WorldWideScience

Sample records for random path fluctuations

  1. Reliability Analysis of Random Vibration Transmission Path Systems

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    Wei Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibration transmission path systems are generally composed of the vibration source, the vibration transfer path, and the vibration receiving structure. The transfer path is the medium of the vibration transmission. Moreover, the randomness of transfer path influences the transfer reliability greatly. In this paper, based on the matrix calculus, the generalized second moment technique, and the stochastic finite element theory, the effective approach for the transfer reliability of vibration transfer path systems was provided. The transfer reliability of vibration transfer path system with uncertain path parameters including path mass and path stiffness was analyzed theoretically and computed numerically, and the correlated mathematical expressions were derived. Thus, it provides the theoretical foundation for the dynamic design of vibration systems in practical project, so that most random path parameters can be considered to solve the random problems for vibration transfer path systems, which can avoid the system resonance failure.

  2. Reliability Analysis of Random Vibration Transmission Path Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zhao; Yi-Min Zhang

    2017-01-01

    The vibration transmission path systems are generally composed of the vibration source, the vibration transfer path, and the vibration receiving structure. The transfer path is the medium of the vibration transmission. Moreover, the randomness of transfer path influences the transfer reliability greatly. In this paper, based on the matrix calculus, the generalized second moment technique, and the stochastic finite element theory, the effective approach for the transfer reliability of vibratio...

  3. Stochastic thermodynamics of interacting degrees of freedom: Fluctuation theorems for detached path probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrich, Jannik; Engel, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Systems with interacting degrees of freedom play a prominent role in stochastic thermodynamics. Our aim is to use the concept of detached path probabilities and detached entropy production for bipartite Markov processes and elaborate on a series of special cases including measurement-feedback systems, sensors, and hidden Markov models. For these special cases we show that fluctuation theorems involving the detached entropy production recover known results which have been obtained separately before. Additionally, we show that the fluctuation relation for the detached entropy production can be used in model selection for data stemming from a hidden Markov model. We discuss the relation to previous approaches including those which use information flow or learning rate to quantify the influence of one subsystem on the other. In conclusion, we present a complete framework with which to find fluctuation relations for coupled systems.

  4. Persistence of randomly coupled fluctuating interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Satya N; Das, Dibyendu

    2005-03-01

    We study the persistence properties in a simple model of two coupled interfaces characterized by heights h(1) and h(2) , respectively, each growing over a d -dimensional substrate. The first interface evolves independently of the second and can correspond to any generic growing interface, e.g., of the Edwards-Wilkinson or of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang variety. The evolution of h(2) , however, is coupled to h(1) via a quenched random velocity field. In the limit d-->0 , our model reduces to the Matheron-de Marsily model in two dimensions. For d=1, our model describes a Rouse polymer chain in two dimensions advected by a transverse velocity field. We show analytically that after a long waiting time t(0) -->infinity , the stochastic process h(2) , at a fixed point in space but as a function of time, becomes a fractional Brownian motion with a Hurst exponent, H2 =1- beta(1) /2 , where beta(1) is the growth exponent characterizing the first interface. The associated persistence exponent is shown to be theta(2)(s) =1- H2 = beta(1) /2 . These analytical results are verified by numerical simulations.

  5. Secure Path Selection under Random Fading

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    Furqan Jameel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Application-oriented Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs promises to be one of the most useful technologies of this century. However, secure communication between nodes in WSNs is still an unresolved issue. In this context, we propose two protocols (i.e. Optimal Secure Path (OSP and Sub-optimal Secure Path (SSP to minimize the outage probability of secrecy capacity in the presence of multiple eavesdroppers. We consider dissimilar fading at the main and wiretap link and provide detailed evaluation of the impact of Nakagami-m and Rician-K factors on the secrecy performance of WSNs. Extensive simulations are performed to validate our findings. Although the optimal scheme ensures more security, yet the sub-optimal scheme proves to be a more practical approach to secure wireless links.

  6. Characterizing the Path Coverage of Random Wireless Sensor Networks

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    Moslem Noori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are widely used in security monitoring applications to sense and report specific activities in a field. In path coverage, for example, the network is in charge of monitoring a path and discovering any intruder trying to cross it. In this paper, we investigate the path coverage properties of a randomly deployed wireless sensor network when the number of sensors and also the length of the path are finite. As a consequence, Boolean model, which has been widely used previously, is not applicable. Using results from geometric probability, we determine the probability of full path coverage, distribution of the number of uncovered gaps over the path, and the probability of having no uncovered gaps larger than a specific size. We also find the cumulative distribution function (cdf of the covered part of the path. Based on our results on the probability of full path coverage, we derive a tight upper bound for the number of nodes guaranteeing the full path coverage with a desired reliability. Through computer simulations, it is verified that for networks with nonasymptotic size, our analysis is accurate where the Boolean model can be inaccurate.

  7. Rotational fluctuation of molecules in quantum clusters. I. Path integral hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm.

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    Miura, Shinichi

    2007-03-21

    In this paper, we present a path integral hybrid Monte Carlo (PIHMC) method for rotating molecules in quantum fluids. This is an extension of our PIHMC for correlated Bose fluids [S. Miura and J. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 2160 (2004)] to handle the molecular rotation quantum mechanically. A novel technique referred to be an effective potential of quantum rotation is introduced to incorporate the rotational degree of freedom in the path integral molecular dynamics or hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm. For a permutation move to satisfy Bose statistics, we devise a multilevel Metropolis method combined with a configurational-bias technique for efficiently sampling the permutation and the associated atomic coordinates. Then, we have applied the PIHMC to a helium-4 cluster doped with a carbonyl sulfide molecule. The effects of the quantum rotation on the solvation structure and energetics were examined. Translational and rotational fluctuations of the dopant in the superfluid cluster were also analyzed.

  8. Listening to the noise: random fluctuations reveal gene network parameters

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    Munsky, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Khammash, Mustafa [UCSB

    2009-01-01

    The cellular environment is abuzz with noise. The origin of this noise is attributed to the inherent random motion of reacting molecules that take part in gene expression and post expression interactions. In this noisy environment, clonal populations of cells exhibit cell-to-cell variability that frequently manifests as significant phenotypic differences within the cellular population. The stochastic fluctuations in cellular constituents induced by noise can be measured and their statistics quantified. We show that these random fluctuations carry within them valuable information about the underlying genetic network. Far from being a nuisance, the ever-present cellular noise acts as a rich source of excitation that, when processed through a gene network, carries its distinctive fingerprint that encodes a wealth of information about that network. We demonstrate that in some cases the analysis of these random fluctuations enables the full identification of network parameters, including those that may otherwise be difficult to measure. This establishes a potentially powerful approach for the identification of gene networks and offers a new window into the workings of these networks.

  9. Scattering from randomly oriented scatterers with strong permittivity fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, S. H.; Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T.

    1990-01-01

    Strong permittivity fluctuation theory is used to solve the problem of scattering from a medium composed of completely randomly oriented scatterers under a low frequency limit. Gaussian statistics are not assumed for the renormalized scattering sources. Numerical results on effective permittivity are illustrated for oblate and prolate spheroidal scatterers and compared with the results for spherical scatterers. The results are consistent with discrete scatterer theory. The effective permittivity of a random medium embedded with nonspherical scatterers shows a higher imaginary part than the spherical scatterer case with equal correlation volume. Under the distorted Born approximation, the polarimetric covariance matrix for the backscattered electric field is calculated for half-space randomly oriented scatterers. The nonspherical geometry of the scatterers shows significant effects on the cross-polarized backscattering returns, and the correlation coefficient between HH and VV returns. The polarimetric backscattering coefficients can provide useful information in distinguishing the geometry of scatterers.

  10. Reference-free path length interferometry of random media with the intensity moments analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnyakov, Dmitry A; Yuvchenko, Sergey A; Pavlova, Maria V; Alonova, Marina V

    2017-06-26

    Stochastic interference of partially coherent light multiple scattered by a random medium is considered. The relationship between the second- and third-order moments of intensity fluctuations in random interference patterns, the coherence function of probe radiation, and the probability density of path differences for the interfering partial waves in the medium are established. The obtained relationships were verified using the statistical analysis of spectrally selected fluorescence radiation emitted by the laser-pumped dye-doped random medium. Rhodamine 6G water solution was applied as the doping agent for the ensembles of densely packed silica grains which were pumped by the CW radiation (532 nm) from the diode-pumped solid state laser. Experimentally observed abrupt decay of the second- and third-order moments of fluorescence intensity fluctuations for the wavelengths ranging from 620 nm to 680 nm is interpreted in terms of amplification of spontaneous emission at large dye concentrations. This paper discusses the new optical probe of random media defined as "the reference-free path length interferometry with the intensity moments analysis".

  11. Path-integral and Ornstein-Zernike computations of quantum fluid structures under strong fluctuations

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    Luis M. Sesé

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the computation of the structure factors of quantum fluids under complex conditions involving substantial density fluctuations and/or large particle delocalization effects. The method is based on the combination of path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC simulations and the pair Ornstein-Zernike framework (OZ2. PIMC provides the radial correlation functions (centroid, instantaneous, and thermalized-continuous total linear response, which are used as data input to the OZ2 calculations that lead to their associated structure factors. To undertake this project normal liquid 4He and supercritical 3He are selected, studying conditions in the range (T = 4.2 K; 0.01886 <ρN/Å-3 < 0.02687. Full inter-comparison between the structure factors determined via both OZ2 and direct PIMC calculations is made. In addition, comparison with experimental data, including thermodynamic properties, is made wherever possible. The results establish that, even under severe thermodynamic and/or quantum fluctuation conditions, OZ2 remains in the quantum domain as a highly reliable and cost-effective framework to determine accurate structure factors, also allowing one to understand the related isotopic shifts in fluid He.

  12. Random fluctuation leads to forbidden escape of particles.

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    Rodrigues, Christian S; de Moura, Alessandro P S; Grebogi, Celso

    2010-08-01

    A great number of physical processes are described within the context of Hamiltonian scattering. Previous studies have rather been focused on trajectories starting outside invariant structures, since the ones starting inside are expected to stay trapped there forever. This is true though only for the deterministic case. We show however that, under finitely small random fluctuations of the field, trajectories starting inside Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) islands escape within finite time. The nonhyperbolic dynamics gains then hyperbolic characteristics due to the effect of the random perturbed field. As a consequence, trajectories which are started inside KAM curves escape with hyperboliclike time decay distribution, and the fractal dimension of a set of particles that remain in the scattering region approaches that for hyperbolic systems. We show a universal quadratic power law relating the exponential decay to the amplitude of noise. We present a random walk model to relate this distribution to the amplitude of noise, and investigate these phenomena with a numerical study applying random maps.

  13. A Parallel Randomized Path Planner for Robot Navigation

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    S. Sengupta

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Computation of a collision-free path for a movable object among obstacles is an important problem in the fields of robotics, CIM and AI. Various automatic task level programming systems can be build for robot guidance, teleoperation, assembly and disassembly among others, if a suitable method for motion planning is available. In the basic variation of motion planning, the task is to generate a collision-free path for a movable object among known and static obstacles. Classically the problem was defined for a rigid 6 degrees-of-freedom body as 'the piano mover's problem'. However, the majority of the research has been conducted in the field of robotics, often under the title of path planning. Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs are a recently developed representation on which fast continuous domain path planners can be based. In this work, we have built a parallel path planning system based on RRTs that interleaves planning and execution, first evaluating it in simulation and then applying it to physical robots. Our distributed algorithm, PRRT (parallel RRT, introduces a parallel extension of previous RRT work, the process splitting and parallel cost penalty search with a comment on Real Time Stagnancy reduction, which improves re-planning efficiency, decreases latency involved in finding feasible paths and the quality of generated paths. PRRT is successfully applied to a real-time multi-robot system. In this paper we illustrate how it is possible to implement a parallel version of RRT based motion planner which yields optimal speed up.

  14. A Parallel Randomized Path Planner for Robot Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sengupta

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Computation of a collision-free path for a movable object among obstacles is an important problem in the fields of robotics, CIM and AI. Various automatic task level programming systems can be build for robot guidance, teleoperation, assembly and disassembly among others, if a suitable method for motion planning is available. In the basic variation of motion planning, the task is to generate a collision-free path for a movable object among known and static obstacles. Classically the problem was defined for a rigid 6 degrees-of-freedom body as ‘the piano mover's problem’. However, the majority of the research has been conducted in the field of robotics, often under the title of path planning. Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs are a recently developed representation on which fast continuous domain path planners can be based. In this work, we have built a parallel path planning system based on RRTs that interleaves planning and execution, first evaluating it in simulation and then applying it to physical robots. Our distributed algorithm, PRRT (parallel RRT, introduces a parallel extension of previous RRT work, the process splitting and parallel cost penalty search with a comment on Real Time Stagnancy reduction, which improves re-planning efficiency, decreases latency involved in finding feasible paths and the quality of generated paths. PRRT is successfully applied to a real-time multi-robot system. In this paper we illustrate how it is possible to implement a parallel version of RRT based motion planner which yields optimal speed up.

  15. Paths of specified length in random k-partite graphs

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    C. R. Subramanian

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Fix positive integers k and l. Consider a random k-partite graph on n vertices obtained by partitioning the vertex set into V i, (i=1, …,k each having size Ω(n and choosing each possible edge with probability p. Consider any vertex x in any V i and any vertex y. We show that the expected number of simple paths of even length l between x and y differ significantly depending on whether y belongs to the same V i (as x does or not. A similar phenomenon occurs when l is odd. This result holds even when k,l vary slowly with n. This fact has implications to coloring random graphs. The proof is based on establishing bijections between sets of paths.

  16. The Total Acquisition Number Of The Randomly Weighted Path

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    Godbole Anant

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There exists a significant body of work on determining the acquisition number at(G of various graphs when the vertices of those graphs are each initially assigned a unit weight. We determine properties of the acquisition number of the path, star, complete, complete bipartite, cycle, and wheel graphs for variations on this initial weighting scheme, with the majority of our work focusing on the expected acquisition number of randomly weighted graphs. In particular, we bound the expected acquisition number E(at(Pn of the n-path when n distinguishable “units” of integral weight, or chips, are randomly distributed across its vertices between 0.242n and 0.375n. With computer support, we improve it by showing that E(at(Pn lies between 0.29523n and 0.29576n. We then use subadditivity to show that the limiting ratio lim E(at(Pn/n exists, and simulations reveal more exactly what the limiting value equals. The Hoeffding-Azuma inequality is used to prove that the acquisition number is tightly concentrated around its expected value. Additionally, in a different context, we offer a non-optimal acquisition protocol algorithm for the randomly weighted path and exactly compute the expected size of the resultant residual set.

  17. Intensity approximation of random fluctuation in complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulmetyev, R. M.; Gafarov, F. M.; Yulmetyeva, D. G.; Emeljanova, N. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Markov and non-Markov processes in complex systems are examined with the help of dynamical information Shannon entropy method. Here we consider the essential role of two mutually independent channels of entropy involving creation of correlation and annihilation of correlation. The developed method has been used to analyze the intensity fluctuation of the complex systems of various nature: in psychology (to analyze numerical and pattern short-time human memory, to study the effect of stress on the parameters of the dynamical taping-test) and in cardiology (to analyze the random dynamics of RR-intervals in human ECG's and to diagnose various diseases of human cardiovascular systems). The received results show that the application of intensity approximation allows to improve essentially the diagnostics of parameters in the evolution of human dynamic states.

  18. Pseudo-random tool paths for CNC sub-aperture polishing and other applications.

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    Dunn, Christina R; Walker, David D

    2008-11-10

    In this paper we first contrast classical and CNC polishing techniques in regard to the repetitiveness of the machine motions. We then present a pseudo-random tool path for use with CNC sub-aperture polishing techniques and report polishing results from equivalent random and raster tool-paths. The random tool-path used - the unicursal random tool-path - employs a random seed to generate a pattern which never crosses itself. Because of this property, this tool-path is directly compatible with dwell time maps for corrective polishing. The tool-path can be used to polish any continuous area of any boundary shape, including surfaces with interior perforations.

  19. Evaluating Wave Random Path Using Multilevel Monte Carlo

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    Behrouz Fathi-Vajargah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wind waves are important due to their high energy and impact on marine activities. This phenomenon is affects directly or indirectly the construction of coastal infrastructure, shipping and recreational activities. Due to the issues presented, marine parameters are very important. In this study, we try to pay attention to wave as one of the most important marine parameters. As the movements of waves have high uncertainty, financial models can be used to simulate the wave's paths. We use the Monte Carlo method for this purpose. The Monte Carlo simulation is a flexible and simple tool that is widely used in the evaluation of random paths. To compute a random path, we require an integral discretization. In this paper, we study the valuation of European options using Monte Carlo simulation and then compare this result with multi-level Monte Carlo approach and other antithetic variables. Then, we use the multi-level Monte Carlo approach proposed by (M. B. Giles, 2008 for pricing under the two-factor stochastic volatility model. We show that the multi-level Monte Carlo method reduces the computational complexity and also cost of the two-factor stochastic volatility model when compared with the standard Monte Carlo method. Also, we compare the multi-level Monte Carlo method and standard Monte Carlo method using an Euler discretization scheme and then, analyze the numerical results.

  20. Comparison of tool feed influence in CNC polishing between a novel circular-random path and other pseudo-random paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Ken; Beaucamp, Anthony

    2017-09-18

    A new category of circular pseudo-random paths is proposed in order to suppress repetitive patterns and improve surface waviness on ultra-precision polished surfaces. Random paths in prior research had many corners, therefore deceleration of the polishing tool affected the surface waviness. The new random path can suppress velocity changes of the polishing tool and thus restrict degradation of the surface waviness, making it suitable for applications with stringent mid-spatial-frequency requirements such as photomask blanks for EUV lithography.

  1. Variance of phase fluctuations of waves propagating through a random medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Nelson C.; Kong, Jin AU; Yueh, Simon H.; Nghiem, Son V.; Fleischman, Jack G.; Ayasli, Serpil; Shin, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    As an electromagnetic wave propagates through a random scattering medium, such as a forest, its energy is attenuated and random phase fluctuations are induced. The magnitude of the random phase fluctuations induced is important in estimating how well a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) can image objects within the scattering medium. The two-layer random medium model, consisting of a scattering layer between free space and ground, is used to calculate the variance of the phase fluctuations induced between a transmitter located above the random medium and a receiver located below the random medium. The scattering properties of the random medium are characterized by a correlation function of the random permittivity fluctuations. The effective permittivity of the random medium is first calculated using the strong fluctuation theory, which accounts for large permittivity fluctuations of the scatterers. The distorted Born approximation is used to calculate the first-order scattered field. A perturbation series for the phase of the received field in the Rytov approximation is then introduced and the variance of the phase fluctuations is also calculated assuming that the transmitter and receiver are in the paraxial limit of the random medium, which allows an analytic solution to be obtained. Results are compared using the paraxial approximation, scalar Green's function formulation, and dyadic Green's function formulation. The effects studied are the dependence of the variance of the phase fluctuations on receiver location in lossy and lossless regions, medium thickness, correlation length and fractional volume of scatterers, depolarization of the incident wave, ground layer permittivity, angle of incidence, and polarization.

  2. Limit Shapes and Fluctuations of Bounded Random Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Dan

    Young diagrams confined to a rectangle. When the rectangle grows, and diagrams are rescaled, the probability measure degenerates to a delta measure on a continuous curve, the limit shape. In the intermediate scaling, the fluctuations around the limit shape turn out to be governed by an Ornstein...

  3. Mendelian Randomization versus Path Models: Making Causal Inferences in Genetic Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Andreas; Mwambi, Henry; König, Inke R

    2015-01-01

    The term Mendelian randomization is popular in the current literature. The first aim of this work is to describe the idea of Mendelian randomization studies and the assumptions required for drawing valid conclusions. The second aim is to contrast Mendelian randomization and path modeling when different 'omics' levels are considered jointly. We define Mendelian randomization as introduced by Katan in 1986, and review its crucial assumptions. We introduce path models as the relevant additional component to the current use of Mendelian randomization studies in 'omics'. Real data examples for the association between lipid levels and coronary artery disease illustrate the use of path models. Numerous assumptions underlie Mendelian randomization, and they are difficult to be fulfilled in applications. Path models are suitable for investigating causality, and they should not be mixed up with the term Mendelian randomization. In many applications, path modeling would be the appropriate analysis in addition to a simple Mendelian randomization analysis. Mendelian randomization and path models use different concepts for causal inference. Path modeling but not simple Mendelian randomization analysis is well suited to study causality with different levels of 'omics' data. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Simulation Analyses of Behaviours of Spatially Extended Predator-Prey Systems with Random Fluctuations

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    ISHIKAWA, M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We often observe some kind or another of random fluctuations in physical, chemical and social phenomena to a greater or lesser extent. The analysis of influence of such fluctuations on phenomena is very important as a basic problem in various fields including design and planning of controlled systems in control engineering and analysis of option pricing in economics. In this paper, focusing on biological communities, we study the influence of the random fluctuations on predator-prey systems with diffusion. Noting that interaction of phytoplankton and zooplankton is the basis of a food chain in the lake and the ocean, we consider the two-species predator-prey systems consists of phytoplankton and zooplankton. We analyze the influence of the random fluctuations on the spatio-temporal patterns generated by phytoplankton and zooplankton by the numerical simulations.

  5. Random-matrix-theory approach to mesoscopic fluctuations of heat current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Martin; Kottos, Tsampikos; Shapiro, Boris

    2013-08-01

    We consider an ensemble of fully connected networks of N oscillators coupled harmonically with random springs and show, using random-matrix-theory considerations, that both the average phonon heat current and its variance are scale invariant and take universal values in the large N limit. These anomalous mesoscopic fluctuations is the hallmark of strong correlations between normal modes.

  6. Common-path biodynamic imaging for dynamic fluctuation spectroscopy of 3D living tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Turek, John; Nolte, David D.

    2017-03-01

    Biodynamic imaging is a novel 3D optical imaging technology based on short-coherence digital holography that measures intracellular motions of cells inside their natural microenvironments. Here both common-path and Mach-Zehnder designs are presented. Biological tissues such as tumor spheroids and ex vivo biopsies are used as targets, and backscattered light is collected as signal. Drugs are applied to samples, and their effects are evaluated by identifying biomarkers that capture intracellular dynamics from the reconstructed holograms. Through digital holography and coherence gating, information from different depths of the samples can be extracted, enabling the deep-tissue measurement of the responses to drugs.

  7. Random Matrix Approach to Fluctuations and Scaling in Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, M. S.

    The study of fluctuations, self-similarity and scaling in physical and socioeconomic sciences in the last several years has brought in new insights and new ideas for modelling them. For instance, one of the important empirical results of the market dynamics is that the probability distribution of price returns r in a typical market displays a power-law, i.e, (P|r| > x) ˜ r -α , where α ˜ 3.0 [1]. In fact, this "inverse cube law" is known to hold good for volume of stocks traded in stock exchanges, though the exponent in this case is α ˜ 1.5 [1]. Similar power laws appear for the cumulative frequency distribution of earth quake magnitudes, often called the Gutenberg-Richter relation [2]. Infect, anything from size distribution of cities and wealth distributions, display power law. These apparently universal power laws pertain to the distribution of actual values taken by some quantity of interest, say, a stock market index and these distributions reveal scaling with certain parameters.

  8. A Random Riemannian Metric for Probabilistic Shortest-Path Tractography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Schober, Michael; Liptrot, Matthew George

    2015-01-01

    Shortest-path tractography (SPT) algorithms solve global optimization problems defined from local distance functions. As diffusion MRI data is inherently noisy, so are the voxelwise tensors from which local distances are derived. We extend Riemannian SPT by modeling the stochasticity of the diffu......Shortest-path tractography (SPT) algorithms solve global optimization problems defined from local distance functions. As diffusion MRI data is inherently noisy, so are the voxelwise tensors from which local distances are derived. We extend Riemannian SPT by modeling the stochasticity...

  9. Rapidly Exploring Random Trees Used for Mobile Robots Path Planning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejsa, Jiří; Věchet, S.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2005), s. 231-238 ISSN 1802-1484. [Mechatronics, Robot ics and Biomechanics 2005. Třešť, 26.09.2005-29.09.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : path planning * mobile robot Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robot ics

  10. Lead-position dependent regular oscillations and random fluctuations of conductance in graphene quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Yang, Rui; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Ferry, David K

    2013-02-27

    Quantum interference causes a wavefunction to have sensitive spatial dependence, and this has a significant effect on quantum transport. For example, in a quantum-dot system, the conductance can depend on the lead positions. We investigate, for graphene quantum dots, the conductance variations with the lead positions. Since for graphene the types of boundaries, e.g., zigzag and armchair, can fundamentally affect the quantum transport characteristics, we focus on rectangular graphene quantum dots, for which the effects of boundaries can be systematically studied. For both zigzag and armchair horizontal boundaries, we find that changing the positions of the leads can induce significant conductance variations. Depending on the Fermi energy, the variations can be either regular oscillations or random conductance fluctuations. We develop a physical theory to elucidate the origin of the conductance oscillation/fluctuation patterns. In particular, quantum interference leads to standing-wave-like-patterns in the quantum dot which, in the absence of leads, are regulated by the energy-band structure of the corresponding vertical graphene ribbon. The observed 'coexistence' of regular oscillations and random fluctuations in the conductance can be exploited for the development of graphene-based nanodevices.

  11. Development of analytical model for evaluating temperature fluctuation in coolant. 12. Investigation of stationary random temperature fluctuation characteristics in frequency domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Toshiharu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-03-01

    Thermal striping phenomena characterized by stationary random temperature fluctuations are observed in the region immediately above the core exit of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) due to the interactions of cold sodium flowing out of a control rod (C/R) assembly and hot sodium flowing out of adjacent fuel assemblies (F/As). Therefore the in-vessel components located in the core outlet region, such as upper core structure (UCS), flow guide tube, C/R upper guide tube, etc., must be protected against the stationary random thermal process which might induce high-cycle fatigue. In this study, frequency characteristics of stationary random temperature fluctuations were investigated by the use of the time-series data from parallel impinging jet experiments, TIFFSS-I. (J.P.N.)

  12. A Novel Path Planning for Robots Based on Rapidly-Exploring Random Tree and Particle Swarm Optimizer Algorithm

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    Zhou Feng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A based on Rapidly-exploring Random Tree(RRT and Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO for path planning of the robot is proposed.First the grid method is built to describe the working space of the mobile robot,then the Rapidly-exploring Random Tree algorithm is used to obtain the global navigation path,and the Particle Swarm Optimizer algorithm is adopted to get the better path.Computer experiment results demonstrate that this novel algorithm can plan an optimal path rapidly in a cluttered environment.The successful obstacle avoidance is achieved,and the model is robust and performs reliably.

  13. Quantum Mechanical Enhancement of the Random Dopant Induced Threshold Voltage Fluctuations and Lowering in Sub 0.1 Micron MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenov, Asen; Slavcheva, G.; Brown, A. R.; Davies, J. H.; Saini, Subhash

    1999-01-01

    A detailed study of the influence of quantum effects in the inversion layer on the random dopant induced threshold voltage fluctuations and lowering in sub 0.1 micron MOSFETs has been performed. This has been achieved using a full 3D implementation of the density gradient (DG) formalism incorporated in our previously published 3D 'atomistic' simulation approach. This results in a consistent, fully 3D, quantum mechanical picture which implies not only the vertical inversion layer quantisation but also the lateral confinement effects manifested by current filamentation in the 'valleys' of the random potential fluctuations. We have shown that the net result of including quantum mechanical effects, while considering statistical fluctuations, is an increase in both threshold voltage fluctuations and lowering.

  14. When human walking becomes random walking: fractal analysis and modeling of gait rhythm fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Peng, Chang-K.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Goldberger, Ary L.

    2001-12-01

    We present a random walk, fractal analysis of the stride-to-stride fluctuations in the human gait rhythm. The gait of healthy young adults is scale-free with long-range correlations extending over hundreds of strides. This fractal scaling changes characteristically with maturation in children and older adults and becomes almost completely uncorrelated with certain neurologic diseases. Stochastic modeling of the gait rhythm dynamics, based on transitions between different “neural centers”, reproduces distinctive statistical properties of the gait pattern. By tuning one model parameter, the hopping (transition) range, the model can describe alterations in gait dynamics from childhood to adulthood - including a decrease in the correlation and volatility exponents with maturation.

  15. Random fluctuations of snow accumulation over antarctica and their relation to sea level change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, F.; Testut, L.; Legresy, B. [LEGOS (CNRS-CNES-UPS), Toulouse (France)

    2002-07-01

    Short-term changes in the volume of ice sheets as analyzed by radar altimetry may not be related to long-term climatic change. Indeed, the large relaxation time of an ice sheet induces a low-frequency response to random fluctuations of snow accumulation. However, the time scale of the response is big compared to the average human lifetime and the effect of these random fluctuations on sea level change may be important even if they are not linked to climatic change. In this study, the relaxation time of an ice sheet is expressed with respect to the ice thickness, surface slope and ice velocity. These parameters are deduced from the precise topography derived from the geodetic cycle of the ERS1 radar altimeter. The variance of the induced effect on ice elevation is found to be around 3 m over a 30-year scale and with a maximum of 10 m in Wilkes Land and in the western part of the West Antarctic ice sheet. Near the coast, this effect can mask a climatic signal and thus be critical for altimetric mass balance surveys. The estimated changes in Antarctica's elevation between the Seasat (1978) and ERS (1993) epochs could be explained at least partially by such processes. In terms of sea level change over the 30-year scale, the standard deviation of the induced effect is 8 {+-} 2.8 cm. Finally, we show that the probability of a present-day, induced sea level rise of between 0.5 and 1 mm/year over a 30-year time scale is estimated at 10% {+-} 10%, with coastal areas accounting for half of this signal. (orig.)

  16. A cluster randomized controlled trial of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Neil; Barlow, Alexandra; Wigelsworth, Michael; Lendrum, Ann; Pert, Kirsty; Joyce, Craig; Stephens, Emma; Wo, Lawrence; Squires, Garry; Woods, Kevin; Calam, Rachel; Turner, Alex

    2016-10-01

    This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the efficacy of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies curriculum (PATHS; Kusche & Greenberg, 1994) as a means to improve children's social-emotional competence (assessed via the Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS); Gresham & Elliot, 2008) and mental health outcomes (assessed via the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); Goodman, 1997). Forty-five schools in Greater Manchester, England, were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Allocation was balanced by proportions of children eligible for free school meals and speaking English as an additional language via minimization. Children (N=4516) aged 7-9years at baseline in the participating schools were the target cohort. During the two-year trial period, teachers of this cohort in schools allocated to the intervention group delivered the PATHS curriculum, while their counterparts in the control group continued their usual provision. Teachers in PATHS schools received initial training and on-going support and assistance from trained coaches. Hierarchical linear modeling of outcome data was undertaken to identify both primary (e.g., for all children) and secondary (e.g., for children classified as "at-risk") intervention effects. A primary effect of the PATHS curriculum was found, demonstrating increases in teacher ratings of changes in children's social-emotional competence. Additionally, secondary effects of PATHS were identified, showing reductions in teacher ratings of emotional symptoms and increases in pro-social behavior and child ratings of engagement among children identified as at-risk at baseline. However, our analyses also identified primary effects favoring the usual provision group, showing reductions in teacher ratings of peer problems and emotional symptoms, and secondary effects demonstrating reductions in teacher ratings of conduct problems and child ratings of co-operation among at-risk children. Effect sizes were small

  17. Transverse eV Ion Heating by Random Electric Field Fluctuations in the Plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O. V.; Blum, L.

    2017-01-01

    Charged particle acceleration in the Earth inner magnetosphere is believed to be mainly due to the local resonant wave-particle interaction or particle transport processes. However, the Van Allen Probes have recently provided interesting evidence of a relatively slow transverse heating of eV ions at distances about 2-3 Earth radii during quiet times. Waves that are able to resonantly interact with such very cold ions are generally rare in this region of space, called the plasmasphere. Thus, non-resonant wave-particle interactions are expected to play an important role in the observed ion heating. We demonstrate that stochastic heating by random transverse electric field fluctuations of whistler (and possibly electromagnetic ion cyclotron) waves could explain this weak and slow transverse heating of H+ and O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere. The essential element of the proposed model of ion heating is the presence of trains of random whistler (hiss) wave packets, with significant amplitude modulations produced by strong wave damping, rapid wave growth, or a superposition of wave packets of different frequencies, phases, and amplitudes. Such characteristics correspond to measured characteristics of hiss waves in this region. Using test particle simulations with typical wave and plasma parameters, we demonstrate that the corresponding stochastic transverse ion heating reaches 0.07-0.2 eV/h for protons and 0.007-0.015 eV/h for O+ ions. This global temperature increase of the Maxwellian ion population from an initial Ti approx. 0.3 eV could potentially explain the observations.

  18. Transverse eV ion heating by random electric field fluctuations in the plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O. V.; Blum, L.

    2017-02-01

    Charged particle acceleration in the Earth inner magnetosphere is believed to be mainly due to the local resonant wave-particle interaction or particle transport processes. However, the Van Allen Probes have recently provided interesting evidence of a relatively slow transverse heating of eV ions at distances about 2-3 Earth radii during quiet times. Waves that are able to resonantly interact with such very cold ions are generally rare in this region of space, called the plasmasphere. Thus, non-resonant wave-particle interactions are expected to play an important role in the observed ion heating. We demonstrate that stochastic heating by random transverse electric field fluctuations of whistler (and possibly electromagnetic ion cyclotron) waves could explain this weak and slow transverse heating of H+ and O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere. The essential element of the proposed model of ion heating is the presence of trains of random whistler (hiss) wave packets, with significant amplitude modulations produced by strong wave damping, rapid wave growth, or a superposition of wave packets of different frequencies, phases, and amplitudes. Such characteristics correspond to measured characteristics of hiss waves in this region. Using test particle simulations with typical wave and plasma parameters, we demonstrate that the corresponding stochastic transverse ion heating reaches 0.07-0.2 eV/h for protons and 0.007-0.015 eV/h for O+ ions. This global temperature increase of the Maxwellian ion population from an initial Ti˜0.3 eV could potentially explain the observations.

  19. Can log-periodic power law structures arise from random fluctuations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnitza, Jan Henrik; Leker, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Recent research has established log-periodic power law (LPPL) patterns prior to the detonation of the German stock index (DAX) bubble in 1998. The purpose of this article is to explore whether a Langevin equation extracted from real world data can generate synthetic time series with comparable LPPL structures. To this end, we first estimate the stochastic process underlying the DAX log-returns during the period from mid-1997 until end-2003. The employed data set contains about 3.93ṡ106 intraday DAX quotes at a sampling rate of 15 s. Our results indicate that the DAX log-returns can be described as a Markov process. As a consequence, a Langevin equation is derived. Based on this model equation, we run extensive simulations in order to generate 100 synthetic DAX trajectories each covering 3000 trading days. We find LPPL behavior in ten artificial time series. Moreover, we can establish a link between LPPL patterns and ensuing bubble bursts in seven synthetic 600-week windows. However, the LPPL components in most synthetic trajectories differ fundamentally from those LPPL structures that have previously been detected in real financial time series. Summarized, this paper demonstrates that LPPL structures are not necessarily the signature of imitative behavior among investors but can also stem from noise, even though the likelihood of this is extremely low. Thus, our findings confirm with high statistical confidence that the LPPL structures in the DAX development are rooted deeper than only in the random fluctuations of the German stock market.

  20. A Novel Randomized Search Technique for Multiple Mobile Robot Paths Planning In Repetitive Dynamic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Behravesh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Presented article is studying the issue of path navigating for numerous robots. Our presented approach is based on both priority and the robust method for path finding in repetitive dynamic. Presented model can be generally implementable and useable: We do not assume any restriction regarding the quantity of levels of freedom for robots, and robots of diverse kinds can be applied at the same time. We proposed a random method and hill-climbing technique in the area based on precedence plans, which is used to determine a solution to a given trajectory planning problem and to make less the extent of total track. Our method plans trajectories for particular robots in the setting-time scope. Therefore, in order to specifying the interval of constant objects similar to other robots and the extent of the tracks which is traversed. For measuring the hazard for robots to conflict with each other it applied a method based on probability of the movements of robots. This algorithm applied to real robots with successful results. The proposed method performed and judged on both real robots and in simulation. We performed sequence of100tests with 8 robots for comparing with coordination method and current performances are effective. However, maximizing the performance is still possible. These performances estimations performed on Windows operating system and 3GHz Intel Pentium IV with and compiles with GCC 3.4. We used our PCGA robot for all experiments.  For a large environment of 19×15m2where we accomplished 40tests, our model is competent to plan high-quality paths in a severely short time (less than a second. Moreover, this article utilized lookup tables to keep expenses the formerly navigated robots made, increasing the number of robots don’t expand computation time.

  1. A Robust on-Demand Path-Key Establishment Framework via Random Key Predistribution for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Weili

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Secure communication is a necessity for some wireless sensor network (WSN applications. However, the resource constraints of a sensor render existing cryptographic systems for traditional network systems impractical for a WSN. Random key predistribution scheme has been proposed to overcome these limits. In this scheme, a ring of keys is randomly drawn from a large key pool and assigned to a sensor. Nodes sharing common keys can communicate securely using a shared key, while a path-key is established for those nodes that do not share any common keys. This scheme requires moderate memory and processing power, thus it is considered suitable for WSN applications. However, since the shared key is not exclusively owned by the two end entities, the established path-key may be revealed to other nodes just by eavesdropping. Based on the random-key predistribution scheme, we present a framework that utilizes multiple proxies to secure the path-key establishment. Our scheme is resilient against node capture, collusive attack, and random dropping, while only incurring a small amount of overhead. Furthermore, the scheme ensures that, with high probability, all path-keys are exclusively known by the two end nodes involved in the communication along the path.

  2. Path-integral virial estimator based on the scaling of fluctuation coordinates: application to quantum clusters with fourth-order propagators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takeshi M

    2005-09-08

    We first show that a simple scaling of fluctuation coordinates defined in terms of a given reference point gives the conventional virial estimator in discretized path integral, where different choices of the reference point lead to different forms of the estimator (e.g., centroid virial). The merit of this procedure is that it allows a finite-difference evaluation of the virial estimator with respect to temperature, which totally avoids the need of higher-order potential derivatives. We apply this procedure to energy and heat-capacity calculations of the (H(2))(22) and Ne(13) clusters at low temperature using the fourth-order Takahashi-Imada [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 53, 3765 (1984)] and Suzuki [Phys. Lett. A 201, 425 (1995)] propagators. This type of calculation requires up to third-order potential derivatives if analytical virial estimators are used, but in practice only first-order derivatives suffice by virtue of the finite-difference scheme above. From the application to quantum clusters, we find that the fourth-order propagators do improve upon the primitive approximation, and that the choice of the reference point plays a vital role in reducing the variance of the virial estimator.

  3. Double, Rydberg and charge transfer excitations from pairing matrix fluctuation and particle-particle random phase approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Aggelen, Helen van [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Yang, Weitao, E-mail: weitao.yang@duke.edu [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2013-12-14

    Double, Rydberg, and charge transfer (CT) excitations have been great challenges for time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Starting from an (N ± 2)-electron single-determinant reference, we investigate excitations for the N-electron system through the pairing matrix fluctuation, which contains information on two-electron addition/removal processes. We adopt the particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) and the particle-particle Tamm-Dancoff approximation (pp-TDA) to approximate the pairing matrix fluctuation and then determine excitation energies by the differences of two-electron addition/removal energies. This approach captures all types of interesting excitations: single and double excitations are described accurately, Rydberg excitations are in good agreement with experimental data and CT excitations display correct 1/R dependence. Furthermore, the pp-RPA and the pp-TDA have a computational cost similar to TDDFT and consequently are promising for practical calculations.

  4. Beamforming in sparse, random, 3D array antennas with fluctuating element locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Lager, Ioan E.; Bosma, Sjoerd; Bruinsma, Wessel P.; Hes, Robin P.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the fluctuations in the locations of elementary radiators on the radiation properties of three dimensional(3D) array antennas is studied. The principal radiation features (sidelobes level, beam squint) are examined based on illustrative examples. Some atypical behaviours, that are

  5. Quantum random number generator based on quantum nature of vacuum fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, A. E.; Chivilikhin, S. A.; Gleim, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Quantum random number generator (QRNG) allows obtaining true random bit sequences. In QRNG based on quantum nature of vacuum, optical beam splitter with two inputs and two outputs is normally used. We compare mathematical descriptions of spatial beam splitter and fiber Y-splitter in the quantum model for QRNG, based on homodyne detection. These descriptions were identical, that allows to use fiber Y-splitters in practical QRNG schemes, simplifying the setup. Also we receive relations between the input radiation and the resulting differential current in homodyne detector. We experimentally demonstrate possibility of true random bits generation by using QRNG based on homodyne detection with Y-splitter.

  6. Inertial-particle dynamics in turbulent flows: caustics, concentration fluctuations and random uncorrelated motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, K.; Meneguz, E.; Reeks, M.; Mehlig, B.

    2012-11-01

    We have performed numerical simulations of inertial particles in random model flows in the white-noise limit (at zero Kubo number, Ku = 0) and at finite Kubo numbers. Our results for the moments of relative inertial-particle velocities are in good agreement with recent theoretical results (Gustavsson and Mehlig 2011a) based on the formation of phase-space singularities in the inertial-particle dynamics (caustics). We discuss the relation between three recent approaches describing the dynamics and spatial distribution of inertial particles suspended in turbulent flows: caustic formation, real-space singularities of the deformation tensor and random uncorrelated motion. We discuss how the phase- and real-space singularities are related. Their formation is well understood in terms of a local theory. We summarise the implications for random uncorrelated motion.

  7. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from random media with strong permittivity fluctuations. [with application to atmospheric turbulence effects on microwave remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, L.; Kong, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    By taking into account the singularity of the dyadic Green's function in the renormalization method, a theory is derived for vector electromagnetic wave propagation in a random medium with large permittivity fluctuations and with anisotropic correlation function. The strong fluctuation theory is then applied to a discrete scatterer problem in which the permittivity can assume only two values. The results are found to be consistent with those derived from discrete scatterer theory for all values of dielectric constants of the scatterers.

  8. Photodissociation in quantum chaotic systems: Random-matrix theory of cross-section fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyodorov, Y.V. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet-GH Essen, D-45117 Essen (Germany); Alhassid, Y. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Using the random matrix description of open quantum chaotic systems we calculate in closed form the universal autocorrelation function and the probability distribution of the total photodissociation cross section in the regime of quantum chaos. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Experimental validation of the stochastic model of a randomly fluctuating transmission-line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sy, O.O.; Vaessen, J.A.H.M.; Beurden, M.C. van; Michielsen, B.L.; Tijhuis, A.G.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.; Groot, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    A modeling method is proposed to quantify uncertainties affecting electromagnetic interactions. This method considers the uncertainties as random and measures them thanks to probability theory. A practical application is considered through the case of a transmission-line of varying geometry,

  10. Ultrasonic thermometry simulation in a random fluctuating medium: Evidence of the acoustic signature of a one-percent temperature difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaso, M; Moysan, J; Benjeddou, S; Massacret, N; Ploix, M A; Komatitsch, D; Lhuillier, C

    2016-05-01

    We study the development potential of ultrasonic thermometry in a liquid fluctuating sodium environment similar to that present in a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor, and thus investigate if and how ultrasonic thermometry could be used to monitor the sodium flow at the outlet of the reactor core. In particular we study if small temperature variations in the sodium flow of e.g. about 1% of the sodium temperature, i.e., about 5°C, can have a reliably-measurable acoustic signature. Since to our knowledge no experimental setups are available for such a study, and considering the practical difficulties of experimentation in sodium, we resort to a numerical technique for full wave propagation called the spectral-element method, which is a highly accurate finite-element method owing to the high-degree basis functions it uses. We obtain clear time-of-flight variations in the case of a small temperature difference of one percent in the case of a static temperature gradient as well as in the presence of a random fluctuation of the temperature field in the turbulent flow. The numerical simulations underline the potential of ultrasonic thermometry in such a context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Combined Effect of Random Transmit Power Control and Inter-Path Interference Cancellation on DS-CDMA Packet Mobile Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudoh, Eisuke; Ito, Haruki; Wang, Zhisen; Adachi, Fumiyuki

    In mobile communication systems, high speed packet data services are demanded. In the high speed data transmission, throughput degrades severely due to severe inter-path interference (IPI). Recently, we proposed a random transmit power control (TPC) to increase the uplink throughput of DS-CDMA packet mobile communications. In this paper, we apply IPI cancellation in addition to the random TPC. We derive the numerical expression of the received signal-to-interference plus noise power ratio (SINR) and introduce IPI cancellation factor. We also derive the numerical expression of system throughput when IPI is cancelled ideally to compare with the Monte Carlo numerically evaluated system throughput. Then we evaluate, by Monte-Carlo numerical computation method, the combined effect of random TPC and IPI cancellation on the uplink throughput of DS-CDMA packet mobile communications.

  12. Open Quantum Random Walks on the Half-Line: The Karlin-McGregor Formula, Path Counting and Foster's Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacq, Thomas S.; Lardizabal, Carlos F.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we consider open quantum random walks on the non-negative integers. By considering orthogonal matrix polynomials we are able to describe transition probability expressions for classes of walks via a matrix version of the Karlin-McGregor formula. We focus on absorbing boundary conditions and, for simpler classes of examples, we consider path counting and the corresponding combinatorial tools. A non-commutative version of the gambler's ruin is studied by obtaining the probability of reaching a certain fortune and the mean time to reach a fortune or ruin in terms of generating functions. In the case of the Hadamard coin, a counting technique for boundary restricted paths in a lattice is also presented. We discuss an open quantum version of Foster's Theorem for the expected return time together with applications.

  13. Open Quantum Random Walks on the Half-Line: The Karlin-McGregor Formula, Path Counting and Foster's Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacq, Thomas S.; Lardizabal, Carlos F.

    2017-11-01

    In this work we consider open quantum random walks on the non-negative integers. By considering orthogonal matrix polynomials we are able to describe transition probability expressions for classes of walks via a matrix version of the Karlin-McGregor formula. We focus on absorbing boundary conditions and, for simpler classes of examples, we consider path counting and the corresponding combinatorial tools. A non-commutative version of the gambler's ruin is studied by obtaining the probability of reaching a certain fortune and the mean time to reach a fortune or ruin in terms of generating functions. In the case of the Hadamard coin, a counting technique for boundary restricted paths in a lattice is also presented. We discuss an open quantum version of Foster's Theorem for the expected return time together with applications.

  14. Complete coverage path planning of a random polygon - A FroboMind component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslund, Sebastian; Jensen, Kjeld; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    solution where all the steps in the process is included: Segmentation of a data set, creation of a configuration space, decomposition of a polygon, global and local path planning. To achieve this, a series of known algorithms are used including some tweaks and improvements to create a solid foundation...

  15. Harmonic functions on multiplicative graphs and inverse Pitman transform on infinite random paths

    OpenAIRE

    Lecouvey, Cédric; Lesigne, Emmanuel; Peigné, Marc

    2014-01-01

    27 pages, minor corrections and a simpler definition of the Pitman inverse.; We introduce and characterize central probability distributions on Littelmann paths. Next we establish a law of large numbers and a central limit theorem for the generalized Pitmann transform. We then study harmonic functions on multiplicative graphs defined from the tensor powers of finite-dimensional Lie algebras representations. Finally, we show there exists an inverse of the generalized Pitman transform defined a...

  16. Application of strong fluctuation random medium theory to scattering of electromagnetic waves from a half-space of dielectric mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, L.; Newton, R. W.; Kong, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The strong fluctuation random medium theory is applied to calculate scattering from a half-space of dielectric mixture. The first and second moments of the fields are calculated, respectively, by using the bilocal and the distorted Born approximations, and the low frequency limit is taken. The singularity of the dyadic Green's function is taken into account. Expressions for the effective permittivity for the full space case are derived. It is shown that the derived result of the effect permittivity is identical to that of the Polder and van Santern mixing formula. The correlation function of the random medium is obtained by using simple physical arguments and is expressed in terms of the fractional volumes and particle sizes of the constituents of the mixture. Backscattering coefficients of a half-space dielectric mixture are also calculated. Numerical results of the effective permittivity and backscattering coefficients are illustrated using typical parameters encountered in microwave remote sensing of dry and wet snow. It is also shown that experimental data can be matched with the theory by using physical parameters of the medium as obtained from ground truth measurements.

  17. Random shortest paths: non-euclidean instances for metric optimization problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bringmann, Karl; Engels, Christian; Manthey, Bodo; Rao, B.V. Raghavendra; Chatterjee, K.; Sgall, J.

    2013-01-01

    Probabilistic analysis for metric optimization problems has mostly been conducted on random Euclidean instances, but little is known about metric instances drawn from distributions other than the Euclidean. This motivates our study of random metric instances for optimization problems obtained as

  18. Random Shortest Paths: Non-Euclidean Instances for Metric Optimization Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bringmann, Karl; Engels, Christian; Manthey, Bodo; Rao, B.V. Raghavendra

    Probabilistic analysis for metric optimization problems has mostly been conducted on random Euclidean instances, but little is known about metric instances drawn from distributions other than the Euclidean. This motivates our study of random metric instances for optimization problems obtained as

  19. Interwell Radiative Recombination in the Presence of Random Potential Fluctuations in GaAs/AlGaAs Biased Double Quantum Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timofeev, V.B.; Larionov, A.V.; Ioselevich, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The interwell luminescence (PL) of spatially separated e-h pairs exhibits systematic narrowing with temperature increase which are explained in terms of lateral thermo-activated tunneling of e-h pairs localized by random potential fluctuations (RPF). At critical temperatures the quasi-equilibrium...

