WorldWideScience

Sample records for random output condition

  1. Dynamic Output Feedback Control for Nonlinear Networked Control Systems with Random Packet Dropout and Random Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiqing Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic output feedback control for nonlinear networked control systems with both random packet dropout and random delay. Random packet dropout and random delay are modeled as two independent random variables. An observer-based dynamic output feedback controller is designed based upon the Lyapunov theory. The quantitative relationship of the dropout rate, transition probability matrix, and nonlinear level is derived by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Variational Infinite Hidden Conditional Random Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Zoubin

    2015-01-01

    Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An Infinite hidden conditional random field is a hidden conditional random field with a countably infinite number of

  3. Power output and carrier dynamics studies of perovskite solar cells under working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Man; Wang, Hao-Yi; Hao, Ming-Yang; Qin, Yujun; Fu, Li-Min; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Ai, Xi-Cheng

    2017-08-02

    Perovskite solar cells have emerged as promising photovoltaic systems with superb power conversion efficiency. For the practical application of perovskite devices, the greatest concerns are the power output density and the related dynamics under working conditions. In this study, the working conditions of planar and mesoscopic perovskite solar cells are simulated and the power output density evolutions with the working voltage are highlighted. The planar device exhibits higher capability of outputting power than the mesoscopic one. The transient photoelectric conversion dynamics are investigated under the open circuit, short circuit and working conditions. It is found that the power output and dynamic processes are correlated intrinsically, which suggests that the power output is the competitive result of the charge carrier recombination and transport. The present work offers a unique view to elucidating the relationship between the power output and the charge carrier dynamics for perovskite solar cells in a comprehensive manner, which would be beneficial to their future practical applications.

  4. Muscular outputs during dynamic bench press under stable versus unstable conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshida, Sentaro; Urabe, Yukio; Miyashita, Koji; Iwai, Kanzunori; Kagimori, Aya

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that resistance training exercise under unstable conditions decreases the isometric force output, yet little is known about its influence on muscular outputs during dynamic movement. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an unstable condition on power, force, and velocity outputs during the bench press. Twenty male collegiate athletes (mean age, 21.3 +/- 1.5 years; mean height, 167.7 +/- 7.7 cm; mean weight, 75.9 +/- 17.5 kg) participated in this study. Each subject attempted 3 sets of single bench presses with 50% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) under a stable condition with a flat bench and an unstable condition with a Swiss ball. Acceleration data were obtained with an accelerometer attached to the center of a barbell shaft, and peak outputs of power, force, and velocity were computed. Although significant loss of the peak outputs was found under the unstable condition (p < 0.017), their reduction rates remained relatively low, approximately 6% for force and 10% for power and velocity outputs, compared with previous findings. Such small reduction rates of muscular outputs may not compromise the training effect. Prospective studies are necessary to confirm whether the resistance training under an unstable condition permits the improvement of dynamic performance and trunk stability.

  5. Time-varying output performances of piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting under nonstationary random vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Heonjun; Kim, Miso; Park, Choon-Su; Youn, Byeng D.

    2018-01-01

    Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting (PVEH) has received much attention as a potential solution that could ultimately realize self-powered wireless sensor networks. Since most ambient vibrations in nature are inherently random and nonstationary, the output performances of PVEH devices also randomly change with time. However, little attention has been paid to investigating the randomly time-varying electroelastic behaviors of PVEH systems both analytically and experimentally. The objective of this study is thus to make a step forward towards a deep understanding of the time-varying performances of PVEH devices under nonstationary random vibrations. Two typical cases of nonstationary random vibration signals are considered: (1) randomly-varying amplitude (amplitude modulation; AM) and (2) randomly-varying amplitude with randomly-varying instantaneous frequency (amplitude and frequency modulation; AM-FM). In both cases, this study pursues well-balanced correlations of analytical predictions and experimental observations to deduce the relationships between the time-varying output performances of the PVEH device and two primary input parameters, such as a central frequency and an external electrical resistance. We introduce three correlation metrics to quantitatively compare analytical prediction and experimental observation, including the normalized root mean square error, the correlation coefficient, and the weighted integrated factor. Analytical predictions are in an excellent agreement with experimental observations both mechanically and electrically. This study provides insightful guidelines for designing PVEH devices to reliably generate electric power under nonstationary random vibrations.

  6. Deep recurrent conditional random field network for protein secondary prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Alexander Rosenberg; Sønderby, Søren Kaae; Sønderby, Casper Kaae

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning has become the state-of-the-art method for predicting protein secondary structure from only its amino acid residues and sequence profile. Building upon these results, we propose to combine a bi-directional recurrent neural network (biRNN) with a conditional random field (CRF), which...... of the labels for all time-steps. We condition the CRF on the output of biRNN, which learns a distributed representation based on the entire sequence. The biRNN-CRF is therefore close to ideally suited for the secondary structure task because a high degree of cross-talk between neighboring elements can...

  7. Sample-path stability conditions for multiserver input-output processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad El-Taha

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend our studies of sample-path stability to multiserver input-output processes with conditional output rates that may depend on the state of the system and other auxiliary processes. Our results include processes with countable as well as uncountable state spaces. We establish rate stability conditions for busy period durations as well as the input during busy periods. In addition, stability conditions for multiserver queues with possibly heterogeneous servers are given for the workload, attained service, and queue length processes. The stability conditions can be checked from parameters of primary processes, and thus can be verified a priori. Under the rate stability conditions, we provide stable versions of Little's formula for single server as well as multiserver queues. Our approach leads to extensions of previously known results. Since our results are valid pathwise, non-stationary as well as stationary processes are covered.

  8. Conditional Random Fields for Pattern Recognition Applied to Structured Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Burr

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition uses measurements from an input domain, X, to predict their labels from an output domain, Y. Image analysis is one setting where one might want to infer whether a pixel patch contains an object that is “manmade” (such as a building or “natural” (such as a tree. Suppose the label for a pixel patch is “manmade”; if the label for a nearby pixel patch is then more likely to be “manmade” there is structure in the output domain that can be exploited to improve pattern recognition performance. Modeling P(X is difficult because features between parts of the model are often correlated. Therefore, conditional random fields (CRFs model structured data using the conditional distribution P(Y|X = x, without specifying a model for P(X, and are well suited for applications with dependent features. This paper has two parts. First, we overview CRFs and their application to pattern recognition in structured problems. Our primary examples are image analysis applications in which there is dependence among samples (pixel patches in the output domain. Second, we identify research topics and present numerical examples.

  9. Reactive Power Pricing Model Considering the Randomness of Wind Power Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhong; Wu, Zhou

    2018-01-01

    With the increase of wind power capacity integrated into grid, the influence of the randomness of wind power output on the reactive power distribution of grid is gradually highlighted. Meanwhile, the power market reform puts forward higher requirements for reasonable pricing of reactive power service. Based on it, the article combined the optimal power flow model considering wind power randomness with integrated cost allocation method to price reactive power. Meanwhile, considering the advantages and disadvantages of the present cost allocation method and marginal cost pricing, an integrated cost allocation method based on optimal power flow tracing is proposed. The model realized the optimal power flow distribution of reactive power with the minimal integrated cost and wind power integration, under the premise of guaranteeing the balance of reactive power pricing. Finally, through the analysis of multi-scenario calculation examples and the stochastic simulation of wind power outputs, the article compared the results of the model pricing and the marginal cost pricing, which proved that the model is accurate and effective.

  10. Absorbing boundary conditions for inertial random processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoliver, J.; Porra, J.M. [Departament de Fisica Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal, 647, 08028-Barcelona (Spain); Lindenberg, K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0340 (United States)

    1996-12-01

    A recent paper by J. Heinrichs [Phys. Rev. E {bold 48}, 2397 (1993)] presents analytic expressions for the first-passage times and the survival probability for a particle moving in a field of random correlated forces. We believe that the analysis there is flawed due to an improper use of boundary conditions. We compare that result, in the white noise limit, with the known exact expression of the mean exit time. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  11. Gradient Boosting for Conditional Random Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-23

    evidence boosting. In Proceedings of the 20th International Joint Conference on Artifical Intelligence , IJCAI’07, 2007. [13] O. Meshi, D. Sontag, T...Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics (AISTATS’10), 2010. [3] J. Domke. Structured learning via logistic regression. In Advances in Neural...Artificial Intelligence (UAI’10), pages 302–311, 2010. [12] L. Liao, T. Choudhury, D. Fox, and H. Kautz. Training conditional random fields using virtual

  12. Variational Infinite Hidden Conditional Random Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Zoubin

    2015-09-01

    Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An Infinite hidden conditional random field is a hidden conditional random field with a countably infinite number of hidden states, which rids us not only of the necessity to specify a priori a fixed number of hidden states available but also of the problem of overfitting. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling algorithms are often employed for inference in such models. However, convergence of such algorithms is rather difficult to verify, and as the complexity of the task at hand increases the computational cost of such algorithms often becomes prohibitive. These limitations can be overcome by variational techniques. In this paper, we present a generalized framework for infinite HCRF models, and a novel variational inference approach on a model based on coupled Dirichlet Process Mixtures, the HCRF-DPM. We show that the variational HCRF-DPM is able to converge to a correct number of represented hidden states, and performs as well as the best parametric HCRFs-chosen via cross-validation-for the difficult tasks of recognizing instances of agreement, disagreement, and pain in audiovisual sequences.

  13. Conditioning model output statistics of regional climate model precipitation on circulation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Wetterhall

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamical downscaling of Global Climate Models (GCMs through regional climate models (RCMs potentially improves the usability of the output for hydrological impact studies. However, a further downscaling or interpolation of precipitation from RCMs is often needed to match the precipitation characteristics at the local scale. This study analysed three Model Output Statistics (MOS techniques to adjust RCM precipitation; (1 a simple direct method (DM, (2 quantile-quantile mapping (QM and (3 a distribution-based scaling (DBS approach. The modelled precipitation was daily means from 16 RCMs driven by ERA40 reanalysis data over the 1961–2000 provided by the ENSEMBLES (ENSEMBLE-based Predictions of Climate Changes and their Impacts project over a small catchment located in the Midlands, UK. All methods were conditioned on the entire time series, separate months and using an objective classification of Lamb's weather types. The performance of the MOS techniques were assessed regarding temporal and spatial characteristics of the precipitation fields, as well as modelled runoff using the HBV rainfall-runoff model. The results indicate that the DBS conditioned on classification patterns performed better than the other methods, however an ensemble approach in terms of both climate models and downscaling methods is recommended to account for uncertainties in the MOS methods.

  14. Method for Prediction of the Power Output from Photovoltaic Power Plant under Actual Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhov, S. G.; Plotnikov, I. A.; Surzhikova, O. A.; Savkin, K. D.

    2017-04-01

    Solar photovoltaic technology is one of the most rapidly growing renewable sources of electricity that has practical application in various fields of human activity due to its high availability, huge potential and environmental compatibility. The original simulation model of the photovoltaic power plant has been developed to simulate and investigate the plant operating modes under actual operating conditions. The proposed model considers the impact of the external climatic factors on the solar panel energy characteristics that improves accuracy in the power output prediction. The data obtained through the photovoltaic power plant operation simulation enable a well-reasoned choice of the required capacity for storage devices and determination of the rational algorithms to control the energy complex.

  15. The Effects of Output Task Types on Noticing and Learning of the English Past Counterfactual Conditional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Jeong; Suh, Bo-Ram

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on the psycholinguistic rationale and empirical research on output (e.g., [Izumi, S., 2002. "Output, input enhancement, and the noticing hypothesis: An experimental study on ESL relativization." "Studies in Second Language Acquisition" 24, 541-577; Izumi, S., Bigelow, M., 2000. "Does output promote noticing and second language…

  16. Conrad: gene prediction using conditional random fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCaprio, David; Vinson, Jade P; Pearson, Matthew D; Montgomery, Philip; Doherty, Matthew; Galagan, James E

    2007-09-01

    We present Conrad, the first comparative gene predictor based on semi-Markov conditional random fields (SMCRFs). Unlike the best standalone gene predictors, which are based on generalized hidden Markov models (GHMMs) and trained by maximum likelihood, Conrad is discriminatively trained to maximize annotation accuracy. In addition, unlike the best annotation pipelines, which rely on heuristic and ad hoc decision rules to combine standalone gene predictors with additional information such as ESTs and protein homology, Conrad encodes all sources of information as features and treats all features equally in the training and inference algorithms. Conrad outperforms the best standalone gene predictors in cross-validation and whole chromosome testing on two fungi with vastly different gene structures. The performance improvement arises from the SMCRF's discriminative training methods and their ability to easily incorporate diverse types of information by encoding them as feature functions. On Cryptococcus neoformans, configuring Conrad to reproduce the predictions of a two-species phylo-GHMM closely matches the performance of Twinscan. Enabling discriminative training increases performance, and adding new feature functions further increases performance, achieving a level of accuracy that is unprecedented for this organism. Similar results are obtained on Aspergillus nidulans comparing Conrad versus Fgenesh. SMCRFs are a promising framework for gene prediction because of their highly modular nature, simplifying the process of designing and testing potential indicators of gene structure. Conrad's implementation of SMCRFs advances the state of the art in gene prediction in fungi and provides a robust platform for both current application and future research.

  17. Adaptive timing of motor output in the mouse: the role of movement oscillations in eyelid conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selmaan N Chettih

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available To survive, animals must learn to control their movements with millisecond-level precision, and adjust the kinematics if conditions, or task requirements, change. Here, we examine adaptive timing of motor output in mice, using a simple eyelid conditioning task. Mice were trained to blink in response to a light stimulus that was always followed by a corneal air-puff at a constant time interval. Different mice were trained with different intervals of time separating the onset of the light and the air-puff. As in previous work in other animal species, mice learned to control the speed of the blink, such that maximum eyelid closure occurred at the interval used during training. Despite this, we found that maximum eyelid speed always occurred in the first 100 ms of the movement, indicating that speed is not uniformly adjusted throughout the duration of the blink. A new analysis, specifically designed to examine the kinematics of blinks in single trials, revealed the nature of the underlying control signal: the learned blinks are made up of oscillatory eyelid movements that are time-locked to the light stimulus at the beginning of the blink, becoming desynchronized later on. Furthermore, mice learn to blink at different speeds and time the movement appropriately by adjusting the amplitude, but not the frequency of the underlying eyelid oscillation.

  18. Fuzzy conditional random fields for temporal data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurma Yulita, Intan; Setiawan Abdullah, Atje

    2017-10-01

    Temporal data mining is one of the interesting problems in computer science and its application has been performed in a wide variety of fields. The difference between the temporal data mining and data mining is the use of variable time. Therefore, the method used must be capable of processing variables of time. Compared with other methods, conditional random field has advantages in the processing variables of time. The method is a directed graph models that has been widely applied for segmenting and labelling sequence data that appears in various domains. In this study, we proposed use of Fuzzy Logic to be applied in Conditional Random Fields to overcome the problems of uncertainty. The experiment is compared Fuzzy Conditional Random Fields, Conditional Random Fields, and Hidden Markov Models. The result showed that accuracy of Fuzzy Conditional Random Fields is the best.

  19. Some common random fixed point theorems for contractive type conditions in cone random metric spaces

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    Saluja Gurucharan S.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we establish some common random fixed point theorems for contractive type conditions in the setting of cone random metric spaces. Our results unify, extend and generalize many known results from the current existing literature.

  20. The effect of the random distribution of electronic components in the output characteristics of the Howland current source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertemes-Filho, P.; Felipe, A.

    2013-04-01

    When a Howland source is designed, the components are chosen so that the designed source has the desired characteristics. However, the operational amplifier limitations and resistor tolerances causes undesired behaviours. This work proposes to take in account the influence of the random distribution of the commercial resistors in the Howland circuit over the frequency range of 10 Hz to 10 MHz. The probability density function due to small changes over the resistors was calculated by using an analytical model. Results show that both output current and impedance are very sensitive to the resistor tolerances. It is shown that the output impedance is very dependent on the open-loop gain of the Opamp rather than the resistor tolerances, especially at higher frequencies. This might improve the implementations of real current source used in electrical bioimpedance.

  1. Geomagnetic storm under laboratory conditions: randomized experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Yu I.; Vasin, A. L.; Pishchalnikov, R. Yu; Sarimov, R. M.; Sasonko, M. L.; Matveeva, T. A.

    2017-10-01

    The influence of the previously recorded geomagnetic storm (GS) on human cardiovascular system and microcirculation has been studied under laboratory conditions. Healthy volunteers in lying position were exposed under two artificially created conditions: quiet (Q) and storm (S). The Q regime playbacks a noise-free magnetic field (MF) which is closed to the natural geomagnetic conditions on Moscow's latitude. The S regime playbacks the initially recorded 6-h geomagnetic storm which is repeated four times sequentially. The cardiovascular response to the GS impact was assessed by measuring capillary blood velocity (CBV) and blood pressure (BP) and by the analysis of the 24-h ECG recording. A storm-to-quiet ratio for the cardio intervals (CI) and the heart rate variability (HRV) was introduced in order to reveal the average over group significant differences of HRV. An individual sensitivity to the GS was estimated using the autocorrelation function analysis of the high-frequency (HF) part of the CI spectrum. The autocorrelation analysis allowed for detection a group of subjects of study which autocorrelation functions (ACF) react differently in the Q and S regimes of exposure.

  2. Improvement of Frequency Domain Output Only Modal Identification from the Application of the Random Decrement Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, J.; Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.

    2004-01-01

    that length. The idea is applied in the analysis of ambient vibration data collected in a ¼ scale model of a 4-story building. The results show that a considerable improvement is achieved, in terms of noise reduction in the spectral density functions and corresponding quality of the frequency domain modal...... from the time series, are due to the noise reduction that results from the time averaging procedure of the random decrement technique, and from avoiding leakage in the spectral densities, as long as the random decrement functions are evaluated with sufficient time length to have a complete decay within...

  3. Conditioned one-way simple random walk and representation theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lecouvey, Cédric; Lesigne, Emmanuel; Peigné, Marc

    2012-01-01

    32 pages; International audience; We call one-way simple random walk a random walk in the quadrant Z₊ⁿ whose increments belong to the canonical base. In relation with representation theory of Lie algebras and superalgebras, we describe the law of such a random walk conditioned to stay in a closed octant, a semi-open octant or other types of semi-groups. The combinatorial representation theory of these algebras allows us to describe a generalized Pitman transformation which realizes the condit...

  4. Genetic Structures and Conditions of their Expression, which Allow Receiving Native Recombinant Proteins with High Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Shavlovsky, PhD, ScD¹

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the possibility of obtaining native recombinant amyloidogenic proteins by creating genetic constructs encoding fusion proteins of target proteins with Super Folder Green Fluorescent Protein (sfGFP. In this study, we show that the structures, containing the sfGFP gene, provide a synthesis, within a bacterial system, of fusion proteins with minimal formation of inclusion bodies. Constructs containing genes of the target proteins in the 3'-terminal region of the sfGFP gene followed by a polynucleotide sequence, which allows for affinity purification fusion proteins, are optimal. Heating bacterial cultures before the induction of the expression of recombinant genes in 42°С for 30 min (heat shock was found to increase the output of the desired products, thus practically avoiding the formation of insoluble aggregates

  5. Development of a Layered Conditional Random Field Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-12-01

    Dec 1, 2014 ... Conditional Estimation in NLP Models,” Proc. ACL Conf. Empirical. Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP '02), Association for. Computational Linguistics, 10, (9-16). [39] Sutton, C. and McCallum, A (2006). “An Introduction to Conditional Random Fields for. Relational Learning,” Introduction to ...

  6. Global industrial impact coefficient based on random walk process and inter-country input-output table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lizhi; Dong, Xianlei; Guan, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Input-output table is very comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with lots of economic relationships, which contains supply and demand information among industrial sectors. The complex network, a theory and method for measuring the structure of complex system, can describe the structural characteristics of the internal structure of the research object by measuring the structural indicators of the social and economic system, revealing the complex relationship between the inner hierarchy and the external economic function. This paper builds up GIVCN-WIOT models based on World Input-Output Database in order to depict the topological structure of Global Value Chain (GVC), and assumes the competitive advantage of nations is equal to the overall performance of its domestic sectors' impact on the GVC. Under the perspective of econophysics, Global Industrial Impact Coefficient (GIIC) is proposed to measure the national competitiveness in gaining information superiority and intermediate interests. Analysis of GIVCN-WIOT models yields several insights including the following: (1) sectors with higher Random Walk Centrality contribute more to transmitting value streams within the global economic system; (2) Half-Value Ratio can be used to measure robustness of open-economy macroeconomics in the process of globalization; (3) the positive correlation between GIIC and GDP indicates that one country's global industrial impact could reveal its international competitive advantage.

  7. Variational Hidden Conditional Random Fields with Coupled Dirichlet Process Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousmalis, K.; Zafeiriou, S.; Morency, L.P.; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Z.

    Hidden Conditional Random Fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An infinite HCRF is an HCRF with a countably infinite number of hidden states, which rids us not only of the

  8. Infinite conditional random fields for human behavior analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja

    Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models that have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem (provided an appropriate validation of the number of hidden states). In this brief, we present the infinite HCRF

  9. ENHANCE OUTPUT OF NATIONAL POLICIES THROUGH RECRUITMEN, SELECTION, AND COMPETENCE TO CHANGE OF NATIONAL CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiranto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effects of recruitment, selection, competence and national policies to the changing conditions in Indonesia. 530 respondents from 25 provinces or 50 regencies/ cities across Indonesia participated in questionnaire pools in the study. Data were processed using path analysis technique. Results reveal that the recruitment process by political parties, the selection process by the Election Commission, and the competence of the leader, have positive correlations to the policies and the outcomes. The study highlights that without any improvements in the recruitment, selection, competency of leaders, and policies, no changes could be made by the leaders. It implies that a redefinition and actualization of recruitment, selection, competence, and policies should be made to ensure the changes to take place.

