relations in song as opposed to the gliding pitch in speech. Finally, the superior temporal gyrus and premotor cortex coded for general differences between words and pitch patterns, irrespective of whether they were sung or spoken. Thus, song and speech share many features which are reflected in a fundamental similarity of brain areas involved in their perception. However, fine-grained acoustic differences on word and pitch level are reflected in the activity of IFG and IPS.

  8. Wind turbine pitch control using ICPSO-PID algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Tian, Qiangqiang; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2013-01-01

    For the traditional simplified first-order pitch-control system model, it is difficult to describe a real dynamic characteristic of a variable pitch action system, thus a complete high order mathematical model has to be developed for the pitch control of wind turbine generation (WTG). In the paper...... controller parameters quickly; and the feed-forward controller for wind speed can improve dynamics of a pitch-control system; additionally the power controller can allow a wind turbine to have a constant power output as a wind speed is over the rated one. Compared with a conventional PID, the controller...

  9. Impaired short-term memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Lévêque, Yohana; Fornoni, Lesly; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. The hypothesis is that the musical deficits arise from altered pitch processing, with impairments in pitch discrimination (i.e., pitch change detection, pitch direction discrimination and identification) and short-term memory. The present review article focuses on the deficit of short-term memory for pitch. Overall, the data discussed here suggest impairments at each level of processing in short-term memory tasks; starting with the encoding of the pitch information and the creation of the adequate memory trace, the retention of the pitch traces over time as well as the recollection and comparison of the stored information with newly incoming information. These impairments have been related to altered brain responses in a distributed fronto-temporal network, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures, as well as in abnormalities in the connectivity between the two auditory cortices. In contrast, amusic participants׳ short-term memory abilities for verbal material are preserved. These findings show that short-term memory deficits in congenital amusia are specific to pitch, suggesting a pitch-memory system that is, at least partly, separated from verbal memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sparse Multi-Pitch and Panning Estimation of Stereophonic Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronvall, Ted; Jakobsson, Andreas; Hansen, Martin Weiss

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel multi-pitch estimator for stereophonic mixtures, allowing for pitch estimation on multi-channel audio even if the amplitude and delay panning parameters are unknown. The presented method does not require prior knowledge of the number of sources present in the mix......In this paper, we propose a novel multi-pitch estimator for stereophonic mixtures, allowing for pitch estimation on multi-channel audio even if the amplitude and delay panning parameters are unknown. The presented method does not require prior knowledge of the number of sources present...

  11. Signal coupling to embedded pitch adapters in silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Artuso, Marina; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Blusk, Steven R.; Brundler Denzer, Ruth; Bugiel, Szymon; Dasgupta, Roma; Dendek, Adam Mateusz; Dey, Biplab; Ely, Scott Edward; Lionetto, Federica; Petruzzo, Marco; Polyakov, Ivan; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Schindler, Heinrich; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stone, Sheldon

    2017-01-01

    We have examined the effects of embedded pitch adapters on signal formation in n-substrate silicon microstrip sensors with data from beam tests and simulation. According to simulation, the presence of the pitch adapter metal layer changes the electric field inside the sensor, resulting in slowed signal formation on the nearby strips and a pick-up effect on the pitch adapter. This can result in an inefficiency to detect particles passing through the pitch adapter region. All these effects have been observed in the beam test data.

  12. A Method for Low-Delay Pitch Tracking and Smoothing

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for pitch tracking is presented. The method is comprised of two steps. In the first step, accurate pitch estimates are obtained on a sample-by-sample basis by updates of the signal statistics with an exponential forgetting factor and subse- quent numerical optimization. In the second step, a Kalman filter is used to smooth the estimates and separate the pitch into a slowly varying component and a rapidly varying component. The former represents the mean pitch while...

  13. Comparison between conventional and piezoelectric surgical tools for maxillary sinus floor elevation : a randomized controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rickert, Daniela; Vissink, Arjan; Huddleston Slater, James; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the performance of conventional rotative instruments and a piezoelectric device for maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery, and to assess whether application of a resorbable membrane reduces resorption of an augmented site in a randomized clinical trial.

  14. Classification and Detection of Wind Turbine Pitch Faults Through SCADA Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Matthews

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of wind turbine pitch faults leads to increased mechanical component degradation, severe reduction of asset performance, and a direct increase in annual maintenance costs for the operator. This paper presents a highly accurate data driven classification system for the diagnosis of wind turbine pitch faults. Early diagnosis of these faults can enable operators to move from traditional corrective or time based maintenance towards a predictive or proactive maintenance strategy, whilst simultaneously mitigating risks and requiring no further capital expenditure. Our approach provides transparent, human-readable rules for maintenance operators which have been validated by an independent domain expert. Data from 8 wind turbines was collected every 10 minutes over a period of 28 months with 10 attributes utilised to diagnose pitch faults. Three fault classes are identified, each represented by 6000 instances in each of the testing and training sets. Of the turbines, 4 are used to train the system with a further 4 for validation. Repeated random sampling of the majority fault class was used to reduce computational overheads whilst retaining information content and balancing the training and validation sets to remove majority class bias. A classification accuracy of 85.50% was achieved with 14 human readable rules generated via the RIPPER inductive rule learner. Of these, 11 were described as “useful and intuitive” by an independent domain-expert. An expert system was developed utilising the model along with domain knowledge, resulting in a pitch fault diagnostic accuracy of 87.05% along with a 42.12% reduction in pitch fault alarms.

  15. The influence of music-elicited emotions and relative pitch on absolute pitch memory for familiar melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Levitin's findings that nonmusicians could produce from memory the absolute pitches of self-selected pop songs have been widely cited in the music psychology literature. These findings suggest that latent absolute pitch (AP) memory may be a more widespread trait within the population than traditional AP labelling ability. However, it has been left unclear what factors may facilitate absolute pitch retention for familiar pieces of music. The aim of the present paper was to investigate factors that may contribute to latent AP memory using Levitin's sung production paradigm for AP memory and comparing results to the outcomes of a pitch labelling task, a relative pitch memory test, measures of music-induced emotions, and various measures of participants' musical backgrounds. Our results suggest that relative pitch memory and the quality and degree of music-elicited emotions impact on latent AP memory.

  16. Representational momentum in memory for pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyd, J J; Kelly, M H; DeKay, M L

    1990-11-01

    When a visual pattern is displayed at successively different orientations such that a rotation or translation is implied, an observer's memory for the final position is displaced forward. This phenomenon of representational momentum shares some similarities with physical momentum. For instance, the amount of memory shift is proportional to the implied velocity of the inducing display; representational momentum is specifically proportional to the final, not the average, velocity; representational momentum follows a continuous stopping function for the first 250 ms or so of the retention interval. In a previous paper (Kelly & Freyd, 1987) we demonstrated a forward memory asymmetry using implied changes in pitch, for subjects without formal musical training. In the current paper we replicate our earlier finding and show that the forward memory asymmetry occurs for subjects with formal musical training as well (Experiment 1). We then show the structural similarity between representational momentum in memory for pitch with previous reports of parametric effects using visual stimuli. We report a velocity effect for auditory momentum (Experiment 2), we demonstrate specifically that the velocity effect depends on the implied acceleration (Experiment 3), and we show that the stopping function for auditory momentum is qualitatively the same as that for visual momentum (Experiment 4). We consider the implications of these results for theories of mental representation.

  17. Pitch Correlogram Clustering for Fast Speaker Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jhanwar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaussian mixture models (GMMs are commonly used in text-independent speaker identification systems. However, for large speaker databases, their high computational run-time limits their use in online or real-time speaker identification situations. Two-stage identification systems, in which the database is partitioned into clusters based on some proximity criteria and only a single-cluster GMM is run in every test, have been suggested in literature to speed up the identification process. However, most clustering algorithms used have shown limited success, apparently because the clustering and GMM feature spaces used are derived from similar speech characteristics. This paper presents a new clustering approach based on the concept of a pitch correlogram that captures frame-to-frame pitch variations of a speaker rather than short-time spectral characteristics like cepstral coefficient, spectral slopes, and so forth. The effectiveness of this two-stage identification process is demonstrated on the IVIE corpus of 110 speakers. The overall system achieves a run-time advantage of 500% as well as a 10% reduction of error in overall speaker identification.

  18. Reduced Maximum Pitch Elevation Predicts Silent Aspiration of Small Liquid Volumes in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akila Theyyar Rajappa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and purposePreliminary evidence has shown that reduced ability to maximally raise vocal pitch correlates with the occurrence of aspiration (i.e., airway invasion by food or liquid. However, it is unclear if this simple task can be used as a reliable predictor of aspiration in stroke patients. Our aim was to examine whether maximum vocal pitch elevation predicted airway invasion and dysphagia in stroke.MethodsForty-five consecutive stroke patients (<1 month poststroke at a rehabilitation setting participated in a videofluoroscopic swallow study and two maximum vocal pitch elevation tasks. Maximum pitch was evaluated acoustically [maximum fundamental frequency (max F0] and perceptually. Swallowing safety was rated using the Penetration/Aspiration Scale and swallowing performance was assessed using components of the Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile (MBSImPTM©. Data were analyzed using simple regression and receiver operating characteristics curves to test the sensitivity and specificity of max F0 in predicting aspiration. Correlations between max F0 and MBSImP variables were also examined.ResultsMax F0 predicted silent aspiration of small liquid volumes with 80% sensitivity and 65% specificity (p = 0.023; area under the curve: 0.815; cutoff value of 359.03 Hz. Max F0 did not predict non-silent aspiration or penetration in this sample and did not significantly correlate with MBSImP variables. Furthermore, all participants who aspirated silently on small liquid volumes (11% of sample had suffered cortical or subcortical lesions.ConclusionIn stroke patients (<1 month poststroke, reduced maximum pitch elevation predicts silent aspiration of small liquid volumes with high sensitivity and moderate specificity. Future large-scale studies focusing on further validating this finding and exploring the value of this simple and non-invasive tool as part of a dysphagia screening are warranted.

  19. Development of a Virtual Reality Exposure Tool as Psychological Preparation for Elective Pediatric Day Care Surgery: Methodological Approach for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijlers, Robin; Legerstee, Jeroen S; Dierckx, Bram; Staals, Lonneke M; Berghmans, Johan; van der Schroeff, Marc P; Wijnen, Rene Mh; Utens, Elisabeth Mwj

    2017-09-11

    Preoperative anxiety in children is highly prevalent and is associated with adverse outcomes. Existing psychosocial interventions to reduce preoperative anxiety are often aimed at distraction and are of limited efficacy. Gradual exposure is a far more effective way to reduce anxiety. Virtual reality (VR) provides a unique opportunity to gradually expose children to all aspects of the operating theater. The aims of our study are (1) to develop a virtual reality exposure (VRE) tool to prepare children psychologically for surgery; and (2) to examine the efficacy of the VRE tool in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which VRE will be compared to care as usual (CAU). The VRE tool is highly realistic and resembles the operating room environment accurately. With this tool, children will not only be able to explore the operating room environment, but also get accustomed to general anesthesia procedures. The PREoperative Virtual reality Intervention to Enhance Wellbeing (PREVIEW) study will be conducted. In this single-blinded RCT, 200 consecutive patients (aged 4 to 12 years) undergoing elective day care surgery for dental, oral, or ear-nose-throat problems, will be randomly allocated to the preoperative VRE intervention or CAU. The primary outcome is change in child state anxiety level between baseline and induction of anesthesia. Secondary outcome measures include child's postoperative anxiety, emergence delirium, postoperative pain, use of analgesics, health care use, and pre- and postoperative parental anxiety. The VRE tool has been developed. Participant recruitment began March 2017 and is expected to be completed by September 2018. To our knowledge, this is the first RCT evaluating the effect of a VRE tool to prepare children for surgery. The VRE intervention is expected to significantly diminish preoperative anxiety, postoperative pain, and the use of postoperative analgesics in pediatric patients. The tool could create a less stressful experience for both

  20. Native experience with a tone language enhances pitch discrimination and the timing of neural responses to pitch change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Ryan J; Pfordresher, Peter Q; Stanley, Emily M; Narayana, Shalini; Wicha, Nicole Y Y

    2011-01-01

    Native tone language experience has been linked with alterations in the production and perception of pitch in language, as well as with the brain response to linguistic and non-linguistic tones. Here we use two experiments to address whether these changes apply to the discrimination of simple pitch changes and pitch intervals. Event related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from native Mandarin speakers and a control group during a same/different task with pairs of pure tones differing only in pitch height, and with pure tone pairs differing only in interval distance. Behaviorally, Mandarin speakers were more accurate than controls at detecting both pitch and interval changes, showing a sensitivity to small pitch changes and interval distances that was absent in the control group. Converging evidence from ERPs obtained during the same tasks revealed an earlier response to change relative to no-change trials in Mandarin speakers, as well as earlier differentiation of trials by change direction relative to controls. These findings illustrate the cross-domain influence of language experience on the perception of pitch, suggesting that the native use of tonal pitch contours in language leads to a general enhancement in the acuity of pitch representations.

  1. The effect of pitch, rhythm, and familiarity on working memory and anxiety as measured by digit recall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate and quantitatively evaluate the effects of pitch and rhythm of unfamiliar and familiar melodies on working memory and anxiety as measured by sequential digit recall performance. Participants (N = 60) listened to 6 treatment conditions each consisting of 9 randomized monosyllabic digits. The digits were paired with (a) a familiar melody and pitch only, (b) a familiar melody and rhythm only, (c) a familiar melody with both pitch and rhythm, (d) an unfamiliar melody with pitch only, (e) an unfamiliar melody with rhythm only, and (f) an unfamiliar melody with both pitch and rhythm. The 6 different treatments were counterbalanced using a Latin square design in an attempt to control for order effects. Participants rated their state anxiety on a Likert-type scale before, midway through, and after the digits test. No statistically significant order, learning, or practice effects were found. A 3-way repeated-measures ANOVA indicated a statistically significant difference in digit recall performance across musical element conditions and groups. Results indicated that music majors outperformed nonmusic majors on the digit recall task. Participants were able to recall digits from the rhythm condition most accurately while recalling digits from pitch only and both pitch and rhythm conditions the least accurately. Graphic analysis of treatment as a function of sequential position indicated digit recall was best during conditions of primacy and recency. No main effects were found for the familiarity condition. Additionally, no main effects or interactions were found for the anxiety variable. The results of this study are congruent with existing working memory and music literature suggesting that pairing information with rhythm can facilitate recall, music majors outperform non-music majors, and recall accuracy is best in positions of primacy and recency. Implications for practice in therapy and education are made as well as suggestions for

  2. Do randomized controlled nursing trials have a pragmatic or explanatory attitude? Findings from the Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary (PRECIS) tool exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palese, Alvisa; Bevilacqua, Maria Grazia; Dante, Angelo

    2014-09-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) may be categorized as either effectiveness trials or efficacy trials, which may be categorized by the Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary (PRECIS) tool. However, no data regarding the application of the PRECIS tool in a cluster of RCTs belonging to a specific discipline such as nursing are available. The principal aim of this study was to assess the prevailing nature (pragmatic vs. explanatory) of a cluster of clinical nursing RCTs. Evaluating the suitability of the PRECIS in the analysis of nursing RCTs was the secondary aim. All nursing RCTs published in 2010 were identified through a systematic review and extracted in full-text form. An explanatory-pragmatic (E-P) group consisting of 11 researchers trained in the use of the PRECIS tool evaluated each RCT in terms of 10 domains, respectively scored on a scale ranging from 5 (pragmatic) to 1 (explanatory). The E-P group further scored the feasibility of the PRECIS tool using a numerical rating scale (0 = not at all, 10 = entirely feasible). Along the pragmatic-explanatory continuum, assuming 50 as the highest degree of pragmatism and 10 as the highest degree of explanatory, the evaluation of nursing RCTs returned an average of 31.1 (median = 31, SD = 7.18, range = 13-44). On the pragmatic-explanatory continuum, the evaluated nursing RCTs tended to be pragmatic, which seems to be consistent with the purposes of the nursing discipline. The feasibility of the PRECIS tool in the evaluation of nursing trials as perceived by the E-P Group was, on average, 7.09 (SD = 1.09, 95% CI [6.35, 7.82]). Applying the PRECIS tool is perceived to be highly feasible in the critical appraisal of a cluster of RCTs in a specific discipline such as nursing.

  3. Show Me My Health Plans: a study protocol of a randomized trial testing a decision support tool for the federal health insurance marketplace in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Mary C; Barker, Abigail R; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; McBride, Timothy; Shacham, Enbal; Kebodeaux, Carey S

    2016-02-16

    The implementation of the ACA has improved access to quality health insurance, a necessary first step to improving health outcomes. However, access must be supplemented by education to help individuals make informed choices for plans that meet their individual financial and health needs. Drawing on a model of information processing and on prior research, we developed a health insurance decision support tool called Show Me My Health Plans. Developed with extensive stakeholder input, the current tool (1) simplifies information through plain language and graphics in an educational component; (2) assesses and reviews knowledge interactively to ensure comprehension of key material; (3) incorporates individual and/or family health status to personalize out-of-pocket cost estimates; (4) assesses preferences for plan features; and (5) helps individuals weigh information appropriate to their interests and needs through a summary page with "good fit" plans generated from a tailored algorithm. The current study will evaluate whether the online decision support tool improves health insurance decisions compared to a usual care condition (the healthcare.gov marketplace website). The trial will include 362 individuals (181 in each group) from rural, suburban, and urban settings within a 90 mile radius around St. Louis. Eligibility criteria includes English-speaking individuals 18-64 years old who are eligible for the ACA marketplace plans. They will be computer randomized to view the intervention or usual care condition. Presenting individuals with options that they can understand tailored to their needs and preferences could help improve decision quality. By helping individuals narrow down the complexity of health insurance plan options, decision support tools such as this one could prepare individuals to better navigate enrollment in a plan that meets their individual needs. The randomized trial was registered in clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02522624) on August 6, 2015.

  4. The design of instructional tools affects secondary school students' learning of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in reciprocal peer learning: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserbyt, Peter; Byra, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Research investigating design effects of instructional tools for learning Basic Life Support (BLS) is almost non-existent. To demonstrate the design of instructional tools matter. The effect of spatial contiguity, a design principle stating that people learn more deeply when words and corresponding pictures are placed close (i.e., integrated) rather than far from each other on a page was investigated on task cards for learning Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) during reciprocal peer learning. A randomized controlled trial. A total of 111 students (mean age: 13 years) constituting six intact classes learned BLS through reciprocal learning with task cards. Task cards combine a picture of the skill with written instructions about how to perform it. In each class, students were randomly assigned to the experimental group or the control. In the control, written instructions were placed under the picture on the task cards. In the experimental group, written instructions were placed close to the corresponding part of the picture on the task cards reflecting application of the spatial contiguity principle. One-way analysis of variance found significantly better performances in the experimental group for ventilation volumes (P=.03, ηp2=.10) and flow rates (P=.02, ηp2=.10). For chest compression depth, compression frequency, compressions with correct hand placement, and duty cycles no significant differences were found. This study shows that the design of instructional tools (i.e., task cards) affects student learning. Research-based design of learning tools can enhance BLS and CPR education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prelinguistic Infants Are Sensitive to Space-Pitch Associations Found Across Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolscheid, S.J.; Hunnius, S.; Casasanto, D.; Majid, A.

    2014-01-01

    People often talk about musical pitch using spatial metaphors. In English, for instance, pitches can be "high" or "low" (i.e., height-pitch association), whereas in other languages, pitches are described as "thin" or "thick" (i.e., thickness-pitch association). According to results from

  6. Auditory deficits in amusia extend beyond poor pitch perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Kelly L; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2017-05-01

    Congenital amusia is a music perception disorder believed to reflect a deficit in fine-grained pitch perception and/or short-term or working memory for pitch. Because most measures of pitch perception include memory and segmentation components, it has been difficult to determine the true extent of pitch processing deficits in amusia. It is also unclear whether pitch deficits persist at frequencies beyond the range of musical pitch. To address these questions, experiments were conducted with amusics and matched controls, manipulating both the stimuli and the task demands. First, we assessed pitch discrimination at low (500Hz and 2000Hz) and high (8000Hz) frequencies using a three-interval forced-choice task. Amusics exhibited deficits even at the highest frequency, which lies beyond the existence region of musical pitch. Next, we assessed the extent to which frequency coding deficits persist in one- and two-interval frequency-modulation (FM) and amplitude-modulation (AM) detection tasks at 500Hz at slow (fm=4Hz) and fast (fm=20Hz) modulation rates. Amusics still exhibited deficits in one-interval FM detection tasks that should not involve memory or segmentation. Surprisingly, amusics were also impaired on AM detection, which should not involve pitch processing. Finally, direct comparisons between the detection of continuous and discrete FM demonstrated that amusics suffer deficits in both coding and segmenting pitch information. Our results reveal auditory deficits in amusia extending beyond pitch perception that are subtle when controlling for memory and segmentation, and are likely exacerbated in more complex contexts such as musical listening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tracking of pitch probabilities in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omigie, Diana; Pearce, Marcus T; Stewart, Lauren

    2012-06-01

    Auditory perception involves not only hearing a series of sounds but also making predictions about future ones. For typical listeners, these predictions are formed on the basis of long-term schematic knowledge, gained over a lifetime of exposure to the auditory environment. Individuals with a developmental disorder known as congenital amusia show marked difficulties with music perception and production. The current study investigated whether these difficulties can be explained, either by a failure to internalise the statistical regularities present in music, or by a failure to consciously access this information. Two versions of a melodic priming paradigm were used to probe participants' abilities to form melodic pitch expectations, in an implicit and an explicit manner. In the implicit version (Experiment 1), participants made speeded, forced-choice discriminations concerning the timbre of a cued target note. In the explicit version (Experiment 2), participants used a 1-7 rating scale to indicate the degree to which the pitch of the cued target note was expected or unexpected. Target notes were chosen to have high or low probability in the context of the melody, based on the predictions of a computational model of melodic expectation. Analysis of the data from the implicit task revealed a melodic priming effect in both amusic and control participants whereby both groups showed faster responses to high probability than low probability notes rendered in the same timbre as the context. However, analysis of the data from the explicit task revealed that amusic participants were significantly worse than controls at using explicit ratings to differentiate between high and low probability events in a melodic context. Taken together, findings from the current study make an important contribution in demonstrating that amusic individuals track melodic pitch probabilities at an implicit level despite an impairment, relative to controls, when required to make explicit

  8. Twist defect in chiral photonic structures with spatially varying pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiun-Yeu; Chen, Lien-Wen

    2005-04-01

    The properties of photonic defect modes in a chiral photonic structure were investigated using the finite element method. By stacking two cholesteric liquid crystal (ChLC) films, the defect mode due to the introduction of a twist defect was considered in both cases of chiral structures with constant pitch and spatially varying pitch. Two types of linear pitch gradients for achieving a broadband reflection were analysed, and the number of chiral pitches required for establishing the stop band was simulated. The effect of a finite sample thickness on the energy density distribution of the defect mode and on the required polarization of the incident light to excite the defect mode was studied. In both cases of constant pitch and spatially varying pitch, an unusual crossover behaviour in reflection at the defect resonance wavelength of a single circularly polarized mode appears when the structure thickness increases beyond a specific value. The energy distribution inside the sample also reveals the unusual distribution. Two different resonance wavelengths can be created by a twist defect in the ChLC composite film with linearly varying pitch, while only one resonance wavelength can be created in the identical film with constant pitch.

  9. Thrust generation and wake structure for flow across a pitching ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, we present detailed particle image velocimetry (PIV) based investigation of wake structure of a pitching airfoil. PIV measurements have been carried out for NACA0015 airfoil at Re = 2900 with reduced frequency range of 1.82–10.92 and pitching angle of 5°. Two different wake structures (reverse Kármán ...

  10. Binaural Pitch Fusion in Bilateral Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Lina A J; Fowler, Jennifer R; Hartling, Curtis L; Oh, Yonghee

    2017-09-22

    Binaural pitch fusion is the fusion of stimuli that evoke different pitches between the ears into a single auditory image. Individuals who use hearing aids or bimodal cochlear implants (CIs) experience abnormally broad binaural pitch fusion, such that sounds differing in pitch by as much as 3-4 octaves are fused across ears, leading to spectral averaging and speech perception interference. The goal of this study was to determine if adult bilateral CI users also experience broad binaural pitch fusion. Stimuli were pulse trains delivered to individual electrodes. Fusion ranges were measured using simultaneous, dichotic presentation of reference and comparison stimuli in opposite ears, and varying the comparison stimulus to find the range that fused with the reference stimulus. Bilateral CI listeners had binaural pitch fusion ranges varying from 0 to 12 mm (average 6.1 ± 3.9 mm), where 12 mm indicates fusion over all electrodes in the array. No significant correlations of fusion range were observed with any subject factors related to age, hearing loss history, or hearing device history, or with any electrode factors including interaural electrode pitch mismatch, pitch match bandwidth, or within-ear electrode discrimination abilities. Bilateral CI listeners have abnormally broad fusion, similar to hearing aid and bimodal CI listeners. This broad fusion may explain the variability of binaural benefits for speech perception in quiet and in noise in bilateral CI users.

  11. The Association Between Pitch Conditions and the Incidence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Environmental conditions have been shown to influence incidence of rugby injuries. Harsh weather conditions and detrimental effect on poor Kenyan rugby pitches create a unique environment for injury exposure. We conducted a whole population prospective cohort study to determine the association of pitch ...

  12. Pitch Perception, Working Memory, and Second-Language Phonological Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posedel, James; Emery, Lisa; Souza, Benjamin; Fountain, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that training on a musical instrument is associated with improvements in working memory and musical pitch perception ability. Good working memory and musical pitch perception ability, in turn, have been linked to certain aspects of language production. The current study examines whether working memory and/or pitch…

  13. Pitch detection of speech signals in noisy environment by wavelet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Wing-kei; Leung, KwongSak; Wong, Kin-hong

    1995-04-01

    The pitch of voiced speech sounds provides very important information in speech analysis. Pitch estimation is a difficult task when unprevented noise exists. However experimental results have shown that even robust pitch detection techniques fail in noisy environment with periodic patterns such as noise generated by machines. Wavelet transform, with its special properties in time frequency relation, can be used to detect pitch with remarkable advantage in noise resistance. In wavelet signal analysis, the modulus of the transform have been used extensively, however, we found that the phase information is equally important especially for pitch detection. Since the phase spectrum is always intensive to noise, a more promising pitch period can be obtained from the phase diagram. Properties of the phase pattern in wavelet transform are investigated and the result is applied to construct a robust pitch detector. In our first test, the detector is employed to detect the pitches of a set of speech signals with white noise. We found that our approach clearly outperforms other non-wavelet methods with low signal-to-noise ratio. Sinusoidal noise with different frequency levels is used in the second test. Simulation results have shown that our system works quite stable in such an environment.

  14. Microstructure and properties of pitch-based carbon composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco; Santamaria; Bermejo; Bonhomme; Menendez

    1999-11-01

    Pitches prepared in the laboratory by thermal treatment and air-blowing of a commercial coal-tar pitch were used as matrix precursors of carbon composites using granular petroleum coke, foundry coke, amorphous graphite and anthracite. Pitches were characterized by standard procedures (elemental analysis, softening point, solubility tests and carbon yield) and light microscopy (mesophase content). Pitch pyrolysis behaviour was monitored by thermogravimetric analysis and from the optical texture of cokes. Pitch wettability to the different carbons, at different temperatures, was also studied. Experimental conditions selected for the preparation of composites were based on pitch composition and properties. The main microstructural features of composites were determined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Composite properties were described in terms of their density, porosity and compressive strength, and related to composite microstructure and the characteristics of the precursors. Thermal treatment and air-blowing of pitch improved carbon composite structure and properties. The lowest porosities and best mechanical properties were observed in those composites obtained with the thermally treated pitches combined with foundry coke and anthracite.

  15. Contributions of roll and pitch to sea sickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, A.H.; Bos, J.E.; Bles, W.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the traditional assumption that sea sickness is uniquely provoked by heave motion characteristics, pitch and roll movements being ineffective. In an experi-ment with a ship motion simulator subjects were exposed to pitch, and roll motions in combination

  16. Contributions of roll and pitch to sea sickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, A. H.; Bos, J. E.; van der Bles, W.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the traditional assumption that sea sickness is uniquely provoked by heave motion characteristics, with pitch and roll movements being ineffective. In an experiment with a ship motion simulator, subjects were exposed to pitch and roll motions in combination with

  17. Pitch Ability as an Aptitude for Tone Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Anita R.; Chang, Charles B.; Karuzis, Valerie P.

    2016-01-01

    Tone languages such as Mandarin use voice pitch to signal lexical contrasts, presenting a challenge for second/foreign language (L2) learners whose native languages do not use pitch in this manner. The present study examined components of an aptitude for mastering L2 lexical tone. Native English speakers with no previous tone language experience…

  18. Contamination of Pine Seeds by the Pitch Canker Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. David Dwinell; S.W. Fraedrich

    1999-01-01

    The pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, has been identified as a significant problem in man pine seed orchards and nursuries in the South. THe fungus causes strobilus mortality, seed deterioation, and cankers on the main stem, branches, and shoots of pines Dwinell and others 1985). The pitche canker fungus...

  19. Pulping Variables, Storage Time and Pitch Deposit | Ogunwusi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of pulping variable, wood classification and storage time on pitch deposition during kraft pulping of mixed tropical hardwood species growing in Nigeria were investigated. Storage time has effect on pitch deposition in all the groups. Pulp resin decreased from 0.535% in control experiment to 0.235% after the sixth ...

  20. Pitch Alterations in British Motherese: Some Preliminary Acoustic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shute, Brenda; Wheldall, Kevin

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of speech samples from British female adults (N=8) revealed that the subjects increased vocal pitch when addressing young children, but not as much as previously studied North American subjects did. Pitch increases were more commonly observed in free speech than in reading-aloud conditions. (23 references) (Author/CB)

  1. Pitch Systems and Curwen Hand Signs: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey-Clark, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Learning to sing from notation is a complex task, and accurately performing pitches without an external reference can be particularly challenging. As such, the use of mnemonic devices to reinforce tonal relationships is a long-standing practice among musicians. Chief among these mnemonic devices are pitch syllable systems and Curwen hand signs.…

  2. Shoulder joint velocity during fastball pitching in baseball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasparutto, X.; van der Graaff, E; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Colloud, F.; Domalain, M.; Monnet, T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the rotation and translation velocity of the shoulder complex during fastball pitching in baseball. 8 pitchers from the Dutch AAA team performed each 3 fastball pitches. Their motion was recorded by an opto-electronic device. Kinematic computation was

  3. Pitch height modulates visual and haptic bisection performance in musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta eLega

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Consistent evidence suggests that pitch height may be represented in a spatial format, having both a vertical and an horizontal representation. The spatial representation of pitch height results into response compatibility effects for which high pitch tones are preferentially associated to up-right responses, and low pitch tones are preferentially associated to down-left responses (i.e., the SMARC effect, with the strength of these associations depending on individuals’ musical skills. In this study we investigated whether listening to tones of different pitch affects the representation of external space, as assessed in a visual and haptic line bisection paradigm, in musicians and non musicians. Low and high pitch tones affected the bisection performance in musicians differently, both when pitch was relevant and irrelevant for the task, and in both the visual and the haptic modality. No effect of pitch height was observed on the bisection performance of non musicians. Moreover, our data also show that musicians present a (supramodal rightward bisection bias in both the visual and the haptic modality, extending previous findings limited to the visual modality, and consistent with the idea that intense practice with musical notation and bimanual instrument training affects hemispheric lateralization.

  4. Cortical Basis for Dichotic Pitch Perception in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Marita; Fitzpatrick, Kevin; Madler, Burkhard; Edgell, Dorothy; Bjornson, Bruce; Giaschi, Deborah E.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined auditory processing deficits in dyslexia using a dichotic pitch stimulus and functional MRI. Cortical activation by the dichotic pitch task occurred in bilateral Heschl's gyri, right planum temporale, and right superior temporal sulcus. Adolescents with dyslexia, relative to age-matched controls, illustrated greater…

  5. Gray- and White-Matter Anatomy of Absolute Pitch Possessors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Chakravarty, Mallar

    2015-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to identify a musical pitch without a reference, has been examined behaviorally in numerous studies for more than a century, yet only a few studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of AP. Here, we used MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to investigate st...

  6. EUV lithography for 30nm half pitch and beyond: exploring resolution, sensitivity, and LWR tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putna, E. Steve; Younkin, Todd R.; Chandhok, Manish; Frasure, Kent

    2009-03-01

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) denotes Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) lithography as a leading technology option for realizing the 32nm half-pitch node and beyond. Readiness of EUV materials is currently one high risk area according to assessments made at the 2008 EUVL Symposium. The main development issue regarding EUV resist has been how to simultaneously achieve high sensitivity, high resolution, and low line width roughness (LWR). This paper describes the strategy and current status of EUV resist development at Intel Corporation. Data is presented utilizing Intel's Micro-Exposure Tool (MET) examining the feasibility of establishing a resist process that simultaneously exhibits <=30nm half-pitch (HP) L/S resolution at <=10mJ/cm2 with <=4nm LWR.

  7. EUV lithography for 22nm half pitch and beyond: exploring resolution, LWR, and sensitivity tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putna, E. Steve; Younkin, Todd R.; Leeson, Michael; Caudillo, Roman; Bacuita, Terence; Shah, Uday; Chandhok, Manish

    2011-04-01

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) denotes Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) lithography as a leading technology option for realizing the 22nm half pitch node and beyond. According to recent assessments made at the 2010 EUVL Symposium, the readiness of EUV materials remains one of the top risk items for EUV adoption. The main development issue regarding EUV resists has been how to simultaneously achieve high resolution, high sensitivity, and low line width roughness (LWR). This paper describes our strategy, the current status of EUV materials, and the integrated post-development LWR reduction efforts made at Intel Corporation. Data collected utilizing Intel's Micro- Exposure Tool (MET) is presented in order to examine the feasibility of establishing a resist process that simultaneously exhibits <=22nm half-pitch (HP) L/S resolution at <=11.3mJ/cm2 with <=3nm LWR.

  8. Modern methods for investigating the stability of a pitching floating platform wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lennie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The QBlade implementation of the lifting-line free vortex wake (LLFVW method was tested in conditions analogous to floating platform motion. Comparisons against two independent test cases using a variety of simulation methods show good agreement in thrust forces, rotor power, blade forces and rotor plane induction. Along with the many verifications already undertaken in the literature, it seems that the code performs solidly even in these challenging cases. Further to this, the key steps are presented from a new formulation of the instantaneous aerodynamic thrust damping of a wind turbine rotor. A test case with harmonic platform motion and collective blade pitch is used to demonstrate how combining such tools can lead to a better understanding of aeroelastic stability. A second case demonstrates a non-harmonic blade pitch manoeuvre showing the versatility of the instantaneous damping method.