  20. Opicapone as Adjunct to Levodopa Therapy in Patients With Parkinson Disease and Motor Fluctuations: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Andrew J; Ferreira, Joaquim; Rascol, Olivier; Poewe, Werner; Rocha, José-Francisco; McCrory, Michelle; Soares-da-Silva, Patricio

    2017-02-01

    Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors are an established treatment for end-of-dose motor fluctuations associated with levodopa therapy in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Current COMT inhibitors carry a high risk for toxic effects to hepatic cells or show moderate improvement. Opicapone was designed to be effective without the adverse effects. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 25- and 50-mg/d dosages of opicapone compared with placebo as adjunct to levodopa therapy in patients with PD experiencing end-of-dose motor fluctuations. This phase 3 international, multicenter outpatient study evaluated a 25- and a 50-mg/d dosage of opicapone in a randomized, double-blind, 14- to 15-week, placebo-controlled clinical trial, followed by a 1-year open-label phase during which all patients received active treatment with opicapone. Patients with PD who experienced signs of end-of-dose deterioration and had a mean total awake off-time (state of akinesia or decreased mobility) of at least 1.5 hours, not including morning akinesia, were enrolled. Data were collected from March 18, 2011, through June 25, 2013. Data from the evaluable population were analyzed from July 31, 2013, to July 31, 2014. The primary efficacy outcome of the double-blind phase was the change from baseline in absolute off-time vs placebo based on patient diaries. The open-label phase focused on maintenance of treatment effect in off-time. A total of 427 patients (258 men [60.4%] and 169 women [39.6%]; mean [SD] age, 63.1 [8.8] years) were randomized to a 25-mg/d (n = 129) or a 50-mg/d (n = 154) dosage of opicapone or to placebo (n = 144). Of these, 376 patients completed the double-blind phase and entered the open-label phase, of whom 286 completed 1 year of open-label treatment. At the end of the double-blind phase, the least squares mean change (SE) in off-time was -64.5 (14.4) minutes for the placebo group, -101.7 (14.9) minutes for the 25-mg/d opicapone group, and -118.8

  1. New Design of Mobile Robot Path Planning with Randomly Moving Obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Salih

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The navigation of a mobile robot in an unknown environment has always been a very challenging task. In order to achieve safe and autonomous navigation, the mobile robot needs to sense the surrounding environment and plans a collision-free path. This paper focuses on designing and implementing a mobile robot which has the ability of navigating smoothly in an unknown environment, avoiding collisions, without having to stop in front of obstacles, detecting leakage of combustible gases and transmitting a message of detection results to the civil defense unit automatically through the Internet to the E-mail. This design uses the implementation of artificial neural network (ANN on a new technology represented by Field Programmable Analog Array (FPAA for controlling the motion of the robot. The robot with the proposed controller is tested and has completed the required objective successfully.

  2. Strong fluctuation theory for electromagnetic wave scattering by a layer of random discrete scatterers. [in microwave remote sensing of snow fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y. Q.; Kong, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The strong fluctuation theory is applied to the study of electromagnetic wave scattering from a layer of random discrete scatterers. The singularity of the dyadic Green's function is taken into account in the calculation of the effective permittivity functions. The correlation functions for the random medium with different scatterer constituents and size distributions are derived. Applying the dyadic Green's function for a two-layer medium and using the bilocal and distorted Born approximations, the first and the second moments of the fields are then calculated. Both the backscattering and bistatic scattering coefficients are obtained, and the former is shown to match favorably with experimental data obtained from snow fields.

  3. Fluctuation-Induced Pattern Formation in a Surface Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Jens; Reichert, Christian; Eiswirth, Markus

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous nucleation, pulse formation, and propagation failure have been observed experimentally in CO oxidation on Pt(110) at intermediate pressures ($\\approx 10^{-2}$mbar). This phenomenon can be reproduced with a stochastic model which includes temperature effects. Nucleation occurs randomly...... due to fluctuations in the reaction processes, whereas the subsequent damping out essentially follows the deterministic path. Conditions for the occurence of stochastic effects in the pattern formation during CO oxidation on Pt are discussed....

  4. Reaction rates when barriers fluctuate

    OpenAIRE

    Reimann, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Reaction rates when barriers fluctuate : a path integral approach / P. Hänggi and P. Reimann. - In: International Conference on Path Integrals from peV to TeV : Proceedings of the ... / eds.: R. Casalbuoni ... - Singapore u.a. : World Scientific, 1999. - S. 407-409

  5. Evolutionary Paths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assche, van K.; Beunen, R.; Duineveld, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss the concept of governance paths and the forms of dependency marking paths. The forms of dependency constitute rigidities in governance evolution, but leave space for flexibility, for path creation.

  6. Maximum Likelihood Deconvolution of Beamformed Images with Signal-Dependent Speckle Fluctuations from Gaussian Random Fields: With Application to Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita D. Jain

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wide area acoustic remote sensing often involves the use of coherent receiver arrays to determine the spatial distribution of sources and scatterers at any instant. The resulting acoustic intensity images are typically corrupted by signal-dependent noise from Gaussian random field fluctuations arising from the central limit theorem and have a spatial resolution that depends on the incident direction, sensing array aperture and wavelength. Here, we use the maximum likelihood method to deconvolve the intensity distribution measured on a coherent line array assuming a discrete angular distribution of incident plane waves. Instantaneous wide area population density images of fish aggregations measured with Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS are deconvolved to illustrate the effectiveness of this approach in improving angular resolution over conventional planewave beamforming.

  7. On horizontal coherence estimates from path integral theory for sound propagation through random ocean sound-speed perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosi, John A

    2013-10-01

    Previously published results from path integral theory for the horizontal coherence length utilized an empirical relation for the phase structure function density that was quite different from path integral results obtained for depth and time coherence where the phase structure function density was expanded to second order in the lag. This letter presents a result for horizontal coherence length which carries out the quadratic expansion and analytically solves the integral equations. Some simple calculations of horizontal coherence length demonstrate the differences between the present and old expressions. In contrast to the empirical result the present expression shows the expected one over square-root range and one over frequency scalings. The results also show more clearly how transverse coherence is sensitive to the space-time scales of internal waves and other environmental parameters.

  8. Sample-to-sample fluctuations of power spectrum of a random motion in a periodic Sinai model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David S.; Iorio, Antonio; Marinari, Enzo; Oshanin, Gleb

    2016-09-01

    The Sinai model of a tracer diffusing in a quenched Brownian potential is a much-studied problem exhibiting a logarithmically slow anomalous diffusion due to the growth of energy barriers with the system size. However, if the potential is random but periodic, the regime of anomalous diffusion crosses over to one of normal diffusion once a tracer has diffused over a few periods of the system. Here we consider a system in which the potential is given by a Brownian bridge on a finite interval (0 ,L ) and then periodically repeated over the whole real line and study the power spectrum S (f ) of the diffusive process x (t ) in such a potential. We show that for most of realizations of x (t ) in a given realization of the potential, the low-frequency behavior is S (f ) ˜A /f2 , i.e., the same as for standard Brownian motion, and the amplitude A is a disorder-dependent random variable with a finite support. Focusing on the statistical properties of this random variable, we determine the moments of A of arbitrary, negative, or positive order k and demonstrate that they exhibit a multifractal dependence on k and a rather unusual dependence on the temperature and on the periodicity L , which are supported by atypical realizations of the periodic disorder. We finally show that the distribution of A has a log-normal left tail and exhibits an essential singularity close to the right edge of the support, which is related to the Lifshitz singularity. Our findings are based both on analytic results and on extensive numerical simulations of the process x (t ) .

  9. Path Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Setterfield

    2015-01-01

    Path dependency is defined, and three different specific concepts of path dependency – cumulative causation, lock in, and hysteresis – are analyzed. The relationships between path dependency and equilibrium, and path dependency and fundamental uncertainty are also discussed. Finally, a typology of dynamical systems is developed to clarify these relationships.

  10. a-SiNx:H-based ultra-low power resistive random access memory with tunable Si dangling bond conduction paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaofan; Ma, Zhongyuan; Xu, Jun; Chen, Kunji; Xu, Ling; Li, Wei; Huang, Xinfan; Feng, Duan

    2015-10-01

    The realization of ultra-low power Si-based resistive switching memory technology will be a milestone in the development of next generation non-volatile memory. Here we show that a high performance and ultra-low power resistive random access memory (RRAM) based on an Al/a-SiNx:H/p+-Si structure can be achieved by tuning the Si dangling bond conduction paths. We reveal the intrinsic relationship between the Si dangling bonds and the N/Si ratio x for the a-SiNx:H films, which ensures that the programming current can be reduced to less than 1 μA by increasing the value of x. Theoretically calculated current-voltage (I-V ) curves combined with the temperature dependence of the I-V characteristics confirm that, for the low-resistance state (LRS), the Si dangling bond conduction paths obey the trap-assisted tunneling model. In the high-resistance state (HRS), conduction is dominated by either hopping or Poole-Frenkel (P-F) processes. Our introduction of hydrogen in the a-SiNx:H layer provides a new way to control the Si dangling bond conduction paths, and thus opens up a research field for ultra-low power Si-based RRAM.

  11. A Random Walk Down University Avenue: Life Paths, Life Events, and Personality Trait Change at the Transition to University Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke, Oliver; Roberts, Brent W.; Trautwein, Ulrich; Nagy, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relation between continuity and change in the Big Five personality traits and life events. Approximately 2,000 German students were tracked from high school to university or to vocational training or work, with 3 assessments over 4 years. Life events were reported retrospectively at the 2nd and 3rd assessment. Latent curve analyses were used to assess change in personality traits, revealing 3 main findings. First, mean-level changes in the Big Five factors over the 4 years were in line with the maturity principle, indicating increasing psychological maturity from adolescence to young adulthood. Second, personality development was characterized by substantive individual differences relating to the life path followed; participants on a more vocationally oriented path showed higher increases in conscientiousness and lower increases in agreeableness than their peers at university. Third, initial level and change in the Big Five factors (especially Neuroticism and Extraversion) were linked to the occurrence of aggregated as well as single positive and negative life events. The analyses suggest that individual differences in personality development are associated with life transitions and individual life experiences. PMID:21744977

  12. Fluctuating Selection in the Moran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Antony M; Lehman, Clarence; Yi, Xiao

    2017-03-01

    Contrary to classical population genetics theory, experiments demonstrate that fluctuating selection can protect a haploid polymorphism in the absence of frequency dependent effects on fitness. Using forward simulations with the Moran model, we confirm our analytical results showing that a fluctuating selection regime, with a mean selection coefficient of zero, promotes polymorphism. We find that increases in heterozygosity over neutral expectations are especially pronounced when fluctuations are rapid, mutation is weak, the population size is large, and the variance in selection is big. Lowering the frequency of fluctuations makes selection more directional, and so heterozygosity declines. We also show that fluctuating selection raises dn /ds ratios for polymorphism, not only by sweeping selected alleles into the population, but also by purging the neutral variants of selected alleles as they undergo repeated bottlenecks. Our analysis shows that randomly fluctuating selection increases the rate of evolution by increasing the probability of fixation. The impact is especially noticeable when the selection is strong and mutation is weak. Simulations show the increase in the rate of evolution declines as the rate of new mutations entering the population increases, an effect attributable to clonal interference. Intriguingly, fluctuating selection increases the dn /ds ratios for divergence more than for polymorphism, a pattern commonly seen in comparative genomics. Our model, which extends the classical neutral model of molecular evolution by incorporating random fluctuations in selection, accommodates a wide variety of observations, both neutral and selected, with economy. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  13. Gambling with Superconducting Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, Marek; Zgirski, Maciej

    2015-08-01

    Josephson junctions and superconducting nanowires, when biased close to superconducting critical current, can switch to a nonzero voltage state by thermal or quantum fluctuations. The process is understood as an escape of a Brownian particle from a metastable state. Since this effect is fully stochastic, we propose to use it for generating random numbers. We present protocol for obtaining random numbers and test the experimentally harvested data for their fidelity. Our work is prerequisite for using the Josephson junction as a tool for stochastic (probabilistic) determination of physical parameters such as magnetic flux, temperature, and current.

  14. Molecular evolution under fitness fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Ville; Lässig, Michael

    2008-03-14

    Molecular evolution is a stochastic process governed by fitness, mutations, and reproductive fluctuations in a population. Here, we study evolution where fitness itself is stochastic, with random switches in the direction of selection at individual genomic loci. As the correlation time of these fluctuations becomes larger than the diffusion time of mutations within the population, fitness changes from an annealed to a quenched random variable. We show that the rate of evolution has its maximum in the crossover regime, where both time scales are comparable. Adaptive evolution emerges in the quenched fitness regime (evidence for such fitness fluctuations has recently been found in genomic data). The joint statistical theory of reproductive and fitness fluctuations establishes a conceptual connection between evolutionary genetics and statistical physics of disordered systems.

  15. Pairing fluctuations in trapped Fermi gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Georg Morten; Minguzzi, Anna; Rosario, F.

    2004-01-01

    A0530F- Fermion-systems-and-electron-gas-quantum-statistical-mechanics; A0540-Fluctuation-phenomena-random-processes-and-Brownian-motion......A0530F- Fermion-systems-and-electron-gas-quantum-statistical-mechanics; A0540-Fluctuation-phenomena-random-processes-and-Brownian-motion...

  16. The Origin of the Density Fluctuations in De Sitter Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, M.

    1987-05-01

    As the origin of the large scale structure in the universe, statistical fluctuations of a c-number scalar field are evaluated on the basis of the double time-contour path integral method. The source of the fluctuation is a backreaction of spontaneous particle production in de Sitter space. The evaluated fluctuations are quite different from the ordinary quantum fluctuations and are proportional to the particle production rate.

  17. Gaussian fluctuations in chaotic eigenstates

    CERN Document Server

    Srednicki, M A; Srednicki, Mark; Stiernelof, Frank

    1996-01-01

    We study the fluctuations that are predicted in the autocorrelation function of an energy eigenstate of a chaotic, two-dimensional billiard by the conjecture (due to Berry) that the eigenfunction is a gaussian random variable. We find an explicit formula for the root-mean-square amplitude of the expected fluctuations in the autocorrelation function. These fluctuations turn out to be O(\\hbar^{1/2}) in the small \\hbar (high energy) limit. For comparison, any corrections due to scars from isolated periodic orbits would also be O(\\hbar^{1/2}). The fluctuations take on a particularly simple form if the autocorrelation function is averaged over the direction of the separation vector. We compare our various predictions with recent numerical computations of Li and Robnik for the Robnik billiard, and find good agreement. We indicate how our results generalize to higher dimensions.

  18. Path Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    Begrebet Path Dependence blev oprindelig udviklet inden for New Institutionel Economics af bl.a. David, Arthur og North. Begrebet har spredt sig vidt i samfundsvidenskaberne og undergået en udvikling. Dette paper propagerer for at der er sket så en så omfattende udvikling af begrebet, at man nu kan...... tale om 1. og 2. generation af Path Dependence begrebet. Den nyeste udvikling af begrebet har relevans for metodologi-diskusionerne i relation til Keynes...

  19. Analysis of the Dynamic Evolutionary Behavior of American Heating Oil Spot and Futures Price Fluctuation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Heating oil is an extremely important heating fuel to consumers in northeastern United States. This paper studies the fluctuations law and dynamic behavior of heating oil spot and futures prices by setting up their complex network models based on the data of America in recent 30 years. Firstly, modes are defined by the method of coarse graining, the spot price fluctuation network of heating oil (HSPFN and its futures price fluctuation network (HFPFN in different periods are established to analyze the transformation characteristics between the modes. Secondly, several indicators are investigated: average path length, node strength and strength distribution, betweeness, etc. In addition, a function is established to measure and analyze the network similarity. The results show the cumulative time of new nodes appearing in either spot or futures price network is not random but exhibits a growth trend of straight line. Meanwhile, the power law distributions of spot and futures price fluctuations in different periods present regularity and complexity. Moreover, these prices are strongly correlated in stable fluctuation period but weak in the phase of sharp fluctuation. Finally, the time distribution characteristics of important modes in the networks and the evolution results of the topological properties mentioned above are obtained.

  20. Generalized entropy production fluctuation theorems for quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 80; Issue 2. Generalized entropy ... Based on trajectory-dependent path probability formalism in state space, we derive generalized entropy production fluctuation relations for a quantum system in the presence of measurement and feedback. We have obtained these ...

  1. Path Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnøe, Peter; Garud, Raghu

    2012-01-01

    . Competencies emerged through processes and mechanisms such as co-creation that implicated multiple learning processes. The process was not an orderly linear one as emergent contingencies influenced the learning processes. An implication is that public policy to catalyse clusters cannot be based......This paper employs path creation as a lens to follow the emergence of the Danish wind turbine cluster. Supplier competencies, regulations, user preferences and a market for wind power did not pre-exist; all had to emerge in a tranformative manner involving multiple actors and artefacts...

  2. Modeling fluctuations in scattered waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jakeman, E

    2006-01-01

    Fluctuations in scattered waves limit the performance of imaging and remote sensing systems that operate on all wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. To better understand these fluctuations, Modeling Fluctuations in Scattered Waves provides a practical guide to the phenomenology, mathematics, and simulation of non-Gaussian noise models and discusses how they can be used to characterize the statistics of scattered waves.Through their discussion of mathematical models, the authors demonstrate the development of new sensing techniques as well as offer intelligent choices that can be made for system analysis. Using experimental results and numerical simulation, the book illustrates the properties and applications of these models. The first two chapters introduce statistical tools and the properties of Gaussian noise, including results on phase statistics. The following chapters describe Gaussian processes and the random walk model, address multiple scattering effects and propagation through an extended med...

  3. Random cascade model in the limit of infinite integral scale as the exponential of a nonstationary 1/f noise: Application to volatility fluctuations in stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzy, Jean-François; Baïle, Rachel; Bacry, Emmanuel

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we propose a new model for volatility fluctuations in financial time series. This model relies on a nonstationary Gaussian process that exhibits aging behavior. It turns out that its properties, over any finite time interval, are very close to continuous cascade models. These latter models are indeed well known to reproduce faithfully the main stylized facts of financial time series. However, it involves a large-scale parameter (the so-called “integral scale” where the cascade is initiated) that is hard to interpret in finance. Moreover, the empirical value of the integral scale is in general deeply correlated to the overall length of the sample. This feature is precisely predicted by our model, which, as illustrated by various examples from daily stock index data, quantitatively reproduces the empirical observations.

  4. Stochastic and information-thermodynamic structures of population dynamics in a fluctuating environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.; Sughiyama, Yuki

    2017-07-01

    Adaptation in a fluctuating environment is a process of fueling environmental information to gain fitness. Living systems have gradually developed strategies for adaptation from random and passive diversification of the phenotype to more proactive decision making, in which environmental information is sensed and exploited more actively and effectively. Understanding the fundamental relation between fitness and information is therefore crucial to clarify the limits and universal properties of adaptation. In this work, we elucidate the underlying stochastic and information-thermodynamic structure in this process, by deriving causal fluctuation relations (FRs) of fitness and information. Combined with a duality between phenotypic and environmental dynamics, the FRs reveal the limit of fitness gain, the relation of time reversibility with the achievability of the limit, and the possibility and condition for gaining excess fitness due to environmental fluctuation. The loss of fitness due to causal constraints and the limited capacity of real organisms is shown to be the difference between time-forward and time-backward path probabilities of phenotypic and environmental dynamics. Furthermore, the FRs generalize the concept of the evolutionary stable state (ESS) for fluctuating environment by giving the probability that the optimal strategy on average can be invaded by a suboptimal one owing to rare environmental fluctuation. These results clarify the information-thermodynamic structures in adaptation and evolution.

  5. Internet's critical path horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, S.; Solé, R. V.

    2004-03-01

    Internet is known to display a highly heterogeneous structure and complex fluctuations in its traffic dynamics. Congestion seems to be an inevitable result of user's behavior coupled to the network dynamics and it effects should be minimized by choosing appropriate routing strategies. But what are the requirements of routing depth in order to optimize the traffic flow? In this paper we analyse the behavior of Internet traffic with a topologically realistic spatial structure as described in a previous study [S.-H. Yook et al., Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 99, 13382 (2002)]. The model involves self-regulation of packet generation and different levels of routing depth. It is shown that it reproduces the relevant key, statistical features of Internet's traffic. Moreover, we also report the existence of a critical path horizon defining a transition from low-efficient traffic to highly efficient flow. This transition is actually a direct consequence of the web's small world architecture exploited by the routing algorithm. Once routing tables reach the network diameter, the traffic experiences a sudden transition from a low-efficient to a highly-efficient behavior. It is conjectured that routing policies might have spontaneously reached such a compromise in a distributed manner. Internet would thus be operating close to such critical path horizon.

  6. Quantum Fluctuation Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Facchi, Paolo; Garnero, Giancarlo; Ligabò, Marilena

    2017-01-01

    We present here a set of lecture notes on exact fluctuation relations. We prove the Jarzynski equality and the Crooks fluctuation theorem, two paradigmatic examples of classical fluctuation relations. Finally we consider their quantum versions, and analyze analogies and differences with the classical case.

  7. Random walks on three-strand braids and on related hyperbolic groups 05.40.-a Fluctuation phenomena, random processes, noise, and Brownian motion; 02.50.-r Probability theory, stochastic processes, and statistics; 02.40.Ky Riemannian geometries;

    CERN Document Server

    Nechaev, S

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of random walks on the simplest nontrivial braid group B sub 3 , and on related hyperbolic groups. We provide a method using Cayley graphs of groups allowing us to compute explicitly the probability distribution of the basic statistical characteristics of random trajectories - the drift and the return probability. The action of the groups under consideration in the hyperbolic plane is investigated, and the distribution of a geometric invariant - the hyperbolic distance - is analysed. It is shown that a random walk on B sub 3 can be viewed as a 'magnetic random walk' on the group PSL(2, Z).

  8. Random walks on three-strand braids and on related hyperbolic groups[05.40.-a Fluctuation phenomena, random processes, noise, and Brownian motion; 02.50.-r Probability theory, stochastic processes, and statistics; 02.40.Ky Riemannian geometries;

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nechaev, Sergei [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, Universite Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Voituriez, Raphael [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, Universite Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2003-01-10

    We investigate the statistical properties of random walks on the simplest nontrivial braid group B{sub 3}, and on related hyperbolic groups. We provide a method using Cayley graphs of groups allowing us to compute explicitly the probability distribution of the basic statistical characteristics of random trajectories - the drift and the return probability. The action of the groups under consideration in the hyperbolic plane is investigated, and the distribution of a geometric invariant - the hyperbolic distance - is analysed. It is shown that a random walk on B{sub 3} can be viewed as a 'magnetic random walk' on the group PSL(2, Z)

  9. Fluctuations of Lévy processes with applications introductory lectures

    CERN Document Server

    Kyprianou, Andreas E

    2014-01-01

    Lévy processes are the natural continuous-time analogue of random walks and form a rich class of stochastic processes around which a robust mathematical theory exists. Their application appears in the theory of many areas of classical and modern stochastic processes including storage models, renewal processes, insurance risk models, optimal stopping problems, mathematical finance, continuous-state branching processes and positive self-similar Markov processes. This textbook is based on a series of graduate courses concerning the theory and application of Lévy processes from the perspective of their path fluctuations. Central to the presentation is the decomposition of paths in terms of excursions from the running maximum as well as an understanding of short- and long-term behaviour. The book aims to be mathematically rigorous while still providing an intuitive feel for underlying principles. The results and applications often focus on the case of Lévy processes with jumps in only one direction, for which r...

  10. Particle density fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Angelis, A.L.S.; Antonenko, V.; Arefiev, V.; Astakhov, V.; Avdeitchikov, V.; Awes, T.C.; Baba, P.V.K.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Bathe, S.; Batiounia, B.; Bernier, T.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhatia, V.S.; Blume, C.; Bucher, D.; Buesching, H.; Carlen, L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Das, A.C.; Decowski, M.P.; Donni, P.; Dubey, A.K.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Enosawa, K.; Fokin, S.; Frolov, V.; Ganti, M.S.; Garpman, S.; Gavrishcuk, O.; Geurts, F.J.M.; Glasow, R.; Guskov, B.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Hrivnacova, I.; Ippolitov, M.; Kalechofsky, H.; Kamermans, R.; Karadjev, K.; Karpio, K.; Kolb, B.W.; Kosarev, I.; Koutcheryaev, I.; Kugler, A.; Kulinich, P.; Kurata, M.; Lebedev, A.; Loehner, H.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Manko, V.; Martin, M.; Miake, Y.; Mishra, G.C.; Mohanty, B.; Morrison, D.; Mukhopadhayay, D.S.; Naef, H.; Nandi, B.K.; Nayak, S.K.; Nayak, T.K.; Nianine, A.; Nikitine, V.; Nikolaev, S.; Nishimura, S.; Nomokov, P.; Petracek, V.; Plasil, F.; Purschke, M.L.; Rak, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Rao, N.K.; Retiere, F.; Reygers, K.; Roland, G.; Rosselet, L.; Roufanov, I.; Rubio, J.M.; Sambyal, S.S.; Santo, R.; Sato, S.; Schlagheck, H.; Schmidt, H.-R.; Schutz, Y.; Shabratova, G.; Sibiriak, I.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Sinha, B.C.; Slavine, N.; Soederstroem, K.; Sood, G.; Soerensen, S.P.; Stankus, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Sumbera, M.; Svensson, T.; Trivedi, M.D.; Tsvetkov, A.; Tykarski, L.; Urbahn, J.; Eijinhoven, N. van; Niewenhuizen, G.J. van; Vinogradov, A.; Viyogi, Y.P.; Vodopianov, A.; Voeroes, S.; Wyslouch, B.; Young, G.R

    2003-03-10

    Event-by-event fluctuations in the multiplicities of charged particles and photons at SPS energies are discussed. Fluctuations are studied by controlling the centrality of the reaction and rapidity acceptance of the detectors. Results are also presented on the event-by-event study of correlations between the multiplicity of charged particles and photons to search for DCC-like signals.

  11. Particle density fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Bedangadas; Ahammed, Z.; Angelis, A.L.S.; Antonenko, V.; Arefev, V.; Astakhov, V.; Avdeitchikov, V.; Awes, T.C.; Baba, P.V.K.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Bathe, S.; Batiounia, B.; Bernier, T.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhatia, V.S.; Blume, C.; Bucher, D.; Busching, H.; Carlen, L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Das, A.C.; Decowski, M.P.; Donni, P.; Dubey, A.K.; Dutta Majumdar, M.R.; Enosawa, K.; Fokin, S.; Frolov, V.; Ganti, M.S.; Garpman, S.; Gavrishchuk, O.; Geurts, F.J.M.; Glasow, R.; Guskov, B.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Hrivnacova, I.; Ippolitov, M.; Kalechofsky, H.; Kamermans, R.; Karadjev, K.; Karpio, K.; Kolb, B.W.; Kosarev, I.; Koutcheryaev, I.; Kugler, A.; Kulinich, P.; Kurata, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lohne, H.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Manko, V.; Martin, M.; Miake, Y.; Mishra, G.C.; Morrison, D.; Mukhopadhyay, D.S.; Naef, H.; Nandi, B.K.; Nayak, S.K.; Nayak, T.K.; Nianine, A.; Nikitine, V.; Nikolaev, S.; Nishimura, S.; Nomokov, P.; Nystrand, J.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Phatak, S.C.; Pavliouk, S.; Peitzmann, T.; Petracek, V.; Plasil, F.; Purschke, M.L.; Rak, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Rao, N.K.; Retiere, F.; Reygers, K.; Roland, G.; Rosselet, L.; Roufanov, I.; Rubio, J.M.; Sambyal, S.S.; Santo, R.; Sato, S.; Schlagheck, H.; Schmidt, H.R.; Schutz, Y.; Shabratova, G.; Sibiriak, I.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Sinha, B.C.; Slavine, N.; Soderstrom, K.; Sood, G.; Sorensen, S.P.; Stankus, P.; Stefanek, G.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Sumbera, M.; Svensson, T.; Trivedi, M.D.; Tsvetkov, A.; Tykarski, L.; Urbahn, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.J.; Vinogradov, A.; Viyogi, Y.P.; Vodopianov, A.S.; Voros, S.; Wyslouch, B.; Young, G.R.; Mohanty, Bedangadas

    2003-01-01

    Event-by-event fluctuations in the multiplicities of charged particles and photons at SPS energies are discussed. Fluctuations are studied by controlling the centrality of the reaction and rapidity acceptance of the detectors. Results are also presented on the event-by-event study of correlations between the multiplicity of charged particles and photons to search for DCC-like signals.

  12. Tsallis thermostatics as a statistical physics of random chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jizba, Petr; Korbel, Jan; Zatloukal, Václav

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we point out that the generalized statistics of Tsallis-Havrda-Charvát can be conveniently used as a conceptual framework for statistical treatment of random chains. In particular, we use the path-integral approach to show that the ensuing partition function can be identified with the partition function of a fluctuating oriented random loop of arbitrary length and shape in a background scalar potential. To put some meat on the bare bones, we illustrate this with two statistical systems: Schultz-Zimm polymer and relativistic particle. Further salient issues such as the projective special linear group PSL (2 ,R ) transformation properties of Tsallis' inverse-temperature parameter and a grand-canonical ensemble of fluctuating random loops related to the Tsallis-Havrda-Charvát statistics are also briefly discussed.

  13. Tsallis thermostatics as a statistical physics of random chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jizba, Petr; Korbel, Jan; Zatloukal, Václav

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we point out that the generalized statistics of Tsallis-Havrda-Charvát can be conveniently used as a conceptual framework for statistical treatment of random chains. In particular, we use the path-integral approach to show that the ensuing partition function can be identified with the partition function of a fluctuating oriented random loop of arbitrary length and shape in a background scalar potential. To put some meat on the bare bones, we illustrate this with two statistical systems: Schultz-Zimm polymer and relativistic particle. Further salient issues such as the projective special linear group PSL(2,R) transformation properties of Tsallis' inverse-temperature parameter and a grand-canonical ensemble of fluctuating random loops related to the Tsallis-Havrda-Charvát statistics are also briefly discussed.

  14. Noise and fluctuations an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, D K C

    2006-01-01

    An understanding of fluctuations and their role is both useful and fundamental to the study of physics. This concise study of random processes offers graduate students and research physicists a survey that encompasses both the relationship of Brownian Movement with statistical mechanics and the problem of irreversible processes. It outlines the basics of the physics involved, without the strictures of mathematical rigor.The three-part treatment starts with a general survey of Brownian Movement, including electrical Brownian Movement and ""shot-noise,"" Part two explores correlation, frequency

  15. Fluctuating Asymmetry of Human Populations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Graham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry, the random deviation from perfect symmetry, is a widely used population-level index of developmental instability, developmental noise, and robustness. It reflects a population’s state of adaptation and genomic coadaptation. Here, we review the literature on fluctuating asymmetry of human populations. The most widely used bilateral traits include skeletal, dental, and facial dimensions; dermatoglyphic patterns and ridge counts; and facial shape. Each trait has its advantages and disadvantages, but results are most robust when multiple traits are combined into a composite index of fluctuating asymmetry (CFA. Both environmental (diet, climate, toxins and genetic (aneuploidy, heterozygosity, inbreeding stressors have been linked to population-level variation in fluctuating asymmetry. In general, these stressors increase average fluctuating asymmetry. Nevertheless, there have been many conflicting results, in part because (1 fluctuating asymmetry is a weak signal in a sea of noise; and (2 studies of human fluctuating asymmetry have not always followed best practices. The most serious concerns are insensitive asymmetry indices (correlation coefficient and coefficient of indetermination, inappropriate size scaling, unrecognized mixture distributions, inappropriate corrections for directional asymmetry, failure to use composite indices, and inattention to measurement error. Consequently, it is often difficult (or impossible to compare results across traits, and across studies.

  16. Fluctuating Asymmetry: Methods, Theory, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Graham

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry consists of random deviations from perfect symmetry in populations of organisms. It is a measure of developmental noise, which reflects a population’s average state of adaptation and coadaptation. Moreover, it increases under both environmental and genetic stress, though responses are often inconsistent. Researchers base studies of fluctuating asymmetry upon deviations from bilateral, radial, rotational, dihedral, translational, helical, and fractal symmetries. Here, we review old and new methods of measuring fluctuating asymmetry, including measures of dispersion, landmark methods for shape asymmetry, and continuous symmetry measures. We also review the theory, developmental origins, and applications of fluctuating asymmetry, and attempt to explain conflicting results. In the process, we present examples from the literature, and from our own research at “Evolution Canyon” and elsewhere.

  17. Continuous information flow fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinberg, Martin Luc; Horowitz, Jordan M.

    2016-10-01

    Information plays a pivotal role in the thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes with feedback. However, much remains to be learned about the nature of information fluctuations in small-scale devices and their relation with fluctuations in other thermodynamics quantities, like heat and work. Here we derive a series of fluctuation theorems for information flow and partial entropy production in a Brownian particle model of feedback cooling and extend them to arbitrary driven diffusion processes. We then analyze the long-time behavior of the feedback-cooling model in detail. Our results provide insights into the structure and origin of large deviations of information and thermodynamic quantities in autonomous Maxwell's demons.

  18. Fluctuations and symmetry energy in nuclear fragmentation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, M

    2013-01-25

    Within a dynamical description of nuclear fragmentation, based on the liquid-gas phase transition scenario, we explore the relation between neutron-proton density fluctuations and nuclear symmetry energy. We show that, along the fragmentation path, isovector fluctuations follow the evolution of the local density and approach an equilibrium value connected to the local symmetry energy. Higher-density regions are characterized by smaller average asymmetry and narrower isotopic distributions. This dynamical analysis points out that fragment final state isospin fluctuations can probe the symmetry energy of the density domains from which fragments originate.

  19. Scaling metabolic rate fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Labra, Fabio A.; Marquet, Pablo A.; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Complex ecological and economic systems show fluctuations in macroscopic quantities such as exchange rates, size of companies or populations that follow non-Gaussian tent-shaped probability distributions of growth rates with power-law decay, which suggests that fluctuations in complex systems may be governed by universal mechanisms, independent of particular details and idiosyncrasies. We propose here that metabolic rate within individual organisms may be considered as an example of an emerge...

  20. Epidemic extinction paths in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindes, Jason; Schwartz, Ira B.

    2017-05-01

    We study the extinction of long-lived epidemics on finite complex networks induced by intrinsic noise. Applying analytical techniques to the stochastic susceptible-infected-susceptible model, we predict the distribution of large fluctuations, the most probable or optimal path through a network that leads to a disease-free state from an endemic state, and the average extinction time in general configurations. Our predictions agree with Monte Carlo simulations on several networks, including synthetic weighted and degree-distributed networks with degree correlations, and an empirical high school contact network. In addition, our approach quantifies characteristic scaling patterns for the optimal path and distribution of large fluctuations, both near and away from the epidemic threshold, in networks with heterogeneous eigenvector centrality and degree distributions.

  1. Outcomes of the Y-PATH Randomized Controlled Trial: Can a School-Based Intervention Improve Fundamental Movement Skill Proficiency in Adolescent Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane, Bronagh; Belton, Sarahjane; Fairclough, Stuart J; Powell, Danielle; Issartel, Johann

    2018-02-01

    Multicomponent, school-based interventions are considered to be an effective method for improving fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency levels and physical activity (PA) among youth. This study aimed to evaluate if the youth-physical activity toward health intervention can improve FMS proficiency in a randomized controlled trial among adolescents. Participants were 482 adolescents aged 12-13 years from 20 schools. For an academic year, participants in 10 schools received the youth-physical activity toward health intervention. The remaining 10 schools received their regular weekly physical education lessons. Fifteen FMS were assessed using validated tools; their PA was assessed using accelerometers; their height, weight, and cardiorespiratory fitness were also recorded. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and 3 months later at retention. Multilevel analysis was performed using MLwiN 2.35 software. Significant intervention effects across time were observed for total object control (P < .0001; β = 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.16 to 2.92) and total locomotor (P < .0001; β = 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.44 to 2.82), with the greatest improvements evident for total FMS score (P < .0001; β = 4.04; 95% confidence interval, 2.39 to 5.69). The effects of the intervention were significant and positive for all children in the intervention group regardless of gender, weight status, or PA level (P = .03 to < .0001). Youth-physical activity toward health has the potential to improve FMS proficiency among adolescents regardless of gender, weight status, and activity levels.

  2. Multiscale temporal integrators for fluctuating hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delong, Steven; Sun, Yifei; Griffith, Boyce E.; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Donev, Aleksandar

    2014-12-01

    Following on our previous work [S. Delong, B. E. Griffith, E. Vanden-Eijnden, and A. Donev, Phys. Rev. E 87, 033302 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.87.033302], we develop temporal integrators for solving Langevin stochastic differential equations that arise in fluctuating hydrodynamics. Our simple predictor-corrector schemes add fluctuations to standard second-order deterministic solvers in a way that maintains second-order weak accuracy for linearized fluctuating hydrodynamics. We construct a general class of schemes and recommend two specific schemes: an explicit midpoint method and an implicit trapezoidal method. We also construct predictor-corrector methods for integrating the overdamped limit of systems of equations with a fast and slow variable in the limit of infinite separation of the fast and slow time scales. We propose using random finite differences to approximate some of the stochastic drift terms that arise because of the kinetic multiplicative noise in the limiting dynamics. We illustrate our integrators on two applications involving the development of giant nonequilibrium concentration fluctuations in diffusively mixing fluids. We first study the development of giant fluctuations in recent experiments performed in microgravity using an overdamped integrator. We then include the effects of gravity and find that we also need to include the effects of fluid inertia, which affects the dynamics of the concentration fluctuations greatly at small wave numbers.

  3. Path-neighborhood graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C. Laskar (R.C.); H.M. Mulder (Martyn)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractA path-neighborhood graph is a connected graph in which every neighborhood induces a path. In the main results the 3-sun-free path-neighborhood graphs are characterized. The 3-sun is obtained from a 6-cycle by adding three chords between the three pairs of vertices at distance 2. A Pk

  4. Physical therapy vs. internet-based exercise training (PATH-IN) for patients with knee osteoarthritis: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Quinn I; Gunn, Alexander H; Beaulieu, John E; Benas, Bernadette C; Buley, Bruce; Callahan, Leigh F; Cantrell, John; Genova, Andrew P; Golightly, Yvonne M; Goode, Adam P; Gridley, Christopher I; Gross, Michael T; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; Hill, Carla H; Huffman, Kim M; Kline, Aaron; Schwartz, Todd A; Allen, Kelli D

    2015-09-28

    Physical activity improves pain and function among individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA), but most people with this condition are inactive. Physical therapists play a key role in helping people with knee OA to increase appropriate physical activity. However, health care access issues, financial constraints, and other factors impede some patients from receiving physical therapy (PT) for knee OA. A need exists to develop and evaluate other methods to provide physical activity instruction and support to people with knee OA. This study is examining the effectiveness of an internet-based exercise training (IBET) program designed for knee OA, designed by physical therapists and other clinicians. This is a randomized controlled trial of 350 participants with symptomatic knee OA, allocated to three groups: IBET, standard PT, and a wait list (WL) control group (in a 2:2:1 ratio, respectively). The study was funded by the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute, which conducted a peer review of the proposal. The IBET program provides patients with a tailored exercise program (based on functional level, symptoms, and current activity), video demonstrations of exercises, and guidance for appropriate exercise progression. The PT group receives up to 8 individual visits with a physical therapist, mirroring standard practice for knee OA and with an emphasis on a home exercise program. Outcomes are assessed at baseline, 4 months (primary time point) and 12 months (to assess maintenance of treatment effects). The primary outcome is the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and secondary outcomes include objective physical function, satisfaction with physical function, physical activity, depressive symptoms and global assessment of change. Linear mixed models will be used to compare both the IBET and standard PT groups to the WL control group, examine whether IBET is non-inferior to PT (a treatment that has an established evidence base for knee

  5. Fluctuating shells under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulose, Jayson; Vliegenthart, Gerard A.; Gompper, Gerhard; Nelson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal fluctuations strongly modify the large length-scale elastic behavior of cross-linked membranes, giving rise to scale-dependent elastic moduli. Whereas thermal effects in flat membranes are well understood, many natural and artificial microstructures are modeled as thin elastic shells. Shells are distinguished from flat membranes by their nonzero curvature, which provides a size-dependent coupling between the in-plane stretching modes and the out-of-plane undulations. In addition, a shell can support a pressure difference between its interior and its exterior. Little is known about the effect of thermal fluctuations on the elastic properties of shells. Here, we study the statistical mechanics of shape fluctuations in a pressurized spherical shell, using perturbation theory and Monte Carlo computer simulations, explicitly including the effects of curvature and an inward pressure. We predict novel properties of fluctuating thin shells under point indentations and pressure-induced deformations. The contribution due to thermal fluctuations increases with increasing ratio of shell radius to thickness and dominates the response when the product of this ratio and the thermal energy becomes large compared with the bending rigidity of the shell. Thermal effects are enhanced when a large uniform inward pressure acts on the shell and diverge as this pressure approaches the classical buckling transition of the shell. Our results are relevant for the elasticity and osmotic collapse of microcapsules. PMID:23150558

  6. Fluctuations in solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karma, A. (Physics Department, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States))

    1993-11-01

    We present an analytical treatment of (i) the incorporation of thermal noise in the basic continuum models of solidification, (ii) fluctuations about nonequilibrium steady states, and (iii) the amplification of noise near the onset of morphological instability. In (i), we find that the proper Langevin formalism, consistent with both bulk and interfacial equilibrium fluctuations, consists of the usual bulk forces and an extra stochastic force on the interface associated with its local kinetics. At sufficiently large solidification rate, this force affects interfacial fluctuations on scales where they are macroscopically amplified and, thus, becomes relevant. An estimate of this rate is given. In (ii), we extend the Langevin formalism outside of equilibrium to characterize the fluctuations of a stationary and a directionally solidified planar interface in a temperature gradient. Finally, in (iii), we derive an analytic expression for the linear growth of the mean-square amplitude of fluctuations slightly above the onset of morphological instability. The amplitude of the noise is found to be determined by the small parameter [ital k][sub [ital B]T[ital E]d0][sup [ital c]l][sub [ital T

  7. Fluctuations in the site-disordered traveling salesman problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, David S [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, UMR CNRS 5152, IRSAMC, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Lancaster, David [Harrow School of Computer Science, University of Westminster, Harrow HA1 3TP (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-16

    We extend a previous statistical mechanical treatment of the traveling salesman problem by defining a discrete 'site-disordered' problem in which fluctuations about saddle points can be computed. The results clarify the basis of our original treatment, and illuminate but do not resolve the difficulties of taking the zero-temperature limit to obtain minimal path lengths.

  8. Spin fluctuations and the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Loktev

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the spectral properties of a phenomenological model for a weakly doped two-dimensional antiferromagnet, in which the carriers move within one of the two sublattices where they were introduced. Such a constraint results in the free carrier spectra with the maxima at k=(± π/2 , ± π/2 observed in some cuprates. We consider the spectral properties of the model by taking into account fluctuations of the spins in the antiferromagnetic background. We show that such fluctuations lead to a non-pole-like structure of the single-hole Green's function and these fluctuations can be responsible for some anomalous "strange metal" properties of underdoped cuprates in the nonsuperconducting regime.

  9. Protrusion Fluctuations Direct Cell Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, David; Voituriez, Raphaël; Riveline, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Many physiological phenomena involve directional cell migration. It is usually attributed to chemical gradients in vivo. Recently, other cues have been shown to guide cells in vitro, including stiffness/adhesion gradients or micropatterned adhesive motifs. However, the cellular mechanism leading to these biased migrations remains unknown, and, often, even the direction of motion is unpredictable. In this study, we show the key role of fluctuating protrusions on ratchet-like structures in driving NIH3T3 cell migration. We identified the concept of efficient protrusion and an associated direction index. Our analysis of the protrusion statistics facilitated the quantitative prediction of cell trajectories in all investigated conditions. We varied the external cues by changing the adhesive patterns. We also modified the internal cues using drug treatments, which modified the protrusion activity. Stochasticity affects the short- and long-term steps. We developed a theoretical model showing that an asymmetry in the protrusion fluctuations is sufficient for predicting all measures associated with the long-term motion, which can be described as a biased persistent random walk. PMID:24988339

  10. Faraday polarization fluctuations of satellite beacon signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. C.; Klobuchar, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The anisotropic effects of random density irregularities in causing Faraday polarization fluctuations of VHF radio signals are examined, taking both rod-like and sheet-like irregularities into consideration. It is found that the variance of Faraday polarization fluctuations depends on the ratio of perpendicular to parallel correlation lengths. The anisotropic effect of rod-like ionospheric irregularities are shown to be most appreciable for longitudinal propagation. The anisotropic effect of sheet-like ionospheric irregularities, however, is not strongly dependent on the radio propagation angle. During transionospheric propagation at large angles with respect to the geomagnetic field, sheet-like irregularities may cause greater Faraday polarization fluctuations than rod-like irregularities.

  11. Enzymatic reaction paths as determined by transition path sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Jean Emily

    Enzymes are biological catalysts capable of enhancing the rates of chemical reactions by many orders of magnitude as compared to solution chemistry. Since the catalytic power of enzymes routinely exceeds that of the best artificial catalysts available, there is much interest in understanding the complete nature of chemical barrier crossing in enzymatic reactions. Two specific questions pertaining to the source of enzymatic rate enhancements are investigated in this work. The first is the issue of how fast protein motions of an enzyme contribute to chemical barrier crossing. Our group has previously identified sub-picosecond protein motions, termed promoting vibrations (PVs), that dynamically modulate chemical transformation in several enzymes. In the case of human heart lactate dehydrogenase (hhLDH), prior studies have shown that a specific axis of residues undergoes a compressional fluctuation towards the active site, decreasing a hydride and a proton donor--acceptor distance on a sub-picosecond timescale to promote particle transfer. To more thoroughly understand the contribution of this dynamic motion to the enzymatic reaction coordinate of hhLDH, we conducted transition path sampling (TPS) using four versions of the enzymatic system: a wild type enzyme with natural isotopic abundance; a heavy enzyme where all the carbons, nitrogens, and non-exchangeable hydrogens were replaced with heavy isotopes; and two versions of the enzyme with mutations in the axis of PV residues. We generated four separate ensembles of reaction paths and analyzed each in terms of the reaction mechanism, time of barrier crossing, dynamics of the PV, and residues involved in the enzymatic reaction coordinate. We found that heavy isotopic substitution of hhLDH altered the sub-picosecond dynamics of the PV, changed the favored reaction mechanism, dramatically increased the time of barrier crossing, but did not have an effect on the specific residues involved in the PV. In the mutant systems

  12. Fluctuation microscopy analysis of amorphous silicon models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J.M., E-mail: jmgibson@fsu.edu [Northeastern University, Department of Physics, Boston MA 02115 (United States); FAMU/FSU Joint College of Engineering, 225 Pottsdamer Street, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Treacy, M.M.J. [Arizona State University, Department of Physics, Tempe AZ 85287 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Studied competing computer models for amorphous silicon and simulated fluctuation microscopy data. • Show that only paracrystalline/random network composite can fit published data. • Specifically show that pure random network or random network with void models do not fit available data. • Identify a new means to measure volume fraction of ordered material. • Identify unreported limitations of the Debye model for simulating fluctuation microscopy data. - Abstract: Using computer-generated models we discuss the use of fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM) to identify the structure of amorphous silicon. We show that a combination of variable resolution FEM to measure the correlation length, with correlograph analysis to obtain the structural motif, can pin down structural correlations. We introduce the method of correlograph variance as a promising means of independently measuring the volume fraction of a paracrystalline composite. From comparisons with published data, we affirm that only a composite material of paracrystalline and continuous random network that is substantially paracrystalline could explain the existing experimental data, and point the way to more precise measurements on amorphous semiconductors. The results are of general interest for other classes of disordered materials.

  13. Transition path time distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laleman, M.; Carlon, E.; Orland, H.

    2017-12-01

    Biomolecular folding, at least in simple systems, can be described as a two state transition in a free energy landscape with two deep wells separated by a high barrier. Transition paths are the short part of the trajectories that cross the barrier. Average transition path times and, recently, their full probability distribution have been measured for several biomolecular systems, e.g., in the folding of nucleic acids or proteins. Motivated by these experiments, we have calculated the full transition path time distribution for a single stochastic particle crossing a parabolic barrier, including inertial terms which were neglected in previous studies. These terms influence the short time scale dynamics of a stochastic system and can be of experimental relevance in view of the short duration of transition paths. We derive the full transition path time distribution as well as the average transition path times and discuss the similarities and differences with the high friction limit.