  10. ENHANCE OUTPUT OF NATIONAL POLICIES THROUGH RECRUITMEN, SELECTION, AND COMPETENCE TO CHANGE OF NATIONAL CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiranto .

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effects of recruitment, selection, competence and national policies to the changing conditions in Indonesia. 530 respondents from 25 provinces or 50 regencies/ cities across Indonesia participated in questionnaire pools in the study. Data were processed using path analysis technique. Results reveal that the recruitment process by political parties, the selection process by the Election Commission, and the competence of the  leader, have  positive correlations to the policies and the outcomes. The study highlights that without any improvements in the recruitment, selection, competency of leaders, and policies, no changes could be made by the leaders. It implies that a redefinition and actualization of recruitment, selection, competence, and policies should be made to ensure the changes to take place.

  11. Circular random motion in diatom gliding under isotropic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Medina, Braulio; Guerra, Andrés Jiménez; Maldonado, Ana Iris Peña; Rubio, Yadiralia Covarrubias; Meza, Jessica Viridiana García

    2014-11-13

    How cells migrate has been investigated primarily for the case of trajectories composed by joined straight segments. In contrast, little is known when cellular motion follows intrinsically curved paths. Here, we use time-lapse optical microscopy and automated trajectory tracking to investigate how individual cells of the diatom Nitzschia communis glide across surfaces under isotropic environmental conditions. We find a distinct kind of random motion, where trajectories are formed by circular arcs traveled at constant speed, alternated with random stoppages, direction reversals and changes in the orientation of the arcs. Analysis of experimental and computer-simulated trajectories show that the circular random motion of diatom gliding is not optimized for long-distance travel but rather for recurrent coverage of limited surface area. These results suggest that one main biological role for this type of diatom motility is to efficiently build the foundation of algal biofilms.

  12. Plastic Changes in Human Motor Cortical Output Induced by Random but not Closed-Loop Peripheral Stimulation: the Curse of Causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth I; Williams, Elizabeth R; de Carvalho, Felipe; Baker, Stuart N

    2016-01-01

    Previous work showed that repetitive peripheral nerve stimulation can induce plastic changes in motor cortical output. Triggering electrical stimulation of central structures from natural activity can also generate plasticity. In this study, we tested whether triggering peripheral nerve stimulation from muscle activity would likewise induce changes in motor output. We developed a wearable electronic device capable of recording electromyogram (EMG) and delivering electrical stimulation under closed-loop control. This allowed paired stimuli to be delivered over longer periods than standard laboratory-based protocols. We tested this device in healthy human volunteers. Motor cortical output in relaxed thenar muscles was first assessed via the recruitment curve of responses to contralateral transcranial magnetic stimulation. The wearable device was then configured to record thenar EMG and stimulate the median nerve at the wrist (intensity around motor threshold, rate ~0.66 Hz). Subjects carried out normal daily activities for 4-7 h, before returning to the laboratory for repeated recruitment curve assessment. Four stimulation protocols were tested (9-14 subjects each): No Stim, no stimuli delivered; Activity, stimuli triggered by EMG activity above threshold; Saved, stimuli timed according to a previous Activity session in the same subject; Rest, stimuli given when EMG was silent. As expected, No Stim did not modify the recruitment curve. Activity and Rest conditions produced no significant effects across subjects, although there were changes in some individuals. Saved produced a significant and substantial increase, with average responses 2.14 times larger at 30% stimulator intensity above threshold. We argue that unavoidable delays in the closed loop feedback, due mainly to central and peripheral conduction times, mean that stimuli in the Activity paradigm arrived too late after cortical activation to generate consistent plastic changes. By contrast, stimuli delivered

  13. Joint Conditional Random Field Filter for Multi-Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Ronghua

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Object tracking can improve the performance of mobile robot especially in populated dynamic environments. A novel joint conditional random field Filter (JCRFF based on conditional random field with hierarchical structure is proposed for multi-object tracking by abstracting the data associations between objects and measurements to be a sequence of labels. Since the conditional random field makes no assumptions about the dependency structure between the observations and it allows non-local dependencies between the state and the observations, the proposed method can not only fuse multiple cues including shape information and motion information to improve the stability of tracking, but also integrate moving object detection and object tracking quite well. At the same time, implementation of multi-object tracking based on JCRFF with measurements from the laser range finder on a mobile robot is studied. Experimental results with the mobile robot developed in our lab show that the proposed method has higher precision and better stability than joint probabilities data association filter (JPDAF.

  14. Maternal cardiac output changes after crystalloid or colloid coload following spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sarah; Fernando, Roshan; Ashpole, Keri; Columb, Malachy

    2011-10-01

    Minimizing hypotension associated with spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery by administration of IV fluids and vasopressors reduces fetal and maternal morbidity. Most studies have concentrated on noninvasive systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurements to evaluate the effect of such regimens. We used a suprasternal Doppler flow technique to measure maternal cardiac output (CO) variables in parturients receiving a phenylephrine infusion combined with the rapid administration of crystalloid or colloid solution at the time of initiation of anesthesia (coload). We hypothesized that a colloid coload compared with a crystalloid coload would produce a larger sustained increase in CO and therefore reduce vasopressor requirements. We recruited 60 healthy term women scheduled for elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia for this randomized double-blind study. Baseline heart rate, baseline SBP, and CO variables including stroke volume, corrected flow time, and contractility were recorded in the left lateral tilt position. At the time of spinal injection, subjects were allocated to receive a rapid 1-L coload of either 6% w/v hydroxyethyl starch solution (HES) or Hartmann (crystalloid) solution (HS). A phenylephrine infusion was titrated to maintain maternal baseline SBP. CO was measured at 5-minute intervals for 20 minutes after initiation of spinal anesthesia. The primary outcome, CO, was compared between groups, as were secondary outcomes: phenylephrine dose and maternal hemodynamic and fetal outcome data. Maternal demographics, surgical times, and fetal outcome data were similar between groups. There were no significant differences between groups in any measured CO variable at any time point. CO was transiently higher than baseline at 5 minutes in the HS group and at 5 and 10 minutes in the HES group (range, 0.13-1.74 L/min); the overall mean difference in CO between crystalloid and colloid over the study period was 0.06 L/min (95% confidence interval: -0.46 to 0

  15. Predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot of peanut using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatinwo, Rabiu O; Prabha, Thara V; Paz, Joel O; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2012-03-01

    Early leaf spot of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a disease caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori, is responsible for an annual crop loss of several million dollars in the southeastern United States alone. The development of early leaf spot on peanut and subsequent spread of the spores of C. arachidicola relies on favorable weather conditions. Accurate spatio-temporal weather information is crucial for monitoring the progression of favorable conditions and determining the potential threat of the disease. Therefore, the development of a prediction model for mitigating the risk of early leaf spot in peanut production is important. The specific objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for management of early leaf spot in peanut. We coupled high-resolution weather output of the WRF, i.e. relative humidity and temperature, with the Oklahoma peanut leaf spot advisory model in predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot infection over Georgia in 2007. Results showed a more favorable infection condition in the southeastern coastline of Georgia where the infection threshold were met sooner compared to the southwestern and central part of Georgia where the disease risk was lower. A newly introduced infection threat index indicates that the leaf spot threat threshold was met sooner at Alma, GA, compared to Tifton and Cordele, GA. The short-term prediction of weather parameters and their use in the management of peanut diseases is a viable and promising technique, which could help growers make accurate management decisions, and lower disease impact through optimum timing of fungicide applications.

  16. Fuzzy [Formula: see text] output-feedback control for the discrete-time system with channel fadings, sector nonlinearities, and randomly occurring interval delays and nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaozheng; Wang, Yan; Hu, Manfeng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the fuzzy [Formula: see text] output-feedback control problem is investigated for a class of discrete-time T-S fuzzy systems with channel fadings, sector nonlinearities, randomly occurring interval delays (ROIDs) and randomly occurring nonlinearities (RONs). A series of variables of the randomly occurring phenomena obeying the Bernoulli distribution is used to govern ROIDs and RONs. Meanwhile, the measurement outputs are subject to the sector nonlinearities (i.e. the sensor saturations) and we assume the system output is [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]. The Lth-order Rice model is utilized to describe the phenomenon of channel fadings by setting different values of the channel coefficients. The aim of this work is to deal with the problem of designing a full-order dynamic fuzzy [Formula: see text] output-feedback controller such that the fuzzy closed-loop system is exponentially mean-square stable and the [Formula: see text] performance constraint is satisfied, by means of a combination of Lyapunov stability theory and stochastic analysis along with LMI methods. The proposed fuzzy controller parameters are derived by solving a convex optimization problem via the semidefinite programming technique. Finally, a numerical simulation is given to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed design technique.

  17. Hydrological Modeling in Northern Tunisia with Regional Climate Model Outputs: Performance Evaluation and Bias-Correction in Present Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Foughali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the performance of a hydrological balance model in a watershed located in northern Tunisia (wadi Sejnane, 378 km2 in present climate conditions using input variables provided by four regional climate models. A modified version (MBBH of the lumped and single layer surface model BBH (Bucket with Bottom Hole model, in which pedo-transfer parameters estimated using watershed physiographic characteristics are introduced is adopted to simulate the water balance components. Only two parameters representing respectively the water retention capacity of the soil and the vegetation resistance to evapotranspiration are calibrated using rainfall-runoff data. The evaluation criterions for the MBBH model calibration are: relative bias, mean square error and the ratio of mean actual evapotranspiration to mean potential evapotranspiration. Daily air temperature, rainfall and runoff observations are available from 1960 to 1984. The period 1960–1971 is selected for calibration while the period 1972–1984 is chosen for validation. Air temperature and precipitation series are provided by four regional climate models (DMI, ARP, SMH and ICT from the European program ENSEMBLES, forced by two global climate models (GCM: ECHAM and ARPEGE. The regional climate model outputs (precipitation and air temperature are compared to the observations in terms of statistical distribution. The analysis was performed at the seasonal scale for precipitation. We found out that RCM precipitation must be corrected before being introduced as MBBH inputs. Thus, a non-parametric quantile-quantile bias correction method together with a dry day correction is employed. Finally, simulated runoff generated using corrected precipitation from the regional climate model SMH is found the most acceptable by comparison with runoff simulated using observed precipitation data, to reproduce the temporal variability of mean monthly runoff. The SMH model is the most accurate to

  18. Classification of hyperspectral images based on conditional random fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Saber, Eli; Monteiro, Sildomar T.; Cahill, Nathan D.; Messinger, David W.

    2015-02-01

    A significant increase in the availability of high resolution hyperspectral images has led to the need for developing pertinent techniques in image analysis, such as classification. Hyperspectral images that are correlated spatially and spectrally provide ample information across the bands to benefit this purpose. Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) are discriminative models that carry several advantages over conventional techniques: no requirement of the independence assumption for observations, flexibility in defining local and pairwise potentials, and an independence between the modules of feature selection and parameter leaning. In this paper we present a framework for classifying remotely sensed imagery based on CRFs. We apply a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to raw remotely sensed imagery data in order to generate more meaningful feature potentials to the CRFs model. This approach produces promising results when tested with publicly available AVIRIS Indian Pine imagery.

  19. Parsing citations in biomedical articles using conditional random fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Cao, Yong-Gang; Yu, Hong

    2011-04-01

    Citations are used ubiquitously in biomedical full-text articles and play an important role for representing both the rhetorical structure and the semantic content of the articles. As a result, text mining systems will significantly benefit from a tool that automatically extracts the content of a citation. In this study, we applied the supervised machine-learning algorithms Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) to automatically parse a citation into its fields (e.g., Author, Title, Journal, and Year). With a subset of html format open-access PubMed Central articles, we report an overall 97.95% F1-score. The citation parser can be accessed at: http://www.cs.uwm.edu/∼qing/projects/cithit/index.html. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bearing Fault Classification Based on Conditional Random Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Condition monitoring of rolling element bearing is paramount for predicting the lifetime and performing effective maintenance of the mechanical equipment. To overcome the drawbacks of the hidden Markov model (HMM and improve the diagnosis accuracy, conditional random field (CRF model based classifier is proposed. In this model, the feature vectors sequences and the fault categories are linked by an undirected graphical model in which their relationship is represented by a global conditional probability distribution. In comparison with the HMM, the main advantage of the CRF model is that it can depict the temporal dynamic information between the observation sequences and state sequences without assuming the independence of the input feature vectors. Therefore, the interrelationship between the adjacent observation vectors can also be depicted and integrated into the model, which makes the classifier more robust and accurate than the HMM. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, four kinds of bearing vibration signals which correspond to normal, inner race pit, outer race pit and roller pit respectively are collected from the test rig. And the CRF and HMM models are built respectively to perform fault classification by taking the sub band energy features of wavelet packet decomposition (WPD as the observation sequences. Moreover, K-fold cross validation method is adopted to improve the evaluation accuracy of the classifier. The analysis and comparison under different fold times show that the accuracy rate of classification using the CRF model is higher than the HMM. This method brings some new lights on the accurate classification of the bearing faults.

  1. Conditional random field modelling of interactions between findings in mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Thijs; Mordang, Jan-Jurre; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2017-03-01

    Recent breakthroughs in training deep neural network architectures, in particular deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), made a big impact on vision research and are increasingly responsible for advances in Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD). Since many natural scenes and medical images vary in size and are too large to feed to the networks as a whole, two stage systems are typically employed, where in the first stage, small regions of interest in the image are located and presented to the network as training and test data. These systems allow us to harness accurate region based annotations, making the problem easier to learn. However, information is processed purely locally and context is not taken into account. In this paper, we present preliminary work on the employment of a Conditional Random Field (CRF) that is trained on top the CNN to model contextual interactions such as the presence of other suspicious regions, for mammography CAD. The model can easily be extended to incorporate other sources of information, such as symmetry, temporal change and various patient covariates and is general in the sense that it can have application in other CAD problems.

  2. Segmentation and labeling of documents using conditional random fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Shravya; Srinivasan, Harish; Beal, Matthew; Srihari, Sargur

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the use of Conditional Random Fields(CRF) utilizing contextual information in automatically labeling extracted segments of scanned documents as Machine-print, Handwriting and Noise. The result of such a labeling can serve as an indexing step for a context-based image retrieval system or a bio-metric signature verification system. A simple region growing algorithm is first used to segment the document into a number of patches. A label for each such segmented patch is inferred using a CRF model. The model is flexible enough to include signatures as a type of handwriting and isolate it from machine-print and noise. The robustness of the model is due to the inherent nature of modeling neighboring spatial dependencies in the labels as well as the observed data using CRF. Maximum pseudo-likelihood estimates for the parameters of the CRF model are learnt using conjugate gradient descent. Inference of labels is done by computing the probability of the labels under the model with Gibbs sampling. Experimental results show that this approach provides for 95.75% of the data being assigned correct labels. The CRF based model is shown to be superior to Neural Networks and Naive Bayes.

  3. Random countable alphabet conformal iterated function systems satisfying the transversality condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbański, Mariusz

    2016-03-01

    Dealing with with countable (finite and infinite alike) alphabet random conformal iterated function systems with overlaps, we formulate appropriate transversality conditions and then prove the relevant, in such a context, the Moran-Bowen formula which determines the Hausdorff dimension of random limit sets in dynamical terms. We also provide large classes of examples of such random systems satisfying the transversality condition.

  4. No effect of fibrin sealant on drain output or functional recovery following simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Christian; Holm, Bente; Troelsen, Anders; Lunn, Troels H; Gaarn-Larsen, Lissi; Kehlet, Henrik; Husted, Henrik

    2013-04-01

    Blood loss after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may lead to anemia, blood transfusions, and increased total costs. Also, bleeding into the periarticular tissue may cause swelling and a reduction in quadriceps strength, thus impairing early functional recovery. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we analyzed the possible effect of fibrin sealant on blood loss and early functional recovery in a fast-track setting. 24 consecutive patients undergoing bilateral simultaneous TKA were included. 10 mL of fibrin sealant (Evicel) was sprayed onto one knee whereas the contralateral knee had saline. Drain output, the primary outcome, was measured from knee drains removed exactly 24 h after surgery. Secondary outcomes (knee swelling, pain, strength of knee extension, and range of movement (ROM)) were evaluated up to 21 days after surgery. The drain output in knees treated with fibrin sealant and placebo was similar (582 mL and 576 mL, respectively). Likewise, no statistically significant differences were found between groups regarding swelling, pain, strength of knee extension, and ROM. Fibrin sealant as a local hemostatic in TKA showed no benefit in reducing drain output or in facilitating early functional recovery when used with a tourniquet, tranexamic acid, and a femoral bone plug.

  5. Ensemble of Neural Network Conditional Random Fields for Self-Paced Brain Computer Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Bashashati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Classification of EEG signals in self-paced Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI is an extremely challenging task. The main difficulty stems from the fact that start time of a control task is not defined. Therefore it is imperative to exploit the characteristics of the EEG data to the extent possible. In sensory motor self-paced BCIs, while performing the mental task, the user’s brain goes through several well-defined internal state changes. Applying appropriate classifiers that can capture these state changes and exploit the temporal correlation in EEG data can enhance the performance of the BCI. In this paper, we propose an ensemble learning approach for self-paced BCIs. We use Bayesian optimization to train several different classifiers on different parts of the BCI hyper- parameter space. We call each of these classifiers Neural Network Conditional Random Field (NNCRF. NNCRF is a combination of a neural network and conditional random field (CRF. As in the standard CRF, NNCRF is able to model the correlation between adjacent EEG samples. However, NNCRF can also model the nonlinear dependencies between the input and the output, which makes it more powerful than the standard CRF. We compare the performance of our algorithm to those of three popular sequence labeling algorithms (Hidden Markov Models, Hidden Markov Support Vector Machines and CRF, and to two classical classifiers (Logistic Regression and Support Vector Machines. The classifiers are compared for the two cases: when the ensemble learning approach is not used and when it is. The data used in our studies are those from the BCI competition IV and the SM2 dataset. We show that our algorithm is considerably superior to the other approaches in terms of the Area Under the Curve (AUC of the BCI system.

  6. Heterogeneous Web Data Extraction Algorithm Based On Modified Hidden Conditional Random Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Cui Cheng

    2014-01-01

    As it is of great importance to extract useful information from heterogeneous Web data, in this paper, we propose a novel heterogeneous Web data extraction algorithm using a modified hidden conditional random fields model. Considering the traditional linear chain based conditional random fields can not effectively solve the problem of complex and heterogeneous Web data extraction, we modify the standard hidden conditional random fields in three aspects, which are 1) Using the hidden Markov mo...

  7. A Coupled Hidden Conditional Random Field Model for Simultaneous Face Clustering and Naming in Videos

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yifan

    2016-08-18

    For face naming in TV series or movies, a typical way is using subtitles/script alignment to get the time stamps of the names, and tagging them to the faces. We study the problem of face naming in videos when subtitles are not available. To this end, we divide the problem into two tasks: face clustering which groups the faces depicting a certain person into a cluster, and name assignment which associates a name to each face. Each task is formulated as a structured prediction problem and modeled by a hidden conditional random field (HCRF) model. We argue that the two tasks are correlated problems whose outputs can provide prior knowledge of the target prediction for each other. The two HCRFs are coupled in a unified graphical model called coupled HCRF where the joint dependence of the cluster labels and face name association is naturally embedded in the correlation between the two HCRFs. We provide an effective algorithm to optimize the two HCRFs iteratively and the performance of the two tasks on real-world data set can be both improved.