  9. Assessment of rail long-pitch corrugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valehrach, Jan; Guziur, Petr; Riha, Tomas; Plasek, Otto

    2017-09-01

    The paper focuses on defects of the running surface of the rail, namely the rail corrugation defect and specifically long-pitch corrugation in curves of small radii. These defects cause a shorter life of the rails, greater maintenance costs and increase the noise and vibration pollution. Therefore, it is very important to understand the formation and development of the imperfection of the rails. In the paper, various sections of railway tracks in the Czech Republic are listed, each of them completed with comparison of defect development, the particular track superstructure, rolling stock, axle load, traffic load etc. Based on performed measurements, defect development has been proved as different on sections with similar (or even same) parameters. The paper assumes that a train velocity is the significant circumstance for defect development rates. Assessment of track section with under sleeper pads, which are expected to be the one of the possible ways to suppress the corrugation defect development, is included in evaluation.

  10. Pitch-Perfect: How Do Flies Control Their Pitch Angle During Aerial Stumbles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Samuel; Canale, Luca; Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai

    2014-11-01

    The successful flight of flapping-wing insects is contingent upon a complex and beautiful relationship between sensory input, neural response, and muscular actuation. In particular, the inherent instabilities of flapping-wing flight require insects like D. melanogaster to constantly sense, process, and adjust for in-flight stumbles. Here we present an analysis of the mechanisms for pitch control in D. melanogaster. By gluing small ferromagnetic pins to the backs of the flies and applying an external magnetic field, we induce torques along the flies' pitch axis during free flight. Using an automated hull reconstruction technique developed in the lab, we analyze these torque events and the flies' subsequent recoveries in order to characterize the flies' response to external perturbations. Ultimately, we aim to develop a reduced-order controller model that will capture the salient aspects of the flies' recovery mechanism.

  11. Two LQRI based Blade Pitch Controls for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonsu Nam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As the wind turbine size has been increasing and their mechanical components are built lighter, the reduction of the structural loads becomes a very important task of wind turbine control in addition to maximum wind power capture. In this paper, we present a separate set of collective and individual pitch control algorithms. Both pitch control algorithms use the LQR control technique with integral action (LQRI, and utilize Kalman filters to estimate system states and wind speed. Compared to previous works in this area, our pitch control algorithms can control rotor speed and blade bending moments at the same time to improve the trade-off between rotor speed regulation and load reduction, while both collective and individual pitch controls can be designed separately. Simulation results show that the proposed collective and individual pitch controllers achieve very good rotor speed regulation and significant reduction of blade bending moments.

  12. Co-carbonization of oxidized coals with petroleum pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grint, A.; Clarke, K.; Marsh, H.

    1983-11-01

    Sherwood and Oakdale coals (NCB class 602 and 301a) were progressively oxidized in oxygen or air. The optical textures of cokes from carbonizations were monitored by optical microscopy. Fresh and oxidized coals were co-carbonized with three petroleum pitches of different modifying ability, i.e., superactive, active and passive. Increases in anisotropic optical texture of resultant cokes were monitored by a point-counting technique. Whereas all three pitches could remove the effects of mild oxidation it was only the super-active pitch which could modify cokes from the heavily oxidized coals. Modifying abilities of pitches can be explained in terms of their hydrogen-transfer capabilities. Suitable blending with pitches may enable oxidized coals to be used for making metallurgical coke.

  13. Co-carbonization of oxidized coals with petroleum pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grint, A.; Marsh, H.; Clarke, K.

    1983-11-01

    Sherwood and Oakdale coals (NCB class 602 and 301a) were progressively oxidized in oxygen or air. The optical textures of cokes from carbonizations were monitored by optical microscopy. Fresh and oxidized coals were co-carbonized with three petroleum pitches of different modifying ability i.e. superactive, active and passive. Increases in anisotropic optical texture of resultant cokes were monitored by a point-counting technique. Whereas all three pitches could remove the effects of mild oxidation it was only the super-active pitch which could modify cokes from the heavily oxidized coals. Modifying abilities of pitches can be explained in terms of their hydrogen-transfer capabilities. Suitable blending with pitches may enable oxidized coals to be used for making metallurgical coke. (26 refs.)

  14. H-Darrieus Wind Turbine with Blade Pitch Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paraschivoiu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for computing the optimal variation of the blades' pitch angle of an H-Darrieus wind turbine that maximizes its torque at given operational conditions is proposed and presented along with the results obtained on a 7 kW prototype. The CARDAAV code, based on the “Double-Multiple Streamtube” model developed by the first author, is used to determine the performances of the straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine. This was coupled with a genetic algorithm optimizer. The azimuthal variation of the blades' pitch angle is modeled with an analytical function whose coefficients are used as variables in the optimization process. Two types of variations were considered for the pitch angle: a simple sinusoidal one and one which is more general, relating closely the blades' pitch to the local flow conditions along their circular path. A gain of almost 30% in the annual energy production was obtained with the polynomial optimal pitch control.

  15. Effects of increasing time delays on pitch-matching accuracy in trained singers and untrained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estis, Julie M; Coblentz, Joana K; Moore, Robert E

    2009-07-01

    Trained singers (TS) generally demonstrate accurate pitch matching, but this ability varies within the general population. Pitch-matching accuracy, given increasing silence intervals of 5, 15, and 25 seconds between target tones and vocal matches, was investigated in TS and untrained individuals. A relationship between pitch discrimination and pitch matching was also examined. Thirty-two females (20-30 years) were grouped based on individual vocal training and performance in an immediate pitch-matching task. Participants matched target pitches following time delays, and completed a pitch discrimination task, which required the classification of two tones as same or different. TS and untrained accurate participants performed comparably on all pitch-matching tasks, while untrained inaccurate participants performed significantly less accurately than the other two groups. Performances declined across groups as intervals of silence increased, suggesting degradation of pitch matching as pitch memory was taxed. A significant relationship between pitch discrimination and pitch matching was revealed across participants.

  16. Pre-attentive auditory processing of non-scale pitch in absolute pitch possessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ayasa; Hara, Keiko; Watanabe, Satsuki; Matsuura, Masato; Ohta, Katsuya; Matsushima, Eisuke

    2013-08-26

    Absolute pitch (AP) refers to the ability to identify the pitch of sound without reference. To clarify the neurophysiological characteristics of AP, we compared mismatch negativity (MMN) elicited by scale and non-scale notes between AP possessors and non-AP individuals. Eight individuals who were able to identify pitch with perfect accuracy were defined as AP possessors. Eighteen participants who failed to achieve perfect accuracy were included in the non-AP group. We presented participants with two tone pairs, in a scale condition and a non-scale condition. The frequency ratios of the two pairs were the same. MMN over the frontal region in the non-scale condition was larger in the AP group than the non-AP group. In contrast, no such difference was observed between the two groups in the scale condition. The results suggest that pre-attentive processing of non-scale note sounds in the auditory cortex is a salient neurophysiological characteristic of AP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-care tools to treat depressive symptoms in patients with age-related eye disease: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamga, Hortence; McCusker, Jane; Yaffe, Mark; Sewitch, Maida; Sussman, Tamara; Strumpf, Erin; Olivier, Sébastien; Wittich, Walter; Moghadaszadeh, Solmaz; Freeman, Ellen E

    2017-05-01

    Depression is very common in people with age-related eye disease. Our goal was to determine if self-care tools plus limited telephone support could reduce depressive symptoms in patients with age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. A single-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted at Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital in Montreal, Canada. Eighty participants were recruited. To be eligible, participants must have had either late stage age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy, at least mild depressive symptoms, and visual acuity better than 20/200. Half were randomized to the intervention arm and half to delayed intervention/usual care. The intervention consisted of large print written and audio tools incorporating cognitive-behavioral principles plus three 10-minute telephone calls from a lay coach. Eight-week follow-up data were collected by telephone. The primary outcome was the 8-week change in depressive symptoms as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Secondary outcomes included anxiety, life space and self-efficacy. The baseline mean logMAR visual acuity was 0.37 (SD = 0.20), and the baseline mean Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score was 9.5 (SD = 3.9) indicating moderate depressive symptoms. After adjusting for baseline imbalances in visual acuity, the intervention reduced depressive symptoms by 2.1 points more than usual care (P = 0.040). The intervention was not associated with the secondary outcomes (P > 0.05). Self-care tools plus telephone coaching led to a modest improvement in depressive symptoms in patients with age-related eye disease. Additional research on how to maximize their effect is necessary. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  18. Do Musicians with Perfect Pitch Have More Autism Traits than Musicians without Perfect Pitch? An Empirical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Heaton, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Perfect pitch, also known as absolute pitch (AP), refers to the rare ability to identify or produce a musical tone correctly without the benefit of an external reference. AP is often considered to reflect musical giftedness, but it has also been associated with certain disabilities due to increased...

  19. Early stage hot spot analysis through standard cell base random pattern generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Joong-Won; Song, Jaewan; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Park, Seongyul; Yang, Seung-Hune; Lee, Sooryong; Kang, Hokyu; Madkour, Kareem; ElManhawy, Wael; Lee, SeungJo; Kwan, Joe

    2017-04-01

    Due to limited availability of DRC clean patterns during the process and RET recipe development, OPC recipes are not tested with high pattern coverage. Various kinds of pattern can help OPC engineer to detect sensitive patterns to lithographic effects. Random pattern generation is needed to secure robust OPC recipe. However, simple random patterns without considering real product layout style can't cover patterning hotspot in production levels. It is not effective to use them for OPC optimization thus it is important to generate random patterns similar to real product patterns. This paper presents a strategy for generating random patterns based on design architecture information and preventing hotspot in early process development stage through a tool called Layout Schema Generator (LSG). Using LSG, we generate standard cell based on random patterns reflecting real design cell structure - fin pitch, gate pitch and cell height. The output standard cells from LSG are applied to an analysis methodology to assess their hotspot severity by assigning a score according to their optical image parameters - NILS, MEEF, %PV band and thus potential hotspots can be defined by determining their ranking. This flow is demonstrated on Samsung 7nm technology optimizing OPC recipe and early enough in the process avoiding using problematic patterns.

  20. Discriminating male and female voices: differentiating pitch and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinus, Marianne; Taylor, Margot J

    2012-04-01

    Gender is salient, socially critical information obtained from faces and voices, yet the brain processes underlying gender discrimination have not been well studied. We investigated neural correlates of gender processing of voices in two ERP studies. In the first, ERP differences were seen between female and male voices starting at 87 ms, in both spatial-temporal and peak analyses, particularly the fronto-central N1 and P2. As pitch differences may drive gender differences, the second study used normal, high- and low-pitch voices. The results of these studies suggested that differences in pitch produced early effects (27-63 ms). Gender effects were seen on N1 (120 ms) with implicit pitch processing (study 1), but were not seen with manipulations of pitch (study 2), demonstrating that N1 was modulated by attention. P2 (between 170 and 230 ms) discriminated male from female voices, independent of pitch. Thus, these data show that there are two stages in voice gender processing; a very early pitch or frequency discrimination and a later more accurate determination of gender at the P2 latency.

  1. Long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystals for display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Huh, Jae-Won; Yu, Byeong-Hun

    2014-02-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) have been used for a reflective display because of their reflective nature in the planar state. In a reflective display, the planar and the focal-conic states are used for the bright state and the dark state, respectively. In this paper we introduce a long-pitch CLC device, in which a selective wavelength of the reflected light is shifted to infrared (IR) wavelengths by controlling the pitch. The planar state of a long-pitch CLC device is transparent over the entire visible wavelengths in the field-off state. Omni-directional achromatic reflection through light scattering in the focal-conic state can be achieved without a polarizer. Compared to conventional CLC cells that reflect the visible light in the planar state, a long-pitch CLC device has a longer pitch, of which the operating voltage for switching between the two state is much lower so that achromatic reflective displays and light shutters with low power consumption can be realized using long-pitch CLC devices. By coupling with a reflector, the light efficiency of a longpitch CLC cell in the focal-conic state can be enhanced, by which higher brightness can be obtained for application to reflective displays. A dye-doped long-pitch CLC device can be placed behind a transparent organic light-emitting diode display for use as a light shutter to block the ambient light.

  2. Modeling of Breathy Voice Quality Using Pitch-strength Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddins, David A; Anand, Supraja; Camacho, Arturo; Shrivastav, Rahul

    2016-11-01

    The characteristic voice quality of a speaker conveys important linguistic, paralinguistic, and vocal health-related information. Pitch strength refers to the salience of pitch sensation in a sound and was recently reported to be strongly correlated with the magnitude of perceived breathiness based on a small number of voice stimuli. The current study examined the relationship between perceptual judgments of breathiness and computational estimates of pitch strength based on the Aud-SWIPE (P-NP) algorithm for a large number of voice stimuli (330 synthetic and 57 natural). Similar to the earlier study, the current results confirm a strong relationship between estimated pitch strength and listener judgments of breathiness such that low pitch-strength values are associated with voices that have high perceived breathiness. Based on this result, a model was developed for the perception of breathy voice quality using a pitch-strength estimator. Regression functions derived between the pitch-strength estimates and perceptual judgments of breathiness obtained from matching task revealed a linear relationship for a subset of the natural stimuli. We then used this function to obtain predicted breathiness values for the synthetic and the remaining natural stimuli. Predicted breathiness values from our model were highly correlated with the perceptual data for both types of stimuli. Systematic differences between the breathiness of natural and synthetic stimuli are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tune That Beer! Listening for the Pitch of Beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Reinoso Carvalho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We report two experiments designed to assess the key sensory drivers underlying people’s association of a specific auditory pitch with Belgian beer. In particular, we assessed if people would rely mostly on the differences between beers in terms of their relative alcohol strength, or on the contrast between the most salient taste attributes of the different beers. In Experiment 1, the participants rated three bitter beers (differing in alcohol content, using a narrow range of pitch choices (50–500 Hz. The results revealed that the beers were all rated around the same pitch (Mean = 232 Hz, SD = 136 Hz. In Experiment 2, a wider range of pitch choices (50–1500 Hz, along with the addition of a much sweeter beer, revealed that people mostly tend to match beers with bitter-range profiles at significantly lower pitch ranges when compared to the average pitch of a much sweeter beer. These results therefore demonstrate that clear differences in taste attributes lead to distinctly different matches in terms of pitch. Having demonstrated the robustness of the basic crossmodal matching, future research should aim to uncover the basis for such matches and better understand the perceptual effects of matching/non-matching tones on the multisensory drinking experience.

  4. Experiments to investigate lift production mechanisms on pitching flat plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, P. R. R. J.; Babinsky, H.

    2017-01-01

    Pitching flat plates are a useful simplification of flapping wings, and their study can provide useful insights into unsteady force generation. Non-circulatory and circulatory lift producing mechanisms for low Reynolds number pitching flat plates are investigated. A series of experiments are designed to measure forces and study the unsteady flowfield development. Two pitch axis positions are investigated, namely a leading edge and a mid-chord pitch axis. A novel PIV approach using twin laser lightsheets is shown to be effective at acquiring full field of view velocity data when an opaque wing model is used. Leading-edge vortex (LEV) circulations are extracted from velocity field data, using a Lamb-Oseen vortex fitting algorithm. LEV and trailing-edge vortex positions are also extracted. It is shown that the circulation of the LEV, as determined from PIV data, approximately matches the general trend of an unmodified Wagner function for a leading edge pitch axis and a modified Wagner function for a mid-chord pitch axis. Comparison of experimentally measured lift correlates well with the prediction of a reduced-order model for a LE pitch axis.

  5. Kinematics and kinetics of elite windmill softball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Sherry L; Jones, Deryk G; Guido, John A; Brunet, Michael E

    2006-04-01

    A significant number of time-loss injuries to the upper extremity in elite windmill softball pitchers has been documented. The number of outings and pitches thrown in 1 week for a softball pitcher is typically far in excess of those seen in baseball pitchers. Shoulder stress in professional baseball pitching has been reported to be high and has been linked to pitching injuries. Shoulder distraction has not been studied in an elite softball pitching population. The stresses on the throwing shoulder of elite windmill pitchers are similar to those found for professional baseball pitchers. Descriptive laboratory study. Three-dimensional, high-speed (120 Hz) video data were collected on rise balls from 24 elite softball pitchers during the 1996 Olympic Games. Kinematic parameters related to pitching mechanics and resultant kinetics on the throwing shoulder were calculated. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to relate shoulder stress and pitching mechanics. Shoulder distraction stress averaged 80% of body weight for the Olympic pitchers. Sixty-nine percent of the variability in shoulder distraction can be explained by a combination of 7 parameters related to pitching mechanics. Excessive distraction stress at the throwing shoulder is similar to that found in baseball pitchers, which suggests that windmill softball pitchers are at risk for overuse injuries. Normative information regarding upper extremity kinematics and kinetics for elite softball pitchers has been established.

  6. Heat Health Messages: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Preventative Messages Tool in the Older Population of South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Nitschke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the efficacy of providing targeted information to older individuals to prevent adverse health outcomes during extreme heat. Participants ≥65 years of age (n = 637 were recruited from previous population-based studies and randomized into intervention and control groups. The intervention group received evidence-based information leaflets and summarised “Beat the Heat” tips. Post summer 2013–2014, participants responded to questions about their behaviours and their health experiences. Chi square analysis and risk ratios (RR were used to determine the difference in effects. Responses were received from 216 intervention subjects and 218 controls. Behaviour modification during extreme heat was similar in both groups except for significant increases in the use of cooling systems and the use of a wet cloth to cool the skin in the intervention group. Both actions were recommended in the information package. More people in the intervention group also claimed to have had adequate heat health information. After adjusting for confounders, the RR for self-reported heat stress experienced during summer 2014 indicated a 63% (RR 0.37; 95% CI: 0.22–0.63 reduction in the intervention group compared to the control group. Access to intensive prevention information may have contributed to this positive outcome, indicating the potential usefulness of targeted heat-health information for seniors.

  7. Mismatch negativity to pitch pattern deviants in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Sarah M; Matteis, Mario De; Coffman, Brian A; Murphy, Timothy K; Butera, Christiana D; Ward, Kayla L; Leiter-McBeth, Justin R; Salisbury, Dean F

    2017-09-01

    Simple mismatch negativity (MMN) to infrequent pitch deviants is impaired in individuals with long-term schizophrenia (Sz). The complex MMN elicited by pattern deviance often manifes is cut from here]->ts later after deviant onset than simple MMN and can ascertain deficits in abstracting relationships between stimuli. Sz exhibit reduced complex MMN, but so far this has only been measured when deviance detection relies on a grouping rule. We measured MMN to deviants in pitch-based rules to see whether MMN is also abnormal in Sz under these conditions. Three experiments were conducted. Twenty-seven Sz and 28 healthy matched controls (HC) participated in Experiments 1 and 2, and 24 Sz and 26 HC participated in Experiment 3. Experiment 1 was a standard pitch MMN task, and Sz showed the expected MMN reduction (~ 115 ms) in the simple pitch deviant compared to HC. Experiment 2 comprised standard groups of six tones that ascended in pitch, and deviant groups where the last tone descended in pitch. Complex MMN was late (~ 510 ms) and significantly blunted in Sz. Experiment 3 comprised standard groups of 12 tones (six tones ascending in pitch followed by six tones descending in pitch, like a scale), and deviant groups containing two repetitions of six ascending tones (the scale restarted midstream). Complex MMN was also late (~ 460 ms) and significantly blunted in Sz. These results identify a late pitch pattern deviance-related MMN that is deficient in schizophrenia. This suggests specific deficits in later more complex deviance detection in schizophrenia for abstract patterns. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Auditory working memory predicts individual differences in absolute pitch learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Koch, Rachelle; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2015-07-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is typically defined as the ability to label an isolated tone as a musical note in the absence of a reference tone. At first glance the acquisition of AP note categories seems like a perceptual learning task, since individuals must assign a category label to a stimulus based on a single perceptual dimension (pitch) while ignoring other perceptual dimensions (e.g., loudness, octave, instrument). AP, however, is rarely discussed in terms of domain-general perceptual learning mechanisms. This is because AP is typically assumed to depend on a critical period of development, in which early exposure to pitches and musical labels is thought to be necessary for the development of AP precluding the possibility of adult acquisition of AP. Despite this view of AP, several previous studies have found evidence that absolute pitch category learning is, to an extent, trainable in a post-critical period adult population, even if the performance typically achieved by this population is below the performance of a "true" AP possessor. The current studies attempt to understand the individual differences in learning to categorize notes using absolute pitch cues by testing a specific prediction regarding cognitive capacity related to categorization - to what extent does an individual's general auditory working memory capacity (WMC) predict the success of absolute pitch category acquisition. Since WMC has been shown to predict performance on a wide variety of other perceptual and category learning tasks, we predict that individuals with higher WMC should be better at learning absolute pitch note categories than individuals with lower WMC. Across two studies, we demonstrate that auditory WMC predicts the efficacy of learning absolute pitch note categories. These results suggest that a higher general auditory WMC might underlie the formation of absolute pitch categories for post-critical period adults. Implications for understanding the mechanisms that underlie the

  9. SARAPAN—A Simulated-Annealing-Based Tool to Generate Random Patterned-Channel-Age in CANDU Fuel Management Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddy Kastanya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In any reactor physics analysis, the instantaneous power distribution in the core can be calculated when the actual bundle-wise burnup distribution is known. Considering the fact that CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium utilizes on-power refueling to compensate for the reduction of reactivity due to fuel burnup, in the CANDU fuel management analysis, snapshots of power and burnup distributions can be obtained by simulating and tracking the reactor operation over an extended period using various tools such as the *SIMULATE module of the Reactor Fueling Simulation Program (RFSP code. However, for some studies, such as an evaluation of a conceptual design of a next-generation CANDU reactor, the preferred approach to obtain a snapshot of the power distribution in the core is based on the patterned-channel-age model implemented in the *INSTANTAN module of the RFSP code. The objective of this approach is to obtain a representative snapshot of core conditions quickly. At present, such patterns could be generated by using a program called RANDIS, which is implemented within the *INSTANTAN module. In this work, we present an alternative approach to derive the patterned-channel-age model where a simulated-annealing-based algorithm is used to find such patterns, which produce reasonable power distributions.

  10. Individual pitch control of wind turbines using local inflow measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sven Creutz; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a model based control approach for individually adjusting the pitch of wind turbine blades and thereby attenuating the effect of asymmetric wind loads. It is assumed that measurements of local inflow along each blade are available. This effectively provides an estimate...... of the load distribution along the blades. The load estimates are used in a predictive setup where inflow measured by one blade is used as basis for calculating future loads for the other blades. Simulations with a full stochastic wind field illustrate the effectiveness of the individual pitch controller...... as compared to controlling the pitch collectively....

  11. Attenuating wind turbine loads through model based individual pitch control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sven Creutz; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider wind turbine load attenuation through model based control. Asymmetric loads caused by the wind field can be reduced by pitching the blades individually. To this end we investigate the use of stochastic models of the wind which can be included in a model based individual....... The individual pitch controller design in investigated in simulations....... pitch controller design. In this way the variability of the wind can be estimated and compensated for by the controller. The wind turbine model is in general time-variant due to its rotational nature. For this reason the modeling and control is carried out in so-called multiblade coordinates...

  12. The pitch-heave dynamics of transportation vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, L. M.; Richardson, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    The analysis and design of suspensions for vehicles of finite length using pitch-heave models is presented. Dynamic models for the finite length vehicle include the spatial distribution of the guideway input disturbance over the vehicle length, as well as both pitch and heave degrees-of-freedom. Analytical results relate the vehicle front and rear accelerations to the pitch and heave natural frequencies, which are functions of vehicle suspension geometry and mass distribution. The effects of vehicle asymmetry and suspension contact area are evaluated. Design guidelines are presented for the modification of vehicle and suspension parameters to meet alternative ride quality criteria.

  13. Interactive media as a tool for reducing waiting anxiety at paediatric rehabilitation hospitals: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddiss, Elaine; Knibbe, Tara Joy; Fehlings, Darcy; Mckeever, Patricia; Cohen, Ashley; Mcpherson, Amy

    2017-12-15

    To investigate the efficacy of waiting room media for reducing anxiety and increasing satisfaction at a paediatric rehabilitation hospital. In this clustered, parallel, randomized controlled trial, 310 young people with disabilities (age range 5-19y) and their parents attending outpatient clinics were assigned to interactive media (n=113), a silent nature video (n=97), or media-free comparison (n=100) groups. Young person and parent anxiety was reported using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) on arrival and after 10 minutes in the waiting space. Questionnaires measured young person, parent, and staff satisfaction. Young people exposed to interactive media reported a postexposure state anxiety that was 1.1 raw points (2.7 standardized points) lower on the STAI than the comparison group (95% confidence interval [CI] -1.9 to -0.22). There was no difference in postexposure state anxiety between the passive media and comparison groups (95% CI -0.64 to 1.1). Parents' state anxiety did not differ between conditions, but interactive media were associated with greater satisfaction (p=0.009). Of 120 staff, 119 reported that interactive media improved the clinic experience for families. Interactive media designed for accessible, hands-free play mitigate waiting anxiety and increases satisfaction. This paper provides evidence to guide design and decision-making around the use of interactive media in health care spaces. Interactive media reduced preclinic waiting anxiety for young people with disabilities. Interactive media were accessible to young people with a range of mobility. Interactive media increased parental and staff satisfaction in the clinic. Guidelines for the design of hands-free, inclusive interactive media for health care facilities are presented. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  14. Speech analysis and synthesis based on pitch-synchronous segmentation of the speech waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, George S.; Fransen, Lawrence J.

    1994-11-01

    This report describes a new speech analysis/synthesis method. This new technique does not attempt to model the human speech production mechanism. Instead, we represent the speech waveform directly in terms of the speech waveform defined in a pitch period. A significant merit of this approach is the complete elimination of pitch interference because each pitch-synchronously segmented waveform does not include a waveform discontinuity. One application of this new speech analysis/synthesis method is the alteration of speech characteristics directly on raw speech. With the increased use of man-made speech in tactical voice message systems and virtual reality environments, such a speech generation tool is highly desirable. Another application is speech encoding operation at low data rates (2400 b/s or less). According to speech intelligibility tests, our new 2400 b/s encoder outperforms the current 2400-b/s LPC. This is also true in noisy environments. Because most tactical platforms are noisy (e.g., helicopter, high-performance aircraft, tank, destroyer), our 2400-b/s speech encoding technique will make tactical voice communication more effective; it will become an indispensable capability for future C4I.

  15. Low-frequency pitch perception in children with cochlear implants in comparison to normal hearing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer D'Alessandro, Hilal; Filipo, Roberto; Ballantyne, Deborah; Attanasio, Giuseppe; Bosco, Ersilia; Nicastri, Maria; Mancini, Patrizia

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the application of two new pitch perception tests in children with cochlear implants (CI) and to compare CI outcomes to normal hearing (NH) children, as well as investigating the effect of chronological age on performance. The tests were believed to be linked to the availability of Temporal Fine Structure (TFS) cues. 20 profoundly deaf children with CI (5-17 years) and 31 NH peers participated in the study. Harmonic Intonation (HI) and Disharmonic Intonation (DI) tests were used to measure low-frequency pitch perception. HI/DI outcomes were found poorer in children with CI. CI and NH groups showed a statistically significant difference (p test (p test, bimodal listeners had better performance than when listening with CI alone. HI/DI tests were applicable as clinical tools in the pediatric population. The majority of CI users showed abnormal outcomes on both tests confirming poor TFS processing in the hearing-impaired population. Findings indicated that the DI test provided more differential low-frequency pitch perception outcomes in that it reflected phase locking and TFS processing capacities of the ear, whereas HI test provided information of its place coding capacity as well.

  16. Learning Pitch with STDP: A Computational Model of Place and Temporal Pitch Perception Using Spiking Neural Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafise Erfanian Saeedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pitch perception is important for understanding speech prosody, music perception, recognizing tones in tonal languages, and perceiving speech in noisy environments. The two principal pitch perception theories consider the place of maximum neural excitation along the auditory nerve and the temporal pattern of the auditory neurons' action potentials (spikes as pitch cues. This paper describes a biophysical mechanism by which fine-structure temporal information can be extracted from the spikes generated at the auditory periphery. Deriving meaningful pitch-related information from spike times requires neural structures specialized in capturing synchronous or correlated activity from amongst neural events. The emergence of such pitch-processing neural mechanisms is described through a computational model of auditory processing. Simulation results show that a correlation-based, unsupervised, spike-based form of Hebbian learning can explain the development of neural structures required for recognizing the pitch of simple and complex tones, with or without the fundamental frequency. The temporal code is robust to variations in the spectral shape of the signal and thus can explain the phenomenon of pitch constancy.

  17. [Comparison of various parameters (pitch 1 and 2) in the study of the lung with spiral computerized tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartoni Galloni, S; Miceli, M; Lipparini, M; Burzi, M; Gigli, F; Rossi, M S; Santoli, G; Guidarelli, G

    1999-03-01

    In Spiral CT, the pitch is the ratio of the distance the tabletop travels per 360 degrees rotation to nominal slice width, expressed in mm. Performing Spiral CT examinations with pitch 2 allows to reduce examination time, exposure and contrast dose, and X-ray tube overload. We investigated the yield of pitch 2 in lung parenchyma studies, particularly relative to diagnostic image quality. Thirty patients were submitted to Spiral CT with pitch 1 [10 mm slice thickness, 10 mm/s table feed; 10 mm (a') and 5 mm (a") reconstruction index: protocol A] and with pitch 2 [10 mm slice thickness, 20 mm/s table feed; 10 mm (b') and 5 mm (b") reconstruction index: protocol B]. Five expert radiologists evaluated the images separately and blindly, grading noise, bronchial wall resolution and diagnostic yield on a 0-5 point scale. The results of protocol A versus protocol B images were analyzed statistically using the Mann-Whitney U-test. The mean scores for each parameter ranged 4.13 (.70 standard deviation) for protocol B with 5 mm reconstruction index (b") to 4.81 (.44 standard deviation) for protocol A with 10 mm reconstruction index (a'). These values (max: 5) indicate very positive results on both protocol A and B images. There were no statistically significant interprotocol differences, except for bronchial wall resolution, in favor of protocol A with 5 mm reconstruction index (a") (p = .025), and for diagnostic yield, in favor of protocol A with 10 mm reconstruction index (a') (p = .018). Spiral CT with pitch 2 is a reliable tool for lung parenchyma studies which permits to reduce examination time and contrast dose, as well as X-ray tube overload and exposure dose.

  18. Evaluation of an early detection tool for social-emotional and behavioral problems in toddlers: The Brief Infant Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment - A cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Alice S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of social-emotional and behavioral problems is estimated to be 8 to 9% among preschool children. Effective early detection tools are needed to promote the provision of adequate care at an early stage. The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA was developed for this purpose. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the BITSEA to enhance social-emotional and behavioral health of preschool children. Methods and Design A cluster randomized controlled trial is set up in youth health care centers in the larger Rotterdam area in the Netherlands, to evaluate the BITSEA. The 31 youth health care centers are randomly allocated to either the control group or the intervention group. The intervention group uses the scores on the BITSEA and cut-off points to evaluate a child's social-emotional and behavioral health and to decide whether or not the child should be referred. The control group provides care as usual, which involves administering a questionnaire that structures the conversation between child health professionals and parents. At a one year follow-up measurement the social-emotional and behavioral health of all children included in the study population will be evaluated. Discussion It is hypothesized that better results will be found, in terms of social-emotional and behavioral health in the intervention group, compared to the control group, due to more adequate early detection, referral and more appropriate and timely care. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials NTR2035

  19. Embedded pitch adapters: A high-yield interconnection solution for strip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullán, M., E-mail: miguel.ullan@imb-cnm.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB-Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Allport, P.P.; Baca, M.; Broughton, J.; Chisholm, A.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Wilson, J.A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Kierstead, J.; Kuczewski, P.; Lynn, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department and Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Hommels, L.B.A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Fleta, C.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Quirion, D. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB-Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Gregor, I.M.; Lohwasser, K. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); and others

    2016-09-21

    A proposal to fabricate large area strip sensors with integrated, or embedded, pitch adapters is presented for the End-cap part of the Inner Tracker in the ATLAS experiment. To implement the embedded pitch adapters, a second metal layer is used in the sensor fabrication, for signal routing to the ASICs. Sensors with different embedded pitch adapters have been fabricated in order to optimize the design and technology. Inter-strip capacitance, noise, pick-up, cross-talk, signal efficiency, and fabrication yield have been taken into account in their design and fabrication. Inter-strip capacitance tests taking into account all channel neighbors reveal the important differences between the various designs considered. These tests have been correlated with noise figures obtained in full assembled modules, showing that the tests performed on the bare sensors are a valid tool to estimate the final noise in the full module. The full modules have been subjected to test beam experiments in order to evaluate the incidence of cross-talk, pick-up, and signal loss. The detailed analysis shows no indication of cross-talk or pick-up as no additional hits can be observed in any channel not being hit by the beam above 170 mV threshold, and the signal in those channels is always below 1% of the signal recorded in the channel being hit, above 100 mV threshold. First results on irradiated mini-sensors with embedded pitch adapters do not show any change in the interstrip capacitance measurements with only the first neighbors connected.

  20. Comparison of pitch rate history effects on dynamic stall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhara, M. S.; Carr, Lawrence W.; Ahmed, S.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic stall of an airfoil is a classic case of forced unsteady separated flow. Flow separation is brought about by large incidences introduced by the large amplitude unsteady pitching motion of an airfoil. One of the parameters that affects the dynamic stall process is the history of the unsteady motion. In addition, the problem is complicated by the effects of compressibility that rapidly appear over the airfoil even at low Mach numbers at moderately high angles of attack. Consequently, it is of interest to know the effects of pitch rate history on the dynamic stall process. This abstract compares the results of a flow visualization study of the problem with two different pitch rate histories, namely, oscillating airfoil motion and a linear change in the angle of attack due to a transient pitching motion.

  1. Association of the pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of the pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum with grass hosts in commercial pine production areas of South Africa. Cassandra L Swett, Bernice Porter, Gerda Fourie, Emma T Steenkamp, Thomas R Gordon, Michael J Wingfield ...