  14. From the Experience of Interactivity and Entertainment to Lower Intention to Smoke: A Randomized Controlled Trial and Path Analysis of a Web-Based Smoking Prevention Program for Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Georges Elias; Wang, Hua; Calabro, Karen Sue; Mitra, Natasha; Shegog, Ross; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2017-02-16

    Web-based programs for smoking prevention are being increasingly used with some success among adolescents. However, little is known about the mechanisms that link the experience of such programs to intended nicotine or tobacco control outcomes. Based on the experiential learning theory and extended elaboration likelihood model, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of a Web-based intervention, A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience (ASPIRE), on adolescents' intention to smoke, while considering the experience of interactivity and entertainment as predictors of reduced intention to smoke, under a transitional user experience model. A total of 101 adolescents were recruited from after-school programs, provided consent, screened, and randomized in a single-blinded format to 1 of 2 conditions: the full ASPIRE program as the experimental condition (n=50) or an online , text-based version of ASPIRE as the control condition (n=51). Data were collected at baseline and immediate follow-up. Repeated-measures mixed-effects models and path analyses were conducted. A total of 82 participants completed the study and were included in the analysis. Participants in the experimental condition were more likely to show a decrease in their intention to smoke than those in the control condition (beta=-0.18, P=.008). Perceived interactivity (beta=-0.27, P=.004) and entertainment (beta=-0.20, P=.04) were each associated with a decrease in intention to smoke independently. Results of path analyses indicated that perceived interactivity and perceived entertainment mediated the relationship between ASPIRE use and emotional involvement. Furthermore, perceived presence mediated the relationship between perceived interactivity and emotional involvement. There was a direct relationship between perceived entertainment and emotional involvement. Emotional involvement predicted a decrease in intention to smoke (beta=-0.16, P=.04). Adolescents' experience of interactivity and entertainment

  15. Parametric Amplification of Vacuum Fluctuations in a Spinor Condensate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klempt, C.; Topic, O.; Gebreyesus, G.

    2010-01-01

    Parametric amplification of vacuum fluctuations is crucial in modern quantum optics, enabling the creation of squeezing and entanglement. We demonstrate the parametric amplification of vacuum fluctuations for matter waves using a spinor F=2 87Rb condensate. Interatomic interactions lead...... to correlated pair creation in the mF=±1 states from an initial mF=0 condensate, which acts as a vacuum for mF≠0. Although this pair creation from a pure mF=0 condensate is ideally triggered by vacuum fluctuations, unavoidable spurious initial mF=±1 atoms induce a classical seed which may become the dominant...... triggering mechanism. We show that pair creation is insensitive to a classical seed for sufficiently large magnetic fields, demonstrating the dominant role of vacuum fluctuations. The presented system thus provides a direct path towards the generation of nonclassical states of matter....

  16. Microcanonical quantum fluctuation theorems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talkner, Peter; Hänggi, Peter; Morillo, Manuel

    2008-05-01

    Previously derived expressions for the characteristic function of work performed on a quantum system by a classical external force are generalized to arbitrary initial states of the considered system and to Hamiltonians with degenerate spectra. In the particular case of microcanonical initial states, explicit expressions for the characteristic function and the corresponding probability density of work are formulated. Their classical limit as well as their relations to the corresponding canonical expressions are discussed. A fluctuation theorem is derived that expresses the ratio of probabilities of work for a process and its time reversal to the ratio of densities of states of the microcanonical equilibrium systems with corresponding initial and final Hamiltonians. From this Crooks-type fluctuation theorem a relation between entropies of different systems can be derived which does not involve the time-reversed process. This entropy-from-work theorem provides an experimentally accessible way to measure entropies.

  17. Multi-Dimensional Path Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    1998-01-01

    to create nested path structures. We present an SQL-like query language that is based on path expressions and we show how to use it to express multi-dimensional path queries that are suited for advanced data analysis in decision support environments like data warehousing environments......We present the path-relationship model that supports multi-dimensional data modeling and querying. A path-relationship database is composed of sets of paths and sets of relationships. A path is a sequence of related elements (atoms, paths, and sets of paths). A relationship is a binary path...

  18. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  19. Path dependence and creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garud, Raghu; Karnøe, Peter

    the place of agency in these theories that take history so seriously. In the end, they are as interested in path creation and destruction as they are in path dependence. This book is compiled of both theoretical and empirical writing. It shows relatively well-known industries such as the automobile...

  20. Investigation into the problem of characterization of the HF ionospheric fluctuating channel of propagation: construction of a physically based HF channel simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Strangeways

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A wideband HF simulator has been constructed that is based on a detailed physical model. It can generate an output giving a time realization of the HF wideband channel for any HF carrier frequency and bandwidth and for any given transmitter receiver path, time of day, month and year and for any solar activity/geomagnetic conditions. To accomplish this, a comprehensive solution has been obtained to the problem of HF wave propagation for the most general case of a 3D inhomogeneous ionosphere with time-varying electron density fluctuations. The solution is based on the complex phase method (Rytov s method, which has been extended to the case of an inhomogeneous medium and a point source of the field. Results of simulation obtained according to the technique developed have been presented, calculated for a single-hop path 1000 km long oriented to the south from St. Petersburg and including a horizontal electron density gradient present in the IRI model used as the basis of the ionosphere model. The fluctuations of the ionospheric electron density were characterized by an inverse power law anisotropic spatial spectrum. For this model, the random walk of the phasor at the receiver is determined and shown both for paths reflected in the E- and Fregions, being significantly larger for the latter. The oblique sounding ionogram is constructed and reveals three propagation modes: the E-mode and low and high angle F-mode paths. The time-varying field due to each of these paths is then summed at the receiving location enabling the calculation of the scattering function and also the time realization of the received signal shown as a function of both fast and slow time. This is performed both with and without the presence of the geomagnetic field; in the former case the splitting of the F2-mode into both e- and o-modes is seen. It is also shown how the scattering function can be obtained from the time realization of the channel in a way akin to experimental

  1. Path integral distance for data interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Volchenkov, D

    2015-01-01

    The process of data interpretation is always based on the implicit introduction of equivalence relations on the set of walks over the database. Every equivalence relation on the set of walks specifies a Markov chain describing the transitions of a discrete time random walk. In order to geometrize and interpret the data, we propose the new distance between data units defined as a "Feynman path integral", in which all possible paths between any two nodes in a graph model of the data are taken into account, although some paths are more preferable than others. Such a path integral distance approach to the analysis of databases has proven its efficiency and success, especially on multivariate strongly correlated data where other methods fail to detect structural components (urban planning, historical language phylogenies, music, street fashion traits analysis, etc. ). We believe that it would become an invaluable tool for the intelligent complexity reduction and big data interpretation.

  2. Fluctuations in Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Bloom

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainty is an amorphous concept. It reflects uncertainty in the minds of consumers, managers, and policymakers about possible futures. It is also a broad concept, including uncertainty over the path of macro phenomena like GDP growth, micro phenomena like the growth rate of firms, and noneconomic events like war and climate change. In this essay, I address four questions about uncertainty. First, what are some facts and patterns about economic uncertainty? Both macro and micro uncertainty...

  3. Zero-Slack, Noncritical Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Jacob V., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The critical path method/program evaluation and review technique method of project scheduling is based on the importance of managing a project's critical path(s). Although a critical path is the longest path through a network, its location in large projects is facilitated by the computation of activity slack. However, logical fallacies in…

  4. Fluctuation relations for anisotropic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio-Sanchez, R.; Harris, R. J.; Touchette, H.

    2014-02-01

    Currents of particles or energy in driven non-equilibrium steady states are known to satisfy certain symmetries, referred to as fluctuation relations, determining the ratio of the probabilities of positive fluctuations to negative ones. A generalization of these fluctuation relations has been proposed recently for extended non-equilibrium systems of dimension greater than one, assuming, crucially, that they are isotropic (Hurtado P. I., Pérez-Espigares C., del Pozo J. J. and Garrido P. L., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 108 (2011) 7704). Here we relax this assumption and derive a fluctuation relation for d-dimensional systems having anisotropic bulk driving rates. We test the validity of this anisotropic fluctuation relation by calculating the particle current fluctuations in the 2d anisotropic zero-range process, using both exact and fluctuating hydrodynamic approaches.

  5. Equilibrium & Nonequilibrium Fluctuation Effects in Biopolymer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachan, Devin Michael

    Fluctuation-induced interactions are an important organizing principle in a variety of soft matter systems. In this dissertation, I explore the role of both thermal and active fluctuations within cross-linked polymer networks. The systems I study are in large part inspired by the amazing physics found within the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. I first predict and verify the existence of a thermal Casimir force between cross-linkers bound to a semi-flexible polymer. The calculation is complicated by the appearance of second order derivatives in the bending Hamiltonian for such polymers, which requires a careful evaluation of the the path integral formulation of the partition function in order to arrive at the physically correct continuum limit and properly address ultraviolet divergences. I find that cross linkers interact along a filament with an attractive logarithmic potential proportional to thermal energy. The proportionality constant depends on whether and how the cross linkers constrain the relative angle between the two filaments to which they are bound. The interaction has important implications for the synthesis of biopolymer bundles within cells. I model the cross-linkers as existing in two phases: bound to the bundle and free in solution. When the cross-linkers are bound, they behave as a one-dimensional gas of particles interacting with the Casimir force, while the free phase is a simple ideal gas. Demanding equilibrium between the two phases, I find a discontinuous transition between a sparsely and a densely bound bundle. This discontinuous condensation transition induced by the long-ranged nature of the Casimir interaction allows for a similarly abrupt structural transition in semiflexible filament networks between a low cross linker density isotropic phase and a higher cross link density bundle network. This work is supported by the results of finite element Brownian dynamics simulations of semiflexible filaments and transient cross-linkers. I

  6. Career Path Descriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Charkiewicz, A

    2000-01-01

    Before the Career Path system, jobs were classified according to grades with general statutory definitions, guided by the "Job Catalogue" which defined 6 evaluation criteria with example illustrations in the form of "typical" job descriptions. Career Paths were given concise statutory definitions necessitating a method of description and evaluation adapted to their new wider-band salary concept. Evaluations were derived from the same 6 criteria but the typical descriptions became unusable. In 1999, a sub-group of the Standing Concertation Committee proposed a new guide for describing Career Paths, adapted to their wider career concept by expanding the 6 evaluation criteria into 9. For each criterion several levels were established tracing the expected evolution of job level profiles and personal competencies over their longer salary ranges. While providing more transparency to supervisors and staff, the Guide's official use would be by services responsible for vacancy notices, Career Path evaluations and rela...

  7. Paths to Remarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, Graham B.; Glick, Paul C.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a demographic analysis of the paths to remarriage--the extent and timing of remarriage, social factors associated with remarriage, and the impact of the event which preceded remarriage (divorce or widowhood). (Author)

  8. Optimized Flight Path for Localization Using Line of Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Cramér-Rao Lower Bound CEP Circular Error Probability CPLE Cartesian Pseudo-Linear Estimator RRT Rapidly-exploring Random Tree KKT Karush-Kuhn-Tucker...planning method, rapidly-exploring random trees. An RRT is iteratively formed using random points by applying control inputs and this can be assumed as...The Rapidly-exploring Random Tree ( RRT ) provides a broad class of path plan- ning as a randomized data structure. A RRT can expand iteratively by

  9. Path planning in changeable environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuisen, D.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis addresses path planning in changeable environments. In contrast to traditional path planning that deals with static environments, in changeable environments objects are allowed to change their configurations over time. In many cases, path planning algorithms must facilitate quick

  10. Paths to nursing leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondas, Terese

    2006-07-01

    The aim was to explore why nurses enter nursing leadership and apply for a management position in health care. The study is part of a research programme in nursing leadership and evidence-based care. Nursing has not invested enough in the development of nursing leadership for the development of patient care. There is scarce research on nurses' motives and reasons for committing themselves to a career in nursing leadership. A strategic sample of 68 Finnish nurse leaders completed a semistructured questionnaire. Analytic induction was applied in an attempt to generate a theory. A theory, Paths to Nursing Leadership, is proposed for further research. Four different paths were found according to variations between the nurse leaders' education, primary commitment and situational factors. They are called the Path of Ideals, the Path of Chance, the Career Path and the Temporary Path. Situational factors and role models of good but also bad nursing leadership besides motivational and educational factors have played a significant role when Finnish nurses have entered nursing leadership. The educational requirements for nurse leaders and recruitment to nursing management positions need serious attention in order to develop a competent nursing leadership.

  11. Constructing stochastic models for dipole fluctuations from paleomagnetic observations

    OpenAIRE

    Buffett, B; Puranam, A

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 Elsevier B.V. Records of relative paleointensity are subject to several sources of error. Temporal averaging due to gradual acquisition of magnetization removes high-frequency fluctuations, whereas random errors introduce fluctuations at high frequency. Both sources of error limit our ability to construct stochastic models from paleomagnetic observations. We partially circumvent these difficulties by recognizing that the largest affects occur at high frequency. To illustrate we constru...

  12. Constructing Stochastic Models for Dipole Fluctuations from Paleomagnetic Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Buffett, Bruce; Puranam, Abhijit

    2017-01-01

    Records of relative paleointensity are subject to several sources of error. Temporal averaging due to gradual acquisition of magnetization removes high-frequency fluctuations, whereas random errors introduce fluctuations at high frequency. Both sources of error limit our ability to construct stochastic models from paleomagnetic observations. We partially circumvent these difficulties by recognizing that the largest affects occur at high frequency. To illustrate we construct a stochastic model...

  13. The scaling properties of dynamical fluctuations in temporal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chi, Liping

    2015-01-01

    The factorial moments analyses are performed to study the scaling properties of the dynamical fluctuations of contacts and nodes in temporal networks based on empirical data sets. The intermittent behaviors are observed in the fluctuations for all orders of the moments. It indicates that the interaction has self-similarity structure in time interval and the fluctuations are not purely random but dynamical and correlated. The scaling exponents for contacts in Prostitution data and nodes in Conference data are very close to that for 2D Ising model undergoing a second-order phase transition.

  14. Interferometry through the turbulent atmosphere at an optical path difference of 354 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, R B; Meyer-Arendt, J R

    1966-06-01

    A modified Michelson interferometer with a stable He-Ne laser source has been used to study fluctuations in the mean refractive index over a long path through the turbulent atmosphere. Distinct interference fringes were obtained at mirror separations up to 177 m, corresponding to an optical path difference of 354 m. The spatial stability of the interference fringes was found to decrease with increasing optical path length, indicating an increasing contribution from the atmosphere. Details of the interferometer and the experimental procedure are given as well as a discussion of the fluctuations in the mean refractive index.

  15. Robustness of replica symmetry breaking phenomenology in random laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, Federico; Ignesti, Emilio; Lepri, Stefano; Cavalieri, Stefano

    2016-11-16

    Random lasers are optical sources where light is amplified by stimulated emission along random paths through an amplifying scattering medium. Connections between their physics and the one of quenched disordered nonlinear systems, notably spin glasses, have been recently suggested. Here we report a first experimental study of correlations of spectral fluctuations intensity in a random laser medium where the scatterers displacement significantly changes among consecutive shots. Remarkably, our results reveal that the replica symmetry breaking (RSB) phenomenology is robust with respect to an averaging over different realizations of the disorder. Moreover, besides opening new intriguing questions about the understanding of such a phenomenon, this work aims to clarify the connection between the RSB with the onset of the Lévy regime, i.e. the fluctuations regime that is a peculiar feature of the random lasing under critical conditions. Our results suggest that the former occurs independently of the latter and then the RSB phenomenology is a generic feature linked to the random laser threshold.

  16. Dynamical fluctuations in biochemical reactions and cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressé, S.; Ghosh, K.; Phillips, R.; Dill, K. A.

    2010-09-01

    We develop theory for the dynamics and fluctuations in some cyclic and linear biochemical reactions. We use the approach of maximum caliber, which computes the ensemble of paths taken by the system, given a few experimental observables. This approach may be useful for interpreting single-molecule or few-particle experiments on molecular motors, enzyme reactions, ion-channels, and phosphorylation-driven biological clocks. We consider cycles where all biochemical states are observable. Our method shows how: (1) the noise in cycles increases with cycle size and decreases with the driving force that spins the cycle and (2) provides a recipe for estimating small-number features, such as probability of backward spin in small cycles, from experimental data. The back-spin probability diminishes exponentially with the deviation from equilibrium. We believe this method may also be useful for other few-particle nonequilibrium biochemical reaction systems.

  17. Leavitt path algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Gene; Siles Molina, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive introduction by three of the leading experts in the field, collecting fundamental results and open problems in a single volume. Since Leavitt path algebras were first defined in 2005, interest in these algebras has grown substantially, with ring theorists as well as researchers working in graph C*-algebras, group theory and symbolic dynamics attracted to the topic. Providing a historical perspective on the subject, the authors review existing arguments, establish new results, and outline the major themes and ring-theoretic concepts, such as the ideal structure, Z-grading and the close link between Leavitt path algebras and graph C*-algebras. The book also presents key lines of current research, including the Algebraic Kirchberg Phillips Question, various additional classification questions, and connections to noncommutative algebraic geometry. Leavitt Path Algebras will appeal to graduate students and researchers working in the field and related areas, such as C*-algebras and...

  18. Master equations and the theory of stochastic path integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Markus F

    2016-01-01

    This review provides a pedagogic and self-contained introduction to master equations and to their representation by path integrals. We discuss analytical and numerical methods for the solution of master equations, keeping our focus on methods that are applicable even when stochastic fluctuations are strong. The reviewed methods include the generating function technique and the Poisson representation, as well as novel ways of mapping the forward and backward master equations onto linear partial differential equations (PDEs). Spectral methods, WKB approximations, and a variational approach have been proposed for the analysis of the PDE obeyed by the generating function. After outlining these methods, we solve the derived PDEs in terms of two path integrals. The path integrals provide distinct exact representations of the conditional probability distribution solving the master equations. We exemplify both path integrals in analysing elementary chemical reactions. Furthermore, we review a method for the approxima...

  19. Paths in hyperspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camillo Constantini

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available We prove that the hyperspace of closed bounded sets with the Hausdor_ topology, over an almost convex metric space, is an absolute retract. Dense subspaces of normed linear spaces are examples of, not necessarily connected, almost convex metric spaces. We give some necessary conditions for the path-wise connectedness of the Hausdorff metric topology on closed bounded sets. Finally, we describe properties of a separable metric space, under which its hyperspace with the Wijsman topology is path-wise connected.

  20. Path dependence and creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garud, Raghu; Karnøe, Peter

    the place of agency in these theories that take history so seriously. In the end, they are as interested in path creation and destruction as they are in path dependence. This book is compiled of both theoretical and empirical writing. It shows relatively well-known industries such as the automobile......, biotechnology and semi-conductor industries in a new light. It also invites the reader to learn more about medical practices, wind power, lasers and synthesizers. Primarily for academicians, researchers and PhD students in fields related to technology management, this book is a research-oriented textbook...

  1. Quantum fluctuations of voltage in superconducting nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Andrew G.; Zaikin, Andrei D.

    2017-07-01

    At low temperatures non-equilibrium voltage fluctuations can be generated in current-biased superconducting nanowires due to proliferation of quantum phase slips (QPS) or, equivalently, due to quantum tunneling of magnetic flux quanta across the wire. In this paper we review and further extend recent theoretical results related to this phenomenon. Employing the phase-charge duality arguments combined with Keldysh path integral technique we analyze such fluctuations within the two-point and four-point measurement schemes demonstrating that voltage noise detected in such nanowires in general depends on the particular measurement setup. In the low frequency limit we evaluate all cumulants of the voltage operator which turn out to obey Poisson statistics and exhibit a power law dependence on the external bias. We also specifically address a non-trivial frequency dependence of quantum shot noise power spectrum SΩ for both longer and shorter superconducting nanowires. In particular, we demonstrate that SΩ decreases with increasing frequency Ω and vanishes beyond a threshold value of Ω at T → 0. Furthermore, we predict that SΩ may depend non-monotonously on temperature due to quantum coherent nature of QPS noise. The results of our theoretical analysis can be directly tested in future experiments with superconducting nanowires.

  2. Biomolecules: Fluctuations and relaxations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parak, F.; Ostermann, A.; Gassmann, A.; Scherk, C.; Chong, S.-H.; Kidera, A.; Go, N.

    1999-10-01

    The normal-mode refinement of X-ray crystallographic data opened a new possibility to analyze the mean-square displacements in a protein molecule. A comparison of the X-ray structure of myoglobin at several temperatures with Mössbauer data is performed. In the low-temperature regime below 180 K the iron mean-square displacements obtained by Mössbauer spectroscopy are in good agreement with a normal-mode analysis. The X-ray mean-square displacements at the position of the iron, after the motion originated from the external degrees of freedom are subtracted, have practically the same temperature dependence as those from Mössbauer spectroscopy. The difference between the X-ray mean-square displacements and those predicted by normal-mode analysis measures the distribution of molecules into conformational substates. Above 180 K the Mössbauer effect indicates fluctuations between conformational substates. The relaxation from a Fe(III) conformation to a Fe(II) conformation is shown for superoxide dismutase of Propionibacterium shermanii.

  3. Fluctuating attention in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Aarsland, Dag; Janvin, Carmen

    2001-01-01

    Lewy body dementia (DLB), which share many clinical and pathological features with Parkinson’s disease (PD), is charac- terised by marked fluctuations in cognition and consciousness. Fluctuating cognition has not been formally studied in PD, although some studies indicate that PD patients show...

  4. Quantum Correction of Fluctuation Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Monnai, T.; Tasaki, S.

    2003-01-01

    Quantum analogues of the transient fluctuation theorem(TFT) and steady-state fluctuation theorem(SSFT) are investigated for a harmonic oscillator linearly coupled with a harmonic reservoir. The probability distribution for the work done externally is derived and quantum correction for TFT and SSFT are calculated.

  5. Fluctuation conductivity in cuprate superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    superconducting layers in each unit cell is also not adequate. We suggest the fluctuation conductivity to be reduced due to the reduction in the density of states (DOS) of the quasiparticles which results due to the formation of Cooper pairs at the onset of the fluctuations. The data agrees with the theory proposed by Dorin et al ...

  6. Pressure Fluctuations in Nonideal Plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankin, A.; Norman, G.; Saitov, I.

    Fluctuations of pressure of singly ionized nonideal plasma are studied using the fluctuation approach which provides the self-consistent joint description of free and weakly bound electron states. The classical molecular dynamics method is used. The electron-ion interaction is described by the

  7. Nonmotor Fluctuations in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Christiana; Storch, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The advanced stage of Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor complications such as motor fluctuations and dyskinesias induced by long-term levodopa treatment. Recent clinical research provides growing evidence that various nonmotor symptoms such as neuropsychiatric, autonomic, and sensory symptoms (particularly pain) also show fluctuations in patients with motor fluctuations (called nonmotor fluctuations or NMF). However, NMF have not yet been adequately considered in routine care of advanced PD patients and only few therapeutic studies are available. Since the pathophysiology of NMF remains largely unknown, innovative therapeutic concepts are largely missing. The close connection of NMF and motor fluctuations, however, strongly suggests that the strategies used to treat motor complications-namely continuous dopaminergic stimulation-also apply for the therapy of NMF. Future controlled clinical trials specifically addressing NMF are urgently warranted. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Staggered Schemes for Fluctuating Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balboa, F; Delgado-Buscalioni, R; Donev, A; Fai, T; Griffith, B; Peskin, C S

    2011-01-01

    We develop numerical schemes for solving the isothermal compressible and incompressible equations of fluctuating hydrodynamics on a grid with staggered momenta. We develop a second-order accurate spatial discretization of the diffusive, advective and stochastic fluxes that satisfies a discrete fluctuation-dissipation balance, and construct temporal discretizations that are at least second-order accurate in time deterministically and in a weak sense. Specifically, the methods reproduce the correct equilibrium covariances of the fluctuating fields to third (compressible) and second (incompressible) order in the time step, as we verify numerically. We apply our techniques to model recent experimental measurements of giant fluctuations in diffusively mixing fluids in a micro-gravity environment [A. Vailati et. al., Nature Communications 2:290, 2011]. Numerical results for the static spectrum of non-equilibrium concentration fluctuations are in excellent agreement between the compressible and incompressible simula...

  9. Fluctuations in catalytic surface reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Imbihl, R

    2003-01-01

    The internal reaction-induced fluctuations which occur in catalytic CO oxidation on a Pt field emitter tip have been studied using field electron microscopy (FEM) as a spatially resolving method. The structurally heterogeneous Pt tip consists of facets of different orientations with nanoscale dimensions. The FEM resolution of roughly 2 nm corresponds to a few hundred reacting adsorbed particles whose variations in the density are imaged as brightness fluctuations. In the bistable range of the reaction one finds fluctuation-induced transitions between the two stable branches of the reaction kinetics. The fluctuations exhibit a behaviour similar to that of an equilibrium phase transition, i.e. the amplitude diverges upon approaching the bifurcation point terminating the bistable range of the reaction. Simulations with a hybrid Monte Carlo/mean-field model reproduce the experimental observations. Fluctuations on different facets are typically uncorrelated but within a single facet a high degree of spatial cohere...

  10. Fluctuations of wavefunctions about their classical average

    CERN Document Server

    Bénet, L; Hernandez-Saldana, H; Izrailev, F M; Leyvraz, F; Seligman, T H

    2003-01-01

    Quantum-classical correspondence for the average shape of eigenfunctions and the local spectral density of states are well-known facts. In this paper, the fluctuations of the quantum wavefunctions around the classical value are discussed. A simple random matrix model leads to a Gaussian distribution of the amplitudes whose width is determined by the classical shape of the eigenfunction. To compare this prediction with numerical calculations in chaotic models of coupled quartic oscillators, we develop a rescaling method for the components. The expectations are broadly confirmed, but deviations due to scars are observed. This effect is much reduced when both Hamiltonians have chaotic dynamics.

  11. Classical fluctuations in quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, M.

    The question as to whether quantum fluctuations can induce the spontaneous breaking of translational invariance (SBTI) in the extreme cosmic expansion that occurs during any type of inflation is considered. Attention is given to the unstable field, thermofield dynamic, and cosmic anisotropic relaxation quantum systems, defining the appropriate order parameters for each and discussing their properties. A mechanism for SBTI is presented which possesses both generality and applicability to various problems; a complex effective potential can, for example, be obtained for a nonconvex potential, so that a random force arises and stochastically agitates order parameters.

  12. Curvature of fluctuation geometry and its implications on Riemannian fluctuation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, L.

    2013-08-01

    Fluctuation geometry was recently proposed as a counterpart approach of the Riemannian geometry of inference theory (widely known as information geometry). This theory describes the geometric features of the statistical manifold {M} of random events that are described by a family of continuous distributions dp(x|θ). A main goal of this work is to clarify the statistical relevance of the Levi-Civita curvature tensor Rijkl(x|θ) of the statistical manifold {M}. For this purpose, the notion of irreducible statistical correlations is introduced. Specifically, a distribution dp(x|θ) exhibits irreducible statistical correlations if every distribution dp(\\check{x}|\\theta ) obtained from dp(x|θ) by considering a coordinate change \\check{x}=\\phi (x) cannot be factorized into independent distributions as dp(\\check{x}|\\theta )=\\prod _{i}dp^{(i)}(\\check{x}^{i}|\\theta ). It is shown that the curvature tensor Rijkl(x|θ) arises as a direct indicator about the existence of irreducible statistical correlations. Moreover, the curvature scalar R(x|θ) allows us to introduce a criterium for the applicability of the Gaussian approximation of a given distribution function. This type of asymptotic result is obtained in the framework of the second-order geometric expansion of the distribution family dp(x|θ), which appears as a counterpart development of the high-order asymptotic theory of statistical estimation. In physics, fluctuation geometry represents the mathematical apparatus of a Riemannian extension for Einstein’s fluctuation theory of statistical mechanics. Some exact results of fluctuation geometry are now employed to derive the invariant fluctuation theorems. Moreover, the curvature scalar allows us to express some asymptotic formulae that account for the system fluctuating behavior beyond the Gaussian approximation, e.g.: it appears as a second-order correction of the Legendre transformation between thermodynamic potentials, P(\\theta )=\\theta _{i

  13. MEASURING PATH DEPENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Juhasz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While risk management gained popularity during the last decades even some of the basic risk types are still far out of focus. One of these is path dependency that refers to the uncertainty of how we reach a certain level of total performance over time. While decision makers are careful in accessing how their position will look like the end of certain periods, little attention is given how they will get there through the period. The uncertainty of how a process will develop across a shorter period of time is often “eliminated” by simply choosing a longer planning time interval, what makes path dependency is one of the most often overlooked business risk types. After reviewing the origin of the problem we propose and compare seven risk measures to access path. Traditional risk measures like standard deviation of sub period cash flows fail to capture this risk type. We conclude that in most cases considering the distribution of the expected cash flow effect caused by the path dependency may offer the best method, but we may need to use several measures at the same time to include all the optimisation limits of the given firm

  14. An Unplanned Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Lynn M.; Sterenberg, Gladys Y.; Long, Julie S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors elucidate what they saw as three important challenges to overcome along the path to becoming elementary school mathematics teacher leaders: marginal interest in math, low self-confidence, and teaching in isolation. To illustrate how these challenges were mitigated, they focus on the stories of two elementary school teachers--Laura and…

  15. Gas path seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, R. C.; Johnson, R. D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A gas path seal suitable for use with a turbine engine or compressor is described. A shroud wearable or abradable by the abrasion of the rotor blades of the turbine or compressor shrouds the rotor bades. A compliant backing surrounds the shroud. The backing is a yieldingly deformable porous material covered with a thin ductile layer. A mounting fixture surrounds the backing.

  16. Lexicographic Path Induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    an induction principle that combines the comfort of structural induction with the expressive strength of transfinite induction. Using lexicographic path induction, we give a consistency proof of Martin-Löf’s intuitionistic theory of inductive definitions. The consistency of Heyting arithmetic follows directly...

  17. Quantum fluctuations from thermal fluctuations in Jacobson formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faizal, Mir [University of British Columbia-Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Ashour, Amani; Alcheikh, Mohammad [Damascus University, Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Alasfar, Lina [Universite Clermont Auvergne, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de Clermont-Ferrand, Aubiere (France); Alsaleh, Salwa; Mahroussah, Ahmed [King Saud University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-09-15

    In the Jacobson formalism general relativity is obtained from thermodynamics. This is done by using the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area relation. However, as a black hole gets smaller, its temperature will increase. This will cause the thermal fluctuations to also increase, and these will in turn correct the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area relation. Furthermore, with the reduction in the size of the black hole, quantum effects will also start to dominate. Just as the general relativity can be obtained from thermodynamics in the Jacobson formalism, we propose that the quantum fluctuations to the geometry can be obtained from thermal fluctuations. (orig.)

  18. Multiple Manifold Clustering Using Curvature Constrained Path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeian, Amir; Bayestehtashk, Alireza; Bandarabadi, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    The problem of multiple surface clustering is a challenging task, particularly when the surfaces intersect. Available methods such as Isomap fail to capture the true shape of the surface near by the intersection and result in incorrect clustering. The Isomap algorithm uses shortest path between points. The main draw back of the shortest path algorithm is due to the lack of curvature constrained where causes to have a path between points on different surfaces. In this paper we tackle this problem by imposing a curvature constraint to the shortest path algorithm used in Isomap. The algorithm chooses several landmark nodes at random and then checks whether there is a curvature constrained path between each landmark node and every other node in the neighborhood graph. We build a binary feature vector for each point where each entry represents the connectivity of that point to a particular landmark. Then the binary feature vectors could be used as a input of conventional clustering algorithm such as hierarchical clustering. We apply our method to simulated and some real datasets and show, it performs comparably to the best methods such as K-manifold and spectral multi-manifold clustering.

  19. Multiple Manifold Clustering Using Curvature Constrained Path.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Babaeian

    Full Text Available The problem of multiple surface clustering is a challenging task, particularly when the surfaces intersect. Available methods such as Isomap fail to capture the true shape of the surface near by the intersection and result in incorrect clustering. The Isomap algorithm uses shortest path between points. The main draw back of the shortest path algorithm is due to the lack of curvature constrained where causes to have a path between points on different surfaces. In this paper we tackle this problem by imposing a curvature constraint to the shortest path algorithm used in Isomap. The algorithm chooses several landmark nodes at random and then checks whether there is a curvature constrained path between each landmark node and every other node in the neighborhood graph. We build a binary feature vector for each point where each entry represents the connectivity of that point to a particular landmark. Then the binary feature vectors could be used as a input of conventional clustering algorithm such as hierarchical clustering. We apply our method to simulated and some real datasets and show, it performs comparably to the best methods such as K-manifold and spectral multi-manifold clustering.

  20. Motion of Euglena gracilis: Active fluctuations and velocity distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanczuk, P.; Romensky, M.; Scholz, D.; Lobaskin, V.; Schimansky-Geier, L.

    2015-07-01

    We study the velocity distribution of unicellular swimming algae Euglena gracilis using optical microscopy and active Brownian particle theory. To characterize a peculiar feature of the experimentally observed distribution at small velocities we use the concept of active fluctuations, which was recently proposed for the description of stochastically self-propelled particles [Romanczuk, P. and Schimansky-Geier, L., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 230601 (2011)]. In this concept, the fluctuating forces arise due to internal random performance of the propulsive motor. The fluctuating forces are directed in parallel to the heading direction, in which the propulsion acts. In the theory, we introduce the active motion via the depot model [Schweitzer, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(23), 5044 (1998)]. We demonstrate that the theoretical predictions based on the depot model with active fluctuations are consistent with the experimentally observed velocity distributions. In addition to the model with additive active noise, we obtain theoretical results for a constant propulsion with multiplicative noise.

  1. Correlation between light-flux fluctuations of two counter-propagating waves in weak atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunyi; Yang, Huamin

    2017-05-29

    Expressions for the correlation coefficient between light-flux fluctuations of two waves counter-propagating along a common path in weak turbulence are developed. Only the aperture and inner-scale Fresnel parameters are needed for evaluation of the correlation coefficient if the turbulence spectrum has no path dependence, and of the path weighting functions for the cross-covariance and variances of normalized light-flux fluctuations if the turbulence spectrum is dependent on path locations. Under the condition that atmospheric turbulence is statistically homogeneous over a path, although good correlation between light-flux fluctuations of two counter-propagating spherical waves may be achieved for a relatively small aperture Fresnel parameter or relatively large inner-scale Fresnel parameter, the correlation coefficient between light-flux fluctuations of two counter-propagating plane waves is always lower than 1 obviously. When the aperture Fresnel parameter becomes larger than the inner-scale Fresnel parameter, the inner scale of turbulence tends to play an unimportant role in determining the correlation coefficient.

  2. Skewness of elliptic flow fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, Giuliano; Yan, Li; Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2017-01-01

    Using event-by-event hydrodynamic calculations, we find that the fluctuations of the elliptic flow (v2) in the reaction plane have a negative skew. We compare the skewness of v2 fluctuations to that of initial eccentricity fluctuations. We show that skewness is the main effect lifting the degeneracy between higher-order cumulants, with negative skew corresponding to the hierarchy v2{4 } >v2{6 } observed in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We describe how the skewness can be measured experimentally and show that hydrodynamics naturally reproduces its magnitude and centrality dependence.

  3. Fluctuation theorem: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek Mansour, M.; Baras, F.

    2017-10-01

    Fluctuation theorem for entropy production is revisited in the framework of stochastic processes. The applicability of the fluctuation theorem to physico-chemical systems and the resulting stochastic thermodynamics were analyzed. Some unexpected limitations are highlighted in the context of jump Markov processes. We have shown that these limitations handicap the ability of the resulting stochastic thermodynamics to correctly describe the state of non-equilibrium systems in terms of the thermodynamic properties of individual processes therein. Finally, we considered the case of diffusion processes and proved that the fluctuation theorem for entropy production becomes irrelevant at the stationary state in the case of one variable systems.

  4. Density fluctuations in traffic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Yukawa, S

    1996-01-01

    Density fluctuations in traffic current are studied by computer simulations using the deterministic coupled map lattice model on a closed single-lane circuit. By calculating a power spectral density of temporal density fluctuations at a local section, we find a power-law behavior, \\sim 1/f^{1.8}, on the frequency f, in non-congested flow phase. The distribution of the headway distance h also shows the power law like \\sim 1/h^{3.0} at the same time. The power law fluctuations are destroyed by the occurence of the traffic jam.

  5. Entanglement by Path Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Mario; Hochrainer, Armin; Lahiri, Mayukh; Zeilinger, Anton

    2017-02-01

    Quantum entanglement is one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and forms the basis of quantum information technologies. Here we present a novel method for the creation of quantum entanglement in multipartite and high-dimensional systems. The two ingredients are (i) superposition of photon pairs with different origins and (ii) aligning photons such that their paths are identical. We explain the experimentally feasible creation of various classes of multiphoton entanglement encoded in polarization as well as in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces—starting only from nonentangled photon pairs. For two photons, arbitrary high-dimensional entanglement can be created. The idea of generating entanglement by path identity could also apply to quantum entities other than photons. We discovered the technique by analyzing the output of a computer algorithm. This shows that computer designed quantum experiments can be inspirations for new techniques.

  6. The effect of varying path properties in path steering tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Liu (Lei); R. van Liere (Robert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPath steering is a primitive 3D interaction task that requires the user to navigate through a path of a given length and width. In a previous paper, we have conducted controlled experiments in which users operated a pen input device to steer a cursor through a 3D path subject to

  7. Purification and deodorization of structured lipids by short path distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2002-01-01

    Purification of structured lipids (SL), produced from lipase- catalyzed acidolysis of rapeseed oil and capric acid, and deodorization of randomized SL, produced from chemical randomization of fish oil and tricaprin, were studied in a bench-scale short path distillation (SPD). SL obtained from...

  8. PATHS groundwater hydrologic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.W.; Schur, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary evaluation capability for two-dimensional groundwater pollution problems was developed as part of the Transport Modeling Task for the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). Our approach was to use the data limitations as a guide in setting the level of modeling detail. PATHS Groundwater Hydrologic Model is the first level (simplest) idealized hybrid analytical/numerical model for two-dimensional, saturated groundwater flow and single component transport; homogeneous geology. This document consists of the description of the PATHS groundwater hydrologic model. The preliminary evaluation capability prepared for WISAP, including the enhancements that were made because of the authors' experience using the earlier capability is described. Appendixes A through D supplement the report as follows: complete derivations of the background equations are provided in Appendix A. Appendix B is a comprehensive set of instructions for users of PATHS. It is written for users who have little or no experience with computers. Appendix C is for the programmer. It contains information on how input parameters are passed between programs in the system. It also contains program listings and test case listing. Appendix D is a definition of terms.

  9. Fluctuations and Instability in Sedimentation

    KAUST Repository

    Guazzelli, Élisabeth

    2011-01-21

    This review concentrates on the fluctuations of the velocities of sedimenting spheres, and on the structural instability of a suspension of settling fibers. For many years, theoretical estimates and numerical simulations predicted the fluctuations of the velocities of spheres to increase with the size of the container, whereas experiments found no such variation. Two ideas have increased our understanding. First, the correlation length of the velocity fluctuations was found experimentally to be 20 interparticle separations. Second, in dilute suspensions, a vertical variation in the concentration due to the spreading of the front with the clear fluid can inhibit the velocity fluctuations. In a very dilute regime, a homogeneous suspension of fibers suffers a spontaneous instability in which fast descending fiber-rich columns are separated by rising fiber-sparse columns. In a semidilute regime, the settling is hindered, more so than for spheres. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantum entanglement and temperature fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourabah, Kamel; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we consider entanglement in a system out of equilibrium, adopting the viewpoint given by the formalism of superstatistics. Such an approach yields a good effective description for a system in a slowly fluctuating environment within a weak interaction between the system and the environment. For this purpose, we introduce an alternative version of the formalism within a quantum mechanical picture and use it to study entanglement in the Heisenberg XY model, subject to temperature fluctuations. We consider both isotropic and anisotropic cases and explore the effect of different temperature fluctuations (χ^{2}, log-normal, and F distributions). Our results suggest that particular fluctuations may enhance entanglement and prevent it from vanishing at higher temperatures than those predicted for the same system at thermal equilibrium.

  11. Shortest Paths and Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn

    This thesis presents how to parallelize a shortest path labeling algorithm. It is shown how to handle Chvátal-Gomory rank-1 cuts in a column generation context. A Branch-and-Cut algorithm is given for the Elementary Shortest Paths Problem with Capacity Constraint. A reformulation of the Vehicle R...... Routing Problem based on partial paths is presented. Finally, a practical application of finding shortest paths in the telecommunication industry is shown....

  12. Efficient sampling of complex network with modified random walk strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunya; Chang, Shuhua; Zhang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Mi; Yang, Lei

    2018-02-01

    We present two novel random walk strategies, choosing seed node (CSN) random walk and no-retracing (NR) random walk. Different from the classical random walk sampling, the CSN and NR strategies focus on the influences of the seed node choice and path overlap, respectively. Three random walk samplings are applied in the Erdös-Rényi (ER), Barabási-Albert (BA), Watts-Strogatz (WS), and the weighted USAir networks, respectively. Then, the major properties of sampled subnets, such as sampling efficiency, degree distributions, average degree and average clustering coefficient, are studied. The similar conclusions can be reached with these three random walk strategies. Firstly, the networks with small scales and simple structures are conducive to the sampling. Secondly, the average degree and the average clustering coefficient of the sampled subnet tend to the corresponding values of original networks with limited steps. And thirdly, all the degree distributions of the subnets are slightly biased to the high degree side. However, the NR strategy performs better for the average clustering coefficient of the subnet. In the real weighted USAir networks, some obvious characters like the larger clustering coefficient and the fluctuation of degree distribution are reproduced well by these random walk strategies.

  13. Which coordinate system for modelling path integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerstaff, Robert J; Cheung, Allen

    2010-03-21

    Path integration is a navigation strategy widely observed in nature where an animal maintains a running estimate, called the home vector, of its location during an excursion. Evidence suggests it is both ancient and ubiquitous in nature, and has been studied for over a century. In that time, canonical and neural network models have flourished, based on a wide range of assumptions, justifications and supporting data. Despite the importance of the phenomenon, consensus and unifying principles appear lacking. A fundamental issue is the neural representation of space needed for biological path integration. This paper presents a scheme to classify path integration systems on the basis of the way the home vector records and updates the spatial relationship between the animal and its home location. Four extended classes of coordinate systems are used to unify and review both canonical and neural network models of path integration, from the arthropod and mammalian literature. This scheme demonstrates analytical equivalence between models which may otherwise appear unrelated, and distinguishes between models which may superficially appear similar. A thorough analysis is carried out of the equational forms of important facets of path integration including updating, steering, searching and systematic errors, using each of the four coordinate systems. The type of available directional cue, namely allothetic or idiothetic, is also considered. It is shown that on balance, the class of home vectors which includes the geocentric Cartesian coordinate system, appears to be the most robust for biological systems. A key conclusion is that deducing computational structure from behavioural data alone will be difficult or impossible, at least in the absence of an analysis of random errors. Consequently it is likely that further theoretical insights into path integration will require an in-depth study of the effect of noise on the four classes of home vectors. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd

  14. Universal randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Viktor S [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-31

    In the last two decades, it has been established that a single universal probability distribution function, known as the Tracy-Widom (TW) distribution, in many cases provides a macroscopic-level description of the statistical properties of microscopically different systems, including both purely mathematical ones, such as increasing subsequences in random permutations, and quite physical ones, such as directed polymers in random media or polynuclear crystal growth. In the first part of this review, we use a number of models to examine this phenomenon at a simple qualitative level and then consider the exact solution for one-dimensional directed polymers in a random environment, showing that free energy fluctuations in such a system are described by the universal TW distribution. The second part provides detailed appendix material containing the necessary mathematical background for the first part. (reviews of topical problems)

  15. Distribution of Pressure Fluctuations in a Prototype Pump Turbine at Pump Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuekun Sun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pressure fluctuations are very important characteristics in pump turbine's operation. Many researches have focused on the characteristics (amplitude and frequencies of pressure fluctuations at specific locations, but little researches mentioned the distribution of pressure fluctuations in a pump turbine. In this paper, 3D numerical simulations using SSTk − ω turbulence model were carried out to predict the pressure fluctuations distribution in a prototype pump turbine at pump mode. Three operating points with different mass flow rates and different guide vanes’ openings were simulated. The numerical results show how pressure fluctuations at blade passing frequency (BPF and its harmonics vary along the whole flow path direction, as well as along the circumferential direction. BPF is the first dominant frequency in vaneless space. Pressure fluctuation component at this frequency rapidly decays towards upstream (to draft tube and downstream (to spiral casing. In contrast, pressure fluctuations component at 3BPF spreads to upstream and downstream with almost constant amplitude. Amplitude and frequencies of pressure fluctuations also vary along different circumferential locations in vaneless space. When the mass flow and guide vanes’ opening are different, the distribution of pressure fluctuations along the two directions is different basically.

  16. Integrating path dependency and path creation in a general understanding of path constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Uli; Schubert, Cornelius

    2007-01-01

    Path dependency as it is described by Arthur and David portrays technological developments as historically embedded, emergent processes. In contrast, Garud and Karnøe's notion of path creation emphasises the role of strategic change and deliberate action for the development of new technologies. In this article, we integrate both concepts into a general understanding of path processes which accounts for emergent as well as deliberate modes of path constitution. In addition, we distinguish betw...

  17. Two Generations of Path Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

      Even if there is no fully articulated and generally accepted theory of Path Dependence it has eagerly been taken up across a wide range of social sciences - primarily coming from economics. Path Dependence is most of all a metaphor that offers reason to believe, that some political, social...... or economic processes have multiple possible paths of outcomes, rather than a unique path of equilibria. The selection among outcomes may depend on contingent choices or events - outcomes of path-dependent processes require a very relevant study - a perception of history....

  18. Path Through the Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Middleton

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hillside’s tidal waves of yellow-green Break downward into full-grown stalks of wheat In which a peasant, shouldering his hoe Passes along a snaking narrow path -- A teeming place through which his hard thighs press And where his head just barely stays above The swaying grain, drunken in abundance, Farm buildings almost floating on the swells Beyond which sea gulls gliding white in air Fly down on out of sight to salty fields, Taking the channel fish off Normandy, A surfeit fit for Eden i...

  19. Rocket Flight Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Waters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.

  20. JAVA PathFinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehhtz, Peter

    2005-01-01

    JPF is an explicit state software model checker for Java bytecode. Today, JPF is a swiss army knife for all sort of runtime based verification purposes. This basically means JPF is a Java virtual machine that executes your program not just once (like a normal VM), but theoretically in all possible ways, checking for property violations like deadlocks or unhandled exceptions along all potential execution paths. If it finds an error, JPF reports the whole execution that leads to it. Unlike a normal debugger, JPF keeps track of every step how it got to the defect.

  1. Force fluctuations and polymerization dynamics of intracellular microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brangwynne, Clifford

    2008-03-01

    Microtubules are dynamic biopolymers within the cytoskeleton of living cells. They play a central role in many biological processes including cell division, migration, and cargo transport. Microtubules are significantly more rigid than other cytoskeletal biopolymers, such as actin filaments, and are insensitive to thermal fluctuations on cellular length scales. However, we show that intracellular microtubules exhibit bending amplitudes with a surprisingly thermal-like wavevector dependence, but with an apparent persistence length about 100 times smaller than that measured in vitro. By studying the time-dependent bending fluctuations of individual filaments, we find that the thermal-like bends are fluctuating significantly only on short length scales, while they are frozen-in on longer length scales [1], reminiscent of non-ergodic behavior seen in systems far from equilibrium. Long wavelength bends are suppressed by the surrounding elastic cytoskeleton, which confines bending to short length scales on the order of a few microns [2]. These short wavelength bending fluctuations naturally cause fluctuations in the orientation of the microtubule tip. Tip fluctuations result in a persistent random walk trajectory of microtubule growth, but with a small non-equilibrium persistence length, explaining the origin of quenched thermal-like bends. These results suggest that intracellular motor activity has a highly fluctuating character that dominates over thermal fluctuations, with important consequences for fundamental biological processes. [1] CP Brangwynne, FC MacKintosh, DA Weitz, PNAS, 104:16128 (2007). [2] CP Brangwynne, FC MacKintosh, S Kumar, NA Geisse, J Talbot, L. Mahadevan, KK Parker, DE Ingber, DA Weitz, JCB, 173:733 (2006).

  2. Fluctuation relations with intermittent non-Gaussian variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budini, Adrián A

    2011-12-01

    Nonequilibrium stationary fluctuations may exhibit a special symmetry called fluctuation relations (FRs). Here, we show that this property is always satisfied by the subtraction of two random and independent variables related by a thermodynamiclike change of measure. Taking one of them as a modulated Poisson process, it is demonstrated that intermittence and FRs are compatible properties that may coexist naturally. Strong non-Gaussian features characterize the probability distribution and its generating function. Their associated large deviation functions develop a "kink" at the origin and a plateau regime respectively. Application of this model in different stationary nonequilibrium situations is discussed.

  3. Quantum spectrum as a time series: fluctuation measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, M S; Bandyopadhyay, Jayendra N; Angom, Dilip

    2006-01-01

    The fluctuations in the quantum spectrum could be treated like a time series. In this framework, we explore the statistical self-similarity in the quantum spectrum using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and random matrix theory (RMT). We calculate the Hausdorff measure for the spectra of atoms and Gaussian ensembles and study their self-affine properties. We show that DFA is equivalent to the Delta3 statistics of RMT, unifying two different approaches. We exploit this connection to obtain theoretical estimates for the Hausdorff measure.