  8. Gesture Recognition using Latent-Dynamic based Conditional Random Fields and Scalar Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulita, I. N.; Fanany, M. I.; Arymurthy, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    The need for segmentation and labeling of sequence data appears in several fields. The use of the conditional models such as Conditional Random Fields is widely used to solve this problem. In the pattern recognition, Conditional Random Fields specify the possibilities of a sequence label. This method constructs its full label sequence to be a probabilistic graphical model based on its observation. However, Conditional Random Fields can not capture the internal structure so that Latent-based Dynamic Conditional Random Fields is developed without leaving external dynamics of inter-label. This study proposes the use of Latent-Dynamic Conditional Random Fields for Gesture Recognition and comparison between both methods. Besides, this study also proposes the use of a scalar features to gesture recognition. The results show that performance of Latent-dynamic based Conditional Random Fields is not better than the Conditional Random Fields, and scalar features are effective for both methods are in gesture recognition. Therefore, it recommends implementing Conditional Random Fields and scalar features in gesture recognition for better performance

  9. Effect of Levosimendan on Low Cardiac Output Syndrome in Patients With Low Ejection Fraction Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting With Cardiopulmonary Bypass: The LICORN Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholley, Bernard; Caruba, Thibaut; Grosjean, Sandrine; Amour, Julien; Ouattara, Alexandre; Villacorta, Judith; Miguet, Bertrand; Guinet, Patrick; Lévy, François; Squara, Pierre; Aït Hamou, Nora; Carillion, Aude; Boyer, Julie; Boughenou, Marie-Fazia; Rosier, Sebastien; Robin, Emmanuel; Radutoiu, Mihail; Durand, Michel; Guidon, Catherine; Desebbe, Olivier; Charles-Nelson, Anaïs; Menasché, Philippe; Rozec, Bertrand; Girard, Claude; Fellahi, Jean-Luc; Pirracchio, Romain; Chatellier, Gilles

    2017-08-08

    Low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery is associated with high morbidity and mortality in patients with impaired left ventricular function. To assess the ability of preoperative levosimendan to prevent postoperative low cardiac output syndrome. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 13 French cardiac surgical centers. Patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% and scheduled for isolated or combined coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled from June 2013 until May 2015 and followed during 6 months (last follow-up, November 30, 2015). Patients were assigned to a 24-hour infusion of levosimendan 0.1 µg/kg/min (n = 167) or placebo (n = 168) initiated after anesthetic induction. Composite end point reflecting low cardiac output syndrome with need for a catecholamine infusion 48 hours after study drug initiation, need for a left ventricular mechanical assist device or failure to wean from it at 96 hours after study drug initiation when the device was inserted preoperatively, or need for renal replacement therapy at any time postoperatively. It was hypothesized that levosimendan would reduce the incidence of this composite end point by 15% in comparison with placebo. Among 336 randomized patients (mean age, 68 years; 16% women), 333 completed the trial. The primary end point occurred in 87 patients (52%) in the levosimendan group and 101 patients (61%) in the placebo group (absolute risk difference taking into account center effect, -7% [95% CI, -17% to 3%]; P = .15). Predefined subgroup analyses found no interaction with ejection fraction less than 30%, type of surgery, and preoperative use of β-blockers, intra-aortic balloon pump, or catecholamines. The prevalence of hypotension (57% vs 48%), atrial fibrillation (50% vs 40%), and other adverse events did not significantly differ between levosimendan and placebo. Among patients with low ejection fraction

  10. Rare Events and Conditional Events on Random Strings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Régnier

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Some strings -the texts- are assumed to be randomly generated, according to a probability model that is either a Bernoulli model or a Markov model. A rare event is the over or under-representation of a word or a set of words. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, a single word is given. One studies the tail distribution of the number of its occurrences. Sharp large deviation estimates are derived. Second, one assumes that a given word is overrepresented. The distribution of a second word is studied; formulae for the expectation and the variance are derived. In both cases, the formulae are accurate and actually computable. These results have applications in computational biology, where a genome is viewed as a text.

  11. Conditioned random walks and interaction-driven condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szavits-Nossan, Juraj; Evans, Martin R.; Majumdar, Satya N.

    2017-01-01

    We consider a discrete-time continuous-space random walk under the constraints that the number of returns to the origin (local time) and the total area under the walk are fixed. We first compute the joint probability of an excursion having area a and returning to the origin for the first time after time τ. We then show how condensation occurs when the total area constraint is increased: an excursion containing a finite fraction of the area emerges. Finally we show how the phenomena generalises previously studied cases of condensation induced by several constraints and how it is related to interaction-driven condensation which allows us to explain the phenomenon in the framework of large deviation theory.

  12. Impact of ovarian and uterine conditions on some diagnostic tests output of endometritis in postpartum high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senosy, W; Uchiza, M; Tameoka, N; Izaike, Y; Osawa, T

    2011-10-01

    The effect of ovarian predominating structures and uterine condition on the result of some diagnostic tools for the evaluation of endometritis was studied in postpartum (pp) Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 58). Endometrial cytology (EC) and the evaluation of vaginal mucus by vaginoscopy or Metricheck were performed weekly from week 3 to 7 pp. The ovarian studies involved the predominating structures including cystic follicles with plasma progesterone (P(4) ; more or 23 mm), corpus luteum (CL), pre-ovulatory follicles (10-23 mm) and small follicles (follicular cysts with low progesterone (P(4) ovarian structures and uterine condition in early pp high-yielding dairy cows. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Mitigating randomness of consumer preferences under certain conditional choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothos, John M. A.; Thanos, Konstantinos-Georgios; Papadopoulou, Eirini; Daveas, Stelios; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2017-05-01

    Agent-based crowd behaviour consists a significant field of research that has drawn a lot of attention in recent years. Agent-based crowd simulation techniques have been used excessively to forecast the behaviour of larger or smaller crowds in terms of certain given conditions influenced by specific cognition models and behavioural rules and norms, imposed from the beginning. Our research employs conditional event algebra, statistical methodology and agent-based crowd simulation techniques in developing a behavioural econometric model about the selection of certain economic behaviour by a consumer that faces a spectre of potential choices when moving and acting in a multiplex mall. More specifically we try to analyse the influence of demographic, economic, social and cultural factors on the economic behaviour of a certain individual and then we try to link its behaviour with the general behaviour of the crowds of consumers in multiplex malls using agent-based crowd simulation techniques. We then run our model using Generalized Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood methods to come up with the most probable forecast estimations, regarding the agent's behaviour. Our model is indicative about the formation of consumers' spectre of choices in multiplex malls under the condition of predefined preferences and can be used as a guide for further research in this area.

  14. Self-propulsion and crossing statistics under random initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, M.; Labousse, M.; Perrard, S.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the crossing of an energy barrier by a self-propelled particle described by a Rayleigh friction term. We reveal the existence of a sharp transition in the external force field whereby the amplitude dramatically increases. This corresponds to a saddle point transition in the velocity flow phase space, as would be expected for any type of repulsive force field. We use this approach to rationalize the results obtained by Eddi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 240401 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.240401] who studied the interaction between a drop propelled by its accompanying wave field and a submarine obstacle. This wave particle entity can overcome potential barrier, suggesting the existence of a "macroscopic tunneling effect." We show that the effect of self-propulsion is sufficiently strong to generate crossing of the high-energy barrier. By assuming a random distribution of initial angles, we define a probability distribution to cross the potential barrier that matches with the data of Eddi et al. This probability is similar to the one encountered in statistical physics for Hamiltonian systems, i.e., a Boltzmann exponential law.

  15. Equivalent Conditions of Complete Convergence for Weighted Sums of Sequences of Negatively Dependent Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingle Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete convergence for weighted sums of sequences of negatively dependent random variables is investigated. By applying moment inequality and truncation methods, the equivalent conditions of complete convergence for weighted sums of sequences of negatively dependent random variables are established. These results not only extend the corresponding results obtained by Li et al. (1995, Gut (1993, and Liang (2000 to sequences of negatively dependent random variables, but also improve them.

  16. MULTI-SOURCE HIERARCHICAL CONDITIONAL RANDOM FIELD MODEL FOR FEATURE FUSION OF REMOTE SENSING IMAGES AND LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Feature fusion of remote sensing images and LiDAR points cloud data, which have strong complementarity, can effectively play the advantages of multi-class features to provide more reliable information support for the remote sensing applications, such as object classification and recognition. In this paper, we introduce a novel multi-source hierarchical conditional random field (MSHCRF model to fuse features extracted from remote sensing images and LiDAR data for image classification. Firstly, typical features are selected to obtain the interest regions from multi-source data, then MSHCRF model is constructed to exploit up the features, category compatibility of images and the category consistency of multi-source data based on the regions, and the outputs of the model represents the optimal results of the image classification. Competitive results demonstrate the precision and robustness of the proposed method.

  17. Segmentation of RGB-D indoor scenes by stacking random forests and conditional random fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Mikkel; Guerrero, Sergio Escalera; Gonzàlez, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    on stacked classifiers; the benefits are two fold: on one hand, the system scales well to consider different types of complex features and, on the other hand, the use of stacked classifiers makes the performance of the proposed technique more accurate. The proposed method consists of a random forest using...... better performance than state of the art methods on the same dataset. The results show an improvement of 2.3% over the base model by using MMSSL and displays that the method is effective in this problem domain....

  18. Global Postural Reeducation for patients with musculoskeletal conditions: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira,Giovanni E.; Barreto,Rodrigo G. P.; Caroline C. Robinson; Rodrigo D. M. Plentz; Silva, Marcelo F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To systematically review randomized controlled trials that assessed the effects of Global Postural Reeducation (GPR) on patient-reported outcomes in conditions of the musculoskeletal system. Method An electronic search of MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and SciELO was performed from their inception to June 2015. Randomized controlled trials that analyzed pain and patient-reported outcomes were included in this review. The Cochrane Collaboration’s Ri...

  19. Modeling Random Telegraph Noise Under Switched Bias Conditions Using Cyclostationary RTS Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wel, A.P.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Vandamme, L.K.J.; Nauta, Bram

    In this paper, we present measurements and simulation of random telegraph signal (RTS) noise in n-channel MOSFETs under periodic large signal gate-source excitation (switched bias conditions). This is particularly relevant to analog CMOS circuit design where large signal swings occur and where LF

  20. Subgeometric Ergodicity under Random-Time State-Dependent Drift Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokaedi V. Lekgari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by possible applications of Lyapunov techniques in the stability of stochastic networks, subgeometric ergodicity of Markov chains is investigated. In a nutshell, in this study we take a look at f-ergodic general Markov chains, subgeometrically ergodic at rate r, when the random-time Foster-Lyapunov drift conditions on a set of stopping times are satisfied.

  1. Dual Dynamically Orthogonal approximation of incompressible Navier Stokes equations with random boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musharbash, Eleonora; Nobile, Fabio

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we propose a method for the strong imposition of random Dirichlet boundary conditions in the Dynamical Low Rank (DLR) approximation of parabolic PDEs and, in particular, incompressible Navier Stokes equations. We show that the DLR variational principle can be set in the constrained manifold of all S rank random fields with a prescribed value on the boundary, expressed in low rank format, with rank smaller then S. We characterize the tangent space to the constrained manifold by means of a Dual Dynamically Orthogonal (Dual DO) formulation, in which the stochastic modes are kept orthonormal and the deterministic modes satisfy suitable boundary conditions, consistent with the original problem. The Dual DO formulation is also convenient to include the incompressibility constraint, when dealing with incompressible Navier Stokes equations. We show the performance of the proposed Dual DO approximation on two numerical test cases: the classical benchmark of a laminar flow around a cylinder with random inflow velocity, and a biomedical application for simulating blood flow in realistic carotid artery reconstructed from MRI data with random inflow conditions coming from Doppler measurements.

  2. A Modified FCM Classifier Constrained by Conditional Random Field Model for Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Shaoyu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing imagery has abundant spatial correlation information, but traditional pixel-based clustering algorithms don't take the spatial information into account, therefore the results are often not good. To this issue, a modified FCM classifier constrained by conditional random field model is proposed. Adjacent pixels' priori classified information will have a constraint on the classification of the center pixel, thus extracting spatial correlation information. Spectral information and spatial correlation information are considered at the same time when clustering based on second order conditional random field. What's more, the global optimal inference of pixel's classified posterior probability can be get using loopy belief propagation. The experiment shows that the proposed algorithm can effectively maintain the shape feature of the object, and the classification accuracy is higher than traditional algorithms.

  3. Equivalent conditions of complete moment convergence for extended negatively dependent random variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunying Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we study the equivalent conditions of complete moment convergence for sequences of identically distributed extended negatively dependent random variables. As a result, we extend and generalize some results of complete moment convergence obtained by Chow (Bull. Inst. Math. Acad. Sin. 16:177-201, 1988 and Li and Spătaru (J. Theor. Probab. 18:933-947, 2005 from the i.i.d. case to extended negatively dependent sequences.

  4. Conditional Cooperativity in Toxin-Antitoxin Regulation Prevents Random Toxin Activation and Promotes Fast Translational Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cataudella, Ilaria; Trusina, Ala; Sneppen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Many toxin–antitoxin (TA) loci are known to strongly repress their own transcription. This auto-inhibition is often called ‘conditional cooperativity’ as it relies on cooperative binding of TA complexes to operator DNA that occurs only when toxins are in a proper stoichiometric relationship...... with antitoxins. There has recently been an explosion of interest in TA systems due to their role in bacterial persistence, however the role of conditional cooperativity is still unclear. We reveal the biological function of conditional cooperativity by constructing a mathematical model of the well studied TA...... such that random induction of relBE is minimized. At the same time it enables quick removal of free toxin when the starvation is terminated....

  5. Effective speed and agility conditioning methodology for random intermittent dynamic type sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Jonathan; Polman, Remco; O'Donoghue, Peter; McNaughton, Lars

    2007-11-01

    Different coaching methods are often used to improve performance. This study compared the effectiveness of 2 methodologies for speed and agility conditioning for random, intermittent, and dynamic activity sports (e.g., soccer, tennis, hockey, basketball, rugby, and netball) and the necessity for specialized coaching equipment. Two groups were delivered either a programmed method (PC) or a random method (RC) of conditioning with a third group receiving no conditioning (NC). PC participants used the speed, agility, quickness (SAQ) conditioning method, and RC participants played supervised small-sided soccer games. PC was also subdivided into 2 groups where participants either used specialized SAQ equipment or no equipment. A total of 46 (25 males and 21 females) untrained participants received (mean +/- SD) 12.2 +/- 2.1 hours of physical conditioning over 6 weeks between a battery of speed and agility parameter field tests. Two-way analysis of variance results indicated that both conditioning groups showed a significant decrease in body mass and body mass index, although PC achieved significantly greater improvements on acceleration, deceleration, leg power, dynamic balance, and the overall summation of % increases when compared to RC and NC (p < 0.05). PC in the form of SAQ exercises appears to be a superior method for improving speed and agility parameters; however, this study found that specialized SAQ equipment was not a requirement to observe significant improvements. Further research is required to establish whether these benefits transfer to sport-specific tasks as well as to the underlying mechanisms resulting in improved performance.

  6. Documentation of the dynamic parameter, water-use, stream and lake flow routing, and two summary output modules and updates to surface-depression storage simulation and initial conditions specification options with the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, R. Steve; LaFontaine, Jacob H.

    2017-10-05

    This report documents seven enhancements to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) hydrologic simulation code: two time-series input options, two new output options, and three updates of existing capabilities. The enhancements are (1) new dynamic parameter module, (2) new water-use module, (3) new Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU) summary output module, (4) new basin variables summary output module, (5) new stream and lake flow routing module, (6) update to surface-depression storage and flow simulation, and (7) update to the initial-conditions specification. This report relies heavily upon U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 6, chapter B7, which documents PRMS version 4 (PRMS-IV). A brief description of PRMS is included in this report.

  7. Minimizing nocebo effects by conditioning with verbal suggestion: A randomized clinical trial in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Danielle J P; van Laarhoven, Antoinette I M; Stroo, Michiel; Hijne, Kim; Peerdeman, Kaya J; Donders, A Rogier T; van de Kerkhof, Peter C M; Evers, Andrea W M

    2017-01-01

    Nocebo effects, i.e., adverse treatment effects which are induced by patients' expectations, are known to contribute to the experience of physical symptoms such as pain and itch. A better understanding of how to minimize nocebo responses might eventually contribute to enhanced treatment effects. However, little is known about how to reduce nocebo effects. In the current randomized controlled study, we tested whether nocebo effects can be minimized by positive expectation induction with respect to electrical and histaminic itch stimuli. First, negative expectations about electrical itch stimuli were induced by verbal suggestion and conditioning (part 1: induction of nocebo effect). Second, participants were randomized to either the experimental group or one of the control groups (part 2: reversing nocebo effect). In the experimental group, positive expectations were induced by conditioning with verbal suggestion. In the control groups either the negative expectation induction was continued or an extinction procedure was applied. Afterwards, a histamine application test was conducted. Positive expectation induction resulted in a significantly smaller nocebo effect in comparison with both control groups. Mean change itch NRS scores showed that the nocebo effect was even reversed, indicating a placebo effect. Comparable effects were also found for histamine application. This study is the first to demonstrate that nocebo effects can be minimized and even reversed by conditioning with verbal suggestion. The results of the current study indicate that learning via counterconditioning and verbal suggestion represents a promising strategy for diminishing nocebo responses.

  8. Condition for invariant spectrum of an electromagnetic wave scattered from an anisotropic random media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Wu, Pinghui; Chang, Liping

    2015-08-24

    Within the accuracy of the first-order Born approximation, sufficient conditions are derived for the invariance of spectrum of an electromagnetic wave, which is generated by the scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave from an anisotropic random media. We show that the following restrictions on properties of incident fields and the anisotropic media must be simultaneously satisfied: 1) the elements of the dielectric susceptibility matrix of the media must obey the scaling law; 2) the spectral components of the incident field are proportional to each other; 3) the second moments of the elements of the dielectric susceptibility matrix of the media are inversely proportional to the frequency.

  9. Estimating the conditional extreme-value index under random right-censoring

    OpenAIRE

    Stupfler, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    In extreme value theory, the extreme-value index is a parameter that controls the behavior of a cumulative distribution function in its right tail. Estimating this parameter is thus the first step when tackling a number of problems related to extreme events. In this paper, we introduce an estimator of the extreme-value index in the presence of a random covariate when the response variable is right-censored, whether its conditional distribution belongs to the Fréchet, Weibull or Gumbel max-dom...

  10. Conditional random slope: A new approach for estimating individual child growth velocity in epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Michael; Bassani, Diego G; Racine-Poon, Amy; Goldenberg, Anna; Ali, Syed Asad; Kang, Gagandeep; Premkumar, Prasanna S; Roth, Daniel E

    2017-09-10

    Conditioning child growth measures on baseline accounts for regression to the mean (RTM). Here, we present the "conditional random slope" (CRS) model, based on a linear-mixed effects model that incorporates a baseline-time interaction term that can accommodate multiple data points for a child while also directly accounting for RTM. In two birth cohorts, we applied five approaches to estimate child growth velocities from 0 to 12 months to assess the effect of increasing data density (number of measures per child) on the magnitude of RTM of unconditional estimates, and the correlation and concordance between the CRS and four alternative metrics. Further, we demonstrated the differential effect of the choice of velocity metric on the magnitude of the association between infant growth and stunting at 2 years. RTM was minimally attenuated by increasing data density for unconditional growth modeling approaches. CRS and classical conditional models gave nearly identical estimates with two measures per child. Compared to the CRS estimates, unconditional metrics had moderate correlation (r = 0.65-0.91), but poor agreement in the classification of infants with relatively slow growth (kappa = 0.38-0.78). Estimates of the velocity-stunting association were the same for CRS and classical conditional models but differed substantially between conditional versus unconditional metrics. The CRS can leverage the flexibility of linear mixed models while addressing RTM in longitudinal analyses. © 2017 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. All-digital duty-cycle corrector with synchronous and high accuracy output for double date rate synchronous dynamic random-access memory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chih-Wei; Lo, Yu-Lung; Chang, Chia-Chen; Liu, Han-Ying; Yang, Wei-Bin; Cheng, Kuo-Hsing

    2017-04-01

    A synchronous and highly accurate all-digital duty-cycle corrector (ADDCC), which uses simplified dual-loop architecture, is presented in this paper. To explain the operational principle, a detailed circuit description and formula derivation are provided. To verify the proposed design, a chip was fabricated through the 0.18-µm standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process with a core area of 0.091 mm2. The measurement results indicate that the proposed ADDCC can operate between 300 and 600 MHz with an input duty-cycle range of 40-60%, and that the output duty-cycle error is less than 1% with a root-mean-square jitter of 3.86 ps.

  12. Global Postural Reeducation for patients with musculoskeletal conditions: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Giovanni E; Barreto, Rodrigo G P; Robinson, Caroline C; Plentz, Rodrigo D M; Silva, Marcelo F

    2016-04-01

    To systematically review randomized controlled trials that assessed the effects of Global Postural Reeducation (GPR) on patient-reported outcomes in conditions of the musculoskeletal system. An electronic search of MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and SciELO was performed from their inception to June 2015. Randomized controlled trials that analyzed pain and patient-reported outcomes were included in this review. The Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias Tool was used to evaluate risk of bias, and the quality of evidence was rated following the GRADE approach. There were no language restrictions. Eleven trials were included totaling 383 patients. Overall, the trials had high risk of bias. GPR was superior to no treatment but not to other forms of treatment for pain and disability. No placebo-controlled trials were found. GPR is not superior to other treatments; however, it is superior to no treatment. Due to the lack of studies, it is unknown if GPR is better than placebo. The quality of the available evidence ranges from low to very low, therefore future studies may change the effect estimates of GPR in musculoskeletal conditions.

  13. Global Postural Reeducation for patients with musculoskeletal conditions: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni E. Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives To systematically review randomized controlled trials that assessed the effects of Global Postural Reeducation (GPR on patient-reported outcomes in conditions of the musculoskeletal system. Method An electronic search of MEDLINE (via PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and SciELO was performed from their inception to June 2015. Randomized controlled trials that analyzed pain and patient-reported outcomes were included in this review. The Cochrane Collaboration’s Risk of Bias Tool was used to evaluate risk of bias, and the quality of evidence was rated following the GRADE approach. There were no language restrictions. Results Eleven trials were included totaling 383 patients. Overall, the trials had high risk of bias. GPR was superior to no treatment but not to other forms of treatment for pain and disability. No placebo-controlled trials were found. Conclusion GPR is not superior to other treatments; however, it is superior to no treatment. Due to the lack of studies, it is unknown if GPR is better than placebo. The quality of the available evidence ranges from low to very low, therefore future studies may change the effect estimates of GPR in musculoskeletal conditions.