  2. Pitch Angle Control for Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cheng, M

    2008-01-01

    Pitch angle control is the most common means for adjusting the aerodynamic torque of the wind turbine when wind speed is above rated speed and various controlling variables may be chosen, such as wind speed, generator speed and generator power. As conventional pitch control usually use PI...... controller, the mathematical model of the system should be known well. A fuzzy logic pitch angle controller is developed in this paper, in which it does not need well known about the system and the mean wind speed is used to compensate the non-linear sensitivity. The fuzzy logic control strategy may have...... the potential when the system contains strong non-linearity, such as wind turbulence is strong, or the control objectives include fatigue loads. The design of the fuzzy logic controller and the comparisons with conversional pitch angle control strategies with various controlling variables are carried out...

  3. The role of pitch and timbre in voice gender categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernet, Cyril R; Belin, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Voice gender perception can be thought of as a mixture of low-level perceptual feature extraction and higher-level cognitive processes. Although it seems apparent that voice gender perception would rely on low-level pitch analysis, many lines of research suggest that this is not the case. Indeed, voice gender perception has been shown to rely on timbre perception and to be categorical, i.e., to depend on accessing a gender model or representation. Here, we used a unique combination of acoustic stimulus manipulation and mathematical modeling of human categorization performances to determine the relative contribution of pitch and timbre to this process. Contrary to the idea that voice gender perception relies on timber only, we demonstrate that voice gender categorization can be performed using pitch only but more importantly that pitch is used only when timber information is ambiguous (i.e., for more androgynous voices).

  4. Positioning of semi-submersibles with roll and pitch damping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, A.J. [ABB Industri AS, Oslo (Norway); Strand, J.P. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Engineering Cybernetics

    1999-07-01

    Dynamic positioning and thruster assisted position mooring of ships and floating marine constructions include different control functions for automatic positioning in the horizontal plane. A three degrees of freedom multivariable controller with feedback signals from surge, sway and yaw, either of linear or nonlinear type, can be regarded as adequate for the control objective for most surface vessels. However, for certain marine constructions with discernible coupling characteristics in the dynamics between the horizontal plane (surge, sway and yaw) and vertical plane (heave, roll and pitch), undesirably large roll and pitch oscillations may be induced by the thruster actions. Especially for constructions with natural periods in roll and pitch within the bandwidth of the positioning controller, the thruster induced oscillations in roll and pitch may become limitable on the operation. In this paper a new multivariable control law accounting for both horizontal and vertical motions is proposed. Simulations with a semi-submersible demonstrate the effect of the proposed control strategy. (author)

  5. Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACI proposes a design for a Propulsor (Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan) that has wide application in all sectors of Aviation. Propulsor hardware of this...

  6. Series pid pitch controller of large wind turbines generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micić Aleksandar D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For this stable process with oscillatory dynamics, characterized with small damping ratio and dominant transport delay, design of the series PID pitch controller is based on the model obtained from the open-loop process step response, filtered with the second-order Butterworth filter Fbw. Performance of the series PID pitch controller, with the filter Fbw, is analyzed by simulations of the set-point and input/output disturbance responses, including simulations with a colored noise added to the control variable. Excellent performance/robustness tradeoff is obtained, compared to the recently proposed PI pitch controllers and to the modified internal model pitch controller, developed here, which has a natural mechanism to compensate effect of dominant transport delay. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47016

  7. Joint Pitch and DOA Estimation Using the ESPRIT method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yuntao; Amir, Leshem; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of joint multi-pitch and direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation for multi-channel harmonic sinusoidal signals is considered. A spatio-temporal matrix signal model for a uniform linear array is defined, and then the ESPRIT method based on subspace techniques that exploits...... the invariance property in the time domain is first used to estimate the multi pitch frequencies of multiple harmonic signals. Followed by the estimated pitch frequencies, the DOA estimations based on the ESPRIT method are also presented by using the shift invariance structure in the spatial domain. Compared...... to the existing stateof-the-art algorithms, the proposed method based on ESPRIT without 2-D searching is computationally more efficient but performs similarly. An asymptotic performance analysis of the DOA and pitch estimation of the proposed method are also presented. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed...

  8. Nonlinear Dynamics of the Perceived Pitch of Complex Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; González, Diego L.; Piro, Oreste

    1999-06-01

    We apply results from nonlinear dynamics to an old problem in acoustical physics: the mechanism of the perception of the pitch of sounds, especially the sounds known as complex tones that are important for music and speech intelligibility.

  9. Meet you in the elevator! Pitching yourself and your research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffel, Maren; Börner, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Scheffel, M., & Börner, D. (2013, 31 May). Meet you in the elevator! Pitching yourself and your research. Workshop presentation at the 9th Joint European Summer School on Technology Enhanced Learning, Limassol, Cyprus.

  10. The role of pitch and timbre in voice gender categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril R Pernet

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Voice gender perception can be thought of as a mixture of low-level perceptual feature extraction and higher-level cognitive processes. Although it seems apparent that voice gender perception would rely on low-level pitch analysis, many lines of research suggest that this is not the case. Indeed, voice gender perception has been shown to rely on timbre perception and to be categorical, i.e. to depend on accessing a gender model or representation. Here, we used a unique combination of acoustic stimulus manipulation and mathematical modelling of human categorization performances to determine the relative contribution of pitch and timbre to this process. Contrary to the idea that voice gender perception relies on timber only, we demonstrate that voice gender categorization can be performed using pitch only but more importantly that pitch is used only when timber information is ambiguous (i.e. for more androgynous voices.

  11. Impaired pitch identification as a potential marker for depression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwenzer, Michael; Zattarin, Eva; Grözinger, Michael; Mathiak, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Impaired auditory performance has been considered as marker for depression. The present study tested whether pitch perception is affected in depression and whether the impairment is task-specific or reflects global dysfunction...

  12. Nonlinear Dynamics of the Perceived Pitch of Complex Sounds

    CERN Document Server

    Cartwright, J H E; Piro, O; Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; Gonzalez, Diego L.; Piro, Oreste

    1999-01-01

    We apply results from nonlinear dynamics to an old problem in acoustical physics: the mechanism of the perception of the pitch of sounds, especially the sounds known as complex tones that are important for music and speech intelligibility.

  13. Complex-tone pitch representations in the human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica

    ) listeners and the effect of musical training for pitch discrimination of complex tones with resolved and unresolved harmonics. Concerning the first topic, behavioral and modeling results in listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) indicated that temporal envelope cues of complex tones......, although their benefit was larger for the resolved harmonics. Additionally, task-evoked pupil responses were recorded as an indicator of processing effort while listeners performed a pitch-discrimination task. Although the difficulty of the task was adjusted for each participant to compensate...... for the individual pitch-discrimination abilities, the musically trained listeners still allocated lower processing effort than did the non-musicians to perform the task at the same performance level. This finding suggests an enhanced pitch representation along the auditory system in musicians, possibly as a result...

  14. Investors prefer entrepreneurial ventures pitched by attractive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Alison Wood; Huang, Laura; Kearney, Sarah Wood; Murray, Fiona E

    2014-03-25

    Entrepreneurship is a central path to job creation, economic growth, and prosperity. In the earliest stages of start-up business creation, the matching of entrepreneurial ventures to investors is critically important. The entrepreneur's business proposition and previous experience are regarded as the main criteria for investment decisions. Our research, however, documents other critical criteria that investors use to make these decisions: the gender and physical attractiveness of the entrepreneurs themselves. Across a field setting (three entrepreneurial pitch competitions in the United States) and two experiments, we identify a profound and consistent gender gap in entrepreneur persuasiveness. Investors prefer pitches presented by male entrepreneurs compared with pitches made by female entrepreneurs, even when the content of the pitch is the same. This effect is moderated by male physical attractiveness: attractive males were particularly persuasive, whereas physical attractiveness did not matter among female entrepreneurs.

  15. Performance Demands in Softball Pitching: A Comprehensive Muscle Fatigue Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corben, Jeffrey S; Cerrone, Sara A; Soviero, Julie E; Kwiecien, Susan Y; Nicholas, Stephen J; McHugh, Malachy P

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring pitch count is standard practice in minor league baseball but not in softball because of the perception that fast-pitch softball pitching is a less stressful motion. To examine muscle fatigue after fast-pitch softball performances to provide an assessment of performance demand. Descriptive laboratory study. Bilateral strength measurements (handheld dynamometer) were made on 19 female softball pitchers (mean age [±SD], 15.2 ± 1.2 years) before and after pitching a game (mean number of pitches, 99 ± 21; mean innings pitched, 5 ± 1). A total of 20 tests were performed on the dominant and nondominant sides: forearm (grip, wrist flexion/extension, pronation/supination, elbow flexion/extension), shoulder (flexion, abduction/adduction, external/internal rotation, empty can test), scapula (middle/lower trapezius, rhomboid), and hip (hip flexion/extension, abduction/adduction). Fatigue (percentage strength loss) was categorized based on bilateral versus unilateral presentation using paired t tests: bilateral symmetric (significant on dominant and nondominant and not different between sides), bilateral asymmetric (significant on dominant and nondominant but significantly greater on dominant), unilateral asymmetric (significant on dominant only and significantly greater than nondominant), or unilateral equivocal (significant on dominant only but not different from nondominant). Bilateral symmetric fatigue was evident for all hip (dominant, 19.3%; nondominant, 15.2%) and scapular tests (dominant, 19.2%; nondominant, 19.3%). In general, shoulder tests exhibited bilateral asymmetric fatigue (dominant, 16.9%; nondominant, 11.6%). Forearm tests were more variable, with bilateral symmetric fatigue in the elbow flexors (dominant, 22.5%; nondominant, 19.2%), and wrist flexors (dominant, 21.6%; nondominant, 19.0%), bilateral asymmetric fatigue in the supinators (dominant, 21.8%; nondominant, 15.5%), unilateral asymmetric fatigue in the elbow extensors (dominant, 22

  16. Pitch-Responsive Cortical Regions in Congenital Amusia

    OpenAIRE

    Albouy, Philippe; Tillmann, Barbara; Caclin, Anne; Norman-Haignere, Samuel Victor; McDermott, Joshua H.; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a lifelong deficit in music perception thought to reflect an underlying impairment in the perception and memory of pitch. The neural basis of amusic impairments is actively debated. Some prior studies have suggested that amusia stems from impaired connectivity between auditory and frontal cortex. However, it remains possible that impairments in pitch coding within auditory cortex also contribute to the disorder, in part because prior studies have not measured responses fr...

  17. Two LQRI based Blade Pitch Controls for Wind Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Sungsu Park; Yoonsu Nam

    2012-01-01

    As the wind turbine size has been increasing and their mechanical components are built lighter, the reduction of the structural loads becomes a very important task of wind turbine control in addition to maximum wind power capture. In this paper, we present a separate set of collective and individual pitch control algorithms. Both pitch control algorithms use the LQR control technique with integral action (LQRI), and utilize Kalman filters to estimate system states and wind speed. Compared to ...

  18. Pitch Sequence Complexity and Long-Term Pitcher Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R. Bock

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Winning one or two games during a Major League Baseball (MLB season is often the difference between a team advancing to post-season play, or “waiting until next year”. Technology advances have made it feasible to augment historical data with in-game contextual data to provide managers immediate insights regarding an opponent’s next move, thereby providing a competitive edge. We developed statistical models of pitcher behavior using pitch sequences thrown during three recent MLB seasons (2011–2013. The purpose of these models was to predict the next pitch type, for each pitcher, based on data available at the immediate moment, in each at-bat. Independent models were developed for each player’s most frequent four pitches. The overall predictability of next pitch type is 74:5%. Additional analyses on pitcher predictability within specific game situations are discussed. Finally, using linear regression analysis, we show that an index of pitch sequence predictability may be used to project player performance in terms of Earned Run Average (ERA and Fielding Independent Pitching (FIP over a longer term. On a restricted range of the independent variable, reducing complexity in selection of pitches is correlated with higher values of both FIP and ERA for the players represented in the sample. Both models were significant at the α = 0.05 level (ERA: p = 0.022; FIP: p = 0.0114. With further development, such models may reduce risk faced by management in evaluation of potential trades, or to scouts assessing unproven emerging talent. Pitchers themselves might benefit from awareness of their individual statistical tendencies, and adapt their behavior on the mound accordingly. To our knowledge, the predictive model relating pitch-wise complexity and long-term performance appears to be novel.

  19. 2DFFT: Measuring Galactic Spiral Arm Pitch Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benjamin L.; Berrier, Joel C.; Shields, Douglas W.; Kennefick, Julia; Kennefick, Daniel; Seigar, Marc S.; Lacy, Claud H. S.; Puerari, Ivânio

    2016-08-01

    2DFFT utilizes two-dimensional fast Fourier transformations of images of spiral galaxies to isolate and measure the pitch angles of their spiral arms; this provides a quantitative way to measure this morphological feature and allows comparison of spiral galaxy pitch angle to other galactic parameters and test spiral arm genesis theories. 2DFFT requires fourn.c from Numerical Recipes in C (Press et al. 1989).

  20. Pitch Strength as an Outcome Measure for Treatment of Dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Lisa M; Jackson-Menaldi, Cristina; Rubin, Adam D; Skeffington, Jean; Hunter, Eric J; Skowronski, Mark D; Shrivastav, Rahul

    2017-03-16

    Measurement of treatment outcomes is critical for the spectrum of voice treatments (ie, surgical, behavioral, or pharmacological). Outcome measures typically include visual (eg, stroboscopic data), auditory (eg, Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice; Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain), and objective correlates of vocal fold vibratory characteristics, such as acoustic signals (eg, harmonics-to-noise ratio, cepstral peak prominence) or patient self-reported questionnaires (eg, Voice Handicap Index, Voice-Related Quality of Life). Subjective measures often show high variability, whereas most acoustic measures of voice are only valid for signals where some degree of periodicity can be assumed. However, this assumption is often invalid for dysphonic voices where signal periodicity is suspect. Furthermore, many of these measures are not useful in isolation for diagnostic purposes. We evaluated a recently developed algorithm (Auditory Sawtooth Waveform Inspired Pitch Estimator-Prime [Auditory-SWIPE']) for estimating pitch and pitch strength for dysphonic voices. Whereas fundamental frequency is a physical attribute of a signal, pitch is its psychophysical correlate. As such, the perception of pitch can extend to most signals irrespective of their periodicity. Post hoc analyses were conducted for three groups of patients evaluated and treated for voice problems at a major voice center: (1) muscle tension dysphonia/functional dysphonia, (2) vocal fold mass(es), and (3) presbyphonia. All patients were recorded before and after surgical/behavioral treatment for voice disorders. Pitch and pitch strength for each speaker were computed with the Auditory-SWIPE' algorithm. Comparison of pre- and posttreatment data provides support for pitch strength as a measure of treatment outcomes for dysphonic voices. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Variable gain for a wind turbine pitch control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, R. C.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1981-01-01

    The gain variation is made in the software logic of the pitch angle controller. The gain level is changed depending upon the level of power error. The control uses low gain for low pitch activity the majority of the time. If the power exceeds ten percent offset above rated, the gain is increased to a higher gain to more effectively limit power. A variable gain control functioned well in tests on the Mod-0 wind turbine.

  2. Enhanced brainstem encoding predicts musicians' perceptual advantages with pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T

    2011-02-01

    Important to Western tonal music is the relationship between pitches both within and between musical chords; melody and harmony are generated by combining pitches selected from the fixed hierarchical scales of music. It is of critical importance that musicians have the ability to detect and discriminate minute deviations in pitch in order to remain in tune with other members of their ensemble. Event-related potentials indicate that cortical mechanisms responsible for detecting mistuning and violations in pitch are more sensitive and accurate in musicians as compared with non-musicians. The aim of the present study was to address whether this superiority is also present at a subcortical stage of pitch processing. Brainstem frequency-following responses were recorded from musicians and non-musicians in response to tuned (i.e. major and minor) and detuned (± 4% difference in frequency) chordal arpeggios differing only in the pitch of their third. Results showed that musicians had faster neural synchronization and stronger brainstem encoding for defining characteristics of musical sequences regardless of whether they were in or out of tune. In contrast, non-musicians had relatively strong representation for major/minor chords but showed diminished responses for detuned chords. The close correspondence between the magnitude of brainstem responses and performance on two behavioral pitch discrimination tasks supports the idea that musicians' enhanced detection of chordal mistuning may be rooted at pre-attentive, sensory stages of processing. Findings suggest that perceptually salient aspects of musical pitch are not only represented at subcortical levels but that these representations are also enhanced by musical experience. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Spectral Envelope Transformation in Singing Voice for Advanced Pitch Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Santacruz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to perform a step towards more natural pitch shifting techniques in singing voice for its application in music production and entertainment systems. In this paper, we present an advanced method to achieve natural modifications when applying a pitch shifting process to singing voice by modifying the spectral envelope of the audio excerpt. To this end, an all-pole model has been selected to model the spectral envelope, which is estimated using a constrained non-linear optimization. The analysis of the global variations of the spectral envelope was carried out by identifying changes of the parameters of the model along with the changes of the pitch. With the obtained spectral envelope transformation functions, we applied our pitch shifting scheme to some sustained vowels in order to compare results with the same transformation made by using the Flex Pitch plugin of Logic Pro X and pitch synchronous overlap and add technique (PSOLA. This comparison has been carried out by means of both an objective and a subjective evaluation. The latter was done with a survey open to volunteers on our website.

  4. A Method for Low-Delay Pitch Tracking and Smoothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for pitch tracking is presented. The method is comprised of two steps. In the first step, accurate pitch estimates are obtained on a sample-by-sample basis by updates of the signal statistics with an exponential forgetting factor and subse- quent numerical optimization...... that require fast and sample-by-sample estimates, like tuners for musical instruments, transcription tasks requiring details like vi- brato, and real-time tracking of voiced speech.......In this paper, a new method for pitch tracking is presented. The method is comprised of two steps. In the first step, accurate pitch estimates are obtained on a sample-by-sample basis by updates of the signal statistics with an exponential forgetting factor and subse- quent numerical optimization....... In the second step, a Kalman filter is used to smooth the estimates and separate the pitch into a slowly varying component and a rapidly varying component. The former represents the mean pitch while the latter represents vibrato, slides and other fast changes. The method is intended for use in applica- tions...

  5. Do Musicians with Perfect Pitch Have More Autism Traits than Musicians without Perfect Pitch? An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Heaton, Pamela; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Perfect pitch, also known as absolute pitch (AP), refers to the rare ability to identify or produce a musical tone correctly without the benefit of an external reference. AP is often considered to reflect musical giftedness, but it has also been associated with certain disabilities due to increased prevalence of AP in individuals with sensory and developmental disorders. Here, we determine whether individual autistic traits are present in people with AP. We quantified subclinical levels of au...

  6. Perceptual distortions in pitch and time reveal active prediction and support for an auditory pitch-motion hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly J Henry

    Full Text Available A number of accounts of human auditory perception assume that listeners use prior stimulus context to generate predictions about future stimulation. Here, we tested an auditory pitch-motion hypothesis that was developed from this perspective. Listeners judged either the time change (i.e., duration or pitch change of a comparison frequency glide relative to a standard (referent glide. Under a constant-velocity assumption, listeners were hypothesized to use the pitch velocity (Δf/Δt of the standard glide to generate predictions about the pitch velocity of the comparison glide, leading to perceptual distortions along the to-be-judged dimension when the velocities of the two glides differed. These predictions were borne out in the pattern of relative points of subjective equality by a significant three-way interaction between the velocities of the two glides and task. In general, listeners' judgments along the task-relevant dimension (pitch or time were affected by expectations generated by the constant-velocity standard, but in an opposite manner for the two stimulus dimensions. When the comparison glide velocity was faster than the standard, listeners overestimated time change, but underestimated pitch change, whereas when the comparison glide velocity was slower than the standard, listeners underestimated time change, but overestimated pitch change. Perceptual distortions were least evident when the velocities of the standard and comparison glides were matched. Fits of an imputed velocity model further revealed increasingly larger distortions at faster velocities. The present findings provide support for the auditory pitch-motion hypothesis and add to a larger body of work revealing a role for active prediction in human auditory perception.

  7. Shoulder and Scapular Kinematics during the Windmill Softball Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Sherry I.; Kraszewski, Andrew; Kontaxis, Andreas; Gibbons, Mandi; Bido, Jennifer; Graziano, Jessica; Hafer, Jocelyn; Jones, Kristofer J.; Hillstrom, Howard; Fealy, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Pitch count has been studied extensively in the overhand throwing athlete. However, pitch count and fatigue have not been systematically evaluated in the female windmill (underhand) throwing athlete. Direct kinematic measurements of the glenohumeral and scapulo-thoracic joint have not to be correlated and determined. The purpose is to measure scapular kinematics for the high school female windmill softball pitcher and identify kinematic adaptions and changes in pitching performance due to fatigue. Methods: Eight female high school softball pitchers without previous shoulder injury were enrolled. Three-dimensional (3D) motion of the humerus, scapula and trunk were recorded with surface markers at 250 Hz. Marker placement and the anatomical calibration of bony landmarks followed recommendations by the ISB (Wu et al. 2005) and Kontaxis et al (2009). A custom marker cluster was used to dynamically track the scapula (Karduna et al. 2001). The pitching mound was at regulation distance (43’) from the strike zone target. All athletes completed 105 pitches in sets of 15 with a rest of 5 minutes between sets. Ball speed recorded with a radar gun, 3D angular rotations of the glenohumeral joint, scapulo-thoracic joint and thorax with respect to the room were calculated for all throws. The last five pitches of every set were averaged for analysis. Results: Ball speed (Figure 1, n=8 subjects) and peak glenohumeral, scapulo-thoracic and thoracic angular rotations (n=4 subjects) were consistent across all sets. Examples of kinematics at two of these joints are presented across all sets (Figure 2, n=4). Data across all planes demonstrated similar consistency. Conclusion: This study presents a systematic protocol for the study of fatigue during windmill softball pitching. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to analyze glenohumeral as well as scapulo-thoracic kinematics during this task. The consistency in the glenohumeral, scapulo-thoracic and torso

  8. High-pitch metal-on-glass technology for pad pitch adaptation between detectors and readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ullán, Miguel; Campabadal, Francesca; Fleta, Celeste; Garcia, Carmen; Gonzalez, Francisco; Bernabeu, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Modern high-energy physics and astrophysics strip detectors have increased channel density to levels at which their connection with readout electronics has become very complex due to high pad pitch. Also, direct wire bonding is prevented by the fact that typically detector's pad pitch and electronics' pad pitch do not match. A high- pitch metal-on-glass technology is presented, that allows pad pitch adaptation between detectors and readout electronics. It consists of high-density metal lines on top of an insulating glass substrate. A photoresist layer is deposited covering the metal tracks for passivation and protection The technology is tested for conductivity, bondability, bonding pull force, peel off, and radiation hardness, and it is an established technology in the clean room of the CNM Institute in Barcelona. This technology has been chosen by the ATLAS Collaboration for the pad pitch adapters (PPA) of the SCT Endcap Modules, by a Compton camera project, and by other HEP groups for interconnection betwe...

  9. Influence of Pitch Height on the Perception of Submissiveness and Threat in Musical Passages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Huron

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Bolinger, Ohala, Morton and others have established that vocal pitch height is perceived to be associated with social signals of dominance and submissiveness: higher vocal pitch is associated with submissiveness, whereas lower vocal pitch is associated with social dominance. An experiment was carried out to test this relationship in the perception of non-vocal melodies. Results show a parallel situation in music: higher-pitched melodies sound more submissive (less threatening than lower-pitched melodies.

  10. Dynamics of fluidic devices with applications to rotor pitch links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Lloyd H., III

    Coupling a Fluidic Flexible Matrix Composite (F2MC) to an air-pressurized fluid port produces a fundamentally new class of tunable vibration isolator. This fluidlastic device provides significant vibration reduction at an isolation frequency that can be tuned over a broad frequency range. The material properties and geometry of the F2MC element, as well as the port inertance, determine the isolation frequency. A unique feature of this device is that the port inertance depends on pressure so the isolation frequency can be adjusted by changing the air pressure. For constant port inertance, the isolation frequency is largely independent of the isolated mass so the device is robust to changes in load. A nonlinear model is developed to predict isolator length and port inertance. The model is linearized and the frequency response calculated. Experiments agree with theory, demonstrating a tunable isolation range from 9 Hz to 36 Hz and transmitted force reductions of up to 60 dB at the isolation frequency. Replacing rigid pitch links on rotorcraft with coupled fluidic devices has the potential to reduce the aerodynamic blade loads transmitted through the pitch links to the swashplate. Analytical models of two fluidic devices coupled with three different fluidic circuits are derived. These passive fluidlastic systems are tuned, by varying the fluid inertances and capacitances of each fluidic circuit, to reduce the transmitted pitch-link loads. The different circuit designs result in transmitted pitch link loads reduction at up to three main rotor harmonics. The simulation results show loads reduction at the targeted out-of-phase and in-phase harmonics of up to 88% and 93%, respectively. Experimental validation of two of the fluidic circuits demonstrates loads reduction of up to 89% at the out-of-phase isolation frequencies and up to 81% at the in-phase isolation frequencies. Replacing rigid pitch links on rotorcraft with fluidic pitch links changes the blade torsional

  11. Sub-20nm hybrid lithography using optical, pitch-division, and e-beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belledent, J.; Smayling, M.; Pradelles, J.; Pimenta-Barros, P.; Barnola, S.; Mage, L.; Icard, B.; Lapeyre, C.; Soulan, S.; Pain, L.

    2012-03-01

    A roadmap extending far beyond the current 22nm CMOS node has been presented several times. [1] This roadmap includes the use of a highly regular layout style which can be decomposed into "lines and cuts."[2] The "lines" can be done with existing optical immersion lithography and pitch division with self-aligned spacers.[3] The "cuts" can be done with either multiple exposures using immersion lithography, or a hybrid solution using either EUV or direct-write ebeam.[ 4] The choice for "cuts" will be driven by the availability of cost-effective, manufacturing-ready equipment and infrastructure. Optical lithography improvements have enabled scaling far beyond what was expected; for example, soft x-rays (aka EUV) were in the semiconductor roadmap as early as 1994 since optical resolution was not expected for sub-100nm features. However, steady improvements and innovations such as Excimer laser sources and immersion photolithography have allowed some manufacturers to build 22nm CMOS SOCs with single-exposure optical lithography. With the transition from random complex 2D shapes to regular 1D-patterns at 28nm, the "lines and cuts" approach can extend CMOS logic to at least the 7nm node. The spacer double patterning for lines and optical cuts patterning is expected to be used down to the 14nm node. In this study, we extend the scaling to 18nm half-pitch which is approximately the 10-11nm node using spacer pitch division and complementary e-beam lithography. For practical reasons, E-Beam lithography is used as well to expose the "mandrel" patterns that support the spacers. However, in a production mode, it might be cost effective to replace this step by a standard 193nm exposure and applying the spacer technique twice to divide the pitch by 3 or 4. The Metal-1 "cut" pattern is designed for a reasonably complex logic function with ~100k gates of combinatorial logic and flip-flops. Since the final conductor is defined by a Damascene process, the "cut" patterns become islands

  12. Randomized Trial of Long-Acting Insulin Glargine Titration Web Tool (LTHome) Versus Enhanced Usual Therapy of Glargine Titration (INNOVATE Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Harpreet S; Venn, Karri; Ye, Chenglin; Aronson, Ronnie

    2016-10-01

    Basal insulin titration in the real world is often unsuccessful. LTHome, a web tool, applies a rules engine-based algorithm providing insulin titration advice directly to the patient. This pilot, randomized trial evaluates basal insulin glargine titration by LTHome compared to enhanced usual therapy ([EUT]-diabetes education program) over 12 weeks. Important inclusion criteria: 18-75 years, type 2 diabetes, computer literacy, and HbA1c >7.0%. Trial protocol was approved by ethics board. We randomized 139 subjects. The achievement of primary composite outcome (four out of seven fasting plasma glucose [FPG] within 5-7.2 mmol/L + mean for three consecutive FPG within 5-7.2 mmol/L + no severe hypoglycemia) was 15% in LTHome versus 41% in EUT (noninferiority not met, P-value = 0.92). Other outcomes were similar between the LTHome and EUT arms: alternate composite outcome achievement (last five FPG mean within the range of 5-7.2 mmol/L + no hypoglycemia, 47% and 51%, P = 0.73); A1c reduction (-1.0% and -1.1%, P = 0.66); proportion achieving A1c ≤7% (14% and 20%, P = 0.36); and hypoglycemia incidence (31% and 37%, P = 0.4), respectively. Patient satisfaction score improvements were greater in LTHome versus EUT (change in fear of hypoglycemia score P = 0.04 and change in diabetes distress score P = 0.04). The mean number of additional healthcare provider visits was 0.13 for LTHome and 1.22 for EUT (P INNOVATE trial suggests clinical utility of LTHome compared to EUT in real-life settings. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of automated insulin titration algorithms.

  13. Neural mechanisms underlying melodic perception and memory for pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatorre, R J; Evans, A C; Meyer, E

    1994-04-01

    The neural correlates of music perception were studied by measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes with positron emission tomography (PET). Twelve volunteers were scanned using the bolus water method under four separate conditions: (1) listening to a sequence of noise bursts, (2) listening to unfamiliar tonal melodies, (3) comparing the pitch of the first two notes of the same set of melodies, and (4) comparing the pitch of the first and last notes of the melodies. The latter two conditions were designed to investigate short-term pitch retention under low or high memory load, respectively. Subtraction of the obtained PET images, superimposed on matched MRI scans, provides anatomical localization of CBF changes associated with specific cognitive functions. Listening to melodies, relative to acoustically matched noise sequences, resulted in CBF increases in the right superior temporal and right occipital cortices. Pitch judgments of the first two notes of each melody, relative to passive listening to the same stimuli, resulted in right frontal-lobe activation. Analysis of the high memory load condition relative to passive listening revealed the participation of a number of cortical and subcortical regions, notably in the right frontal and right temporal lobes, as well as in parietal and insular cortex. Both pitch judgment conditions also revealed CBF decreases within the left primary auditory cortex. We conclude that specialized neural systems in the right superior temporal cortex participate in perceptual analysis of melodies; pitch comparisons are effected via a neural network that includes right prefrontal cortex, but active retention of pitch involves the interaction of right temporal and frontal cortices.

  14. Glenohumeral rotational motion and strength and baseball pitching biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Wendy J; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2012-01-01

    Addressing loss of shoulder range of motion and rotator cuff weakness in injury-prevention programs might be an effective strategy for preventing throwing arm injuries in baseball pitchers. However, the influence of these clinical measures on pitching biomechanics is unclear. To evaluate the relationships among clinical measures of shoulder rotational motion and strength and 3-dimensional pitching biomechanics and to evaluate the presence of coupling between the shoulder and the elbow during pitching to provide insight into the influence of clinical shoulder characteristics on elbow biomechanics. Cross-sectional study. Biomechanics laboratory. A total of 27 uninjured male high school baseball pitchers (age = 16 ± 1.1 years, height = 183 ± 7 cm, mass = 83 ± 12 kg). Clinical measures included shoulder internal- and external-rotation range of motion and peak isometric internal- and external-rotator strength. Three-dimensional upper extremity biomechanics were assessed as participants threw from an indoor pitching mound to a target at regulation distance. Linear regressions were used to assess the influence of clinical measures on the peak shoulder internal and external rotation moments and the peak elbow-adduction moment. We found a positive relationship between clinically measured internal-rotator strength and shoulder external-rotation moment (R(2) = 0.181, P = .04) during pitching. We also noted an inverse relationship between clinically measured external-rotation motion and the elbow-adduction moment (R(2) = 0.160, P = .04) and shoulder internal-rotation moment (R(2) = 0.250, P = .008) during pitching. We found a positive relationship between peak shoulder internal-rotation moment and the peak elbow-adduction moment (R(2) = 0.815, P biomechanics and how these clinical measures might contribute to throwing arm injuries in the baseball pitcher. A relationship also was identified between peak shoulder and elbow moments in the throwing arm during pitching

  15. The Significance of the Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex for Pitch Memory in Non-musicians Depends on Baseline Pitch Memory Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Schaal, Nora K.; Kretschmer, Marina; Keitel, Ariane; Krause, Vanessa; Pfeifer, Jasmin; Pollok, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Pitch memory is a resource which is shared by music and language. Neuroimaging studies have shown that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is activated during pitch memory processes. The present study investigated the causal significance of this brain area for pitch memory in non-musicians by applying cathodal and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right DLPFC and examining the impact on offline pitch and visual memory span performances. On the overall s...

  16. A Digital Tool to Promote Alcohol and Drug Use Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment Skill Translation: A Mobile App Development and Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satre, Derek D; Ly, Khanh; Wamsley, Maria; Curtis, Alexa; Satterfield, Jason

    2017-04-18

    Translation of knowledge and skills from classroom settings to clinical practice is a major challenge in healthcare training, especially for behavioral interventions. For example, screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is a highly-promoted approach to identifying and treating individuals at risk for alcohol or drug problems, yet effective, routine use of SBIRT has lagged. The objective of this paper is to describe the development, pilot testing, and trial protocol of a mobile app based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to promote SBIRT skill translation and application. Intended for use after classroom training occurs, the mobile app has three primary functions designed to increase behavioral intent to deliver SBIRT: (1) review skills (ie, address knowledge and beliefs about SBIRT), (2) apply skills with patients (ie, build confidence and perceived behavioral control), and (3) report performance data (ie, increase accountability and social norms and/or influence). The app includes depression and anxiety screening tools due to high comorbidity with substance use. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is in progress among health and social service learners (N=200) recruited from 3 universities and 6 different training programs in nursing, social work, internal medicine, psychiatry, and psychology. Participants are randomized to SBIRT classroom instruction alone or classroom instruction plus app access prior to beginning their field placement rotations. TPB-based data are collected via Qualtrics or via the mobile app pre-post and SBIRT utilization, weekly for 10 weeks. Key outcomes include the frequency of and self-reported confidence in delivery of SBIRT. Beta testing with advanced practice nursing students (N=22) indicated that the app and its associated assessment tools were acceptable and useful. The system usability scale (SUS) mean was 65.8 (n=19), which indicated that the SBIRT app was acceptable but could benefit from improvement

  17. Digital photography as an educational food logging tool in obese patients with type 2 diabetes: lessons learned from a randomized, crossover pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Brett J; Anderson, Robert M; Piatt, Gretchen A; Funnell, Martha M; Rashid, Hira; Shedden, Kerby; Douyon, Liselle

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the utility of, and areas of refinement for, digital photography as an educational tool for food logging in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Thirty-three patients aged 18 to 70 with T2DM, body mass index at least 30 kg/m(2), and A1C 7.5% to 9% were recruited from an endocrinology clinic and randomized to a week of food logging using a digital camera (DC) or paper diary (PD), crossing over for week 2. Patients then viewed a presentation about dietary effects on blood glucose, using patient DC and blood glucose entries. Outcomes of adherence (based on number of weekly entries), changes in mean blood glucose and frequency of blood glucose checks, and patient satisfaction were compared between methods. Patient feedback on the DC intervention and presentation was also analyzed. Thirty patients completed the study. Adherence was identical across methods. The mean difference in number of entries was not significant between methods. This difference increased and neared statistical significance (favoring DC) among patients who were adherent for at least 1 week (21 entries, with 2 entries per day for 5 of 7 days, n = 25). Mean blood glucose did not significantly decrease in either method. Patient satisfaction was similar between interventions. Feedback indicated concerns over photograph accuracy, forgetting to use the cameras, and embarrassment using them in public. Although the DC method was comparable to PD in adherence, blood glucose changes, and patient satisfaction in this pilot trial, patient feedback suggested specific areas of refinement to maximize utility of DC-based food logging as an educational tool in T2DM.