  4. Planck's Radiation Law: Thermal Excitations of Vacuum Induced Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogiba F.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The second Planck’s radiation law is derived considering that “resonators” induced by the vacuum absorb thermal excitations as additional fluctuations. The maximum energy transfer, as required by the maximum entropy equilibrium, occurs when the frequencies of these two kind of vibrations are equal. The motion resembles that of the coherent states of the quantum oscillator, as originally pointed by Schrödinger [1]. The resulting variance, due to random phases, coincides with that used by Einstein to reproduce the first Planck’s radiation law from his thermal fluctuation equation [2].

  5. Phase transitions in polypeptides: analysis of energy fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2009-01-01

    The helix random coil transition in alanine, valine, and leucine polypeptides consisting of 30 amino acids is studied in vacuo using the Langevin molecular dynamics approach. The influence of side chain radicals on internal energy and heat capacity of the polypeptides is discussed. The heat...... capacity of these polypeptides is calculated as a function of temperature using two different methods, namely, as the derivative of the energy with respect to temperature, and on the basis of energy fluctuations in the system. The convergence of the fluctuations based approach is analyzed as a function...... of simulation time. This study provides a comparison of methods for the description of structural transitions in polypeptides....

  6. Thermodynamic constraints on fluctuation phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroney, O. J. E.

    2009-12-01

    The relationships among reversible Carnot cycles, the absence of perpetual motion machines, and the existence of a nondecreasing globally unique entropy function form the starting point of many textbook presentations of the foundations of thermodynamics. However, the thermal fluctuation phenomena associated with statistical mechanics has been argued to restrict the domain of validity of this basis of the second law of thermodynamics. Here we demonstrate that fluctuation phenomena can be incorporated into the traditional presentation, extending rather than restricting the domain of validity of the phenomenologically motivated second law. Consistency conditions lead to constraints upon the possible spectrum of thermal fluctuations. In a special case this uniquely selects the Gibbs canonical distribution and more generally incorporates the Tsallis distributions. No particular model of microscopic dynamics need be assumed.

  7. Fluctuation theorems for quantum processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A; Marvian, Milad; Zanardi, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    We present fluctuation theorems and moment generating function equalities for generalized thermodynamic observables and quantum dynamics described by completely positive trace preserving maps, with and without feedback control. Our results include the quantum Jarzynski equality and Crooks fluctuation theorem, and clarify the special role played by the thermodynamic work and thermal equilibrium states in previous studies. We show that for a specific class of generalized measurements, which include projective measurements, unitality replaces microreversibility as the condition for the physicality of the reverse process in our fluctuation theorems. We present an experimental application of our theory to the problem of extracting the system-bath coupling magnitude, which we do for a system of pairs of coupled superconducting flux qubits undergoing quantum annealing.

  8. Fluctuation theorems for stochastic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. J.; Schütz, G. M.

    2007-07-01

    Fluctuation theorems make use of time reversal to make predictions about entropy production in many-body systems far from thermal equilibrium. Here we review the wide variety of distinct, but interconnected, relations that have been derived and investigated theoretically and experimentally. Significantly, we demonstrate, in the context of Markovian stochastic dynamics, how these different fluctuation theorems arise from a simple fundamental time-reversal symmetry of a certain class of observables. Appealing to the notion of Gibbs entropy allows for a microscopic definition of entropy production in terms of these observables. We work with the master equation approach, which leads to a mathematically straightforward proof and provides direct insight into the probabilistic meaning of the quantities involved. Finally, we point to some experiments that elucidate the practical significance of fluctuation relations.

  9. Fluctuation theorems for quantum processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.; Marvian, Milad; Zanardi, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    We present fluctuation theorems and moment generating function equalities for generalized thermodynamic observables and quantum dynamics described by completely positive trace preserving maps, with and without feedback control. Our results include the quantum Jarzynski equality and Crooks fluctuation theorem, and clarify the special role played by the thermodynamic work and thermal equilibrium states in previous studies. We show that for a specific class of generalized measurements, which include projective measurements, unitality replaces microreversibility as the condition for the physicality of the reverse process in our fluctuation theorems. We present an experimental application of our theory to the problem of extracting the system-bath coupling magnitude, which we do for a system of pairs of coupled superconducting flux qubits undergoing quantum annealing.

  10. pathChirp: Efficient Available Bandwidth Estimation for Network Paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, Les

    2003-04-30

    This paper presents pathChirp, a new active probing tool for estimating the available bandwidth on a communication network path. Based on the concept of ''self-induced congestion,'' pathChirp features an exponential flight pattern of probes we call a chirp. Packet chips offer several significant advantages over current probing schemes based on packet pairs or packet trains. By rapidly increasing the probing rate within each chirp, pathChirp obtains a rich set of information from which to dynamically estimate the available bandwidth. Since it uses only packet interarrival times for estimation, pathChirp does not require synchronous nor highly stable clocks at the sender and receiver. We test pathChirp with simulations and Internet experiments and find that it provides good estimates of the available bandwidth while using only a fraction of the number of probe bytes that current state-of-the-art techniques use.

  11. Path-length distribution and path-length-resolved Doppler measurements of multiply scattered photons by use of low-coherence interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petoukhova, A L; Steenbergen, W; de Mul, F F

    2001-10-01

    We report first results of measurements by low-coherence Doppler interferometry of the path-length distribution of photons undergoing multiple scattering in a highly turbid medium. We use a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with multimode graded-index fibers and a superluminescent diode as the light source. The path-length distribution is obtained by recording of the heterodyne fluctuations that arise from the Brownian motion of particles in an Intralipid suspension as a function of the optical path length. The experimental path-length distribution is in good agreement with predictions of Monte Carlo simulations. In the heterodyne spectrum, an increase of the mean Doppler frequency with path length is observed.

  12. High order path integrals made easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Venkat; Behler, Jörg; Ceriotti, Michele

    2016-12-21

    The precise description of quantum nuclear fluctuations in atomistic modelling is possible by employing path integral techniques, which involve a considerable computational overhead due to the need of simulating multiple replicas of the system. Many approaches have been suggested to reduce the required number of replicas. Among these, high-order factorizations of the Boltzmann operator are particularly attractive for high-precision and low-temperature scenarios. Unfortunately, to date, several technical challenges have prevented a widespread use of these approaches to study the nuclear quantum effects in condensed-phase systems. Here we introduce an inexpensive molecular dynamics scheme that overcomes these limitations, thus making it possible to exploit the improved convergence of high-order path integrals without having to sacrifice the stability, convenience, and flexibility of conventional second-order techniques. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated by simulations of liquid water and ice, as described by a neural-network potential fitted to the dispersion-corrected hybrid density functional theory calculations.

  13. High order path integrals made easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Venkat; Behler, Jörg; Ceriotti, Michele

    2016-12-01

    The precise description of quantum nuclear fluctuations in atomistic modelling is possible by employing path integral techniques, which involve a considerable computational overhead due to the need of simulating multiple replicas of the system. Many approaches have been suggested to reduce the required number of replicas. Among these, high-order factorizations of the Boltzmann operator are particularly attractive for high-precision and low-temperature scenarios. Unfortunately, to date, several technical challenges have prevented a widespread use of these approaches to study the nuclear quantum effects in condensed-phase systems. Here we introduce an inexpensive molecular dynamics scheme that overcomes these limitations, thus making it possible to exploit the improved convergence of high-order path integrals without having to sacrifice the stability, convenience, and flexibility of conventional second-order techniques. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated by simulations of liquid water and ice, as described by a neural-network potential fitted to the dispersion-corrected hybrid density functional theory calculations.

  14. Chromodynamic Fluctuations in Quark-Gluon Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

    2008-01-01

    Fluctuations of chromodynamic fields in the collisionless quark-gluon plasma are found as a solution of the initial value linearized problem. The plasma initial state is on average colorless, stationary and homogeneous. When the state is stable, the initial fluctuations decay exponentially and in the long-time limit a stationary spectrum of fluctuations is established. For the equilibrium plasma it reproduces the spectrum which is provided by the fluctuation-dissipation relation. Fluctuations...

  15. Steered transition path sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttenberg, Nicholas; Dinner, Aaron R; Weare, Jonathan

    2012-06-21

    We introduce a path sampling method for obtaining statistical properties of an arbitrary stochastic dynamics. The method works by decomposing a trajectory in time, estimating the probability of satisfying a progress constraint, modifying the dynamics based on that probability, and then reweighting to calculate averages. Because the progress constraint can be formulated in terms of occurrences of events within time intervals, the method is particularly well suited for controlling the sampling of currents of dynamic events. We demonstrate the method for calculating transition probabilities in barrier crossing problems and survival probabilities in strongly diffusive systems with absorbing states, which are difficult to treat by shooting. We discuss the relation of the algorithm to other methods.

  16. Signal recognition by green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) and Cope's gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) in naturally fluctuating noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Alejandro; Bee, Mark A

    2013-05-01

    This study tested three hypotheses about the ability of female frogs to exploit temporal fluctuations in the level of background noise to overcome the problem of recognizing male advertisement calls in noisy breeding choruses. Phonotaxis tests with green treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) and Cope's gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) were used to measure thresholds for recognizing calls in the presence of noise maskers with (a) no level fluctuations, (b) random fluctuations, or level fluctuations characteristic of (c) conspecific choruses and (d) heterospecific choruses. The dip-listening hypothesis predicted lower signal recognition thresholds in the presence of fluctuating maskers compared with nonfluctuating maskers. Support for the dip-listening hypothesis was weak; only Cope's gray treefrogs experienced dip listening and only in the presence of randomly fluctuating maskers. The natural soundscapes advantage hypothesis predicted lower recognition thresholds when level fluctuations resembled those of natural soundscapes compared with artificial fluctuations. This hypothesis was rejected. In noise backgrounds with natural fluctuations, the species-specific advantage hypothesis predicted lower recognition thresholds when fluctuations resembled species-specific patterns of conspecific soundscapes. No evidence was found to support this hypothesis. These results corroborate previous findings showing that Cope's gray treefrogs, but not green treefrogs, experience dip listening under some noise conditions. Together, the results suggest level fluctuations in the soundscape of natural breeding choruses may present few dip-listening opportunities. The findings of this study provide little support for the hypothesis that receivers are adapted to exploit level fluctuations of natural soundscapes in recognizing communication signals.

  17. Fluctuating Asymmetry and Steroid Hormones: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Benderlioglu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA represents random, minor deviations from perfect symmetry in paired traits. Because the development of the left and right sides of a paired trait is presumably controlled by an identical set of genetic instructions, these small imperfections are considered to reflect genetic and environmental perturbations experienced during ontogeny. The current paper aims to identify possible neuroendocrine mechanisms, namely the actions of steroid hormones that may impact the development of asymmetrical characters as a response to various stressors. In doing so, it provides a review of the published studies on the influences of glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens on FA and concomitant changes in other health and fitness indicators. It follows the premise that hormonal measures may provide direct, non-invasive indicators of how individuals cope with adverse life conditions, strengthening the associations between FA and health, fitness, and behavior.

  18. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of multifractional Brownian motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setty, Venkat; Sharma, Surjalal

    2013-03-01

    Multifractional Brownian Motion (mBm) is a generalization of Fractional Brownian motion (fBm) with a time varying Hurst exponent, H (t) . Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is a technique used to study the scaling behavior representing long term correlations in various dynamical systems. In our work, we apply DFA to calculate a time averaged Hurst exponent, in mBm data. The accuracy of estimation of was shown to depend on the range and variability of H (t) . Furthermore, the effect of uniform random noise in H (t) on the nature of scaling observed in DFA is studied. Our research focusses on the robustness and applicability of the DFA technique for studying long term correlations in systems with time varying Hurst exponents akin to mBm .

  19. Fluctuation theorem in driven nonthermal systems with quenched disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, C J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Drocco, J A [PRINCETON UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that the fluctuation theorem of Evans and Searles can be used to characterize the class of dynamics that arises in nonthermal systems of collectively interacting particles driven over random quenched disorder. By observing the frequency of entropy-destroying trajectories, we show that there are specific dynamical regimes near depinning in which this theorem holds. Hence the fluctuation theorem can be used to characterize a significantly wider class of non-equilibrium systems than previously considered. We discuss how the fluctuation theorem could be tested in specific systems where noisy dynamics appear at the transition from a pinned to a moving phase such as in vortices in type-II superconductors, magnetic domain walls, and dislocation dynamics.

  20. Resistance Fluctuations in GaAs Nanowire Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Marasović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical study on resistance fluctuations in a series of nanowire-based grids. Each grid is made of GaAs nanowires arranged in parallel with metallic contacts crossing all nanowires perpendicularly. Electrical properties of GaAs nanowires known from previous experimental research are used as input parameters in the simulation procedure. Due to the nonhomogeneous doping, the resistivity changes along nanowire. Allowing two possible nanowire orientations (“upwards” or “downwards”, the resulting grid is partially disordered in vertical direction which causes resistance fluctuations. The system is modeled using a two-dimensional random resistor network. Transfer-matrix computation algorithm is used to calculate the total network resistance. It is found that probability density function (PDF of resistance fluctuations for a series of nanowire grids changes from Gaussian behavior towards the Bramwell-Holdsworth-Pinton distribution when both nanowire orientations are equally represented in the grid.

  1. Path integral in Snyder space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignemi, S., E-mail: smignemi@unica.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy); Štrajn, R. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy)

    2016-04-29

    The definition of path integrals in one- and two-dimensional Snyder space is discussed in detail both in the traditional setting and in the first-order formalism of Faddeev and Jackiw. - Highlights: • The definition of the path integral in Snyder space is discussed using phase space methods. • The same result is obtained in the first-order formalism of Faddeev and Jackiw. • The path integral formulation of the two-dimensional Snyder harmonic oscillator is outlined.

  2. Linear modeling of glacier fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06833656X

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution a linear first-order differential equation is used to model glacier length fluctuations. This equation has two parameters describing the physical characteristics of a glacier: the climate sensitivity, expressing how the equilibrium glacier length depends on the climatic state,

  3. Fluctuating hydrodynamics for ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaridis, Konstantinos [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Washington State University, Pullman, 99163 (United States); Wickham, Logan [Department of Computer Science, Washington State University, Richland, 99354 (United States); Voulgarakis, Nikolaos, E-mail: n.voulgarakis@wsu.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Washington State University, Pullman, 99163 (United States)

    2017-04-25

    We present a mean-field fluctuating hydrodynamics (FHD) method for studying the structural and transport properties of ionic liquids in bulk and near electrified surfaces. The free energy of the system consists of two competing terms: (1) a Landau–Lifshitz functional that models the spontaneous separation of the ionic groups, and (2) the standard mean-field electrostatic interaction between the ions in the liquid. The numerical approach used to solve the resulting FHD-Poisson equations is very efficient and models thermal fluctuations with remarkable accuracy. Such density fluctuations are sufficiently strong to excite the experimentally observed spontaneous formation of liquid nano-domains. Statistical analysis of our simulations provides quantitative information about the properties of ionic liquids, such as the mixing quality, stability, and the size of the nano-domains. Our model, thus, can be adequately parameterized by directly comparing our prediction with experimental measurements and all-atom simulations. Conclusively, this work can serve as a practical mathematical tool for testing various theories and designing more efficient mixtures of ionic liquids. - Highlights: • A new fluctuating hydrodynamics method for ionic liquids. • Description of ionic liquid morphology in bulk and near electrified surfaces. • Direct comparison with experimental measurements.

  4. Fluctuation scaling in the visual cortex at threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, José M.; Díaz, José A.

    2016-05-01

    Fluctuation scaling relates trial-to-trial variability to the average response by a power function in many physical processes. Here we address whether fluctuation scaling holds in sensory psychophysics and its functional role in visual processing. We report experimental evidence of fluctuation scaling in human color vision and form perception at threshold. Subjects detected thresholds in a psychophysical masking experiment that is considered a standard reference for studying suppression between neurons in the visual cortex. For all subjects, the analysis of threshold variability that results from the masking task indicates that fluctuation scaling is a global property that modulates detection thresholds with a scaling exponent that departs from 2, β =2.48 ±0.07 . We also examine a generalized version of fluctuation scaling between the sample kurtosis K and the sample skewness S of threshold distributions. We find that K and S are related and follow a unique quadratic form K =(1.19 ±0.04 ) S2+(2.68 ±0.06 ) that departs from the expected 4/3 power function regime. A random multiplicative process with weak additive noise is proposed based on a Langevin-type equation. The multiplicative process provides a unifying description of fluctuation scaling and the quadratic S -K relation and is related to on-off intermittency in sensory perception. Our findings provide an insight into how the human visual system interacts with the external environment. The theoretical methods open perspectives for investigating fluctuation scaling and intermittency effects in a wide variety of natural, economic, and cognitive phenomena.

  5. Statistical analysis of optical turbulence intensity over a 2.33 km propagation path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunick, Arnold

    2007-04-02

    Refractive index and microclimate fluctuations can significantly affect free-space laser communications. To better understand these physics relationships, optical scintillometer data were collected over a near-horizontal propagation path along with in-situ rooftop measurements of temperature variance. Regression analysis of time-averaged data revealed that fairly high correlation values (i.e., R >/= 0.80) occurred in 8 of 21 cases studied. Analysis suggests that point sensors can provide valuable information on optical turbulence for extended paths. Additional research is recommended to further explore point measurements and their relation to integrated values of optical turbulence over inhomogeneous paths.

  6. The Thinnest Path Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-22

    number of super ver - tices that it covers. The correctness of the reduction thus follows from the same arguments in the proof of Lemma 3 based on the...both algorithms have relatively small ap- proximation ratios growing sublinearly with the number of ver - tices. In general, TSBA outperforms SPBA on...5. Average performance of SPBA and TSBA (a 2-D network with ver - tices uniformly and randomly distributed on an square with ; the maximum range of

  7. Computational path planner for product assembly in complex environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wei; Liu, Jianhua; Ning, Ruxin; Liu, Mi

    2013-03-01

    Assembly path planning is a crucial problem in assembly related design and manufacturing processes. Sampling based motion planning algorithms are used for computational assembly path planning. However, the performance of such algorithms may degrade much in environments with complex product structure, narrow passages or other challenging scenarios. A computational path planner for automatic assembly path planning in complex 3D environments is presented. The global planning process is divided into three phases based on the environment and specific algorithms are proposed and utilized in each phase to solve the challenging issues. A novel ray test based stochastic collision detection method is proposed to evaluate the intersection between two polyhedral objects. This method avoids fake collisions in conventional methods and degrades the geometric constraint when a part has to be removed with surface contact with other parts. A refined history based rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT) algorithm which bias the growth of the tree based on its planning history is proposed and employed in the planning phase where the path is simple but the space is highly constrained. A novel adaptive RRT algorithm is developed for the path planning problem with challenging scenarios and uncertain environment. With extending values assigned on each tree node and extending schemes applied, the tree can adapts its growth to explore complex environments more efficiently. Experiments on the key algorithms are carried out and comparisons are made between the conventional path planning algorithms and the presented ones. The comparing results show that based on the proposed algorithms, the path planner can compute assembly path in challenging complex environments more efficiently and with higher success. This research provides the references to the study of computational assembly path planning under complex environments.

  8. Sustainable Energy Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Yamamoto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The uses of fossil fuels cause not only the resources exhaustion but also the environmental problems such as global warming. The purposes of this study are to evaluate paths toward sustainable energy systems and roles of each renewable. In order to realize the purposes, the authors developed the global land use and energy model that figured the global energy supply systems in the future considering the cost minimization. Using the model, the authors conducted a simulation in C30R scenario, which is a kind of strict CO2 emission limit scenarios and reduced CO2 emissions by 30% compared with Kyoto protocol forever scenario, and obtained the following results. In C30R scenario bioenergy will supply 33% of all the primary energy consumption. However, wind and photovoltaic will supply 1.8% and 1.4% of all the primary energy consumption, respectively, because of the limits of power grid stability. The results imply that the strict limits of CO2 emissions are not sufficient to achieve the complete renewable energy systems. In order to use wind and photovoltaic as major energy resources, we need not only to reduce the plant costs but also to develop unconventional renewable technologies.

  9. Path integrals as discrete sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Khalil; Khuri, N. N.; Ren, H. C.

    1991-08-01

    We present a new formulation of Feynman's path integral, based on Voronin's theorems on the universality of the Riemann zeta function. The result is a discrete sum over ``paths,'' each given by a zeta function. A new measure which leads to the correct quantum mechanics is explicitly given.

  10. Rainbow paths with prescribed ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alishahi, Meysam; Taherkhani, Ali; Thomassen, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    It was conjectured in [S. Akbari, F. Khaghanpoor, and S. Moazzeni. Colorful paths in vertex coloring of graphs. Preprint] that, if G is a connected graph distinct from C-7, then there is a chi(G)-coloring of G in which every vertex v is an element of V(G) is an initial vertex of a path P with chi...

  11. Chromatic roots and hamiltonian paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    We present a new connection between colorings and hamiltonian paths: If the chromatic polynomial of a graph has a noninteger root less than or equal to t(n) = 2/3 + 1/3 (3)root (26 + 6 root (33)) + 1/3 (3)root (26 - 6 root (33)) = 1.29559.... then the graph has no hamiltonian path. This result...

  12. Parity fluctuations in stellar dynamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, D. L.; Sokoloff, D. D.

    2017-10-01

    Observations of the solar butterfly diagram from sunspot records suggest persistent fluctuations in parity, away from the overall, approximately dipolar pattern. A simple mean-field dynamo model is used with a solar-like rotation law and perturbed α effect. The parity of the magnetic field relative to the rotational equator can demonstrate can be described as resonance behavior, while the magnetic energy behaves in a more or less expected way. Possible applications of this effect are discussed in the context of various deviations of the solar magnetic field from dipolar symmetry, as reported from analyses of archival sunspot data. The model produces fluctuations in field parity, and hence in the butterfly diagram, that are consistent with observed fluctuaions in solar behavior.

  13. Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.; Roberts, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences associated with development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in the two less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in the more developed sites. Thematically, people in the two less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community-based solutions, while people in the more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in the two water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in the water-rich sites. Thematically, people in the two water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in the water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.

  14. Path Integral Treatment of Proton Transport Processes in BaZrO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qianfan; Wahnstrom, Goran; Björketun, Mårten

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear quantum effects on proton transfer and reorientation in BaZrO3 is investigated theoretically using the ab initio path-integral molecular-dynamics simulation technique. The result demonstrates that adding quantum fluctuations has a large effect on, in particular, the transfer barrier. The ...

  15. Fuel Temperature Fluctuations During Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, R. E.; Zemenkov, Yu D.

    2016-10-01

    When oil and petroleum products are stored, their temperature significantly impacts how their properties change. The paper covers the problem of determining temperature fluctuations of hydrocarbons during storage. It provides results of the authors’ investigations of the stored product temperature variations relative to the ambient temperature. Closeness and correlation coefficients between these values are given. Temperature variations equations for oil and petroleum products stored in tanks are deduced.

  16. Optimal paths on the road network as directed polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon, A. P.; Bunin, G.; Chu, S.; Kardar, M.

    2017-11-01

    We analyze the statistics of the shortest and fastest paths on the road network between randomly sampled end points. We find that, to a good approximation, the optimal paths can be described as directed polymers in a disordered medium, which belong to the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class of interface roughening. Comparing the scaling behavior of our data with simulations of directed polymers and previous theoretical results, we are able to point out the few characteristics of the road network that are relevant to the large-scale statistics of optimal paths. Indeed, we show that the local structure is akin to a disordered environment with a power-law distribution which become less important at large scales where long-ranged correlations in the network control the scaling behavior of the optimal paths.

  17. Being there is important, but getting there matters too: the role of path in the valuation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Julie H

    2006-01-01

    Traditional decision-analytic models presume that utilities are invariant to context. The influence of 2 types of context on patients' utility assessments was examined here the path by which one reaches a health state and personal experience with a health state. Three groups of patients were interviewed: men older than age 49 years with prostate cancer but no diabetes (CaP), diabetes but no prostate cancer (DM), and neither disease (ND). The utility of erectile dysfunction (ED) was assessed using a standard gamble (SG). Each subject completed 2 SGs: 1) a no-context version that gave no explanation for the cause of ED and 2) a contextualized version in which prostate cancer treatment, the failure to manage diabetes, or the natural course of aging was said to be the cause. Patients with disease assigned higher utilities to ED in a matching context than in discrepant contexts. Regression models found that the valuation process was also sensitive to the match between disease path in the utility assessment and patients' personal experiences. These findings lend insight into why acontextual utility assessments typically used in decision analyses have not been able to predict patient behavior as well as expected. The valuation process appears to change systematically when context is specified, suggesting that unspecified contexts rather than random error may lead to fluctuations in the values assigned to identical health states.

  18. Theory of overdispersion in counting statistics caused by fluctuating probabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semkow, Thomas M. E-mail: semkow@wadsworth.org

    1999-11-01

    It is shown that the random Lexis fluctuations of probabilities such as probability of decay or detection cause the counting statistics to be overdispersed with respect to the classical binomial, Poisson, or Gaussian distributions. The generating and the distribution functions for the overdispersed counting statistics are derived. Applications to radioactive decay with detection and more complex experiments are given, as well as distinguishing between the source and background, in the presence of overdispersion. Monte-Carlo verifications are provided.

  19. Theory of overdispersion in counting statistics caused by fluctuating probabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Semkow, T M

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that the random Lexis fluctuations of probabilities such as probability of decay or detection cause the counting statistics to be overdispersed with respect to the classical binomial, Poisson, or Gaussian distributions. The generating and the distribution functions for the overdispersed counting statistics are derived. Applications to radioactive decay with detection and more complex experiments are given, as well as distinguishing between the source and background, in the presence of overdispersion. Monte-Carlo verifications are provided.

  20. Relationship among phenotypic plasticity, phenotypic fluctuations ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    These results provide quantitative formulation on canalization and genetic assimilation, in terms of fluctuations of gene expression levels. [Kaneko K 2009 Relationship among phenotypic plasticity, phenotypic fluctuations, robustness, and evolvability; Waddington's legacy revisited under the spirit of Einstein; J. Biosci.

  1. Some comments to the quantum fluctuation theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzovlev, Yu. E.

    2011-01-01

    It is demonstrated that today's quantum fluctuation theorems are component part of old quantum fluctuation-dissipation relations [Sov.Phys.-JETP 45, 125 (1977)], and typical misunderstandings in this area are pointed out.

  2. Correlated interaction fluctuations in photosynthetic complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Vlaming, Sebastiaan M

    2011-01-01

    The functioning and efficiency of natural photosynthetic complexes is strongly influenced by their embedding in a noisy protein environment, which can even serve to enhance the transport efficiency. Interactions with the environment induce fluctuations of the transition energies of and interactions between the chlorophyll molecules, and due to the fact that different fluctuations will partially be caused by the same environmental factors, correlations between the various fluctuations will occur. We argue that fluctuations of the interactions should in general not be neglected, as these have a considerable impact on population transfer rates, decoherence rates and the efficiency of photosynthetic complexes. Furthermore, while correlations between transition energy fluctuations have been studied, we provide the first quantitative study of the effect of correlations between interaction fluctuations and transition energy fluctuations, and of correlations between the various interaction fluctuations. It is shown t...

  3. Refractive-index and absorption fluctuations in the infrared caused by temperature, humidity, and pressure fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R. J.; Clifford, S. F.; Lawrence, R. S.

    1980-10-01

    The dependence of fluctuations in atmospheric absorption and refraction upon fluctuations in temperature, humidity, and pressure is found for infrared frequencies. This dependence has contributions from line and continuum absorption and from anomalous refraction by water vapor. The functions that relate these fluctuations are necessary for evaluating degradation of electromagnetic radiation by turbulence. They are computed for a given choice of mean atmospheric conditions and graphed as functions of frequency in the wavelength range 5.7 microns to radio waves. It is found that turbulent fluctuations in total pressure give a negligible contribution to absorption and refraction fluctuations. Humidity fluctuations dominate absorption fluctuations, but contributions by temperature and humidity affect refraction fluctuations. Sufficiently strong humidity fluctuations can dominate the refraction fluctuations for some infrared frequencies but not for visible frequencies. The variance of log amplitude is examined for scintillation of infrared light to determine whether absorption or refraction fluctuations dominate under several conditions.

  4. A Generalization of Electromagnetic Fluctuation-Induced Casimir Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermolecular forces responsible for adhesion and cohesion can be classified according to their origins; interactions between charges, ions, random dipole—random dipole (Keesom, random dipole—induced dipole (Debye are due to electrostatic effects; covalent bonding, London dispersion forces between fluctuating dipoles, and Lewis acid-base interactions are due to quantum mechanical effects; pressure and osmotic forces are of entropic origin. Of all these interactions, the London dispersion interaction is universal and exists between all types of atoms as well as macroscopic objects. The dispersion force between macroscopic objects is called Casimir/van der Waals force. It results from alteration of the quantum and thermal fluctuations of the electrodynamic field due to the presence of interfaces and plays a significant role in the interaction between macroscopic objects at micrometer and nanometer length scales. This paper discusses how fluctuational electrodynamics can be used to determine the Casimir energy/pressure between planar multilayer objects. Though it is confirmation of the famous work of Dzyaloshinskii, Lifshitz, and Pitaevskii (DLP, we have solved the problem without having to use methods from quantum field theory that DLP resorted to. Because of this new approach, we have been able to clarify the contributions of propagating and evanescent waves to Casimir energy/pressure in dissipative media.

  5. Path Similarity Analysis: A Method for Quantifying Macromolecular Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyler, Sean L; Kumar, Avishek; Thorpe, M F; Beckstein, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    Diverse classes of proteins function through large-scale conformational changes and various sophisticated computational algorithms have been proposed to enhance sampling of these macromolecular transition paths. Because such paths are curves in a high-dimensional space, it has been difficult to quantitatively compare multiple paths, a necessary prerequisite to, for instance, assess the quality of different algorithms. We introduce a method named Path Similarity Analysis (PSA) that enables us to quantify the similarity between two arbitrary paths and extract the atomic-scale determinants responsible for their differences. PSA utilizes the full information available in 3N-dimensional configuration space trajectories by employing the Hausdorff or Fréchet metrics (adopted from computational geometry) to quantify the degree of similarity between piecewise-linear curves. It thus completely avoids relying on projections into low dimensional spaces, as used in traditional approaches. To elucidate the principles of PSA, we quantified the effect of path roughness induced by thermal fluctuations using a toy model system. Using, as an example, the closed-to-open transitions of the enzyme adenylate kinase (AdK) in its substrate-free form, we compared a range of protein transition path-generating algorithms. Molecular dynamics-based dynamic importance sampling (DIMS) MD and targeted MD (TMD) and the purely geometric FRODA (Framework Rigidity Optimized Dynamics Algorithm) were tested along with seven other methods publicly available on servers, including several based on the popular elastic network model (ENM). PSA with clustering revealed that paths produced by a given method are more similar to each other than to those from another method and, for instance, that the ENM-based methods produced relatively similar paths. PSA applied to ensembles of DIMS MD and FRODA trajectories of the conformational transition of diphtheria toxin, a particularly challenging example, showed that

  6. Path Similarity Analysis: A Method for Quantifying Macromolecular Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean L Seyler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diverse classes of proteins function through large-scale conformational changes and various sophisticated computational algorithms have been proposed to enhance sampling of these macromolecular transition paths. Because such paths are curves in a high-dimensional space, it has been difficult to quantitatively compare multiple paths, a necessary prerequisite to, for instance, assess the quality of different algorithms. We introduce a method named Path Similarity Analysis (PSA that enables us to quantify the similarity between two arbitrary paths and extract the atomic-scale determinants responsible for their differences. PSA utilizes the full information available in 3N-dimensional configuration space trajectories by employing the Hausdorff or Fréchet metrics (adopted from computational geometry to quantify the degree of similarity between piecewise-linear curves. It thus completely avoids relying on projections into low dimensional spaces, as used in traditional approaches. To elucidate the principles of PSA, we quantified the effect of path roughness induced by thermal fluctuations using a toy model system. Using, as an example, the closed-to-open transitions of the enzyme adenylate kinase (AdK in its substrate-free form, we compared a range of protein transition path-generating algorithms. Molecular dynamics-based dynamic importance sampling (DIMS MD and targeted MD (TMD and the purely geometric FRODA (Framework Rigidity Optimized Dynamics Algorithm were tested along with seven other methods publicly available on servers, including several based on the popular elastic network model (ENM. PSA with clustering revealed that paths produced by a given method are more similar to each other than to those from another method and, for instance, that the ENM-based methods produced relatively similar paths. PSA applied to ensembles of DIMS MD and FRODA trajectories of the conformational transition of diphtheria toxin, a particularly challenging example

  7. Out of control: Fluctuation of cascading dynamics in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianwei; Cai, Lin; Xu, Bo; Li, Peng; Sun, Enhui; Zhu, Zhiguo

    2016-11-01

    Applying two preferential selection mechanisms of flow destination, we develop two new methods to quantify the initial load of a node, where the flow is transported along the shortest path between two nodes. We propose a simple cascading model and study cascading dynamics induced by attacking the node with the highest load in some synthetic and actual networks. Surprisingly, we observe the abnormal fluctuation of cascading dynamics, i.e., more damage can be triggered if we spend significantly higher cost to protect a network. In particular, this phenomenon is independent of the initial flow distribution and the preferential selection mechanisms of flow destination. However, it remains unclear which specific structural patterns may affect the fluctuation of cascading dynamics. In this paper, we examine the local evolution of the cascading propagation by constructing some special networks. We show that revivals of some nodes in the double ring structure facilitate the transportation of the flow between two unconnected sub-networks, cause more damage and subsequently lead to the abnormal fluctuation of cascading dynamics. Compared with the traditional definition of the betweenness, we adopt two new proposed methods to further evaluate the resilience of several actual networks. We find that some real world networks reach the strongest resilience level against cascading failures in our preferential selection mechanisms of flow destination. Moreover, we explore how to use the minimum cost to maximize the resilience of the studied networks.

  8. Pathways with PathWhiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon, Allison; Jewison, Timothy; Su, Yilu; Liang, Yongjie; Knox, Craig; Maciejewski, Adam; Wilson, Michael; Wishart, David S

    2015-07-01

    PathWhiz (http://smpdb.ca/pathwhiz) is a web server designed to create colourful, visually pleasing and biologically accurate pathway diagrams that are both machine-readable and interactive. As a web server, PathWhiz is accessible from almost any place and compatible with essentially any operating system. It also houses a public library of pathways and pathway components that can be easily viewed and expanded upon by its users. PathWhiz allows users to readily generate biologically complex pathways by using a specially designed drawing palette to quickly render metabolites (including automated structure generation), proteins (including quaternary structures, covalent modifications and cofactors), nucleic acids, membranes, subcellular structures, cells, tissues and organs. Both small-molecule and protein/gene pathways can be constructed by combining multiple pathway processes such as reactions, interactions, binding events and transport activities. PathWhiz's pathway replication and propagation functions allow for existing pathways to be used to create new pathways or for existing pathways to be automatically propagated across species. PathWhiz pathways can be saved in BioPAX, SBGN-ML and SBML data exchange formats, as well as PNG, PWML, HTML image map or SVG images that can be viewed offline or explored using PathWhiz's interactive viewer. PathWhiz has been used to generate over 700 pathway diagrams for a number of popular databases including HMDB, DrugBank and SMPDB. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Fluctuation theory of luminance and chromaticity discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, M.A.; Vos, J.J.; Walraven, P.L.

    1963-01-01

    An attempt has been made to describe brightness and color discrimination in the framework of a fluctuation theory. The fluctuation theory states that a difference between two stimuli will be just noticeable if it exceeds, by some factor, the average of the fluctuations in the stimuli. If the

  10. Path integrals and quantum processes

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, Marc S

    1992-01-01

    In a clearly written and systematic presentation, Path Integrals and Quantum Processes covers all concepts necessary to understand the path integral approach to calculating transition elements, partition functions, and source functionals. The book, which assumes only a familiarity with quantum mechanics, is ideal for use as a supplemental textbook in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory courses. Graduate and post-graduate students who are unfamiliar with the path integral will also benefit from this contemporary text. Exercise sets are interspersed throughout the text to facilitate self-

  11. Optical Scintillation on Folded Paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    8 (+ boundazy conditions) (11-16) where # is the probability amplitude function. We know that for a free particle in a one dimension motion, 20 $1_...path. Since the total probability amplitude is the sum of the contributions from all possible paths, it is given by I. *(a,b) = JD (paths) exp[is(a,b...2 L = - - and the action integral is given by tb S - L dt (11-17) ta Starting from Feynman’s basic assumption, namely that the probability

  12. General framework for fluctuating dynamic density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Olivencia, Miguel A.; Yatsyshin, Peter; Goddard, Benjamin D.; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2017-12-01

    We introduce a versatile bottom-up derivation of a formal theoretical framework to describe (passive) soft-matter systems out of equilibrium subject to fluctuations. We provide a unique connection between the constituent-particle dynamics of real systems and the time evolution equation of their measurable (coarse-grained) quantities, such as local density and velocity. The starting point is the full Hamiltonian description of a system of colloidal particles immersed in a fluid of identical bath particles. Then, we average out the bath via Zwanzig’s projection-operator techniques and obtain the stochastic Langevin equations governing the colloidal-particle dynamics. Introducing the appropriate definition of the local number and momentum density fields yields a generalisation of the Dean–Kawasaki (DK) model, which resembles the stochastic Navier–Stokes description of a fluid. Nevertheless, the DK equation still contains all the microscopic information and, for that reason, does not represent the dynamical law of observable quantities. We address this controversial feature of the DK description by carrying out a nonequilibrium ensemble average. Adopting a natural decomposition into local-equilibrium and nonequilibrium contribution, where the former is related to a generalised version of the canonical distribution, we finally obtain the fluctuating-hydrodynamic equation governing the time-evolution of the mesoscopic density and momentum fields. Along the way, we outline the connection between the ad hoc energy functional introduced in previous DK derivations and the free-energy functional from classical density-functional theory. The resultant equation has the structure of a dynamical density-functional theory (DDFT) with an additional fluctuating force coming from the random interactions with the bath. We show that our fluctuating DDFT formalism corresponds to a particular version of the fluctuating Navier–Stokes equations, originally derived by Landau and

  13. How to reliably estimate the tortuosity of an animal's path: straightness, sinuosity, or fractal dimension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamou, Simon

    2004-07-21

    The tortuosity of an animal's path is a key parameter in orientation and searching behaviours. The tortuosity of an oriented path is inversely related to the efficiency of the orientation mechanism involved, the best mechanism being assumed to allow the animal to reach its goal along a straight line movement. The tortuosity of a random search path controls the local searching intensity, allowing the animal to adjust its search effort to the local profitability of the environment. This paper shows that (1) the efficiency of an oriented path can be reliably estimated by a straightness index computed as the ratio between the distance from the starting point to the goal and the path length travelled to reach the goal, but such a simple index, ranging between 0 and 1, cannot be applied to random search paths; (2) the tortuosity of a random search path, ranging between straight line movement and Brownian motion, can be reliably estimated by a sinuosity index which combines the mean cosine of changes of direction with the mean step length; and (3) in the current state of the art, the fractal analysis of animals' paths, which may appear as an alternative and promising way to measure the tortuosity of a random search path as a fractal dimension ranging between 1 (straight line movement) and 2 (Brownian motion), is only liable to generate artifactual results. This paper also provides some help for distinguishing between oriented and random search paths, and depicts a general, comprehensive framework for analysing individual animals' paths in a two-dimensional space.

  14. The Behavior of Endangered Populations in a Randomly Fluctuating Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Frequently wildlife managers must decide how to allocate limited resources amongst a plurality of threatened salmon stocks. In the absence of adequate abundance data, knowledge of stocks life histories might be used to rank risk of extinction thereby allowing more efficient allocation of resources. In Chapter one I assess how differences in life histories contribute to relative risk of extinction using Pacific salmon as an example. Using simulations of coho and chinook salmon. I find increase...

  15. Shortest-Path Network Interdiction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Israeli, Eltan; Wood, R. K

    2002-01-01

    We study the problem of interdicting the arcs in a network in order to maximize the shortest s-t path length "Interdiction" is an attack on an arc that destroys the arc or increases its effective length...

  16. Chaotic fluctuations in mathematical economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki, E-mail: yoshida.hiroyuki@nihon-u.ac.jp [College of Economics, Nihon University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8360 (Japan)

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we examine a Cournot duopoly model, which expresses the strategic interaction between two firms. We formulate the dynamic adjustment process and investigate the dynamic properties of the stationary point. By introducing a memory mechanism characterized by distributed lag functions, we presuppose that each firm makes production decisions in a cautious manner. This implies that we have to deal with the system of integro-differential equations. By means of numerical simulations we show the occurrence of chaotic fluctuations in the case of fixed delays.

  17. Electrostatic fluctuations in soap films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D S; Horgan, R R

    2002-06-01

    A field theory to describe electrostatic interactions in soap films, described by electric multilayers with a generalized thermodynamic surface-charging mechanism, is studied. In the limit where the electrostatic interactions are weak, this theory is exactly soluble. The theory incorporates in a consistent way, the surface-charging mechanism and the fluctuations in the electrostatic field that correspond to the zero-frequency component of the van der Waals force. It is shown that these terms lead to a Casimir-like attraction that can be sufficiently large to explain the transition between the common black film to a Newton black film.

  18. Path-based Queries on Trajectory Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Pelekis, Nikos; Theodoridis, Yannis

    2014-01-01

    In traffic research, management, and planning a number of path-based analyses are heavily used, e.g., for computing turn-times, evaluating green waves, or studying traffic flow. These analyses require retrieving the trajectories that follow the full path being analyzed. Existing path queries cannot...... sufficiently support such path-based analyses because they retrieve all trajectories that touch any edge in the path. In this paper, we define and formalize the strict path query. This is a novel query type tailored to support path-based analysis, where trajectories must follow all edges in the path....... To efficiently support strict path queries, we present a novel NETwork-constrained TRAjectory index (NETTRA). This index enables very efficient retrieval of trajectories that follow a specific path, i.e., strict path queries. NETTRA uses a new path encoding scheme that can determine if a trajectory follows...

  19. Paths into Professional School: A Research Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Margaret L.

    1975-01-01

    The literature of occupations and professions implies that there may be different paths into given work activities. Four different paths into dental school are described and illustrated, and different conditions are associated with each path. (Author/BP)

  20. Formal language constrained path problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.

    1997-07-08

    In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.

  1. Random processes in nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, M M R

    1974-01-01

    Random Processes in Nuclear Reactors describes the problems that a nuclear engineer may meet which involve random fluctuations and sets out in detail how they may be interpreted in terms of various models of the reactor system. Chapters set out to discuss topics on the origins of random processes and sources; the general technique to zero-power problems and bring out the basic effect of fission, and fluctuations in the lifetime of neutrons, on the measured response; the interpretation of power reactor noise; and associated problems connected with mechanical, hydraulic and thermal noise sources

  2. An objective fluctuation score for Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm K Horne

    Full Text Available Establishing the presence and severity of fluctuations is important in managing Parkinson's Disease yet there is no reliable, objective means of doing this. In this study we have evaluated a Fluctuation Score derived from variations in dyskinesia and bradykinesia scores produced by an accelerometry based system.The Fluctuation Score was produced by summing the interquartile range of bradykinesia scores and dyskinesia scores produced every 2 minutes between 0900-1800 for at least 6 days by the accelerometry based system and expressing it as an algorithm.This Score could distinguish between fluctuating and non-fluctuating patients with high sensitivity and selectivity and was significant lower following activation of deep brain stimulators. The scores following deep brain stimulation lay in a band just above the score separating fluctuators from non-fluctuators, suggesting a range representing adequate motor control. When compared with control subjects the score of newly diagnosed patients show a loss of fluctuation with onset of PD. The score was calculated in subjects whose duration of disease was known and this showed that newly diagnosed patients soon develop higher scores which either fall under or within the range representing adequate motor control or instead go on to develop more severe fluctuations.The Fluctuation Score described here promises to be a useful tool for identifying patients whose fluctuations are progressing and may require therapeutic changes. It also shows promise as a useful research tool. Further studies are required to more accurately identify therapeutic targets and ranges.

  3. An Optimized Hybrid Approach for Path Finding

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Ahlam; Sayyed, Mohd Amin; Ratlamwala, Khatija; Shaikh, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Path finding algorithm addresses problem of finding shortest path from source to destination avoiding obstacles. There exist various search algorithms namely A*, Dijkstra's and ant colony optimization. Unlike most path finding algorithms which require destination co-ordinates to compute path, the proposed algorithm comprises of a new method which finds path using backtracking without requiring destination co-ordinates. Moreover, in existing path finding algorithm, the number of iterations req...

  4. Effects of stochastic population fluctuations in two models of biological macroevolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Yohsuke; Shimada, Takashi; Ito, Nobuyasu; Rikvold, Per Arne

    Two mathematical models of macroevolution are studied. These models have population dynamics at the species level, and mutations and extinction of species are also included. The population dynamics are updated by difference equations with stochastic noise terms that characterize population fluctuations. The effects of the stochastic population fluctuations on diversity and total population sizes on evolutionary time scales are studied. In one model, species can make either predator-prey, mutualistic, or competitive interactions, while the other model allows only predator-prey interactions. When the noise in the population dynamics is strong enough, both models show intermittent behavior and their power spectral densities show approximate 1/f fluctuations. In the noiseless limit, the two models have different power spectral densities. For the predator-prey model, 1/f2 fluctuations appears, indicating random-walk like behavior, while the other model still shows 1/f noise. These results indicate that stochastic population fluctuations may significantly affect long-time evolutionary dynamics.

  5. Asteroidal Quadruples in non Rooted Path Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Marisa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A directed path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a directed tree. A rooted path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a rooted tree. Rooted path graphs are directed path graphs. Several characterizations are known for directed path graphs: one by forbidden induced subgraphs and one by forbidden asteroids. It is an open problem to find such characterizations for rooted path graphs. For this purpose, we are studying in this paper directed path graphs that are non rooted path graphs. We prove that such graphs always contain an asteroidal quadruple.

  6. Multifractal conductance fluctuations in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bid, Aveek; Rafsanjani Amin, Kazi; Pal, Nairita; Sankar Ray, Samriddhi; Pandit, Rahul

    A multifractal (MF) system is characterized by scaling laws involving an infinite number of exponents. In condensed-matter systems, signatures of multifractality have typically been found in the structure of the critical wave functions at localization delocalization (LD) transitions. We report here the first experimental observation of MF statistics in the transport coefficients of a quantum-condensed matter system. We unearth this through a careful investigation of the magneto-conductance fluctuations in ultra-high mobility single layer graphene at ultra-low temperatures. We obtain the MF spectra over a wide range of temperature and doping levels and show that the multifractality decreases as the temperature increases or as the doping moves the system away from the Dirac point. We show that the fractal exponents are a universal function of the phase coherence length of the carriers. We propose that a probable origin of the MF magneto-conductance fluctuations observed by us is an incipient Anderson LD transition in graphene near the charge neutrality point - a phenomenon predicted but never observed in single layer graphene. We also explore alternate possibilities of the origin of the multifractality namely relativistic quantum scars. AB acknowledges funding from Nanomission, DST, Govt. of India and SERB, DST, Govt. of India.

  7. Entropic fluctuations in DNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanos, Dimitrios; Li, Wentian; Provata, Astero

    2018-03-01

    The Local Shannon Entropy (LSE) in blocks is used as a complexity measure to study the information fluctuations along DNA sequences. The LSE of a DNA block maps the local base arrangement information to a single numerical value. It is shown that despite this reduction of information, LSE allows to extract meaningful information related to the detection of repetitive sequences in whole chromosomes and is useful in finding evolutionary differences between organisms. More specifically, large regions of tandem repeats, such as centromeres, can be detected based on their low LSE fluctuations along the chromosome. Furthermore, an empirical investigation of the appropriate block sizes is provided and the relationship of LSE properties with the structure of the underlying repetitive units is revealed by using both computational and mathematical methods. Sequence similarity between the genomic DNA of closely related species also leads to similar LSE values at the orthologous regions. As an application, the LSE covariance function is used to measure the evolutionary distance between several primate genomes.

  8. Consistency of detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvsletten, O.

    2017-07-01

    The scaling function F (s ) in detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) scales as F (s ) ˜sH for stochastic processes with Hurst exponent H . This scaling law is proven for stationary stochastic processes with 0 DFA is equal in expectation to (i) a weighted sum of the ACF and (ii) a weighted sum of the second-order structure function. These results enable us to compute the exact finite-size bias for signals that are scaling and to employ DFA in a meaningful sense for signals that do not exhibit power-law statistics. The usefulness is illustrated by examples where it is demonstrated that a previous suggested modified DFA will increase the bias for signals with Hurst exponents 1 application of these developments, an estimator F ̂(s ) is proposed. This estimator can handle missing data in regularly sampled time series without the need of interpolation schemes. Under mild regularity conditions, F ̂(s ) is equal in expectation to the fluctuation function F (s ) in the gap-free case.

  9. Path length enhancement in disordered media for increased absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupparapu, Rajeshkumar; Vynck, Kevin; Svensson, Tomas; Burresi, Matteo; Wiersma, Diederik S.