  14. Condition-Based Conveyor Belt Replacement Strategy in Lignite Mines with Random Belt Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek

    2017-12-01

    In Polish lignite surface mines, condition-based belt replacement strategies are applied in order to assure profitable refurbishment of worn out belts performed by external firms specializing in belt maintenance. In two of three lignite mines, staff asses belt condition subjectively during visual inspections. Only one mine applies specialized diagnostic device (HRDS) allowing objective magnetic evaluation of belt core condition in order to choose the most profitable moment for the dismantling of worn out belt segments from conveyors and sending them to the maintenance firm which provides their refurbishment. This article describes the advantages of a new diagnostic device called DiagBelt. It was developed at the Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Economic gains from its application are calculated for the lignite mine and for the belt maintenance firm, taking into account random life (durability) of new and reconditioned belts (after the 1st and the 2nd refurbishment). Recursive calculations for following years allow the estimation of the length and costs of replaced, reconditioned and purchased belts on an annual basis, while the use of the Monte Carlo method allows the estimation of their variability caused by random deterioration of belts. Savings are obtained due to better selection of moments (times) for the replacement of belt segments and die to the possibility to qualify worn out belts for refurbishment without the need to remove their covers. In effect, increased belt durability and lowered share of waste belts (which were not qualified for reconditioning) create savings which can quickly cover expenditures on new diagnostic tools and regular belt inspections in the mine.

  15. Necessary conditions for the invariant measure of a random walk to be a sum of geometric terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Goseling, Jasper

    We consider the invariant measure of homogeneous random walks in the quarter-plane. In particular, we consider measures that can be expressed as an infinite sum of geometric terms. We present necessary conditions for the invariant measure of a random walk to be a sum of geometric terms. We

  16. Automatic detection of gadolinium-enhancing multiple sclerosis lesions in brain MRI using conditional random fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimaghaloo, Zahra; Shah, Mohak; Francis, Simon J; Arnold, Douglas L; Collins, D Louis; Arbel, Tal

    2012-06-01

    Gadolinium-enhancing lesions in brain magnetic resonance imaging of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are of great interest since they are markers of disease activity. Identification of gadolinium-enhancing lesions is particularly challenging because the vast majority of enhancing voxels are associated with normal structures, particularly blood vessels. Furthermore, these lesions are typically small and in close proximity to vessels. In this paper, we present an automatic, probabilistic framework for segmentation of gadolinium-enhancing lesions in MS using conditional random fields. Our approach, through the integration of different components, encodes different information such as correspondence between the intensities and tissue labels, patterns in the labels, or patterns in the intensities. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on 80 multimodal clinical datasets acquired from relapsing-remitting MS patients in the context of multicenter clinical trials. The experimental results exhibit a sensitivity of 98% with a low false positive lesion count. The performance of the proposed algorithm is also compared to a logistic regression classifier, a support vector machine and a Markov random field approach. The results demonstrate superior performance of the proposed algorithm at successfully detecting all of the gadolinium-enhancing lesions while maintaining a low false positive lesion count.

  17. Sign language recognition with the Kinect sensor based on conditional random fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hee-Deok

    2014-12-24

    Sign language is a visual language used by deaf people. One difficulty of sign language recognition is that sign instances of vary in both motion and shape in three-dimensional (3D) space. In this research, we use 3D depth information from hand motions, generated from Microsoft's Kinect sensor and apply a hierarchical conditional random field (CRF) that recognizes hand signs from the hand motions. The proposed method uses a hierarchical CRF to detect candidate segments of signs using hand motions, and then a BoostMap embedding method to verify the hand shapes of the segmented signs. Experiments demonstrated that the proposed method could recognize signs from signed sentence data at a rate of 90.4%.

  18. Sign Language Recognition with the Kinect Sensor Based on Conditional Random Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Deok Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sign language is a visual language used by deaf people. One difficulty of sign language recognition is that sign instances of vary in both motion and shape in three-dimensional (3D space. In this research, we use 3D depth information from hand motions, generated from Microsoft’s Kinect sensor and apply a hierarchical conditional random field (CRF that recognizes hand signs from the hand motions. The proposed method uses a hierarchical CRF to detect candidate segments of signs using hand motions, and then a BoostMap embedding method to verify the hand shapes of the segmented signs. Experiments demonstrated that the proposed method could recognize signs from signed sentence data at a rate of 90.4%.

  19. Broadcast News Story Segmentation Using Conditional Random Fields and Multimodal Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxuan; Xie, Lei; Lu, Mimi; Ma, Bin; Chng, Eng Siong; Li, Haizhou

    In this paper, we propose integration of multimodal features using conditional random fields (CRFs) for the segmentation of broadcast news stories. We study story boundary cues from lexical, audio and video modalities, where lexical features consist of lexical similarity, chain strength and overall cohesiveness; acoustic features involve pause duration, pitch, speaker change and audio event type; and visual features contain shot boundaries, anchor faces and news title captions. These features are extracted in a sequence of boundary candidate positions in the broadcast news. A linear-chain CRF is used to detect each candidate as boundary/non-boundary tags based on the multimodal features. Important interlabel relations and contextual feature information are effectively captured by the sequential learning framework of CRFs. Story segmentation experiments show that the CRF approach outperforms other popular classifiers, including decision trees (DTs), Bayesian networks (BNs), naive Bayesian classifiers (NBs), multilayer perception (MLP), support vector machines (SVMs) and maximum entropy (ME) classifiers.

  20. Hidden State Conditional Random Field for Abnormal Activity Recognition in Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As the number of elderly people has increased worldwide, there has been a surge of research into assistive technologies to provide them with better care by recognizing their normal and abnormal activities. However, existing abnormal activity recognition (AAR algorithms rarely consider sub-activity relations when recognizing abnormal activities. This paper presents an application of the Hidden State Conditional Random Field (HCRF method to detect and assess abnormal activities that often occur in elderly persons’ homes. Based on HCRF, this paper designs two AAR algorithms, and validates them by comparing them with a feature vector distance based algorithm in two experiments. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms favorably outperform the competitor, especially when abnormal activities have same sensor type and sensor number as normal activities.

  1. Incorporating conditional random fields and active learning to improve sentiment identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kunpeng; Xie, Yusheng; Yang, Yi; Sun, Aaron; Liu, Hengchang; Choudhary, Alok

    2014-10-01

    Many machine learning, statistical, and computational linguistic methods have been developed to identify sentiment of sentences in documents, yielding promising results. However, most of state-of-the-art methods focus on individual sentences and ignore the impact of context on the meaning of a sentence. In this paper, we propose a method based on conditional random fields to incorporate sentence structure and context information in addition to syntactic information for improving sentiment identification. We also investigate how human interaction affects the accuracy of sentiment labeling using limited training data. We propose and evaluate two different active learning strategies for labeling sentiment data. Our experiments with the proposed approach demonstrate a 5%-15% improvement in accuracy on Amazon customer reviews compared to existing supervised learning and rule-based methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-reported recognition of undiagnosed life threatening conditions in chiropractic practice: a random survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dwain M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to identify the type and frequency of previously undiagnosed life threatening conditions (LTC, based on self-reports of chiropractic physicians, which were first recognized by the chiropractic physician. Additionally this information may have a preliminary role in determining whether chiropractic education provides the knowledge necessary to recognize these events. Methods The study design was a postal, cross-sectional, epidemiological self-administered survey. Two thousand Doctors of Chiropractic in the US were randomly selected from a list of 57878. The survey asked respondents to state the number of cases from the list where they were the first physician to recognize the condition over the course of their practice careers. Space was provided for unlisted conditions. Results The response rate was 29.9%. Respondents represented 11442 years in practice and included 3861 patients with a reported undiagnosed LTC. The most commonly presenting conditions were in rank order: carcinoma, abdominal aneurysm, deep vein thrombosis, stroke, myocardial infarction, subdural hematoma and a large group of other diagnoses. The occurrence of a previously undiagnosed LTC can be expected to present to the chiropractic physician every 2.5 years based on the responding doctors reports. Conclusion Based on this survey chiropractic physicians report encountering undiagnosed LTC’s in the normal course of practice. The findings of this study are of importance to the chiropractic profession and chiropractic education. Increased awareness and emphasis on recognition of LTC is a critical part of the education process and practice life.

  3. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing the Effects of Antitussive Agents on Respiratory Center Output in Patients With Chronic Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannini, Claudia; Lavorini, Federico; Zanasi, Alessandro; Saibene, Federico; Lanata, Luigi; Fontana, Giovanni

    2017-06-01

    Cough is produced by the same neuronal pool implicated in respiratory rhythm generation, and antitussive drugs acting at the central level, such as opioids, may depress ventilation. Levodropropizine is classified as a nonopioid peripherally acting antitussive drug that acts at the level of airway sensory nerves. However, the lack of a central action by levodropropizine remains to be fully established. We set out to compare the effects of levodropropizine and the opioid antitussive agent dihydrocodeine on the respiratory responses to a conventional CO 2 rebreathing test in patients with chronic cough of any origin. Twenty-four outpatients (aged 39-70 years) with chronic cough were studied. On separate runs, each patient was randomly administered 60 mg levodropropizine, 15 mg dihydrocodeine, or a matching placebo. Subsequently, patients breathed a mixture of 93% oxygen and 7% CO 2 for 5 min. Fractional end-tidal CO 2 (Fetco 2 ) and inspiratory minute ventilation (V˙i) were continuously monitored. Changes in breathing pattern variables were also assessed. At variance with dihydrocodeine, levodropropizine and placebo did not affect respiratory responses to hypercapnia (P levodropropizine; the assessment of ventilatory responses to CO 2 may represent a useful tool to investigate the central respiratory effects of antitussive agents. European Union Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT No.: 2013-004735-68); URL: https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Bio-equivalent doses of recombinant HCG and recombinant LH during ovarian stimulation result in similar oestradiol output: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsbjerg, Birgit; Elbaek, Helle Olesen; Laursen, Rita Jakubcionyte; Povlsen, Betina Boel; Haahr, Thor; Yding Andersen, Claus; Humaidan, Peter

    2017-08-01

    In nature, HCG is secreted by the implanting embryo from peri-implantation and onwards. In contrast, LH is mandatory for steroidogenesis and follicular development during the follicular phase, working in synergy with FSH. Moreover, LH is mandatory for the function of the corpus luteum. Although LH and HCG bind to the same receptor, significant molecular, structural and functional differences exist, inducing differences in bioactivity. This randomized controlled study compared the effect of recombinant FSH stimulation combined with daily either micro-dose recombinant HCG or recombinant LH supplementation in a 1:1 bioactivity ratio from day 1 of stimulation in a long gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist down regulation protocol. A total of 100 patients from a public clinic completed the study. The primary end-point was the oestradiol level on the day of ovulation trigger and the median oestradiol level in the HCG supplemented group was 8662 pmol/l versus 9203 pmol/l in the recombinant LH supplemented group; therefore, no significant difference was found. Moreover, no differences were observed in the number of oocytes retrieved or in the live birth rate. We conclude that recombinant HCG and recombinant LH are equally effective in boosting oestradiol synthesis during ovarian stimulation when used in a 1:1 bioactivity ratio. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. SEGMENTATION OF LARGE UNSTRUCTURED POINT CLOUDS USING OCTREE-BASED REGION GROWING AND CONDITIONAL RANDOM FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bassier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Point cloud segmentation is a crucial step in scene understanding and interpretation. The goal is to decompose the initial data into sets of workable clusters with similar properties. Additionally, it is a key aspect in the automated procedure from point cloud data to BIM. Current approaches typically only segment a single type of primitive such as planes or cylinders. Also, current algorithms suffer from oversegmenting the data and are often sensor or scene dependent. In this work, a method is presented to automatically segment large unstructured point clouds of buildings. More specifically, the segmentation is formulated as a graph optimisation problem. First, the data is oversegmented with a greedy octree-based region growing method. The growing is conditioned on the segmentation of planes as well as smooth surfaces. Next, the candidate clusters are represented by a Conditional Random Field after which the most likely configuration of candidate clusters is computed given a set of local and contextual features. The experiments prove that the used method is a fast and reliable framework for unstructured point cloud segmentation. Processing speeds up to 40,000 points per second are recorded for the region growing. Additionally, the recall and precision of the graph clustering is approximately 80%. Overall, nearly 22% of oversegmentation is reduced by clustering the data. These clusters will be classified and used as a basis for the reconstruction of BIM models.

  6. A METHOD TO ESTIMATE TEMPORAL INTERACTION IN A CONDITIONAL RANDOM FIELD BASED APPROACH FOR CROP RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. A. Diaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to estimate the temporal interaction in a Conditional Random Field (CRF based approach for crop recognition from multitemporal remote sensing image sequences. This approach models the phenology of different crop types as a CRF. Interaction potentials are assumed to depend only on the class labels of an image site at two consecutive epochs. In the proposed method, the estimation of temporal interaction parameters is considered as an optimization problem, whose goal is to find the transition matrix that maximizes the CRF performance, upon a set of labelled data. The objective functions underlying the optimization procedure can be formulated in terms of different accuracy metrics, such as overall and average class accuracy per crop or phenological stages. To validate the proposed approach, experiments were carried out upon a dataset consisting of 12 co-registered LANDSAT images of a region in southeast of Brazil. Pattern Search was used as the optimization algorithm. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method was able to substantially outperform estimates related to joint or conditional class transition probabilities, which rely on training samples.

  7. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Intensive Sleep Retraining (ISR): A Brief Conditioning Treatment for Chronic Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jodie; Lack, Leon; Kemp, Kristyn; Wright, Helen; Bootzin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of intensive sleep retraining in comparison and combination with traditional behavioral intervention for chronic primary insomnia. Participants: Seventy-nine volunteers with chronic sleep-onset insomnia (with or without sleep maintenance difficulties) were randomly assigned either to intensive sleep retraining (ISR), stimulus control therapy (SCT), ISR plus SCT, or the control (sleep hygiene) treatment condition. Intervention: ISR treatment consisted of 50 sleep onset trials over a 25-h sleep deprivation period. Measurements and Results: Treatment response was assessed with sleep diary, activity monitoring, and questionnaire measures. The active treatment groups (ISR, SCT, ISR+SCT) all resulted in significant improvements in sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency, with moderate to large effect sizes from pre- to post-treatment. Wake time after sleep onset decreased significantly in the SCT and ISR+SCT groups. Total sleep time increased significantly in the ISR and ISR+SCT treatment groups. Participants receiving ISR (ISR, ISR+SCT) experienced rapidly improved SOL and TST during treatment, suggesting an advantage of rapid improvements in sleep in response to ISR. Although there were few statistically significant differences between groups on individual variables, ISR+SCT resulted in consistently larger effect sizes of change than other treatments, including questionnaire measures of sleep quality, sleep self-efficacy, and daytime functioning. The combination treatment group (ISR+SCT) showed trends to outperform other active treatment groups with fewer treatment dropouts, and a greater proportion of treatment responders with 61% reaching “good sleeper” status. Treatment gains achieved at post-treatment in the active treatment groups were largely maintained throughout follow-up periods to 6 months. Conclusion: This 25-hour intensive conditioning treatment for chronic insomnia can produce rapid improvements in

  8. Enhancement of Lutein Production in Chlorella sorokiniana (Chorophyta by Improvement of Culture Conditions and Random Mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angeles Vargas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella sorokiniana has been selected for lutein production, after a screening of thirteen species of microalgae, since it showed both a high content in this carotenoid and a high growth rate. The effects of several nutritional and environmental factors on cell growth and lutein accumulation have been studied. Maximal specific growth rate and lutein content were attained at 690 µmol photons m−2 s−1, 28 °C, 2 mM NaCl, 40 mM nitrate and under mixotrophic conditions. In general, optimal conditions for the growth of this strain also lead to maximal lutein productivity. High lutein yielding mutants of C. sorokiniana have been obtained by random mutagenesis, using N-methyl-N′-nitro-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG as a mutagen and selecting mutants by their resistance to the inhibitors of the carotenogenic pathway nicotine and norflurazon. Among the mutants resistant to the herbicides, those exhibiting both high content in lutein and high growth rate were chosen. Several mutants exhibited higher contents in this carotenoid than the wild type, showing, in addition, either a similar or higher growth rate than the latter strain. The mutant MR-16 exhibited a 2.0-fold higher volumetric lutein content than that of the wild type, attaining values of 42.0 mg L−1 and mutants DMR-5 and DMR-8 attained a lutein cellular content of 7.0 mg g−1 dry weight. The high lutein yield exhibited by C. sorokiniana makes this microalga an excellent candidate for the production of this commercially interesting pigment.

  9. Enhancement of Lutein Production in Chlorella sorokiniana (Chorophyta) by Improvement of Culture Conditions and Random Mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Baldo F.; Obraztsova, Irina; Couso, Inmaculada; Leon, Rosa; Vargas, Maria Angeles; Rodriguez, Herminia

    2011-01-01

    Chlorella sorokiniana has been selected for lutein production, after a screening of thirteen species of microalgae, since it showed both a high content in this carotenoid and a high growth rate. The effects of several nutritional and environmental factors on cell growth and lutein accumulation have been studied. Maximal specific growth rate and lutein content were attained at 690 μmol photons m−2 s−1, 28 °C, 2 mM NaCl, 40 mM nitrate and under mixotrophic conditions. In general, optimal conditions for the growth of this strain also lead to maximal lutein productivity. High lutein yielding mutants of C. sorokiniana have been obtained by random mutagenesis, using N-methyl-N′-nitro-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) as a mutagen and selecting mutants by their resistance to the inhibitors of the carotenogenic pathway nicotine and norflurazon. Among the mutants resistant to the herbicides, those exhibiting both high content in lutein and high growth rate were chosen. Several mutants exhibited higher contents in this carotenoid than the wild type, showing, in addition, either a similar or higher growth rate than the latter strain. The mutant MR-16 exhibited a 2.0-fold higher volumetric lutein content than that of the wild type, attaining values of 42.0 mg L−1 and mutants DMR-5 and DMR-8 attained a lutein cellular content of 7.0 mg g−1 dry weight. The high lutein yield exhibited by C. sorokiniana makes this microalga an excellent candidate for the production of this commercially interesting pigment. PMID:22131961

  10. A randomized controlled trial of intensive sleep retraining (ISR): a brief conditioning treatment for chronic insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jodie; Lack, Leon; Kemp, Kristyn; Wright, Helen; Bootzin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of intensive sleep retraining in comparison and combination with traditional behavioral intervention for chronic primary insomnia. Seventy-nine volunteers with chronic sleep-onset insomnia (with or without sleep maintenance difficulties) were randomly assigned either to intensive sleep retraining (ISR), stimulus control therapy (SCT), ISR plus SCT, or the control (sleep hygiene) treatment condition. ISR treatment consisted of 50 sleep onset trials over a 25-h sleep deprivation period. Treatment response was assessed with sleep diary, activity monitoring, and questionnaire measures. The active treatment groups (ISR, SCT, ISR+SCT) all resulted in significant improvements in sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency, with moderate to large effect sizes from pre- to post-treatment. Wake time after sleep onset decreased significantly in the SCT and ISR+SCT groups. Total sleep time increased significantly in the ISR and ISR+SCT treatment groups. Participants receiving ISR (ISR, ISR+SCT) experienced rapidly improved SOL and TST during treatment, suggesting an advantage of rapid improvements in sleep in response to ISR. Although there were few statistically significant differences between groups on individual variables, ISR+SCT resulted in consistently larger effect sizes of change than other treatments, including questionnaire measures of sleep quality, sleep self-efficacy, and daytime functioning. The combination treatment group (ISR+SCT) showed trends to outperform other active treatment groups with fewer treatment dropouts, and a greater proportion of treatment responders with 61% reaching "good sleeper" status. Treatment gains achieved at post-treatment in the active treatment groups were largely maintained throughout follow-up periods to 6 months. This 25-hour intensive conditioning treatment for chronic insomnia can produce rapid improvements in sleep, daytime functioning, and psychological variables. Adding ISR to traditional

  11. Language Recognition Using Latent Dynamic Conditional Random Field Model with Phonological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirinoot Boonsuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spoken language recognition (SLR has been of increasing interest in multilingual speech recognition for identifying the languages of speech utterances. Most existing SLR approaches apply statistical modeling techniques with acoustic and phonotactic features. Among the popular approaches, the acoustic approach has become of greater interest than others because it does not require any prior language-specific knowledge. Previous research on the acoustic approach has shown less interest in applying linguistic knowledge; it was only used as supplementary features, while the current state-of-the-art system assumes independency among features. This paper proposes an SLR system based on the latent-dynamic conditional random field (LDCRF model using phonological features (PFs. We use PFs to represent acoustic characteristics and linguistic knowledge. The LDCRF model was employed to capture the dynamics of the PFs sequences for language classification. Baseline systems were conducted to evaluate the features and methods including Gaussian mixture model (GMM based systems using PFs, GMM using cepstral features, and the CRF model using PFs. Evaluated on the NIST LRE 2007 corpus, the proposed method showed an improvement over the baseline systems. Additionally, it showed comparable result with the acoustic system based on i-vector. This research demonstrates that utilizing PFs can enhance the performance.

  12. Compensated Row-Column Ultrasound Imaging System Using Fisher Tippett Multilayered Conditional Random Field Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ben Daya

    Full Text Available 3-D ultrasound imaging offers unique opportunities in the field of non destructive testing that cannot be easily found in A-mode and B-mode images. To acquire a 3-D ultrasound image without a mechanically moving transducer, a 2-D array can be used. The row column technique is preferred over a fully addressed 2-D array as it requires a significantly lower number of interconnections. Recent advances in 3-D row-column ultrasound imaging systems were largely focused on sensor design. However, these imaging systems face three intrinsic challenges that cannot be addressed by improving sensor design alone: speckle noise, sparsity of data in the imaged volume, and the spatially dependent point spread function of the imaging system. In this paper, we propose a compensated row-column ultrasound image reconstruction system using Fisher-Tippett multilayered conditional random field model. Tests carried out on both simulated and real row-column ultrasound images show the effectiveness of our proposed system as opposed to other published systems. Visual assessment of the results show our proposed system's potential at preserving detail and reducing speckle. Quantitative analysis shows that our proposed system outperforms previously published systems when evaluated with metrics such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, Coefficient of Correlation, and Effective Number of Looks. These results show the potential of our proposed system as an effective tool for enhancing 3-D row-column imaging.