  18. Voice examination in patients with decreased high pitch after thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Won; Kim, Seung Tae; Park, Hyo Sang; Lee, Hyoung Shin; Hong, Jong Chul; Kwon, Soon Bok; Lee, Kang Dae

    2012-06-01

    Decreased high pitch after thyroidectomy due to injury of the external branch of superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) may be a critical, especially to professional voice users. The author studied the usefulness of VRP (voice range profile) and MDVP (multi-dimensional voice program) to evaluate patients who have decreased high pitch after thyroidectomy. A study was performed with 58 females and 9 males who underwent voice assessment between January 2008 and June 2009. The patients were classified as the group of female with no decreased high pitch (group A, n = 52), decreased high pitch (group B, n = 6) and the group of male with no decreased high pitch (group C, n = 9). VRP and laryngeal electromyogram (EMG) was performed in group B. The preoperative frequency range of group A and B were statistically not different. In Group B, the result of VRP showed that the frequency range was 443.11 ± 83.97, 246.67 ± 49.41, 181.37 ± 80.13 Hz showing significant decrease after the surgery compared to that of the preoperative result. (P VRP revealed no significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative result. VRP is a noninvasive, quick, and practical test to demonstrate decreased frequency range visually and helps to evaluate EBSLN injury in patient with thyroidectomy.

  19. Study of Pumping Capacity of Pitched Blade Impellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fořt

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of the pumping capacity of pitched blade impellers in a cylindrical pilot plant vessel with four standard radial baffles at the wall under a turbulent regime of flow. The pumping capacity was calculated from the radial profile of the axial flow, under the assumption of axial symmetry of the discharge flow. The mean velocity was measured using laser Doppler anemometry in a transparent vessel of diameter T = 400 mm, provided with a standard dished bottom. Three and six blade pitched blade impellers (the pitch angle varied within the interval a Îá24°; 45°ń of impeller/vessel diameter ratio D/T = 0.36, as well as a three blade pitched blade impeller with folded blades of the same diameter, were tested. The calculated results were compared with the results of experiments mentioned in the literature, above all in cylindrical vessels with a flat bottom. Both arrangements of the agitated system were described by the impeller energetic efficiency, i.e, a criterion including in dimensionless form both the impeller energy consumption (impeller power input and the impeller pumping effect (impeller pumping capacity. It follows from the results obtained with various geometrical configurations that the energetic efficiency of pitched blade impellers is significantly lower for configurations suitable for mixing solid-liquid suspensions (low impeller off bottom clearances than for blending miscible liquids in mixing (higher impeller off bottom clearances.

  20. Turbulent Flow Over a Low-Camber Pitching Arc Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molki, Majid

    2014-11-01

    Aerodynamics of pitching airfoils and wings are of great importance to the design of air vehicles. This investigation presents the effect of camber on flow field and force coefficient for a pitching circular-arc airfoil. The wing considered in this study is a cambered plate of zero thickness which executes a linear pitch ramp, hold and return of 45° amplitude. The momentum equation is solved on a mesh that is attached to the wing and executes a pitching motion with the wing about a pivot point located at 0.25-chord or 0.50-chord distance from the leading edge. Turbulence is modeled by the k - ω SST model. Using the open-source software OpenFOAM, the conservation equations are solved on a dynamic mesh and the flow is resolved all the way to the wall (y+ ~ 1). The computations are performed for Re = 40,000 with the reduced pitch rate equal to K = cθ˙ / 2U∞ = 0 . 2 . The results are presented for three wings, namely, a flat plate (zero camber) and wings of 4% and 10% camber. It is found that the flow has complex features such as leading-edge vortex, near-wake vortex pairs, clockwise and counter-clockwise vortices, and trailing-edge vortex. While vortices are formed over the flat plate, they are formed both over and under the cambered wing.

  1. BMRF-Net: a software tool for identification of protein interaction subnetworks by a bagging Markov random field-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xu; Barnes, Robert O; Chen, Li; Shajahan-Haq, Ayesha N; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena; Clarke, Robert; Wang, Yue; Xuan, Jianhua

    2015-07-15

    Identification of protein interaction subnetworks is an important step to help us understand complex molecular mechanisms in cancer. In this paper, we develop a BMRF-Net package, implemented in Java and C++, to identify protein interaction subnetworks based on a bagging Markov random field (BMRF) framework. By integrating gene expression data and protein-protein interaction data, this software tool can be used to identify biologically meaningful subnetworks. A user friendly graphic user interface is developed as a Cytoscape plugin for the BMRF-Net software to deal with the input/output interface. The detailed structure of the identified networks can be visualized in Cytoscape conveniently. The BMRF-Net package has been applied to breast cancer data to identify significant subnetworks related to breast cancer recurrence. The BMRF-Net package is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/bmrfcjava/. The package is tested under Ubuntu 12.04 (64-bit), Java 7, glibc 2.15 and Cytoscape 3.1.0. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. My Team of Care Study: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of a Web-Based Communication Tool for Collaborative Care in Patients With Advanced Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voruganti, Teja; Grunfeld, Eva; Jamieson, Trevor; Kurahashi, Allison M; Lokuge, Bhadra; Krzyzanowska, Monika K; Mamdani, Muhammad; Moineddin, Rahim; Husain, Amna

    2017-07-18

    The management of patients with complex care needs requires the expertise of health care providers from multiple settings and specialties. As such, there is a need for cross-setting, cross-disciplinary solutions that address deficits in communication and continuity of care. We have developed a Web-based tool for clinical collaboration, called Loop, which assembles the patient and care team in a virtual space for the purpose of facilitating communication around care management. The objectives of this pilot study were to evaluate the feasibility of integrating a tool like Loop into current care practices and to capture preliminary measures of the effect of Loop on continuity of care, quality of care, symptom distress, and health care utilization. We conducted an open-label pilot cluster randomized controlled trial allocating patients with advanced cancer (defined as stage III or IV disease) with ≥3 months prognosis, their participating health care team and caregivers to receive either the Loop intervention or usual care. Outcome data were collected from patients on a monthly basis for 3 months. Trial feasibility was measured with rate of uptake, as well as recruitment and system usage. The Picker Continuity of Care subscale, Palliative care Outcomes Scale, Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale, and Ambulatory and Home Care Record were patient self-reported measures of continuity of care, quality of care, symptom distress, and health services utilization, respectively. We conducted a content analysis of messages posted on Loop to understand how the system was used. Nineteen physicians (oncologists or palliative care physicians) were randomized to the intervention or control arms. One hundred twenty-seven of their patients with advanced cancer were approached and 48 patients enrolled. Of 24 patients in the intervention arm, 20 (83.3%) registered onto Loop. In the intervention and control arms, 12 and 11 patients completed three months of follow-up, respectively. A mean

  3. Interaural bimodal pitch matching with two-formant vowels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guérit, François; Chalupper, Josef; Santurette, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    practice. Behavioral pitch matching between the two ears has also been suggested, but has been shown to be tedious and unreliable. Here, an alternative method using two-formant vowels was developed and tested with a vocoder system simulating different CI insertion depths. The hypothesis was that patients...... may more easily identify vowels than perform a classical pitch-matching task. A spectral shift is inferred by comparing vowel spaces, measured by presenting the first formant in the HA and the second either in the HA or the CI. Preliminary results suggest that pitch mismatches can be derived from...... such vowel spaces. In order to take auditory adaptation in individual patients into account, the method will be tested with CI patients with contralateral residual hearing....

  4. Interaural bimodal pitch matching with two-formant vowels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerit, Francois Marie Louis Paul; Chalupper, Josef; Santurette, Sébastien

    practice. Behavioral pitch matching between the two ears has also been suggested, but has been shown to be tedious and unreliable. Here, an alternative method using two-formant vowels was developed and tested with a vocoder system simulating different CI insertion depths. The hypothesis was that patients...... may more easily identify vowels than perform a classical pitch-matching task. A spectral shift is inferred by comparing vowel spaces, measured by presenting the first formant in the HA and the second either in the HA or the CI. Preliminary results suggest that pitch mismatches can be derived from...... such vowel spaces. In order to take auditory adaptation in individual patients into account, the method will be tested with CI patients with contralateral residual hearing....

  5. Numerical Prediction of Hydromechanical Behaviour of Controllable Pitch Propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Tarbiat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research described in this paper was carried out to predict hydrodynamic and frictional forces of controllable pitch propeller (CPP that bring about fretting problems in a blade bearing. The governing equations are Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS and are solved by OpenFOAM solver for hydrodynamic forces behind the ship’s wake. Frictional forces are calculated by practical mechanical formulae. Different advance velocities with constant rotational speed for blades are used to achieve hydrodynamic coefficients in open water and the wake behind the propeller. Results are compared at four different pitches. Detailed numerical results of 3D modelling of the propeller, hydrodynamic characteristics, and probability of the fretting motion in the propeller are presented. Results show that the probability of the fretting movement is related to the pitch.

  6. Pitching stability analysis of half-rotating wing air vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyi; Wu, Yang; Li, Qian; Li, Congmin; Qiu, Zhizhen

    2017-06-01

    Half-Rotating Wing (HRW) is a new power wing which had been developed by our work team using rotating-type flapping instead of oscillating-type flapping. Half-Rotating Wing Air Vehicle (HRWAV) is similar as Bionic Flapping Wing Air Vehicle (BFWAV). It is necessary to guarantee pitching stability of HRWAV to maintain flight stability. The working principle of HRW was firstly introduced in this paper. The rule of motion indicated that the fuselage of HRWAV without empennage would overturn forward as it generated increased pitching movement. Therefore, the empennage was added on the tail of HRWAV to balance the additional moment generated by aerodynamic force during flight. The stability analysis further shows that empennage could weaken rapidly the pitching disturbance on HRWAV and a new balance of fuselage could be achieved in a short time. Case study using numerical analysis verified correctness and validity of research results mentioned above, which could provide theoretical guidance to design and control HRWAV.

  7. Vortex scale of unsteady separation on a pitching airfoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchiwaki, Masaki; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2002-10-01

    The streaklines of unsteady separation on two kinds of pitching airfoils, the NACA65-0910 and a blunt trailing edge airfoil, were studied by dye flow visualization and by the Schlieren method. The latter visualized the discrete vortices shed from the leading edge. The results of these visualization studies allow a comparison between the dynamic behavior of the streakline of unsteady separation and that of the discrete vortices shed from the leading edge. The influence of the airfoil configuration on the flow characteristics was also examined. Furthermore, the scale of a discrete vortex forming the recirculation region was investigated. The non-dimensional pitching rate was k = 0.377, the angle of attack alpha(m) = 16 degrees and the pitching amplitude was fixed to A = +/-6 degrees for Re = 4.0 x 10(3) in this experiment.

  8. Characterization of pitches by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grint, A.; Proud, G.P.; Poplett, I.J.F.; Bartle, K.D.; Wallace, S.; Matthews, R.S. (The British Petroleum Company plc, Sunbury-on-Thames (UK). BP Research Centre)

    1989-11-01

    Solid petroleum, ethylene-cracker, and coal tar pitches were characterized by {sup 13}C cross-polarization-magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (CP/MAS n.m.r.) and by dipolar dephasing. The relative numbers of carbon atoms were determined by peak synthesis of the dipolar dephased (DD) spectrum and of the difference spectrum between the CP/MAS and DD spectra. Spectra and derived structural information obtained in this way were in good agreement with high-resolution n.m.r. spectra of pitch in solution. Solid state n.m.r. is shown to be an attractive alternative to the recording of spectra of pitches in reactive solvents. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Complex-tone pitch representations in the human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica

    enhanced relative to the non-musicians for both resolved and unresolved harmonics in the right auditory cortex, right frontal regions and inferior colliculus. However, the increase in neural activation in the right auditory cortex of musicians was predictive of the increased pitch......Understanding how the human auditory system processes the physical properties of an acoustical stimulus to give rise to a pitch percept is a fascinating aspect of hearing research. Since most natural sounds are harmonic complex tones, this work focused on the nature of pitch-relevant cues...... of training, which seemed to be specific to the stimuli containing resolved harmonics. Finally, a functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was used to examine the response of the auditory cortex to resolved and unresolved harmonics in musicians and non-musicians. The neural responses in musicians were...

  10. Context effects on pitch perception in musicians and nonmusicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brattico, E; Naatanen, R; Tervaniemi, M

    2001-01-01

    Behavioral evidence indicates that musical context facilitates pitch discrimination. In the present study, we sought to determine whether pitch context and its familiarity might affect brain responses to pitch change even at the preattentive level. Ten musicians and 10 nonmusicians, while...... arithmetically determined tone frequencies, the deviant not causing any change of mode. The no-context condition included only third-position tones. All deviants elicited the change-specific mismatch negativity component of the event-related potentials in both groups of subjects. In both musicians...... is generally enhanced in a familiar context. Moreover, the latency of the mismatch negativity was shorter for musicians than for nonmusicians in both the familiar and unfamiliar conditions, whereas no difference between groups was observed in the no-context condition. This finding indicates that, in response...

  11. Valproate reopens critical-period learning of absolute pitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit eGervain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Absolute pitch, the ability to identify or produce the pitch of a sound without a reference point, has a critical period, i.e. it can only be acquired early in life. However, research has shown that histone-deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC inhibitors enable adult mice to establish perceptual preferences that are otherwise impossible to acquire after youth. In humans, we found that adult men who took valproate (a HDAC inhibitor learned to identify pitch significantly better than those taking placebo – evidence that valproate facilitated critical-period learning in the adult human brain. Importantly, this result was not due to a general change in cognitive function, but rather a specific effect on a sensory task associated with a critical-period.

  12. Demonstration of partial pitch 2-bladed wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Taeseong; Zahle, Frederik; Troldborg, Niels

    This is the final report for the EUDP project performed from January 2012 to December 2015. The main objective for the project was to demonstrate the potential of the partial pitch two-bladed (PP-2B) technology. DTU Wind Energy took a responsibility for three workpackages (WPs) among 6 WPs which...... were aerodynamic evaluation of partial pitch technology (WP2), aeroelastic analysis of two-bladed turbine (WP3) and On-site testing (WP4). For the WP2, a comprehensive set of 3D CFD simulations including the gap between inner and outer part of the blade and vortex generators (VGs) of both cross...... pitch concept and detailed load analyses were performed. Also the comparison studies between numerical results and experimental results were performed. Moreover stability analyses for the PP- 2B turbine have been performed with HAWC2 and modal analysis using Hill’s method was performed to calculate...

  13. Frogs Call at a Higher Pitch in Traffic Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. Parris

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Male frogs call to attract females for mating and to defend territories from rival males. Female frogs of some species prefer lower-pitched calls, which indicate larger, more experienced males. Acoustic interference occurs when background noise reduces the active distance or the distance over which an acoustic signal can be detected. Birds are known to call at a higher pitch or frequency in urban noise, decreasing acoustic interference from low-frequency noise. Using Bayesian linear regression, we investigated the effect of traffic noise on the pitch of advertisement calls in two species of frogs, the southern brown tree frog (Litoria ewingii and the common eastern froglet (Crinia signifera. We found evidence that L. ewingii calls at a higher pitch in traffic noise, with an average increase in dominant frequency of 4.1 Hz/dB of traffic noise, and a total effect size of 123 Hz. This frequency shift is smaller than that observed in birds, but is still large enough to be detected by conspecific frogs and confer a significant benefit to the caller. Mathematical modelling predicted a 24% increase in the active distance of a L. ewingii call in traffic noise with a frequency shift of this size. Crinia signifera may also call at a higher pitch in traffic noise, but more data are required to be confident of this effect. Because frog calls are innate rather than learned, the frequency shift demonstrated by L. ewingii may represent an evolutionary adaptation to noisy conditions. The phenomenon of frogs calling at a higher pitch in traffic noise could therefore constitute an intriguing trade-off between audibility and attractiveness to potential mates.

  14. Abnormal pitch perception produced by cochlear implant stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Tang, Qing; Lu, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary cochlear implants with multiple electrode stimulation can produce good speech perception but poor music perception. Hindered by the lack of a gold standard to quantify electric pitch, relatively little is known about the nature and extent of the electric pitch abnormalities and their impact on cochlear implant performance. Here we overcame this obstacle by comparing acoustic and electric pitch perception in 3 unilateral cochlear-implant subjects who had functionally usable acoustic hearing throughout the audiometric frequency range in the non-implant ear. First, to establish a baseline, we measured and found slightly impaired pure tone frequency discrimination and nearly perfect melody recognition in all 3 subjects' acoustic ear. Second, using pure tones in the acoustic ear to match electric pitch induced by an intra-cochlear electrode, we found that the frequency-electrode function was not only 1-2 octaves lower, but also 2 times more compressed in frequency range than the normal cochlear frequency-place function. Third, we derived frequency difference limens in electric pitch and found that the equivalent electric frequency discrimination was 24 times worse than normal-hearing controls. These 3 abnormalities are likely a result of a combination of broad electric field, distant intra-cochlear electrode placement, and non-uniform spiral ganglion cell distribution and survival, all of which are inherent to the electrode-nerve interface in contemporary cochlear implants. Previous studies emphasized on the "mean" shape of the frequency-electrode function, but the present study indicates that the large "variance" of this function, reflecting poor electric pitch discriminability, is the main factor limiting contemporary cochlear implant performance.

  15. Abnormal pitch perception produced by cochlear implant stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Gang Zeng

    Full Text Available Contemporary cochlear implants with multiple electrode stimulation can produce good speech perception but poor music perception. Hindered by the lack of a gold standard to quantify electric pitch, relatively little is known about the nature and extent of the electric pitch abnormalities and their impact on cochlear implant performance. Here we overcame this obstacle by comparing acoustic and electric pitch perception in 3 unilateral cochlear-implant subjects who had functionally usable acoustic hearing throughout the audiometric frequency range in the non-implant ear. First, to establish a baseline, we measured and found slightly impaired pure tone frequency discrimination and nearly perfect melody recognition in all 3 subjects' acoustic ear. Second, using pure tones in the acoustic ear to match electric pitch induced by an intra-cochlear electrode, we found that the frequency-electrode function was not only 1-2 octaves lower, but also 2 times more compressed in frequency range than the normal cochlear frequency-place function. Third, we derived frequency difference limens in electric pitch and found that the equivalent electric frequency discrimination was 24 times worse than normal-hearing controls. These 3 abnormalities are likely a result of a combination of broad electric field, distant intra-cochlear electrode placement, and non-uniform spiral ganglion cell distribution and survival, all of which are inherent to the electrode-nerve interface in contemporary cochlear implants. Previous studies emphasized on the "mean" shape of the frequency-electrode function, but the present study indicates that the large "variance" of this function, reflecting poor electric pitch discriminability, is the main factor limiting contemporary cochlear implant performance.

  16. How regularity representations of short sound patterns that are based on relative or absolute pitch information establish over time: An EEG study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröger, Erich; Grimm, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    The recognition of sound patterns in speech or music (e.g., a melody that is played in different keys) requires knowledge about pitch relations between successive sounds. We investigated the formation of regularity representations for sound patterns in an event-related potential (ERP) study. A pattern, which consisted of six concatenated 50 ms tone segments differing in fundamental frequency, was presented 1, 2, 3, 6, or 12 times and then replaced by another pattern by randomly changing the pitch of the tonal segments (roving standard paradigm). In an absolute repetition condition, patterns were repeated identically, whereas in a transposed condition, only the pitch relations of the tonal segments of the patterns were repeated, while the entire patterns were shifted up or down in pitch. During ERP measurement participants were not informed about the pattern repetition rule, but were instructed to discriminate rarely occurring targets of lower or higher sound intensity. EPRs for pattern changes (mismatch negativity, MMN; and P3a) and for pattern repetitions (repetition positivity, RP) revealed that the auditory system is able to rapidly extract regularities from unfamiliar complex sound patterns even when absolute pitch varies. Yet, enhanced RP and P3a amplitudes, and improved behavioral performance measured in a post-hoc test, in the absolute as compared with the transposed condition suggest that it is more difficult to encode patterns without absolute pitch information. This is explained by dissociable processing of standards and deviants as well as a back propagation mechanism to early sensory processing stages, which is effective after less repetitions of a standard stimulus for absolute pitch. PMID:28472146

  17. How regularity representations of short sound patterns that are based on relative or absolute pitch information establish over time: An EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Maria; Schröger, Erich; Grimm, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    The recognition of sound patterns in speech or music (e.g., a melody that is played in different keys) requires knowledge about pitch relations between successive sounds. We investigated the formation of regularity representations for sound patterns in an event-related potential (ERP) study. A pattern, which consisted of six concatenated 50 ms tone segments differing in fundamental frequency, was presented 1, 2, 3, 6, or 12 times and then replaced by another pattern by randomly changing the pitch of the tonal segments (roving standard paradigm). In an absolute repetition condition, patterns were repeated identically, whereas in a transposed condition, only the pitch relations of the tonal segments of the patterns were repeated, while the entire patterns were shifted up or down in pitch. During ERP measurement participants were not informed about the pattern repetition rule, but were instructed to discriminate rarely occurring targets of lower or higher sound intensity. EPRs for pattern changes (mismatch negativity, MMN; and P3a) and for pattern repetitions (repetition positivity, RP) revealed that the auditory system is able to rapidly extract regularities from unfamiliar complex sound patterns even when absolute pitch varies. Yet, enhanced RP and P3a amplitudes, and improved behavioral performance measured in a post-hoc test, in the absolute as compared with the transposed condition suggest that it is more difficult to encode patterns without absolute pitch information. This is explained by dissociable processing of standards and deviants as well as a back propagation mechanism to early sensory processing stages, which is effective after less repetitions of a standard stimulus for absolute pitch.

  18. How regularity representations of short sound patterns that are based on relative or absolute pitch information establish over time: An EEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bader

    Full Text Available The recognition of sound patterns in speech or music (e.g., a melody that is played in different keys requires knowledge about pitch relations between successive sounds. We investigated the formation of regularity representations for sound patterns in an event-related potential (ERP study. A pattern, which consisted of six concatenated 50 ms tone segments differing in fundamental frequency, was presented 1, 2, 3, 6, or 12 times and then replaced by another pattern by randomly changing the pitch of the tonal segments (roving standard paradigm. In an absolute repetition condition, patterns were repeated identically, whereas in a transposed condition, only the pitch relations of the tonal segments of the patterns were repeated, while the entire patterns were shifted up or down in pitch. During ERP measurement participants were not informed about the pattern repetition rule, but were instructed to discriminate rarely occurring targets of lower or higher sound intensity. EPRs for pattern changes (mismatch negativity, MMN; and P3a and for pattern repetitions (repetition positivity, RP revealed that the auditory system is able to rapidly extract regularities from unfamiliar complex sound patterns even when absolute pitch varies. Yet, enhanced RP and P3a amplitudes, and improved behavioral performance measured in a post-hoc test, in the absolute as compared with the transposed condition suggest that it is more difficult to encode patterns without absolute pitch information. This is explained by dissociable processing of standards and deviants as well as a back propagation mechanism to early sensory processing stages, which is effective after less repetitions of a standard stimulus for absolute pitch.

  19. Voice Pitch Elicited Frequency Following Response in Chinese Elderlies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Hu, Jiong; Dong, Ruijuan; Liu, Dongxin; Chen, Jing; Musacchia, Gabriella; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perceptual and electrophysiological studies have found reduced speech discrimination in quiet and noisy environment, delayed neural timing, decreased neural synchrony, and decreased temporal processing ability in elderlies, even those with normal hearing. However, recent studies have also demonstrated that language experience and auditory training enhance the temporal dynamics of sound encoding in the auditory brainstem response (ABR). The purpose of this study was to explore the pitch processing ability at the brainstem level in an aging population that has a tonal language background. Method: Mandarin speaking younger (n = 12) and older (n = 12) adults were recruited for this study. All participants had normal audiometric test results and normal suprathreshold click-evoked ABR. To record frequency following responses (FFRs) elicited by Mandarin lexical tones, two Mandarin Chinese syllables with different fundamental frequency pitch contours (Flat Tone and Falling Tone) were presented at 70 dB SPL. Fundamental frequencies (f0) of both the stimulus and the responses were extracted and compared to individual brainstem responses. Two indices were used to examine different aspects of pitch processing ability at the brainstem level: Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation. Results: Lexical tone elicited FFR were overall weaker in the older adult group compared to their younger adult counterpart. Measured by Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation, statistically significant group differences were only found when the tone with a falling f0 (Falling Tone) were used as the stimulus. Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrated that in a tonal language speaking population, pitch processing ability at the brainstem level of older adults are not as strong and robust as their younger counterparts. Findings of this study are consistent with previous reports on brainstem responses of older adults whose native language is English. On the other hand, lexical tone elicited

  20. Voice Pitch Elicited Frequency Following Response in Chinese Elderlies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perceptual and electrophysiological studies have found reduced speech discrimination in quiet and noisy environment, delayed neural timing, decreased neural synchrony, and decreased temporal processing ability in elderlies, even those with normal hearing. However, recent studies have also demonstrated that language experience and auditory training enhance the temporal dynamics of sound encoding in the auditory brainstem response. The purpose of this study was to explore the pitch processing ability at the brainstem level in an aging population that has a tonal language background.Method: Mandarin speaking younger (n=12 and older (n=12 adults were recruited for this study. All participants had normal audiometric test results and normal suprathreshold click-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABR. To record Frequency Following Responses (FFR elicited by Mandarin lexical tones, two Mandarin Chinese syllables with different fundamental frequency pitch contours (Flat Tone and Falling Tone were presented at 70 dB SPL. Fundamental frequencies (f0 of both the stimulus and the responses were extracted and compared to individual brainstem responses. Two indices were used to examine different aspects of pitch processing ability at the brainstem level: Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation. Results: Lexical tone elicited FFR were overall weaker in the older adult group compared to their younger adult counterpart. Measured by Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation, statistically significant group differences were only found when the tone with a falling f0 (Falling Tone were used as the stimulus.Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrated that in a tonal language speaking population, pitch processing ability at the brainstem level of older adults are not as strong and robust as their younger counterparts. Findings of this study are consistent with previous reports on brainstem responses of older adults whose native language is English. On the

  1. Electric Control Substituting Pitch Control for Large Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Kjellin

    2013-01-01

    turbine has fixed pitch and is only controlled electrically accommodated by passive stall of the blades. By electrically controlling the generator rotational speed with the inverter, passive stall regulation is enabled. The first results on experimental verification of stall regulation in gusty wind speeds are presented. The experiments show that the control system can keep the turbine rotational speed constant even at very gusty winds. It is concluded that electrical control accommodated by passive stall is sufficient as control of the wind turbine even at high wind speeds and can substitute mechanical control such as blade pitch.

  2. [Contribution to the study of the perfect pitch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouard, C H; Sposetti, R

    1990-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to name a note without any reference, since relative pitch (RP) needs for a previous and known tone to be able of such a recognition. We suggest that AP is due to both environmental features and physiological particularity. From the responses of 263 musicians including 169 AP we observed that for AP musical environment in childhood was better, and younger the age of instrumental beginning than for RP. The study of otoacustic emissions evoked by a supraliminar stimulation in 183 musicians ears including 68 AP showed that the echo was significantly greater in case of AP than in case of RP.

  3. Dynamically Tuned Blade Pitch Links for Vibration Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, Judah; Chopra, Inderjit; Kottapalli, Sesi

    1994-01-01

    A passive vibration reduction device in which the conventional main rotor blade pitch link is replaced by a spring/damper element is investigated using a comprehensive rotorcraft analysis code. A case study is conducted for a modern articulated helicopter main rotor. Correlation of vibratory pitch link loads with wind tunnel test data is satisfactory for lower harmonics. Inclusion of unsteady aerodynamics had little effect on the correlation. In the absence of pushrod damping, reduction in pushrod stiffness from the baseline value had an adverse effect on vibratory hub loads in forward flight. However, pushrod damping in combination with reduced pushrod stiffness resulted in modest improvements in fixed and rotating system hub loads.

  4. Adaptive sliding mode back-stepping pitch angle control of a variable-displacement pump controlled pitch system for wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiu-xing; Lin, Yong-gang; Li, Wei; Liu, Hong-wei; Gu, Ya-jing

    2015-09-01

    A variable-displacement pump controlled pitch system is proposed to mitigate generator power and flap-wise load fluctuations for wind turbines. The pitch system mainly consists of a variable-displacement hydraulic pump, a fixed-displacement hydraulic motor and a gear set. The hydraulic motor can be accurately regulated by controlling the pump displacement and fluid flows to change the pitch angle through the gear set. The detailed mathematical representation and dynamic characteristics of the proposed pitch system are thoroughly analyzed. An adaptive sliding mode pump displacement controller and a back-stepping stroke piston controller are designed for the proposed pitch system such that the resulting pitch angle tracks its desired value regardless of external disturbances and uncertainties. The effectiveness and control efficiency of the proposed pitch system and controllers have been verified by using realistic dataset of a 750 kW research wind turbine. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimization of Nano-Grating Pitch Evaluation Method Based on Line Edge Roughness Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Liu, Jie; Wang, Xingrui; Zhang, Longfei; Deng, Xiao; Cheng, Xinbin; Li, Tongbao

    2017-12-01

    Pitch uncertainty and line edge roughness are among the critical quality attributes of a pitch standard and normally the analyses of these two parameters are separate. The analysis of self-traceable Cr atom lithography nano-gratings shows a positive relevance and sensitivity between LER and evaluated standard deviation of pitch. Therefore, LER can be used as an aided pre-evaluation parameter for the pitch calculation method, such as the gravity center method or the zero-crossing points method. The optimization of the nano-grating evaluation method helps to obtain the accurate pitch value with fewer measurements and provide a comprehensive characterization of pitch standards.

  6. Optimization of Nano-Grating Pitch Evaluation Method Based on Line Edge Roughness Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pitch uncertainty and line edge roughness are among the critical quality attributes of a pitch standard and normally the analyses of these two parameters are separate. The analysis of self-traceable Cr atom lithography nano-gratings shows a positive relevance and sensitivity between LER and evaluated standard deviation of pitch. Therefore, LER can be used as an aided pre-evaluation parameter for the pitch calculation method, such as the gravity center method or the zero-crossing points method. The optimization of the nano-grating evaluation method helps to obtain the accurate pitch value with fewer measurements and provide a comprehensive characterization of pitch standards.