    2015-11-01

    We theoretically and numerically investigate the capability of disordered media to enhance the optical path length in dielectric slabs and augment their light absorption efficiency due to scattering. We first perform a series of Monte Carlo simulations of random walks to determine the path length distribution in weakly to strongly (single to multiple) scattering, non-absorbing dielectric slabs under normally incident light and derive analytical expressions for the path length enhancement in these two limits. Quite interestingly, while multiple scattering is expected to produce long optical paths, we find that media containing a vanishingly small amount of scatterers can still provide high path length enhancements due to the very long trajectories sustained by total internal reflection at the slab interfaces. The path length distributions are then used to calculate the light absorption efficiency of media with varying absorption coefficients. We find that maximum absorption enhancement is obtained at an optimal scattering strength, in-between the single-scattering and the diffusive (strong multiple-scattering) regimes. This study can guide experimentalists towards more efficient and potentially low-cost solutions in photovoltaic technologies.

  10. Compensation of Charge Fluctuations in Quantum Wells with Dual Tunneling and Photon-Assisted Escape Paths

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Danhong

    2001-01-01

    .... In this article, they extend their theory to include the photoemission current and to reproduce their recent finding on the dynamical drop of photoresponsivity from its static value in quantum-well...

  11. Modified Feynman ratchet with velocity-dependent fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Denur

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The randomness of Brownian motion at thermodynamic equilibrium can be spontaneously broken by velocity-dependence of fluctuations, i.e., by dependence of values or probability distributions of fluctuating properties on Brownian-motional velocity. Such randomness-breaking can spontaneously obtain via interaction between Brownian-motional Doppler effects --- which manifest the required velocity-dependence --- and system geometrical asymmetry. A non random walk is thereby spontaneously superposed on Brownian motion, resulting in a systematic net drift velocity despite thermodynamic equilibrium. The time evolution of this systematic net drift velocity --- and of velocity probability density, force, and power output --- is derived for a velocity-dependent modification of Feynman's ratchet. We show that said spontaneous randomness-breaking, and consequent systematic net drift velocity, imply: bias from the Maxwellian of the system's velocity probability density, the force that tends to accelerate it, and its power output. Maximization, especially of power output, is discussed. Uncompensated decreases in total entropy, challenging the second law of thermodynamics, are thereby implied.

  12. Enhancement of conductance fluctuations in a mesoscopic system of strong scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinyuk, V. V.; Rogozkin, D. B.

    2017-10-01

    We study how the conductance fluctuations change in a disordered ensemble of strongly scattering (non-Born) centers. Diagrammatic calculations of the conductance variance are carried out beyond the standard Born definition for the Hikami vertex. For a system of strong pointlike scatterers, the enhancement of the conductance fluctuations is found in the crossover between ballistic and diffusive regimes. The incoherent contribution arising from random spatial variations in the scatterer concentration is primarily responsible for the enhancement of fluctuations. In the limit of resonant scatterers, the coherent contribution to the conductance variance also peaks in the crossover regime and its maximum exceeds the UCF value.

  13. Time fluctuation analysis of forest fire sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Orozco, Carmen D.; Kanevski, Mikhaïl; Tonini, Marj; Golay, Jean; Pereira, Mário J. G.

    2013-04-01

    Forest fires are complex events involving both space and time fluctuations. Understanding of their dynamics and pattern distribution is of great importance in order to improve the resource allocation and support fire management actions at local and global levels. This study aims at characterizing the temporal fluctuations of forest fire sequences observed in Portugal, which is the country that holds the largest wildfire land dataset in Europe. This research applies several exploratory data analysis measures to 302,000 forest fires occurred from 1980 to 2007. The applied clustering measures are: Morisita clustering index, fractal and multifractal dimensions (box-counting), Ripley's K-function, Allan Factor, and variography. These algorithms enable a global time structural analysis describing the degree of clustering of a point pattern and defining whether the observed events occur randomly, in clusters or in a regular pattern. The considered methods are of general importance and can be used for other spatio-temporal events (i.e. crime, epidemiology, biodiversity, geomarketing, etc.). An important contribution of this research deals with the analysis and estimation of local measures of clustering that helps understanding their temporal structure. Each measure is described and executed for the raw data (forest fires geo-database) and results are compared to reference patterns generated under the null hypothesis of randomness (Poisson processes) embedded in the same time period of the raw data. This comparison enables estimating the degree of the deviation of the real data from a Poisson process. Generalizations to functional measures of these clustering methods, taking into account the phenomena, were also applied and adapted to detect time dependences in a measured variable (i.e. burned area). The time clustering of the raw data is compared several times with the Poisson processes at different thresholds of the measured function. Then, the clustering measure value

  14. Bet Hedging against Demographic Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, BingKan; Leibler, Stanislas

    2017-09-01

    Biological organisms have to cope with stochastic variations in both the external environment and the internal population dynamics. Theoretical studies and laboratory experiments suggest that population diversification could be an effective bet-hedging strategy for adaptation to varying environments. Here we show that bet hedging can also be effective against demographic fluctuations that pose a trade-off between growth and survival for populations even in a constant environment. A species can maximize its overall abundance in the long term by diversifying into coexisting subpopulations of both "fast-growing" and "better-surviving" individuals. Our model generalizes statistical physics models of birth-death processes to incorporate dispersal, during which new populations are founded, and can further incorporate variations of local environments. In this way, we unify different bet-hedging strategies against demographic and environmental variations as a general means of adaptation to both types of uncertainties in population growth.

  15. Fluctuations in strongly coupled cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonometto, Silvio A. [Department of Physics, Astronomy Unit, Trieste University, Via Tiepolo 11, I 34143 Trieste (Italy); Mainini, Roberto, E-mail: bonometto@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: mainini@mib.infn.it [Department of Physics G. Occhialini, Milano-Bicocca University, Piazza della Scienza 3, I 20126 Milano (Italy)

    2014-03-01

    In the early Universe, a dual component made of coupled CDM and a scalar field Φ, if their coupling β > (3){sup 1/2}/2, owns an attractor solution, making them a stationary fraction of cosmic energy during the radiation dominated era. Along the attractor, both such components expand ∝a{sup −4} and have early density parameters Ω{sub d} = 1/(4β{sup 2}) and Ω{sub c} = 2 Ω{sub d} (field and CDM, respectively). In a previous paper it was shown that, if a further component, expanding ∝a{sup −3}, breaks such stationary expansion at z ∼ 3–5 × 10{sup 3}, cosmic components gradually acquire densities consistent with observations. This paper, first of all, considers the case that this component is warm. However, its main topic is the analysis of fluctuation evolution: out of horizon modes are then determined; their entry into horizon is numerically evaluated as well as the dependence of Meszaros effect on the coupling β; finally, we compute: (i) transfer function and linear spectral function; (ii) CMB C{sub l} spectra. Both are close to standard ΛCDM models; in particular, the former one can be so down to a scale smaller than Milky Way, in spite of its main DM component being made of particles of mass < 1 keV. The previously coupled CDM component, whose present density parameter is O(10{sup −3}), exhibits wider fluctuations δρ/ρ, but approximately β-independent δρ values. We discuss how lower scale features of these cosmologies might ease quite a few problems that ΛCDM does not easily solve.

  16. Large Fluctuations and Rare-Events in Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindes, Jason; Schwartz, Ira

    Networks form the backbone of complex systems ranging from ecological food-webs to computer and social networks, and sustain a variety of important dynamical behaviors necessary for some function or task. However, many networks of interest often operate in noisy environments and fluctuate due to random internal interactions, both of which can cause sudden transitions from one network state to another. These noise induced events can be associated with desirable outcomes, such as the extinction of an epidemic, or undesirable, such as a drastic change in network consensus. In this talk, we discuss a general theory of rare-events occurring in complex networks, including extinction and rare-opinion switches, that captures the transition pathway through a network between states and predicts the characteristic time-scale for switching. Lastly, using the formalism, we demonstrate how to design optimal controls that leverage fluctuations in order to enhance or inhibit rare switches in networks. office of naval research, national research council.

  17. Wind fluctuations over the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Pinson, Pierre; Giebel, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Climatological patterns in wind speed fluctuations with periods of 1 min to 10 h are analysed using data from a meteorological mast in the Danish North Sea. Fluctuations on these time scales are of particular relevance to the effective management of the power supply from large wind farms. The Hil......Climatological patterns in wind speed fluctuations with periods of 1 min to 10 h are analysed using data from a meteorological mast in the Danish North Sea. Fluctuations on these time scales are of particular relevance to the effective management of the power supply from large wind farms...

  18. Speckle Imaging Over Horizontal Paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrano, C J

    2002-05-21

    Atmospheric aberrations reduce the resolution and contrast in surveillance images recorded over horizontal or slant paths. This paper describes our recent horizontal and slant path imaging experiments of extended scenes as well as the results obtained using speckle imaging. The experiments were performed with an 8-inch diameter telescope placed on either a rooftop or hillside and cover ranges of interest from 0.5 km up to 10 km. The scenery includes resolution targets, people, vehicles, and other structures. The improvement in image quality using speckle imaging is dramatic in many cases, and depends significantly upon the atmospheric conditions. We quantify resolution improvement through modulation transfer function measurement comparisons.

  19. Strings, paths, and standard tableaux

    CERN Document Server

    Dasmahapatra, S

    1996-01-01

    For the vacuum sectors of regime-III ABF models, we observe that two sets of combinatorial objects: the strings which parametrize the row-to-row transfer matrix eigenvectors, and the paths which parametrize the corner transfer matrix eigenvectors, can both be expressed in terms of the same set of standard tableaux. Furthermore, the momenta of the strings, the energies of the paths, and the charges of the tableaux are such that there is a weight-preserving bijection between the two sets of eigenvectors, wherein the tableaux play an interpolating role. This bijection is so natural, that we conjecture that it exists in general.

  20. Local Path Planning of Driverless Car Navigation Based on Jump Point Search Method Under Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijun Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Jump Point Search (JPS algorithm is adopted for local path planning of the driverless car under urban environment, and it is a fast search method applied in path planning. Firstly, a vector Geographic Information System (GIS map, including Global Positioning System (GPS position, direction, and lane information, is built for global path planning. Secondly, the GIS map database is utilized in global path planning for the driverless car. Then, the JPS algorithm is adopted to avoid the front obstacle, and to find an optimal local path for the driverless car in the urban environment. Finally, 125 different simulation experiments in the urban environment demonstrate that JPS can search out the optimal and safety path successfully, and meanwhile, it has a lower time complexity compared with the Vector Field Histogram (VFH, the Rapidly Exploring Random Tree (RRT, A*, and the Probabilistic Roadmaps (PRM algorithms. Furthermore, JPS is validated usefully in the structured urban environment.

  1. On the path to differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Uygur, Ayca

    2014-01-01

    by examining the ‘path to differentiation’ within EU working time regulation as it has unfolded over time. It identifies the ‘opt-out’ as a means of differentiation adopted to overcome policy deadlocks within collective decision-making, albeit one with unforeseen consequences. In particular, the contribution...

  2. How to measure path length?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeven, P.

    2015-01-01

    Path length measuring is a relevant engineering problem. Leonardo Da Vinci designed for the military appropriate equipment, the podometer, to do so. Modern equipment such as step meters and map meters are quite similar to Da Vinci?s design, despite geometrical statistical - stereological - methods

  3. Path integral for inflationary perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prokopec, T.; Rigopoulos, G.

    2010-01-01

    The quantum theory of cosmological perturbations in single-field inflation is formulated in terms of a path integral. Starting from a canonical formulation, we show how the free propagators can be obtained from the well-known gauge-invariant quadratic action for scalar and tensor perturbations, and

  4. Master equations and the theory of stochastic path integrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Markus F; Frey, Erwin

    2017-04-01

    This review provides a pedagogic and self-contained introduction to master equations and to their representation by path integrals. Since the 1930s, master equations have served as a fundamental tool to understand the role of fluctuations in complex biological, chemical, and physical systems. Despite their simple appearance, analyses of master equations most often rely on low-noise approximations such as the Kramers-Moyal or the system size expansion, or require ad-hoc closure schemes for the derivation of low-order moment equations. We focus on numerical and analytical methods going beyond the low-noise limit and provide a unified framework for the study of master equations. After deriving the forward and backward master equations from the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation, we show how the two master equations can be cast into either of four linear partial differential equations (PDEs). Three of these PDEs are discussed in detail. The first PDE governs the time evolution of a generalized probability generating function whose basis depends on the stochastic process under consideration. Spectral methods, WKB approximations, and a variational approach have been proposed for the analysis of the PDE. The second PDE is novel and is obeyed by a distribution that is marginalized over an initial state. It proves useful for the computation of mean extinction times. The third PDE describes the time evolution of a 'generating functional', which generalizes the so-called Poisson representation. Subsequently, the solutions of the PDEs are expressed in terms of two path integrals: a 'forward' and a 'backward' path integral. Combined with inverse transformations, one obtains two distinct path integral representations of the conditional probability distribution solving the master equations. We exemplify both path integrals in analysing elementary chemical reactions. Moreover, we show how a well-known path integral representation of averaged observables can be recovered from them. Upon

  5. Master equations and the theory of stochastic path integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Markus F.; Frey, Erwin

    2017-04-01

    This review provides a pedagogic and self-contained introduction to master equations and to their representation by path integrals. Since the 1930s, master equations have served as a fundamental tool to understand the role of fluctuations in complex biological, chemical, and physical systems. Despite their simple appearance, analyses of master equations most often rely on low-noise approximations such as the Kramers-Moyal or the system size expansion, or require ad-hoc closure schemes for the derivation of low-order moment equations. We focus on numerical and analytical methods going beyond the low-noise limit and provide a unified framework for the study of master equations. After deriving the forward and backward master equations from the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation, we show how the two master equations can be cast into either of four linear partial differential equations (PDEs). Three of these PDEs are discussed in detail. The first PDE governs the time evolution of a generalized probability generating function whose basis depends on the stochastic process under consideration. Spectral methods, WKB approximations, and a variational approach have been proposed for the analysis of the PDE. The second PDE is novel and is obeyed by a distribution that is marginalized over an initial state. It proves useful for the computation of mean extinction times. The third PDE describes the time evolution of a ‘generating functional’, which generalizes the so-called Poisson representation. Subsequently, the solutions of the PDEs are expressed in terms of two path integrals: a ‘forward’ and a ‘backward’ path integral. Combined with inverse transformations, one obtains two distinct path integral representations of the conditional probability distribution solving the master equations. We exemplify both path integrals in analysing elementary chemical reactions. Moreover, we show how a well-known path integral representation of averaged observables can be recovered from

  6. Random Young diagrams in a Rectangular Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Dan; Boutillier, Cédric; Enriquez, Nathanaël

    We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape.......We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape....

  7. Immersed Particle Dynamics in Fluctuating Fluids with Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenegger, Christel; McKinley, Scott

    2014-11-01

    Multibead passive microrheology characterizes bulk fluid properties of viscoelastic liquids by connecting statistically measurable quantities (e.g. mean-square displacement, auto-correlation to mechanical fluid properties (loss and storage modulus). Understanding how these material properties relate to biological quantities (e.g. exit time, first passage time through a layer) is of crucial importance for many pharmaceutical and industrial applications. To correctly model the correlations due to the fluid's memory, it is necessary to include a thermally fluctuating stress in the Stokes equations (Landau and Lifschitz 1958). We present such a model for an immersed particle passively advected by a fluctuating Maxwellian fluid. We describe the resulting stochastic partial differential equations for the underlying non-Markovian, stationary fluid velocity process and we present a covariance based numerical method for generating particle paths. Finally, we apply standard experimental one and two-point microrheology protocol to recover bulk loss and storage modulus and quantify the resulting errors. Our approach can be applied to a Stokes fluid with memory created by a large suspension of active swimmers or to the diffusion of a particle in a crowded environment.

  8. Fluctuations in Urban Traffic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Dong; Li, Li; Zhang, Yi; Hu, Jian-Ming; Jin, Xue-Xiang

    Urban traffic network is a typical complex system, in which movements of tremendous microscopic traffic participants (pedestrians, bicyclists and vehicles) form complicated spatial and temporal dynamics. We collected flow volumes data on the time-dependent activity of a typical urban traffic network, finding that the coupling between the average flux and the fluctuation on individual links obeys a certain scaling law, with a wide variety of scaling exponents between 1/2 and 1. These scaling phenomena can explain the interaction between the nodes' internal dynamics (i.e. queuing at intersections, car-following in driving) and changes in the external (network-wide) traffic demand (i.e. the every day increase of traffic amount during peak hours and shocking caused by traffic accidents), allowing us to further understand the mechanisms governing the transportation system's collective behavior. Multiscaling and hotspot features are observed in the traffic flow data as well. But the reason why the separated internal dynamics are comparable to the external dynamics in magnitude is still unclear and needs further investigations.

  9. Wave Beam Propagation Through Density Fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balakin, A. A.; Bertelli, N.; Westerhof, E.

    2011-01-01

    Perturbations induced by edge density fluctuations on electron cyclotron wave beams propagating in fusion plasmas are studied by means of a quasi-optical code. The effects of such fluctuations are illustrated here by showing the beam propagation in the case of single harmonic perturbations to the

  10. temperature fluctuation inside inert atmosphere silos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted to study temperature fluctuation inside the inert atmosphere silos loaded with wheat, compare the temperature fluctuation across the top, middle and bottom part of the silo in relation to the ambient temperature. Temperature readings of the ambient and at the top, middle and bottom part of the ...

  11. Nonconformal Fluctuations in Radiation Dominated Anisotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    the non-conformal quantum fluctuations (of expansion and shear) and axisymmetric singularity case in radiation dominated anisotropic cosmology. We show that near the classical singularity the quantum fluctuations tend to diverge. Key words. Quantum Cosmology—Anisotropic universes. 1. Introduction. It has been ...

  12. A data set of worldwide glacier fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, P.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/339579951; Oerlemans, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06833656X; Basagic, H.J.; Bushueva, I.; Cook, A.J.; Le Bris, R.

    2014-01-01

    Glacier fluctuations contribute to variations in sea level and historical glacier length fluctuations are natural indicators of past climate change. To study these subjects, longterm information of glacier change is needed. In this paper we present a data set of global long-term glacier length

  13. The Spectrum of Wind Power Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi, Mahesh

    2016-11-01

    Wind is a variable energy source whose fluctuations threaten electrical grid stability and complicate dynamical load balancing. The power generated by a wind turbine fluctuates due to the variable wind speed that blows past the turbine. Indeed, the spectrum of wind power fluctuations is widely believed to reflect the Kolmogorov spectrum; both vary with frequency f as f - 5 / 3. This variability decreases when aggregate power fluctuations from geographically distributed wind farms are averaged at the grid via a mechanism known as geographic smoothing. Neither the f - 5 / 3 wind power fluctuation spectrum nor the mechanism of geographic smoothing are understood. In this work, we explain the wind power fluctuation spectrum from the turbine through grid scales. The f - 5 / 3 wind power fluctuation spectrum results from the largest length scales of atmospheric turbulence of order 200 km influencing the small scales where individual turbines operate. This long-range influence spatially couples geographically distributed wind farms and synchronizes farm outputs over a range of frequencies and decreases with increasing inter-farm distance. Consequently, aggregate grid-scale power fluctuations remain correlated, and are smoothed until they reach a limiting f - 7 / 3 spectrum. This work was funded by the Collective Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University, Japan.

  14. Computer simulations of phospholipid - membrane thermodynamic fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, U.R.; Peters, Günther H.j.; Schröder, T.B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports all-atom computer simulations of five phospholipid membranes, DMPC, DPPC, DMPG, DMPS, and DMPSH, with a focus on the thermal equilibrium fluctuations of volume, energy, area, thickness, and order parameter. For the slow fluctuations at constant temperature and pressure (defined...

  15. Response of Fusarium solani to Fluctuating Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith F. Jensen; Phillip E. Reynolds; Phillip E. Reynolds

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure growth under a range of constant temperatures and under a series of fluctuating temperature regimes, and to determine if growth in the fluctuating temperiture regimes could be predicted satisfactorily from the growth data collected in the constant temperature experiments. Growth was measured on both agar and liquid culture to...

  16. Seasonal fluctuations in photochemical efficiency of Symbiodinium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. formosa and P. verucosa responded significantly to seasonal fluctuation in both solar radiation and sea surface temperature by regulating their Symbiodinium cells densities and photochemical efficiencies except P. cylindrica. However, such seasonal fluctuations in these environmental parameters are not accompanied ...

  17. Multiplicity Distributions and Charged-neutral Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, Tapan K.; Agnihotri, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Angelis, A.L.S.; Antonenko, V.; Arefev, V.; Astakhov, V.; Avdeitchikov, V.; Awes, T.C.; Baba, P.V.K.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Baldine, A.; Barabach, L.; Barlag, C.; Bathe, S.; Batiounia, B.; Bernier, T.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhatia, V.S.; Blume, C.; Bock, R.; Bohne, E.M.; Bucher, D.; Buijs, A.; Buis, E.J.; Busching, H.; Carlen, L.; Chalyshev, V.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chenawi, K.E.; Cherbatchev, R.; Chujo, T.; Claussen, A.; Das, A.C.; Decowski, M.P.; Djordjadze, V.; Donni, P.; Doubovik, I.; Dubey, A.K.; Dutta Majumda, M.R.; Eliseev, S.; Enosawa, K.; Feldmann, H.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Frolov, V.; Ganti, M.S.; Garpman, S.; Gavrishchuk, O.; Geurts, F.J.M.; Ghosh, T.K.; Glasow, R.; Gupta, S.K.; Guskov, B.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Higuchi, R.; Hrivnacova, I.; Ippolitov, M.; Kalechofsky, H.; Kamermans, R.; Kampert, K.H.; Karadjev, K.; Karpio, K.; Kato, S.; Kees, S.; Kim, H.; Kolb, B.W.; Kosarev, I.; Koutcheryaev, I.; Kugler, A.; Kulinich, P.; Kumar, V.; Kurata, M.; Kurita, K.; Kuzmin, N.; Langbein, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Lohner, H.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Manko, V.; Martin, M.; Maximov, A.; Mehdiyev, Rashid R.; Mgebrichvili, G.; Miake, Y.; Mikhalev, D.; Mishra, G.C.; Miyamoto, Y.; Mohanty, B.; Morrison, Douglas R.O.; Mukhopadhyay, D.S.; Myalkovski, V.; Naef, H.; Nandi, B.K.; Nayak, S.K.; Nayak, T.K.; Neumaier, S.; Nianine, A.; Nikitine, V.; Nikolaev, S.; Nishimura, S.; Nomokov, P.; Nystrand, J.; Obenshain, F.E.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Pachr, M.; Parfenov, A.; Pavliouk, S.; Peitzmann, T.; Petracek, V.; Plasil, F.; Purschke, M.L.; Raeven, B.; Rak, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ramamurthy, V.S.; Rao, N.K.; Retiere, F.; Reygers, K.; Roland, G.; Rosselet, L.; Roufanov, I.; Rubio, J.M.; Sambyal, S.S.; Santo, R.; Sato, S.; Schlagheck, H.; Schmidt, H.R.; Shabratova, G.; Sibiriak, I.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Sinha, B.C.; Slavine, N.; Soderstrom, K.; Solomey, N.; Sood, G.; Sorensen, S.P.; Stankus, P.; Stefanek, G.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stuken, D.; Sumbera, M.; Svensson, T.; Trivedi, M.D.; Tsvetkov, A.; Twenhofel, C.; Tykarski, L.; Urbahn, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; van Heeringen, W.H.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.J.; Vinogradov, A.; Viyogi, Y.P.; Vodopianov, A.S.; Voros, S.; Vos, M.A.; Wyslouch, B.; Yagi, K.; Yokota, Y.; Young, G.R.; Nayak, Tapan K.

    2001-01-01

    Results from the multiplicity distributions of inclusive photons and charged particles, scaling of particle multiplicities, event-by-event multiplicity fluctuations, and charged-neutral fluctuations in 158$\\cdot A$ GeV Pb+Pb collisions are presented and discussed. A scaling of charged particle multiplicity as $N_{part}^{1.07\\pm 0.05}$ and photons as $N_{part}^{1.12\\pm 0.03}$ have been observed, indicating violation of naive wounded nucleon model. The analysis of localized charged-neutral fluctuation indicates a model-independent demonstration of non-statistical fluctuations in both charged particles and photons in limited azimuthal regions. However, no correlated charged-neutral fluctuations are observed.

  18. Probabilistic Analysis of Facility Location on Random Shortest Path Metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klootwijk, Stefan; Manthey, Bodo

    The facility location problem is an NP-hard optimization problem. Therefore, approximation algorithms are often used to solve large instances. Probabilistic analysis is a widely used tool to analyze such algorithms. Most research on probabilistic analysis of NP-hard optimization problems involving

  19. Direct Entry Minimal Path UAV Loitering Path Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay P. Wilhelm

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fixed Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs performing Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR typically fly over Areas of Interest (AOIs to collect sensor data of the ground from the air. If needed, the traditional method of extending sensor collection time is to loiter or turn circularly around the center of an AOI. Current Autopilot systems on small UAVs can be limited in their feature set and typically follow a waypoint chain system that allows for loitering, but requires that the center of the AOI to be traversed which may produce unwanted turns outside of the AOI before entering the loiter. An investigation was performed to compare the current loitering techniques against two novel smart loitering methods. The first method investigated, Tangential Loitering Path Planner (TLPP, utilized paths tangential to the AOIs to enter and exit efficiently, eliminating unnecessary turns outside of the AOI. The second method, Least Distance Loitering Path Planner (LDLPP, utilized four unique flight maneuvers that reduce transit distances while eliminating unnecessary turns outside of the AOI present in the TLPP method. Simulation results concluded that the Smart Loitering Methods provide better AOI coverage during six mission scenarios. It was also determined that the LDLPP method spends less time in transit between AOIs. The reduction in required transit time could be used for surveying additional AOIs.

  20. Difficulties in Forecasting Flow Paths During the 2014-2015 Lava Flow Crisis at Kīlauea Volcano (Hawaíi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, M. R.; Orr, T. R.; Trusdell, F.; Llewellin, E. W.; Kauahikaua, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Kīlauea's East Rift Zone (ERZ) eruptive activity at Púu ´Ō´ō shifted to a new vent in June 2014, sparking a lava flow crisis that threatened critical infrastructure near the town of Pāhoa in east Hawaíi. The lava flow proved to be challenging to forecast because of the influence of ground cracks on flow direction, frequent fluctuations in lava supply, and the subtle interplay between ground slope and confining topography that prevented the flow from spreading laterally. After its onset, the "June 27th" flow, named informally for its start date, advanced northeast at up to several hundred m/day. The flow's path through heavy forest was forecast using steepest-descent paths derived from a digital elevation model (DEM). Flow path uncertainties were minimized using a multiple-run technique and built-in random DEM errors (modified from Favalli et al., 2005). In mid-August, the flow encountered and entered one of many deep, discontinuous ground cracks along Kīlauea's middle ERZ. The flow continued to advance out of sight in the crack, as inferred from a forward-progressing line of steam. A week later, lava spilled from the crack 1.3 km downslope, advancing along a different flow path than was forecast. By early September, the flow had entered and exited three more cracks sequentially, carrying the flow across slope, thus making flow path forecasts unreliable. Moreover, lava-occupied cracks dilated by up to 3 m. The lava accumulating in the ground cracks forced immense, but apparently mobile, blocks to shift. Thus, while an open crack was required to capture the lava, the lava was able to force its way beyond where the crack closed. In this way, the lava flow acted as an intruding dike. The flow eventually advanced beyond the area of cracks and onto a steepest-descent path that guided the flow toward the town of Pāhoa, where it destroyed one house, reached to within ~155 m of the main street in Pāhoa, and threatened the main highway and shopping center serving

  1. Stress path during pressuremeter test and link between shear modulus and Menard pressuremeter modulus in unsaturated fine soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savatier Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Limit pressure and Ménard pressuremeter modulus variation with respect to drought in silty clay situated in water-table fluctuation area. Finally, we will try to show the consequences of these stress paths for performing and interpreting pressuremeter test in unsaturated and collapsible soils.

  2. Relative humidity effects on water vapour fluxes measured with closed-path eddy-covariance systems with short sampling lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Gerardo; Ibrom, Andreas; Arriga, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    It has been formerly recognised that increasing relative humidity in the sampling line of closed-path eddy-covariance systems leads to increasing attenuation of water vapour turbulent fluctuations, resulting in strong latent heat flux losses. This occurrence has been analyzed for very long (50 m)...

  3. Large fluctuations in the high-redshift metagalactic ionizing background

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aloisio, Anson; McQuinn, Matthew; Davies, Frederick B.; Furlanetto, Steven R.

    2018-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that the scatter in opacities amongst coeval segments of the Ly α forest increases rapidly at z > 5. In this paper, we assess whether the large scatter can be explained by fluctuations in the ionizing background in the post-reionization intergalactic medium. We find that matching the observed scatter at z ≈ 5.5 requires a short spatially averaged mean free path of 〈λmfp912〉 ≲ 15 h- 1 comoving Mpc, a factor of ≳3 shorter than direct measurements at z = 5.2. We argue that such rapid evolution in the mean free path is difficult to reconcile with our measurements of the global H I photoionization rate, which stay approximately constant over the interval z ≈ 4.8-5.5. However, we also show that measurements of the mean free path at z > 5 are likely biased towards higher values by the quasar proximity effect. This bias can reconcile the short values of 〈λmfp912〉 that are required to explain the large scatter in opacities. We discuss the implications of this scenario for cosmological reionization. Finally, we investigate whether other statistics applied to the z > 5 Ly α forest can shed light on the origin of the scatter. Compared to a model with a uniform ionizing background, models that successfully account for the scatter lead to enhanced power in the line-of-sight flux power spectrum on scales k ≲0.1 h Mpc-1. We find tentative evidence for this enhancement in observations of the high-redshift Ly α forest.

  4. Nonlinear dynamical effects on reaction rates in thermally fluctuating environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Shinnosuke; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki

    2010-07-21

    A framework to calculate the rate constants of condensed phase chemical reactions of manybody systems is presented without relying on the concept of transition state. The theory is based on a framework we developed recently adopting a multidimensional underdamped Langevin equation in the region of a rank-one saddle. The theory provides a reaction coordinate expressed as an analytical nonlinear functional of the position coordinates and velocities of the system (solute), the friction constants, and the random force of the environment (solvent). Up to moderately high temperature, the sign of the reaction coordinate can determine the final destination of the reaction in a thermally fluctuating media, irrespective of what values the other (nonreactive) coordinates may take. In this paper, it is shown that the reaction probability is analytically derived as the probability of the reaction coordinate being positive, and that the integration with the Boltzmann distribution of the initial conditions leads to the exact reaction rate constant when the local equilibrium holds and the quantum effect is negligible. Because of analytical nature of the theory taking into account all nonlinear effects and their combination with fluctuation and dissipation, the theory naturally provides us with the firm mathematical foundation of the origin of the reactivity of the reaction in a fluctuating media.

  5. Heavy-Tailed Fluctuations in the Spiking Output Intensity of Semiconductor Lasers with Optical Feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Leong Lan

    Full Text Available Although heavy-tailed fluctuations are ubiquitous in complex systems, a good understanding of the mechanisms that generate them is still lacking. Optical complex systems are ideal candidates for investigating heavy-tailed fluctuations, as they allow recording large datasets under controllable experimental conditions. A dynamical regime that has attracted a lot of attention over the years is the so-called low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs of semiconductor lasers with optical feedback. In this regime, the laser output intensity is characterized by abrupt and apparently random dropouts. The statistical analysis of the inter-dropout-intervals (IDIs has provided many useful insights into the underlying dynamics. However, the presence of large temporal fluctuations in the IDI sequence has not yet been investigated. Here, by applying fluctuation analysis we show that the experimental distribution of IDI fluctuations is heavy-tailed, and specifically, is well-modeled by a non-Gaussian stable distribution. We find a good qualitative agreement with simulations of the Lang-Kobayashi model. Moreover, we uncover a transition from a less-heavy-tailed state at low pump current to a more-heavy-tailed state at higher pump current. Our results indicate that fluctuation analysis can be a useful tool for investigating the output signals of complex optical systems; it can be used for detecting underlying regime shifts, for model validation and parameter estimation.

  6. Impact of pitch angle fluctuations on airborne lidar forward sensing along the flight direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeevich Gurvich, Alexander; Alexeevich Kulikov, Victor

    2017-10-01

    Airborne lidar forward sensing along the flight direction can serve for notification of clear air turbulence (CAT) and help to prevent injuries or fatal air accidents. The validation of this concept was presented in the framework of the DELICAT (DEmonstration of LIdar-based CAT detection) project. However, the strong variations in signal level, which were observed during the DELICAT measurements but not explained, sometimes indicated the need of a better understanding the observational errors due to geometrical factors. In this paper, we discuss possible error sources pertinent to this technique, related to fluctuations of the flight parameters, which may lead to strong signal variations caused by the random deviations of the sensing beam from the forward flight trajectory. We analyze the variations in backscattered lidar signal caused by fluctuations of the most important forward-sensing flight parameter, the pitch angle. The fluctuation values considered in the paper correspond to the error limits of the compensational gyro platform used in civil aviation. The part of the pitch angle fluctuations not compensated for by the beam-steering device in the presence of aerosol concentration variations can lead to noticeable signal variations that can be mistakenly attributed to wind shear, turbulence, or fast evolution of the aerosol layer. We formulate the criteria that allow the recognition of signal variations caused by pitch angle fluctuations. Influence of these fluctuations is shown to be stronger for aerosol variations on smaller vertical scales. An example of DELICAT observations indicating a noticeable pitch angle fluctuation impact is presented.

  7. The effects of the vegetable prices insurance on the fluctuation of price: Based on Shanghai evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chunhong; Li, Huishang; Hao, Shuai; Zhang, Xuebiao; Yang, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Taking Shanghai as an example, the influence of the vegetable price insurance on the fluctuation of prices was analyzed in the article. It was found that the sequence of seasonal fluctuations characteristics of leafy vegetable prices was changed by the vegetable cost-price insurance, the period of price fluctuation was elongated from 12-to-18 months to 37 months, and the influence of random factors on the price fluctuations was reduced in some degree. There was still great space for innovation of the vegetable prices insurance system in Shanghai. Some countermeasures would be suggested to develop the insurance system to better to play the role of insurance and promote the market running more smoothly in Shanghai such as prolonging the insurance cycle, improving the price information monitoring mechanism and innovating income insurance products and so on.

  8. Transient fluctuation of the prosperity of firms in a network economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, Yoshiharu

    2013-08-01

    The transient fluctuation of the prosperity of firms in a network economy is investigated with an abstract stochastic model. The model describes the profit which firms make when they sell materials to a firm which produces a product and the fixed cost expense to the firms to produce those materials and product. The formulas for this model are parallel to those for population dynamics. The swinging changes in the fluctuation in the transient state from the initial growth to the final steady state are the consequence of a topology-dependent time trial competition between the profitable interactions and expense. The firm in a sparse random network economy is more likely to go bankrupt than expected from the value of the limit of the fluctuation in the steady state, and there is a risk of failing to reach by far the less fluctuating steady state.

  9. Research on the Voltage Fluctuation Rules of Power System Containing Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixi; Xu, Guchao; Ma, Gang; Li, Feng; Ju, Rong

    2017-05-01

    The global energy shortage and environmental problems have contributed to the rapid development of wind power. However, due to the randomness and volatility of wind power, large-scale access may cause voltage fluctuation in power grid. Therefore, the reactive power control of power system containing wind farms has become a hot research topic in recent years, in which finding key nodes of voltage fluctuation is a foundation work. In this paper, the power model of wind farm is established first. Then, the influence on nodes voltage when wind farms access simple power system is analysed, and promoted to complex power systems in order to reveal the fluctuation rules of nodes voltage, and to summarize the distribution characteristics of key nodes of voltage fluctuation, which can provide the basis for reactive power optimization. At last, the conclusions are verified by IEEE 30-node system.

  10. Innovation paths in wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lema, Rasmus; Nordensvärd, Johan; Urban, Frauke

    between Denmark and Germany when it comes to innovation pathways, both in technological and organisational innovation. In turbine technology, the similarities are the constant increase in turbine size and quality. The key difference to be found is the relative importance of different turbine designs...... Denmark and Germany have common national causes, while company-specific strategies also influence the innovation paths in significant ways. This raises important questions about the national specificity of innovation paths in wind power development. Finally, the paper briefly addresses the increasing......Denmark and Germany both make substantial investments in low carbon innovation, not least in the wind power sector. These investments in wind energy are driven by the twin objectives of reducing carbon emissions and building up international competitive advantage. Support for wind power dates back...

  11. Stochastic control with rough paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Joscha [University of California San Diego (United States); Friz, Peter K., E-mail: friz@math.tu-berlin.de [TU & WIAS Berlin (Germany); Gassiat, Paul [CEREMADE, Université Paris-Dauphine, PSL Research University (France)

    2017-04-15

    We study a class of controlled differential equations driven by rough paths (or rough path realizations of Brownian motion) in the sense of Lyons. It is shown that the value function satisfies a HJB type equation; we also establish a form of the Pontryagin maximum principle. Deterministic problems of this type arise in the duality theory for controlled diffusion processes and typically involve anticipating stochastic analysis. We make the link to old work of Davis and Burstein (Stoch Stoch Rep 40:203–256, 1992) and then prove a continuous-time generalization of Roger’s duality formula [SIAM J Control Optim 46:1116–1132, 2007]. The generic case of controlled volatility is seen to give trivial duality bounds, and explains the focus in Burstein–Davis’ (and this) work on controlled drift. Our study of controlled rough differential equations also relates to work of Mazliak and Nourdin (Stoch Dyn 08:23, 2008).

  12. Career paths in occupational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Philip; Bontemps, Johnny; Saechao, Kaochoy; Wu, Samantha; Liu, Yihang; Elashoff, David

    2012-11-01

    To describe career path patterns for occupational medicine (OM) physicians. A convenience sample of 129 occupational physicians described work activities and locations at several career points up to 20 years ago, first OM position, and 10 years after expectations. Clinical activities were important throughout (eg, 41% and 46% of occupational physicians reported frequently treating patients 20 years ago and currently). Practice locations changed more markedly, with increased multisite clinics and hospital/medical center-based practices. Performing mainly clinical activities in a first job increased from 82% to 97% over the past 20 years. Career transitions between clinical and nonclinical roles were common (40% of participants). Many anticipate transition to nonclinical work over 10 years. Activities have not fundamentally changed, but practice locations have evolved. Both clinical and management activities remain important, and path to managerial positions increasingly begins in clinical practice.

  13. A self-consistent 3D model of fluctuations in the helium-ionizing background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Frederick B.; Furlanetto, Steven R.; Dixon, Keri L.

    2017-03-01

    Large variations in the effective optical depth of the He II Lyα forest have been observed at z ≳ 2.7, but the physical nature of these variations is uncertain: either the Universe is still undergoing the process of He II reionization, or the Universe is highly ionized but the He II-ionizing background fluctuates significantly on large scales. In an effort to build upon our understanding of the latter scenario, we present a novel model for the evolution of ionizing background fluctuations. Previous models have assumed the mean free path of ionizing photons to be spatially uniform, ignoring the dependence of that scale on the local ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM). This assumption is reasonable when the mean free path is large compared to the average distance between the primary sources of He II-ionizing photons, ≳ L⋆ quasars. However, when this is no longer the case, the background fluctuations become more severe, and an accurate description of the average propagation of ionizing photons through the IGM requires additionally accounting for the fluctuations in opacity. We demonstrate the importance of this effect by constructing 3D semi-analytic models of the helium-ionizing background from z = 2.5-3.5 that explicitly include a spatially varying mean free path of ionizing photons. The resulting distribution of effective optical depths at large scales in the He II Lyα forest is very similar to the latest observations with HST/COS at 2.5 ≲ z ≲ 3.5.

  14. Smooth paths of conditional expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Andruchow, Esteban; Larotonda, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Let A be a von Neumann algebra with a finite trace $\\tau$, represented in $H=L^2(A,\\tau)$, and let $B_t\\subset A$ be sub-algebras, for $t$ in an interval $I$. Let $E_t:A\\to B_t$ be the unique $\\tau$-preserving conditional expectation. We say that the path $t\\mapsto E_t$ is smooth if for every $a\\in A$ and $v \\in H$, the map $$ I\

  15. The path of code linting

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Join the path of code linting and discover how it can help you reach higher levels of programming enlightenment. Today we will cover how to embrace code linters to offload cognitive strain on preserving style standards in your code base as well as avoiding error-prone constructs. Additionally, I will show you the journey ahead for integrating several code linters in the programming tools your already use with very little effort.

  16. Inked Careers: Tattooing Professional Paths

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela DeLuca; Sidinei Rocha-de-Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The concept of career has an interdisciplinary and historical constitution, which includes persons, groups, organizations and society. Given that, we aim to deepen the interactionist notion of career from the understanding of a deviant path, supported by a theory and a method appropriated to the cited call for interdisciplinary approaches. Dilemmas (Hughes, 1958) and conflicts (Hughes, 1937) emerged as important analytical categories. Although necessary, these two concepts were not s...

  17. Targeting Bayes factors with direct-path non-equilibrium thermodynamic integration

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorczyk, Marco; Aderhold, Andrej; Husmeier, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Thermodynamic integration (TI) for computing marginal likelihoods is based on an inverse annealing path from the prior to the posterior distribution. In many cases, the resulting estimator suffers from high variability, which particularly stems from the prior regime. When comparing complex models with differences in a comparatively small number of parameters, intrinsic errors from sampling fluctuations may outweigh the differences in the log marginal likelihood estimates. In the present artic...

  18. Spin-fluctuation theory beyond Gaussian approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikov, N B [Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Reser, B I; Grebennikov, V I, E-mail: melnikov@cs.msu.s, E-mail: reser@imp.uran.r, E-mail: greben@imp.uran.r [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 620041 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-05-14

    A characteristic feature of the Gaussian approximation in the functional-integral approach to the spin-fluctuation theory is the jump phase transition to the paramagnetic state. We eliminate the jump and obtain a continuous second-order phase transition by taking into account high-order terms in the expansion of the free energy in powers of the fluctuating exchange field. The third-order term of the free energy renormalizes the mean field, and the fourth-order term, responsible for the interaction of the fluctuations, renormalizes the spin susceptibility. The extended theory is applied to the calculation of magnetic properties of Fe-Ni Invar.

  19. Fluctuation theorems for quantum master equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Massimiliano; Mukamel, Shaul

    2006-04-01

    A quantum fluctuation theorem for a driven quantum subsystem interacting with its environment is derived based solely on the assumption that its reduced density matrix obeys a closed evolution equation--i.e., a quantum master equation (QME). Quantum trajectories and their associated entropy, heat, and work appear naturally by transforming the QME to a time-dependent Liouville space basis that diagonalizes the instantaneous reduced density matrix of the subsystem. A quantum integral fluctuation theorem, a steady-state fluctuation theorem, and the Jarzynski relation are derived in a similar way as for classical stochastic dynamics.

  20. Population Genetics with Fluctuating Population Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotibut, Thiparat; Nelson, David R.

    2017-05-01

    Standard neutral population genetics theory with a strictly fixed population size has important limitations. An alternative model that allows independently fluctuating population sizes and reproduces the standard neutral evolution is reviewed. We then study a situation such that the competing species are neutral at the equilibrium population size but population size fluctuations nevertheless favor fixation of one species over the other. In this case, a separation of timescales emerges naturally and allows adiabatic elimination of a fast population size variable to deduce the fluctuation-induced selection dynamics near the equilibrium population size. The results highlight the incompleteness of the standard population genetics with a strictly fixed population size.

  1. Thickness fluctuations in turbulent soap films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greffier, O; Amarouchene, Y; Kellay, H

    2002-05-13

    Rapidly flowing soap films provide a simple and attractive system to study two-dimensional hydrodynamics and turbulence. By measuring the rapid fluctuations of the thickness of the film in the turbulent regime, we find that the statistics of these fluctuations closely resemble those of a passive scalar field in a turbulent flow. The scalar spectra are well described by Kolmogorov-like scaling while the high-order moments show clear deviations from regular scaling just like dye or temperature fluctuations in 3D turbulent flows.

  2. Spin-current noise from fluctuation relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jong Soo [Institut de Fisica Interdisciplinària i Sistemes Complexos IFISC (UIB-CSIC), E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Sánchez, David; López, Rosa [Institut de Fisica Interdisciplinària i Sistemes Complexos IFISC (UIB-CSIC), E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain and Departement de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2013-12-04

    We present fluctuation relations that connect spin-polarized current and noise in mesoscopic conductors. In linear response, these relations are equivalent to the fluctuation-dissipation theorem that relates equilibrium current-current correlations to the linear conductance. More interestingly, in the weakly nonlinear regime of transport, these relations establish a connection between the leading-order rectification spin conductance, the spin noise susceptibility and the third cumulant of spin current fluctuations at equilibrium. Our results are valid even for systems in the presence of magnetic fields and coupled to ferromagnetic electrodes.

  3. Probability distribution of vertical longitudinal shear fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtl, G. H.

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses some recent measurements of third and fourth moments of vertical differences (shears) of longitudinal velocity fluctuations obtained in unstable air at the NASA 150 m meteorological tower site at Cape Kennedy, Fla. Each set of measurements consisted of longitudinal velocity fluctuation time histories obtained at the 18, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 m levels, so that 15 wind-shear time histories were obtained from each set of measurements. It appears that the distribution function of the longitudinal wind fluctuations at two levels is not bivariate Gaussian. The implications of the results relative to the design and operation of aerospace vehicles are discussed.-

  4. Macroscopic realism of quantum work fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattmann, Ralf; Mølmer, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    We study the fluctuations of the work performed on a driven quantum system, defined as the difference between subsequent measurements of energy eigenvalues. These work fluctuations are governed by statistical theorems with similar expressions in classical and quantum physics. We show that we can distinguish quantum and classical work fluctuations, as the latter can be described by a macrorealistic theory and hence obey Leggett-Garg inequalities. We show that these inequalities are violated by quantum processes in a driven two-level system and in a harmonic oscillator subject to a squeezing transformation.

  5. Copper foil provides uniform heat sink path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, I. E., Jr.; Schreihans, F. A.

    1966-01-01

    Thermal path prevents voids and discontinuities which make heat sinks in electronic equipment inefficient. The thermal path combines the high thermal conductivity of copper with the resiliency of silicone rubber.

  6. Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 71 NIST Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) for use in quantitative surface analyses by AES and XPS.

  7. Time optimal paths for high speed maneuvering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reister, D.B.; Lenhart, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent theoretical results have completely solved the problem of determining the minimum length path for a vehicle with a minimum turning radius moving from an initial configuration to a final configuration. Time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle are a subset of the minimum length paths. This paper uses the Pontryagin maximum principle to find time optimal paths for a constant speed vehicle. The time optimal paths consist of sequences of axes of circles and straight lines. The maximum principle introduces concepts (dual variables, bang-bang solutions, singular solutions, and transversality conditions) that provide important insight into the nature of the time optimal paths. We explore the properties of the optimal paths and present some experimental results for a mobile robot following an optimal path.

  8. Cooperative path planning of unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Tsourdos, Antonios; Shanmugavel, Madhavan

    2010-01-01

    An invaluable addition to the literature on UAV guidance and cooperative control, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a dedicated, practical guide to computational path planning for UAVs. One of the key issues facing future development of UAVs is path planning: it is vital that swarm UAVs/ MAVs can cooperate together in a coordinated manner, obeying a pre-planned course but able to react to their environment by communicating and cooperating. An optimized path is necessary in order to ensure a UAV completes its mission efficiently, safely, and successfully. Focussing on the path planning of multiple UAVs for simultaneous arrival on target, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles also offers coverage of path planners that are applicable to land, sea, or space-borne vehicles. Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is authored by leading researchers from Cranfield University and provides an authoritative resource for researchers, academics and engineers working in...

  9. Robustness of scale-free networks to cascading failures induced by fluctuating loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutaka, Shogo; Yakubo, Kousuke

    2015-07-01

    Taking into account the fact that overload failures in real-world functional networks are usually caused by extreme values of temporally fluctuating loads that exceed the allowable range, we study the robustness of scale-free networks against cascading overload failures induced by fluctuating loads. In our model, loads are described by random walkers moving on a network and a node fails when the number of walkers on the node is beyond the node capacity. Our results obtained by using the generating function method show that scale-free networks are more robust against cascading overload failures than Erdős-Rényi random graphs with homogeneous degree distributions. This conclusion is contrary to that predicted by previous works, which neglect the effect of fluctuations of loads.

  10. Role of protein fluctuation correlations in electron transfer in photosynthetic complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, Alexander I.; Berman, Gennady P.

    2015-04-01

    We consider the dependence of the electron transfer in photosynthetic complexes on correlation properties of random fluctuations of the protein environment. The electron subsystem is modeled by a finite network of connected electron (exciton) sites. The fluctuations of the protein environment are modeled by random telegraph processes, which act either collectively (correlated) or independently (uncorrelated) on the electron sites. We derived an exact closed system of first-order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, for the average density matrix elements and for their first moments. Under some conditions, we obtained analytic expressions for the electron transfer rates and found the range of parameters for their applicability by comparing with the exact numerical simulations. We also compared the correlated and uncorrelated regimes and demonstrated numerically that the uncorrelated fluctuations of the protein environment can, under some conditions, either increase or decrease the electron transfer rates.