  13. Scene Segmentation with Low-Dimensional Semantic Representations and Conditional Random Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen; Triggs, Bill; Dai, Dengxin; Xia, Gui-Song

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a fast, precise, and highly scalable semantic segmentation algorithm that incorporates several kinds of local appearance features, example-based spatial layout priors, and neighborhood-level and global contextual information. The method works at the level of image patches. In the first stage, codebook-based local appearance features are regularized and reduced in dimension using latent topic models, combined with spatial pyramid matching based spatial layout features, and fed into logistic regression classifiers to produce an initial patch level labeling. In the second stage, these labels are combined with patch-neighborhood and global aggregate features using either a second layer of Logistic Regression or a Conditional Random Field. Finally, the patch-level results are refined to pixel level using MRF or over-segmentation based methods. The CRF is trained using a fast Maximum Margin approach. Comparative experiments on four multi-class segmentation datasets show that each of the above elements improves the results, leading to a scalable algorithm that is both faster and more accurate than existing patch-level approaches.

  14. A Deep-Structured Conditional Random Field Model for Object Silhouette Tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Shafiee

    Full Text Available In this work, we introduce a deep-structured conditional random field (DS-CRF model for the purpose of state-based object silhouette tracking. The proposed DS-CRF model consists of a series of state layers, where each state layer spatially characterizes the object silhouette at a particular point in time. The interactions between adjacent state layers are established by inter-layer connectivity dynamically determined based on inter-frame optical flow. By incorporate both spatial and temporal context in a dynamic fashion within such a deep-structured probabilistic graphical model, the proposed DS-CRF model allows us to develop a framework that can accurately and efficiently track object silhouettes that can change greatly over time, as well as under different situations such as occlusion and multiple targets within the scene. Experiment results using video surveillance datasets containing different scenarios such as occlusion and multiple targets showed that the proposed DS-CRF approach provides strong object silhouette tracking performance when compared to baseline methods such as mean-shift tracking, as well as state-of-the-art methods such as context tracking and boosted particle filtering.

  15. Reconstruction of compressive multispectral sensing data using a multilayered conditional random field approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Shafiee, Mohammad J.; Wong, Alexander; Clausi, David A.

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of compressive sensing is continually growing in all facets of imaging science. Com- pressive sensing allows for the capture and reconstruction of an entire signal from a sparse (under- sampled), yet sufficient, set of measurements that is representative of the target being observed. This compressive sensing strategy reduces the duration of the data capture, the size of the acquired data, and the cost of the imaging hardware as well as complexity while preserving the necessary underlying information. Compressive sensing systems require the accompaniment of advanced re- construction algorithms to reconstruct complete signals from the sparse measurements made. Here, a new reconstruction algorithm is introduced specifically for the reconstruction of compressive multispectral (MS) sensing data that allows for high-quality reconstruction from acquisitions at sub-Nyquist rates. We propose a multilayered conditional random field (MCRF) model, which extends upon the CRF model by incorporating two joint layers of certainty and estimated states. The proposed algorithm treats the reconstruction of each spectral channel as a MCRF given the sparse MS measurements. Since the observations are incomplete, the MCRF incorporates an extra layer determining the certainty of the measurements. The proposed MCRF approach was evaluated using simulated compressive MS data acquisitions, and is shown to enable fast acquisition of MS sensing data with reduced imaging hardware cost and complexity.

  16. Using random boundary conditions to simulate disordered quantum spin models in two-dimensional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuste, A.; Moreno-Cardoner, M.; Sanpera, A.

    2017-05-01

    Disordered quantum antiferromagnets in two-dimensional compounds have been a focus of interest in the last years due to their exotic properties. However, with very few exceptions, the ground states of the corresponding Hamiltonians are notoriously difficult to simulate making their characterization and detection very elusive, both theoretically and experimentally. Here we propose a method to signal quantum disordered antiferromagnets by doing exact diagonalization in small lattices using random boundary conditions and averaging the observables of interest over the different disorder realizations. We apply our method to study the Heisenberg spin-1/2 model in an anisotropic triangular lattice. In this model, the competition between frustration and quantum fluctuations might lead to some spin-liquid phases as predicted from different methods ranging from spin-wave mean-field theory to 2D-DMRG or PEPS. Our method accurately reproduces the ordered phases expected of the model and signals quantum disordered phases by the presence of a large number of quasidegenerate ground states together with an undefined local order parameter. The method presents a weak dependence on finite-size effects.

  17. A randomized study of autologous conditioned plasma and steroid injections in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebiedziński, Radosław; Synder, Marek; Buchcic, Piotr; Polguj, Michał; Grzegorzewski, Andrzej; Sibiński, Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Chronic tendinopathy of lateral epicondyle of the humerus, commonly known as "tennis elbow" is one of the most frequent tendinopathies caused by recurrent overload of the muscle origins. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of treating lateral epicondylitis (LE) with autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) and betamethasone injections, and to compare these methods over the course of a one year follow-up. Patients were randomly placed into one of into two groups: 53 were treated with ACP, and 46 with 1 ml betamethasone injections and 2 ml of 1 % lignocaine. Both those groups were comparable in terms of initial DASH score. After six weeks and six months, the mean DASH score was significantly better in the betamethasone group, but was better in ACP group after one year. Full recovery (patients with no symptoms) at all time points was more common in the betamethasone group. A comparison of grouped DASH scores revealed more very good and good results in the ACP group after one year. More patients had pain symptoms related to injection in the ACP group than the betamethasone group. ACP therapy of LE allows better results to be obtained at 12 months. Betamethasone injections give more rapid improvement, but the therapeutic effect is longer lasting in the ACP group.

  18. Disease named entity recognition by combining conditional random fields and bidirectional recurrent neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qikang; Chen, Tao; Xu, Ruifeng; He, Yulan; Gui, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of disease and chemical named entities in scientific articles is a very important subtask in information extraction in the biomedical domain. Due to the diversity and complexity of disease names, the recognition of named entities of diseases is rather tougher than those of chemical names. Although there are some remarkable chemical named entity recognition systems available online such as ChemSpot and tmChem, the publicly available recognition systems of disease named entities are rare. This article presents a system for disease named entity recognition (DNER) and normalization. First, two separate DNER models are developed. One is based on conditional random fields model with a rule-based post-processing module. The other one is based on the bidirectional recurrent neural networks. Then the named entities recognized by each of the DNER model are fed into a support vector machine classifier for combining results. Finally, each recognized disease named entity is normalized to a medical subject heading disease name by using a vector space model based method. Experimental results show that using 1000 PubMed abstracts for training, our proposed system achieves an F1-measure of 0.8428 at the mention level and 0.7804 at the concept level, respectively, on the testing data of the chemical-disease relation task in BioCreative V. Database URL: http://219.223.252.210:8080/SS/cdr.html PMID:27777244

  19. Conditions for Valid Empirical Estimates of Cancer Overdiagnosis in Randomized Trials and Population Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Roman; Feuer, Eric J; Etzioni, Ruth

    2016-07-15

    Cancer overdiagnosis is frequently estimated using the excess incidence in a screened group relative to that in an unscreened group. However, conditions for unbiased estimation are poorly understood. We developed a mathematical framework to project the effects of screening on the incidence of relevant cancers-that is, cancers that would present clinically without screening. Screening advances the date of diagnosis for a fraction of preclinical relevant cancers. Which diagnoses are advanced and by how much depends on the preclinical detectable period, test sensitivity, and screening patterns. Using the model, we projected incidence in common trial designs and population settings and compared excess incidence with true overdiagnosis. In trials with no control arm screening, unbiased estimates are available using cumulative incidence if the screen arm stops screening and using annual incidence if the screen arm continues screening. In both designs, unbiased estimation requires waiting until screening stabilizes plus the maximum preclinical period. In continued-screen trials and population settings, excess cumulative incidence is persistently biased. We investigated this bias in published estimates from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer after 9-13 years. In conclusion, no trial or population setting automatically permits unbiased estimation of overdiagnosis; sufficient follow-up and appropriate analysis remain crucial. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Genetic Parameters for Body condition score, Body weigth, Milk yield and Fertility estimated using random regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk yield, and fertility were estimated using a random regression animal model extended to multivariate analysis. The data analyzed included 81,313 BCS observations, 91,937 BW observations, and 100,458 milk test-day yields

  1. Osteoarthritis treatment using autologous conditioned serum after placebo: Patient considerations and clinical response in a non-randomized case series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; Creemers, L.B.; Yang, K.G.A.; Raijmakers, N.J.H.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Saris, Daniël B.F.

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Autologous conditioned serum (ACS) is a disease-modifying drug for treatment of knee osteoarthritis, and modest superiority over placebo was reported in an earlier randomized controlled trial (RCT). We hypothesized that when given the opportunity, placebo-treated patients from

  2. A higher order conditional random field model for simultaneous classification of land cover and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Lena; Rottensteiner, Franz; Heipke, Christian

    2017-08-01

    We propose a new approach for the simultaneous classification of land cover and land use considering spatial as well as semantic context. We apply a Conditional Random Fields (CRF) consisting of a land cover and a land use layer. In the land cover layer of the CRF, the nodes represent super-pixels; in the land use layer, the nodes correspond to objects from a geospatial database. Intra-layer edges of the CRF model spatial dependencies between neighbouring image sites. All spatially overlapping sites in both layers are connected by inter-layer edges, which leads to higher order cliques modelling the semantic relation between all land cover and land use sites in the clique. A generic formulation of the higher order potential is proposed. In order to enable efficient inference in the two-layer higher order CRF, we propose an iterative inference procedure in which the two classification tasks mutually influence each other. We integrate contextual relations between land cover and land use in the classification process by using contextual features describing the complex dependencies of all nodes in a higher order clique. These features are incorporated in a discriminative classifier, which approximates the higher order potentials during the inference procedure. The approach is designed for input data based on aerial images. Experiments are carried out on two test sites to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The experiments show that the classification results are improved compared to the results of a non-contextual classifier. For land cover classification, the result is much more homogeneous and the delineation of land cover segments is improved. For the land use classification, an improvement is mainly achieved for land use objects showing non-typical characteristics or similarities to other land use classes. Furthermore, we have shown that the size of the super-pixels has an influence on the level of detail of the classification result, but also on the

  3. A multisite and multi-model analysis of random errors in soil CO2 efflux across soil water conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, A.; Bahn, M.; Pumpanen, J.; Vargas, R.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is suggested to influence patterns of precipitation and water availability around the world and these changes are likely to alter ecosystem carbon fluxes. An important component of the ecosystem carbon balance is the efflux of CO2 from soils to the atmosphere, which is strongly influenced by soil moisture and temperature. The increasing application of automated systems is resulting in growing datasets of continuous measurements, which offer the possibility of a consistent uncertainty analysis. Recently, soil CO2 efflux has been frequently estimated from soil CO2 profiling by using the gradient flux method, which is based on the Fick's first law of diffusion, reporting only the measure value, without taking in account systematic and random errors. Improvements in technology and constant equipment calibration can minimize systematic errors; therefore we focused on random errors whose characteristics are generally unknown for soil CO2 efflux. Here, we characterized random errors in soil CO2 effluxes determined with two approaches based on the gradient flux method to calculate soil CO2 efflux in three different types of ecosystems across different soil water conditions. Results showed that random errors tend to differ between approaches. While the two tested models have a similar representation of physical process and input parameters, random errors are distributed differently across the different ranges of soil water content. Differences between random errors are likely to be larger in extreme conditions of soil water content (i.e., dry and wet) suggesting the need for improvement in understanding the biophysical process driving soil CO2 efflux under these conditions.

  4. Output hardcopy devices

    CERN Document Server

    Durbeck, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Output Hardcopy Devices provides a technical summary of computer output hardcopy devices such as plotters, computer output printers, and CRT generated hardcopy. Important related technical areas such as papers, ribbons and inks, color techniques, controllers, and character fonts are also covered. Emphasis is on techniques primarily associated with printing, as well as the plotting capabilities of printing devices that can be effectively used for computer graphics in addition to their various printing functions. Comprised of 19 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to vector and ras

  5. WRF Model Output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains WRF model output. There are three months of data: July 2012, July 2013, and January 2013. For each month, several simulations were made: A...

  6. CMAQ Model Output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CMAQ and CMAQ-VBS model output. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: Files too large. It can be accessed through the following means: via EPA's NCC tape...

  7. VMS forms Output Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These output tables contain parsed and format validated data from the various VMS forms that are sent from any given vessel, while at sea, from the VMS devices on...

  8. Perioperative goal-directed hemodynamic optimization using noninvasive cardiac output monitoring in major abdominal surgery: a prospective, randomized, multicenter, pragmatic trial: POEMAS Study (PeriOperative goal-directed thErapy in Major Abdominal Surgery).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestaña, David; Espinosa, Elena; Eden, Arieh; Nájera, Diana; Collar, Luis; Aldecoa, César; Higuera, Eva; Escribano, Soledad; Bystritski, Dmitri; Pascual, Javier; Fernández-Garijo, Pilar; de Prada, Blanca; Muriel, Alfonso; Pizov, Reuven

    2014-09-01

    In this study, our objective was to determine whether a perioperative hemodynamic protocol based on noninvasive cardiac output monitoring decreases the incidence of postoperative complications and hospital length of stay in major abdominal surgery patients requiring intensive care unit admission. Secondary objectives were the time to peristalsis recovery and the incidence of wound infection, anastomotic leaks, and mortality. A randomized clinical trial was conducted in 6 tertiary hospitals. One hundred forty-two adult patients scheduled for open colorectal surgery, gastrectomy, or small bowel resection were enrolled. A hemodynamic protocol including fluid administration and vasoactive drugs based on arterial blood pressure, cardiac index, and stroke volume response was compared with standard practice. Patients were followed until hospital discharge (determined by a surgeon blinded to the study) or death. In contrast to previous studies, we designed a pragmatic trial (as opposed to explanatory trials) to mimic real practice and obtain maximal external validity for the study. Fluid administration was similar except for the number of colloid boluses (2.4 ± 1.8 [treated] vs 1.3 ± 1.4 [control]; P < 0.001) and packed red blood cell units (0.6 ± 1.3 [treated] vs 0.2 ± 0.6 [control]; P = 0.019). Dobutamine was used in 25% (intraoperatively) and 19.4% (postoperatively) of the treated patients versus 1.4% and 0% in the control group (P < 0.001). We have observed a reduction in reoperations in the treated group (5.6% vs 15.7%; P = 0.049). However, no significant differences were observed in overall complications (40% vs 41%; relative risk 0.99 [0.67-1.44]; P = 0.397), length of stay (11.5 [8-15] vs 10.5 [8-16]; P = 0.874), time to first flatus (62 hours [40-76] vs 72 hours [48-96]; P = 0.180), wound infection (7 vs 14; P = 0.085), anastomotic leaks (2 vs 5; P = 0.23), or mortality (4.2% vs 5.7%; P = 0.67). The results of our pragmatic study indicate that a perioperative

  9. Semi-parametric estimation of random effects in a logistic regression model using conditional inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to the estimation in a logistic regression model with two crossed random effects where special interest is in estimating the variance of one of the effects while not making distributional assumptions about the other effect. A composite likelihood is studied...

  10. Judicial Influence on Policy Outputs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2015-01-01

    to override unwanted jurisprudence. In this debate, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has become famous for its central and occasionally controversial role in European integration. This article examines to what extent and under which conditions judicial decisions influence European Union (EU......) social policy outputs. A taxonomy of judicial influence is constructed, and expectations of institutional and political conditions on judicial influence are presented. The analysis draws on an extensive novel data set and examines judicial influence on EU social policies over time, that is, between 1958...

  11. Does hyperventilation improve operating condition during supratentorial craniotomy? A multicenter randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelb, Adrian W; Craen, Rosemary A; Rao, G S Umamaheswara; Reddy, K R Madhusudan; Megyesi, Joseph; Mohanty, Bibek; Dash, Hari H; Choi, Kai C; Chan, Mathew T V

    2008-02-01

    Hyperventilation has been an integral, but poorly validated part of neuroanesthetic practice. We conducted a two-period, crossover, randomized trial to evaluate surgeon-assessed brain bulk and measured intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients undergoing craniotomy for removal of supratentorial brain tumors during moderate hypocapnia or normocapnia. Two-hundred and seventy-five adult patients with supratentorial brain tumors were randomized to one of two treatment sequences: hyperventilation (arterial carbon dioxide tension, PaCO2 = 25 +/- 2 mm Hg) followed by normoventilation (PaCO2 = 37 +/- 2 mm Hg) or normoventilation followed by hyperventilation. Ventilation and end-tidal CO2 tension were kept constant for 20 min. Patients were also randomly assigned to receive a propofol infusion or isoflurane anesthesia. At the end of each study period, subdural ICP was measured and the neurosurgeon, blinded to the treatment group, was asked to rate the brain bulk using a four-point scale. Using a generalized estimation equation model, we found that hyperventilation decreased the risk of increased brain bulk by 45%, P = 0.004, 95% confidence intervals 22% to 61%, and the number needed to treat was 8. The mean (+/-SD) ICP during hyperventilation, 12.3 +/- 8.1 mm Hg, was lower than that during normoventilation, 16.2 +/- 9.6 mm Hg, P hyperventilation improves surgeon-assessed brain bulk which was associated with a decrease in ICP.

  12. Portraying mental illness and drug addiction as treatable health conditions: effects of a randomized experiment on stigma and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Goldman, Howard H; Pescosolido, Bernice; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-02-01

    Despite significant advances in treatment, stigma and discrimination toward persons with mental illness and drug addiction have remained constant in past decades. Prior work suggests that portraying other stigmatized health conditions (i.e., HIV/AIDS) as treatable can improve public attitudes toward those affected. Our study compared the effects of vignettes portraying persons with untreated and symptomatic versus successfully treated and asymptomatic mental illness and drug addiction on several dimensions of public attitudes about these conditions. We conducted a survey-embedded randomized experiment using a national sample (N = 3940) from an online panel. Respondents were randomly assigned to read one of ten vignettes. Vignette one was a control vignette, vignettes 2-5 portrayed individuals with untreated schizophrenia, depression, prescription pain medication addiction and heroin addiction, and vignettes 6-10 portrayed successfully treated individuals with the same conditions. After reading the randomly assigned vignette, respondents answered questions about their attitudes related to mental illness or drug addiction. Portrayals of untreated and symptomatic schizophrenia, depression, and heroin addiction heightened negative public attitudes toward persons with mental illness and drug addiction. In contrast, portrayals of successfully treated schizophrenia, prescription painkiller addiction, and heroin addiction led to less desire for social distance, greater belief in the effectiveness of treatment, and less willingness to discriminate against persons with these conditions. Portrayal of persons with successfully treated mental illness and drug addiction is a promising strategy for reducing stigma and discrimination toward persons with these conditions and improving public perceptions of treatment effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Möller Petrun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developments in the measuring of cardiac output and other haemodynamic variables are focused on the so-called minimally invasive methods. The aim of these methods is to simplify the management of high-risk and haemodynamically unstable patients. Due to the need of invasive approach and the possibility of serious complications the use of pulmonary artery catheter has decreased. This article describes the methods for measuring cardiac output, which are based on volume measurement (Fick method, indicator dilution method, pulse wave analysis, Doppler effect, and electrical bioimpedance.

  14. A multi-tier higher order Conditional Random Field for land cover classification of multi-temporal multi-spectral Landsat imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salmon, BP

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present a 2-tier higher order Conditional Random Field which is used for land cover classification. The Conditional Random Field is based on probabilistic messages being passed along a graph to compute efficiently...

  15. Serial Input Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each

  16. Fast output-sensitive matrix multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Riko; Stöckel, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of multiplying two $U \\times U$ matrices $A$ and $C$ of elements from a field $\\F$. We present a new randomized algorithm that can use the known fast square matrix multiplication algorithms to perform fewer arithmetic operations than the current state of the art for output...

  17. Unit-specific calibration of Actigraph accelerometers in a mechanical setup - is it worth the effort? The effect on random output variation caused by technical inter-instrument variability in the laboratory and in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Niels C; Korsholm, Lars; Kristensen, Peter L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Potentially, unit-specific in-vitro calibration of accelerometers could increase field data quality and study power. However, reduced inter-unit variability would only be important if random instrument variability contributes considerably to the total variation in field data. Therefore...... during free living conditions. RESULTS: Calibration reduced inter-instrument variability considerably in the mechanical setup, both in the MTI instruments (raw SDbetween units = 195 counts*min-1 vs. calibrated SDbetween units = 65 counts*min-1) and in the CSA instruments (raw SDbetween units = 343 counts......*min-1 vs. calibrated SDbetween units = 67 counts*min-1). However, the effect of applying the derived calibration to children's and adolescents' free living physical activity data did not alter the coefficient of variation (CV) (children: CVraw = 30.2% vs. CVcalibrated = 30.4%, adolescents: CVraw = 36...