  7. Observation and execution of upper-limb movements as a tool for rehabilitation of motor deficits in paretic stroke patients: protocol of a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertelt Denis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence exist that motor observation activates the same cortical motor areas that are involved in the performance of the observed actions. The so called “mirror neuron system” has been proposed to be responsible for this phenomenon. We employ this neural system and its capability to re-enact stored motor representations as a tool for rehabilitating motor control. In our new neurorehabilitative schema (videotherapy we combine observation of daily actions with concomitant physical training of the observed actions focusing on the upper limbs. Following a pilot study in chronic patients in an ambulatory setting, we currently designed a new multicenter clinical study dedicated to patients in the sub-acute state after stroke using a home-based self-induced training. Within our protocol we assess 1 the capability of action observation to elicit rehabilitational effects in the motor system, and 2 the capacity of this schema to be performed by patients without assistance from a physiotherapist. The results of this study would be of high health and economical relevance. Methods/design A controlled, randomized, multicenter, paralleled, 6 month follow-up study will be conducted on three groups of patients: one group will be given the experimental treatment whereas the other two will participate in control treatments. All patients will undergo their usual rehabilitative treatment beside participation in the study. The experimental condition consists in the observation and immediate imitation of common daily hand and arm actions. The two parallel control groups are a placebo group and a group receiving usual rehabilitation without any trial-related treatment. Trial randomization is provided via external data management. The primary efficacy endpoint is the improvement of the experimental group in a standardized motor function test (Wolf Motor Function Test relative to control groups. Further assessments refer to subjective and

  8. Clinical impact of pharmacogenetic profiling with a clinical decision support tool in polypharmacy home health patients: A prospective pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Lindsay S; Henderson, John C; Neradilek, Moni B; Moyer, Nicolas A; Ashcraft, Kristine C; Thirumaran, Ranjit K

    2017-01-01

    In polypharmacy patients under home health management, pharmacogenetic testing coupled with guidance from a clinical decision support tool (CDST) on reducing drug, gene, and cumulative interaction risk may provide valuable insights in prescription drug treatment, reducing re-hospitalization and emergency department (ED) visits. We assessed the clinical impact of pharmacogenetic profiling integrating binary and cumulative drug and gene interaction warnings on home health polypharmacy patients. This prospective, open-label, randomized controlled trial was conducted at one hospital-based home health agency between February 2015 and February 2016. Recruitment came from patient referrals to home health at hospital discharge. Eligible patients were aged 50 years and older and taking or initiating treatment with medications with potential or significant drug-gene-based interactions. Subjects (n = 110) were randomized to pharmacogenetic profiling (n = 57). The study pharmacist reviewed drug-drug, drug-gene, and cumulative drug and/or gene interactions using the YouScript® CDST to provide drug therapy recommendations to clinicians. The control group (n = 53) received treatment as usual including pharmacist guided medication management using a standard drug information resource. The primary outcome measure was the number of re-hospitalizations and ED visits at 30 and 60 days after discharge from the hospital. The mean number of re-hospitalizations per patient in the tested vs. untested group was 0.25 vs. 0.38 at 30 days (relative risk (RR), 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.32-1.28; P = 0.21) and 0.33 vs. 0.70 at 60 days following enrollment (RR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.27-0.82; P = 0.007). The mean number of ED visits per patient in the tested vs. untested group was 0.25 vs. 0.40 at 30 days (RR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.31-1.21; P = 0.16) and 0.39 vs. 0.66 at 60 days (RR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.34-0.99; P = 0.045). Differences in composite outcomes at 60 days (exploratory endpoints) were also

  9. Wind turbines pitch and yaw control modelling; Modelagem de turbinas eolicas controladas pelo passo e pelo 'yaw'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Armando [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Grupo de Energia Eolica; Lima, Antonio M.N.; Jacobina, Cursino B.; Simoes, F.J. [Paraiba Univ., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas. Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    1997-07-01

    This work presents the modelling of wind turbines operating above rated power. The new controller is designed to make the system operate close to the rated power by actuating on the blade pitch and on the way devices, simultaneously. Regarding the design of the controller, it is necessary to linearize the rotor torque function with respect to the rotor velocity, {omega}, the pitch {theta}, and the yaw angle, {delta}, around the steady state. The direction and velocity of the wind are considered random variables. Then, the closed loop representation of the wind turbine can be approximated, in the frequency domain, by a second order function. The optimal controller gain is also obtained by three different methods that lead to close results. (author)

  10. Changes in pitch height elicit both language-universal and language-dependent changes in neural representation of pitch in the brainstem and auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Suresh, Chandan H; Gandour, Jackson T

    2017-03-27

    Language experience shapes encoding of pitch-relevant information at both brainstem and cortical levels of processing. Pitch height is a salient dimension that orders pitch from low to high. Herein we investigate the effects of language experience (Chinese, English) in the brainstem and cortex on (i) neural responses to variations in pitch height, (ii) presence of asymmetry in cortical pitch representation, and (iii) patterns of relative changes in magnitude of pitch height between these two levels of brain structure. Stimuli were three nonspeech homologs of Mandarin Tone 2 varying in pitch height only. The frequency-following response (FFR) and the cortical pitch-specific response (CPR) were recorded concurrently. At the Fz-linked T7/T8 site, peak latency of Na, Pb, and Nb decreased with increasing pitch height for both groups. Peak-to-peak amplitude of Na-Pb and Pb-Nb increased with increasing pitch height across groups. A language-dependent effect was restricted to Na-Pb; the Chinese had larger amplitude than the English group. At temporal sites (T7/T8), the Chinese group had larger amplitude, as compared to English, across stimuli, but also limited to the Na-Pb component and right temporal site. In the brainstem, F0 magnitude decreased with increasing pitch height; Chinese had larger magnitude across stimuli. A comparison of CPR and FFR responses revealed distinct patterns of relative changes in magnitude common to both groups. CPR amplitude increased and FFR amplitude decreased with increasing pitch height. Experience-dependent effects on CPR components vary as a function of neural sensitivity to pitch height within a particular temporal window (Na-Pb). Differences between the auditory brainstem and cortex imply distinct neural mechanisms for pitch extraction at both levels of brain structure. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Two Isolated Vocal-facilitating Techniques Chant Talk and Pitch Inflections on the Phonation of Female Speech-language Pathology Students: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerschman, Iris; Bettens, Kim; Dejagere, Stefanie; Tetaert, Lieselot; D'haeseleer, Evelien; Claeys, Sofie; Van Lierde, Kristiane

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the isolated vocal-facilitating techniques Chant Talk and Pitch Inflections on the phonation of healthy female speech-language pathology (SLP) students. A multigroup pretest-posttest design was used. A homogenous group of 40 healthy female SLP students with a mean age of 18.7 years were randomly assigned into 3 groups: a Chant Talk group (practicing Chant Talk across 18 weeks), a Pitch Inflections group (practicing Pitch Inflections across 18 weeks), and a control group (practicing no facilitating techniques). To compare vocal measures before and after this time span, an identical objective voice assessment protocol (aerodynamic measurement, acoustic analysis, voice range profile, and Dysphonia Severity Index) was performed in the 3 groups. Both Chant Talk and Pitch Inflections groups resulted in a significant decrease of the acoustic measure noise-to-harmonics ratio compared with the control group. The Chant Talk group resulted in a significant increase in the acoustic measure fundamental frequency compared with the control group. The results of this pilot study suggest that the facilitating techniques Chant Talk and Pitch Inflections may improve the objective measure of breathiness (noise-to-harmonics ratio) in healthy female SLP students. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of advanced blade pitching kinematics for cycloturbines and cyclorotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Zachary Howard

    Cycloturbines and cyclorotors are established concepts for extracting freesteam fluid energy and producing thrust which promise to exceed the performance of traditional horizontal axis turbines and rotors while maintaining unique operational advantages. However, their potential is not yet realized in widespread applications. A central barrier to their proliferation is the lack of fundamental understanding of the aerodynamic interaction between the turbine and the freestream flow. In particular, blade pitch must be precisely actuated throughout the revolution to achieve the proper blade angle of attack and maximize performance. So far, there is no adequate method for determining or implementing the optimal blade pitching kinematics for cyclorotors or cycloturbines. This dissertation bridges the pitching deficiency by introducing a novel low order model to predict improved pitch kinematics, experimentally demonstrating improved performance, and evaluating flow physics with a high order Navier-Stokes computational code. The foundation for developing advanced blade pitch motions is a low order model named Fluxline Theory. Fluid calculations are performed in a coordinate system fixed to streamlines whose spatial locations are not pre-described in order to capture the flow expansion/contraction and bending through the turbine. A transformation then determines the spatial location of streamlines through the rotor disk and finally blade element method integrations determine the power and forces produced. Validation against three sets of extant cycloturbine experimental data demonstrates improvement over other existing streamtube models. Fluxline Theory was extended by removing dependence on a blade element model to better understand how turbine-fluid interaction impacts thrust and power production. This pure momentum variation establishes a cycloturbine performance limit similar to the Betz Limit for horizontal axis wind turbines, as well as the fluid deceleration required

  13. Self-aligned blocking integration demonstration for critical sub-40nm pitch Mx level patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raley, Angélique; Mohanty, Nihar; Sun, Xinghua; Farrell, Richard A.; Smith, Jeffrey T.; Ko, Akiteru; Metz, Andrew W.; Biolsi, Peter; Devilliers, Anton

    2017-04-01

    Multipatterning has enabled continued scaling of chip technology at the 28nm node and beyond. Selfaligned double patterning (SADP) and self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) as well as Litho- Etch/Litho-Etch (LELE) iterations are widely used in the semiconductor industry to enable patterning at sub 193 immersion lithography resolutions for layers such as FIN, Gate and critical Metal lines. Multipatterning requires the use of multiple masks which is costly and increases process complexity as well as edge placement error variation driven mostly by overlay. To mitigate the strict overlay requirements for advanced technology nodes (7nm and below), a self-aligned blocking integration is desirable. This integration trades off the overlay requirement for an etch selectivity requirement and enables the cut mask overlay tolerance to be relaxed from half pitch to three times half pitch. Selfalignement has become the latest trend to enable scaling and self-aligned integrations are being pursued and investigated for various critical layers such as contact, via, metal patterning. In this paper we propose and demonstrate a low cost flexible self-aligned blocking strategy for critical metal layer patterning for 7nm and beyond from mask assembly to low -K dielectric etch. The integration is based on a 40nm pitch SADP flow with 2 cut masks compatible with either cut or block integration and employs dielectric films widely used in the back end of the line. As a consequence this approach is compatible with traditional etch, deposition and cleans tools that are optimized for dielectric etches. We will review the critical steps and selectivities required to enable this integration along with bench-marking of each integration option (cut vs. block).

  14. Randomized controlled trial of storytelling compared to a personal risk tool intervention on colorectal cancer screening in low-income patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkey, Linda K; McClain, Darya; Roe, Denise J; Hector, Richard D; Lopez, Ana Maria; Sillanpaa, Brian; Gonzalez, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Screening rates for colorectal cancer (CRC) lag for low-income, minority populations, contributing to poorer survival rates. A model of storytelling as culture-centric health promotion was tested for promoting CRC screening. A two-group parallel randomized controlled trial. Primary care, safety-net clinics. Low-income patients due for CRC screening, ages 50 to 75 years, speaking English or Spanish. Patients were exposed to either a video created from personal stories composited into a drama about "Papa" receiving CRC screening, or an instrument estimating level of personal cancer risk. Patients received a health care provider referral for CRC screening and were followed up for 3 months to document adherence. Behavioral factors related to the narrative model (identification and engagement) and theory of planned behavior. Main effects of the interventions on screening were tested, controlling for attrition factors, and demographic factor associations were assessed. Path analysis with model variables was used to test the direct effects and multiple mediator models. Main effects on CRC screening (roughly half stool-based tests, half colonoscopy) did not indicate significant differences (37% and 42% screened for storytelling and risk-based messages, respectively; n = 539; 33.6% male; 62% Hispanic). Factors positively associated with CRC screening included being female, Hispanic, married or living with a partner, speaking Spanish, having a primary care provider, lower income, and no health insurance. Engagement, working through positive attitudes toward the behavior, predicted CRC screening. A storytelling and a personalized risk-tool intervention achieved similar levels of screening among unscreened/underscreened, low-income patients. Factors usually associated with lower rates of screening (e.g., no insurance, being Hispanic) were related to more adherence. Both interventions' engagement factor facilitated positive attitudes about CRC screening associated with behavior

  15. Should We Limit Innings Pitched After Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Baseball Pitchers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Brandon J; Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Bach, Bernard R; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A

    2016-09-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) has become a common procedure among Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. It is unclear if a limit on innings pitched after UCLR should be instituted to prevent revision UCLR. Number of innings pitched and number of pitches thrown after UCLR will not affect whether a pitcher requires a revision UCLR. Descriptive laboratory study. All MLB pitchers between 1974 and 2015 who pitched at least 1 full season after UCLR were included in this study. Pitch counts and innings pitched for the first full season after UCLR as well as total pitch count and total innings pitched were recorded. Pitch counts and innings pitched were compared among players who required revision UCLR and those who did not. Overall, 154 pitchers were included. Of these, 135 pitchers did not require revision UCLR while 19 underwent revision UCLR. No significant difference existed between pitchers who underwent revision UCLR and those who did not when comparing number of innings pitched in the season after UCLR (79.4 ± 46.7 vs 90.1 ± 58.6; P = .9016), number of pitches thrown in the season after UCLR (1233.2 ± 710.4 vs 1449.2 ± 904.1; P = .7337), number of innings pitched in the pitcher's career after UCLR (357.4 ± 312.0 vs 399.3 ± 446.4; P = .6945), and number of pitches thrown in the pitcher's career after UCLR (5632.7 ± 4583.9 vs 5674.7 ± 5755.4; P = .4789), respectively. Furthermore, no difference existed in revision rate between pitchers who pitched more or less than 180 innings in the first full season after UCLR (P = .6678). The number of innings pitched and number of pitches thrown in the first full season as well as over a player's career after UCLR are not associated with an increased risk of a pitcher requiring revision UCLR. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. The Effects of Lexical Pitch Accent on Infant Word Recognition in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiko Ota

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Learners of lexical tone languages (e.g., Mandarin develop sensitivity to tonal contrasts and recognize pitch-matched, but not pitch-mismatched, familiar words by 11 months. Learners of non-tone languages (e.g., English also show a tendency to treat pitch patterns as lexically contrastive up to about 18 months. In this study, we examined if this early-developing capacity to lexically encode pitch variations enables infants to acquire a pitch accent system, in which pitch-based lexical contrasts are obscured by the interaction of lexical and non-lexical (i.e., intonational features. Eighteen 17-month-olds learning Tokyo Japanese were tested on their recognition of familiar words with the expected pitch or the lexically opposite pitch pattern. In early trials, infants were faster in shifting their eyegaze from the distractor object to the target object than in shifting from the target to distractor in the pitch-matched condition. In later trials, however, infants showed faster distractor-to-target than target-to-distractor shifts in both the pitch-matched and pitch-mismatched conditions. We interpret these results to mean that, in a pitch-accent system, the ability to use pitch variations to recognize words is still in a nascent state at 17 months.

  17. Long-term pitch memory for music recordings is related to auditory working memory precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2017-08-31

    Most individuals have reliable long-term memories for the pitch of familiar music recordings. This pitch memory (1) appears to be normally distributed in the population, (2) does not depend on explicit musical training, and (3) only seems to be weakly related to differences in listening frequency estimates. The present experiment was designed to assess whether individual differences in auditory working memory could explain variance in long-term pitch memory for music recordings. In Experiment 1, participants first completed a musical note adjustment task that has been previously used to assess working memory of musical pitch. Afterwards, participants were asked to judge the pitch of well-known music recordings, which either had or had not been shifted in pitch. We found that performance on the pitch working memory task was significantly related to performance in the pitch memory task using well-known recordings, even when controlling for overall musical experience and familiarity with each recording. In Experiment 2, we replicated these findings in a separate group of participants while additionally controlling for fluid intelligence and non-pitch based components of auditory working memory. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that participants could not accurately judge the pitch of unfamiliar recordings, suggesting that our method of pitch shifting did not result in unwanted acoustic cues that could have aided participants in Experiments 1 and 2. These results, taken together, suggest that the ability to maintain pitch information in working memory might lead to more accurate long-term pitch memory.

  18. RBF neural network based PI pitch controller for a class of 5-MW wind turbines using particle swarm optimization algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultangari, Iman; Shahnazi, Reza; Sheikhan, Mansour

    2012-09-01

    In order to control the pitch angle of blades in wind turbines, commonly the proportional and integral (PI) controller due to its simplicity and industrial usability is employed. The neural networks and evolutionary algorithms are tools that provide a suitable ground to determine the optimal PI gains. In this paper, a radial basis function (RBF) neural network based PI controller is proposed for collective pitch control (CPC) of a 5-MW wind turbine. In order to provide an optimal dataset to train the RBF neural network, particle swarm optimization (PSO) evolutionary algorithm is used. The proposed method does not need the complexities, nonlinearities and uncertainties of the system under control. The simulation results show that the proposed controller has satisfactory performance. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Children's Identification of Questions from Rising Terminal Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saindon, Mathieu R.; Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Young children are slow to master conventional intonation patterns in their "yes/no" questions, which may stem from imperfect understanding of the links between terminal pitch contours and pragmatic intentions. In Experiment 1, five to ten-year-old children and adults were required to judge utterances as questions or statements on the…

  20. Periodic Burning In Table Mountain-Pitch Pine Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell B. Randles; David H. van Lear; Thomas A. Waldrop; Dean M. Simon

    2002-01-01

    Abstract - The effects of multiple, low intensity burns on vegetation and wildlife habitat in Table Mountain (Pinus pungens Lamb.)-pitch (Pinus rigida Mill.) pine communities were studied in the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina. Treatments consisted of areas burned from one to four times at 3-4 year...

  1. Extraction of Coal-tar Pitch by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several extractions of coal-tar pitch were performed using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide. The relationships between extraction yield during supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and the variables temperature, pressure and extraction time were investigated. For qualitative and quantitative identification of organic compounds, ...

  2. Effects of pitch, level, and tactile cues on speech segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drullman, Rob; Bronkhorst, Adelbert W.

    2003-04-01

    Sentence intelligibility for interfering speech was investigated as a function of level difference, pitch difference, and presence of tactile support. A previous study by the present authors [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 2432-2433 (2002)] had shown a small benefit of tactile support in the speech-reception threshold measured against a background of one to eight competing talkers. The present experiment focused on the effects of informational and energetic masking for one competing talker. Competing speech was obtained by manipulating the speech of the male target talker (different sentences). The PSOLA technique was used to increase the average pitch of competing speech by 2, 4, 8, or 12 semitones. Level differences between target and competing speech ranged from -16 to +4 dB. Tactile support (B&K 4810 shaker) was given to the index finger by presenting the temporal envelope of the low-pass-filtered speech (0-200 Hz). Sentences were presented diotically and the percentage of correctly perceived words was measured. Results show a significant overall increase in intelligibility score from 71% to 77% due to tactile support. Performance improves monotonically with increasing pitch difference. Louder target speech generally helps perception, but results for level differences are considerably dependent on pitch differences.

  3. The Relationship between Pitch and Space in Congenital Amusia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria J.; Cocchini, Gianna; Stewart, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Congenital amusia manifests as a lifelong difficulty in making sense of musical sound. The extent to which this disorder is accompanied by deficits in visuo-spatial processing is an important question, bearing on the issue of whether pitch processing draws on supramodal spatial representations. The present study assessed different aspects of…

  4. Pitch jnd and the tritone paradox: The linguistic nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Kourosh

    2002-11-01

    Previous research has shown a connection between absolute pitch (the ability to name a specific pitch in the absence of any reference) and native competence in a tone language (Deutsch, 1990). In tone languages, tone is one of the features which determines the lexical meaning of a word. This study investigates the relationship between native competence in a tone language and the just noticeable difference of pitch. Furthermore, the tritone paradox studies have shown that subjects hear two tritones (with bell-shaped spectral envelopes) as either ascending or descending depending on their linguistic backgrounds (Deutsch, 1987). It is hypothesized that the native speakers of tone languages have a higher JND for pitch, and hear the two tones of the tritone paradox as ascending, whereas, native speakers of nontone languages hear them as descending. This study will indicate the importance of early musical training for the development of acute tone sensitivity. It will also underline the importance of language and culture in the way it shapes our musical understanding. The significance of this study will be in the areas of music education and pedagogy.

  5. Discriminating the occurrence of pitch canker fungus in Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... paper explores the utility of transformed high spatial resolution QuickBird imagery and artificial neural networks for the detection and mapping of pitch canker disease. Individual tree crowns were delineated using an automated segmentation and classification approach within an object-based image analysis environment.

  6. Dynamic pitching effect on a laminar separation bubble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nati, A.; De Kat, R.; Scarano, F.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.

    2015-01-01

    The unsteady effect of a periodic pitching motion on the characteristic of a laminar separation bubble on the suction side of a SD7003 aerofoil is investigated by means of time-resolved planar and tomographic particle image velocimetry. The measurements provide information on the separation,

  7. Diseases of pines caused by the pitch canker fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. David Dwinell; Stephen W. Fraedrich; D. Adams

    2001-01-01

    Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, the pitch canker fungus, causes a number of serious diseases of Pinus species. The pathogen infects a variety of vegetative and reproductive pine structures at different stages of maturity and produces a diversity of symptoms. When the pathogen infects the woody vegetative...

  8. Influence of musical and psychoacoustical training on pitch discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheyl, Christophe; Delhommeau, Karine; Perrot, Xavier; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2006-09-01

    This study compared the influence of musical and psychoacoustical training on auditory pitch discrimination abilities. In a first experiment, pitch discrimination thresholds for pure and complex tones were measured in 30 classical musicians and 30 non-musicians, none of whom had prior psychoacoustical training. The non-musicians' mean thresholds were more than six times larger than those of the classical musicians initially, and still about four times larger after 2h of training using an adaptive two-interval forced-choice procedure; this difference is two to three times larger than suggested by previous studies. The musicians' thresholds were close to those measured in earlier psychoacoustical studies using highly trained listeners, and showed little improvement with training; this suggests that classical musical training can lead to optimal or nearly optimal pitch discrimination performance. A second experiment was performed to determine how much additional training was required for the non-musicians to obtain thresholds as low as those of the classical musicians from experiment 1. Eight new non-musicians with no prior training practiced the frequency discrimination task for a total of 14 h. It took between 4 and 8h of training for their thresholds to become as small as those measured in the classical musicians from experiment 1. These findings supplement and qualify earlier data in the literature regarding the respective influence of musical and psychoacoustical training on pitch discrimination performance.

  9. Processing pitch in a non-human mammal (Chinchilla laniger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofner, William P.; Chaney, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Whether the mechanisms giving rise to pitch reflect spectral or temporal processing has long been debated. Generally, sounds having strong harmonic structures in their spectra have strong periodicities in their temporal structures. We found that when a wideband harmonic tone complex is passed through a noise vocoder, the resulting sound can have a harmonic structure with a large peak-to-valley ratio, but with little or no periodicity in the temporal structure. To test the role of harmonic structure in pitch perception for a non-human mammal, we measured behavioral responses to noise-vocoded tone complexes in chinchillas using a stimulus generalization paradigm. Animals discriminated either a harmonic tone complex or an iterated rippled noise from a 1-channel vocoded version of the tone complex. When tested with vocoded versions generated with 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 channels, responses were similar to those of the 1-channel version. Behavioral responses could not be accounted for based on harmonic peak-to-valley ratio as the acoustic cue, but could be accounted for based on temporal properties of the autocorrelation functions such as periodicity strength or the height of the first peak. The results suggest that pitch perception does not arise through spectral processing in non-human mammals, but rather through temporal processing. The conclusion that spectral processing contributes little to pitch in non-human mammals may reflect broader cochlear tuning than that described in humans. PMID:22985274

  10. Processing pitch in a nonhuman mammal (Chinchilla laniger).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofner, William P; Chaney, Megan

    2013-05-01

    Whether the mechanisms giving rise to pitch reflect spectral or temporal processing has long been debated. Generally, sounds having strong harmonic structures in their spectra have strong periodicities in their temporal structures. We found that when a wideband harmonic tone complex is passed through a noise vocoder, the resulting sound can have a harmonic structure with a large peak-to-valley ratio, but with little or no periodicity in the temporal structure. To test the role of harmonic structure in pitch perception for a nonhuman mammal, we measured behavioral responses to noise-vocoded tone complexes in chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) using a stimulus generalization paradigm. Chinchillas discriminated either a harmonic tone complex or an iterated rippled noise from a 1-channel vocoded version of the tone complex. When tested with vocoded versions generated with 8, 16, 32, 64, and 128 channels, responses were similar to those of the 1-channel version. Behavioral responses could not be accounted for based on harmonic peak-to-valley ratio as the acoustic cue, but could be accounted for based on temporal properties of the autocorrelation functions such as periodicity strength or the height of the first peak. The results suggest that pitch perception does not arise through spectral processing in nonhuman mammals but rather through temporal processing. The conclusion that spectral processing contributes little to pitch in nonhuman mammals may reflect broader cochlear tuning than that described in humans.

  11. Pixel size and pitch measurements of liquid crystal spatial light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a simple technique for the determination of pixel size and pitch of liquid crystal (LC) based spatial light modulator (SLM). The proposed method is based on optical diffraction from pixelated LC panel that has been modeled as a two-dimensional array of rectangular apertures. A novel yet simple, two-plane ...

  12. Singing Video Games May Help Improve Pitch-Matching Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paney, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of singing video games on the pitch-matching skills of undergraduate students. Popular games like "Rock Band" and "Karaoke Revolutions" rate players' singing based on the correctness of the frequency of their sung response. Players are motivated to improve their…

  13. Distraction by novel and pitch-deviant sounds in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Wetzel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The control of attention is an important part of our executive functions and enables us to focus on relevant information and to ignore irrelevant information. The ability to shield against distraction by task-irrelevant sounds is suggested to mature during school age. The present study investigated the developmental time course of distraction in three groups of children aged 7 – 10 years. Two different types of distractor sounds that have been frequently used in auditory attention research – novel environmental and pitch-deviant sounds – were presented within an oddball paradigm while children performed a visual categorization task. Reaction time measurements revealed decreasing distractor-related impairment with age. Novel environmental sounds impaired performance in the categorization task more than pitch-deviant sounds. The youngest children showed a pronounced decline of novel-related distraction effects throughout the experimental session. Such a significant decline as a result of practice was not observed in the pitch-deviant condition and not in older children. We observed no correlation between cross-modal distraction effects and performance in standardized tests of concentration and visual distraction. Results of the cross-modal distraction paradigm indicate that separate mechanisms underlying the processing of novel environmental and pitch-deviant sounds develop with different time courses and that these mechanisms develop considerably within a few years in middle childhood.

  14. Shoulder muscle firing patterns during the windmill softball pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffet, M W; Jobe, F W; Pink, M M; Brault, J; Mathiyakom, W

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the activity of eight shoulder muscles during the windmill fast-pitch softball throw. Ten collegiate female pitchers were analyzed with intramuscular electromyography, high-speed cinematography, and motion analysis. The supraspinatus muscle fired maximally during arm elevation from the 6 to 3 o'clock position phase, centralizing the humeral head within the glenoid. The posterior deltoid and teres minor muscles acted maximally from the 3 to 12 o'clock position phase to continue arm elevation and externally rotate the humerus. The pectoralis major muscle accelerated the arm from the 12 o'clock position to ball release phase. The serratus anterior muscle characteristically acted to position the scapula for optimal glenohumeral congruency, and the subscapularis muscle functioned as an internal rotator and to protect the anterior capsule. Although the windmill softball pitch is overtly different from the baseball pitch, several surprising similarities were revealed. The serratus anterior and pectoralis major muscles work in synchrony and seem to have similar functions in both pitches. Although the infraspinatus and teres minor muscles are both posterior cuff muscles, they are characteristically uncoupled during the 6 to 3 o'clock position phase, with the infraspinatus muscle acting more independently below 90 degrees. Subscapularis muscle activity seems important in dynamic anterior glenohumeral stabilization and as an internal rotator in both the baseball and softball throws.

  15. Musical pitch and lexical tone perception with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wuqing; Zhou, Ning; Xu, Li

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that cochlear implant (CI) users' music perception is correlated with their lexical tone perception, and the two types of perception share similar mechanisms in electric hearing. A lexical tone perception test and a pitch interval discrimination test were administered to a group of CI users and a group of normal-hearing (NH) listeners. SAMPLE STUDY: Nineteen adult CI users and 10 NH listeners who are native-Mandarin-Chinese speakers participated in the study. Tone-perception performance of the CI group was, on average, 58.3% correct (± 19.78% correct), and performance of the NH group was near perfect. The CI group had a mean threshold of 5.66 semitones (± 5.57 semitones) in pitch discrimination as compared to the threshold of 0.44 semitone from the NH group. There was a strong correlation between the CI users' tone-perception performance and their pitch discrimination threshold (r = -0.75, p pitch perceptions are strongly correlated with each other and they might share similar mechanisms in electric hearing.

  16. Our Work Done Well Is Like the Perfect Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Claudette; Hopkins, Susan; Fitzpatrick, Michele

    2004-01-01

    A carefully developed, comprehensive professional development plan takes time, energy, and coordination of resources, but when it's done well, it can seem as effortless as a perfectly pitched curve ball. Seven steps, each with a set of guiding questions, can help planners meet the goal and create a program that produces results. [Appended to this…

  17. Wear and Friction in a Controllable Pitch Propeller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godjevac, M.

    2010-01-01

    The author is a naval architect and this book is his PhD thesis. In this research the author focuses on friction in a controllable pitch propeller (CPP), formation of wear in a CPP system, and their mutual dependence. Instead of going deeply only in tribology aspects, the author tries to get an

  18. Pitch and Loudness Tinnitus in Individuals with Presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimetz, Bruna Macangnin; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Rosito, Leticia Petersen Schmidt; Flores, Leticia Sousa; Pappen, Carlos Henrique; Dall'igna, Celso

    2016-10-01

    Introduction  Tinnitus is a symptom that is often associated with presbycusis. Objective  This study aims to analyze the existence of association among hearing thresholds, pitch, and loudness of tinnitus in individuals with presbycusis, considering the gender variable. Methods  Cross-sectional, descriptive, and prospective study, whose sample consisted of individuals with tinnitus and diagnosis of presbycusis. For the evaluation, we performed anamnesis along with otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, and acuphenometry to analyze the psychoacoustic characteristics of tinnitus individuals. Results  The sample consisted of 49 subjects, with a mean age of 69.57 ± 6.53 years, who presented unilateral and bilateral tinnitus, therefore, a sample of 80 ears. In analyzing the results, as for acuphenometry, the loudness of tinnitus was more present at 0dB and the pitch was 6HKz and 8HKz. Regarding the analysis of the association between the frequency of greater hearing threshold and tinnitus pitch, no statistical significance ( p  = 0.862) was found. As for the association between the intensity of greater hearing threshold and tinnitus loudness, no statistical significance ( p  = 0.115) was found. Conclusion  There is no significant association between the hearing loss of patients with presbycusis and the pitch and loudness of tinnitus.

  19. Pitch and Loudness Tinnitus in Individuals with Presbycusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seimetz, Bruna Macangnin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Tinnitus is a symptom that is often associated with presbycusis. Objective This study aims to analyze the existence of association among hearing thresholds, pitch, and loudness of tinnitus in individuals with presbycusis, considering the gender variable. Methods Cross-sectional, descriptive, and prospective study, whose sample consisted of individuals with tinnitus and diagnosis of presbycusis. For the evaluation, we performed anamnesis along with otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, and acuphenometry to analyze the psychoacoustic characteristics of tinnitus individuals. Results The sample consisted of 49 subjects, with a mean age of 69.57 ± 6.53 years, who presented unilateral and bilateral tinnitus, therefore, a sample of 80 ears. In analyzing the results, as for acuphenometry, the loudness of tinnitus was more present at 0dB and the pitch was 6HKz and 8HKz. Regarding the analysis of the association between the frequency of greater hearing threshold and tinnitus pitch, no statistical significance (p = 0.862 was found. As for the association between the intensity of greater hearing threshold and tinnitus loudness, no statistical significance (p = 0.115 was found. Conclusion There is no significant association between the hearing loss of patients with presbycusis and the pitch and loudness of tinnitus.

  20. Development in Children's Interpretation of Pitch Cues to Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Carolyn; Swingley, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Young infants respond to positive and negative speech prosody (A. Fernald, 1993), yet 4-year-olds rely on lexical information when it conflicts with paralinguistic cues to approval or disapproval (M. Friend, 2003). This article explores this surprising phenomenon, testing one hundred eighteen 2- to 5-year-olds' use of isolated pitch cues to…

  1. Perceptual Grouping Affects Pitch Judgments across Time and Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Elizabeth M. O.; Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Pitch, the perceptual correlate of fundamental frequency (F0), plays an important role in speech, music, and animal vocalizations. Changes in F0 over time help define musical melodies and speech prosody, while comparisons of simultaneous F0 are important for musical harmony, and for segregating competing sound sources. This study compared…

  2. Pitch perception in children with autistic spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altgassen, A.M.; Kliegel, M.; Williams, T.I.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of musical pitch detection in children with autistic spectrum disorders as compared with typically developing children. Seventeen children on the autistic spectrum (Mage=9.34, SDage=1.12) and 13 typically developing, chronological age-matched children (Mage=9.13,

  3. 14 CFR 35.21 - Variable and reversible pitch propellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variable and reversible pitch propellers. 35.21 Section 35.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.21 Variable and...

  4. Risk-based Comparative Study of Fluid Power Pitch Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liniger, Jesper; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    . Thus, more reliable and safe concepts are needed. A review of patents and patent applications covering fluid power pitch concepts, reveals that many propose closed-type hydraulic systems. This paper proposes a closed-type concept with a bootstrap reservoir. In contrary to a conventional system where...

  5. Pitch and tonality in contemporary African music: Nigerian gospel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Like melody, language and rhythm, pitch and tonality are major indicators of African identity in music. In traditional African musical forms, these elements are obvious, but in contemporary African musical expressions which are influenced by several external factors, it is necessary to know the extent to which the elements ...

  6. Pitch organisation in Hendrik Hofmeyr's Alleenstryd | May | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hendrik Hofmeyr's Alleenstryd is of seminal importance in the evolution of the composer's musical language. Emerging ideas of types of pitch organisation in earlier works are here for the first time organised into a fully integrated system and the principles applied here later became some of the most important hallmarks of ...

  7. Pitch chroma discrimination, generalization, and transfer tests of octave equivalence in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeschele, Marisa; Weisman, Ronald G; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2012-11-01

    Octave equivalence occurs when notes separated by an octave (a doubling in frequency) are judged as being perceptually similar. Considerable evidence points to the importance of the octave in music and speech. Yet, experimental demonstration of octave equivalence has been problematic. Using go/no-go operant discrimination and generalization, we studied octave equivalence in humans. In Experiment 1, we found that a procedure that failed to show octave equivalence in European starlings also failed in humans. In Experiment 2, we modified the procedure to control for the effects of pitch height perception by training participants in Octave 4 and testing in Octave 5. We found that the pattern of responding developed by discrimination training in Octave 4 generalized to Octave 5. We replicated and extended our findings in Experiment 3 by adding a transfer phase: Participants were trained with either the same or a reversed pattern of rewards in Octave 5. Participants transferred easily to the same pattern of reward in Octave 5 but struggled to learn the reversed pattern. We provided minimal instruction, presented no ordered sequences of notes, and used only sine-wave tones, but participants nonetheless constructed pitch chroma information from randomly ordered sequences of notes. Training in music weakly hindered octave generalization but moderately facilitated both positive and negative transfer.

  8. Melody and pitch processing in five musical savants with congenital blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pring, Linda; Woolf, Katherine; Tadic, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    We examined absolute-pitch (AP) and short-term musical memory abilities of five musical savants with congenital blindness, seven musicians, and seven non-musicians with good vision and normal intelligence in two experiments. In the first, short-term memory for musical phrases was tested and the savants and musicians performed statistically indistinguishably, both significantly outperforming the non-musicians and remembering more material from the C major scale sequences than random trials. In the second experiment, participants learnt associations between four pitches and four objects using a non-verbal paradigm. This experiment approximates to testing AP ability. Low statistical power meant the savants were not statistically better than the musicians, although only the savants scored statistically higher than the non-musicians. The results are evidence for a musical module, separate from general intelligence; they also support the anecdotal reporting of AP in musical savants, which is thought to be necessary for the development of musical-savant skill.

  9. Preferences for very low and very high voice pitch in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Re

    Full Text Available Manipulations of voice pitch have been shown to alter attractiveness ratings, but whether preferences extend to very low or very high voice pitch is unknown. Here, we manipulated voice pitch in averaged men's and women's voices by 2 Hz intervals to create a range of male and female voices speaking monopthong vowel sounds and spanning a range of frequencies from normal to very low and very high pitch. With these voices, we used the method of constant stimuli to measure preferences for voice. Nineteen university students (ages: 20-25 participated in three experiments. On average, men preferred high-pitched women's voices to low-pitched women's voices across all frequencies tested. On average, women preferred men's voices lowered in pitch, but did not prefer very low men's voices. The results of this study may reflect selection pressures for men's and women's voices, and shed light on a perceptual link between voice pitch and vocal attractiveness.

  10. Preferences for very low and very high voice pitch in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Daniel E; O'Connor, Jillian J M; Bennett, Patrick J; Feinberg, David R

    2012-01-01

    Manipulations of voice pitch have been shown to alter attractiveness ratings, but whether preferences extend to very low or very high voice pitch is unknown. Here, we manipulated voice pitch in averaged men's and women's voices by 2 Hz intervals to create a range of male and female voices speaking monopthong vowel sounds and spanning a range of frequencies from normal to very low and very high pitch. With these voices, we used the method of constant stimuli to measure preferences for voice. Nineteen university students (ages: 20-25) participated in three experiments. On average, men preferred high-pitched women's voices to low-pitched women's voices across all frequencies tested. On average, women preferred men's voices lowered in pitch, but did not prefer very low men's voices. The results of this study may reflect selection pressures for men's and women's voices, and shed light on a perceptual link between voice pitch and vocal attractiveness.