  11. Survival paths through the forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Ulla Brasch

    when the information is high-dimensional e.g. when there are many thousands of genes or markers. In these situations machine learning methods such as the random forest can still be applied and provide reasonable prediction accuracy. The main focus in this talk is the performance of random forest...... in particular when the response is three-dimensional. In a diagnostic study of inflammatory bowel disease three classes of patients have to be diagnosed based on microarray gene-expression data. The performance of random forest is compared on a probability scale and on a classification scale to elastic net....... In survival analysis with competing risks I present an extension of random forest using time-dependent pseudo-values to build event risk prediction models. This approach is evaluated with data from Copenhagen stroke study. Further, I will explain how to use the R-package "pec" to evaluate random forests using...

  12. Symbolic PathFinder v7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luckow, Kasper Søe; Păsăreanu, Corina

    2014-01-01

    We describe Symbolic PathFinder v7 in terms of its updated design addressing the changes of Java PathFinder v7 and of its new optimization when computing path conditions. Furthermore, we describe the Symbolic Execution Tree Extension; a newly added feature that allows for outputting the symbolic...

  13. Mascot: Microarchitecture Synthesis of Control Paths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Berg, A.J.W.M.; ten Berg, A.J.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents MASCOT (MicroArchitecture Synthesis of ConTrol paths). This synthesis system constructs the optimal microarchitecture for a control path of an instruction set processor. Input to the system is the behavioural specification of a control path. This specification is in finite state

  14. Multi-level Indoor Path Planning Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, Q.; Zhu, Q.; Zlatanova, S.; Du, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zeng, L.

    2015-01-01

    Indoor navigation is increasingly widespread in complex indoor environments, and indoor path planning is the most important part of indoor navigation. Path planning generally refers to finding the most suitable path connecting two locations, while avoiding collision with obstacles. However, it is a

  15. Optimal automated path planning for infinitesimal and real-sized particle assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alp Karakoc

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present article introduces an algorithm for path planning and assembly of infinitesimal and real-sized particles by using a distance and path based permutation algorithm. The main objective is to define non-overlapping particle paths subject to minimal total path length during particles positioning and assembly. Thus, a local minimum is sought with a low computational cost. For this reason, an assignment problem, to be specific Euclidean bipartite matching problem, is presented, where the particles in the initial (random selection and final (particle assembly configurations are in one-to-one correspondence. The cost function for particle paths is defined through Euclidean distance of each particle between the initial and final configurations. Principally, a cost flow problem is formed and solved by determining an optimal permutation subject to the total Euclidean distance of the particles and their non-overlapping paths. Monte Carlo simulations are carried out for non-overlapping paths; thus, non-colliding particles, and then total path distances of the obtained sets are minimized, resulting in an optimal solution which may not be necessarily the global optimum. Case studies on basic and complex shaped infinitesimal and real-sized particle assemblies are shown with their total costs, i.e., path lengths. It is believed that the present study contributes to the current efforts in optical trapping automation for particle assemblies with possible applications, e.g., in the areas of micro-manufacturing, microfluidics, regenerative medicine and biotechnology.

  16. Single-Path Sigma from a Huge Dataset in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Chih-Hsuan; Lee, Chyi-Tyi

    2014-05-01

    Ground-motion variability, which was used in the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) in computing annual exceedence probability, is composed of random variability (aleatory uncertainty) and model uncertainty (epistemic uncertainty). Finding random variability of ground motions has become an important issue in PSHA, and only the random variability can be used in deriving the annual exceedence probability of ground-motion. Epistemic uncertainty will be put in the logic tree to estimate the total uncertainty of ground-motion. In the present study, we used about 18,859 records from 158 shallow earthquakes (Mw > 3.0, focal depth ≤ 35 km, each station has at least 20 records) form the Taiwan Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) network to analyse the random variability of ground-motion. First, a new ground-motion attenuation model was established by using this huge data set. Second, the residuals from the median attenuation were analysed by direct observation on inter-event variability and site-specific variability. Finally, the single-path variability was found by a moving-window method on either single-earthquake residuals or single-station residuals. A variogram method was also used to find minimum variability for intra-event residuals and inter-event residuals, respectively. Results reveal that 90% of the single-path sigma σSP are ranging from 0.219 to 0.254 (ln unit) and are 58% to 64% smaller than the total sigma (σT =0.601). The single-site sigma (σSS) are also 39%-43% smaller. If we use only random variability (single-path sigma) in PSHA, then the resultant hazard level would be 28% and 25% lower than the traditional one (using total sigma) in 475-year and in 2475-year return period, respectively, in Taipei.

  17. Detrended fluctuation analysis of the magnetic and electric field variations that precede rupture

    OpenAIRE

    Varotsos, P. A.; Sarlis, N. V.; Skordas, E. S.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic field variations are detected before rupture in the form of `spikes' of alternating sign. The distinction of these `spikes' from random noise is of major practical importance, since it is easier to conduct magnetic field measurements than electric field ones. Applying detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), these `spikes' look to be random at short time-lags. On the other hand, long range correlations prevail at time-lags larger than the average time interval between consecutive `spike...

  18. temperature fluctuation inside inert atmosphere silos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This research was conducted to study temperature fluctuation inside the inert atmosphere silos loaded with wheat, compare ... gases most especially carbondioxide (CO2) is due to safety of ... even to agriculture and resistance of pests to some.

  19. Fluctuations, Environment, Mutations Accumulation and Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biecek, Przemysław; Cebrat, Stanisław

    We present a model of evolution of the age structured population based on the Monte Carlo method. We have assumed that the health status of an individual is described by variance of its fluctuations. Each expressed deleterious mutation increases the fluctuations. Additionally, the fluctuations of the environment are superimposed on the fluctuations of individuals in the population. An individual dies if the combination of both stochastic processes trespass the limit (level of homeostasis) set as the model parameter. The genes are switched on chronologically, what leads to accumulating defective genes expressed during the late periods of life in the genetic pool of the population. That results in the specific age structured population, in accordance with the predictions of Medawar's hypothesis of ageing and the results of the Penna model simulations. A decrease of the variation of the environmental noise increases the average expected lifespan of individuals.

  20. Fluctuations of Intensive Quantities in Statistical Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur E. Ruuge

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In phenomenological thermodynamics, the canonical coordinates of a physical system split in pairs, with each pair consisting of an extensive quantity and an intensive one. In the present paper, the quasithermodynamic fluctuation theory of a model system of a large number of oscillators is extended to statistical thermodynamics based on the idea of perceiving the fluctuations of intensive variables as the fluctuations of specific extensive ones in a “thermodynamically dual” system. The extension is motivated by the symmetry of the problem in the context of an analogy with quantum mechanics, which is stated in terms of a generalized Pauli problem for the thermodynamic fluctuations. The doubled Boltzmann constant divided by the number of particles plays a similar role as the Planck constant.

  1. A stochastic model of river discharge fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livina, V.; Ashkenazy, Y.; Kizner, Z.; Strygin, V.; Bunde, A.; Havlin, S.

    2003-12-01

    We study the daily river flow fluctuations of 30 international rivers. Using the detrended fluctuation analysis, we study the correlations in the magnitudes of river flow increments (volatilities), and find power-law correlations in volatilities for time scales less than 1 year; these correlations almost disappear for time scales larger than 1 year. Using surrogate data test for nonlinearity, we show that correlations in the magnitudes of river flow fluctuations are a measure for nonlinearity. We propose a simple nonlinear stochastic model for river flow fluctuations that reproduces the main scaling properties of the river flow series as well as the correlations and periodicities in the magnitudes of river flow increments. According to our model, the source of nonlinearity observed in the data is an interaction between a long-term correlated process and the river discharge itself.

  2. Genetics of fluctuating asymmetry in pupal traits of the speckled wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Nylin, S.

    2002-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), small random differences between left and right, has been extensively used as a measure of individual quality, though its usefulness in that respect is controversial. Whether FA is heritable has implications for sexual selection theory and for its usefulness as an

  3. Ambiguity Aversion, Asset Prices, and the Welfare Costs of Aggregate Fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonso, Irasema; Prado, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Under the hypothesis that aggregate U.S. consumption is random and, more importantly, viewed as ambiguous by consumers, we examine the implications for asset prices and for how consumption fluctuations influence consumer welfare. We consider a simple, Mehra–Prescott-style endowment economy...

  4. Fluctuations of the Self-Normalized Sum in the Curie-Weiss Model of SOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorny, Matthias; Varadhan, S. R. S.

    2015-08-01

    We extend the main theorem of Cerf and Gorny (Ann Probab, 2015) about the fluctuations in the Curie-Weiss model of SOC in the symmetric case. We present a short proof using the Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation with the self-normalized sum of the random variables.

  5. Fluctuation Diamagnetism in Two-Band Superconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Adachi, Kyosuke; Ikeda, Ryusuke

    2016-01-01

    Anomalously large fluctuation diamagnetism around the superconducting critical temperature has been recently observed on iron selenide (FeSe) [S. Kasahara et al., unpublished]. This indicates that superconducting fluctuations (SCFs) play a more significant role in FeSe, which supposedly has two-band structure, than in the familiar single-band superconductors. Motivated by the data in FeSe, SCF-induced diamagnetism is examined in a two-band system, on the basis of a phenomenological approach w...

  6. Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS), part A

    CERN Document Server

    Tetin, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial by containing quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers Fluorescence Fluctuation SpectroscopyContains chapters on such topics as Time-integrated fluorescence cumulant analysis, Pulsed Interleaved Excitation, and raster image correlation spectroscopy and number and brightness analysis.Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the fieldCovers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopyContains chapte

  7. Quantum fluctuations of the superconducting cosmic string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shoucheng

    1987-01-01

    Quantum fluctuations of the proposed superconducting string with Bose charge carriers are studied in terms of the vortices on the string world sheet. In the thermodynamical limit, it is found that they appear in the form of free vortices rather than as bound pairs. This fluctuation mode violates the topological conservation law on which superconductivity is based. However, this limit may not be reached. The critical size of the superconducting string is estimated as a function of the coupling constants involved.

  8. Thermal Fluctuations in Electroweak Phase Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiromizu, T.; Morikawa, M.; Yokoyama, J.

    1995-11-01

    We estimate the amplitude of thermal fluctuations by calculating the typical size of subcritical bubbles in cosmological electroweak phase transition and show that this thermal fluctuation effect drastically changes dynamics of the phase transition from the ordinary first order type with supercooling. From this fact, we conclude that the standard electroweak baryogenesis scenario associated with such a first order transition does not work in the minimal standard model in certain conditions.

  9. Kink fluctuation asymptotics and zero modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, A.A. [Universidad de Salamanca, Departamento de Matematica Aplicada and IUFFyM, Salamanca (Spain); Guilarte, J.M. [Universidad de Salamanca, Departamento de Fisica Fundamental and IUFFyM, Salamanca (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    In this paper we propose a refinement of the heat-kernel/zeta function treatment of kink quantum fluctuations in scalar field theory, further analyzing the existence and implications of a zero-energy fluctuation mode. Improved understanding of the interplay between zero modes and the kink heat-kernel expansion delivers asymptotic estimations of one-loop kink mass shifts with remarkably higher precision than previously obtained by means of the standard Gilkey-DeWitt heat-kernel expansion. (orig.)

  10. Molecular thermodynamics using fluctuation solution theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Martin Dela

    to relevant experimental data is limited. This thesis addresses the issue of generating and using simple thermodynamic models within a rigorous statistical mechanical framework, the so-called fluctuation solution theory, from which relations connecting properties and phase equilibria can be obtained....... The framework relates thermodynamic variables to molecular pair correlation functions of liquid mixtures. In this thesis, application of the framework is illustrated using two approaches: 1. Solubilities of solid solutes in mixed solvent systems are determined from fluctuation solution theory application...

  11. Semiclassical form factor of matrix element fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Eckhardt, B; Eckhardt, Bruno; Main, Joerg

    1995-01-01

    We analyze within a semiclassical approximation the form factor for the fluctuations of quantum matrix elements around their classical average. We find two contributions: one is proportional to the form factor for the density of states, with an amplitude determined by the squared average of the matrix elements. The other is constant and related to the fluctuations of finite time classical trajectory segments around the phase space average. The results are illustrated for an observable in the quadratic Zeeman effect.

  12. Characterizing the evolutionary path(s) to early Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Lauren; Roseman, Charles C; Cheverud, James M; Ackermann, Rebecca R

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies suggest that the transition from Australopithecus to Homo was characterized by evolutionary innovation, resulting in the emergence and coexistence of a diversity of forms. However, the evolutionary processes necessary to drive such a transition have not been examined. Here, we apply statistical tests developed from quantitative evolutionary theory to assess whether morphological differences among late australopith and early Homo species in Africa have been shaped by natural selection. Where selection is demonstrated, we identify aspects of morphology that were most likely under selective pressure, and determine the nature (type, rate) of that selection. Results demonstrate that selection must be invoked to explain an Au. africanus-Au. sediba-Homo transition, while transitions from late australopiths to various early Homo species that exclude Au. sediba can be achieved through drift alone. Rate tests indicate that selection is largely directional, acting to rapidly differentiate these taxa. Reconstructions of patterns of directional selection needed to drive the Au. africanus-Au. sediba-Homo transition suggest that selection would have affected all regions of the skull. These results may indicate that an evolutionary path to Homo without Au. sediba is the simpler path and/or provide evidence that this pathway involved more reliance on cultural adaptations to cope with environmental change.

  13. Characterizing the evolutionary path(s to early Homo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Schroeder

    Full Text Available Numerous studies suggest that the transition from Australopithecus to Homo was characterized by evolutionary innovation, resulting in the emergence and coexistence of a diversity of forms. However, the evolutionary processes necessary to drive such a transition have not been examined. Here, we apply statistical tests developed from quantitative evolutionary theory to assess whether morphological differences among late australopith and early Homo species in Africa have been shaped by natural selection. Where selection is demonstrated, we identify aspects of morphology that were most likely under selective pressure, and determine the nature (type, rate of that selection. Results demonstrate that selection must be invoked to explain an Au. africanus-Au. sediba-Homo transition, while transitions from late australopiths to various early Homo species that exclude Au. sediba can be achieved through drift alone. Rate tests indicate that selection is largely directional, acting to rapidly differentiate these taxa. Reconstructions of patterns of directional selection needed to drive the Au. africanus-Au. sediba-Homo transition suggest that selection would have affected all regions of the skull. These results may indicate that an evolutionary path to Homo without Au. sediba is the simpler path and/or provide evidence that this pathway involved more reliance on cultural adaptations to cope with environmental change.

  14. Modeling multiphase flow using fluctuating hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhri, Anuj; Bell, John B; Garcia, Alejandro L; Donev, Aleksandar

    2014-09-01

    Fluctuating hydrodynamics provides a model for fluids at mesoscopic scales where thermal fluctuations can have a significant impact on the behavior of the system. Here we investigate a model for fluctuating hydrodynamics of a single-component, multiphase flow in the neighborhood of the critical point. The system is modeled using a compressible flow formulation with a van der Waals equation of state, incorporating a Korteweg stress term to treat interfacial tension. We present a numerical algorithm for modeling this system based on an extension of algorithms developed for fluctuating hydrodynamics for ideal fluids. The scheme is validated by comparison of measured structure factors and capillary wave spectra with equilibrium theory. We also present several nonequilibrium examples to illustrate the capability of the algorithm to model multiphase fluid phenomena in a neighborhood of the critical point. These examples include a study of the impact of fluctuations on the spinodal decomposition following a rapid quench, as well as the piston effect in a cavity with supercooled walls. The conclusion in both cases is that thermal fluctuations affect the size and growth of the domains in off-critical quenches.

  15. Hydrodynamic fluctuations in thermostatted multiparticle collision dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Híjar, Humberto; Sutmann, Godehard

    2011-04-01

    In this work we study the behavior of mesoscopic fluctuations of a fluid simulated by Multiparticle Collision Dynamics when this is applied together with a local thermostatting procedure that constrains the strength of temperature fluctuations. We consider procedures in which the thermostat interacts with the fluid at every simulation step as well as cases in which the thermostat is applied only at regular time intervals. Due to the application of the thermostat temperature fluctuations are forced to relax to equilibrium faster than they do in the nonthermostatted, constant-energy case. Depending on the interval of application of the thermostat, it is demonstrated that the thermodynamic state changes gradually from isothermal to adiabatic conditions. In order to exhibit this effect we compute from simulations diverse correlation functions of the hydrodynamic fluctuating fields. These correlation functions are compared with those predicted by a linearized hydrodynamic theory of a simple fluid in which a thermostat is applied locally. We find a good agreement between the model and the numerical results, which confirms that hydrodynamic fluctuations in Multiparticle Collision Dynamics in the presence of the thermostat have the properties expected for spontaneous fluctuations in fluids in contact with a heat reservoir.

  16. Longitudinal fluctuations and decorrelation of anisotropic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Long-Gang [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Petersen, Hannah [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Qin, Guang-You [Key Laboratory of Quark & Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Roy, Victor [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wang, Xin-Nian [Key Laboratory of Quark & Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Nuclear Science Division MS70R0319, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    We investigate the decorrelation of 2nd and 3rd order anisotropic flow for charged particles in two different pseudo rapidity (η) windows by varying the pseudo rapidity gap, in an event-by-event (3+1)D ideal hydrodynamic model, with fluctuating initial conditions from A Multi-Phase Transport (AMPT) model. We visualize the parton distribution at initial state for Pb+Pb collisions at LHC and Au+Au collisions at RHIC, and demonstrate the longitudinal fluctuations originating from the asymmetry between forward and backward going participants, the fluctuations of the string length and the fluctuations due to finite number of partons at different beam energies. The decorrelation of anisotropic flow of final hadrons with large η gaps is found to originate from the spatial decorrelation along the longitudinal direction in the AMPT initial conditions through hydrodynamic evolution. The agreement between our results and recent CMS data in most centralities suggests that the string-like mechanism of initial parton production in AMPT model captures the initial longitudinal fluctuation that is responsible for the measured decorrelation of anisotropic flow in Pb+Pb collisions at LHC. Our predictions for Au+Au collisions at the highest RHIC energy show stronger longitudinal decorrelation than at LHC, indicating larger longitudinal fluctuations at lower beam energies.

  17. Attention trees and semantic paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura

    2007-02-01

    In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial

  18. New Development on Modelling Fluctuations and Fragmentation in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hao; Danielewicz, Pawel

    2017-09-01

    During heavy-ion collisions (HIC), colliding nuclei form an excited composite system. Instabilities present in the system may deform the shape of the system exotically, leading to a break-up into fragments. Many experimental efforts have been devoted to the nuclear multifragmentation phenomenon, while traditional HIC models, lacking in proper treatment of fluctuations, fall short in explaining it. In view of this, we are developing a new model to implement realistic fluctuations into transport simulation. The new model is motivated by the Brownian motion description of colliding particles. The effects of two-body collisions are recast in one-body diffusion processes. Vastly different dynamical paths are sampled by solving Langevin equations in momentum space. It is the stochastic sampling of dynamical paths that leads to a wide spread of exit channels. In addition, the nucleon degree of freedom is used to enhance the fluctuations. The model has been tested in reactions such as 112Sn + 112Sn and 58Ni + 58Ni, where reasonable results are yielded. An exploratory comparison on the 112Sn + 112Sn reaction at 50 MeV/nucleon with two other models, the stochastic mean-field (SMF) and the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) models, has also been conducted. Work supported by the NSF Grant No. PHY-1403906.

  19. Optical path control in the MAM testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, M. W.; Hines, B.; Holmes, B.

    2003-01-01

    Future space-based optical interferometers will require control of the optical path delay to accomplish some or all of the three objectives: balancing the optical path in the two arms to within a tolerance corresponding to the coherence length of the star light being observed, modulating the optical path in order to observe the phase of the star light interference fringe, and modulating the path length in order to reduce the effect of cyclic errors in the laser metrology system used to measure the optical path length in the two arms of the interferometer.

  20. Two Generations of Path Dependence in Economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    2010-01-01

    Even if there is no fully articulated and generally accepted theory of Path Dependence it has eagerly been taken up across a wide range of social sciences – primarily coming from economics. Path Dependence is most of all a metaphor that offers reason to believe, that some political, social...... or economic processes have multiple possible paths of outcomes, rather than a unique path of equilibria. The selection among outcomes may depend on contingent choices or events – outcomes of path-dependent processes require a very relevant study – a perception of history....

  1. Methodologies for tracking learning paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Gilje, Øystein; Lindstrand, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    The article concerns the design of a collaborative research project (2008-09) entitled Making a Filmmaker, which examines how young Scandinavian filmmakers create their own learn- ing paths in formal and/or informal contexts. Our interest is how learning experiences and contexts motivate the young...... filmmakers: what furthers their interest and/or hinders it, and what learning patterns emerge. The aim of this article is to present and discuss issues regarding the methodology and meth- ods of the study, such as developing a relationship with interviewees when conducting inter- views online (using MSN). We...... platform that is familiar to our participants....

  2. Communication path for extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Betts, Bradley J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Methods and systems for using one or more radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs), or other suitable signal transmitters and/or receivers, to provide a sensor information communication path, to provide location and/or spatial orientation information for an emergency service worker (ESW), to provide an ESW escape route, to indicate a direction from an ESW to an ES appliance, to provide updated information on a region or structure that presents an extreme environment (fire, hazardous fluid leak, underwater, nuclear, etc.) in which an ESW works, and to provide accumulated thermal load or thermal breakdown information on one or more locations in the region.

  3. Robust random telegraph conductivity noise in single crystals of the ferromagnetic insulating manganite La0.86Ca0.14MnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybytek, J.; Fink-Finowicki, J.; Puźniak, R.; Shames, A.; Markovich, V.; Mogilyansky, D.; Jung, G.

    2017-03-01

    Robust random telegraph conductivity fluctuations have been observed in La0.86Ca0.14MnO3 manganite single crystals. At room temperatures, the spectra of conductivity fluctuations are featureless and follow a 1 /f shape in the entire experimental frequency and bias range. Upon lowering the temperature, clear Lorentzian bias-dependent excess noise appears on the 1 /f background and eventually dominates the spectral behavior. In the time domain, fully developed Lorentzian noise appears as pronounced two-level random telegraph noise with a thermally activated switching rate, which does not depend on bias current and applied magnetic field. The telegraph noise is very robust and persists in the exceptionally wide temperature range of more than 50 K. The amplitude of the telegraph noise decreases exponentially with increasing bias current in exactly the same manner as the sample resistance increases with the current, pointing out the dynamic current redistribution between percolation paths dominated by phase-separated clusters with different conductivity as a possible origin of two-level conductivity fluctuations.

  4. Studies of Fluctuation Processes in Nuclear Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayik, Sakir [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2016-04-14

    The standard one-body transport approaches have been extensively applied to investigate heavy-ion collision dynamics at low and intermediate energies. At low energies the approach is the mean-field description of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory. At intermediate energies the approach is extended by including a collision term, and its application has been carried out mostly in the semi-classical framework of the Boltzmann-Uhling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) model. The standard transport models provide a good understanding of the average properties of the collision dynamics in terms of the effective interactions in both low and intermediate energies. However, the standard models are inadequate for describing the fluctuation dynamics of collective motion at low energies and disassembling of the nuclear system into fragments at intermediate energies resulting from the growth of density fluctuations in the spinodal region. Our tasks have been to improve the standard transport approaches by incorporating fluctuation mechanisms into the description. There are mainly two different mechanisms for fluctuations: (i) Collisional fluctuations generated by binary nucleon collisions, which provide the dominant mechanism at intermediate energies, and (ii) One-body mechanism or mean-field fluctuations, which is the dominant mechanism at low energies. In the first part of our project, the PI extended the standard transport model at intermediate energies by incorporating collisional mechanism according to the “Generalized Langevin Description” of Mori formalism. The PI and his collaborators carried out a number of applications for describing dynamical mechanism of nuclear multi fragmentations, and nuclear collective response in the semi-classical framework of the approach, which is known as the Boltzmann-Langevin model. In the second part of the project, we considered dynamical description at low energies. Because of the effective Pauli blocking, the collisional dissipation and

  5. A reversible mesoscopic model of diffusion in liquids: from giant fluctuations to Fick’s law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donev, Aleksandar; Fai, Thomas G.; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric

    2014-04-01

    We study diffusive mixing in the presence of thermal fluctuations under the assumption of large Schmidt number. In this regime we obtain a limiting equation that contains a diffusive stochastic drift term with diffusion coefficient obeying a Stokes-Einstein relation, in addition to the expected advection by a random velocity. The overdamped limit correctly reproduces both the enhanced diffusion in the ensemble-averaged mean and the long-range correlated giant fluctuations in individual realizations of the mixing process, and is amenable to efficient numerical solution. Through a combination of Eulerian and Lagrangian numerical methods we demonstrate that diffusion in liquids is not most fundamentally described by Fick’s irreversible law; rather, diffusion is better modeled as reversible random advection by thermal velocity fluctuations. We find that the diffusion coefficient is effectively renormalized to a value that depends on the scale of observation. Our work reveals somewhat unexpected connections between flows at small scales, dominated by thermal fluctuations, and flows at large scales, dominated by turbulent fluctuations.

  6. Effect of static porosity fluctuations on reactive transport in a porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Heureux, Ivan

    2018-02-01

    Reaction-diffusive transport phenomena in porous media are ubiquitous in engineering applications, biological and geochemical systems. The porosity field is usually random in space, but most models consider the porosity field as a well-defined deterministic function of space and time and ignore the porosity fluctuations. They use a reaction-diffusion equation written in terms of an average porosity and average concentration fields. In this contribution, we treat explicitly the effect of spatial porosity fluctuations on the dynamics of a concentration field for the case of a one-dimensional reaction-transport system with nonlinear kinetics. Three basic assumptions are considered. (i) The porosity fluctuations are assumed to have Gaussian properties and an arbitrary variance; (ii) we assume that the noise correlation length is small compared to the relevant macroscopic length scale; (iii) and we assume that the kinetics of the reactive term in the equations for the fluctuations is a self-consistently determined constant. Elimination of the fluctuating part of the concentration field from the dynamics leads to a renormalized equation involving the average concentration field. It is shown that the noise leads to a renormalized (generally smaller) diffusion coefficient and renormalized kinetics. Within the framework of the approximations used, numerical simulations are in agreement with our theory. We show that the porosity fluctuations may have a significant effect on the transport of a reactive species, even in the case of a homogeneous average porosity.

  7. Classical and quantum dynamics from classical paths to path integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Dittrich, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Graduate students who wish to become familiar with advanced computational strategies in classical and quantum dynamics will find in this book both the fundamentals of a standard course and a detailed treatment of the time-dependent oscillator, Chern-Simons mechanics, the Maslov anomaly and the Berry phase, to name just a few topics. Well-chosen and detailed examples illustrate perturbation theory, canonical transformations and the action principle, and demonstrate the usage of path integrals. The fifth edition has been revised and enlarged to include chapters on quantum electrodynamics, in particular, Schwinger’s proper time method and the treatment of classical and quantum mechanics with Lie brackets and pseudocanonical transformations. It is shown that operator quantum electrodynamics can be equivalently described with c-numbers, as demonstrated by calculating the propagation function for an electron in a prescribed classical electromagnetic field.

  8. Correlation length of magnetosheath fluctuations: Cluster statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gutynska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetosheath parameters are usually described by gasdynamic or magnetohydrodynamic (MHD models but these models cannot account for one of the most important sources of magnetosheath fluctuations – the foreshock. Earlier statistical processing of a large amount of magnetosheath observations has shown that the magnetosheath magnetic field and plasma flow fluctuations downstream of the quasiparallel shock are much larger than those at the opposite flank. These studies were based on the observations of a single spacecraft and thus they could not provide full information on propagation of the fluctuations through the magnetosheath. We present the results of a statistical survey of the magnetosheath magnetic field fluctuations using two years of Cluster observations. We discuss the dependence of the cross-correlation coefficients between different spacecraft pairs on the orientation of the separation vector with respect to the average magnetic field and plasma flow vectors and other parameters. We have found that the correlation length does not exceed ~1 RE in the analyzed frequency range (0.001–0.125 Hz and does not depend significantly on the magnetic field or plasma flow direction. A close connection of cross-correlation coefficients computed in the magnetosheath with the cross-correlation coefficients between a solar wind monitor and a magnetosheath spacecraft suggests that solar wind structures persist on the background of magnetosheath fluctuations.

  9. Fluctuating asymmetry in Menidia beryllina before and after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelsen, Savannah; Schaefer, Jacob; Peterson, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill with a dependable baseline comparison can provide reliable insight into environmental stressors on organisms that were potentially affected by the spill. Fluctuating asymmetry (small, non-random deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry) is an informative metric sensitive to contaminants that can be used to assess environmental stress levels. For this study, the well-studied and common Gulf of Mexico estuarine fish, Menidia beryllina, was used with pre and post-oil spill collections. Comparisons of fluctuating asymmetry in three traits (eye diameter, pectoral fin length, and pelvic fin length) were made pre and post-oil spill across two sites (Old Fort Bayou and the Pascagoula River), as well as between years of collection (2011, 2012)--one and two years, respectfully, after the spill in 2010. We hypothesized that fluctuating asymmetry would be higher in post-Deepwater Horizon samples, and that this will be replicated in both study areas along the Mississippi Gulf coast. We also predicted that fluctuating asymmetry would decrease through time after the oil spill as the oil decomposed and/or was removed. Analyses performed on 1135 fish (220 pre and 915 post Deepwater Horizon) showed significantly higher post spill fluctuating asymmetry in the eye but no difference for the pectoral or pelvic fins. There was also higher fluctuating asymmetry in one of the two sites both pre and post-spill, indicating observed asymmetry may be the product of multiple stressors. Fluctuating asymmetry decreased in 2012 compared to 2011. Fluctuating asymmetry is a sensitive measure of sub lethal stress, and the observed variability in this study (pre vs. post-spill or between sites) could be due to a combination of oil, dispersants, or other unknown stressors.

  10. Fluctuating asymmetry in Menidia beryllina before and after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savannah Michaelsen

    Full Text Available Assessing the impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill with a dependable baseline comparison can provide reliable insight into environmental stressors on organisms that were potentially affected by the spill. Fluctuating asymmetry (small, non-random deviations from perfect bilateral symmetry is an informative metric sensitive to contaminants that can be used to assess environmental stress levels. For this study, the well-studied and common Gulf of Mexico estuarine fish, Menidia beryllina, was used with pre and post-oil spill collections. Comparisons of fluctuating asymmetry in three traits (eye diameter, pectoral fin length, and pelvic fin length were made pre and post-oil spill across two sites (Old Fort Bayou and the Pascagoula River, as well as between years of collection (2011, 2012--one and two years, respectfully, after the spill in 2010. We hypothesized that fluctuating asymmetry would be higher in post-Deepwater Horizon samples, and that this will be replicated in both study areas along the Mississippi Gulf coast. We also predicted that fluctuating asymmetry would decrease through time after the oil spill as the oil decomposed and/or was removed. Analyses performed on 1135 fish (220 pre and 915 post Deepwater Horizon showed significantly higher post spill fluctuating asymmetry in the eye but no difference for the pectoral or pelvic fins. There was also higher fluctuating asymmetry in one of the two sites both pre and post-spill, indicating observed asymmetry may be the product of multiple stressors. Fluctuating asymmetry decreased in 2012 compared to 2011. Fluctuating asymmetry is a sensitive measure of sub lethal stress, and the observed variability in this study (pre vs. post-spill or between sites could be due to a combination of oil, dispersants, or other unknown stressors.

  11. Integrated assignment and path planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Robert A.

    2005-11-01

    A surge of interest in unmanned systems has exposed many new and challenging research problems across many fields of engineering and mathematics. These systems have the potential of transforming our society by replacing dangerous and dirty jobs with networks of moving machines. This vision is fundamentally separate from the modern view of robotics in that sophisticated behavior is realizable not by increasing individual vehicle complexity, but instead through collaborative teaming that relies on collective perception, abstraction, decision making, and manipulation. Obvious examples where collective robotics will make an impact include planetary exploration, space structure assembly, remote and undersea mining, hazardous material handling and clean-up, and search and rescue. Nonetheless, the phenomenon driving this technology trend is the increasing reliance of the US military on unmanned vehicles, specifically, aircraft. Only a few years ago, following years of resistance to the use of unmanned systems, the military and civilian leadership in the United States reversed itself and have recently demonstrated surprisingly broad acceptance of increasingly pervasive use of unmanned platforms in defense surveillance, and even attack. However, as rapidly as unmanned systems have gained acceptance, the defense research community has discovered the technical pitfalls that lie ahead, especially for operating collective groups of unmanned platforms. A great deal of talent and energy has been devoted to solving these technical problems, which tend to fall into two categories: resource allocation of vehicles to objectives, and path planning of vehicle trajectories. An extensive amount of research has been conducted in each direction, yet, surprisingly, very little work has considered the integrated problem of assignment and path planning. This dissertation presents a framework for studying integrated assignment and path planning and then moves on to suggest an exact

  12. Path-finding in real and simulated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamosiunaite, Minija; Ainge, James; Kulvicius, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    A large body of experimental evidence suggests that the hippocampal place field system is involved in reward based navigation learning in rodents. Reinforcement learning (RL) mechanisms have been used to model this, associating the state space in an RL-algorithm to the place-field map in a rat...... convergence of RL-algorithms is also influenced by the state space characteristics, different PF-sizes and densities, leading to a different degree of overlap, were also investigated. The model rat learns finding a reward opposite to its starting point. We observed that the combination of biased straight...... exploration, overlapping coverage and probabilistic firing will strongly impair the convergence of learning. When the degree of randomness in the exploration is increased, convergence improves, but the distribution of straight path segments becomes unrealistic and paths become 'wiggly'. To mend this situation...

  13. Information Spread of Emergency Events: Path Searching on Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongzhi; Wu, Tunan

    2014-01-01

    Emergency has attracted global attentions of government and the public, and it will easily trigger a series of serious social problems if it is not supervised effectively in the dissemination process. In the Internet world, people communicate with each other and form various virtual communities based on social networks, which lead to a complex and fast information spread pattern of emergency events. This paper collects Internet data based on data acquisition and topic detection technology, analyzes the process of information spread on social networks, describes the diffusions and impacts of that information from the perspective of random graph, and finally seeks the key paths through an improved IBF algorithm. Application cases have shown that this algorithm can search the shortest spread paths efficiently, which may help us to guide and control the information dissemination of emergency events on early warning. PMID:24600323

  14. Information spread of emergency events: path searching on social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Weihui; Hu, Hongzhi; Wu, Tunan; Dai, Yonghui

    2014-01-01

    Emergency has attracted global attentions of government and the public, and it will easily trigger a series of serious social problems if it is not supervised effectively in the dissemination process. In the Internet world, people communicate with each other and form various virtual communities based on social networks, which lead to a complex and fast information spread pattern of emergency events. This paper collects Internet data based on data acquisition and topic detection technology, analyzes the process of information spread on social networks, describes the diffusions and impacts of that information from the perspective of random graph, and finally seeks the key paths through an improved IBF algorithm. Application cases have shown that this algorithm can search the shortest spread paths efficiently, which may help us to guide and control the information dissemination of emergency events on early warning.

  15. Delay time for fine particle ignition within gas with fluctuating temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevich, I. V.; Galdina, D. D.

    2017-03-01

    The Pontryagin equation was applied to calculating the average time for the random process escaping the assign interval: this gives the average delay time for waiting of particle ignition moment in a turbulent flow of gas. A direct numerical simulation method was developed for gas temperature fluctuations with assigned autocorrelation function and particle temperature fluctuations due to exothermal chemical reaction. The method was based on numerical solution of a system of stochastic differential equations. Results of direct simulation were validated through comparing with the analytical solution available for particles without exothermal reaction. Analytical calculations and results of direct numerical simulation for the delay time of particle ignition are in agreement.

  16. Path modeling and process control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar; Rodionova, O.; Pomerantsev, A.

    2007-01-01

    Many production processes are carried out in stages. At the end of each stage, the production engineer can analyze the intermediate results and correct process parameters (variables) of the next stage. Both analysis of the process and correction to process parameters at next stage should...... and having three or more stages. The methods are applied to a process control of a multi-stage production process having 25 variables and one output variable. When moving along the process, variables change their roles. It is shown how the methods of path modeling can be applied to estimate variables...... of the next stage with the purpose of obtaining optimal or almost optimal quality of the output variable. An important aspect of the methods presented is the possibility of extensive graphic analysis of data that can provide the engineer with a detailed view of the multi-variate variation in data....

  17. Counting paths with Schur transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, Pablo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada); Kemp, Garreth [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006 (South Africa); Véliz-Osorio, Alvaro, E-mail: aveliz@gmail.com [Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    In this work we explore the structure of the branching graph of the unitary group using Schur transitions. We find that these transitions suggest a new combinatorial expression for counting paths in the branching graph. This formula, which is valid for any rank of the unitary group, reproduces known asymptotic results. We proceed to establish the general validity of this expression by a formal proof. The form of this equation strongly hints towards a quantum generalization. Thus, we introduce a notion of quantum relative dimension and subject it to the appropriate consistency tests. This new quantity finds its natural environment in the context of RCFTs and fractional statistics; where the already established notion of quantum dimension has proven to be of great physical importance.

  18. Fluctuation diamagnetism in two-band superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kyosuke; Ikeda, Ryusuke

    2016-04-01

    Anomalously large fluctuation diamagnetism around the superconducting critical temperature has been recently observed in iron selenide (FeSe) [Kasahara et al. (unpublished)]. This indicates that superconducting fluctuations (SCFs) play a more significant role in FeSe, which supposedly has a two-band structure, than in the familiar single-band superconductors. Motivated by the data on FeSe, SCF-induced diamagnetism is examined in a two-band system, on the basis of a phenomenological approach with a Ginzburg-Landau functional. The obtained results indicate that the SCF-induced diamagnetism may be more enhanced than that in a single-band system due to the existence of two distinct fluctuation modes. Such enhancement of diamagnetism unique to a two-band system seems consistent with the large diamagnetism observed in FeSe, though still far from a quantitative agreement.

  19. Exchange fluctuation theorem for correlated quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevtic, Sania; Rudolph, Terry; Jennings, David; Hirono, Yuji; Nakayama, Shojun; Murao, Mio

    2015-10-01

    We extend the exchange fluctuation theorem for energy exchange between thermal quantum systems beyond the assumption of molecular chaos, and describe the nonequilibrium exchange dynamics of correlated quantum states. The relation quantifies how the tendency for systems to equilibrate is modified in high-correlation environments. In addition, a more abstract approach leads us to a "correlation fluctuation theorem". Our results elucidate the role of measurement disturbance for such scenarios. We show a simple application by finding a semiclassical maximum work theorem in the presence of correlations. We also present a toy example of qubit-qudit heat exchange, and find that non-classical behaviour such as deterministic energy transfer and anomalous heat flow are reflected in our exchange fluctuation theorem.

  20. Low Mach Number Fluctuating Hydrodynamics for Electrolytes

    CERN Document Server

    Péraud, Jean-Philippe; Chaudhri, Anuj; Bell, John B; Donev, Aleksandar; Garcia, Alejandro L

    2016-01-01

    We formulate and study computationally the low Mach number fluctuating hydrodynamic equations for electrolyte solutions. We are interested in studying transport in mixtures of charged species at the mesoscale, down to scales below the Debye length, where thermal fluctuations have a significant impact on the dynamics. Continuing our previous work on fluctuating hydrodynamics of multicomponent mixtures of incompressible isothermal miscible liquids (A. Donev, et al., Physics of Fluids, 27, 3, 2015), we now include the effect of charged species using a quasielectrostatic approximation. Localized charges create an electric field, which in turn provides additional forcing in the mass and momentum equations. Our low Mach number formulation eliminates sound waves from the fully compressible formulation and leads to a more computationally efficient quasi-incompressible formulation. We demonstrate our ability to model saltwater (NaCl) solutions in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium settings. We show that our algorithm...

  1. Classical and quantum temperature fluctuations via holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Alexander V. [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gudnason, Sven Bjarke [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Thorlacius, Larus [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); University of Iceland, Reykjavik (Iceland); Zarembo, Konstantin [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation); Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); Krikun, Alexander [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation); Kedem, Yaron [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-05-27

    We study local temperature fluctuations in a 2+1 dimensional CFT on the sphere, dual to a black hole in asymptotically AdS space-time. The fluctuation spectrum is governed by the lowest-lying hydrodynamic sound modes of the system whose frequency and damping rate determine whether temperature fluctuations are thermal or quantum. We calculate numerically the corresponding quasinormal frequencies and match the result with the hydrodynamics of the dual CFT at large temperature. As a by-product of our analysis we determine the appropriate boundary conditions for calculating low-lying quasinormal modes for a four-dimensional Reissner-Nordstrom black hole in global AdS.

  2. Mesoscale wind fluctuations over Danish waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, C.L.

    2010-12-15

    Mesoscale wind fluctuations affect the large scale integration of wind power because they undermine the day-ahead predictability of wind speed and power production, and because they can result in large fluctuations in power generation that must be balanced using reserve power. Large fluctuations in generated power are a particular problem for offshore wind farms because the typically high concentration of turbines within a limited geographical area means that fluctuations can be correlated across large numbers of turbines. Furthermore, organised mesoscale structures that often form over water, such as convective rolls and cellular convection, have length scales of tens of kilometers, and can cause large wind fluctuations on a time scale of around an hour. This thesis is an exploration of the predictability of mesoscale wind fluctuations using observations from the world's first two large offshore wind farms - Horns Rev I in the North Sea, and Nysted in the Baltic Sea. The thesis begins with a climatological analysis of wind fluctuations on time scales of 1-10 hours at the two sites. A novel method for calculating conditional climatologies of spectral information is proposed, based on binning and averaging the time axis of the Hilbert spectrum. Results reveal clear patterns between wind fluctuations and locally observed meteorological conditions. The analysis is expanded by classifying wind fluctuations on time scales of 1-3 hours according to synoptic patterns, satellite pictures and wind classes. Results indicate that cold air outbreaks and open cellular convection are a significant contributor to mesoscale wind variability at Horns Rev. The predictability of mesoscale wind fluctuations is tested by implementing standard statistical models that relate local wind variability to parameters based on a large scale weather analysis. The models show some skill, but only achieve a 15% improvement on a persistence forecast. The possibility of explicitly modelling

  3. RSA fluctuation in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenberg, Jonathan; Clift, April; Bolden, Sarah; Salomon, Kristen

    2007-05-01

    Cardiac vagal control, as measured by indices of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), has been investigated as a marker of impaired self-regulation in mental disorders, including depression. Past work in depressed samples has focused on deficits in resting RSA levels, with mixed results. This study tested the hypothesis that depression involves abnormal RSA fluctuation. RSA was measured in depressed and healthy control participants during rest and during two reactivity tasks, each followed by a recovery period. Relative to controls, depressed persons exhibited lower resting RSA levels as well as less RSA fluctuation, primarily evidenced by a lack of task-related vagal suppression. Group differences in RSA fluctuation were not accounted for by differences in physical health or respiration, whereas group differences in resting RSA level did not survive covariate analyses. Depression may involve multiple deficits in cardiac vagal control.

  4. Non-linear Membrane Properties in Entorhinal Cortical Stellate Cells Reduce Modulation of Input-Output Responses by Voltage Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Fernando R.; Malerba, Paola; White, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of voltage fluctuations arising from synaptic activity is a critical component in models of gain control, neuronal output gating, and spike rate coding. The degree to which individual neuronal input-output functions are modulated by voltage fluctuations, however, is not well established across different cortical areas. Additionally, the extent and mechanisms of input-output modulation through fluctuations have been explored largely in simplified models of spike generation, and with limited consideration for the role of non-linear and voltage-dependent membrane properties. To address these issues, we studied fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses in medial entorhinal cortical (MEC) stellate cells of rats, which express strong sub-threshold non-linear membrane properties. Using in vitro recordings, dynamic clamp and modeling, we show that the modulation of input-output responses by random voltage fluctuations in stellate cells is significantly limited. In stellate cells, a voltage-dependent increase in membrane resistance at sub-threshold voltages mediated by Na+ conductance activation limits the ability of fluctuations to elicit spikes. Similarly, in exponential leaky integrate-and-fire models using a shallow voltage-dependence for the exponential term that matches stellate cell membrane properties, a low degree of fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses can be attained. These results demonstrate that fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses is not a universal feature of neurons and can be significantly limited by subthreshold voltage-gated conductances. PMID:25909971

  5. Sequential Path Entanglement for Quantum Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xian-Min; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Deng, Youjin; Barbieri, Marco; Nunn, Joshua; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    Path entanglement is a key resource for quantum metrology. Using path-entangled states, the standard quantum limit can be beaten, and the Heisenberg limit can be achieved. However, the preparation and detection of such states scales unfavourably with the number of photons. Here we introduce sequential path entanglement, in which photons are distributed across distinct time bins with arbitrary separation, as a resource for quantum metrology. We demonstrate a scheme for converting polarization Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entanglement into sequential path entanglement. We observe the same enhanced phase resolution expected for conventional path entanglement, independent of the delay between consecutive photons. Sequential path entanglement can be prepared comparably easily from polarization entanglement, can be detected without using photon-number-resolving detectors, and enables novel applications.

  6. Scale invariance and universality of economic fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. E.; Amaral, L. A. N.; Gopikrishnan, P.; Plerou, V.

    2000-08-01

    In recent years, physicists have begun to apply concepts and methods of statistical physics to study economic problems, and the neologism “econophysics” is increasingly used to refer to this work. Much recent work is focused on understanding the statistical properties of time series. One reason for this interest is that economic systems are examples of complex interacting systems for which a huge amount of data exist, and it is possible that economic time series viewed from a different perspective might yield new results. This manuscript is a brief summary of a talk that was designed to address the question of whether two of the pillars of the field of phase transitions and critical phenomena - scale invariance and universality - can be useful in guiding research on economics. We shall see that while scale invariance has been tested for many years, universality is relatively less frequently discussed. This article reviews the results of two recent studies - (i) The probability distribution of stock price fluctuations: Stock price fluctuations occur in all magnitudes, in analogy to earthquakes - from tiny fluctuations to drastic events, such as market crashes. The distribution of price fluctuations decays with a power-law tail well outside the Lévy stable regime and describes fluctuations that differ in size by as much as eight orders of magnitude. (ii) Quantifying business firm fluctuations: We analyze the Computstat database comprising all publicly traded United States manufacturing companies within the years 1974-1993. We find that the distributions of growth rates is different for different bins of firm size, with a width that varies inversely with a power of firm size. Similar variation is found for other complex organizations, including country size, university research budget size, and size of species of bird populations.

  7. Quantum heat-fluctuation theorem of a reduced system: an exactly solvable case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhan-Wu

    2011-02-01

    For a system in which free quantum Brownian particles interact with a non-Markovian heat bath with product initial states, the quantum heat-fluctuation theorems and the Jarzynski relation of the reduced system are derived using the path integral technique. They are not a direct generalization of the classical case. The validity of the second law of quantum thermodynamics is shown. The forms of these theorems and relations have to do with the specified nonequilibrium initial states, and are dependent on the structure of the bath (ergodic or nonergodic) in the quantum case as well as the classical case under some initial states.

  8. Fluctuations and localization in mesoscopic electron

    CERN Document Server

    Janssen, Martin

    2001-01-01

    The quantum phenomena of tunneling and interference show up not only in the microscopic world of atoms and molecules, but also in cold materials of the real world, such as metals and semiconductors. Though not fully macroscopic, such mesoscopic systems contain a huge number of particles, and the holistic nature of quantum mechanics becomes evident already in simple electronic measurements. The measured quantity fluctuates as a function of applied fields in an unpredictable, yet reproducible way. Despite this fingerprint character of fluctuations, their statistical properties are universal, i.e

  9. Chiral edge fluctuations of colloidal membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Leroy; Zakhary, Mark; Dogic, Zvonimir; Pelcovits, Robert; Powers, Thomas

    Using experiments and theory we study chiral fluctuations of the edge of a nearly flat colloidal membrane, consisting of rod-like viruses held together by the depletion interaction. Our measurements show an anomalous peak in the power spectrum around 1 inverse micron. Using an effective theory to describe the liquid crystal degrees of freedom by geometric properties of the edge, such as length, geodesic torsion, and curvature, we calculate the spectrum of out-of-plane edge fluctuations. The peak arises for sufficiently strong chirality, and corresponds to the instability of a flat membrane to a shape with helical, rippled edges.

  10. Fluctuation theorems for continuously monitored quantum fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Michele; Talkner, Peter; Hänggi, Peter

    2010-10-01

    It is shown that quantum fluctuation theorems remain unaffected if measurements of any kind and number of observables are performed during the action of a force protocol. That is, although the backward and forward probabilities entering the fluctuation theorems are both altered by these measurements, their ratio remains unchanged. This observation allows us to describe the measurement of fluxes through interfaces and, in this way, to bridge the gap between the current theory, based on only two measurements performed at the beginning and end of the protocol, and experiments that are based on continuous monitoring.