  18. Peer-Led Self-Management of General Medical Conditions for Patients With Serious Mental Illnesses: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druss, Benjamin G; Singh, Manasvini; von Esenwein, Silke A; Glick, Gretl E; Tapscott, Stephanie; Tucker, Sherry Jenkins; Lally, Cathy A; Sterling, Evelina W

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with serious mental illnesses have high rates of general medical comorbidity and challenges in managing these conditions. A growing workforce of certified peer specialists is available to help these individuals more effectively manage their health and health care. However, few studies have examined the effectiveness of peer-led programs for self-management of general medical conditions for this population. This randomized study enrolled 400 participants with a serious mental illness and one or more chronic general medical conditions across three community mental health clinics. Participants were randomly assigned to the Health and Recovery Peer (HARP) program, a self-management program for general medical conditions led by certified peer specialists (N=198), or to usual care (N=202). Assessments were conducted at baseline and three and six months. At six months, participants in the intervention group demonstrated a significant differential improvement in the primary study outcome, health-related quality of life. Specifically, compared with the usual care group, intervention participants had greater improvement in the Short-Form Health Survey physical component summary (an increase of 2.7 versus 1.4 points, p=.046) and mental component summary (4.6 versus 2.5 points, p=.039). Significantly greater six-month improvements in mental health recovery were seen for the intervention group (p=.02), but no other between-group differences in secondary outcome measures were significant. The HARP program was associated with improved physical health- and mental health-related quality of life among individuals with serious mental illness and comorbid general medical conditions, suggesting the potential benefits of more widespread dissemination of peer-led disease self-management in this population.

  19. Cupping therapy versus acupuncture for pain-related conditions: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and trial sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Jing; Cao, Hui-Juan; Li, Xin-Lin; Yang, Xiao-Ying; Lai, Bao-Yong; Yang, Guo-Yang; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Both cupping therapy and acupuncture have been used in China for a long time, and their target indications are pain-related conditions. There is no systematic review comparing the effectiveness of these two therapies. To compare the beneficial effectiveness and safety between cupping therapy and acupuncture for pain-related conditions to provide evidence for clinical practice. Protocol of this review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42016050986). We conducted literature search from six electronic databases until 31st March 2017. We included randomized trials comparing cupping therapy with acupuncture on pain-related conditions. Methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated by risk of bias tool. Mean difference, risk ratio, risk difference and their 95% confidence interval were used to report the estimate effect of the pooled results through meta-analysis or the results from each individual study. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was applied to adjust random errors and calculate the sample size. Twenty-three randomized trials with 2845 participants were included covering 12 pain-related conditions. All included studies were of poor methodological quality. Three meta-analyses were conducted, which showed similar clinical beneficial effects of cupping therapy and acupuncture for the rate of symptom improvement in cervical spondylosis (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.26; n = 646), lateral femoral cutaneous neuritis (RR 1.10, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.22; n = 102) and scapulohumeral periarthritis (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.51; n = 208). Results from other outcomes (such as visual analogue and numerical rating scale) in each study also showed no statistical significant difference between these two therapies for all included pain-related conditions. The results of TSA for cervical spondylosis demonstrated that the current available data have not reached a powerful conclusion. No serious adverse events related to cupping therapy or acupuncture was found in included

  20. Evaluation and visualization of multiaxial fatigue behavior under random non-proportional loading condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Morishita

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In cyclic multiaxial stress/strain condition under nonproportional loading in which principal direction of stress/strain are changed in a cycle, it becomes difficult to analyze stress/strain ranges because of complexity of multiaxial stress/strain states depending on time in cycles. In order to evaluate stress/strain simply and suitably under non-proportional loading, Itoh and Sakane have proposed a method called as IS-method and a strain parameter for life evaluation under non-proportional loading NP. In the method, 6-components of stress/strain are converted to an equivalent stress/strain indicating the amplitude and the direction of principal stress/strain as a function of time as well as an intensity of loading nonproportionality fNP. Based on IS-method, the authors also have developed a tool which enables to analyze multiaxial stress/strain condition with the nonproportionality of loading history and evaluate failure life under nonproportional multiaxial loading. The tool indicates the analyzed results on monitor and users can understand visually not only variation of the stress/strain conditions but also non-proportionality during the cycle, which helps the design of material strength.

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial Determining Variances in Ostomy Skin Conditions and the Economic Impact (ADVOCATE Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Janice C; Pittman, Joyce; Raizman, Rose; Salvadalena, Ginger

    To compare ostomy-related costs and incidence of peristomal skin complications (PSCs) for ceramide-infused ostomy skin barriers and control skin barriers. The ADVOCATE trial is a multi-centered randomized controlled trial, and double-blinded international study with an adaptive design. The sample comprised 153 adults from 25 sites from the United States, Canada, and Europe. Participants were seen in hospital and outpatient care settings. Data were collected by investigators at each site during face-to-face visits and during telephone check-in calls between visits. Cost of care data were collected using a questionnaire developed specifically for the study. The peristomal skin was assessed using the Ostomy Skin Tool. Health-related quality of life was measured using the SF-12v2. Patient-reported outcomes were collected using a patient-centered study-specific questionnaire. Cost of care was analyzed via analysis of covariance comparing total cost of care for 12 weeks between the 2 groups. The incidence of PSC was analyzed via Barnard's exact test comparing the incidence of PSCs between the control and treatment groups. Tertiary outcomes were exploratory in nature and not statistically powered. Use of the ceramide-infused barrier significantly reduced stoma-related cost of care over a 12-week period, resulting in a $36.46 decrease in cost (14% relative decrease). The adjusted average costs were $223.73 in the treatment group and $260.19 in the control group (P = .017). The overall incidence of PSCs in the study was 47.7%; PSC incidence was 40.5% for the treatment group versus 55.4% for controls (P = .069, 95% confidence interval of the difference: -1.2 to 30.4). Significantly more participants using the ceramide-infused skin barrier were "very satisfied" with barrier performance (75% vs 55%; P = .033), prevention of leakage (63% vs 38%; P health-related quality of life was noted in both groups. The use of a ceramide-infused barrier significantly decreased cost and

  2. Prospective, randomized and controlled trial on magnesium sulfate administration during laparoscopic gastrectomy: effects on surgical space conditions and recovery profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J H; Koo, B W; Kim, B G; Oh, A Y; Kim, H H; Park, D J; Lee, C M; Kim, S T; Do, S H

    2016-11-01

    The degree of neuromuscular blockade is one of the important factors that determine the condition of surgical space during laparoscopic surgery. Magnesium sulfate potentiates the actions of neuromuscular blocking agent, and we hypothesized that intraoperative magnesium sulfate infusion may improve surgical space condition during laparoscopic surgery. Eighty-four patients undergoing elective laparoscopic gastrectomy were randomized to receive isotonic saline (group C) or magnesium sulfate (group M, loading dose with 50 mg/kg over 10 min and then 15 mg/kg/h by continuous infusion) to maintain the moderate neuromuscular blockade using rocuronium. Two experienced surgeons scored the quality of surgical space condition using a 5-point surgical rating scale (SRS). The secondary outcomes included recovery profiles, postoperative pain and adverse events. The SRS in group M was higher than that of group C. The proportion of patients with a SRS of 5 (optimal) was 2.7 % in the group C and 40.5 % in the group M (P adverse events were similar between the two groups. Intraoperative administration of magnesium sulfate improved the quality of surgical space conditions and decreased neuromuscular blocking agent requirement and postoperative pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic gastrectomy.

  3. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  4. Surgical space conditions during low-pressure laparoscopic cholecystectomy with deep versus moderate neuromuscular blockade: a randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staehr-Rye, Anne K; Rasmussen, Lars S; Rosenberg, Jacob; Juul, Poul; Lindekaer, Astrid L; Riber, Claus; Gätke, Mona R

    2014-11-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed during low intraabdominal pressure (space conditions and safety of operating at lower pressures has not been adequately described, but deep neuromuscular blockade may be beneficial. We investigated if deep muscle relaxation would be associated with a higher proportion of procedures with "optimal" surgical space conditions compared with moderate relaxation during low-pressure (8 mm Hg) laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In this assessor-blinded study, 48 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were administered rocuronium for neuromuscular blockade and randomized to either deep neuromuscular blockade (rocuronium bolus plus infusion maintaining a posttetanic count 0-1) or moderate neuromuscular blockade (rocuronium repeat bolus only for inadequate surgical conditions with spontaneous recovery of neuromuscular function). Patients received anesthesia with propofol, remifentanil, and rocuronium. The primary outcome was the proportion of procedures with optimal surgical space conditions (assessed by the surgeon as 1 on a 4-point scale). Secondary outcomes included the proportion of procedures completed at pneumoperitoneum 8 mm Hg and surgical space conditions on dissection of the gallbladder (numeric rating scale 0-100; 0 = optimal surgical space conditions; 100 = unacceptable surgical space conditions). Optimal surgical space conditions during the entire procedure were observed in 7 of 25 patients allocated to deep neuromuscular blockade and in 1 of 23 patients allocated to moderate blockade (P = 0.05) with an absolute difference of 24% between the groups (95% confidence interval, 4%-43%). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was completed at pneumoperitoneum 8 mm Hg in 15 of 25 and 8 of 23 patients in the deep and moderate group, respectively (95% confidence interval, -2% to 53%; P = 0.08). Surgical space conditions during dissection of the gallbladder assessed by use of the numeric rating scale were 20 (10-50) (median [25

  5. Efficacy of osteopathic manipulative treatment for low back pain in euhydrated and hypohydrated conditions: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Justine; Heinking, Kurt P; Kappler, Robert E

    2012-05-01

    Low back pain (LBP) affects up to 85% of all persons at some time in life and is a condition for which osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) has been shown to be beneficial. Measures that can improve the efficacy of OMT would further benefit patients; one such measure, hydration status, was explored in this study. To determine whether there is a relationship between a patient's hydration status before OMT for LBP and the outcome of that treatment. A randomized, single-blind crossover study conducted from March to December 2010. Outpatient academic center. Eight women and 11 men with LBP of 1 to 12 months duration. Both euhydrated and hypohydrated conditions were achieved in each participant by modifying water consumption for 36 hours before OMT sessions. PARTICIPANTS received 2 sessions of OMT, each in a different hydration condition and with a 1-week washout period in between. Pre- and posttreatment visual analog scale scores for pain, number and severity of somatic dysfunction as scored on the somatic dysfunction severity scale, and number of asymmetric landmarks found on the osteopathic standing structural examination. Improvements in total and severe number of lumbar somatic dysfunction (P=.001 and P=.013, respectively) and number of asymmetric landmarks on standing structural examination (P=.002) were found to be greater in the euhydrated vs the hypohydrated condition. PARTICIPANTS had a mean of 2 fewer areas of posttreatment somatic dysfunction when euhydrated than when hypohydrated, and they had a mean decrease of 2 asymmetric landmarks on the standing structural examination when euhydrated but none when hypohydrated. Osteopathic manipulative treatment improved self-reported pain immediately after treatment regardless of hydration status. Outcome measures improved for all participants, with greater improvement observed after participants were treated in the euhydrated condition than when in the hypohydrated condition. It is reasonable for clinicians to

  6. Application of the extended boundary condition method to Monte Carlo simulations of scattering of waves by two-dimensional random rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, L.; Lou, S. H.; Chan, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    The extended boundary condition method is applied to Monte Carlo simulations of two-dimensional random rough surface scattering. The numerical results are compared with one-dimensional random rough surfaces obtained from the finite-element method. It is found that the mean scattered intensity from two-dimensional rough surfaces differs from that of one dimension for rough surfaces with large slopes.

  7. Influence of depth of neuromuscular blockade on surgical conditions during low-pressure pneumoperitoneum laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomized blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Javier; Errando, Carlos L; García-Ramón, Jaime; Sellés, Rafael; San Miguel, Guillermo; Gallego, Juan

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the influence of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) on surgical conditions during low-pressure pneumoperitoneum (8mmHg) laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), while comparing moderate and deep NMB. Secondary objective was to evaluate if surgical conditions during low-pressure pneumoperitoneum LC performed with deep NMB could be comparable to those provided during standard-pressure pneumoperitoneum (12mmHg) LC. Prospective, randomized, blinded clinical trial. Operating room. Ninety ASA 1-2 patients scheduled for elective LC. Patients were allocated into 3 groups: Group 1: low-pressure pneumoperitoneum with moderate-NMB (1-3 TOF), Group 2: low-pressure pneumoperitoneum with deep-NMB (1-5 PTC) and Group 3: standard pneumoperitoneum (12mmHg). Rocuronium was used to induce NMB and acceleromiography was used for NMB monitoring (TOF-Watch-SX). Three experienced surgeons evaluated surgical conditions using a four-step scale at three time-points: surgical field exposure, dissection of the gallbladder and extraction/closure. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum (Group 1 vs. 2): good conditions: 96.7 vs. 96.7%, 90 vs. 80% and 89.6 vs. 92.3%, respectively for the time-points, p>0.05. No differences in optimal surgical conditions were observed between the groups. Surgery completion at 8mmHg pneumoperitoneum: 96.7 vs. 86.7%, p=0.353. Standard-pressure pneumoperitoneum vs. low-pressure pneumoperitoneum with deep NMB (Group 3 vs. 2): good conditions: 100% in Group 3 for the three time-points (p=0.024 vs. Group 2 at dissection of the gallbladder). Significantly greater percentage of optimal conditions during standard-pressure pneumoperitoneum LC at the three time points of evaluation. The depth of NMB was found not to be decisive neither in the improvement of surgical conditions nor in the completion of low-pressure pneumoperitoneum LC performed by experienced surgeons. Surgical conditions were considered better with a standard-pressure pneumoperitoneum, regardless of the depth of NMB

  8. Cervical Joint Position Sense in Hypobaric Conditions: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaianu, Diana; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Duvigneaud, N; Stevens, Veerle; Schroyen, Danny; Vissenaeken, Dirk; D'Hondt, Gino; Pitance, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    ,000 feet had no significant effects on cervical joint position sense measured by head repositioning accuracy in healthy subjects. Discussion/impact/recommendations: Postural control mechanisms are very sensitive to acute mild hypoxia and have been recently investigated. Acute hypobaric hypoxia at moderate and high altitudes has a negative effect on postural control. However, which part of the postural system is affected has not yet been determined and proprioception has been little investigated. The results from this study highlighted that in healthy subjects with good cervical spine proprioception at baseline, artificial hypoxia induced by the simulation of moderate altitude does not increase head repositioning error. Further studies should investigate cervical joint position sense in real aircraft, at different altitudes and in a group of experienced helicopter pilots, to evaluate the impact of moderate altitude on cervical joint position sense in a different population. Conducting the same experiments in a population of pilots and in real flight conditions should be considered, since various factors such as the level of proprioception, head posture, type of movement, head load, muscle fatigue, flight altitude, and the length of flight time might influence the kinesthetic sensitivity. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  9. Role of exponential type random invexities for asymptotically sufficient efficiency conditions in semi-infinite multi-objective fractional programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ram U; Seol, Youngsoo

    2016-01-01

    First a new notion of the random exponential Hanson-Antczak type [Formula: see text]-V-invexity is introduced, which generalizes most of the existing notions in the literature, second a random function [Formula: see text] of the second order is defined, and finally a class of asymptotically sufficient efficiency conditions in semi-infinite multi-objective fractional programming is established. Furthermore, several sets of asymptotic sufficiency results in which various generalized exponential type [Formula: see text]-V-invexity assumptions are imposed on certain vector functions whose components are the individual as well as some combinations of the problem functions are examined and proved. To the best of our knowledge, all the established results on the semi-infinite aspects of the multi-objective fractional programming are new, which is a significantly new emerging field of the interdisciplinary research in nature. We also observed that the investigated results can be modified and applied to several special classes of nonlinear programming problems.

  10. Women's Relationship Power Modifies the Effect of a Randomized Conditional Cash Transfer Intervention for Safer Sex in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jan E; McCoy, Sandra I; Fernald, Lia C H; de Walque, Damien; Dow, William H

    2017-08-03

    This study tests whether women's relationship power modifies the effect of a conditional cash transfer (CCT) on STI risk. We analyzed 988 women enrolled in the RESPECT study in Tanzania, a yearlong, randomized-controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a CCT to reduce STI incidence. Women were randomized at the individual level to a no-cash control group, a low-cash, or a high-cash study arm. After one year, there was no main effect of study arm on risk of having an STI among women. However, in tests of heterogeneity, the effect of the CCT varied by a woman's relationship power (adjusted RRs of the interaction term for women with higher relationship power: RR 0.567 (95% CI 0.240-0.895) for high cash and RR 1.217 (95% CI 0.794-1.641) for low cash). Specifically, women with higher relationship power in the low cash transfer arm had an elevated risk of testing positive for an STI, whereas women with high relationship power in the high cash transfer arm had a decreased risk of testing positive for an STI.

  11. Combination of Deep Recurrent Neural Networks and Conditional Random Fields for Extracting Adverse Drug Reactions from User Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tutubalina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse drug reactions (ADRs are an essential part of the analysis of drug use, measuring drug use benefits, and making policy decisions. Traditional channels for identifying ADRs are reliable but very slow and only produce a small amount of data. Text reviews, either on specialized web sites or in general-purpose social networks, may lead to a data source of unprecedented size, but identifying ADRs in free-form text is a challenging natural language processing problem. In this work, we propose a novel model for this problem, uniting recurrent neural architectures and conditional random fields. We evaluate our model with a comprehensive experimental study, showing improvements over state-of-the-art methods of ADR extraction.

  12. Site compare scripts and output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Monthly site compare scripts and output used to generate the model/ob plots and statistics in the manuscript. The AQS hourly site compare output files are not...

  13. Random Forest-Based Approach for Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Systems Operating under Actual Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareef, Hussain; Mutlag, Ammar Hussein; Mohamed, Azah

    2017-01-01

    Many maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms have been developed in recent years to maximize the produced PV energy. These algorithms are not sufficiently robust because of fast-changing environmental conditions, efficiency, accuracy at steady-state value, and dynamics of the tracking algorithm. Thus, this paper proposes a new random forest (RF) model to improve MPPT performance. The RF model has the ability to capture the nonlinear association of patterns between predictors, such as irradiance and temperature, to determine accurate maximum power point. A RF-based tracker is designed for 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV modules, with the capacity of 3 kW peak using two high-speed sensors. For this purpose, a complete PV system is modeled using 300,000 data samples and simulated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The proposed RF-based MPPT is then tested under actual environmental conditions for 24 days to validate the accuracy and dynamic response. The response of the RF-based MPPT model is also compared with that of the artificial neural network and adaptive neurofuzzy inference system algorithms for further validation. The results show that the proposed MPPT technique gives significant improvement compared with that of other techniques. In addition, the RF model passes the Bland-Altman test, with more than 95 percent acceptability.

  14. Robust foreground detection: a fusion of masked grey world, probabilistic gradient information and extended conditional random field approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf; Moran, Bill; Rawlinson, David

    2012-01-01

    Foreground detection has been used extensively in many applications such as people counting, traffic monitoring and face recognition. However, most of the existing detectors can only work under limited conditions. This happens because of the inability of the detector to distinguish foreground and background pixels, especially in complex situations. Our aim is to improve the robustness of foreground detection under sudden and gradual illumination change, colour similarity issue, moving background and shadow noise. Since it is hard to achieve robustness using a single model, we have combined several methods into an integrated system. The masked grey world algorithm is introduced to handle sudden illumination change. Colour co-occurrence modelling is then fused with the probabilistic edge-based background modelling. Colour co-occurrence modelling is good in filtering moving background and robust to gradual illumination change, while an edge-based modelling is used for solving a colour similarity problem. Finally, an extended conditional random field approach is used to filter out shadow and afterimage noise. Simulation results show that our algorithm performs better compared to the existing methods, which makes it suitable for higher-level applications.

  15. Robust Foreground Detection: A Fusion of Masked GreyWorld, Probabilistic Gradient Information and Extended Conditional Random Field Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rawlinson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Foreground detection has been used extensively in many applications such as people counting, traffic monitoring and face recognition. However, most of the existing detectors can only work under limited conditions. This happens because of the inability of the detector to distinguish foreground and background pixels, especially in complex situations. Our aim is to improve the robustness of foreground detection under sudden and gradual illumination change, colour similarity issue, moving background and shadow noise. Since it is hard to achieve robustness using a single model, we have combined several methods into an integrated system. The masked grey world algorithm is introduced to handle sudden illumination change. Colour co-occurrence modelling is then fused with the probabilistic edge-based background modelling. Colour co-occurrence modelling is good infiltering moving background and robust to gradual illumination change, while an edge-based modelling is used for solving a colour similarity problem. Finally, an extended conditional random field approach is used to filter out shadow and afterimage noise. Simulation results show that our algorithm performs better compared to the existing methods, which makes it suitable for higher-level applications.

  16. Random Forest-Based Approach for Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Systems Operating under Actual Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Shareef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithms have been developed in recent years to maximize the produced PV energy. These algorithms are not sufficiently robust because of fast-changing environmental conditions, efficiency, accuracy at steady-state value, and dynamics of the tracking algorithm. Thus, this paper proposes a new random forest (RF model to improve MPPT performance. The RF model has the ability to capture the nonlinear association of patterns between predictors, such as irradiance and temperature, to determine accurate maximum power point. A RF-based tracker is designed for 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV modules, with the capacity of 3 kW peak using two high-speed sensors. For this purpose, a complete PV system is modeled using 300,000 data samples and simulated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The proposed RF-based MPPT is then tested under actual environmental conditions for 24 days to validate the accuracy and dynamic response. The response of the RF-based MPPT model is also compared with that of the artificial neural network and adaptive neurofuzzy inference system algorithms for further validation. The results show that the proposed MPPT technique gives significant improvement compared with that of other techniques. In addition, the RF model passes the Bland–Altman test, with more than 95 percent acceptability.