  11. The role of femininity and averageness of voice pitch in aesthetic judgments of women's voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, David R; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C; Perrett, David I

    2008-01-01

    Although averageness is preferred in auditory stimuli (eg music) and non-face objects (eg wristwatches), exaggerated feminine characteristics are preferred to averageness in female faces. To establish whether or not men prefer femininity in female voices to average characteristics, we conducted a correlational study (study 1) to assess the relationship between voice pitch and attractiveness ratings. We found a positive linear relationship between voice pitch and attractiveness ratings. In study 2 we manipulated pitch in women's voices with low (lower than average), average, and high (higher than average) starting pitches and gauged men's preferences. Men preferred women's voices with raised pitch for all levels of starting pitch. These findings suggest that men prefer high voice pitch to average voice pitch in women's voices.

  12. Facial expression and vocal pitch height: Evidence of an intermodal association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huron, David; Dahl, Sofia; Johnson, Randolph

    2009-01-01

    Forty-four participants were asked to sing moderate, high, and low  pitches while their faces were photographed. In a two-alternative forced choice task,  independent judges selected the high-pitch faces as more friendly than the low-pitch  faces. When photographs were cropped to show only the ey...... eyebrow position and sung pitch—consistent with the role of eyebrows in signaling aggression and appeasement. Overall, the results are consistent with an inter-modal linkage between vocal and facial expressions....... region, judges still rated the high-pitch faces friendlier than the low-pitch faces. These results are consistent with prior research showing that vocal pitch height is used to signal aggression (low pitch) or appeasement (high pitch). An analysis of the facial features shows a strong correlation between...

  13. Absolute pitch: effects of timbre on note-naming ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Vanzella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Absolute pitch (AP is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names, it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP possessors to identify. A musician's first instrument may also affect performance and extend the sensitive period for acquiring accurate AP. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A large sample of AP possessors was recruited on-line. Participants were required to identity test tones presented in four different timbres: piano, pure tone, natural (sung voice, and synthesized voice. Note-naming accuracy was better for non-vocal (piano and pure tones than for vocal (natural and synthesized voices test tones. This difference could not be attributed solely to vibrato (pitch variation, which was more pronounced in the natural voice than in the synthesized voice. Although starting music lessons by age 7 was associated with enhanced note-naming accuracy, equivalent abilities were evident among listeners who started music lessons on piano at a later age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because the human voice is inextricably linked to language and meaning, it may be processed automatically by voice-specific mechanisms that interfere with note naming among AP possessors. Lessons on piano or other fixed-pitch instruments appear to enhance AP abilities and to extend the sensitive period for exposure to music in order to develop accurate AP.

  14. Repetition suppression in auditory-motor regions to pitch and temporal structure in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Chen, Joyce L; Hollinger, Avrum; Penhune, Virginia B; Palmer, Caroline; Zatorre, Robert J

    2013-02-01

    Music performance requires control of two sequential structures: the ordering of pitches and the temporal intervals between successive pitches. Whether pitch and temporal structures are processed as separate or integrated features remains unclear. A repetition suppression paradigm compared neural and behavioral correlates of mapping pitch sequences and temporal sequences to motor movements in music performance. Fourteen pianists listened to and performed novel melodies on an MR-compatible piano keyboard during fMRI scanning. The pitch or temporal patterns in the melodies either changed or repeated (remained the same) across consecutive trials. We expected decreased neural response to the patterns (pitch or temporal) that repeated across trials relative to patterns that changed. Pitch and temporal accuracy were high, and pitch accuracy improved when either pitch or temporal sequences repeated over trials. Repetition of either pitch or temporal sequences was associated with linear BOLD decrease in frontal-parietal brain regions including dorsal and ventral premotor cortex, pre-SMA, and superior parietal cortex. Pitch sequence repetition (in contrast to temporal sequence repetition) was associated with linear BOLD decrease in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) while pianists listened to melodies they were about to perform. Decreased BOLD response in IPS also predicted increase in pitch accuracy only when pitch sequences repeated. Thus, behavioral performance and neural response in sensorimotor mapping networks were sensitive to both pitch and temporal structure, suggesting that pitch and temporal structure are largely integrated in auditory-motor transformations. IPS may be involved in transforming pitch sequences into spatial coordinates for accurate piano performance.

  15. Frequency Regulation Control of Wind Turbine Incorporating Stepper Motor in Pitch System

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Zikriya Shah; Muhammad Naeem Arbab

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the presentation of a stepper motor in the pitch control system to regulate frequency. The controller sense the frequency deviation. If the frequency deviation is positive the stepper motor will recommend the motor to pitch the turbine blade slightly away from wind pressure. Similarly if the frequency deviation is negative the stepper motor will recommend the motor to pitch the turbine blade slightly towards wind pressure. The blade pitching is performed by another motor....

  16. Two Studies of Pitch in String Instrument Vibrato: Perception and Pitch Matching Responses of University and High School String Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringer, John M.; MacLeod, Rebecca B.; Ellis, Julia C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated pitch perception of string vibrato tones among string players in two separate studies. In both studies we used tones of acoustic instruments (violin and cello) as stimuli. In the first, we asked 192 high school and university string players to listen to a series of tonal pairs: one tone of each pair was performed with vibrato and…

  17. Do musicians with perfect pitch have more autism traits than musicians without perfect pitch? An empirical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Dohn

    Full Text Available Perfect pitch, also known as absolute pitch (AP, refers to the rare ability to identify or produce a musical tone correctly without the benefit of an external reference. AP is often considered to reflect musical giftedness, but it has also been associated with certain disabilities due to increased prevalence of AP in individuals with sensory and developmental disorders. Here, we determine whether individual autistic traits are present in people with AP. We quantified subclinical levels of autism traits using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ in three matched groups of subjects: 16 musicians with AP (APs, 18 musicians without AP (non-APs, and 16 non-musicians. In addition, we measured AP ability by a pitch identification test with sine wave tones and piano tones. We found a significantly higher degree of autism traits in APs than in non-APs and non-musicians, and autism scores were significantly correlated with pitch identification scores (r = .46, p = .003. However, our results showed that APs did not differ from non-APs on diagnostically crucial social and communicative domain scores and their total AQ scores were well below clinical thresholds for autism. Group differences emerged on the imagination and attention switching subscales of the AQ. Thus, whilst these findings do link AP with autism, they also show that AP ability is most strongly associated with personality traits that vary widely within the normal population.

  18. Do musicians with perfect pitch have more autism traits than musicians without perfect pitch? An empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Heaton, Pamela; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Perfect pitch, also known as absolute pitch (AP), refers to the rare ability to identify or produce a musical tone correctly without the benefit of an external reference. AP is often considered to reflect musical giftedness, but it has also been associated with certain disabilities due to increased prevalence of AP in individuals with sensory and developmental disorders. Here, we determine whether individual autistic traits are present in people with AP. We quantified subclinical levels of autism traits using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in three matched groups of subjects: 16 musicians with AP (APs), 18 musicians without AP (non-APs), and 16 non-musicians. In addition, we measured AP ability by a pitch identification test with sine wave tones and piano tones. We found a significantly higher degree of autism traits in APs than in non-APs and non-musicians, and autism scores were significantly correlated with pitch identification scores (r = .46, p = .003). However, our results showed that APs did not differ from non-APs on diagnostically crucial social and communicative domain scores and their total AQ scores were well below clinical thresholds for autism. Group differences emerged on the imagination and attention switching subscales of the AQ. Thus, whilst these findings do link AP with autism, they also show that AP ability is most strongly associated with personality traits that vary widely within the normal population.

  19. Variability of a "force signature" during windmill softball pitching and relationship between discrete force variables and pitch velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimphius, Sophia; McGuigan, Michael R; Suchomel, Timothy J; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed reliability of discrete ground reaction force (GRF) variables over multiple pitching trials, investigated the relationships between discrete GRF variables and pitch velocity (PV) and assessed the variability of the "force signature" or continuous force-time curve during the pitching motion of windmill softball pitchers. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for all discrete variables was high (0.86-0.99) while the coefficient of variance (CV) was low (1.4-5.2%). Two discrete variables were significantly correlated to PV; second vertical peak force (r(5)=0.81, p=0.03) and time between peak forces (r(5)=-0.79; p=0.03). High ICCs and low CVs support the reliability of discrete GRF and PV variables over multiple trials and significant correlations indicate there is a relationship between the ability to produce force and the timing of this force production with PV. The mean of all pitchers' curve-average standard deviation of their continuous force-time curves demonstrated low variability (CV=4.4%) indicating a repeatable and identifiable "force signature" pattern during this motion. As such, the continuous force-time curve in addition to discrete GRF variables should be examined in future research as a potential method to monitor or explain changes in pitching performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection and identification of monaural and binaural pitch contours in dyslexic listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Poelmans, Hanne; Luts, Heleen

    2010-01-01

    of dyslexic listeners to Huggins' pitch (HP). The present study clarified whether impaired binaural pitch perception is found in dyslexia. Results from a pitch contour identification test, performed in 31 dyslexic listeners and 31 matched controls, clearly showed that dyslexics perceived HP as well...

  1. The Effect of Dynamic Pitch on Speech Recognition in Temporally Modulated Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jung; Souza, Pamela E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the effect of dynamic pitch in target speech on older and younger listeners' speech recognition in temporally modulated noise. First, we examined whether the benefit from dynamic-pitch cues depends on the temporal modulation of noise. Second, we tested whether older listeners can benefit from dynamic-pitch cues for…

  2. Local and global pitch perception in L1 and L2 readers of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Chiara; Postma, Marie; Mos, Maria; Vedder, Kayleigh; Hendriks, Danielle; Maggiore, G.

    2017-01-01

    Prior research showed a relationship between reading skills and pitch perception, however the exact nature remained unclear. By means of reading tests and a pitch perception test, we examined the relation between reading abilities and local and global pitch perception for 92 native Dutch children

  3. The Influence of Voice Pitch on the Evaluation of a Social Robot Receptionist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niculescu, A.I.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Nijholt, Antinus; See, Swee Lan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present an experiment addressing the effect of voice pitch on the evaluation of a social robot receptionist. Twenty eight test participants interacted with two “female‿ robot characters: one with a high-pitched, exuberant voice, the other with a low-pitched, calm voice. Our results

  4. Pitch Discrimination and Melodic Memory in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanutz, Sandy; Wapnick, Joel; Burack, Jacob A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pitch perception is enhanced among persons with autism. We extended this finding to memory for pitch and melody among school-aged children. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate pitch memory in musically untrained children with autism spectrum disorders, aged 7-13 years, and to compare it to that of age- and…

  5. Characterization of coal- and petroleum-derived binder pitches and the interaction of pitch/coke mixtures in pre-baked carbon anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

    Carbon anodes are manufactured from calcined petroleum coke (i.e. sponge coke) and recycled anode butts as fillers, and coal tar pitch (SCTP) as the binder. During the manufacturing of carbon anodes, coal tar pitch is mixed with calcined petroleum coke. The mix of binder, filler and some additives is heated to about 50°C above the softening point of the pitch, typically 160°C. This temperature is sufficient to enable the pitch to wet the coke particles. The mix is then either extruded, vibrated, or pressed to form a green anode. The binding between coke and pitch is very important to the anode properties. There are different binder pitches used in this work, which were standard coal tar pitch (SCTP-2), petroleum pitch (PP-1), gasification pitch (GP-115), coal-extract pitch (WVU-5), and co-coking pitches (HTCCP and OXCCP). Petroleum pitch is a residue produced from heat-treatment and distillation of petroleum fractions. Production of coal-extract pitch involves a prehydrogenation of coal followed by extraction using a dipolar solvent. Gasification pitches are distilled by-product tars produced from the coal gasification process. Co-coking pitch was developed in this work and was obtained from the liquid distillate of co-coking process of coal and heavy petroleum residue. Understanding of composition and structures of pitches from different sources and processes would lead to greater understanding of the binding properties of pitch in carbon anodes and was one of the main focuses in this study. Characterization of pitches by using different techniques including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry (MALDI/MS), 1H and 13C solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and 13C solid-state NMR yield important chemistry and structural information. The binding, or in other words the interactions in the pitch/coke mixture, is another interest in this

  6. Multiple coding strategies in the retention of musical tones by possessors of absolute pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatorre, R J; Beckett, C

    1989-09-01

    Eighteen musicians with absolute pitch (AP) confirmed by screening tests participated in tonal and verbal short-term-retention tasks. In the tonal task, subjects identified three successive piano tones by their letter names. Recall of these note names after 18 sec of counting backwards was near perfect. Recall after an 18-sec delay filled with random piano tones was also near perfect. In contrast, the same subjects demonstrated significant forgetting when required to retain letter trigrams while counting backwards for 18 sec. These results were essentially replicated in a second experiment using longer (27 sec) retention intervals, a more demanding verbal interference task, and an active musical interference task (singing a descending scale). We interpret these results as indicating that retention of note names by possessors of AP is not limited to verbal encoding; rather, multiple codes (e.g., auditory, kinesthetic, and visual imagery) are probably used.

  7. Control of variable speed variable pitch wind turbine based on a disturbance observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haijun; Lei, Xin

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a novel sliding mode controller based on disturbance observer (DOB) to optimize the efficiency of variable speed variable pitch (VSVP) wind turbine is developed and analyzed. Due to the highly nonlinearity of the VSVP system, the model is linearly processed to obtain the state space model of the system. Then, a conventional sliding mode controller is designed and a DOB is added to estimate wind speed. The proposed control strategy can successfully deal with the random nature of wind speed, the nonlinearity of VSVP system, the uncertainty of parameters and external disturbance. Via adding the observer to the sliding mode controller, it can greatly reduce the chattering produced by the sliding mode switching gain. The simulation results show that the proposed control system has the effectiveness and robustness.

  8. Reaction, Anticipation and Accent in a Gravitational Pitch Space: Commentary on Ammirante and Thompson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohar Eitan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammirante and Thompson’s intriguing article aims to enhance the ecological validity of their previous findings (Ammirante, Thompson, & Russo, in press by using music-like melodic stimuli, rather than random pitch sequences. In line with this aim, I will briefly discuss three issues that may be taken into account in relating the motion-like qualities of melody to music and music-related behavior (finger tapping. First, I suggest how the authors’ hypotheses may be examined within a context in which tapping is affected by expectancies for a specific melodic continuation. Second, I discuss how timing and velocity changes associated with melodic distance and contour may give rise to a prototypical joint accent structure, integrating melodic, agogic and dynamic accent. Finally, I note a possible confound of melodic direction and tonality in Ammirante and Thompson’s stimuli, and suggest ways to examine the effects of these two dimensions separately.

  9. Effect of performance time of the high-pitched blowing vocal exercise in the voice of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Fabíola Santos; Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes

    2017-02-16

    To analyze the results of the runtimes of one, three, five, and seven minutes of the high-pitched blowing vocal exercise in women without voice complaints and with dysphonia and vocal nodules. This is an experimental study with a consecutive and convenience sample of 60 women divided into two groups: 30 participants with dysphonia caused by vocal fold nodules (study group - SG) and 30 participants without vocal complaints (control group - CG). All participants performed the high-pitched blowing vocal exercise for one, three, five, and seven minutes. Sustained vowels /a/ and counting from one to ten were recorded before and after each exercise runtime. The recordings were randomized and evaluated by comparison task by four speech-language pathologists using the parameters grade of vocal deviation, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain and instability (GRBASI). The acoustic parameters analyzed were fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, period perturbation quotient, amplitude perturbation quotient, and harmonics-to-noise ratio. After each vocal exercise runtime, the participants responded whether they had felt vocal discomfort using a visual analogue scale. Auditory-perceptual analysis in the SG showed improved overall severity of dysphonia and breathiness after three minutes and worsening of these acoustic parameters after seven minutes of exercise performance. Participants in the SG reported self-perception of vocal discomfort after seven minutes of exercise performance. The ideal prescription time for the high-pitched blowing vocal exercise in dysphonic women is three minutes; worsening of voice quality and perception of vocal discomfort occurs after seven minutes.

  10. A double-blind, randomized study to assess the validity of applied kinesiology (AK) as a diagnostic tool and as a nonlocal proximity effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephan A; Utts, Jessica; Spottiswoode, S James P; Shade, Christopher W; Tully, Lisa; Morris, William F; Nachman, Ginette

    2014-01-01

    Applied Kinesiology (AK) is a diagnostic technique widely used within the Integrative Medical community. In essence, it posits that a question can be mentally held in a person's mind, sometimes while they are holding a substance like a vitamin, or a food sample, and by measuring relative muscular weakness an answer as to whether the substance or the condition represented by the question is good for that person can be obtained. This AK is presumed to have a diagnostic capability. That being presumed, this study asks the following questions: (1) Is there a difference in muscular strength when an individual holds a substance that is inimical to life processes (a poison solution), as compared to a substance that is essential for life (normal saline)? (2) Is this effect a transaction involving input from both the person being measured and the kinesiologist doing the measurement or is it only the person being measured? (3) As an extension of question 2, is the result the same when different kinesiologists take the measurement or when no kinesiologist is involved? (4) Does belief, expectation, gender, or time cognition play a role in determining response? To answer these questions, which would help to define the parameters of the AK process, 51 participants were tested during three trials each, first by one kinesiologist, then by another, and finally, with no kinesiologist present by grip strength indicated using a hand dynamometer. Grip strength being a self-administered AK test of relative muscular strength. For each trial, a pair of randomly numbered sealed vials, each pair in a randomly numbered plastic bag, were used as the objects of the trial. In each bag, one vial contained saline solution while the other was filled with a slightly smaller amount of saline solution to which had been added ionic hydroxylamine hydrochloride (NH3OH)(+), producing a toxic solution of 9mg/ml. Each trial consisted of a separate muscle test for each vial. All present at the trials were

  11. A Comparison of Average Pitch Height and Interval Size in Major- and Minor-key Themes: Evidence Consistent with Affect-related Pitch Prosody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Huron

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of 9,788 instrumental themes shows that minor-key themes are, on average, slightly lower in pitch than major-key themes. The lower pitch is not merely an artifact of structural differences in the scales. In addition, instrumental themes in minor keys show a weak though significant tendency to use smaller pitch intervals. Both results are consistent with observations in speech prosody, where sad speakers exhibit a lower F0 and narrower pitch fluctuation compared with normal or happy speakers.

  12. The Significance of the Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex for Pitch Memory in Non-musicians Depends on Baseline Pitch Memory Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora K. Schaal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pitch memory is a resource which is shared by music and language. Neuroimaging studies have shown that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC is activated during pitch memory processes. The present study investigated the causal significance of this brain area for pitch memory in non-musicians by applying cathodal and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the right DLPFC and examining the impact on offline pitch and visual memory span performances. On the overall sample (N = 22 no significant modulation effect of cathodal stimulation on the pitch span task was found. However, when dividing the sample by means of a median split of pre-test pitch memory abilities into a high and low performing group, a selective effect of significantly impaired pitch memory after cathodal tDCS in good performers was revealed. The visual control task was not affected by the stimulation in either group. The results support previous neuroimaging studies that the right DLPFC is involved in pitch memory processes in non-musicians and highlights the importance of baseline pitch memory abilities for the modulatory effect of tDCS.

  13. The Significance of the Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex for Pitch Memory in Non-musicians Depends on Baseline Pitch Memory Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Nora K; Kretschmer, Marina; Keitel, Ariane; Krause, Vanessa; Pfeifer, Jasmin; Pollok, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Pitch memory is a resource which is shared by music and language. Neuroimaging studies have shown that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is activated during pitch memory processes. The present study investigated the causal significance of this brain area for pitch memory in non-musicians by applying cathodal and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right DLPFC and examining the impact on offline pitch and visual memory span performances. On the overall sample ( N = 22) no significant modulation effect of cathodal stimulation on the pitch span task was found. However, when dividing the sample by means of a median split of pre-test pitch memory abilities into a high and low performing group, a selective effect of significantly impaired pitch memory after cathodal tDCS in good performers was revealed. The visual control task was not affected by the stimulation in either group. The results support previous neuroimaging studies that the right DLPFC is involved in pitch memory processes in non-musicians and highlights the importance of baseline pitch memory abilities for the modulatory effect of tDCS.

  14. A temporal predictive code for voice motor control: Evidence from ERP and behavioral responses to pitch-shifted auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Sangtian, Stacey; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R

    2016-04-01

    The predictive coding model suggests that voice motor control is regulated by a process in which the mismatch (error) between feedforward predictions and sensory feedback is detected and used to correct vocal motor behavior. In this study, we investigated how predictions about timing of pitch perturbations in voice auditory feedback would modulate ERP and behavioral responses during vocal production. We designed six counterbalanced blocks in which a +100 cents pitch-shift stimulus perturbed voice auditory feedback during vowel sound vocalizations. In three blocks, there was a fixed delay (500, 750 or 1000 ms) between voice and pitch-shift stimulus onset (predictable), whereas in the other three blocks, stimulus onset delay was randomized between 500, 750 and 1000 ms (unpredictable). We found that subjects produced compensatory (opposing) vocal responses that started at 80 ms after the onset of the unpredictable stimuli. However, for predictable stimuli, subjects initiated vocal responses at 20 ms before and followed the direction of pitch shifts in voice feedback. Analysis of ERPs showed that the amplitudes of the N1 and P2 components were significantly reduced in response to predictable compared with unpredictable stimuli. These findings indicate that predictions about temporal features of sensory feedback can modulate vocal motor behavior. In the context of the predictive coding model, temporally-predictable stimuli are learned and reinforced by the internal feedforward system, and as indexed by the ERP suppression, the sensory feedback contribution is reduced for their processing. These findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of vocal production and motor control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Musical Pitch Perception and Clinical Applications Including Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuskaitis, Christopher J; Parviz, Mahsa; Loui, Psyche; Wan, Catherine Y; Pearl, Phillip L

    2015-08-01

    Music production and perception invoke a complex set of cognitive functions that rely on the integration of sensorimotor, cognitive, and emotional pathways. Pitch is a fundamental perceptual attribute of sound and a building block for both music and speech. Although the cerebral processing of pitch is not completely understood, recent advances in imaging and electrophysiology have provided insight into the functional and anatomical pathways of pitch processing. This review examines the current understanding of pitch processing and behavioral and neural variations that give rise to difficulties in pitch processing, and potential applications of music education for language processing disorders such as dyslexia.

  16. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Musical Pitch Perception and Clinical Applications including Developmental Dyselxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuskaitis, Christopher J.; Parviz, Mahsa; Loui, Psyche; Wan, Catherine Y.; Pearl, Phillip L.

    2017-01-01

    Music production and perception invoke a complex set of cognitive functions that rely on the integration of sensory-motor, cognitive, and emotional pathways. Pitch is a fundamental perceptual attribute of sound and a building block for both music and speech. Although the cerebral processing of pitch is not completely understood, recent advances in imaging and electrophysiology have provided insight into the functional and anatomical pathways of pitch processing. This review examines the current understanding of pitch processing, behavioral and neural variations that give rise to difficulties in pitch processing, and potential applications of music education for language processing disorders such as dyslexia. PMID:26092314

  17. Enhanced production and perception of musical pitch in tone language speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q; Brown, Steven

    2009-08-01

    Individuals differ markedly with respect to how well they can imitate pitch through singing and in their ability to perceive pitch differences. We explored whether the use of pitch in one's native language can account for some of the differences in these abilities. Results from two studies suggest that individuals whose native language is a tone language, in which pitch contributes to word meaning, are better able to imitate (through singing) and perceptually discriminate musical pitch. These findings support the view that language acquisition fine-tunes the processing of critical auditory dimensions in the speech signal and that this fine-tuning can be carried over into nonlinguistic domains.

  18. Active and passive stabilization of body pitch in insect flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristroph, Leif; Ristroph, Gunnar; Morozova, Svetlana; Bergou, Attila J; Chang, Song; Guckenheimer, John; Wang, Z Jane; Cohen, Itai

    2013-08-06

    Flying insects have evolved sophisticated sensory-motor systems, and here we argue that such systems are used to keep upright against intrinsic flight instabilities. We describe a theory that predicts the instability growth rate in body pitch from flapping-wing aerodynamics and reveals two ways of achieving balanced flight: active control with sufficiently rapid reactions and passive stabilization with high body drag. By glueing magnets to fruit flies and perturbing their flight using magnetic impulses, we show that these insects employ active control that is indeed fast relative to the instability. Moreover, we find that fruit flies with their control sensors disabled can keep upright if high-drag fibres are also attached to their bodies, an observation consistent with our prediction for the passive stability condition. Finally, we extend this framework to unify the control strategies used by hovering animals and also furnish criteria for achieving pitch stability in flapping-wing robots.

  19. Absolute pitch correlates with high performance on musical dictation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Kevin; Deutsch, Diana

    2010-08-01

    Absolute pitch (AP)--the ability to name a musical note in the absence of a reference note--is a rare ability whose relevance to musical proficiency has so far been unclear. Sixty trained musicians--thirty who self-reported AP and thirty with equivalent age of onset and duration of musical training--were administered a test for AP and also a musical dictation test not requiring AP. Performance on both types of test were highly correlated (r=.81, pdictation test, the scores of those without AP varied widely, and the performance of the intermediate group of borderline AP possessors fell between that of clear AP possessors and clear nonpossessors. The findings support the hypothesis that AP is associated with proficiency in performing other musical tasks, and run counter to the claim that it confers a disadvantage in the processing of relative pitch.

  20. Determining pitch-angle diffusion coefficients from test particle simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ivascenko, A; Spanier, F; Vainio, R

    2016-01-01

    Transport and acceleration of charged particles in turbulent media is a topic of great interest in space physics and interstellar astrophysics. These processes are dominated by the scattering of particles off magnetic irregularities. The scattering process itself is usually described by small-angle scattering with the pitch-angle coefficient $D_{\\mu\\mu}$ playing a major role. Since the diffusion coefficient $D_{\\mu\\mu}$ can be determined analytically only for the approximation of quasi-linear theory, the determination of this coefficient from numerical simulations has, therefore, become more important. So far these simulations yield particle tracks for small-scale scattering, which can then be interpreted using the running diffusion coefficients. This method has a limited range of validity. This paper presents two new methods that allow for the calculation of the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient from numerical simulations. These methods no longer analyse particle trajectories, but the change of particle dist...

  1. Standardization of pitch-range settings in voice acoustic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Adam P; Maruff, Paul; Snyder, Peter J; Mundt, James C

    2009-05-01

    Voice acoustic analysis is typically a labor-intensive, time-consuming process that requires the application of idiosyncratic parameters tailored to individual aspects of the speech signal. Such processes limit the efficiency and utility of voice analysis in clinical practice as well as in applied research and development. In the present study, we analyzed 1,120 voice files, using standard techniques (case-by-case hand analysis), taking roughly 10 work weeks of personnel time to complete. The results were compared with the analytic output of several automated analysis scripts that made use of preset pitch-range parameters. After pitch windows were selected to appropriately account for sex differences, the automated analysis scripts reduced processing time of the 1,120 speech samples to less than 2.5 h and produced results comparable to those obtained with hand analysis. However, caution should be exercised when applying the suggested preset values to pathological voice populations.

  2. Investigating the Role of Wind Turbine Pitch using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobotta Dorit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal axis wind turbines are an attractive renewable energy source due to their very low carbon emission during their life cycle. In this study the effect of pitching the rotor blades of the NREL Phase VI rotor has been investigated in detail using CFD in order to allow a detailed torque analysis. Initial investigations have shown that at low rotational speeds the inboard section of the blade is responsible for the majority of the power generation. As the rotational speed increases the power producing section is shifted towards the blade tip. These trends are less pronounced when the blade is pitched which allows the blade to generate significantly more power at low rotational speeds. The improved low speed performance however comes at the cost of a significantly lower maximum power output. These findings are particularly relevant for turbines operating in unfavourable wind environments and for small scale turbines which solely rely on their aerodynamic torque for starting.

  3. Application of fin system to reduce pitch motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rajesh Reguram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Container ships are prone to move at a greater speed compared to other merchant ships. The slenderness of the hull of container vessel is for better speed, but it leads to unfavorable motions. The pitch and roll are related and sometimes the vessel might be forced to parametric roll condition which is very dangerous. A fin attached to the ship hull proves to be more efficient in controlling the pitch. The fin is fitted at a lowest possible location of the hull surface and it is at the bow part of the ship. Simulations are done using proven software package ANSYS AQWA and the results are compared. Simulations are done for both regular and irregular seas and the effect of fin on ship motion is studied. P-M spectrum is considered for various sea states.

  4. Dual pitch plasmonic devices for polarization enhanced colour based sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, D.; Balaur, E.; Sadatnajafi, C.; Abbey, B.

    2016-12-01

    Plasmonic devices provide a unique sensitivity to changes in the permittivity of the immediate, near-surface environment. In this work we explore the use of dual pitch plasmonic devices combined with microfluidics for polarization enhanced colour sensing of a chemicals' refractive index. We demonstrate that the use of cross-shaped apertures can produce polarization tunable color based sensing in the optical regime and show that the spectral variations as a function of the incident polarization can be decomposed into contributions from the two orthogonal modes that characterize the dual pitch plasmonic device. Finally we demonstrate that the use of the full colour spectrum in the visible range in combination with polarization control enables sensing `by-eye' of refractive index changes below 1 × 10-3 RIU.

  5. An investigation of spatial representation of pitch in individuals with congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuejing; Sun, Yanan; Thompson, William Forde

    2017-09-01

    Spatial representation of pitch plays a central role in auditory processing. However, it is unknown whether impaired auditory processing is associated with impaired pitch-space mapping. Experiment 1 examined spatial representation of pitch in individuals with congenital amusia using a stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) task. For amusic and non-amusic participants, pitch classification was faster and more accurate when correct responses involved a physical action that was spatially congruent with the pitch height of the stimulus than when it was incongruent. However, this spatial representation of pitch was not as stable in amusic individuals, revealed by slower response times when compared with control individuals. One explanation is that the SRC effect in amusics reflects a linguistic association, requiring additional time to link pitch height and spatial location. To test this possibility, Experiment 2 employed a colour-classification task. Participants judged colour while ignoring a concurrent pitch by pressing one of two response keys positioned vertically to be congruent or incongruent with the pitch. The association between pitch and space was found in both groups, with comparable response times in the two groups, suggesting that amusic individuals are only slower to respond to tasks involving explicit judgments of pitch.

  6. Design principles for Bernal spirals and helices with tunable pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejer, Szilard N.; Chakrabarti, Dwaipayan; Kusumaatmaja, Halim; Wales, David J.

    2014-07-01

    Using the framework of potential energy landscape theory, we describe two in silico designs for self-assembling helical colloidal superstructures based upon dipolar dumbbells and Janus-type building blocks, respectively. Helical superstructures with controllable pitch length are obtained using external magnetic field driven assembly of asymmetric dumbbells involving screened electrostatic as well as magnetic dipolar interactions. The pitch of the helix is tuned by modulating the Debye screening length over an experimentally accessible range. The second design is based on building blocks composed of rigidly linked spheres with short-range anisotropic interactions, which are predicted to self-assemble into Bernal spirals. These spirals are quite flexible, and longer helices undergo rearrangements via cooperative, hinge-like moves, in agreement with experiment.Using the framework of potential energy landscape theory, we describe two in silico designs for self-assembling helical colloidal superstructures based upon dipolar dumbbells and Janus-type building blocks, respectively. Helical superstructures with controllable pitch length are obtained using external magnetic field driven assembly of asymmetric dumbbells involving screened electrostatic as well as magnetic dipolar interactions. The pitch of the helix is tuned by modulating the Debye screening length over an experimentally accessible range. The second design is based on building blocks composed of rigidly linked spheres with short-range anisotropic interactions, which are predicted to self-assemble into Bernal spirals. These spirals are quite flexible, and longer helices undergo rearrangements via cooperative, hinge-like moves, in agreement with experiment. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00324a

  7. Sensorimotor control of vocal pitch production in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Wang, Emily Q; Chen, Ling; Li, Weifeng; Chen, Zhaocong; Liu, Hanjun

    2013-08-21

    The present study was designed to investigate the sensorimotor control of voice fundamental frequency (F0) in individuals with Parkinson's diseases (PD). Fifteen Cantonese individuals with PD, and fifteen age- and sex-matched healthy Cantonese individuals participated in the experiment. Participants were asked to vocalize a vowel sound while hearing their voice auditory feedback unexpectedly pitch-shifted upwards or downwards through headphones. The size of pitch shifts varied from 50, 100, to 200 cents. One novel averaging method was used to categorize the individual trials such that only those trials that opposed the perturbation direction were averaged to generate an overall response. The results showed that Cantonese individuals with PD produced significantly larger magnitudes of vocal compensation for pitch perturbations than healthy participants. Both groups showed systematic changes in compensation magnitude as a function of perturbation size and direction: larger perturbation size or upward direction elicited greater compensation magnitude. Moreover, pitch variability indexed by the standard deviations of the baseline F0 was significantly correlated with the magnitude of vocal compensation in individuals with PD, whereas this correlation failed to reach significance for healthy participants. This study presents the first data demonstrating the abnormal processing of auditory feedback in the sensorimotor control of voice F0 for Cantonese individuals with PD. It is suggested that the abnormal sensorimotor integration of voice F0 control in PD may be caused by the increased weighting of auditory feedback control resulting from dysfunction of feedforward control and somatosensory feedback caused by the impairment of the basal ganglia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Buds enable pitch and shortleaf pines to recover from injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little; H. A. Somes

    1956-01-01

    Pitch and shortleaf pines often survive severe damage by fires, cutting, rabbits, or deer. Deer may take all but 2 inches of the 6- to 8-inch shoots of seedlings, and still these seedlings may live and develop new shoots. Fires may kill all the foliage and terminal shoots on sapling or pole-size stems, but still these trees may green up and develop new leaders. Many of...

  9. Light airplane crash tests at three pitch angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, V. L., Jr.; Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1979-01-01

    Three similar twin-engine general aviation airplane specimens were crash tested at an impact dynamics research facility at 27 m/sec, a flight path angle of -15 deg, and pitch angles of -15 deg, 0 deg, and 15 deg. Other crash parameters were held constant. The test facility, instrumentation, test specimens, and test method are briefly described. Structural damage and accelerometer data for each of the three impact conditions are presented and discussed.