  11. Inverse scattering problem in turbulent magnetic fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We apply a particular form of the inverse scattering theory to turbulent magnetic fluctuations in a plasma. In the present note we develop the theory, formulate the magnetic fluctuation problem in terms of its electrodynamic turbulent response function, and reduce it to the solution of a special form of the famous Gelfand–Levitan–Marchenko equation of quantum mechanical scattering theory. The last of these applies to transmission and reflection in an active medium. The theory of turbulent magnetic fluctuations does not refer to such quantities. It requires a somewhat different formulation. We reduce the theory to the measurement of the low-frequency electromagnetic fluctuation spectrum, which is not the turbulent spectral energy density. The inverse theory in this form enables obtaining information about the turbulent response function of the medium. The dynamic causes of the electromagnetic fluctuations are implicit to it. Thus, it is of vital interest in low-frequency magnetic turbulence. The theory is developed until presentation of the equations in applicable form to observations of turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations as input from measurements. Solution of the final integral equation should be done by standard numerical methods based on iteration. We point to the possibility of treating power law fluctuation spectra as an example. Formulation of the problem to include observations of spectral power densities in turbulence is not attempted. This leads to severe mathematical problems and requires a reformulation of inverse scattering theory. One particular aspect of the present inverse theory of turbulent fluctuations is that its structure naturally leads to spatial information which is obtained from the temporal information that is inherent to the observation of time series. The Taylor assumption is not needed here. This is a consequence of Maxwell's equations, which couple space and time evolution. The inversion procedure takes

  12. Two beam surface fluctuation specular reflection spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudsepp, Allan; Fretigny, Christian; Lequeux, François; Talini, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    In surface fluctuation specular reflection spectroscopy (SFSRS) deflections of a specularly reflected laser beam are used to characterize thermally excited surface waves. Here we report on a new two beam version of SFSRS in which the deflections of two reflected laser beams from separate locations on a surface are correlated. We demonstrate that this new two beam SFSRS technique can be used to determine directly the power spectrum of height fluctuation of thermally excited surface waves over a large range of both frequencies and wavevectors. In addition, we show that the technique is well suited for materials ranging from simple liquids to complex liquids and soft solids, including turbid materials.

  13. Quantum Fluctuation Theorems, Contextuality, and Work Quasiprobabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lostaglio, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the role of contextuality within quantum fluctuation theorems, in the light of a recent no-go result by Perarnau-Llobet et al. We show that any fluctuation theorem reproducing the two-point-measurement scheme for classical states either admits a notion of work quasiprobability or fails to describe protocols exhibiting contextuality. Conversely, we describe a protocol that smoothly interpolates between the two-point-measurement work distribution for projective measurements and Allahverdyan's work quasiprobability for weak measurements, and show that the negativity of the latter is a direct signature of contextuality.

  14. Techniques and applications of path integration

    CERN Document Server

    Schulman, L S

    2005-01-01

    A book of techniques and applications, this text defines the path integral and illustrates its uses by example. It is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in physics; its sole prerequisite is a first course in quantum mechanics. For applications requiring specialized knowledge, the author supplies background material.The first part of the book develops the techniques of path integration. Topics include probability amplitudes for paths and the correspondence limit for the path integral; vector potentials; the Ito integral and gauge transformations; free particle and quadra

  15. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition...

  16. Geometric fluctuation theorem for a spin-boson system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kota L; Hayakawa, Hisao

    2017-08-01

    We derive an extended fluctuation theorem for geometric pumping of a spin-boson system under periodic control of environmental temperatures by using a Markovian quantum master equation. We obtain the current distribution, the average current, and the fluctuation in terms of the Monte Carlo simulation. To explain the results of our simulation we derive an extended fluctuation theorem. This fluctuation theorem leads to the fluctuation dissipation relations but the absence of the conventional reciprocal relation.

  17. Constructing stochastic models for dipole fluctuations from paleomagnetic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffett, Bruce; Puranam, Abhijit

    2017-11-01

    Records of relative paleointensity are subject to several sources of error. Temporal averaging due to gradual acquisition of magnetization removes high-frequency fluctuations, whereas random errors introduce fluctuations at high frequency. Both sources of error limit our ability to construct stochastic models from paleomagnetic observations. We partially circumvent these difficulties by recognizing that the largest affects occur at high frequency. To illustrate we construct a stochastic model from two recent inversions of paleomagnetic observations for the axial dipole moment. An estimate of the noise term in the stochastic model is recovered from a high-resolution inversion (CALS10k.2), while the drift term is estimated from the low-frequency part of the power spectrum for a long, but lower-resolution inversion (PADM2M). Realizations of the resulting stochastic model yield a composite, broadband power spectrum that agrees well with the spectra from both PADM2M and CALS10k.2. A simple generalization of the stochastic model permits predictions for the mean rate of magnetic reversals. We show that the reversal rate depends on the time-averaged dipole moment, the variance of the dipole moment and a slow timescale that characterizes the adjustment of the dipole toward the time-averaged value. Predictions of the stochastic model give a mean rate of 4.2 Myr-1, which is in good agreement with observations from marine magnetic anomalies.

  18. Asymmetric noise-induced large fluctuations in coupled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ira B.; Szwaykowska, Klimka; Carr, Thomas W.

    2017-10-01

    Networks of interacting, communicating subsystems are common in many fields, from ecology, biology, and epidemiology to engineering and robotics. In the presence of noise and uncertainty, interactions between the individual components can lead to unexpected complex system-wide behaviors. In this paper, we consider a generic model of two weakly coupled dynamical systems, and we show how noise in one part of the system is transmitted through the coupling interface. Working synergistically with the coupling, the noise on one system drives a large fluctuation in the other, even when there is no noise in the second system. Moreover, the large fluctuation happens while the first system exhibits only small random oscillations. Uncertainty effects are quantified by showing how characteristic time scales of noise-induced switching scale as a function of the coupling between the two coupled parts of the experiment. In addition, our results show that the probability of switching in the noise-free system scales inversely as the square of reduced noise intensity amplitude, rendering the virtual probability of switching an extremely rare event. Our results showing the interplay between transmitted noise and coupling are also confirmed through simulations, which agree quite well with analytic theory.

  19. Scale-invariant structure of energy fluctuations in real earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Chang, Zhe; Wang, Huanyu; Lu, Hong

    2017-11-01

    Earthquakes are obviously complex phenomena associated with complicated spatiotemporal correlations, and they are generally characterized by two power laws: the Gutenberg-Richter (GR) and the Omori-Utsu laws. However, an important challenge has been to explain two apparently contrasting features: the GR and Omori-Utsu laws are scale-invariant and unaffected by energy or time scales, whereas earthquakes occasionally exhibit a characteristic energy or time scale, such as with asperity events. In this paper, three high-quality datasets on earthquakes were used to calculate the earthquake energy fluctuations at various spatiotemporal scales, and the results reveal the correlations between seismic events regardless of their critical or characteristic features. The probability density functions (PDFs) of the fluctuations exhibit evidence of another scaling that behaves as a q-Gaussian rather than random process. The scaling behaviors are observed for scales spanning three orders of magnitude. Considering the spatial heterogeneities in a real earthquake fault, we propose an inhomogeneous Olami-Feder-Christensen (OFC) model to describe the statistical properties of real earthquakes. The numerical simulations show that the inhomogeneous OFC model shares the same statistical properties with real earthquakes.

  20. Fluctuations and structure of amphiphilic films; Fluctuations et structure de films d`amphiphiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourier, CH

    1996-07-01

    This thesis is divided in three parts.The first part exposes in a theoretical point of view, how the fluctuations spectrum of an amphiphilic film is governed by its properties and its bidimensional characteristics.The measurements of fluctuations spectra of an interface are accessible with the measurement of intensity that interface diffuses out of the specular angle, we present in the second chapter the principles of the X rays diffusion by a real interface and see how the diffuse diffusion experiments allow to determine the fluctuations spectrum of an amphiphilic film. The second part is devoted to the different experimental techniques that have allowed to realize the study of fluctuation as well as the structural study.The third part is devoted to experimental results concerning the measurements of fluctuations spectra and to the study of the structure of amphiphilic films. We show that it is possible by using an intense source of X rays (ESRF: European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) to measure the water and amphiphilic films fluctuations spectra until molecular scales. The last chapter is devoted to the structural study and film fluctuations made of di-acetylenic molecules. (N.C.)

  1. Effect of Stochastic Charge Fluctuations on Dust Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lorin; Shotorban, Babak; Hyde, Truell

    2017-10-01

    The charging of particles in a plasma environment occurs through the collection of electrons and ions on the particle surface. Depending on the particle size and the plasma density, the standard deviation of the number of collected elementary charges, which fluctuates due to the randomness in times of collisions with electrons or ions, may be a significant fraction of the equilibrium charge. We use a discrete stochastic charging model to simulate the variations in charge across the dust surface as well as in time. The resultant asymmetric particle potentials, even for spherical grains, has a significant impact on the particle coagulation rate as well as the structure of the resulting aggregates. We compare the effects on particle collisions and growth in typical laboratory and astrophysical plasma environments. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-1414523.

  2. Anomalous Brownian motion of colloidal particle in a nematic environment: effect of the director fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Turiv

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As recently reported [Turiv T. et al., Science, 2013, Vol. 342, 1351], fluctuations in the orientation of the liquid crystal (LC director can transfer momentum from the LC to a colloid, such that the diffusion of the colloid becomes anomalous on a short time scale. Using video microscopy and single particle tracking, we investigate random thermal motion of colloidal particles in a nematic liquid crystal for the time scales shorter than the expected time of director fluctuations. At long times, compared to the characteristic time of the nematic director relaxation we observe typical anisotropic Brownian motion with the mean square displacement (MSD linear in time τ and inversly proportional to the effective viscosity of the nematic medium. At shorter times, however, the dynamics is markedly nonlinear with MSD growing more slowly (subdiffusion or faster (superdiffusion than τ. These results are discussed in the context of coupling of colloidal particle's dynamics to the director fluctuation dynamics.

  3. The effect of temperature fluctuations of reaction rate constants in turbulent reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinitz, W.; Antaki, P. J.; Kassar, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Current models of turbulent reacting flows frequently use Arrhenius reaction rate constants obtained from static or laminar flow theory and/or experiments, or from best fits of static, laminar, and turbulent data. By treating the reaction rate constant as a continuous random variable which is temperature-dependent, the present study assesses the effect of turbulent temperature fluctuations on the reaction rate constant. This model requires that a probability density function (PDF) describing the nature of the fluctuations be specified. Three PDFs are examined: the clipped Gaussian, the beta PDF, and the ramp model. All the models indicate that the reaction rate constant is greater in a turbulent flow field than in an equivalent laminar flow. In addition, an amplification ratio, which is the ratio of the turbulent rate constant to the laminar rate constant, is defined and its behavior as a function of the mean temperature fluctuations is described

  4. Single-cell protein dynamics reproduce universal fluctuations in cell populations

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner, Naama; Rotella, James S; Salman, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Protein fluctuations in cell populations have recently been shown to exhibit a universal distribution shape under a broad range of biological realizations. Here, measuring protein content in individual bacteria continuously over ~70 generations, we show that single-cell trajectories fluctuate around their average with the same distribution shape as the population, i.e. their relative fluctuations are ergodic. Analysis of these temporal trajectories reveals that one effective random variable, sampled once each cell cycle, suffices to reconstruct the distribution from the trajectory. This in turn implies that cellular microscopic processes are strongly buffered and population-level protein distributions are insensitive to details of the intracellular dynamics. Probing them thus requires searching for novel universality-breaking experimental perturbations.

  5. A path to precision in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslove, David M; Lamontagne, Francois; Marshall, John C; Heyland, Daren K

    2017-04-03

    Precision medicine is increasingly touted as a groundbreaking new paradigm in biomedicine. In the ICU, the complexity and ambiguity of critical illness syndromes have been identified as fundamental justifications for the adoption of a precision approach to research and practice. Inherently protean diseases states such as sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome have manifestations that are physiologically and anatomically diffuse, and that fluctuate over short periods of time. This leads to considerable heterogeneity among patients, and conditions in which a "one size fits all" approach to therapy can lead to widely divergent results. Current ICU therapy can thus be seen as imprecise, with the potential to realize substantial gains from the adoption of precision medicine approaches. A number of challenges still face the development and adoption of precision critical care, a transition that may occur incrementally rather than wholesale. This article describes a few concrete approaches to addressing these challenges.First, novel clinical trial designs, including registry randomized controlled trials and platform trials, suggest ways in which conventional trials can be adapted to better accommodate the physiologic heterogeneity of critical illness. Second, beyond the "omics" technologies already synonymous with precision medicine, the data-rich environment of the ICU can generate complex physiologic signatures that could fuel precision-minded research and practice. Third, the role of computing infrastructure and modern informatics methods will be central to the pursuit of precision medicine in the ICU, necessitating close collaboration with data scientists. As work toward precision critical care continues, small proof-of-concept studies may prove useful in highlighting the potential of this approach.

  6. Joint modeling of constrained path enumeration and path choice behavior: a semi-compensatory approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    A behavioural and a modelling framework are proposed for representing route choice from a path set that satisfies travellers’ spatiotemporal constraints. Within the proposed framework, travellers’ master sets are constructed by path generation, consideration sets are delimited according to spatio...

  7. Magnetic fluctuations in UNi4B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentink, S.A.M.; Mason, T.E.; Buyers, W.J.L.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the magnetic fluctuation spectrum of the geometrically frustrated antiferromagnetic compound UNi4B, which partially orders below T-N = 20 K. An overdamped spin excitation is observed at the AF wave vector around 2.4 meV. Low-frequency, weakly Q-dependent inelastic scattering...

  8. Relationship among phenotypic plasticity, phenotypic fluctuations ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-09-04

    Sep 4, 2009 ... ... and evolution speed is obtained. The correlation between developmental robustness to noise and evolutionary robustness to mutation is analysed by simulations of the gene network model. These results provide quantitative formulation on canalization and genetic assimilation, in terms of fluctuations of ...

  9. temperature fluctuation inside inert atmosphere silos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATION INSIDE INERT ATMOSPHERE SILOS. E. S. Ajayi, et al. Nigerian Journal of Technology. Vol. 35, No. 3, July 2016. 643 also resist heat flow from solar radiation from outside. This is usually achieved by painting the silo wall with white paint. Some of the advantages of inert atmosphere storage ...

  10. Critical point fluctuations in supported lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Simon D; Heath, George; Olmsted, Peter D; Kisil, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to observe many aspects of critical phenomena in supported lipid bilayers using atomic force microscopy (AFM) with the aid of stable and precise temperature control. The regions of criticality were determined by accurately measuring and calculating phase diagrams for the 2 phase L(d)-L(o) region, and tracking how it moves with temperature, then increasing the sampling density around the estimated critical regions. Compositional fluctuations were observed above the critical temperature (T(c)) and characterised using a spatial correlation function. From this analysis, the phase transition was found to be most closely described by the 2D Ising model, showing it is a critical transition. Below T(c) roughening of the domain boundaries occurred due to the reduction in line tension close to the critical point. Smaller scale density fluctuations were also detected just below T(c). At T(c), we believe we have observed fluctuations on length scales greater than 10 microm. The region of critically fluctuating 10-100 nm nanodomains has been found to extend a considerable distance above T(c) to temperatures within the biological range, and seem to be an ideal candidate for the actual structure of lipid rafts in cell membranes. Although evidence for this idea has recently emerged, this is the first direct evidence for nanoscale domains in the critical region.

  11. Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Quentin S; Khatun, Suniya; Yosef, Amal; Dyer, Rachel-May

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026) while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029) indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs) to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes). Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.

  12. Fluctuations in doubly scattered laser light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijswijk, F.C. van; Smith, U.L.

    1975-01-01

    Fluctuations in laser light, doubly scattered by brownian particles, were analysed by measuring the spectral noise power of the photodetector current. Scattering took place at two spatially separated systems of spherical particles. Analytic expressions for the field and intensity correlations are

  13. Effect of programmed circadian temperature fluctuations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of programmed circadian temperature fluctuations on population dynamics of. Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss). K.N. de Kock and J.A. van Eeden. Snail Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education,. Potchefstroom. Until now all life-table studies on freshwater snails.

  14. Advantages of storage in a fluctuating environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, B.W.; Troost, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    We will elaborate the evolutionary course of an ecosystem consisting of a population in a chemostat environment with periodically fluctuating nutrient supply. The organisms that make up the population consist of structural biomass and energy storage compartments. In a constant chemostat environment

  15. Quantum and Thermal Fluctuations in Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Sen-Ben; Polonyi, Janos; Xu, Dapeng

    1994-01-01

    Blocking transformation is performed in quantum field theory at finite temperature. It is found that the manner temperature deforms the renormalized trajectories can be used to understand better the role played by the quantum fluctuations. In particular, it is conjectured that domain formation and mass parameter generation can be observed in theories without spontaneous symmetry breaking.

  16. PREDICTION OF VOLTAGE FLUCTUATION IN ELECTRIC GRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Sapryka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of voltage fluctuation versus parameters of power quality and power consumption is developed to allow predicting parameters of the power quality in electric grids. Application of the model will result in an electrical complex functioning optimization

  17. Fluctuation scaling, Taylor's law, and crime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin S Hanley

    Full Text Available Fluctuation scaling relationships have been observed in a wide range of processes ranging from internet router traffic to measles cases. Taylor's law is one such scaling relationship and has been widely applied in ecology to understand communities including trees, birds, human populations, and insects. We show that monthly crime reports in the UK show complex fluctuation scaling which can be approximated by Taylor's law relationships corresponding to local policing neighborhoods and larger regional and countrywide scales. Regression models applied to local scale data from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire found that different categories of crime exhibited different scaling exponents with no significant difference between the two regions. On this scale, violence reports were close to a Poisson distribution (α = 1.057 ± 0.026 while burglary exhibited a greater exponent (α = 1.292 ± 0.029 indicative of temporal clustering. These two regions exhibited significantly different pre-exponential factors for the categories of anti-social behavior and burglary indicating that local variations in crime reports can be assessed using fluctuation scaling methods. At regional and countrywide scales, all categories exhibited scaling behavior indicative of temporal clustering evidenced by Taylor's law exponents from 1.43 ± 0.12 (Drugs to 2.094 ± 0081 (Other Crimes. Investigating crime behavior via fluctuation scaling gives insight beyond that of raw numbers and is unique in reporting on all processes contributing to the observed variance and is either robust to or exhibits signs of many types of data manipulation.

  18. A theory of fluctuations in plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felderhof, B.U.

    A theory of thermal fluctuations in plasmas is developed based on a probability ensemble for one-particle distribution functions ƒ(r, ν). The probability for a specific ƒ(r, ν) is obtained from the canonical ensemble with the aid of the continuum approximation. Subsequently the probability

  19. Macroeconomic fluctuations and mortality in postwar Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, José A Tapia

    2008-05-01

    Recent research has shown that after long-term declining trends are excluded, mortality rates in industrial countries tend to rise in economic expansions and fall in economic recessions. In the present work, co-movements between economic fluctuations and mortality changes in postwar Japan are investigated by analyzing time series of mortality rates and eight economic indicators. To eliminate spurious associations attributable to trends, series are detrended either via Hodrick-Prescott filtering or through differencing. As previously found in other industrial economies, general mortality and age-specific death rates in Japan tend to increase in expansions and drop in recessions, for both males and females. The effect, which is slightly stronger for males, is particularly noticeable in those aged 45-64. Deaths attributed to heart disease, pneumonia, accidents, liver disease, and senility--making up about 41% of total mortality--tend to fluctuate procyclically, increasing in expansions. Suicides, as well as deaths attributable to diabetes and hypertensive disease, make up about 4% of total mortality and fluctuate countercyclically, increasing in recessions. Deaths attributed to other causes, making up about half of total deaths, don't show a clearly defined relationship with the fluctuations of the economy.

  20. Low Mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics for electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péraud, Jean-Philippe; Nonaka, Andy; Chaudhri, Anuj; Bell, John B.; Donev, Aleksandar; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2016-11-01

    We formulate and study computationally the low Mach number fluctuating hydrodynamic equations for electrolyte solutions. We are interested in studying transport in mixtures of charged species at the mesoscale, down to scales below the Debye length, where thermal fluctuations have a significant impact on the dynamics. Continuing our previous work on fluctuating hydrodynamics of multicomponent mixtures of incompressible isothermal miscible liquids [A. Donev et al., Phys. Fluids 27, 037103 (2015), 10.1063/1.4913571], we now include the effect of charged species using a quasielectrostatic approximation. Localized charges create an electric field, which in turn provides additional forcing in the mass and momentum equations. Our low Mach number formulation eliminates sound waves from the fully compressible formulation and leads to a more computationally efficient quasi-incompressible formulation. We demonstrate our ability to model saltwater (NaCl) solutions in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium settings. We show that our algorithm is second order in the deterministic setting and for length scales much greater than the Debye length gives results consistent with an electroneutral approximation. In the stochastic setting, our model captures the predicted dynamics of equilibrium and nonequilibrium fluctuations. We also identify and model an instability that appears when diffusive mixing occurs in the presence of an applied electric field.

  1. Quantum fluctuations in FRLW space-time

    OpenAIRE

    Rabochaya, Y.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study a quantum field theoretical approach, where a quantum probe is used to investigate the properties of generic non-flat FRLW space time. The fluctuations related to a massless conformal coupled scalar field defined on a space-time with horizon is identified with a probe and the procedure to measure the local temperature is presented.

  2. A Graph Search Heuristic for Shortest Distance Paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, E

    2005-03-24

    This paper presents a heuristic for guiding A* search for finding the shortest distance path between two vertices in a connected, undirected, and explicitly stored graph. The heuristic requires a small amount of data to be stored at each vertex. The heuristic has application to quickly detecting relationships between two vertices in a large information or knowledge network. We compare the performance of this heuristic with breadth-first search on graphs with various topological properties. The results show that one or more orders of magnitude improvement in the number of vertices expanded is possible for large graphs, including Poisson random graphs.

  3. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Xu, Wu; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu

    2014-05-24

    Some batteries can exhibit greatly improved performance by utilizing electrodes having randomly arranged graphene nanosheets forming a network of channels defining continuous flow paths through the electrode. The network of channels can provide a diffusion pathway for the liquid electrolyte and/or for reactant gases. Metal-air batteries can benefit from such electrodes. In particular Li-air batteries show extremely high capacities, wherein the network of channels allow oxygen to diffuse through the electrode and mesopores in the electrode can store discharge products.

  4. Simultaneous Water Vapor and Dry Air Optical Path Length Measurements and Compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrere, D.; Hinz, P.; Downey, E.; Boehm, M.; Danchi, W. C.; Durney, O.; Ertel, S.; Hill, J. M.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Mennesson, B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer uses a near-infrared camera to measure the optical path length variations between the two AO-corrected apertures and provide high-angular resolution observations for all its science channels (1.5-13 microns). There is however a wavelength dependent component to the atmospheric turbulence, which can introduce optical path length errors when observing at a wavelength different from that of the fringe sensing camera. Water vapor in particular is highly dispersive and its effect must be taken into account for high-precision infrared interferometric observations as described previously for VLTI/MIDI or the Keck Interferometer Nuller. In this paper, we describe the new sensing approach that has been developed at the LBT to measure and monitor the optical path length fluctuations due to dry air and water vapor separately. After reviewing the current performance of the system for dry air seeing compensation, we present simultaneous H-, K-, and N-band observations that illustrate the feasibility of our feed forward approach to stabilize the path length fluctuations seen by the LBTI nuller uses a near-infrared camera to measure the optical path length variations between the two AO-corrected apertures and provide high-angular resolution observations for all its science channels (1.5-13 microns). There is however a wavelength dependent component to the atmospheric turbulence, which can introduce optical path length errors when observing at a wavelength different from that of the fringe sensing camera. Water vapor in particular is highly dispersive and its effect must be taken into account for high-precision infrared interferometric observations as described previously for VLTI MIDI or the Keck Interferometer Nuller. In this paper, we describe the new sensing approach that has been developed at the LBT to measure and monitor the optical path length fluctuations due to dry air and water vapor separately. After reviewing the current

  5. Critical fluctuations in cortical models near instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Aburn

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Computational studies often proceed from the premise that cortical dynamics operate in a linearly stable domain, where fluctuations dissipate quickly and show only short memory. Studies of human EEG, however, have shown significant autocorrelation at time lags on the scale of minutes, indicating the need to consider regimes where nonlinearities influence the dynamics. Statistical properties such as increased autocorrelation length, increased variance, power-law scaling and bistable switching have been suggested as generic indicators of the approach to bifurcation in nonlinear dynamical systems. We study temporal fluctuations in a widely-employed computational model (the Jansen-Rit model of cortical activity, examining the statistical signatures that accompany bifurcations. Approaching supercritical Hopf bifurcations through tuning of the background excitatory input, we find a dramatic increase in the autocorrelation length that depends sensitively on the direction in phase space of the input fluctuations and hence on which neuronal subpopulation is stochastically perturbed. Similar dependence on the input direction is found in the distribution of fluctuation size and duration, which show power law scaling that extends over four orders of magnitude at the Hopf bifurcation. We conjecture that the alignment in phase space between the input noise vector and the center manifold of the Hopf bifurcation is directly linked to these changes. These results are consistent with the possibility of statistical indicators of linear instability being detectable in real EEG time series. However, even in a simple cortical model, we find that these indicators may not necessarily be visible even when bifurcations are present because their expression can depend sensitively on the neuronal pathway of incoming fluctuations.

  6. Inked Careers: Tattooing Professional Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DeLuca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of career has an interdisciplinary and historical constitution, which includes persons, groups, organizations and society. Given that, we aim to deepen the interactionist notion of career from the understanding of a deviant path, supported by a theory and a method appropriated to the cited call for interdisciplinary approaches. Dilemmas (Hughes, 1958 and conflicts (Hughes, 1937 emerged as important analytical categories. Although necessary, these two concepts were not sufficient to contemplate analyses in their entirety. For this reason we conceptualized a third possibility of controversy during a career: the inquiries. The study followed the Narrative method to analyze objective and subjective changes during a tattoo artist’s career through interviews and informal conversations carried out over 22 months. The discussion presents three main contributions. Theoretically, a new understanding of the concept of careers, linking past, present and future and the idea of non-linearity of experienced and envisioned careers. Methodologically, suggesting orientations for future career studies such as the use of turning points as a methodological tool and the investigation of deviant fields. Finally, our defense of the interactionist perspective as suitable for career studies, since it allows the investigation of deviant elements.

  7. Towards shortest path identification on large networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selim, Haysam; Zhan, Justin

    2016-01-01

    ...) and then finding the shortest path in a quick manner due to the data reduction in the graph. As the number of vertices and edges tend to increase on large networks the aim of this article is to make the reduction of the network that will cause an impact on calculating the shortest path for a faster analysis in a shortest time.

  8. White Noise Path Integrals in Stochastic Neurodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpio-Bernido, M. Victoria; Bernido, Christopher C.

    2008-06-01

    The white noise path integral approach is used in stochastic modeling of neural activity, where the primary dynamical variables are the relative membrane potentials, while information on transmembrane ionic currents is contained in the drift coefficient. The white noise path integral allows a natural framework and can be evaluated explicitly to yield a closed form for the conditional probability density.

  9. Path following with a robotic platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.; Asselt, van C.J.; Bontsema, J.; Müller, J.; Straten, van G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers path following control for a four-wheel steered robotic platform. The vehicle used for the experiments is a specially designed robotic platform for performing autonomous weed control. The robot uses RTK- DGPS to determine both position and orientation relative to the path. The

  10. Heuristic estimates in shortest path algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractShortest path problems occupy an important position in operations research as well as in artificial intelligence. In this paper we study shortest path algorithms that exploit heuristic estimates. The well-known algorithms are put into one framework. Besides, we present an interesting

  11. Heuristic estimates in shortest path algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractShortest path problems occupy an important position in Operations Research as well as in Arti¯cial Intelligence. In this paper we study shortest path algorithms that exploit heuristic estimates. The well-known algorithms are put into one framework. Besides we present an interesting

  12. Graphic method for analyzing common path interferometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    1998-01-01

    Common path interferometers are widely used for visualizing phase disturbances and fluid flows. They are attractive because of the inherent simplicity and robustness in the setup. A graphic method will be presented for analyzing and optimizing filter parameters in common path interferometers....

  13. Path Minima Queries in Dynamic Weighted Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoodi, Pooya; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Satti, Srinivasa Rao

    2011-01-01

    In the path minima problem on a tree, each edge is assigned a weight and a query asks for the edge with minimum weight on a path between two nodes. For the dynamic version of the problem, where the edge weights can be updated, we give data structures that achieve optimal query time\\todo{what about...

  14. Path Profiles of Cn2 Derived from Radiometer Temperature Measurements and Geometrical Ray Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnalek, Brian E.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence has significant impairments on the operation of Free-Space Optical (FSO) communication systems, in particular temporal and spatial intensity fluctuations at the receiving aperture resulting in power surges and fades, changes in angle of arrival, spatial coherence degradation, etc. The refractive index structure parameter Cn2 is a statistical measure of the strength of turbulence in the atmosphere and is highly dependent upon vertical height. Therefore to understand atmospheric turbulence effects on vertical FSO communication links such as space-to-ground links, it is necessary to specify Cn2 profiles along the atmospheric propagation path. To avoid the limitations on the applicability of classical approaches, propagation simulation through geometrical ray tracing is applied. This is achieved by considering the atmosphere along the optical propagation path as a spatial distribution of spherical bubbles with varying relative refractive index deviations representing turbulent eddies. The relative deviations of the refractive index are statistically determined from altitude-dependent and time-varying temperature fluctuations, as measured by a microwave profiling radiometer. For each representative atmosphere ray paths are analyzed using geometrical optics, which is particularly advantageous in situations of strong turbulence where there is severe wavefront distortion and discontinuity. The refractive index structure parameter is then determined as a function of height and time.

  15. Effects of temperature fluctuations on cuttlebone formation of cuttlefish Sepia esculenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shuhan; Zhang, Xiumei; Liu, Songlin; Chen, Siqing

    2012-07-01

    The morphological characteristics and the cuttlebone formation of Sepia esculenta exposed to different water temperature fluctuations were investigated under laboratory conditions. Temperature fluctuation cycles (15 cycles, 60 d in total) consisted of the following three regimes of 4 d duration: keeping water temperature in 26°C for 3 d (Group A), 2 d (Group B), 0 d (Group C, control); then keeping water temperature in 16°C for the next 1, 2, 4 d. No significant difference in the survival rate was observed between the control and temperature fluctuation groups ( P >0.05). Lamellar depositions in a temperature fluctuation cycle were 2.45±0.02 for Group A, 2.00±0.02 for Group B, and 1.78±0.02 for Group C ( P< 0.05). The relationship between age and number of lamellas in the cuttlebone of S. esculenta under each water temperature fluctuation could be described as the linear model and the number of lamellas in the cuttlebone did not correspond to actual age. Group A had the highest cuttlebone growth index (CGI), the lowest locular index (LI), and inter-streak distances comparing with those of control group. However, the number of lamellas and LI or CGI showed a quadratic relationship for each temperature fluctuation group. In addition, temperature fluctuations caused the breakage of cuttlebone dark rings, which was considered a thermal mark. The position of the breakage in the dark rings was random. This thermal mark can be used as supplementary information for marking and releasing techniques.

  16. ATCG nucleotide fluctuation of Deinococcus radiodurans radiation genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Todd; Subramaniam, R.; Sullivan, R.; Cheung, E.; Schneider, C.; Tremberger, G., Jr.; Flamholz, A.; Lieberman, D. H.; Cheung, T. D.

    2007-09-01

    The radiation resistance-repair genes in Deinococcus radiodurans (DR) and E-coli were analyzed in terms of the A, T, C, G nucleotide fluctuations. The studied genes were Rec-A, Rec-Q, and the unique DR PprA gene. In an ATCG sequence, each base was assigned a number equal to its atomic number. The resulting numerical sequence was the basis of the statistical analysis. Fractal analysis using the Higuchi method gave a fractal dimension increase of the Deinococcus radiodurans genes as compared to E-coli, which is comparable to the enhancement observed in the human HAR1 region (HAR1F gene) over that of the chimpanzee. Near neighbor fluctuation was also studied via the Black-Scholes model where the increment sequence was treated as a random walk series. The Deinococcus radiodurans radiation gene standard deviations were consistently higher than that of the E-coli deviations, and agree with the fractal analysis results. The sequence stacking interaction was studied using the published nucleotide-pair melting free energy values and Deinococcus radiodurans radiation genes were shown to possess larger negative free energies. The high sensitivity of the fractal dimension as a biomarker was tested with correlation analysis of the gamma ray dose versus fractal dimension, and the R square values were found to be above 0.9 (N=5). When compared with other nucleotide sequences such as the rRNA sequences, HAR1 and its chimpanzee counterpart, the higher fluctuation (correlated randomness) and larger negative free energy of a DR radiation gene suggested that a radiation resistance-repair sequence exhibited higher complexity. As the HAR1 nucleotide sequence complexity and its transcription activity of co-expressing cortex protein reelin supported a positive selection event in humans, a similar inference of positive selection of coding genes could be drawn for Deinococcus radiodurans when compared to E-coli. The origin of such a positive selection would be consistent with that of a

  17. Optimization of educational paths for higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasyev, Alexandr A.; Agarkov, Gavriil; Medvedev, Aleksandr

    2017-11-01

    In our research, we combine the theory of economic behavior and the methodology of increasing efficiency of the human capital to estimate the optimal educational paths. We provide an optimization model for higher education process to analyze possible educational paths for each rational individual. The preferences of each rational individual are compared to the best economically possible educational path. The main factor of the individual choice, which is formed by the formation of optimal educational path, deals with higher salaries level in the chosen economic sector after graduation. Another factor that influences on the economic profit is the reduction of educational costs or the possibility of the budget support for the student. The main outcome of this research consists in correction of the governmental policy of investment in human capital based on the results of educational paths optimal control.

  18. An uncovered risk factor of sonothrombolysis: Substantial fluctuation of ultrasound transmittance through the human skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuojun; Komatsu, Teppei; Mitsumura, Hidetaka; Nakata, Norio; Ogawa, Takeki; Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Yokoyama, Masayuki

    2017-05-01

    Sonothrombolysis is one of the most feasible methods for enhancing clot lysis with a recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in cases of acute ischemic strokes. For safe and efficient clinical practices of sonothrombolysis, accurate estimation of ultrasound transmittance through the human skull is critical. Previously, we reported substantial and periodic fluctuation of ultrasound transmittance through a bone-phantom plate following changes to ultrasound frequency, the thickness of the bone-phantom plate, and the distance between a transducer and the bone-phantom plate. In the present study, we clarify the transmittance behavior of medium-frequency ultrasound (from 400kHz to 600kHz) through the human skull, and examine reduction of the transmittance fluctuation. For the study, we measured transmittance of sinusoidal ultrasound waves at 400kHz, 500kHz, and 600kHz at 13 temple spots on 3 human skulls by changing the distance between a transducer and the skull bone, and found substantial and periodic fluctuation in the transmittance behaviors for these sinusoidal voltage excitations. Degrees of the fluctuation varied depending on the measurement spots. A fluctuation ratio between the maximum transmittance and the minimum transmittance reached 3 in some spots. This large transmittance fluctuation is considered to be a risk factor for sonothrombolysis therapies. We examined a modulated ultrasound wave to reduce the fluctuation, and succeeded in obtaining considerable reduction. The average fluctuation ratios for 400-kHz, 500-kHz, and 600-kHz waves were 2.38, 2.38, and 2.07, respectively. We successfully reduced the ratio to 1.72 by using a periodic selection of random frequency (PSRF)-type of modulation wave. The thus obtained results indicate that attention to the fluctuation in ultrasound transmittance through the skull is necessary for safe and effective sonothrombolysis therapies, and that modulated ultrasound waves constitute a powerful method for reducing

  19. Automatic path-oriented test data generation by boundary hypercuboids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Moadab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing test cases and generating data are very important phases in software engineering these days. In order to generate test data, some generators such as random test data generators, data specification generators and path-oriented (Path-Wise test data generators are employed. One of the most important problems in the path-oriented test data generator is the lack of attention given to discovering faults by the test data. In this paper an approach is proposed to generate some test data automatically so that we can realize the goal of discovering more faults in less time. The number of faults near the boundaries of the input domain is more than the center, according to the Pareto 80–20 principle the test data of this approach will be generated at 20% of the allowable area boundary. To do this, we extracted the boundary hypercuboids and then the test data will be generated by exploiting these hypercuboids. The experimental results show that the fault detection probability and the fault detection speed are improved significantly, compared with the previous approaches. By generating data in this way, more faults are discovered in a short period of time which makes it more possible to deliver products on time.

  20. Path planning in uncertain flow fields using ensemble method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Le Maître, Olivier P.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Knio, Omar M.

    2016-10-01

    An ensemble-based approach is developed to conduct optimal path planning in unsteady ocean currents under uncertainty. We focus our attention on two-dimensional steady and unsteady uncertain flows, and adopt a sampling methodology that is well suited to operational forecasts, where an ensemble of deterministic predictions is used to model and quantify uncertainty. In an operational setting, much about dynamics, topography, and forcing of the ocean environment is uncertain. To address this uncertainty, the flow field is parametrized using a finite number of independent canonical random variables with known densities, and the ensemble is generated by sampling these variables. For each of the resulting realizations of the uncertain current field, we predict the path that minimizes the travel time by solving a boundary value problem (BVP), based on the Pontryagin maximum principle. A family of backward-in-time trajectories starting at the end position is used to generate suitable initial values for the BVP solver. This allows us to examine and analyze the performance of the sampling strategy and to develop insight into extensions dealing with general circulation ocean models. In particular, the ensemble method enables us to perform a statistical analysis of travel times and consequently develop a path planning approach that accounts for these statistics. The proposed methodology is tested for a number of scenarios. We first validate our algorithms by reproducing simple canonical solutions, and then demonstrate our approach in more complex flow fields, including idealized, steady and unsteady double-gyre flows.

  1. Benchmarking Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: A Public Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Bird, Jeff; Davison, Craig; Volponi, Al; Iverson, R. Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of engine health management (EHM) technology. The need is two-fold: technology developers require relevant data and problems to design and validate new algorithms and techniques while engine system integrators and operators need practical tools to direct development and then evaluate the effectiveness of proposed solutions. This paper presents a publicly available gas path diagnostic benchmark problem that has been developed by the Propulsion and Power Systems Panel of The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP) to help address these needs. The problem is coded in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc.) and coupled with a non-linear turbofan engine simulation to produce "snap-shot" measurements, with relevant noise levels, as if collected from a fleet of engines over their lifetime of use. Each engine within the fleet will experience unique operating and deterioration profiles, and may encounter randomly occurring relevant gas path faults including sensor, actuator and component faults. The challenge to the EHM community is to develop gas path diagnostic algorithms to reliably perform fault detection and isolation. An example solution to the benchmark problem is provided along with associated evaluation metrics. A plan is presented to disseminate this benchmark problem to the engine health management technical community and invite technology solutions.

  2. Path planning in uncertain flow fields using ensemble method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Tong

    2016-08-20

    An ensemble-based approach is developed to conduct optimal path planning in unsteady ocean currents under uncertainty. We focus our attention on two-dimensional steady and unsteady uncertain flows, and adopt a sampling methodology that is well suited to operational forecasts, where an ensemble of deterministic predictions is used to model and quantify uncertainty. In an operational setting, much about dynamics, topography, and forcing of the ocean environment is uncertain. To address this uncertainty, the flow field is parametrized using a finite number of independent canonical random variables with known densities, and the ensemble is generated by sampling these variables. For each of the resulting realizations of the uncertain current field, we predict the path that minimizes the travel time by solving a boundary value problem (BVP), based on the Pontryagin maximum principle. A family of backward-in-time trajectories starting at the end position is used to generate suitable initial values for the BVP solver. This allows us to examine and analyze the performance of the sampling strategy and to develop insight into extensions dealing with general circulation ocean models. In particular, the ensemble method enables us to perform a statistical analysis of travel times and consequently develop a path planning approach that accounts for these statistics. The proposed methodology is tested for a number of scenarios. We first validate our algorithms by reproducing simple canonical solutions, and then demonstrate our approach in more complex flow fields, including idealized, steady and unsteady double-gyre flows.

  3. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  4. Heat fluctuations of Brownian oscillators in nonstationary processes: Fluctuation theorem and condensation transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisanti, A; Sarracino, A; Zannetti, M

    2017-05-01

    We study analytically the probability distribution of the heat released by an ensemble of harmonic oscillators to the thermal bath, in the nonequilibrium relaxation process following a temperature quench. We focus on the asymmetry properties of the heat distribution in the nonstationary dynamics, in order to study the forms taken by the fluctuation theorem as the number of degrees of freedom is varied. After analyzing in great detail the cases of one and two oscillators, we consider the limit of a large number of oscillators, where the behavior of fluctuations is enriched by a condensation transition with a nontrivial phase diagram, characterized by reentrant behavior. Numerical simulations confirm our analytical findings. We also discuss and highlight how concepts borrowed from the study of fluctuations in equilibrium under symmetry-breaking conditions [Gaspard, J. Stat. Mech. (2012) P0802110.1088/1742-5468/2012/08/P08021] turn out to be quite useful in understanding the deviations from the standard fluctuation theorem.

  5. Classical fluctuations in dissipative quantum systems - metamorphosisof quantum fluctuations into cosmic non-uniformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, M.

    Assuming an inflationary phase in the early universe, this paper studies the generation of non-uniformity from an entirely uniform universe where no statistical fluctuations nor structure are present.

  6. Mathematical model for path selection by ants between nest and food source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Marek; Okińczyc, Natalia; Vela-Pérez, M

    2017-03-01

    Several models have been proposed to describe the behavior of ants when moving from nest to food sources. Most of these studies where based on numerical simulations with no mathematical justification. In this paper, we propose a mechanism for the formation of paths of minimal length between two points by a collection of individuals undergoing reinforced random walks taking into account not only the lengths of the paths but also the angles (connected to the preference of ants to move along straight lines). Our model involves reinforcement (pheromone accumulation), persistence (tendency to preferably follow straight directions in absence of any external effect) and takes into account the bifurcation angles of each edge (represented by a probability of willingness of choosing the path with the smallest angle). We describe analytically the results for 2 ants and different path lengths and numerical simulations for several ants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Universal Property of Quantum Measurements of Equilibrium Fluctuations and Violation of the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikura, Kyota; Shimizu, Akira

    2016-07-01

    For macroscopic quantum systems, we study what is measured when equilibrium fluctuations of macrovariables are measured in an ideal way that mimics classical ideal measurements as closely as possible. We find that the symmetrized time correlation is always obtained for such measurements. As an important consequence, we show that the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is partially violated as a relation between observed quantities in macroscopic quantum systems even if measurements are made in such an ideal way.

  8. Universal Property of Quantum Measurements of Equilibrium Fluctuations and Violation of the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikura, Kyota; Shimizu, Akira

    2016-07-01

    For macroscopic quantum systems, we study what is measured when equilibrium fluctuations of macrovariables are measured in an ideal way that mimics classical ideal measurements as closely as possible. We find that the symmetrized time correlation is always obtained for such measurements. As an important consequence, we show that the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is partially violated as a relation between observed quantities in macroscopic quantum systems even if measurements are made in such an ideal way.

  9. Effect of thermal fluctuations on a charged dilatonic black Saturn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Pourhassan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will analyze the effect of thermal fluctuations on the thermodynamics of a charged dilatonic black Saturn. These thermal fluctuations will correct the thermodynamics of the charged dilatonic black Saturn. We will analyze the corrections to the thermodynamics of this system by first relating the fluctuations in the entropy to the fluctuations in the energy. Then, we will use the relation between entropy and a conformal field theory to analyze the fluctuations in the entropy. We will demonstrate that similar physical results are obtained from both these approaches. We will also study the effect of thermal fluctuations on the phase transition in this charged dilatonic black Saturn.

  10. Effect of thermal fluctuations on a charged dilatonic black Saturn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourhassan, Behnam, E-mail: b.pourhassan@du.ac.ir [School of Physics, Damghan University, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: f2mir@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4 (Canada)

    2016-04-10

    In this paper, we will analyze the effect of thermal fluctuations on the thermodynamics of a charged dilatonic black Saturn. These thermal fluctuations will correct the thermodynamics of the charged dilatonic black Saturn. We will analyze the corrections to the thermodynamics of this system by first relating the fluctuations in the entropy to the fluctuations in the energy. Then, we will use the relation between entropy and a conformal field theory to analyze the fluctuations in the entropy. We will demonstrate that similar physical results are obtained from both these approaches. We will also study the effect of thermal fluctuations on the phase transition in this charged dilatonic black Saturn.

  11. Effect of Thermal Fluctuations on a Charged Dilatonic Black Saturn

    CERN Document Server

    Pourhassan, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will analyze the effect of thermal fluctuations on the thermodynamics of a charged dilatonic black Saturn. These thermal fluctuations will correct the thermodynamics of the charged dilatonic black Saturn. We will analyze the corrections to the thermodynamics of this system by first relating the fluctuations in the entropy to the fluctuations in the energy. Then, we will use the relation between entropy and a conformal field theory to analyze the fluctuations in the entropy. We will demonstrate that similar physical results are obtained from both these approaches. We will also study the effect of thermal fluctuations on the phase transition in this charged dilatonic black Saturn.

  12. The correlation between the Nernst effect and fluctuation diamagnetism in strongly fluctuating superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Kingshuk; Banerjee, Sumilan; Mukerjee, Subroto; Ramakrishnan, T. V.

    2017-07-01

    We study the Nernst effect in fluctuating superconductors by calculating the transport coefficient {α }{xy} in a phenomenological model where the relative importance of phase and amplitude fluctuations of the order parameter is tuned continuously to smoothly evolve from an effective XY model to the more conventional Ginzburg-Landau description. To connect with a concrete experimental realization we choose the model parameters appropriate for cuprate superconductors and calculate {α }{xy} and the magnetization {M} over the entire range of experimentally accessible values of field, temperature and doping. We argue that {α }{xy} and {M} are both determined by the equilibrium properties of the superconducting fluctuations (and not their dynamics) despite the former being a transport quantity. Thus, the experimentally observed correlation between the Nernst signal and the magnetization arises primarily from the correlation between {α }{xy} and {M}. Further, there exists a dimensionless ratio {M}/(T{α }{xy}) that quantifies this correlation. We calculate, for the first time, this ratio over the entire phase diagram of the cuprates and find it agrees with previous results obtained in specific parts of the phase diagram. We conclude that there appears to be no sharp distinction between the regimes dominated by phase fluctuations and Gaussian fluctuations for this ratio in contrast to {α }{xy} and {M} individually. The utility of this ratio is that it can be used to determine the extent to which superconducting fluctuations contribute to the Nernst effect in different parts of the phase diagram given the measured values of magnetization.

  13. Impact of Beamforming on the Path Connectivity in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le The Dung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of using directional antennas and beamforming schemes on the connectivity of cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs. Specifically, considering that secondary users use two kinds of directional antennas, i.e., uniform linear array (ULA and uniform circular array (UCA antennas, and two different beamforming schemes, i.e., randomized beamforming and center-directed to communicate with each other, we study the connectivity of all combination pairs of directional antennas and beamforming schemes and compare their performances to those of omnidirectional antennas. The results obtained in this paper show that, compared with omnidirectional transmission, beamforming transmission only benefits the connectivity when the density of secondary user is moderate. Moreover, the combination of UCA and randomized beamforming scheme gives the highest path connectivity in all evaluating scenarios. Finally, the number of antenna elements and degree of path loss greatly affect path connectivity in CRAHNs.

  14. Weighted log-rank statistic to compare shared-path adaptive treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Kelley M; Wahed, Abdus S

    2013-04-01

    Adaptive treatment strategies (ATSs) more closely mimic the reality of a physician's prescription process where the physician prescribes a medication to his/her patient, and based on that patient's response to the medication, modifies the treatment. Two-stage randomization designs, more generally, sequential multiple assignment randomization trial designs, are useful to assess ATSs where the interest is in comparing the entire sequence of treatments, including the patient's intermediate response. In this paper, we introduce the notion of shared-path and separate-path ATSs and propose a weighted log-rank statistic to compare overall survival distributions of multiple two-stage ATSs, some of which may be shared-path. Large sample properties of the statistic are derived and the type I error rate and power of the test are compared with the standard log-rank test through simulation.

  15. Impact of Beamforming on the Path Connectivity in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, Le The; Hieu, Tran Dinh; Choi, Seong-Gon; Kim, Byung-Seo; An, Beongku

    2017-03-27

    This paper investigates the impact of using directional antennas and beamforming schemes on the connectivity of cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs). Specifically, considering that secondary users use two kinds of directional antennas, i.e., uniform linear array (ULA) and uniform circular array (UCA) antennas, and two different beamforming schemes, i.e., randomized beamforming and center-directed to communicate with each other, we study the connectivity of all combination pairs of directional antennas and beamforming schemes and compare their performances to those of omnidirectional antennas. The results obtained in this paper show that, compared with omnidirectional transmission, beamforming transmission only benefits the connectivity when the density of secondary user is moderate. Moreover, the combination of UCA and randomized beamforming scheme gives the highest path connectivity in all evaluating scenarios. Finally, the number of antenna elements and degree of path loss greatly affect path connectivity in CRAHNs.