  17. Bayesian informative dropout model for longitudinal binary data with random effects using conditional and joint modeling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jennifer S K

    2016-05-01

    Dropouts are common in longitudinal study. If the dropout probability depends on the missing observations at or after dropout, this type of dropout is called informative (or nonignorable) dropout (ID). Failure to accommodate such dropout mechanism into the model will bias the parameter estimates. We propose a conditional autoregressive model for longitudinal binary data with an ID model such that the probabilities of positive outcomes as well as the drop-out indicator in each occasion are logit linear in some covariates and outcomes. This model adopting a marginal model for outcomes and a conditional model for dropouts is called a selection model. To allow for the heterogeneity and clustering effects, the outcome model is extended to incorporate mixture and random effects. Lastly, the model is further extended to a novel model that models the outcome and dropout jointly such that their dependency is formulated through an odds ratio function. Parameters are estimated by a Bayesian approach implemented using the user-friendly Bayesian software WinBUGS. A methadone clinic dataset is analyzed to illustrate the proposed models. Result shows that the treatment time effect is still significant but weaker after allowing for an ID process in the data. Finally the effect of drop-out on parameter estimates is evaluated through simulation studies. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Cardiac output during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, C; Rasmussen, P.; Sørensen, H.

    2015-01-01

    a progressive increase in Q with exercise intensity, the slopes of the Q/oxygen uptake (VO2) relationship differed by up to 50% between methods in both normoxia [4.9 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.2, 6.0 ± 0.4, 4.8 ± 0.2 L/min per L/min (mean ± SE) for Q(Fick-M), Q(Inn), QP hys and Q(Pulse), respectively; P = 0......Several techniques assessing cardiac output (Q) during exercise are available. The extent to which the measurements obtained from each respective technique compares to one another, however, is unclear. We quantified Q simultaneously using four methods: the Fick method with blood obtained from...... the right atrium (Q(Fick-M)), Innocor (inert gas rebreathing; Q(Inn)), Physioflow (impedance cardiography; Q(Phys)), and Nexfin (pulse contour analysis; Q(Pulse)) in 12 male subjects during incremental cycling exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2  = 12%). While all four methods reported...

  19. Maximum Output Power Tracking of Wind Turbine Using Intelligent Control

    OpenAIRE

    Mauridhi Hery Purnomo; Mochamad Ashari; Muldi Yuhendri

    2011-01-01

    The output power of wind turbine is determined by wind speed. The Output power can be adjusted by controlling the generator speed and pitch angle of wind turbine. When the wind speed below the wind turbine rated, the output power of generator can be maximized by controlling the generator speed at point of maximum power coefficient. When the wind speed above the wind turbine rated, output power of wind turbine will exceed the power generators rated. In this condition, the output power of wind ...

  20. Effect of Low-dose Atracurium on Laryngeal Mask Airway Insertion Conditions: A Randomized Double-blind Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Nasseri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The amount of sedation and muscle relaxation of the jaw may have an impact on complications caused by laryngeal mask airway (LMA. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of low-dose Atracurium on conditions of insertion, complications, and hemodynamic responses to LMA insertion following induction of anesthesia with propofol, in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Patients and Methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial study, 60 patients were randomly divided into two groups. Initially, the patients in the study group received 0.15 mg/kg intravenous injection of atracurium, and the patients in the control group received 2 ml of intravenous injection of normal saline, after which anesthesia in both groups were induced with midazolam, fentanyl, lidocaine, and propofol. The amount of jaw relaxation, ease of insertion, and the time needed for insertion, hemodynamic responses and complications of LMA insertion were evaluated. Results: Jaw relaxation and ease of LMA insertion in the study group was significantly better than that of the control group (P = 0.02. Average time needed for LMA placement in the study group (5/06 ± 0.52 second was significantly lower than the control group (5/76 ± 0.67 second (P = 0.001. Hemodynamic response to LMA insertion was similar in both groups. Sore throat at recovery and 24 h after surgery in the control group was significantly higher than that of the study group (3/30 vs. 10/30 (P = 0.01. Conclusions: Using low doses of atracurium decreases the time needed for LMA insertion and sore throat after the operation. Atracurium also increases jaw relaxation and facilitates the placement of LMA.

  1. Cardiac output monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathews Lailu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive and non-invasive methods of estimation of cardiac output (CO were developed to overcome the limitations of invasive nature of pulmonary artery catheterization (PAC and direct Fick method used for the measurement of stroke volume (SV. The important minimally invasive techniques available are: oesophageal Doppler monitoring (ODM, the derivative Fick method (using partial carbon dioxide (CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution, lithium indicator dilution, pulse contour and pulse power analysis. Impedance cardiography is probably the only non-invasive technique in true sense. It provides information about haemodynamic status without the risk, cost and skill associated with the other invasive or minimally invasive techniques. It is important to understand what is really being measured and what assumptions and calculations have been incorporated with respect to a monitoring device. Understanding the basic principles of the above techniques as well as their advantages and limitations may be useful. In addition, the clinical validation of new techniques is necessary to convince that these new tools provide reliable measurements. In this review the physics behind the working of ODM, partial CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution and lithium dilution techniques are dealt with. The physical and the physiological aspects underlying the pulse contour and pulse power analyses, various pulse contour techniques, their development, advantages and limitations are also covered. The principle of thoracic bioimpedance along with computation of CO from changes in thoracic impedance is explained. The purpose of the review is to help us minimize the dogmatic nature of practice favouring one technique or the other.

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effect of Tapentadol and Morphine on Conditioned Pain Modulation in Healthy Volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Martini

    Full Text Available Modulatory descending pathways, originating at supraspinal sites that converge at dorsal horn neurons, influence pain perception in humans. Defects in descending pain control are linked to chronic pain states and its restoration may be a valuable analgesic tool. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM is a surrogate marker of descending inhibition that reduces the perception of pain from a primary test stimulus during application of a conditioning stimulus. Here the effects of the analgesics tapentadol, a combined mu-opioid receptor agonist and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, and morphine, a strong mu-opioid receptor agonist, were tested on CPM in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial in 12 healthy pain-free volunteers, to understand possible differences in mechanism of action between these opioids.On three occasions CPM responses were obtained 60-90 and 120-150 min following intake of tapentadol (100 mg immediate release tablet, morphine (40 mg immediate release tablet or placebo. At both time points, CPM was detectable after treatment with placebo and tapentadol (peak pain ratings reduced by 20-30% after application of the conditioning stimulus but not after morphine. Compared to placebo morphine displayed significantly less CPM: mean treatment difference 18.2% (95% CI 3.4 to 32.9% at 60-90 min after drug intake and 19.5% (95% CI 5.7 to 33.2% at 120-150 min after drug intake (p = 0.001. No difference in CPM between placebo and tapentadol was detected: mean treatment difference 1.5% (95% CI -11.6 to 14.6% at 60-90 min after drug intake and 1.5% (95% CI -16.0 to 18.9% at 120-150 min after drug intake (p = 0.60.Our data show that in volunteers morphine affects CPM, while tapentadol was without effect despite identical experimental conditions. These data confirm that tapentadol's main mechanism of action is distinct from that of morphine and likely related to the effect of adrenergic stimulation on descending controls

  3. A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effect of Tapentadol and Morphine on Conditioned Pain Modulation in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Chris; van Velzen, Monique; Drewes, Asbjørn; Aarts, Leon; Dahan, Albert; Niesters, Marieke

    2015-01-01

    Modulatory descending pathways, originating at supraspinal sites that converge at dorsal horn neurons, influence pain perception in humans. Defects in descending pain control are linked to chronic pain states and its restoration may be a valuable analgesic tool. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is a surrogate marker of descending inhibition that reduces the perception of pain from a primary test stimulus during application of a conditioning stimulus. Here the effects of the analgesics tapentadol, a combined mu-opioid receptor agonist and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, and morphine, a strong mu-opioid receptor agonist, were tested on CPM in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial in 12 healthy pain-free volunteers, to understand possible differences in mechanism of action between these opioids. On three occasions CPM responses were obtained 60-90 and 120-150 min following intake of tapentadol (100 mg immediate release tablet), morphine (40 mg immediate release tablet) or placebo. At both time points, CPM was detectable after treatment with placebo and tapentadol (peak pain ratings reduced by 20-30% after application of the conditioning stimulus) but not after morphine. Compared to placebo morphine displayed significantly less CPM: mean treatment difference 18.2% (95% CI 3.4 to 32.9%) at 60-90 min after drug intake and 19.5% (95% CI 5.7 to 33.2%) at 120-150 min after drug intake (p = 0.001). No difference in CPM between placebo and tapentadol was detected: mean treatment difference 1.5% (95% CI -11.6 to 14.6%) at 60-90 min after drug intake and 1.5% (95% CI -16.0 to 18.9%) at 120-150 min after drug intake (p = 0.60). Our data show that in volunteers morphine affects CPM, while tapentadol was without effect despite identical experimental conditions. These data confirm that tapentadol's main mechanism of action is distinct from that of morphine and likely related to the effect of adrenergic stimulation on descending controls. Netherlands

  4. Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory Network with a Conditional Random Field Layer for Uyghur Part-Of-Speech Tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maihemuti Maimaiti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Uyghur is an agglutinative and a morphologically rich language; natural language processing tasks in Uyghur can be a challenge. Word morphology is important in Uyghur part-of-speech (POS tagging. However, POS tagging performance suffers from error propagation of morphological analyzers. To address this problem, we propose a few models for POS tagging: conditional random fields (CRF, long short-term memory (LSTM, bidirectional LSTM networks (BI-LSTM, LSTM networks with a CRF layer, and BI-LSTM networks with a CRF layer. These models do not depend on stemming and word disambiguation for Uyghur and combine hand-crafted features with neural network models. State-of-the-art performance on Uyghur POS tagging is achieved on test data sets using the proposed approach: 98.41% accuracy on 15 labels and 95.74% accuracy on 64 labels, which are 2.71% and 4% improvements, respectively, over the CRF model results. Using engineered features, our model achieves further improvements of 0.2% (15 labels and 0.48% (64 labels. The results indicate that the proposed method could be an effective approach for POS tagging in other morphologically rich languages.

  5. Conditional Random Field (CRF-Boosting: Constructing a Robust Online Hybrid Boosting Multiple Object Tracker Facilitated by CRF Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehwa Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the reasonably acceptable performance of state-of-the-art object detectors, tracking-by-detection is a standard strategy for visual multi-object tracking (MOT. In particular, online MOT is more demanding due to its diverse applications in time-critical situations. A main issue of realizing online MOT is how to associate noisy object detection results on a new frame with previously being tracked objects. In this work, we propose a multi-object tracker method called CRF-boosting which utilizes a hybrid data association method based on online hybrid boosting facilitated by a conditional random field (CRF for establishing online MOT. For data association, learned CRF is used to generate reliable low-level tracklets and then these are used as the input of the hybrid boosting. To do so, while existing data association methods based on boosting algorithms have the necessity of training data having ground truth information to improve robustness, CRF-boosting ensures sufficient robustness without such information due to the synergetic cascaded learning procedure. Further, a hierarchical feature association framework is adopted to further improve MOT accuracy. From experimental results on public datasets, we could conclude that the benefit of proposed hybrid approach compared to the other competitive MOT systems is noticeable.

  6. Road Segmentation of Remotely-Sensed Images Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks with Landscape Metrics and Conditional Random Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerapong Panboonyuen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Object segmentation of remotely-sensed aerial (or very-high resolution, VHS images and satellite (or high-resolution, HR images, has been applied to many application domains, especially in road extraction in which the segmented objects are served as a mandatory layer in geospatial databases. Several attempts at applying the deep convolutional neural network (DCNN to extract roads from remote sensing images have been made; however, the accuracy is still limited. In this paper, we present an enhanced DCNN framework specifically tailored for road extraction of remote sensing images by applying landscape metrics (LMs and conditional random fields (CRFs. To improve the DCNN, a modern activation function called the exponential linear unit (ELU, is employed in our network, resulting in a higher number of, and yet more accurate, extracted roads. To further reduce falsely classified road objects, a solution based on an adoption of LMs is proposed. Finally, to sharpen the extracted roads, a CRF method is added to our framework. The experiments were conducted on Massachusetts road aerial imagery as well as the Thailand Earth Observation System (THEOS satellite imagery data sets. The results showed that our proposed framework outperformed Segnet, a state-of-the-art object segmentation technique, on any kinds of remote sensing imagery, in most of the cases in terms of precision, recall, and F 1 .

  7. Recognition and Evaluation of Clinical Section Headings in Clinical Documents Using Token-Based Formulation with Conditional Random Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jie Dai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic health record (EHR is a digital data format that collects electronic health information about an individual patient or population. To enhance the meaningful use of EHRs, information extraction techniques have been developed to recognize clinical concepts mentioned in EHRs. Nevertheless, the clinical judgment of an EHR cannot be known solely based on the recognized concepts without considering its contextual information. In order to improve the readability and accessibility of EHRs, this work developed a section heading recognition system for clinical documents. In contrast to formulating the section heading recognition task as a sentence classification problem, this work proposed a token-based formulation with the conditional random field (CRF model. A standard section heading recognition corpus was compiled by annotators with clinical experience to evaluate the performance and compare it with sentence classification and dictionary-based approaches. The results of the experiments showed that the proposed method achieved a satisfactory F-score of 0.942, which outperformed the sentence-based approach and the best dictionary-based system by 0.087 and 0.096, respectively. One important advantage of our formulation over the sentence-based approach is that it presented an integrated solution without the need to develop additional heuristics rules for isolating the headings from the surrounding section contents.

  8. Inverter communications using output signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Patrick L.

    2017-02-07

    Technologies for communicating information from an inverter configured for the conversion of direct current (DC) power generated from an alternative source to alternating current (AC) power are disclosed. The technologies include determining information to be transmitted from the inverter over a power line cable connected to the inverter and controlling the operation of an output converter of the inverter as a function of the information to be transmitted to cause the output converter to generate an output waveform having the information modulated thereon.

  9. Probabilistic Physics-Based Risk Tools Used to Analyze the International Space Station Electrical Power System Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhogila M.; Hoge, Peter A.; Nagpal, Vinod K.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Rusick, Jeffrey J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the methods employed to apply probabilistic modeling techniques to the International Space Station (ISS) power system. These techniques were used to quantify the probabilistic variation in the power output, also called the response variable, due to variations (uncertainties) associated with knowledge of the influencing factors called the random variables. These uncertainties can be due to unknown environmental conditions, variation in the performance of electrical power system components or sensor tolerances. Uncertainties in these variables, cause corresponding variations in the power output, but the magnitude of that effect varies with the ISS operating conditions, e.g. whether or not the solar panels are actively tracking the sun. Therefore, it is important to quantify the influence of these uncertainties on the power output for optimizing the power available for experiments.

  10. Adaptive multi-level conditional random fields for detection and segmentation of small enhanced pathology in medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimaghaloo, Zahra; Arnold, Douglas L; Arbel, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Detection and segmentation of large structures in an image or within a region of interest have received great attention in the medical image processing domains. However, the problem of small pathology detection and segmentation still remains an unresolved challenge due to the small size of these pathologies, their low contrast and variable position, shape and texture. In many contexts, early detection of these pathologies is critical in diagnosis and assessing the outcome of treatment. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic Adaptive Multi-level Conditional Random Fields (AMCRF) with the incorporation of higher order cliques for detecting and segmenting such pathologies. In the first level of our graphical model, a voxel-based CRF is used to identify candidate lesions. In the second level, in order to further remove falsely detected regions, a new CRF is developed that incorporates higher order textural features, which are invariant to rotation and local intensity distortions. At this level, higher order textures are considered together with the voxel-wise cliques to refine boundaries and is therefore adaptive. The proposed algorithm is tested in the context of detecting enhancing Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions in brain MRI, where the problem is further complicated as many of the enhancing voxels are associated with normal structures (i.e. blood vessels) or noise in the MRI. The algorithm is trained and tested on large multi-center clinical trials from Relapsing-Remitting MS patients. The effect of several different parameter learning and inference techniques is further investigated. When tested on 120 cases, the proposed method reaches a lesion detection rate of 90%, with very few false positive lesion counts on average, ranging from 0.17 for very small (3-5 voxels) to 0 for very large (50+ voxels) regions. The proposed model is further tested on a very large clinical trial containing 2770 scans where a high sensitivity of 91% with an average false positive

  11. Comparison of autologous conditioned plasma injection, extracorporeal shockwave therapy, and conventional treatment for plantar fasciitis: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Kelvin Tai Loon; Leong, Darren; Lin, Cindy Y; Lim, Kay Kiat; Tan, Benedict

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) compared with extracorporeal shockwave (ESWT) and conventional treatments for plantar fasciitis. Randomized trial. Sports medicine center in a tertiary care hospital. Fifty-four subjects (age range, 29-71 years) with unilateral chronic plantar fasciitis with more than 4 months of symptoms. Subjects randomized to 3 groups: 19 to ACP and conventional treatment (ACP group), 19 to ESWT and conventional treatment (ESWT group), and 16 to conventional treatment alone. Conventional treatment included stretching exercises and orthotics if indicated. Outcomes were pain-Visual Analog Scale (VAS), American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot scale, and ultrasound plantar fascia thickness assessed at baseline before treatment and at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after treatment. VAS, AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scale, and plantar fascia thickness improved in all groups. Significant VAS pain score improvements in the ACP group compared with conventional treatment at month 1 (P = .037) and for the ESWT group compared with conventional treatment at months 1, 3, and 6 (P = .017, P = .022, and P = .042). The AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scale score improved in the ACP group at months 3 and 6 (P = .004 and P = .013) and, for the ESWT group, at months 1 and 3 (P = .011 and P = .003) compared with conventional treatment. Significant improvements in plantar fascia thickness were seen in the ACP group at months 1 and 3 compared with conventional treatments (P = .015 and P = .014) and at months 3 and 6 compared with the ESWT group (P = .019 and P = .027). No adverse events reported. Treatment of plantar fasciitis with ACP or ESWT plus conventional treatments resulted in improved pain and functional outcomes compared with conventional treatment alone. There was no significant difference between ACP and ESWT in terms of VAS and AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scale improvements, although the ACP group demonstrated greater

  12. Modelflow underestimates cardiac output in heat-stressed individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shibasaki, Manabu; Wilson, Thad E; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    An estimation of cardiac output can be obtained from arterial pressure waveforms using the Modelflow method. However, whether the assumptions associated with Modelflow calculations are accurate during whole body heating is unknown. This project tested the hypothesis that cardiac output obtained via...... Modelflow accurately tracks thermodilution-derived cardiac outputs during whole body heat stress. Acute changes of cardiac output were accomplished via lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) during normothermic and heat-stressed conditions. In nine healthy normotensive subjects, arterial pressure was measured...... via brachial artery cannulation and the volume-clamp method of the Finometer. Cardiac output was estimated from both pressure waveforms using the Modeflow method. In normothermic conditions, cardiac outputs estimated via Modelflow (arterial cannulation: 6.1 ± 1.0 l/min; Finometer 6.3 ± 1.3 l/min) were...

  13. Videodensitometric Methods for Cardiac Output Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Mischi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac output is often measured by indicator dilution techniques, usually based on dye or cold saline injections. Developments of more stable ultrasound contrast agents (UCA are leading to new noninvasive indicator dilution methods. However, several problems concerning the interpretation of dilution curves as detected by ultrasound transducers have arisen. This paper presents a method for blood flow measurements based on UCA dilution. Dilution curves are determined by real-time densitometric analysis of the video output of an ultrasound scanner and are automatically fitted by the Local Density Random Walk model. A new fitting algorithm based on multiple linear regression is developed. Calibration, that is, the relation between videodensity and UCA concentration, is modelled by in vitro experimentation. The flow measurement system is validated by in vitro perfusion of SonoVue contrast agent. The results show an accurate dilution curve fit and flow estimation with determination coefficient larger than 0.95 and 0.99, respectively.