  10. Processing pitch in a non-human mammal (Chinchilla laniger)

    OpenAIRE

    Shofner, William P.; Chaney, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Whether the mechanisms giving rise to pitch reflect spectral or temporal processing has long been debated. Generally, sounds having strong harmonic structures in their spectra have strong periodicities in their temporal structures. We found that when a wideband harmonic tone complex is passed through a noise vocoder, the resulting sound can have a harmonic structure with a large peak-to-valley ratio, but with little or no periodicity in the temporal structure. To test the role of harmonic str...

  11. Perfect pitch and the implicit/explicit distinction

    OpenAIRE

    Macpherson, F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the representationalist view of experiences in the light of the phenomena of perfect and relative pitch. Two main kinds of representationalism are identified - environment-based and cognitive role-based. It is argued that to explain the relationship between the two theories a distinction should be drawn between various types of implicit and explicit content. When investigated, this distinction sheds some light on the difference between the phenomenology of perfect and rela...

  12. Binaural pitch perception in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2007-01-01

    The effects of hearing impairment on the perception of binaural-pitch stimuli were investigated. Several experiments were performed with normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners, including detection and discrimination of binaural pitch, and melody recognition using different types of binaural...... pitches. For the normal-hearing listeners, all types of binaural pitches could be perceived immediately and were musical. The hearing-impaired listeners could be divided into three groups based on their results: (a) some perceived all types of binaural pitches, but with decreased salience or musicality...... compared to normal-hearing listeners; (b) some could only perceive the strongest pitch types; (c) some were unable to perceive any binaural pitch at all. The performance of the listeners was not correlated with audibility. Additional experiments investigated the correlation between performance in binaural...

  13. Relating the absence of binaural pitch percept to retro-cochlear impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    that the salience of binaural pitch was affected by hearing impairment. Specifically, for subjects with a sensorineural impairment, binaural pitch perception was weaker than the normal-hearing average but the pitch sensation was immediately present. In contrast, no binaural pitch sensation at all was found...... for the (only) two subjects with damage at central stages. The aim of the present study is to clarify whether such a sharp distinction between levels of impairment can be made using binaural pitch stimuli. A pitch detection test was performed by three groups of subjects with: 1) normal hearing; 2) a cochlear...... impairment with no sign of retro-cochlear impairment; and 3) a diagnosed retro-cochlear impairment. Subjects were asked to judge the pitch direction of series of five notes of equal duration (300, 600 or 900 ms), ranging from 523 to 784 Hz, presented either in an ascending, descending, or constant sequence...

  14. Neural coding and perception of pitch in the normal and impaired human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    for a variety of basic auditory tasks, indicating that it may be a crucial measure to consider for hearing-loss characterization. In contrast to hearing-impaired listeners, adults with dyslexia showed no deficits in binaural pitch perception, suggesting intact low-level auditory mechanisms. The second part...... into the fundamental auditory mechanisms underlying pitch perception, and may have implications for future pitch-perception models, as well as strategies for auditory-profile characterization and restoration of accurate pitch perception in impaired hearing.......Pitch is an important attribute of hearing that allows us to perceive the musical quality of sounds. Besides music perception, pitch contributes to speech communication, auditory grouping, and perceptual segregation of sound sources. In this work, several aspects of pitch perception in humans were...

  15. Do individuals with Williams syndrome possess absolute pitch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Castilla, Pastora; Sotillo, María; Campos, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Although absolute pitch (AP) is a rare skill in typical development, individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) are often referred to as possessing this musical ability. However, there is paucity of research on the topic. In this article, 2 studies were conducted to evaluate AP in WS. In Study 1, seven musically trained individuals with WS, 14 musically trained typically developing controls matched for chronological age, and 2 experienced musicians with AP completed a pitch-identification task. Although the task was a classical assessment of AP, it required participants to have musical knowledge, and the availability and accessibility of musically trained individuals with WS is very low. In Study 2, a paradigm suitable for evaluating AP in individuals without musical training was used, which made it possible to evaluate a larger group of participants with WS. A pitch memory test for isolated tones was presented to 27 individuals with WS, 54 typically developing peers matched for chronological age, and the 2 musicians with AP. Both individuals with WS and their controls obtained low results in the two studies. They showed an arbitrary pattern of response, and their performance was far from that of musicians with AP. Therefore, participants with WS did not appear to possess AP. Unlike what is usually claimed, results suggest that AP is not a remarkable ability in WS and that, as in the typically developing population, this musical ability is also rare in individuals with WS.

  16. Absolute and relative pitch: Global versus local processing of chords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Naomi; Radin, Shulamit

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce notes without any reference note. An ongoing debate exists regarding the benefits or disadvantages of AP in processing music. One of the main issues in this context is whether the categorical perception of pitch in AP possessors may interfere in processing tasks requiring relative pitch (RP). Previous studies, focusing mainly on melodic and interval perception, have obtained inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of AP and RP separately, using isolated chords. Seventy-three musicians were categorized into four groups of high and low AP and RP, and were tested on two tasks: identifying chord types (Task 1), and identifying a single note within a chord (Task 2). A main effect of RP on Task 1 and an interaction between AP and RP in reaction times were found. On Task 2 main effects of AP and RP, and an interaction were found, with highest performance in participants with both high AP and RP. Results suggest that AP and RP should be regarded as two different abilities, and that AP may slow down reaction times for tasks requiring global processing.

  17. Tactile cueing in detecting and controlling pitch and roll motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouak, Fethi; Kline, Julianne; Cheung, Bob

    2011-10-01

    Tactile cueing has been explored primarily for the detection of linear motion such as vertical, longitudinal, and lateral translation in the laboratory and in flight. The usefulness of tactile cues in detecting roll and pitch motion has not been fully investigated. There were 12 subjects (21-56 yr) who were exposed to controlled pitch and roll motion generated by a motion platform with and without tactile cueing. The tactile system consists of a torso vest with 24 electromechanical tactors and a tactor on each shoulder and under each thigh harness, respectively. While devoid of visual and auditory cues, each subject performed three tasks: 1) indicate motion perception without tactile cues (C1); 2) return to vertical from an offset angle (C2); and 3) maintain straight and level while the platform was continuously in motion (C3). Our results indicated that in the absence of visual and auditory cues, subjects reported that the tactile system was useful in the execution of C2 and C3 maneuvers. Specifically, the presence of tactile cues had a significant impact on the accuracy, duration, and perceived workload. In addition, tactile cueing also increased the accuracy in returning to neutral from an offset position and in maintaining the neutral position while the platform was in continuous motion. Tactile cueing appears to be effective in detecting roll and pitch motion and has the potential to reduce the workload and risks of high stress and time sensitive air operations.

  18. Pitching Emotions: The Interpersonal Effects of Emotions in Professional Baseball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arik eCheshin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sports games are inherently emotional situations, but surprisingly little is known about the social consequences of these emotions. We examined the interpersonal effects of emotional expressions in professional baseball. Specifically, we investigated whether pitchers' facial displays influence how pitches are assessed and responded to. Using footage from MLB World Series finals, we isolated incidents where the pitcher's face was visible before a pitch. A pre-study indicated that participants consistently perceived anger, happiness, and worry in pitchers' facial displays. An independent sample then predicted pitch characteristics and batter responses based on the same perceived emotional displays. Participants expected pitchers perceived as happy to throw more accurate balls, pitchers perceived as angry to throw faster and more difficult balls, and pitchers perceived as worried to throw slower and less accurate balls. Batters were expected to approach (swing when faced with a pitcher perceived as happy and to avoid (no swing when faced with a pitcher perceived as worried. Whereas previous research focused on using emotional expressions as information regarding past and current situations, our work suggests that people also use perceived emotional expressions to predict future behavior. Our results attest to the impact perceived emotional expressions can have on professional sports.

  19. The efficacy of power driven interdental tools as an addition to tooth-brushing on plaque removal and gingivitis in humans : A systematic review of randomized trials

    OpenAIRE

    Edlund Johansson, Pia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate in humans the efficacy of power driven interdental cleaning tools in addition to tooth-brushing compared to tooth-brushing alone or any non-power driven interdental cleaning tool in addition to tooth-brushing on dental plaque removal and prevention of gingivitis.   Introduction: Daily mechanical self-care disruption of dental plaque is considered important for oral health maintenance. Tooth-brushing, which is the most common method for removing dental plaque, has only a...

  20. Rationale and methods of the iFightDepression study: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of an internet-based self-management tool for moderate to mild depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justicia, Azucena; Elices, Matilde; Cebria, Ana Isabel; Palao, Diego J; Gorosabel, Jesús; Puigdemont, Dolors; de Diego-Adeliño, Javier; Gabilondo, Andrea; Iruin, Alvaro; Hegerl, Ulrich; Pérez, Víctor

    2017-04-19

    During the last decade online interventions have emerged as a promising approach for patients with mild/moderate depressive symptoms, reaching at large populations and representing cost-effective alternatives. The main objective of this double-blind, randomized controlled trial is to examine the efficacy of an internet-based self-management tool (iFightDepression) for mild to moderate depression as an add-on to treatment as usual (TAU) versus internet-based psychoeducation plus TAU. A total of 310 participants with major depression disorder (MDD) will be recruited at four different mental-health facilities in Spain. Participants will be randomly allocated to one of two study arms: iFightDepression (iFD) tool + TAU vs. internet-based psychoeducation + TAU. Both interventions last for 8 weeks and there is a 12 weeks follow up. The primary outcome measure is changes in depressive symptoms assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Additionally, pre-post interventions assessments will include socio-demographic data, a brief medical and clinical history and self-reported measures of depressive symptoms, quality of life, functional impairments and satisfaction with the iFD tool. iFightDepression is an easy-prescribed tool that could increase the efficacy of conventional treatment and potentially reach untreated patients, shortening waiting lists to receive psychological treatment. Confirming the efficacy of the iFD internet-based self-management tool as an add-on treatment for individuals with mild to moderate depression will be clinically-relevant. Registration number NCT02312583 . Clinicaltrials.gov . December 4, 2014.

  1. High-pitch computed tomography pulmonary angiography with iterative reconstruction at 80 kVp and 20 mL contrast agent volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Guang Ming; Luo, Song; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Kong, Xiang; Zhao, Yan E.; Zheng, Ling; Zhang, Long Jiang [Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Meinel, Felix G.; McQuiston, Andrew D. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J. [Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2014-12-15

    To evaluate the image quality, radiation dose and diagnostic accuracy of 80kVp, high-pitch CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) with iterative reconstruction using 20 ml of contrast agent. One hundred patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) were randomly divided into two groups (n = 50 each; group A, 100 kVp, 1.2 pitch, 60 ml of contrast medium and filtered back projection algorithm; group B, 80 kVp, 2.2 pitch, 20 ml of contrast medium and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction). Image quality, diagnostic accuracy and radiation dose were evaluated and compared. Mean CT numbers of pulmonary arteries in group B were higher than those in group A (all P < 0.001). Contrast-to-noise ratio and signal-to-noise ratio of group B were higher than those of group A (both P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in subjective image quality scores between two groups (P = 0.807). The interobserver agreement was excellent (k = 0.836). There was no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy between the two groups (P > 0.05). Compared with group A, radiation dose of group B was reduced by 50.3 % (P < 0.001). High-pitch CTPA at 80 kVp can obtain sufficient image quality in normal-weight individuals with 20 ml of contrast agent and half the radiation dose of a conventional CTPA protocol. (orig.)

  2. Pitch Processing in Children with Williams Syndrome: Relationships between Music and Prosody Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Castilla, Pastora; Sotillo, María

    2014-05-15

    Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder, has been taken as evidence that music and language constitute separate modules. This research focused on the linguistic component of prosody and aimed to assess whether relationships exist between the pitch processing mechanisms for music and prosody in WS. Children with WS and typically developing individuals were presented with a musical pitch and two prosody discrimination tasks. In the musical pitch discrimination task, participants were required to distinguish whether two musical tones were the same or different. The prosody discrimination tasks evaluated participants' skills for discriminating pairs of prosodic contours based on pitch or pitch, loudness and length, jointly. In WS, musical pitch discrimination was significantly correlated with performance on the prosody task assessing the discrimination of prosodic contours based on pitch only. Furthermore, musical pitch discrimination skills predicted performance on the prosody task based on pitch, and this relationship was not better explained by chronological age, vocabulary or auditory memory. These results suggest that children with WS process pitch in music and prosody through shared mechanisms. We discuss the implications of these results for theories of cognitive modularity. The implications of these results for intervention programs for individuals with WS are also discussed.

  3. Normal-Hearing Listeners’ and Cochlear Implant Users’ Perception of Pitch Cues in Emotional Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Gilbers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In cochlear implants (CIs, acoustic speech cues, especially for pitch, are delivered in a degraded form. This study’s aim is to assess whether due to degraded pitch cues, normal-hearing listeners and CI users employ different perceptual strategies to recognize vocal emotions, and, if so, how these differ. Voice actors were recorded pronouncing a nonce word in four different emotions: anger, sadness, joy, and relief. These recordings’ pitch cues were phonetically analyzed. The recordings were used to test 20 normal-hearing listeners’ and 20 CI users’ emotion recognition. In congruence with previous studies, high-arousal emotions had a higher mean pitch, wider pitch range, and more dominant pitches than low-arousal emotions. Regarding pitch, speakers did not differentiate emotions based on valence but on arousal. Normal-hearing listeners outperformed CI users in emotion recognition, even when presented with CI simulated stimuli. However, only normal-hearing listeners recognized one particular actor’s emotions worse than the other actors’. The groups behaved differently when presented with similar input, showing that they had to employ differing strategies. Considering the respective speaker’s deviating pronunciation, it appears that for normal-hearing listeners, mean pitch is a more salient cue than pitch range, whereas CI users are biased toward pitch range cues.

  4. Pitch Processing in Children with Williams Syndrome: Relationships between Music and Prosody Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastora Martínez-Castilla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS, a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder, has been taken as evidence that music and language constitute separate modules. This research focused on the linguistic component of prosody and aimed to assess whether relationships exist between the pitch processing mechanisms for music and prosody in WS. Children with WS and typically developing individuals were presented with a musical pitch and two prosody discrimination tasks. In the musical pitch discrimination task, participants were required to distinguish whether two musical tones were the same or different. The prosody discrimination tasks evaluated participants’ skills for discriminating pairs of prosodic contours based on pitch or pitch, loudness and length, jointly. In WS, musical pitch discrimination was significantly correlated with performance on the prosody task assessing the discrimination of prosodic contours based on pitch only. Furthermore, musical pitch discrimination skills predicted performance on the prosody task based on pitch, and this relationship was not better explained by chronological age, vocabulary or auditory memory. These results suggest that children with WS process pitch in music and prosody through shared mechanisms. We discuss the implications of these results for theories of cognitive modularity. The implications of these results for intervention programs for individuals with WS are also discussed.

  5. The effects of medial ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction on Major League pitching performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Robert A; Steffes, Matthew J; Zhuo, David; Bey, Michael J; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2014-11-01

    Medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL) reconstruction is commonly performed on Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. Previous studies have reported that most pitchers return to presurgical statistical performance levels after MUCL reconstruction. Pitching performance data--specifically, earned run average (ERA), walks and hits per inning pitched (WHIP), winning percentage, and innings pitched--were acquired for 168 MLB pitchers who had undergone MUCL reconstruction. These data were averaged over the 3 years before surgery and the 3 years after surgery and also acquired from 178 age-matched, uninjured MLB pitchers. Of the pitchers who had MUCL reconstruction surgery, 87% returned to MLB pitching. However, compared with presurgical data, pitching performance declined in terms of ERA (P = .001), WHIP (P = .011), and innings pitched (P = .026). Pitching performance also declined in the season before the surgery compared with previous years (ERA, P = .014; WHIP, P = .036; innings pitched, P major league experience at the same age (P major league level. However, after MUCL reconstruction, there is a statistically significant decline in pitching performance. There appears to be a statistically significant decline in pitching performance the year before reconstructive surgery, and this decline is also a risk factor for requiring surgery. In addition, there is an increased risk of MUCL reconstruction for pitchers who enter the major leagues at a younger age. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Major League pitching workload after primary ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction and risk for revision surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Robert A; Mehran, Nima; Marshall, Nathan E; Okoroha, Kelechi R; Khalil, Lafi; Tibone, James E; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2017-02-01

    Literature has attempted to correlate pitching workload with risk of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury; however, limited data are available in evaluating workload and its relationship with the need for revision reconstruction in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. We identified 29 MLB pitchers who underwent primary UCL reconstruction surgery and subsequently required revision reconstruction and compared them with 121 MLB pitchers who underwent primary reconstruction but did not later require revision surgery. Games pitched, pitch counts, and innings pitched were evaluated and compared for the seasons after returning from primary reconstruction and for the last season pitched before undergoing revision surgery. The difference in workload between pitchers who did and did not require revision reconstruction was not statistically significant in games pitched, innings pitched, and MLB-only pitch counts. The one significant difference in workload was in total pitch counts (combined MLB and minor league), with the pitchers who required revision surgery pitching less than those who did not (primary: 1413.6 pitches vs. revision: 959.0 pitches, P = .04). In addition, pitchers who required revision surgery underwent primary reconstruction at an early age (22.9 years vs. 27.3 years, P < .001) and had less MLB experience (1.5 years vs. 5.0 years, P < .001). There is no specific number of pitches, innings, or games that place a pitcher at an increase risk for injury after primary UCL reconstruction. However, correlations of risk may be younger age and less MLB experience at the time of the primary reconstruction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The differential effect of a non-compulsory basic mathematics skills practice tool across achievement subgroups and mathematical skills practice tools across achievement subgroups and mathematics domains - a randomized field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelet, D.; Haelermans, C.; Ghysels, J.; Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the differential effect of a computerized, non-compulsory supplementary practice tool in a sample of first-year secondary students (N = 355) using an experimental design. Additionally, students’ practice behavior and its association with teacher factors were investigated. The

  8. Neurological assessment with validated tools in general ICU: multicenter, randomized, before and after, pragmatic study to evaluate the effectiveness of an e-learning platform for continuous medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistraletti, Giovanni; Umbrello, Michele; Anania, Stefania; Andrighi, Elisa; DI Carlo, Alessandra; Martinetti, Federica; Barello, Serena; Sabbatini, Giovanni; Formenti, Paolo; Maraffi, Tommaso; Marrazzo, Francesco; Palo, Alessandra; Bellani, Giacomo; Russo, Riccarda; Francesconi, Silvia; Valdambrini, Federico; Cigada, Marco; Riccardi, Francesca; Moja, Egidio A; Iapichino, Gaetano

    2017-02-01

    International guidelines recommend systematic assessment of pain, agitation/sedation and delirium with validated scales for all ICU patients. However, these evaluations are often not done. We have created an e-learning training platform for the continuous medical education, and assessed its efficacy in increasing the use of validated tools by all medical and nursing staff of the participating ICUs during their daily practice. Multicenter, randomized, before and after study. The eight participating centers were randomized in two groups, and received training at different times. The use of validated tools (Verbal Numeric Rating or Behavioral Pain Scale for pain; Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale for agitation; Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU for delirium) was evaluated from clinical data recorded in medical charts during a week, with follow-up up to six months after the training. All the operators were invited to complete a questionnaire, at baseline and after the training. Among the 374 nurses and physicians involved, 140 (37.4%) completed at least one of the three courses. The assessment of pain (38.1 vs. 92.9%, Pe-learning program shows encouraging effectiveness, and the increase in the use of validated tools for neurological monitoring in critically ill patients lasts over time.

  9. Myosin helical pitch angle as a quantitative imaging biomarker for characterization of cardiac programming in fetal growth restriction measured by polarization second harmonic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat-Roldan, I.; Psilodimitrakopoulos, S.,; Eixarch, E.,; Torre, I.; Wotjas, B.; Crispi, F.; Figueras, F.; Artigas, D.,; Loza-Alvarez, P.; Gratacos, E.,

    2009-07-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) has recently shown a strong association with cardiac programming which predisposes to cardiovascular mortality in adulthood. Polarization Second Harmonic Microscopy can quantify molecular architecture changes with high sensitivity in cardiac myofibrils. In this work, we use myosin helical pitch angle as an example to quantify such alterations related to this high risk population. Importantly, this shows a potential use of the technique as an early diagnostic tool and an alternative method to understand pathophysiological processes.

  10. Sensorimotor control of vocal pitch and formant frequencies in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollaei, Fatemeh; Shiller, Douglas M; Baum, Shari R; Gracco, Vincent L

    2016-09-01

    Auditory feedback reflects information on multiple speech parameters including fundamental frequency (pitch) and formant properties. Inducing auditory errors in these acoustic parameters during speech production has been used to examine the manner in which auditory feedback is integrated with ongoing speech motor processes. This integration has been shown to be impaired in disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), in which individuals exhibit difficulty adjusting to altered sensory-motor relationships. The current investigation examines whether such sensorimotor impairments affect fundamental frequency and formant parameters of speech differentially. We employed a sensorimotor compensation paradigm to investigate the mechanisms underlying the control of vocal pitch and formant parameters. Individuals with PD and age-matched controls prolonged a speech vowel in the context of a word while the fundamental or first formant frequency of their auditory feedback was altered unexpectedly on random trials, using two magnitudes of perturbation. Compared with age-matched controls, individuals with PD exhibited a larger compensatory response to fundamental frequency perturbations, in particular in response to the smaller magnitude alteration. In contrast, the group with PD showed reduced compensation to first formant frequency perturbations. The results demonstrate that the neural processing impairment of PD differentially affects the processing of auditory feedback for the control of fundamental and formant frequency. The heightened modulation of fundamental frequency in response to auditory perturbations may reflect a change in sensory weighting due to somatosensory deficits associated with the larynx, while the reduced ability to modulate vowel formants may result from impaired activation of the oral articulatory musculature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Tobacco smoking surveillance: is quota sampling an efficient tool for monitoring national trends? A comparison with a random cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Guignard

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is crucial for policy makers to monitor the evolution of tobacco smoking prevalence. In France, this monitoring is based on a series of cross-sectional general population surveys, the Health Barometers, conducted every five years and based on random samples. A methodological study has been carried out to assess the reliability of a monitoring system based on regular quota sampling surveys for smoking prevalence. DESIGN / OUTCOME MEASURES: In 2010, current and daily tobacco smoking prevalences obtained in a quota survey on 8,018 people were compared with those of the 2010 Health Barometer carried out on 27,653 people. Prevalences were assessed separately according to the telephone equipment of the interviewee (landline phone owner vs "mobile-only", and logistic regressions were conducted in the pooled database to assess the impact of the telephone equipment and of the survey mode on the prevalences found. Finally, logistic regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were conducted in the random sample in order to determine the impact of the needed number of calls to interwiew "hard-to-reach" people on the prevalence found. RESULTS: Current and daily prevalences were higher in the random sample (respectively 33.9% and 27.5% in 15-75 years-old than in the quota sample (respectively 30.2% and 25.3%. In both surveys, current and daily prevalences were lower among landline phone owners (respectively 31.8% and 25.5% in the random sample and 28.9% and 24.0% in the quota survey. The required number of calls was slightly related to the smoking status after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics. CONCLUSION: Random sampling appears to be more effective than quota sampling, mainly by making it possible to interview hard-to-reach populations.

  12. Pitch representations in the auditory nerve: two concurrent complex tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Erik; Cedolin, Leonardo; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2008-09-01

    Pitch differences between concurrent sounds are important cues used in auditory scene analysis and also play a major role in music perception. To investigate the neural codes underlying these perceptual abilities, we recorded from single fibers in the cat auditory nerve in response to two concurrent harmonic complex tones with missing fundamentals and equal-amplitude harmonics. We investigated the efficacy of rate-place and interspike-interval codes to represent both pitches of the two tones, which had fundamental frequency (F0) ratios of 15/14 or 11/9. We relied on the principle of scaling invariance in cochlear mechanics to infer the spatiotemporal response patterns to a given stimulus from a series of measurements made in a single fiber as a function of F0. Templates created by a peripheral auditory model were used to estimate the F0s of double complex tones from the inferred distribution of firing rate along the tonotopic axis. This rate-place representation was accurate for F0s greater, similar900 Hz. Surprisingly, rate-based F0 estimates were accurate even when the two-tone mixture contained no resolved harmonics, so long as some harmonics were resolved prior to mixing. We also extended methods used previously for single complex tones to estimate the F0s of concurrent complex tones from interspike-interval distributions pooled over the tonotopic axis. The interval-based representation was accurate for F0s less, similar900 Hz, where the two-tone mixture contained no resolved harmonics. Together, the rate-place and interval-based representations allow accurate pitch perception for concurrent sounds over the entire range of human voice and cat vocalizations.

  13. Interlaboratory comparison of traceable atomic force microscope pitch measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Ronald; Chernoff, Donald A.; Wang, Shihua; Vorburger, Theodore V.; Tan, Siew Leng; Orji, Ndubuisi G.; Fu, Joseph

    2010-06-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Advanced Surface Microscopy (ASM), and the National Metrology Centre (NMC) of the Agency for Science, Technology, and Research (A*STAR) in Singapore have completed a three-way interlaboratory comparison of traceable pitch measurements using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The specimen being used for this comparison is provided by ASM and consists of SiO2 lines having a 70 nm pitch patterned on a silicon substrate. NIST has a multifaceted program in atomic force microscope (AFM) dimensional metrology. One component of this effort is a custom in-house metrology AFM, called the calibrated AFM (C-AFM). The NIST C-AFM has displacement metrology for all three axes traceable to the 633 nm wavelength of the iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser - a recommended wavelength for realization of the SI (Système International d'Unités, or International System of Units) meter. NIST used the C-AFM to participate in this comparison. ASM used a commercially available AFM with an open-loop scanner, calibrated by a 144 nm pitch transfer standard. In a prior collaboration with Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German national metrology institute, ASM's transfer standard was calibrated using PTB's traceable optical diffractometry instrument. Thus, ASM's measurements are also traceable to the SI meter. NMC/A*STAR used a large scanning range metrological atomic force microscope (LRM-AFM). The LRM-AFM integrates an AFM scanning head into a nano-stage equipped with three built-in He-Ne laser interferometers so that its measurement related to the motion on all three axes is directly traceable to the SI meter. The measurements for this interlaboratory comparison have been completed and the results are in agreement within their expanded uncertainties and at the level of a few parts in 104.

  14. A simulation environment for assisting system design of coherent laser doppler wind sensor for active wind turbine pitch control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Leilei; Pham Tran, Tuan Anh; Beuth, Thorsten; Umesh Babu, Harsha; Heussner, Nico; Bogatscher, Siegwart; Danilova, Svetlana; Stork, Wilhelm

    2013-05-01

    In order to assist a system design of laser coherent Doppler wind sensor for active pitch control of wind turbine systems (WTS), we developed a numerical simulation environment for modeling and simulation of the sensor system. In this paper we present this simulation concept. In previous works, we have shown the general idea and the possibility of using a low cost coherent laser Doppler wind sensing system for an active pitch control of WTS in order to achieve a reduced mechanical stress, increase the WTS lifetime and therefore reduce the electricity price from wind energy. Such a system is based on a 1.55μm Continuous-Wave (CW) laser plus an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with an output power of 1W. Within this system, an optical coherent detection method is chosen for the Doppler frequency measurement in megahertz range. A comparatively low cost short coherent length laser with a fiber delay line is used for achieving a multiple range measurement. In this paper, we show the current results on the improvement of our simulation by applying a Monte Carlo random generation method for positioning the random particles in atmosphere and extend the simulation to the entire beam penetrated space by introducing a cylindrical co-ordinate concept and meshing the entire volume into small elements in order to achieve a faster calculation and gain more realistic simulation result. In addition, by applying different atmospheric parameters, such as particle sizes and distributions, we can simulate different weather and wind situations.

  15. Binaural pitch perception in hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten; Santurette, Sébastien; Strelcyk, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    When two white noises differing only in phase in a particular frequency range are presented simultaneously each to one of our ears, a pitch sensation may be perceived inside the head. This phenomenon, called ’binaural pitch’ or ’dichotic pitch’, can be produced by frequency-dependent interaural...... phasedifference patterns. The evaluation of these interaural phase differences depends on the functionality of the binaural auditory system and the spectro-temporal information at its input. A melody recognition task was performed in the present study using pure-tone stimuli and six different types of noises...

  16. Crackle and fizz essential communication and pitching skills for scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Van den Brul, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    This is a book for scientists and other experts who need to explain the significance and potential of their work to colleagues, committees, funding bodies or the general public. It details how to harness story-telling principles to make complex or technical content easier to communicate and fulfilling for audiences. Eight narrative ingredients, Audience, Change and Affect, Lure, World, Character, Big Hook, Plot and Structure, are illustrated with examples and exercises to demonstrate how to build a presentation, how to pitch for funds or resources, how to make a persuasive argument, or simply how to explain ideas so they CRACKLE and FIZZ for the Audience.

  17. Computationally Efficient and Noise Robust DOA and Pitch Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimian-Azari, Sam; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2016-01-01

    signals are often contaminated by different types of noise, which challenges the assumption of white Gaussian noise in most state-of-the-art methods. We establish filtering methods based on noise statistics to apply to nonparametric spectral and spatial parameter estimates of the harmonics. We design...... a joint DOA and pitch estimator. In white Gaussian noise, we derive even more computationally efficient solutions which are designed using the narrowband power spectrum of the harmonics. Numerical results reveal the performance of the estimators in colored noise compared with the Cram\\'{e}r-Rao lower...

  18. Fuzzy maintenance costs of a wind turbine pitch control device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Carvalho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of estimation maintenance costs for the case of the pitch controls system of wind farms turbines. Previous investigations have estimated these costs as (traditional “crisp” values, simply ignoring the uncertainty nature of data and information available. This paper purposes an extended version of the estimation model by making use of the Fuzzy Set Theory. The results alert decision-makers to consequent uncertainty of the estimations along with their overall level, thus improving the information given to the mainte-nance support system.

  19. LQG Controller Design for Pitch Regulated Variable Speed Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Raja Muhammed; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    the effect of disturbance acting on its rotor blades by wind. CART2 (Control Advanced Research Turbine) linear model is produced/generated by FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures and Turbulence) code to test its simulation on MATLAB/Simulink and various results are compared. The designed controller......Variable speed wind turbine is a complex and nonlinear system, a sophisticated control is required to meet the challenges posed by these systems. This paper is presenting a pitch regulation strategy based on LQG (Linear Quadratic Gaussian) to regulate turbine at its rated power and to reject...

  20. Kalimat Tanya Dalam Film Pitch Perfect Karya Jason Moore

    OpenAIRE

    Londok, Aprilia Fenria Ireine

    2016-01-01

    This study, entitled “The Interrogative Sentence in The Film” Pitch Perfect by Jason Moore, is aimed at identifyng and analyzing the interrogative sentence found in the film. The data have been collected by focusing on the conversation among the characters in the film and analyzed based on Aarts and Aarts' concept. Interrogative sentence is a sentence that contains subject and open with an auxiliary verb or a wh-word. Interrogative sentence which is open with an auxiliary verb is called yes/n...

  1. Pitch Fork: A Novel tactile Digital Musical Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Peter Leslie; Overholt, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Pitch Fork is a prototype of an alternate, actuated digital musical instrument (DMI). It uses 5 infra-red and 4 piezoelectric sensors to control an additive synthesis engine. Iron bars are used as the physical point of contact in interaction with the aim of using this materials natural acoustic p...... properties as a control signal for aspects of the digitally produced sound. This choice of material was also chosen to affect player experience. Sensor readings are relayed to a Macbook via an Arduino Mega. Mappings and audio output signal is carried out with Pure Data Extended....

  2. Real-time pitch shifting using a general purpose microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buś, Szymon; Jedrzejewski, Konrad

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a real-time implementation of pitch shifting with use of phase vocoder algorithm is presented. The goal was to create a system that would allow to process audio signal in real time with use of a general purpose microcontroller. The task was a challenge due to relative complexity of the algorithm and limited computational capacity of the microcontroller, whose architecture is by nature much more universal than that of dedicated digital signal processors. The results of experiments with the developed system are presented and discussed in the paper.

  3. Automatic cortical representation of auditory pitch changes in Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxe, John J; Burke, Kelly M; Andrade, Gizely N; Djukic, Aleksandra; Frey, Hans-Peter; Molholm, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Over the typical course of Rett syndrome, initial language and communication abilities deteriorate dramatically between the ages of 1 and 4 years, and a majority of these children go on to lose all oral communication abilities. It becomes extremely difficult for clinicians and caretakers to accurately assess the level of preserved auditory functioning in these children, an issue of obvious clinical import. Non-invasive electrophysiological techniques allow for the interrogation of auditory cortical processing without the need for overt behavioral responses. In particular, the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) provides an excellent and robust dependent measure of change detection and auditory sensory memory. Here, we asked whether females with Rett syndrome would produce the MMN to occasional changes in pitch in a regularly occurring stream of auditory tones. Fourteen girls with genetically confirmed Rett syndrome and 22 age-matched neurotypical controls participated (ages 3.9-21.1 years). High-density electrophysiological recordings from 64 scalp electrodes were made while participants passively listened to a regularly occurring stream of 503-Hz auditory tone pips that was occasionally (15 % of presentations) interrupted by a higher-pitched deviant tone of 996 Hz. The MMN was derived by subtracting the AEP to these deviants from the AEP produced to the standard. Despite clearly anomalous morphology and latency of the AEP to simple pure-tone inputs in Rett syndrome, the MMN response was evident in both neurotypicals and Rett patients. However, we found that the pitch-evoked MMN was both delayed and protracted in duration in Rett, pointing to slowing of auditory responsiveness. The presence of the MMN in Rett patients suggests preserved abilities to process pitch changes in auditory sensory memory. This work represents a beginning step in an effort to comprehensively map the extent of auditory cortical functioning in Rett

  4. H-Darrieus Wind Turbine with Blade Pitch Control

    OpenAIRE

    Paraschivoiu, I.; Trifu, O.; Saeed, F.

    2009-01-01

    A procedure for computing the optimal variation of the blades' pitch angle of an H-Darrieus wind turbine that maximizes its torque at given operational conditions is proposed and presented along with the results obtained on a 7 kW prototype. The CARDAAV code, based on the “Double-Multiple Streamtube” model developed by the first author, is used to determine the performances of the straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine. This was coupled with a genetic algorithm optimizer. The azimuthal va...