  16. Multi-AGV path planning with double-path constraints by using an improved genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zengliang; Wang, Dongqing; Liu, Feng; Zhao, Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates an improved genetic algorithm on multiple automated guided vehicle (multi-AGV) path planning. The innovations embody in two aspects. First, three-exchange crossover heuristic operators are used to produce more optimal offsprings for getting more information than with the traditional two-exchange crossover heuristic operators in the improved genetic algorithm. Second, double-path constraints of both minimizing the total path distance of all AGVs and minimizing single path distances of each AGV are exerted, gaining the optimal shortest total path distance. The simulation results show that the total path distance of all AGVs and the longest single AGV path distance are shortened by using the improved genetic algorithm.

  17. Fractal-like correlations of the fluctuating inter-spike membrane potential of a Helix aspersa pacemaker neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seseña-Rubfiaro, Alberto; Echeverría, Juan Carlos; Godínez-Fernández, Jose Rafael

    2014-10-01

    We analyzed the voltage fluctuations of the membrane potential manifested along the inter-spike segment of a pacemaker neuron. Time series of intracellular inter-spike voltage fluctuations were obtained in the current-clamp configuration from the F1 neuron of 12 Helix aspersa specimens. To assess the dynamic or stochastic nature of the voltage fluctuations these series were analyzed by Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), providing the scaling exponent α. The median α result obtained for the inter-spike segments was 0.971 ([0.963, 0.995] lower and upper quartiles). Our results indicate a critical-like dynamic behavior in the inter-spike membrane potential that, far from being random, shows long-term correlations probably linked to the dynamics of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the membrane potential, thereby endorsing the occurrence of critical-like phenomena at a single-neuron level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of the Vibration Transmission and Path Recognition of an Underground Powerhouse Using Energy Finite Element Method

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Xu; Zhen-yue Ma

    2016-01-01

    Taking the underground powerhouse of a pumped storage power station as the engineering background, this study established a 3D finite element model of the main and auxiliary powerhouse and performed the dynamic harmonica calculation for its fluctuating pressure. Based on the power flow theory, the ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) procedure was completed to calculate the power transmission in the powerhouse. The law of dominant path recognition was first proposed to assess the structure...

  19. Signal fluctuations in crystal-APD systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocak, F., E-mail: fkocak@uludag.edu.tr [Uludag University, Department of Physics, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Tapan, I.; Pilicer, E. [Uludag University, Department of Physics, 16059 Bursa (Turkey)

    2011-08-21

    PbWO{sub 4} and CsI(Tl) crystals are widely used in high energy physics experiments. The photons generated from incident particles in the crystal material are detected by the Avalanche photodiodes (APD) placed at the end of the crystals. In this work, the light generated by 0.1-5 GeV electrons in the crystals has been obtained using with the GEANT4 simulation code. The Single Particle Monte Carlo technique has been used to calculate APD output signals and their fluctuations at a constant avalanche gain value of 50 for both the CsI(Tl) and PbWO{sub 4} crystals emission spectrum. The simulation results are agreed well with the experimental results. CsI(Tl) crystal-APD system has provided a good material-device combination. The high signal values and the low signal fluctuations make this combination an excellent choice for scintillating light detection.

  20. Fluctuation theorem in quantum heat conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Keiji; Dhar, Abhishek

    2007-11-02

    We consider steady-state heat conduction across a quantum harmonic chain connected to reservoirs modeled by infinite collection of oscillators. The heat, Q, flowing across the oscillator in a time interval tau is a stochastic variable and we study the probability distribution function P(Q). We compute the exact generating function of Q at large tau and the large deviation function. The generating function has a symmetry satisfying the steady-state fluctuation theorem without any quantum corrections. The distribution P(Q) is non-Gaussian with clear exponential tails. The effect of finite tau and nonlinearity is considered in the classical limit through Langevin simulations. We also obtain the prediction of quantum heat current fluctuations at low temperatures in clean wires.

  1. Trapped Electron Precession Shear Induced Fluctuation Decorrelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.S. Hahm; P.H. Diamond; E.-J. Kim

    2002-07-29

    We consider the effects of trapped electron precession shear on the microturbulence. In a similar way the strong E x B shear reduces the radial correlation length of ambient fluctuations, the radial variation of the trapped electron precession frequency can reduce the radial correlation length of fluctuations associated with trapped electrons. In reversed shear plasmas, with the explicit dependence of the trapped electron precession shearing rate on B(subscript)theta, the sharp radial gradient of T(subscript)e due to local electron heating inside qmin can make the precession shearing mechanism more effective, and reduce the electron thermal transport constructing a positive feedback loop for the T(subscript)e barrier formation.

  2. Prevention of Employees Fluctuation in IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Mesicek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present results of implementation fluctuation preventing counter-measures among other positions in IT department. In 2017 there is still one of the lowest unemployment rates in the history of the Czech Republic (especially in IT and companies are trying to preserve and prevent their key employees from moving to another employer. One of the tools, which could help reduce this risk, is providing additional education, certification and qualification with laying great emphasis on most valuable and essential personnel. The paper present updated results after 6 months since the company started with selection of high risks employees. It has been found that group of employees with high risk of leaving the company has shrunk and overall fluctuation index has also plunged.

  3. Classicalization of Quantum Fluctuation in Inflationary Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubotani, H.; Uesugi, T.; Morikawa, M.; Sugamoto, A.

    1997-11-01

    We discuss the classicalization of a quantum state induced by an environment in the inflationary stage of the universe. The classicalization is necessary for the homogeneous ground state to become the inhomogeneous classical one accompanied with statistical fluctuations, which is a plausible candidate for the seeds of structure formation. Using simple models, we show that i) the two classicalization criteria, the classical correlation and quantum decoherence, are simultaneously satisfied by the environment and that ii) the power spectrum of the resultant statistical fluctuations depends upon the details of the classicalization process. In particular, the result ii) means that, taking into account the classicalization process, the inflationary scenario does not necessarily predict the unique spectrum which is usually believed.

  4. Energy utilization in fluctuating biological energy converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Szőke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have argued previously [Szoke et al., FEBS Lett. 553, 18–20 (2003; Curr. Chem. Biol. 1, 53–57 (2007] that energy utilization and evolution are emergent properties based on a small number of established laws of physics and chemistry. The relevant laws constitute a framework for biology on a level intermediate between quantum chemistry and cell biology. There are legitimate questions whether these concepts are valid at the mesoscopic level. Such systems fluctuate appreciably, so it is not clear what their efficiency is. Advances in fluctuation theorems allow the description of such systems on a molecular level. We attempt to clarify this topic and bridge the biochemical and physical descriptions of mesoscopic systems.

  5. Intermittent character of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Roberto; Carbone, Vincenzo; Chapman, Sandra; Hnat, Bogdan; Noullez, Alain; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca

    2007-03-01

    Interplanetary magnetic field magnitude fluctuations are notoriously more intermittent than velocity fluctuations in both fast and slow wind. This behavior has been interpreted in terms of the anomalous scaling observed in passive scalars in fully developed hydrodynamic turbulence. In this paper, the strong intermittent nature of the interplanetary magnetic field is briefly discussed comparing results performed during different phases of the solar cycle. The scaling properties of the interplanetary magnetic field magnitude show solar cycle variation that can be distinguished in the scaling exponents revealed by structure functions. The scaling exponents observed around the solar maximum coincide, within the errors, to those measured for passive scalars in hydrodynamic turbulence. However, it is also found that the values are not universal in the sense that the solar cycle variation may be reflected in dependence on the structure of the velocity field.

  6. Quantum Fluctuations of a Superconductor Order Parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunov, K Yu; Lehtinen, J S

    2016-12-01

    Tunneling I-V characteristics between very narrow titanium nanowires and "massive" superconducting aluminum were measured. The clear trend was observed: the thinner the titanium electrode, the broader the singularity at eV = Δ1(Al) + Δ2(Ti). The phenomenon can be explained by broadening of the gap edge of the quasi-one-dimensional titanium channels due to quantum fluctuations of the order parameter modulus |Δ2|. The range of the nanowire diameters, where the effect is pronounced, correlates with dimensions where the phase fluctuations of the complex superconducting order parameter Δ = |Δ|e(iφ), the quantum phase slips, broadening the R(T) dependencies, have been observed.

  7. Nonholonomic catheter path reconstruction using electromagnetic tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugez, Elodie; Sadjadi, Hossein; Akl, Selim G.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-03-01

    Catheter path reconstruction is a necessary step in many clinical procedures, such as cardiovascular interventions and high-dose-rate brachytherapy. To overcome limitations of standard imaging modalities, electromagnetic tracking has been employed to reconstruct catheter paths. However, tracking errors pose a challenge in accurate path reconstructions. We address this challenge by means of a filtering technique incorporating the electromagnetic measurements with the nonholonomic motion constraints of the sensor inside a catheter. The nonholonomic motion model of the sensor within the catheter and the electromagnetic measurement data were integrated using an extended Kalman filter. The performance of our proposed approach was experimentally evaluated using the Ascension's 3D Guidance trakStar electromagnetic tracker. Sensor measurements were recorded during insertions of an electromagnetic sensor (model 55) along ten predefined ground truth paths. Our method was implemented in MATLAB and applied to the measurement data. Our reconstruction results were compared to raw measurements as well as filtered measurements provided by the manufacturer. The mean of the root-mean-square (RMS) errors along the ten paths was 3.7 mm for the raw measurements, and 3.3 mm with manufacturer's filters. Our approach effectively reduced the mean RMS error to 2.7 mm. Compared to other filtering methods, our approach successfully improved the path reconstruction accuracy by exploiting the sensor's nonholonomic motion constraints in its formulation. Our approach seems promising for a variety of clinical procedures involving reconstruction of a catheter path.

  8. Single molecule detection, thermal fluctuation and life

    Science.gov (United States)

    YANAGIDA, Toshio; ISHII, Yoshiharu

    2017-01-01

    Single molecule detection has contributed to our understanding of the unique mechanisms of life. Unlike artificial man-made machines, biological molecular machines integrate thermal noises rather than avoid them. For example, single molecule detection has demonstrated that myosin motors undergo biased Brownian motion for stepwise movement and that single protein molecules spontaneously change their conformation, for switching to interactions with other proteins, in response to thermal fluctuation. Thus, molecular machines have flexibility and efficiency not seen in artificial machines. PMID:28190869

  9. Climatically driven fluctuations in Southern Ocean ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Eugene J; Trathan, Philip N; Watkins, Jon L; Reid, Keith; Meredith, Michael P; Forcada, Jaume; Thorpe, Sally E; Johnston, Nadine M; Rothery, Peter

    2007-12-22

    Determining how climate fluctuations affect ocean ecosystems requires an understanding of how biological and physical processes interact across a wide range of scales. Here we examine the role of physical and biological processes in generating fluctuations in the ecosystem around South Georgia in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Anomalies in sea surface temperature (SST) in the South Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean have previously been shown to be generated through atmospheric teleconnections with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related processes. These SST anomalies are propagated via the Antarctic Circumpolar Current into the South Atlantic (on time scales of more than 1 year), where ENSO and Southern Annular Mode-related atmospheric processes have a direct influence on short (less than six months) time scales. We find that across the South Atlantic sector, these changes in SST, and related fluctuations in winter sea ice extent, affect the recruitment and dispersal of Antarctic krill. This oceanographically driven variation in krill population dynamics and abundance in turn affects the breeding success of seabird and marine mammal predators that depend on krill as food. Such propagating anomalies, mediated through physical and trophic interactions, are likely to be an important component of variation in ocean ecosystems and affect responses to longer term change. Population models derived on the basis of these oceanic fluctuations indicate that plausible rates of regional warming of 1oC over the next 100 years could lead to more than a 95% reduction in the biomass and abundance of krill across the Scotia Sea by the end of the century.

  10. Fluctuation sensitivity of a transcriptional signaling cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkiewicz, Kevin R.; Mayo, Michael L.

    2016-09-01

    The internal biochemical state of a cell is regulated by a vast transcriptional network that kinetically correlates the concentrations of numerous proteins. Fluctuations in protein concentration that encode crucial information about this changing state must compete with fluctuations caused by the noisy cellular environment in order to successfully transmit information across the network. Oftentimes, one protein must regulate another through a sequence of intermediaries, and conventional wisdom, derived from the data processing inequality of information theory, leads us to expect that longer sequences should lose more information to noise. Using the metric of mutual information to characterize the fluctuation sensitivity of transcriptional signaling cascades, we find, counter to this expectation, that longer chains of regulatory interactions can instead lead to enhanced informational efficiency. We derive an analytic expression for the mutual information from a generalized chemical kinetics model that we reduce to simple, mass-action kinetics by linearizing for small fluctuations about the basal biological steady state, and we find that at long times this expression depends only on a simple ratio of protein production to destruction rates and the length of the cascade. We place bounds on the values of these parameters by requiring that the mutual information be at least one bit—otherwise, any received signal would be indistinguishable from noise—and we find not only that nature has devised a way to circumvent the data processing inequality, but that it must be circumvented to attain this one-bit threshold. We demonstrate how this result places informational and biochemical efficiency at odds with one another by correlating high transcription factor binding affinities with low informational output, and we conclude with an analysis of the validity of our assumptions and propose how they might be tested experimentally.

  11. Financial Factors, Rare Disasters and Macroeconomic Fluctuations.

    OpenAIRE

    Gruss, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    Defense date: 25/10/2010 Examining Board: Prof. Giancarlo Corsetti, EUI, Supervisor Prof. Ramon Marimon, EUI Prof. Enrique Mendoza, University of Maryland Prof. Vincenzo Quadrini, University of Southern California This thesis attempts to shed light on the role of financial factors and vulnerabilities in shaping macroeconomic fluctuations. It contributes to the literature that integrates financial factors into the real business cycle paradigm by introducing asymmetries and di...

  12. Thermodynamics and fluctuations far from equilibrium

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, John

    2008-01-01

    This book deals with the formulation of the thermodynamics of chemical and other systems far from equilibrium, including connections to fluctuations. It contains applications to non-equilibrium stationary states and approaches to such states, systems with multiple stationary states, stability and equi-stability conditions, reaction diffusion systems, transport properties, and electrochemical systems. The theoretical treatment is complemented by experimental results to substantiate the formulation. Dissipation and efficiency are analyzed in autonomous and externally forced reactions, including several biochemical systems.

  13. Fluctuations along supersymmetric flat directions during Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Enqvist, Kari; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Rigopoulos, Gerasimos

    2011-01-01

    We consider a set of scalar fields, consisting of a single flat direction and one or several non-flat directions. We take our cue from the MSSM, considering separately D-flat and F-flat directions, but our results apply to any supersymmetric scenario containing flat directions. We study the field fluctuations during pure de Sitter Inflation, following the evolution of the infrared modes by numerically solving the appropriate Langevin equations. We demonstrate that for the Standard Model U(1),...

  14. Multiplane 3D superresolution optical fluctuation imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Geissbuehler, Stefan; Sharipov, Azat; Godinat, Aurélien; Bocchio, Noelia; Dubikovskaya, Elena; Lasser, Theo; Leutenegger, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    By switching fluorophores on and off in either a deterministic or a stochastic manner, superresolution microscopy has enabled the imaging of biological structures at resolutions well beyond the diffraction limit. Superresolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) provides an elegant way of overcoming the diffraction limit in all three spatial dimensions by computing higher-order cumulants of image sequences of blinking fluorophores acquired with a conventional widefield microscope. So far, th...

  15. Demographic Fluctuation and Institutional Response in Sparta

    OpenAIRE

    DORAN, TIMOTHY DONALD

    2011-01-01

    AbstractDemographic Fluctuation and Institutional Response in SpartabyTimothy Donald DoranDoctor of Philosophy in Ancient History and Mediterranean ArchaeologyUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Emily Mackil, ChairThe Spartiate population declined from 8000 in the early fifth century to less than 1000 in the mid-fourth, and caused Sparta's political fortunes to drop dramatically from being the unofficial hegemon of the Greek-speaking peoples to a strictly local power in the Hellenisti...

  16. Measuring edge importance: a quantitative analysis of the stochastic shielding approximation for random processes on graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Deena R; Thomas, Peter J

    2014-04-17

    Mathematical models of cellular physiological mechanisms often involve random walks on graphs representing transitions within networks of functional states. Schmandt and Galán recently introduced a novel stochastic shielding approximation as a fast, accurate method for generating approximate sample paths from a finite state Markov process in which only a subset of states are observable. For example, in ion-channel models, such as the Hodgkin-Huxley or other conductance-based neural models, a nerve cell has a population of ion channels whose states comprise the nodes of a graph, only some of which allow a transmembrane current to pass. The stochastic shielding approximation consists of neglecting fluctuations in the dynamics associated with edges in the graph not directly affecting the observable states. We consider the problem of finding the optimal complexity reducing mapping from a stochastic process on a graph to an approximate process on a smaller sample space, as determined by the choice of a particular linear measurement functional on the graph. The partitioning of ion-channel states into conducting versus nonconducting states provides a case in point. In addition to establishing that Schmandt and Galán's approximation is in fact optimal in a specific sense, we use recent results from random matrix theory to provide heuristic error estimates for the accuracy of the stochastic shielding approximation for an ensemble of random graphs. Moreover, we provide a novel quantitative measure of the contribution of individual transitions within the reaction graph to the accuracy of the approximate process.

  17. Dissociable cognitive mechanisms underlying human path integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Jan M; Berthoz, Alain; Wolbers, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Path integration is a fundamental mechanism of spatial navigation. In non-human species, it is assumed to be an online process in which a homing vector is updated continuously during an outward journey. In contrast, human path integration has been conceptualized as a configural process in which travelers store working memory representations of path segments, with the computation of a homing vector only occurring when required. To resolve this apparent discrepancy, we tested whether humans can employ different path integration strategies in the same task. Using a triangle completion paradigm, participants were instructed either to continuously update the start position during locomotion (continuous strategy) or to remember the shape of the outbound path and to calculate home vectors on basis of this representation (configural strategy). While overall homing accuracy was superior in the configural condition, participants were quicker to respond during continuous updating, strongly suggesting that homing vectors were computed online. Corroborating these findings, we observed reliable differences in head orientation during the outbound path: when participants applied the continuous updating strategy, the head deviated significantly from straight ahead in direction of the start place, which can be interpreted as a continuous motor expression of the homing vector. Head orientation-a novel online measure for path integration-can thus inform about the underlying updating mechanism already during locomotion. In addition to demonstrating that humans can employ different cognitive strategies during path integration, our two-systems view helps to resolve recent controversies regarding the role of the medial temporal lobe in human path integration.

  18. Response of Non-Linear Systems to Renewal Impulses by Path Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Iwankiewicz, R.

    The cell-to-cell mapping (path integration) technique has been devised for MDOF non-linear and non-hysteretic systems subjected to random trains of impulses driven by an ordinary renewal point process with gamma-distributed integer parameter interarrival times (an Erlang process). Since the renewal...

  19. Path Creation, Path Dependence and Breaking Away from the Path: Re-Examining the Case of Nokia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jens Wang; Jonas Hedman; Virpi Kristiina Tuunainen

    2016-01-01

    .... We show how path dependence at these four interdependent layers can blindfold the organization from seeing and understanding the importance of intermediate outcomes, which in the case of Nokia...

  20. Stress fluctuations in sheared Stokesian suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasan, J; Ramamohan, T R; Singh, Anugrah; Nott, Prabhu R

    2002-08-01

    We report an analysis, using the tools of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory, of the fluctuations in the stress determined from simulations of shear flow of Stokesian suspensions. The simulations are for shear between plane parallel walls of a suspension of rigid identical spheres in a Newtonian fluid, over a range of particle concentration. By analyzing the time series of the stress, we find that the dynamics underlying these fluctuations is deterministic, low-dimensional, and chaotic. We use the dynamic and metric invariants of the underlying dynamics as a means of characterizing suspension behavior. The dimension of the chaotic attractor increases with particle concentration, indicating the increasing influence of multiple-body interactions on the rheology of the suspension with rise in particle concentration. We use our analysis to make accurate predictions of the short-term evolution of a stress component from its preceding time series, and predict the evolution of one component of the stress using the time series of another. We comment on the physical origin of the chaotic stress fluctuations, and on the implications of our results on the relation between the microstructure and the stress.

  1. Water-level fluctuations influence sediment porewater ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reservoirs typically have elevated fish mercury (Hg) levels compared to natural lakes and rivers. A unique feature of reservoirs is water-level management which can result in sediment exposure to the air. The objective of this study is to identify how reservoir water-level fluctuations impact Hg cycling, particularly the formation of the more toxic and bioaccumulative methylmercury (MeHg). Total-Hg (THg), MeHg, stable isotope methylation rates and several ancillary parameters were measured in reservoir sediments (including some in porewater and overlying water) that are seasonally and permanently inundated. The results showed that sediment and porewater MeHg concentrations were over 3-times higher in areas experiencing water-level fluctuations compared to permanently inundated sediments. Analysis of the data suggest that the enhanced breakdown of organic matter in sediments experiencing water-level fluctuations has a two-fold effect on stimulating Hg methylation: 1) it increases the partitioning of inorganic Hg from the solid phase into the porewater phase (lower log Kd values) where it is more bioavailable for methylation; and 2) it increases dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the porewater which can stimulate the microbial community that can methylate Hg. Sulfate concentrations and cycling were enhanced in the seasonally inundated sediments and may have also contributed to increased MeHg production. Overall, our results suggest that reservoir management a

  2. Behavior of axisymmetric density fluctuations in TCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Gabriele; Jenko, Frank; Brunner, Stephan; Coda, Stefano; Huang, Zhouji; Villard, Laurent; Goerler, Tobias; Navarro, Alejandro B.; Told, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Axisymmetric density fluctuations, either with a radially coherent or dispersive nature, are routinely observed in the TCV tokamak and experimentally interpreted as Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAMs). We use local and global GENE simulations to investigate their behavior. With a simplified physical model, neglecting impurities and using heavy electrons, simulations reproduce the observed behavior. Simulations allow to conclude that the modification of the safety factor q alone cannot explain the transition between these two different fluctuation regimes, which thus appear as a consequence of variations of other parameters, including collisionality and finite machine size effects. The behavior of the radially coherent GAM is further investigated with high-realism GENE simulations. With this set-up, local simulations reproduce the experimental transport level at different radii while matching the observed GAM frequency at the location where the mode peaks. Global high-realism runs, aiming at reproducing the radial extent of the fluctuations, will be discussed as well. This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium and has received funding from the Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018 under Grant Agreement No 633053.

  3. Detecting long-range correlation with detrended fluctuation analysis: Application to BWR stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico)]. E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.mx; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico); Vazquez, Alejandro [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico, DF 09340 (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    The aim of this paper is to explore the application of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study boiling water reactor stability. DFA is a scaling method commonly used for detecting long-range correlations in non-stationary time series. This method is based on the random walk theory and was applied to neutronic power signal of Forsmark stability benchmark. Our results shows that the scaling properties breakdown during unstable oscillations.

  4. Strong fluctuation theory for scattering, attenuation, and transmission of microwaves through snowfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y.-Q.; Kong, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The strong fluctuation theory is applied to the study of the atmospheric snowfall which is modeled as a layer of random discrete-scatterers medium. As functions of size distribution, fractional volume, and radius of scatterers, the relationship is illustrated between the reflectivity factor and precipitation rate, the attenuation of the centimeter and millimeter waves, and the line-of-sight transmission of coherent and incoherent wave components. The theoretical results are shown to match favorably with experimental data.

  5. Path integral representations on the complex sphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosche, C. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2007-08-15

    In this paper we discuss the path integral representations for the coordinate systems on the complex sphere S{sub 3C}. The Schroedinger equation, respectively the path integral, separates in exactly 21 orthogonal coordinate systems. We enumerate these coordinate systems and we are able to present the path integral representations explicitly in the majority of the cases. In each solution the expansion into the wave-functions is stated. Also, the kernel and the corresponding Green function can be stated in closed form in terms of the invariant distance on the sphere, respectively on the hyperboloid. (orig.)

  6. Path-Goal Theory of Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    Leadership and Turnover Among Managers ," Organization Behavior and Human Performance, 10(1973), pp. 184-200; R. J. House, "A Path-Goal Theory of...of Leadership ." 6R. J. House and G. Dessler, "Path-Goal Theory of Leadership " R. M. Stqg- dill. Managers , Employees, Organization (Ohio State...of Control." 23 R. J. House, "Notes on the Path-Goal Theory of Leadership " (University of Toronto, Faculty of Management Studies, May 1974). 24 R

  7. Path planning using optically computed potential fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Max B.

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm for the optical computation of potential field maps suitable for mobile robot navigation is described and experimentally produced maps and paths are presented. The parallel analog optical computation employs a two-dimensional spatial light modulator on which an image of the potential field map is generated. Optically calculated fields contain no local minima, tend to produce paths centered in gaps between obstacles, and produce paths which give preference to wide gaps. Calculation of 128 x 128 pixel fields at a few hertz are possible with current technology, and calculation time vs. map size scales favorably in comparison to digital electronic computation.

  8. Integrated robust controller for vehicle path following

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashadi, Behrooz; Ahmadizadeh, Pouyan, E-mail: p-ahmadizadeh@iust.ac.ir; Majidi, Majid, E-mail: m-majidi@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Automotive Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoodi-Kaleybar, Mehdi, E-mail: m-mahmoodi-k@iust.ac.ir [Iran University of Science and Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The design of an integrated 4WS+DYC control system to guide a vehicle on a desired path is presented. The lateral dynamics of the path follower vehicle is formulated by considering important parameters. To reduce the effect of uncertainties in vehicle parameters, a robust controller is designed based on a μ-synthesis approach. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear vehicle model in MATLAB environment in order to investigate the effectiveness of the designed controller. Results of simulations show that the controller has a profound ability to making the vehicle track the desired path in the presence of uncertainties.

  9. Fluctuation-Noise Model for PEM Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, E. S.; Salakhova, A. Sh.; Adiutantov, N. A.; Evdokimov, Yu. K.

    2017-08-01

    The fluctuation-noise model is presented. This model allows to describe the power spectral density of PEM fuel cell electrical fluctuation. The proposed model can be used for diagnostics of PEM fuel cell state of health.

  10. Fluctuation theorems for discrete kinetic models of molecular motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggionato, Alessandra; Silvestri, Vittoria

    2017-04-01

    Motivated by discrete kinetic models for non-cooperative molecular motors on periodic tracks, we consider random walks (also not Markov) on quasi one dimensional (1d) lattices, obtained by gluing several copies of a fundamental graph in a linear fashion. We show that, for a suitable class of quasi-1d lattices, the large deviation rate function associated to the position of the walker satisfies a Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry for any choice of the dynamical parameters defining the stochastic walk. This class includes the linear model considered in Lacoste et al (2008 Phys. Rev. E 78 011915). We also derive fluctuation theorems for the time-integrated cycle currents and discuss how the matrix approach of Lacoste et al (2008 Phys. Rev. E 78 011915) can be extended to derive the above Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry for any Markov random walk on {Z} with periodic jump rates. Finally, we review in the present context some large deviation results of Faggionato and Silvestri (2017 Ann. Inst. Henri Poincaré 53 46-78) and give some specific examples with explicit computations.

  11. Optical path design of phase contrast imaging on HL-2A tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiyun, CHENG; Yi, YU; Shaobo, GONG; Min, XU; Tao, LAN; Wei, JIANG; Boda, YUAN; Yifan, WU; Lin, NIE; Rui, KE; Ting, LONG; Dong, GUO; Minyou, YE; Xuru, DUAN

    2017-12-01

    A phase contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostic has recently been developed on HL-2A tokamak. It can diagnose plasma density fluctuations with maximum wave number of 15 cm‑1 and wave number resolution of 2 cm‑1. The time resolution reaches 2 μs. A 10.6 μm CO2 laser is expanded to a beam with a diameter of 30 mm and injected into the plasma as an incident beam, injecting into plasma. The emerging scattered and unscattered beams are contrasted by a phase plate. The ideas of optical path design are presented in this paper, together with the parameters of the main optical components. The whole optical path of PCI is not only carefully designed, but also constructed on HL-2A. First calibration results show the ability of this system to catch plasma turbulence in a wide frequency domain.

  12. Common Origin of Quantum Regression and Quantum Fluctuation Dissipation Theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Shiktorov, P.; Starikov, E.; Gruzinskis, V.; Reggiani, L.; L. Varani; Vaissiere, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that the quantum fluctuation dissipation theorem can be considered as a mathematical formulation in the spectral representation of Onsager hypothesis on the regression of fluctuations in physical systems. It is shown that the quantum fluctuation dissipation theorem can be generalized to an arbitrary stationary state.

  13. Correlations and Fluctuations, A Summary of Quark Matter 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, Scott

    2003-01-01

    Results for correlations and fluctuations presented at Quark Matter 2002 are summarized. These results include Hanbury-Brown Twiss interferometry of a wide variety of species, large scale fluctuations and correlations in $p_t$ and multiplicity, and charge fluctuations and charge balance functions.

  14. Nonclassical paths in quantum interference experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Rahul; Samuel, Joseph; Sinha, Aninda; Sinha, Supurna; Sinha, Urbasi

    2014-09-19

    In a double slit interference experiment, the wave function at the screen with both slits open is not exactly equal to the sum of the wave functions with the slits individually open one at a time. The three scenarios represent three different boundary conditions and as such, the superposition principle should not be applicable. However, most well-known text books in quantum mechanics implicitly and/or explicitly use this assumption that is only approximately true. In our present study, we have used the Feynman path integral formalism to quantify contributions from nonclassical paths in quantum interference experiments that provide a measurable deviation from a naive application of the superposition principle. A direct experimental demonstration for the existence of these nonclassical paths is difficult to present. We find that contributions from such paths can be significant and we propose simple three-slit interference experiments to directly confirm their existence.

  15. Path dependence and independent utility regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Skovgaard Poulsen, Lauge

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of the Danish independent regulatory authorities for the energy and telecommunications sectors was based upon EU directives as part of their liberalisation process. Following the concepts of transaction costs and path dependency this article analyses differences in independence...

  16. A chemist building paths to cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Douglas B

    2013-11-01

    Galileo is reported to have stated, "Measure what is measurable and make measurable what is not so." My group's trajectory in cell biology has closely followed this philosophy, although it took some searching to find this path.

  17. Multiloop string vertices from the path integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, M.; Lerda, A.

    1989-02-02

    We derive the multiloop vertices for the bosonic string using path integral methods and establish a precise equivalence between the functional approach to string perturbation theory and the operator formalism on Riemann surfaces recently developed by various authors.

  18. Northern Pintail - Flight Path Telemetry [ds117

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — North-south flight paths of radio-tagged female northern pintails were monitored in a section of Highway 152 near Los Banos, California during 4 and 11 November and...

  19. Aircraft Path Planning under Adverse Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, flight safety is still one of the main issues for all airlines. En route civil airplanes may encounter adverse weather conditions. Some fatal airplane accidents happened because of the weather disturbance. Moreover, we should also design path to avoid the prohibited area. Therefore a good path planning algorithm plays an increasingly important role in air traffic management. An efficient path planning algorithm can help the plane to avoid severe weather conditions, restricted areas and moving obstacles to ensure the safety of the cabin crews and passengers. Here, we build our algorithm based on the A* search algorithm. Moreover, our algorithm can also find the path with least energy costs. As a result, our algorithm can improve the safety operation of the airplanes and reduce the workload of pilots and air traffic controllers.

  20. Modeling and Solving the Train Pathing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusin Lee

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In a railroad system, train pathing is concerned with the assignment of trains to links and tracks, and train timetabling allocates time slots to trains. In this paper, we present an optimization heuristic to solve the train pathing and timetabling problem. This heuristic allows the dwell time of trains in a station or link to be dependent on the assigned tracks. It also allows the minimum clearance time between the trains to depend on their relative status. The heuristic generates a number of alternative paths for each train service in the initialization phase. Then it uses a neighborhood search approach to find good feasible combinations of these paths. A linear program is developed to evaluate the quality of each combination that is encountered. Numerical examples are provided.

  1. Feasible Path Planning for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Trieu Minh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to find feasible path planning algorithms for nonholonomic vehicles including flatness, polynomial, and symmetric polynomial trajectories subject to the real vehicle dynamical constraints. Performances of these path planning methods are simulated and compared to evaluate the more realistic and smoother generated trajectories. Results show that the symmetric polynomial algorithm provides the smoothest trajectory. Therefore, this algorithm is recommended for the development of an automatic control for autonomous vehicles.

  2. Fracture probability along a fatigue crack path

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makris, P. [Technical Univ., Athens (Greece)

    1995-03-01

    Long experience has shown that the strength of materials under fatigue load has a stochastic behavior, which can be expressed through the fracture probability. This paper deals with a new analytically derived law for the distribution of the fracture probability along a fatigue crack path. The knowledge of the distribution of the fatigue fracture probability along the crack path helps the connection between stress conditions and the expected fatigue life of a structure under stochasticly varying loads. (orig.)

  3. A career path in clinical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, K A

    1998-03-01

    Much like the development of a clinical path, the creation of a career path requires knowledge of patterns of behavior, needs for standardized education and skill development, along with variance analysis and individualized care. This nationally known nursing entrepreneur tells the story of her involvement in the development of case management and clinical pathways and how she turned that into a successful business that has changed how patient care is managed nationally and internationally.

  4. Decomposing Path : The Nanosyntax of Directional Expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Pantcheva, Marina Blagoeva

    2011-01-01

    In my thesis, I investigate directional expressions cross-linguistically. I examine the morpho-syntactic structure of expressions of Goal (to the house), Source (from the house), Route (through the house), non-transitional paths (towards the house) and, finally, delimited paths (up to the house). I conclude that all these types of directional expressions are of different syntactic complexity. Precisely, Source expressions (from) are formed on the basis of Goal expressions (to) and Route expr...

  5. Path integrals for electronic densities, reactivity indices, and localization functions in quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putz, Mihai V

    2009-11-10

    The density matrix theory, the ancestor of density functional theory, provides the immediate framework for Path Integral (PI) development, allowing the canonical density be extended for the many-electronic systems through the density functional closure relationship. Yet, the use of path integral formalism for electronic density prescription presents several advantages: assures the inner quantum mechanical description of the system by parameterized paths; averages the quantum fluctuations; behaves as the propagator for time-space evolution of quantum information; resembles Schrödinger equation; allows quantum statistical description of the system through partition function computing. In this framework, four levels of path integral formalism were presented: the Feynman quantum mechanical, the semiclassical, the Feynman-Kleinert effective classical, and the Fokker-Planck non-equilibrium ones. In each case the density matrix or/and the canonical density were rigorously defined and presented. The practical specializations for quantum free and harmonic motions, for statistical high and low temperature limits, the smearing justification for the Bohr's quantum stability postulate with the paradigmatic Hydrogen atomic excursion, along the quantum chemical calculation of semiclassical electronegativity and hardness, of chemical action and Mulliken electronegativity, as well as by the Markovian generalizations of Becke-Edgecombe electronic focalization functions - all advocate for the reliability of assuming PI formalism of quantum mechanics as a versatile one, suited for analytically and/or computationally modeling of a variety of fundamental physical and chemical reactivity concepts characterizing the (density driving) many-electronic systems.

  6. Path Integrals for Electronic Densities, Reactivity Indices, and Localization Functions in Quantum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Putz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The density matrix theory, the ancestor of density functional theory, provides the immediate framework for Path Integral (PI development, allowing the canonical density be extended for the many-electronic systems through the density functional closure relationship. Yet, the use of path integral formalism for electronic density prescription presents several advantages: assures the inner quantum mechanical description of the system by parameterized paths; averages the quantum fluctuations; behaves as the propagator for time-space evolution of quantum information; resembles Schrödinger equation; allows quantum statistical description of the system through partition function computing. In this framework, four levels of path integral formalism were presented: the Feynman quantum mechanical, the semiclassical, the Feynman-Kleinert effective classical, and the Fokker-Planck non-equilibrium ones. In each case the density matrix or/and the canonical density were rigorously defined and presented. The practical specializations for quantum free and harmonic motions, for statistical high and low temperature limits, the smearing justification for the Bohr’s quantum stability postulate with the paradigmatic Hydrogen atomic excursion, along the quantum chemical calculation of semiclassical electronegativity and hardness, of chemical action and Mulliken electronegativity, as well as by the Markovian generalizations of Becke-Edgecombe electronic focalization functions – all advocate for the reliability of assuming PI formalism of quantum mechanics as a versatile one, suited for analytically and/or computationally modeling of a variety of fundamental physical and chemical reactivity concepts characterizing the (density driving many-electronic systems.

  7. Random organization and plastic depinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We provide evidence that the general phenomenon of plastic depinning can be described as an absorbing phase transition, and shows the same features as the random organization which was recently studied in periodically driven particle systems [L. Corte, Nature Phys. 4, 420 (2008)]. In the plastic flow system, the pinned regime corresponds to the absorbing state and the moving state corresponds to the fluctuating state. When an external force is suddenly applied, the system eventually organizes into one of these two states with a time scale that diverges as a power law at a nonequilibrium transition. We propose a simple experiment to test for this transition in systems with random disorder.

  8. Simultaneous water vapor and dry air optical path length measurements and compensation with the large binocular telescope interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrère, D.; Hinz, P.; Downey, E.; Böhm, M.; Danchi, W. C.; Durney, O.; Ertel, S.; Hill, J. M.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Mennesson, B.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Montoya, M.; Pott, J.-U.; Skemer, A.; Spalding, E.; Stone, J.; Vaz, A.

    2016-08-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer uses a near-infrared camera to measure the optical path length variations between the two AO-corrected apertures and provide high-angular resolution observations for all its science channels (1.5-13 microns). There is however a wavelength dependent component to the atmospheric turbulence, which can introduce optical path length errors when observing at a wavelength different from that of the fringe sensing camera. Water vapor in particular is highly dispersive and its effect must be taken into account for high-precision infrared interferometric observations as described previously for VLTI/MIDI or the Keck Interferometer Nuller. In this paper, we describe the new sensing approach that has been developed at the LBT to measure and monitor the optical path length fluctuations due to dry air and water vapor separately. After reviewing the current performance of the system for dry air seeing compensation, we present simultaneous H-, K-, and N-band observations that illustrate the feasibility of our feedforward approach to stabilize the path length fluctuations seen by the LBTI nuller.

  9. Indeterminacy and Business Fluctuations under Partial Capital Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongkyou Jeon

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a modified real business cycle model of a small open economy such as the Korean economy. The model economy is assumed to produce output with two types of capital: traded capital and non¡ⓒtraded capital. Domestic individuals can borrow from the world capital market only by using traded capital as collateral, and investment in non¡ⓒtraded capital must be financed by domestic savings. It implies that the capital mobility is partial rather than perfect although domestic residents have free access to the world capital market. By incorporating externalities into the production technology, the model economy is able to generate dynamic path of equilibrium time series solely driven by non¡ⓒfundamental shocks such as animal spirits of investors or self¡ⓒfulfilling expectations if the ratio of traded capital to total capital is sufficiently high. The paper shows that the second moment properties of the Korean aggregate data could be reproduced in a modified real business cycle framework where fluctuations are driven only by non¡ⓒfundamental shocks, not by the disturbances to economic fundamentals such as technology. This requires a high value of traded capital relative to total capital, which means that the domestic capital market must be highly integrated with the world capital market. It implies that there exists some critical level of capital mobility beyond which the business cycles of an open economy becomes highly vulnerable to non¡ⓒfundamental shocks such as self¡ⓒfulfilling expectations.

  10. RAPID FLUCTUATIONS IN THE LOWER SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J. K.; Cadavid, A. C.; Christian, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330-8268 (United States); Jess, D. B.; Mathioudakis, M., E-mail: john.lawrence@csun.edu [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-10

    The Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instrument reveals solar atmospheric fluctuations at high frequencies. Spectra of variations of the G-band intensity (I{sub G} ) and Ca II K-line intensity (I{sub K} ) show correlated fluctuations above white noise to frequencies beyond 300 mHz and 50 mHz, respectively. The noise-corrected G-band spectrum for f = 28-326 mHz shows a power law with exponent -1.21 {+-} 0.02, consistent with the presence of turbulent motions. G-band spectral power in the 25-100 mHz ('UHF') range is concentrated at the locations of magnetic bright points in the intergranular lanes and is highly intermittent in time. The intermittence of the UHF G-band fluctuations, shown by a positive kurtosis {kappa}, also suggests turbulence. Combining values of I{sub G} , I{sub K} , UHF power, and {kappa} reveals two distinct states of the solar atmosphere. State 1, including almost all the data, is characterized by low I{sub G} , I{sub K} , and UHF power and {kappa} Almost-Equal-To 6. State 2, including only a very small fraction of the data, is characterized by high I{sub G} , I{sub K} , and UHF power and {kappa} Almost-Equal-To 3. Superposed epoch analysis shows that the UHF power peaks simultaneously with spatio-temporal I{sub G} maxima in either state. For State 1, I{sub K} shows 3.5 minute chromospheric oscillations with maxima occurring 21 s after I{sub G} maxima implying a 150-210 km effective height difference. However, for State 2 the I{sub K} and I{sub G} maxima are simultaneous; in this highly magnetized environment sites of G-band and K-line emission may be spatially close together.

  11. Rapid Fluctuations in the Lower Solar Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. K.; Cadavid, A. C.; Christian, D. J.; Jess, D. B.; Mathioudakis, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instrument reveals solar atmospheric fluctuations at high frequencies. Spectra of variations of the G-band intensity (IG ) and Ca II K-line intensity (IK ) show correlated fluctuations above white noise to frequencies beyond 300 mHz and 50 mHz, respectively. The noise-corrected G-band spectrum for f = 28-326 mHz shows a power law with exponent -1.21 ± 0.02, consistent with the presence of turbulent motions. G-band spectral power in the 25-100 mHz ("UHF") range is concentrated at the locations of magnetic bright points in the intergranular lanes and is highly intermittent in time. The intermittence of the UHF G-band fluctuations, shown by a positive kurtosis κ, also suggests turbulence. Combining values of IG , IK , UHF power, and κ reveals two distinct states of the solar atmosphere. State 1, including almost all the data, is characterized by low IG , IK , and UHF power and κ ≈ 6. State 2, including only a very small fraction of the data, is characterized by high IG , IK , and UHF power and κ ≈ 3. Superposed epoch analysis shows that the UHF power peaks simultaneously with spatio-temporal IG maxima in either state. For State 1, IK shows 3.5 minute chromospheric oscillations with maxima occurring 21 s after IG maxima implying a 150-210 km effective height difference. However, for State 2 the IK and IG maxima are simultaneous; in this highly magnetized environment sites of G-band and K-line emission may be spatially close together.

  12. Photoprotection of photosystems in fluctuating light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Suorsa, Marjaana; Tikkanen, Mikko; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2015-05-01

    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms experience strong fluctuations in light intensity in their natural terrestrial and aquatic growth environments. Recent studies with both plants and cyanobacteria have revealed that Photosystem (PS) I is the potential target of damage upon abrupt changes in light intensity. Photosynthetic organisms have, however, developed powerful mechanisms in order to protect their photosynthetic apparatus against such potentially hazardous light conditions. Although the electron transfer chain has remained relatively unchanged in both plant chloroplasts and their cyanobacterial ancestors, the photoprotective and regulatory mechanisms of photosynthetic light reactions have experienced conspicuous evolutionary changes. In cyanobacteria, the specific flavodiiron proteins (Flv1 and Flv3) are responsible for safeguarding PSI under rapidly fluctuating light intensities, whilst the thylakoid located terminal oxidases are involved in the protection of PSII during 12h diurnal cycles involving abrupt, square-wave, changes from dark to high light. Higher plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana have evolved different protective mechanisms. In particular, the PGR5 protein controls electron flow during sudden changes in light intensity by allowing the regulation mostly via the Cytochrome b6f complex. Besides the function of PGR5, plants have also acquired other dynamic regulatory mechanisms, among them the STN7-related LHCII protein phosphorylation that is similarly responsible for protection against rapid changes in the light environment. The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, as an evolutionary intermediate between cyanobacteria and higher plants, probably possesses both protective mechanisms. In this review, evolutionarily different photoprotective mechanisms under fluctuating light conditions are described and their contributions to cyanobacterial and plant photosynthesis are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  13. ON THE ACCELERATION OF SHORTEST PATH CALCULATIONS IN TRANSPORTATION NETWORKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAKER, ZACHARY K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; GOKHALE, MAYA B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-08

    Shortest path algorithms are a key element of many graph problems. They are used in such applications as online direction finding and navigation, as well as modeling of traffic for large scale simulations of major metropolitan areas. As the shortest path algorithms are an execution bottleneck, it is beneficial to move their execution to parallel hardware such as Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Hardware implementation is accomplished through the use of a small A core replicated on the order of 20 times on an FPGA device. The objective is to maximize the use of on-board random-access memory bandwidth through the use of multi-threaded latency tolerance. Each shortest path core is responsible for one shortest path calculation, and when it is finished it outputs its result and requests the next source from a queue. One of the innovations of this approach is the use of a small bubble sort core to produce the extract-min function. While bubble sort is not usually considered an appropriate algorithm for any non-trivial usage, it is appropriate in this case as it can produce a single minimum out of the list in O(n) cycles, whwere n is the number of elements in the vertext list. The cost of this min operation does not impact the running time of the architecture, because the queue depth for fetching the next set of edges from memory is roughly equivalent to the number of cores in the system. Additionally, this work provides a collection of simulation results that model the behavior of the node queue in hardware. The results show that a hardware queue, implementing a small bubble-type minimum function, need only be on the order of 16 elements to provide both correct and optimal paths. Because the graph database size is measured in the hundreds of megabytes, the Cray SRAM memory is insufficient. In addition to the A* cores, they have developed a memory management system allowing round-robin servicing of the nodes as well as virtual memory managed over the Hypertransport

  14. Sources of Economic Fluctuations in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Toledo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using panel data from Central America, this paper studies the determining factors of inflation and aggregate output fluctuations by estimating two Structural Vector Autoregressive (SVAR models. Price and output variables are included in one of the models, whereas M2 and the price of oil are additional variables in the other one. Findings of this study suggest that price is determined by the demand, while output seems to be influenced mainly by the supply shocks in that area. It was also evidenced that the price of oil does not have a significant impact on the general price level in that region.

  15. Fluctuation Solution Theory Properties from Molecular Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; Wedberg, R.; O’Connell, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties obtained in the Fluctuation Solution Theory are based on spatial integrals of molecular TCFs between component pairs in the mixture. Molecular simulation, via either MD or MC calculations, can yield these correlation functions for model inter- and intramolecular...... potential functions. However, system-size limitations and statistical noise cause uncertainties in the functions at long range, and thus uncertainties or errors in the integrals. A number of methods such as truncation, distance shifting, long-range modeling, transforms, DCF matching, finite-size scaling...

  16. Sample size determination for the fluctuation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qi

    2017-01-01

    The Luria-Delbrück fluctuation experiment protocol is increasingly employed to determine microbial mutation rates in the laboratory. An important question raised at the planning stage is "How many cultures are needed?" For over 70 years sample sizes have been determined either by intuition or by following published examples where sample sizes were chosen intuitively. This paper proposes a practical method for determining the sample size. The proposed method relies on existing algorithms for computing the expected Fisher information under two commonly used mutant distributions. The role of partial plating in reducing sample size is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chaotic Maps Dynamics, Fractals, and Rapid Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Goong

    2011-01-01

    This book consists of lecture notes for a semester-long introductory graduate course on dynamical systems and chaos taught by the authors at Texas A&M University and Zhongshan University, China. There are ten chapters in the main body of the book, covering an elementary theory of chaotic maps in finite-dimensional spaces. The topics include one-dimensional dynamical systems (interval maps), bifurcations, general topological, symbolic dynamical systems, fractals and a class of infinite-dimensional dynamical systems which are induced by interval maps, plus rapid fluctuations of chaotic maps as a

  18. Universality and Specificity in Protein Fluctuation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copperman, J.; Dinpajooh, M.; Beyerle, E. R.; Guenza, M. G.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the universal scaling of protein fluctuation dynamics with a site-specific diffusive model of protein motion, which predicts an initial subdiffusive regime in the configurational relaxation. The long-time dynamics of proteins is controlled by an activated regime. We argue that the hierarchical free energy barriers set the time scales of biological processes and establish an upper limit to the size of single protein domains. We find it compelling that the scaling behavior for the protein dynamics is in close agreement with the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang scaling exponents.

  19. Universal fluctuations the phenomenology of hadronic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Botet, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to present, in a comprehensive and progressive way, the appearance of universal limit probability laws in physics, and their connection with the recently developed scaling theory of fluctuations. Arising from the probability theory and renormalization group methods, this novel approach has been proved recently to provide efficient investigative tools for the collective features that occur in any finite system. The mathematical background is self-contained and is formulated in terms which are easy to apply to the physical context. After illustrating the problem

  20. Detrended fluctuation analysis of multivariate time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hui; Shang, P.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we generalize the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to the multivariate case, named multivariate DFA (MVDFA). The validity of the proposed MVDFA is illustrated by numerical simulations on synthetic multivariate processes, where the cases that initial data are generated independently from the same system and from different systems as well as the correlated variate from one system are considered. Moreover, the proposed MVDFA works well when applied to the multi-scale analysis of the returns of stock indices in Chinese and US stock markets. Generally, connections between the multivariate system and the individual variate are uncovered, showing the solid performances of MVDFA and the multi-scale MVDFA.