  5. Pointed and plateau-shaped pitch accents in North Frisian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver; Hoekstra, Jarich

    2015-01-01

    Our study presents the initial results of an analysis of North Frisian intonation, based on a spontaneous interview corpus of Fering, the dialect of the island of Föhr off the west coast of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. The corpus was recorded more than 50 years ago during fieldwork......-accent distinction that relies on the difference between a pointed and a plateau-shaped F0 peak. We suggest that the two pitch accents be represented as LþH* and H*þL, and we discuss our findings with regard to possible communicative functions, implications for intonational typology, and the trade-off between F0...

  6. Comparison of Life Calculations for Oscillating Bearings Considering Individual Pitch Control in Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwack, F.; Stammler, M.; Poll, G.; Reuter, A.

    2016-09-01

    The fatigue life calculation of bearings under rotating conditions has been well researched and standardized. In contrast, for bearings in oscillating applications no international standards exist. As a result, pitch bearings in wind turbines are designed with different, non standardized approaches. Furthermore, the impact of individual pitch control on pitch bearings has not yet been studied. In this paper four approaches for fatigue life calculation will be applied and compared under individual pitch control conditions. For comparison, the loads and the bearing geometry of the reference turbine IWT 7.5 MW, which is individual pitch controlled, are used. This paper will show how the bearing life calculated by different approaches reacts to individual pitch control conditions. Furthermore, the factors for the modified rating life, according to the ABMA and ISO standards, which implement different operation conditions on the bearings in rotating applications, are calculated for the given loads and the given bearing geometry in oscillating applications.

  7. Early maturation of frequency-following responses to voice pitch in infants with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Fuh-Cherng; Schnabel, Elizabeth A; Dickman, Brenda M; Hu, Jiong; Li, Ximing; Lin, Chia-Der; Chung, Hsiung-Kwang

    2010-12-01

    Neural plasticity of pitch processing mechanisms at the human brainstem, as reflected by the scalp-recorded frequency-following response (FFR) to voice pitch, has been reported for normal-hearing adults. Characteristics and maturation of such a response during the first year of life have remained unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of FFR to voice pitch in normal-hearing infants and to make a direct comparison with adults using the same stimulus and recording parameters. 9 infants and 9 adults were recruited. A Chinese monosyllable that mimics the English vowel /i/ with a rising pitch was used to elicit the FFR to voice pitch. The results demonstrated that infant FFRs showed slightly larger Pitch Strength but comparable Frequency Error, Slope Error, and Tracking Accuracy to those obtained from adults. Early maturation of FFRs was also observed in the infants starting from 1 to 3 mo. of age.

  8. A novel binaural pitch elicited by phase-modulated noise: MEG and psychophysical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witton, Caroline; Hillebrand, Arjan; Furlong, Paul L; Henning, G Bruce

    2012-06-01

    Binaural pitches are auditory percepts that emerge from combined inputs to the ears but that cannot be heard if the stimulus is presented to either ear alone. Here, we describe a binaural pitch that is not easily accommodated within current models of binaural processing. Convergent magnetoencephalography (MEG) and psychophysical measurements were used to characterize the pitch, heard when band-limited noise had a rapidly changing interaural phase difference. Several interesting features emerged: First, the pitch was perceptually lateralized, in agreement with the lateralization of the evoked changes in MEG spectral power, and its salience depended on dichotic binaural presentation. Second, the frequency of the pure tone that matched the binaural pitch lay within a lower spectral sideband of the phase-modulated noise and followed the frequency of that sideband when the modulation frequency or center frequency and bandwidth of the noise changed. Thus, the binaural pitch depended on the processing of binaural information in that lower sideband.

  9. Generation and extraction of second pitch-shift from cochlear biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, Florian

    2013-01-01

    It has been long known that the perceived pitch of a complex harmonic sound changes if the partials of the sound are shifted in frequency by a fixed amount. Rules that this pitch-shift can be expected to follow can be derived from simple nonlinear modeling (first pitch-shift), but clear deviations were observed in corresponding psychoacoustic experiments (second pitch-shift effects). This raises the question of whether these deviations are due to the biophysics of the nonlinear hearing sensor, the cochlea, or are an artifact generated higher up in the auditory pathway. In this article, we explicitly confirm that the second pitch-shift originates in the cochlea, and that the key factors responsible for the phenomenon are combination-tone generation, low-pass filtering and feed-forward coupling in the cochlea. We find, in particular, that the scaling laws of Hopf cochlea combination tones fully explain the psychoacoustical pitch data of G.F. Smoorenburg (1970).

  10. Knowledge translation tool to improve pregnant women's awareness of gestational weight gain goals and risks of gaining outside recommendations: a non-randomized intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sarah D; Park, Christina K; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Bracken, Keyna; Sword, Wendy; McDonald, Helen; Neupane, Binod; Taylor, Valerie H; Beyene, Joseph; Mueller, Valerie; Brouwers, Melissa

    2015-04-30

    There is an urgent need to prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain, a contributor to both maternal and child obesity. However, the majority of women had reported not being counseled to gain an appropriate amount of gestational weight by their health care providers. We developed a knowledge translation (KT) tool designed to facilitate the clinical interaction between pregnant women and their health care providers (HCPs). We piloted the tool on the impact on women's knowledge of gestational weight gain (GWG) goals, and evaluated its potential in promoting appropriate knowledge about GWG within the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. We conducted a prospective cohort study, comparing women's knowledge about GWG after the KT tool to women from the same clinics and care providers the year prior. Our primary outcome was the proportion of women who reported receiving an appropriate GWG recommendation from their care provider. We evaluated knowledge on a survey conducted at enrollment in the cohort at ≤ 20 weeks gestation and evaluated participant satisfaction with the KT tool in the third trimester. We performed univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses for differences in outcomes with historical controls from the same clinics. Our a priori sample size calculation required 130 participants to demonstrate a 15% increase in reported counseling about gestational weight gain. One hundred and forty-six women were recruited and 131 (90%) completed the enrollment survey. Women who received the KT tool were more likely to report receiving a specific GWG recommendation from their HCP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.22-5.37) and discussing GWG topics with their HCP (AOR 7.96, 95% CI 4.41-14.37), and believing that there were risks to their infants with inadequate GWG (AOR 2.48, 95% CI 1.14-5.37). Half of women (49.5%) indicated that they would recommend the tool to a friend. Women who received the KT tool reported receiving

  11. Nonlinear model predictive control of floating wind turbines with individual pitch control

    OpenAIRE

    Raach, Steffen; Schlipf, David; Sandner, Frank; Matha, Denis; Cheng, Po Wen

    2014-01-01

    In this work a nonlinear model predictive controller with individual pitch control for a floating offshore wind turbine is presented. An aerodynamic model of the collective pitch control approach is extended by describing pitching and yawing moments based on rotor disk theory. This extension is implemented in a reduced nonlinear model of the floating wind turbine including disturbance preview of wind speed, linear vertical and horizontal wind shear, and wave height to compute optimal input tr...

  12. Comparison of life calculations for oscillating bearings considering individual pitch control in wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Schwack, F.; Stammler, M.; Poll, G.; Reuter, A

    2016-01-01

    The fatigue life calculation of bearings under rotating conditions has been well researched and standardized. In contrast, for bearings in oscillating applications no international standards exist. As a result, pitch bearings in wind turbines are designed with different, non standardized approaches. Furthermore, the impact of individual pitch control on pitch bearings has not yet been studied. In this paper four approaches for fatigue life calculation will be applied and compared under indivi...

  13. THE BEHAVIOR OF THE PITCH ANGLE OF SPIRAL ARMS DEPENDING ON OPTICAL WAVELENGTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-García, Eric E.; Puerari, Ivânio; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Luna, A. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); González-Lópezlira, Rosa A. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Campus Morelia, Michoacán, México, C.P. 58089 (Mexico); Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura, E-mail: ericmartinez@inaoep.mx [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, U. P. Adolfo López Mateos, Zacatenco, 07730 México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-09-20

    Based on integral field spectroscopy data from the CALIFA survey, we investigate the possible dependence of spiral arm pitch angle with optical wavelength. For three of the five studied objects, the pitch angle gradually increases at longer wavelengths. This is not the case for two objects where the pitch angle remains constant. This result is confirmed by the analysis of SDSS data. We discuss the possible physical mechanisms to explain this phenomenon, as well as the implications of the results.

  14. Ball Speed and Release Consistency Predict Pitching Success in Major League Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, David; Martini, Douglas N; Zernicke, Ronald F; Goulet, Grant C

    2016-07-01

    Whiteside, D, Martini, DN, Zernicke, RF, and Goulet, GC. Ball speed and release consistency predict pitching success in Major League Baseball. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2015-This study aimed to quantify how ball flight kinematics (i.e., ball speed and movement), release location, and variations therein relate to pitching success in Major League Baseball (MLB). One hundred ninety starting MLB pitchers met the inclusion criteria for this study. Ball trajectory information was collected for 76,000 pitches and inserted into a forward stepwise multiple regression model, which examined how (a) pitch selection, (b) ball speed, (c) ball movement (horizontal and lateral), (d) release location (horizontal and lateral), (e) variation in pitch speed, (f) variation in ball movement, and (g) variation in release location related to pitching success (as measured by fielding independent pitching-FIP). Pitch speed, release location variability, variation in pitch speed, and horizontal release location were significant predictors of FIP and, collectively, accounted for 24% of the variance in FIP. These findings suggest that (a) maximizing ball speed, (b) refining a consistent spatial release location, and (c) using varied pitch speeds should be primary foci for the pitching coach. However, between-pitcher variations underline how training interventions should be administered at the individual level, with consideration given to the pitcher's injury history. Finally, despite offering significant predictors of success, these three factors explained only 22% of the variance in FIP and should not be considered the only, or preeminent, indicators of a pitcher's effectiveness. Evidently, traditional pitching metrics only partly account for a pitcher's effectiveness, and future research is necessary to uncover the remaining contributors to success.

  15. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Musical Pitch Perception and Clinical Applications Including Developmental Dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Yuskaitis, Christopher J.; Parviz, Mahsa; Loui, Psyche; Wan, Catherine Y.; Pearl, Phillip L.

    2017-01-01

    Music production and perception invoke a complex set of cognitive functions that rely on the integration of sensorimotor, cognitive, and emotional pathways. Pitch is a fundamental perceptual attribute of sound and a building block for both music and speech. Although the cerebral processing of pitch is not completely understood, recent advances in imaging and electrophysiology have provided insight into the functional and anatomical pathways of pitch processing. This review examines the curren...

  16. Ragu: A Free Tool for the Analysis of EEG and MEG Event-Related Scalp Field Data Using Global Randomization Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Koenig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a program (Ragu; Randomization Graphical User interface for statistical analyses of multichannel event-related EEG and MEG experiments. Based on measures of scalp field differences including all sensors, and using powerful, assumption-free randomization statistics, the program yields robust, physiologically meaningful conclusions based on the entire, untransformed, and unbiased set of measurements. Ragu accommodates up to two within-subject factors and one between-subject factor with multiple levels each. Significance is computed as function of time and can be controlled for type II errors with overall analyses. Results are displayed in an intuitive visual interface that allows further exploration of the findings. A sample analysis of an ERP experiment illustrates the different possibilities offered by Ragu. The aim of Ragu is to maximize statistical power while minimizing the need for a-priori choices of models and parameters (like inverse models or sensors of interest that interact with and bias statistics.

  17. Ragu: a free tool for the analysis of EEG and MEG event-related scalp field data using global randomization statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Thomas; Kottlow, Mara; Stein, Maria; Melie-García, Lester

    2011-01-01

    We present a program (Ragu; Randomization Graphical User interface) for statistical analyses of multichannel event-related EEG and MEG experiments. Based on measures of scalp field differences including all sensors, and using powerful, assumption-free randomization statistics, the program yields robust, physiologically meaningful conclusions based on the entire, untransformed, and unbiased set of measurements. Ragu accommodates up to two within-subject factors and one between-subject factor with multiple levels each. Significance is computed as function of time and can be controlled for type II errors with overall analyses. Results are displayed in an intuitive visual interface that allows further exploration of the findings. A sample analysis of an ERP experiment illustrates the different possibilities offered by Ragu. The aim of Ragu is to maximize statistical power while minimizing the need for a-priori choices of models and parameters (like inverse models or sensors of interest) that interact with and bias statistics.

  18. Equations of motion for a rotor blade, including gravity, pitch action and rotor speed variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Bjarne Skovmose

    2007-01-01

    This paper extends Hodges-Dowell's partial differential equations of blade motion, by including the effects from gravity, pitch action and varying rotor speed. New equations describing the pitch action and rotor speeds are also derived. The physical interpretation of the individual terms...... in the equations is discussed. The partial differential equations of motion are approximated by ordinary differential equations of motion using an assumed mode method. The ordinary differential equations are used to simulate a sudden pitch change of a rotating blade. This work is a part of a project on pitch blade...

  19. A comparison of thermal conversion process for several coal tar pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Y.; Shui, H.; Yuan, X. [East China Metallurgical Institute, Ma`anshan (China)

    1995-03-01

    The property and constituents of coal tar pitch are of great importance to the production of raw material for needle coke. Structural constituents of five coal tar pitches were determined using {sup 1}H-NMR. Besides, thermal conversion process of these pitches in which primary quinoline in soluble fraction was removed by centrifugal separation method was also investigated. The experimental results show Baogang (I) and Meishan coal tar pitches meet the requirements of raw material for needle coke. The thermal conversion data was correlated with structural parameters. 6 refs.,1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Children’s identification of familiar songs from pitch and timing cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eVolkova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to ascertain whether children with normal hearing and prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants could use pitch or timing cues alone or in combination to identify familiar songs. Children 4-7 years of age were required to identify the theme songs of familiar TV shows in a simple task with excerpts that preserved (1 the relative pitch and timing cues of the melody but not the original instrumentation, (2 the timing cues only (rhythm, meter, and tempo, and (3 the relative pitch cues only (pitch contour and intervals. Children with normal hearing performed at high levels and comparably across the three conditions. The performance of child implant users was well above chance levels when both pitch and timing cues were available, marginally above chance with timing cues only, and at chance with pitch cues only. This is the first demonstration that children can identify familiar songs from monotonic versions—timing cues but no pitch cues—and from isochronous versions—pitch cues but no timing cues. The study also indicates that, in the context of a very simple task, young implant users readily identify songs from melodic versions that preserve pitch and timing cues.

  1. Development of a Mechanical Passive Pitch System for a 500W Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poryzala, Tomek; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Kim, Taeseong

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to design, analyze, manufacture, and test a mechanical passive pitch mechanism for a small horizontal axis wind turbine. Several pitching concepts were investigated in the wind industry and related fields before ultimately deciding on a centrifugal governor design concept...... in a pitch-to-stall configuration. Inertial and aerodynamic models were developed in order to predict steady-state performance and an optimization routine was created to optimize the pitch mechanism configuration subject to manufacturing constraints. Dynamic modeling in HAWC2 validated the steady...

  2. Comparison of individual pitch and smart rotor control strategies for load reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumley, C.; Leithead, W.; Jamieson, P.; Bossanyi, E.; Graham, M.

    2014-06-01

    Load reduction is increasingly seen as an essential part of controller and wind turbine design. On large multi-MW wind turbines that experience high levels of wind shear and turbulence across the rotor, individual pitch control and smart rotor control are being considered. While individual pitch control involves adjusting the pitch of each blade individually to reduce the cyclic loadings on the rotor, smart rotor control involves activating control devices distributed along the blades to alter the local aerodynamics of the blades. Here we investigate the effectiveness of using a DQ-axis control and a distributed (independent) control for both individual pitch and trailing edge flap smart rotor control. While load reductions are similar amongst the four strategies across a wide range of variables, including blade root bending moments, yaw bearing and shaft, the pitch actuator requirements vary. The smart rotor pitch actuator has reduced travel, rates, accelerations and power requirements than that of the individual pitch controlled wind turbines. This benefit alone however would be hard to justify the added design complexities of using a smart rotor, which can be seen as an alternative to upgrading the pitch actuator and bearing. In addition, it is found that the independent control strategy is apt at roles that the collective pitch usually targets, such as tower motion and speed control, and it is perhaps here, in supplementing other systems, that the future of the smart rotor lies.

  3. Pitch perception and production in congenital amusia: Evidence from Cantonese speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Chan, Alice H. D.; Ciocca, Valter; Roquet, Catherine; Peretz, Isabelle; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated pitch perception and production in speech and music in individuals with congenital amusia (a disorder of musical pitch processing) who are native speakers of Cantonese, a tone language with a highly complex tonal system. Sixteen Cantonese-speaking congenital amusics and 16 controls performed a set of lexical tone perception, production, singing, and psychophysical pitch threshold tasks. Their tone production accuracy and singing proficiency were subsequently judged by independent listeners, and subjected to acoustic analyses. Relative to controls, amusics showed impaired discrimination of lexical tones in both speech and non-speech conditions. They also received lower ratings for singing proficiency, producing larger pitch interval deviations and making more pitch interval errors compared to controls. Demonstrating higher pitch direction identification thresholds than controls for both speech syllables and piano tones, amusics nevertheless produced native lexical tones with comparable pitch trajectories and intelligibility as controls. Significant correlations were found between pitch threshold and lexical tone perception, music perception and production, but not between lexical tone perception and production for amusics. These findings provide further evidence that congenital amusia is a domain-general language-independent pitch-processing deficit that is associated with severely impaired music perception and production, mildly impaired speech perception, and largely intact speech production. PMID:27475178

  4. Heroes and Villains: The Relationship between Pitch Tessitura and Sociability of Operatic Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shanahan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in speech prosody and ethology suggests that pitch height indexes positive and negative social affects, in the sense that higher pitched voices are used to convey friendliness, whereas lower pitched voices are used to convey aggression (Bolinger, 1964. Research concerning animal calls suggests that this association generalizes to many species. In a study of the calls for 56 species, Morton (1977, 1994 proposed a sound-size model in which large size (and low pitch is associated with aggression, whereas small size (and high pitch is associated with friendliness, fear, or appeasement. We examine whether this association can be observed in music. Specifically, the results of three studies are reported in which the pitch-height of various voices is related to estimates of the sociability of the corresponding operatic characters. Results indeed indicate an association between lower-pitched voices and less sociable characters, in contrast to higher-pitched voices being associated with more sociable characters. In addition, older male characters tend to exhibit lower-pitched voices, consistent with known physiological changes (Linville, 2004; Reubold, Harrington & Kleber, 2010.

  5. Visuoauditory mappings between high luminance and high pitch are shared by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Vera U.; Adachi, Ikuma; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Humans share implicit preferences for certain cross-sensory combinations; for example, they consistently associate higher-pitched sounds with lighter colors, smaller size, and spikier shapes. In the condition of synesthesia, people may experience such cross-modal correspondences to a perceptual degree (e.g., literally seeing sounds). So far, no study has addressed the question whether nonhuman animals share cross-modal correspondences as well. To establish the evolutionary origins of cross-modal mappings, we tested whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) also associate higher pitch with higher luminance. Thirty-three humans and six chimpanzees were required to classify black and white squares according to their color while hearing irrelevant background sounds that were either high-pitched or low-pitched. Both species performed better when the background sound was congruent (high-pitched for white, low-pitched for black) than when it was incongruent (low-pitched for white, high-pitched for black). An inherent tendency to pair high pitch with high luminance hence evolved before the human lineage split from that of chimpanzees. Rather than being a culturally learned or a linguistic phenomenon, this mapping constitutes a basic feature of the primate sensory system. PMID:22143791

  6. Covariation between voice quality and pitch: Revisiting the case of Mandarin creaky voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Jianjing

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the interaction between voice quality and pitch by revisiting the well-known case of Mandarin creaky voice. This study first provides several pieces of experimental data to assess whether the mechanism behind allophonic creaky voice in Mandarin is tied to tonal categories or is driven by phonetic pitch ranges. The results show that the presence of creak is not exclusively limited to tone 3, but can accompany any of the low pitch targets in the Mandarin tones; further, tone 3 is less creaky when the overall pitch range is raised, but more creaky when the overall pitch range is lowered. More importantly, tone 3 is not unique in this regard, and other tones such as tone 1 are also subject to similar variations. In sum, voice quality is quite systematically tied to F0 in Mandarin. Results from a pitch glide experiment further suggest that voice quality overall covaries with pitch height in a wedge-shaped function. Non-modal voice tends to occur when pitch production exceeds certain limits. Voice quality, thus, has the potential to enhance the perceptual distinctiveness of extreme pitch targets.

  7. Preferences for Very Low and Very High Voice Pitch in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel E Re; Jillian J M O'Connor; Bennett, Patrick J.; Feinberg, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Manipulations of voice pitch have been shown to alter attractiveness ratings, but whether preferences extend to very low or very high voice pitch is unknown. Here, we manipulated voice pitch in averaged men's and women's voices by 2 Hz intervals to create a range of male and female voices speaking monopthong vowel sounds and spanning a range of frequencies from normal to very low and very high pitch. With these voices, we used the method of constant stimuli to measure preferences for voice. N...

  8. Singing ability is rooted in vocal-motor control of pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Sean; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    The inability to vocally match a pitch can be caused by poor pitch perception or by poor vocal-motor control. Although previous studies have tried to examine the relationship between pitch perception and vocal production, they have failed to control for the timbre of the target to be matched. In the present study, we compare pitch-matching accuracy with an unfamiliar instrument (the slider) and with the voice, designed such that the slider plays back recordings of the participant's own voice. We also measured pitch accuracy in singing a familiar melody ("Happy Birthday") to assess the relationship between single-pitch-matching tasks and melodic singing. Our results showed that participants (all nonmusicians) were significantly better at matching recordings of their own voices with the slider than with their voice, indicating that vocal-motor control is an important limiting factor on singing ability. We also found significant correlations between the ability to sing a melody in tune and vocal pitch matching, but not pitch matching on the slider. Better melodic singers also tended to have higher quality voices (as measured by acoustic variables). These results provide important evidence about the role of vocal-motor control in poor singing ability and demonstrate that single-pitch-matching tasks can be useful in measuring general singing abilities.

  9. Return to Oz: voice pitch facilitates assessments of men's body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Fraccaro, Paul J; Tigue, Cara C; O'Connor, Jillian J M; Feinberg, David R

    2014-08-01

    Listeners associate low voice pitch (fundamental frequency and/or harmonics) and formants (vocal-tract resonances) with large body size. Although formants reliably predict size within sexes, pitch does not reliably predict size in groups of same-sex adults. Voice pitch has therefore long been hypothesized to confound within-sex size assessment. Here we performed a knockout test of this hypothesis using whispered and 3-formant sine-wave speech devoid of pitch. Listeners estimated the relative size of men with above-chance accuracy from voiced, whispered, and sine-wave speech. Critically, although men's pitch and physical height were unrelated, the accuracy of listeners' size assessments increased in the presence rather than absence of pitch. Size assessments based on relatively low pitch yielded particularly high accuracy (70%-80%). Results of Experiment 2 revealed that amplitude, noise, and signal degradation of unvoiced speech could not explain this effect; listeners readily perceived formant shifts in manipulated whispered speech. Rather, in Experiment 3, we show that the denser harmonic spectrum provided by low pitch allowed for better resolution of formants, aiding formant-based size assessment. These findings demonstrate that pitch does not confuse body size assessment as has been previously suggested, but instead facilitates accurate size assessment by providing a carrier signal for vocal-tract resonances.

  10. Enhancing temporal cues to voice pitch in continuous interleaved sampling cochlear implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tim; Faulkner, Andrew; Rosen, Stuart

    2004-10-01

    The limited spectral resolution of cochlear implant systems means that voice pitch perception depends on weak temporal envelope cues. Enhancement of such cues was investigated in implant users and in acoustic simulations. Subjects labeled the pitch movement of processed synthetic diphthongal glides. In standard processing, noise carriers (simulations) or pulse trains (implant users) were modulated by 400 Hz low-pass envelopes. In modified processing, carriers were modulated by two components: (1) Slow-rate (pitch cues. Though significant, advantages for modified processing were small, suggesting that the potential for developing strategies delivering enhanced pitch perception is limited. .

  11. Voice pitch alters mate-choice-relevant perception in hunter–gatherers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apicella, Coren L.; Feinberg, David R.

    2008-01-01

    In humans, voice pitch is thought to be a cue of underlying quality and an important criterion for mate choice, but data from non-Western cultures have not been provided. Here we test attributions to and preferences for voices with raised and lowered pitch in hunter–gatherers. Using a forced-choice playback experiment, we found that both men and women viewed lower pitched voices in the opposite sex as being better at acquiring resources (e.g. hunting and gathering). While men preferred higher pitched women's voices as marriage partners, women showed no overall preference for voice pitch in men. However, women who were currently breastfeeding had stronger preferences for higher pitched male voices whereas women not currently breastfeeding preferred lower pitched voices. As testosterone is considered a costly signal associated with dominance, heritable immunity to infection and low paternal investment, women's preferences potentially reflect a trade-off between securing good genes and paternal investment. Men's preferences for higher pitched female voices are probably due to an evolved preference for markers of fecundity, reflected in voice pitch. PMID:19129125

  12. Study on the structure of pitch-polymer compositions by fluorescence microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makomaski, Grzegorz

    In this work, the results of studies on the evaluation of colloidal structure of coal-tar pitch compositions with selected waste polymers by fluorescence microscope. For pitch-polymer compositions containing 10-50 wt% waste polymer, softening point, coking value and content of components insoluble in toluene and quinoline were carried out. The results indicate that pitch-polymer compositions can be treated as microheterogeneous systems, colloidal and biphase, generally exhibiting uniform dispersion of particles composed of polymer macromolecules and probably of α components of coal-tar pitch.

  13. From amusic to musical?--Improving pitch memory in congenital amusia with transcranial alternating current stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Nora K; Pfeifer, Jasmin; Krause, Vanessa; Pollok, Bettina

    2015-11-01

    Brain imaging studies highlighted structural differences in congenital amusia, a life-long perceptual disorder that is associated with pitch perception and pitch memory deficits. A functional anomaly characterized by decreased low gamma oscillations (30-40 Hz range) in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during pitch memory has been revealed recently. Thus, the present study investigates whether applying transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) at 35 Hz to the right DLPFC would improve pitch memory. Nine amusics took part in two tACS sessions (either 35 Hz or 90 Hz) and completed a pitch and visual memory task before and during stimulation. 35 Hz stimulation facilitated pitch memory significantly. No modulation effects were found with 90 Hz stimulation or on the visual task. While amusics showed a selective impairment of pitch memory before stimulation, the performance during 35 Hz stimulation was not significantly different to healthy controls anymore. Taken together, the study shows that modulating the right DLPFC with 35 Hz tACS in congenital amusia selectively improves pitch memory performance supporting the hypothesis that decreased gamma oscillations within the DLPFC are causally involved in disturbed pitch memory and highlight the potential use of tACS to interact with cognitive processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of pitching rate on yeast fermentation performance and beer flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbelen, P J; Dekoninck, T M L; Saerens, S M G; Van Mulders, S E; Thevelein, J M; Delvaux, F R

    2009-02-01

    The volumetric productivity of the beer fermentation process can be increased by using a higher pitching rate (i.e. higher inoculum size). However, the impact of the pitching rate on crucial fermentation and beer quality parameters has never been assessed systematically. In this study, five pitching rates were applied to lab-scale fermentations to investigate its impact on the yeast physiology and beer quality. The fermentation rate increased significantly and the net yeast growth was lowered with increasing pitching rate, without affecting significantly the viability and the vitality of the yeast population. The build-up of unsaturated fatty acids in the initial phase of the fermentation was repressed when higher yeast concentrations were pitched. The expression levels of the genes HSP104 and HSP12 and the concentration of trehalose were higher with increased pitching rates, suggesting a moderate exposure to stress in case of higher cell concentrations. The influence of pitching rate on aroma compound production was rather limited, with the exception of total diacetyl levels, which strongly increased with the pitching rate. These results demonstrate that most aspects of the yeast physiology and flavour balance are not significantly or negatively affected when the pitching rate is changed. However, further research is needed to fully optimise the conditions for brewing beer with high cell density populations.

  15. Voice pitch alters mate-choice-relevant perception in hunter-gatherers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apicella, Coren L; Feinberg, David R

    2009-03-22

    In humans, voice pitch is thought to be a cue of underlying quality and an important criterion for mate choice, but data from non-Western cultures have not been provided. Here we test attributions to and preferences for voices with raised and lowered pitch in hunter-gatherers. Using a forced-choice playback experiment, we found that both men and women viewed lower pitched voices in the opposite sex as being better at acquiring resources (e.g. hunting and gathering). While men preferred higher pitched women's voices as marriage partners, women showed no overall preference for voice pitch in men. However, women who were currently breastfeeding had stronger preferences for higher pitched male voices whereas women not currently breastfeeding preferred lower pitched voices. As testosterone is considered a costly signal associated with dominance, heritable immunity to infection and low paternal investment, women's preferences potentially reflect a trade-off between securing good genes and paternal investment. Men's preferences for higher pitched female voices are probably due to an evolved preference for markers of fecundity, reflected in voice pitch.

  16. A Pitch Extraction Method with High Frequency Resolution for Singing Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hideyo; Hoguro, Masahiro; Umezaki, Taizo

    This paper proposes a pitch estimation method suitable for singing evaluation incorporable in KARAOKE machines. Professional singers and musicians have sharp hearing for music and singing voice. They recognize that singer's voice pitch is “a little off key” or “be in tune”. In the same way, the pitch estimation method that has high frequency resolution is necessary in order to evaluate singing. This paper proposes a pitch estimation method with high frequency resolution utilizing harmonic characteristic of autocorrelation function. The proposed method can estimate a fundamental frequency in the range 50 ∼ 1700[Hz] with resolution less than 3.6 cents in light processing.

  17. Traceability strategy for gear-pitch-measuring instruments: development and calibration of a multiball artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yohan; Sasajima, Kazuyuki; Osawa, Sonko; Sato, Osamu; Komori, Masaharu

    2009-06-01

    There is a strong demand to ensure the traceability of gear-measuring instruments (GMIs). We propose a multiball artifact (MBA) for the evaluation of pitch-measuring accuracy. The aim of the MBA is to transfer the minimum uncertainty from a calibrated value at the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) to a measured value of GMIs at a shop floor. The MBA is composed of equally spaced high-accuracy balls around an axis. The pitch-measuring accuracy of GMIs is evaluated by measuring the angular pitch deviation of the balls instead of the angular pitch deviation of a gear. We calibrated the angular pitch deviation using a coordinate measuring instrument (CMM) at the NMIJ and adapting a multiple-orientation technique. We proposed a calibration strategy of the angular pitch deviation. The calibration value of the pitch deviation for the MBA at the NMIJ was obtained with a measurement uncertainty (U95) of 0.2 µm. We evaluated the pitch-measuring accuracy of a GMI using the calibrated MBA. Each value of U95 for the cumulative and single pitch deviations for the left and right flanks was less than or equal to 0.5 µm. The small uncertainty was transferred from the NMIJ to the GMI.

  18. Biceps activity during windmill softball pitching: injury implications and comparison with overhand throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Idubijes L; Provencher, Matthew T; Bhatia, Sanjeev; Foucher, Kharma C; Bach, Bernard R; Romeo, Anthony A; Wimmer, Markus A; Verma, Nikhil N

    2009-03-01

    Windmill pitching produces high forces and torques at the shoulder and elbow, making the biceps labrum complex susceptible to overuse injury. Little is known about the muscle firing patterns during a windmill pitch. Biceps muscle activity is greater during a windmill pitch than during an overhand throw. Descriptive laboratory study. Seven female windmill pitchers underwent motion analysis and surface electromyography evaluation of their biceps muscles during windmill and overhand throwing. Marker motion analysis, muscle activity, and ball release were captured simultaneously. Surface electromyography trials were collected and related to the athletes' phases of pitching and throwing, identified based on predefined softball and baseball pitching mechanics. Throws were of similar velocity (24 m/s, 53 mph, P = .71), but peak biceps brachii muscle activation during the windmill pitch was significantly greater than during the overhand throw when normalized (38% vs 19% manual muscle test, P = .02). The highest muscle activity occurred at the 9-o'clock phase of the windmill pitch, during which the biceps brachii undergoes eccentric contraction. In the overhand throw, the highest level of biceps activity occurred during arm cocking. In female athletes, biceps brachii activity during the windmill pitch is higher than during an overhand throw and is most active during the 9-o'clock and follow-through phases of the pitch. Repetitive eccentric biceps contractions may help explain the high incidence of anterior shoulder pain clinically observed in elite windmill pitchers. Injury prevention and treatment mechanisms should focus on the phases with the highest muscle activity.

  19. A nonmusical paradigm for identifying absolute pitch possessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David A.; Olson, Ingrid R.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Gore, John C.

    2004-09-01

    The ability to identify and reproduce sounds of specific frequencies is remarkable and uncommon. The etiology and defining characteristics of this skill, absolute pitch (AP), have been very controversial. One theory suggests that AP requires a specific type of early musical training and that the ability to encode and remember tones depends on these learned musical associations. An alternate theory argues that AP may be strongly dependent on hereditary factors and relatively independent of musical experience. To date, it has been difficult to test these hypotheses because all previous paradigms for identifying AP have required subjects to employ knowledge of musical nomenclature. As such, these tests are insensitive to the possibility of discovering AP in either nonmusicians or musicians of non-Western training. Based on previous literature in pitch memory, a paradigm is presented that is intended to distinguish between AP possessors and nonpossessors independent of the subjects' musical experience. The efficacy of this method is then tested with 20 classically defined AP possessors and 22 nonpossessors. Data from these groups strongly support the validity of the paradigm. The use of a nonmusical paradigm to identify AP may facilitate research into many aspects of this phenomenon.

  20. Neural mechanism for binaural pitch perception via ghost stochastic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balenzuela, Pablo; García-Ojalvo, Jordi

    2005-06-01

    We present a physiologically plausible binaural mechanism for the perception of the pitch of complex sounds via ghost stochastic resonance. In this scheme, two neurons are driven by noise and a different periodic signal each (with frequencies f1=kf0 and f2=(k+1)f0, where k >1), and their outputs (plus noise) are applied synaptically to a third neuron. Our numerical results, using the Morris-Lecar neuron model with chemical synapses explicitly considered, show that intermediate noise levels enhance the response of the third neuron at frequencies close to f0, as in the cases previously described of ghost resonance. For the case of an inharmonic combination of inputs (f1=kf0+Δf and f2=(k+1)f0+Δf) noise is also seen to enhance the rates of most probable spiking for the third neuron at a frequency fr=f0+[Δf/(k+1/2)]. In addition, we show that similar resonances can be observed as a function of the synaptic time constant. The suggested ghost-resonance-based stochastic mechanism can thus arise either at the peripheral level or at a higher level of neural processing in the perception of pitch.