  14. RECAST (Remote Ischemic Conditioning After Stroke Trial): A Pilot Randomized Placebo Controlled Phase II Trial in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Timothy J; Hedstrom, Amanda; O'Sullivan, Saoirse; Donnelly, Richard; Barrett, David A; Sarmad, Sarir; Sprigg, Nikola; Bath, Philip M

    2017-05-01

    Repeated episodes of limb ischemia and reperfusion (remote ischemic conditioning [RIC]) may improve outcome after acute stroke. We performed a pilot blinded placebo-controlled trial in patients with acute ischemic stroke, randomized 1:1 to receive 4 cycles of RIC within 24 hours of ictus. The primary outcome was tolerability and feasibility. Secondary outcomes included safety, clinical efficacy (day 90), putative biomarkers (pre- and post-intervention, day 4), and exploratory hemodynamic measures. Twenty-six patients (13 RIC and 13 sham) were recruited 15.8 hours (SD 6.2) post-onset, age 76.2 years (SD 10.5), blood pressure 159/83 mm Hg (SD 25/11), and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score 5 (interquartile range, 3.75-9.25). RIC was well tolerated with 49 out of 52 cycles completed in full. Three patients experienced vascular events in the sham group: 2 ischemic strokes and 2 myocardial infarcts versus none in the RIC group ( P =0.076, log-rank test). Compared with sham, there was a significant decrease in day 90 NIHSS score in the RIC group, median NIHSS score 1 (interquartile range, 0.5-5) versus 3 (interquartile range, 2-9.5; P =0.04); RIC augmented plasma HSP27 (heat shock protein 27; P stroke is well tolerated and appears safe and feasible. RIC may improve neurological outcome, and protective mechanisms may be mediated through HSP27. A larger trial is warranted. URL: http://www.isrctn.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN86672015. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. The prediction of organelle-targeting peptides in eukaryotic proteins with Grammatical-Restrained Hidden Conditional Random Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indio, Valentina; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Savojardo, Castrense; Fariselli, Piero; Casadio, Rita

    2013-04-15

    Targeting peptides are the most important signal controlling the import of nuclear encoded proteins into mitochondria and plastids. In the lack of experimental information, their prediction is an essential step when proteomes are annotated for inferring both the localization and the sequence of mature proteins. We developed TPpred a new predictor of organelle-targeting peptides based on Grammatical-Restrained Hidden Conditional Random Fields. TPpred is trained on a non-redundant dataset of proteins where the presence of a target peptide was experimentally validated, comprising 297 sequences. When tested on the 297 positive and some other 8010 negative examples, TPpred outperformed available methods in both accuracy and Matthews correlation index (96% and 0.58, respectively). Given its very low-false-positive rate (3.0%), TPpred is, therefore, well suited for large-scale analyses at the proteome level. We predicted that from ∼4 to 9% of the sequences of human, Arabidopsis thaliana and yeast proteomes contain targeting peptides and are, therefore, likely to be localized in mitochondria and plastids. TPpred predictions correlate to a good extent with the experimental annotation of the subcellular localization, when available. TPpred was also trained and tested to predict the cleavage site of the organelle-targeting peptide: on this task, the average error of TPpred on mitochondrial and plastidic proteins is 7 and 15 residues, respectively. This value is lower than the error reported by other methods currently available. The TPpred datasets are available at http://biocomp.unibo.it/valentina/TPpred/. TPpred is available on request from the authors. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  16. Effectiveness of an online fatigue self-management programme for people with chronic neurological conditions: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Setareh; Leigh Packer, Tanya; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate an online fatigue self-management programme in a sample of adults with chronic neurological conditions. Randomized controlled trial. Online fatigue self-management programme delivered across Australia. Ninety-five people with fatigue secondary to multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease or post-polio syndrome. An online fatigue self-management programme, an information-only fatigue self-management programme and a control group. Groups were compared at pre test, post test and at three months on primary outcomes using the Fatigue Impact Scale, Activity Card Sort and Personal Wellbeing Index. With the exception of the Personal Wellbeing Index at post test (F = 3.519; P =0.034) and the Physical Subscale of the Fatigue Impact Scale at follow-up (F = 3.473; P =0.035) there were no significant differences between the three groups on primary outcomes. Post-hoc testing showed the differences to be between the information-only and control groups (P = 0.036 and P = 0.030 respectively). Improvement in the information-only group was unexpected but appears to be similar to results of other online interventions. The fatigue self-management and information-only groups performed better than the control on some secondary outcome measures. Low power in the analysis may have contributed to the findings. Repeated-measures ANCOVA showed that the fatigue self-management and the information-only groups improved over time on the Fatigue Impact Scale and the Activity Card Sort (P<0.05). The control group showed no improvements over time. Although the fatigue self-management group improved over time, results did not demonstrate additional benefit in most outcome measures when compared with the control group.

  17. Random Differential Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Rob; Rinaldo, Alessandro; Wasserman, Larry

    2011-01-01

    We propose a relaxed privacy definition called {\\em random differential privacy} (RDP). Differential privacy requires that adding any new observation to a database will have small effect on the output of the data-release procedure. Random differential privacy requires that adding a {\\em randomly drawn new observation} to a database will have small effect on the output. We show an analog of the composition property of differentially private procedures which applies to our new definition. We sh...

  18. Estimation of genotype X environment interactions, in a grassbased system, for milk yield, body condition score,and body weight using random regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    (Co)variance components for milk yield, body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), BCS change and BW change over different herd-year mean milk yields (HMY) and nutritional environments (concentrate feeding level, grazing severity and silage quality) were estimated using a random regression model.

  19. A Result on Output Feedback Linear Quadratic Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engwerda, J.C.; Weeren, A.J.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this note we consider the static output feedback linear quadratic control problem.We present both necessary and sufficient conditions under which this problem has a solution in case the involved cost depend only on the output and control variables.This result is used to present both necessary and

  20. 40 CFR 1065.210 - Work input and output sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work input and output sensors. 1065... Ambient Conditions § 1065.210 Work input and output sensors. (a) Application. Use instruments as specified... sensors, transducers, and meters that meet the specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205. Note that your...

  1. Access to medical care among persons with musculoskeletal conditions. A study using a random sample of households in San Mateo County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelin, E; Bernhard, G; Pflugrad, D

    1995-08-01

    To study access to medical care services, including subspecialty care, among persons with musculoskeletal conditions. In early 1993, a random sample of households in San Mateo County, California, was screened for the presence of household members with musculoskeletal conditions, and a member of each household so identified was administered a structured survey about access to medical care and other related subjects. Eighty-six percent of all persons with a musculoskeletal condition had ever seen at least one physician for the condition, but only 6.5% had ever seen a rheumatologist. Those without health insurance were only 82% as likely as those with health insurance to have ever seen a physician. Most persons with a musculoskeletal condition have seen a physician for the condition, but lack of health insurance significantly reduces the proportion who have done so.

  2. Multi-Range Conditional Random Field for Classifying Railway Electrification System Objects Using Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Jung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Railways have been used as one of the most crucial means of transportation in public mobility and economic development. For safe railway operation, the electrification system in the railway infrastructure, which supplies electric power to trains, is an essential facility for stable train operation. Due to its important role, the electrification system needs to be rigorously and regularly inspected and managed. This paper presents a supervised learning method to classify Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS data into ten target classes representing overhead wires, movable brackets and poles, which are key objects in the electrification system. In general, the layout of the railway electrification system shows strong spatial regularity relations among object classes. The proposed classifier is developed based on Conditional Random Field (CRF, which characterizes not only labeling homogeneity at short range, but also the layout compatibility between different object classes at long range in the probabilistic graphical model. This multi-range CRF model consists of a unary term and three pairwise contextual terms. In order to gain computational efficiency, MLS point clouds are converted into a set of line segments to which the labeling process is applied. Support Vector Machine (SVM is used as a local classifier considering only node features for producing the unary potentials of the CRF model. As the short-range pairwise contextual term, the Potts model is applied to enforce a local smoothness in the short-range graph; while long-range pairwise potentials are designed to enhance the spatial regularities of both horizontal and vertical layouts among railway objects. We formulate two long-range pairwise potentials as the log posterior probability obtained by the naive Bayes classifier. The directional layout compatibilities are characterized in probability look-up tables, which represent the co-occurrence rate of spatial relations in the horizontal and vertical

  3. Full Static Output Feedback Equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristotle G. Yannakoudakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a constructive solution to the problem of full output feedback equivalence, of linear, minimal, time-invariant systems. The equivalence relation on the set of systems is transformed to another on the set of invertible block Bezout/Hankel matrices using the isotropy subgroups of the full state feedback group and the full output injection group. The transformation achieving equivalence is calculated solving linear systems of equations. We give a polynomial version of the results proving that two systems are full output feedback equivalent, if and only if they have the same family of generalized Bezoutians. We present a new set of output feedback invariant polynomials that generalize the breakaway polynomial of scalar systems.

  4. Cryptanalysis of optical security systems with significant output images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Guohai; Gopinathan, Unnikrishnan; Monaghan, David S; Sheridan, John T

    2007-08-01

    The security of the encryption and verification techniques with significant output images is examined by a known-plaintext attack. We introduce an iterative phase-retrieval algorithm based on multiple intensity measurements to heuristically estimate the phase key in the Fourier domain by several plaintext-cyphertext pairs. We obtain correlation output images with very low error by correlating the estimated key with corresponding random phase masks. Our studies show that the convergence behavior of this algorithm sensitively depends on the starting point. We also demonstrate that this algorithm can be used to attack the double random phase encoding technique.

  5. Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    Hvad får vi egentlig ud af internationale komparative undersøgelser som PISA, PIRLS og TIMSS? Hvordan påvirker de dansk uddannelsespolitik? Asterisk har talt med tre forskere med ekspertise på området.......Hvad får vi egentlig ud af internationale komparative undersøgelser som PISA, PIRLS og TIMSS? Hvordan påvirker de dansk uddannelsespolitik? Asterisk har talt med tre forskere med ekspertise på området....

  6. Signal processing in a randomly time varying system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomian, G.

    1972-01-01

    Stochastic operators are applied to an analysis of some deterministic systems of signal transformation. The distribution of a random process at the output of a system is given through its distribution at the input and through a stochastic Green's function. A two-point correlation function is derived to obtain a solution to differential equations which contain coefficients, boundary conditions, or right-hand terms representing random processes.

  7. Modal Parameter Identification from Responses of General Unknown Random Inputs

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, S. R.; Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune

    1995-01-01

    Modal parameter identification from ambient responses due to a general unknown random inputs is investigated. Existing identification techniques which are based on assumptions of white noise and or stationary random inputs are utilized even though the inputs conditions are not satisfied. This is accomplished via adding. In cascade. A force cascade conversion to the structures system under consideration. The input to the force conversion system is white noise and the output of which is the act...

  8. HPTN 068: A Randomized Control Trial of a Conditional Cash Transfer to Reduce HIV Infection in Young Women in South Africa-Study Design and Baseline Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettifor, Audrey; MacPhail, Catherine; Selin, Amanda; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Rosenberg, Molly; Wagner, Ryan G; Mabuza, Wonderful; Hughes, James P; Suchindran, Chirayath; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Wang, Jing; Twine, Rhian; Daniel, Tamu; Andrew, Philip; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Agyei, Yaw; Tollman, Stephen; Kahn, Kathleen

    2016-09-01

    Young women in South Africa are at high risk for HIV infection. Cash transfers offer promise to reduce HIV risk. We present the design and baseline results from HPTN 068, a phase III, individually randomized trial to assess the effect of a conditional cash transfer on HIV acquisition among South African young women. A total of 2533 young women were randomized to receive a monthly cash transfer conditional on school attendance or to a control group. A number of individual-, partner-, household- and school-level factors were associated with HIV and HSV-2 infection. After adjusting for age, all levels were associated with an increased odds of HIV infection with partner-level factors conveying the strongest association (aOR 3.05 95 % CI 1.84-5.06). Interventions like cash transfers that address structural factors such as schooling and poverty have the potential to reduce HIV risk in young women in South Africa.

  9. Continued glucose output after re-feeding contributes to glucose intolerance in hyperthyroidism.

    OpenAIRE

    Holness, M J; Sugden, M C

    1987-01-01

    The effects of hyperthyroidism to elicit glucose intolerance after glucose administration were decreased under conditions where hepatic glucose output was suppressed. It is concluded that continued hepatic glucose output contributes to abnormal glucose tolerance in hyperthyroidism.

  10. Validation of transpulmonary thermodilution cardiac output measurement in a pediatric animal model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemson, J.; Boode, W.P. de; Hopman, J.C.W.; Singh, S.K.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to validate the transpulmonary thermodilution cardiac output measurement (CO(TPTD)) in a controlled newborn animal model under various hemodynamic conditions with special emphasis on low cardiac output. DESIGN: Prospective, experimental, pediatric animal study.

  11. Research management and research output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Bosch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A study was conducted at two merged South African higher education institutions to determine which management factors, as identified in a literature study as well as through a factor analysis of survey data, were predictive of the dependent variable 'research output'. Problem investigated: Research output contributes to creating sustainability of knowledge of management sciences and therefore the active management of research is in the interest of progressive universities. Research management related activities are usually associated with measurable targets, detailed plans, rigorous evaluation and decisive action - all of which are observable (perhaps programmable behaviour also referred to as tangible factors. Authors argue that the tangible factors of any successful institution can be copied, technology can be bought, and in theory you should have an instantly thriving research institution. It is, however, clear that although many institutions have exactly the same technology and structure as their successful competitors, they still fail to succeed in increasing research output. Design and Research methodology or approach: A survey was distributed to n=411 and yielded a 49.6% response rate. A confirmatory reliability analysis as well as a factor analysis was conducted. Findings/implications: The empirical model that was derived through a factor analysis strengthens the argument that both tangible and intangible factors exist in a research environment. Tangible and intangible factors play a different role in predicting research output. The tangible factors are predictors of research output for non-research-active academics. The theoretical research output prediction model highlights predictors such as 'professional activities' and 'individual skills and competence' for specific groupings. The theoretical model indicates that the factors that predict research output are largely intrinsic to a researcher but could also be supported by

  12. {sup 90}Y -PET imaging: Exploring limitations and accuracy under conditions of low counts and high random fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlier, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.carlier@chu-nantes.fr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Nantes, Place Alexis Ricordeau, Nantes 44093, France and CRCNA–UMR 892 INSERM 6299 CNRS, 8 quai Moncousu BP 70721, Nantes 44007 (France); Willowson, Kathy P. [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Fourkal, Eugene [Department of Radiation Oncology, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212 (United States); Bailey, Dale L. [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe 2141, Australia and Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales 2065 (Australia); Doss, Mohan [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States); Conti, Maurizio [Siemens Healthcare Molecular Imaging, 810 Innovation Drive, Knoxville, Tennessee 37932 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: {sup 90}Y -positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is becoming a recognized modality for postinfusion quantitative assessment following radioembolization therapy. However, the extremely low counts and high random fraction associated with {sup 90}Y -PET may significantly impair both qualitative and quantitative results. The aim of this work was to study image quality and noise level in relation to the quantification and bias performance of two types of Siemens PET scanners when imaging {sup 90}Y and to compare experimental results with clinical data from two types of commercially available {sup 90}Y microspheres. Methods: Data were acquired on both Siemens Biograph TruePoint [non-time-of-flight (TOF)] and Biograph microcomputed tomography (mCT) (TOF) PET/CT scanners. The study was conducted in three phases. The first aimed to assess quantification and bias for different reconstruction methods according to random fraction and number of true counts in the scan. The NEMA 1994 PET phantom was filled with water with one cylindrical insert left empty (air) and the other filled with a solution of {sup 90}Y . The phantom was scanned for 60 min in the PET/CT scanner every one or two days. The second phase used the NEMA 2001 PET phantom to derive noise and image quality metrics. The spheres and the background were filled with a {sup 90}Y solution in an 8:1 contrast ratio and four 30 min acquisitions were performed over a one week period. Finally, 32 patient data (8 treated with Therasphere{sup ®} and 24 with SIR-Spheres{sup ®}) were retrospectively reconstructed and activity in the whole field of view and the liver was compared to theoretical injected activity. Results: The contribution of both bremsstrahlung and LSO trues was found to be negligible, allowing data to be decay corrected to obtain correct quantification. In general, the recovered activity for all reconstruction methods was stable over the range studied, with a small bias appearing at extremely

  13. World Input-Output Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  14. Compact Circuit Preprocesses Accelerometer Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Compact electronic circuit transfers dc power to, and preprocesses ac output of, accelerometer and associated preamplifier. Incorporated into accelerometer case during initial fabrication or retrofit onto commercial accelerometer. Made of commercial integrated circuits and other conventional components; made smaller by use of micrologic and surface-mount technology.

  15. World Input-Output Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  16. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  17. Determinants of rice output among ADP contact farmers in mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed factors affecting rice output among Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) contact farmers in the mining and non mining locations of IVO LGA of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select agricultural circles and rice farmers. The sample size was 120 rice ...

  18. Solar Power Station Output Inverter Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bauer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic applications spreads in these days fast, therefore they also undergo great development. Because the amount of the energy obtained from the panel depends on the surrounding conditions, as intensity of the sun exposure or the temperature of the solar array, the converter must be connected to the panel output. The Solar system equipped with inverter can supply small loads like notebooks, mobile chargers etc. in the places where the supplying network is not present. Or the system can be used as a generator and it shall deliver energy to the supply network. Each type of the application has different requirements on the converter and its control algorithm. But for all of them the one thing is common – the maximal efficiency. The paper focuses on design and simulation of the low power inverter that acts as output part of the whole converter. In the paper the design of the control algorithm of the inverter for both types of inverter application – for islanding mode and for operation on the supply grid – is discussed. Attention is also paid to the design of the output filter that should reduce negative side effects of the converter on the supply network.

  19. Cupping therapy versus acupuncture for pain-related conditions: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and trial sequential analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ya-jing; Cao, Hui-Juan; Li, Xin-Lin; Yang, Xiao-ying; Lai, Bao-Yong; Yang, Guo-Yang; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Background Both cupping therapy and acupuncture have been used in China for a long time, and their target indications are pain-related conditions. There is no systematic review comparing the effectiveness of these two therapies. Objectives To compare the beneficial effectiveness and safety between cupping therapy and acupuncture for pain-related conditions to provide evidence for clinical practice. Methods Protocol of this review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42016050986). We conducted liter...

  20. The effectiveness of thoracic spine manipulation for the management of musculoskeletal conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Ronald F; Meserve, Brent B; Boucher, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    Thoracic spine manipulation (TSM) is an intervention practiced by different professions, and recently an incursion of research using TSM has been published. The purpose of this review was to examine the effectiveness of TSM for the management of musculoskeletal conditions and the quality of trials that included TSM techniques. A comprehensive search of online databases was performed, and first authors of studies identified were contacted. Thirteen randomized clinical trials were included in the final review. The methodological quality of all studies was assessed using the 10-point PEDro scale. Seven of the 13 studies were of high quality. Three studies looked at TSM for treatment of shoulder conditions; however, there is limited evidence to support the use of TSM for shoulder conditions. Nine studies used TSM for the management of neck conditions. The meta-analysis identified a subset of homogeneous studies evaluating neck pain. The value of the pooled estimator (1.33) was statistically significant for the treatment effect of TSM in the studies with researcher effect removed (95 % confidence interval: 1.15, 1.52). This analysis suggests there is sufficient evidence to support the use of TSM for specific subgroups of patients with neck conditions. This review also identifies the need for further studies to examine the effectiveness of TSM to treat shoulder conditions and the effectiveness of TSM on neck conditions with long-term follow-up studies.

  1. Non-random pre-transcriptional evolution in HIV-1: a refutation of the foundational conditions for neutral evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Y Valenzuela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete base sequence of HIV-1 virus and GP120 ENV gene were analyzed to establish their distance to the expected neutral random sequence. An especial methodology was devised to achieve this aim. Analyses included: a proportion of dinucleotides (signatures; b homogeneity in the distribution of dinucleotides and bases (isochores by dividing both segments in ten and three sub-segments, respectively; c probability of runs of bases and No-bases according to the Bose-Einstein distribution. The analyses showed a huge deviation from the random distribution expected from neutral evolution and neutral-neighbor influence of nucleotide sites. The most significant result is the tremendous lack of CG dinucleotides (p < 10-50, a selective trait of eukaryote and not of single stranded RNA virus genomes. Results not only refute neutral evolution and neutral neighbor influence, but also strongly indicate that any base at any nucleotide site correlates with all the viral genome or sub-segments. These results suggest that evolution of HIV-1 is pan-selective rather than neutral or nearly neutral.

  2. The effect of methylphenidate on postural stability under single and dual task conditions in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - a double blind randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi-Polishook, Talia; Shorer, Zamir; Melzer, Itshak

    2009-05-15

    To investigate the effects of Methylphenidate (MPH) on postural stability in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children in single and dual task conditions. A randomized controlled double-blind study analyzing postural stability in 24 ADHD children before and after MPH vs. placebo treatments, in three task conditions: (1) Single task, standing still; (2) dual task, standing still performing a memory-attention demanding task; (3) standing still listening to music. MPH resulted in a significant improvement in postural stability during the dual task condition and while listening to music, with no equivalent improvement in placebo controls. MPH improves postural stability in ADHD, especially when an additional task is performed. This is probably due to enhanced attention abilities, thus contributing to improved balance control during performance of tasks that require attention. MPH remains to be studied as a potential drug treatment to improve balance control and physical functioning in other clinical populations.

  3. A randomized controlled trial of telemonitoring in older adults with multiple chronic conditions: the Tele-ERA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Paul Y

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older adults with multiple chronic illnesses are at risk for worsening functional and medical status and hospitalization. Home telemonitoring may help slow this decline. This protocol of a randomized controlled trial was designed to help determine the impact of home telemonitoring on hospitalization. The specific aim of the study reads as follows: to determine the effectiveness of home telemonitoring compared with usual care in reducing the combined outcomes of hospitalization and emergency department visits in an at-risk population 60 years of age or older. Methods/Design Two-hundred patients with the highest 10% Mayo Clinic Elder Risk Assessment scores will be randomly assigned to one of two interventions. Home telemonitoring involves the use of a computer device, the Intel Health Guide, which records biometric and symptom data from patients in their homes. This information is monitored by midlevel providers associated with a primary care medical practice. Under the usual care scenario, patients make appointments with their providers as problems arise and use ongoing support such as a 24-hour nurse line. Patients will have initial evaluations of gait and quality of life using instruments such as the SF-12 Health Survey, the Kokmen Short Test of Mental Status, and the PHQ-9 health questionnaire. Patients will be followed for 1 year for primary outcomes of hospitalizations and emergency department visits. Secondary analysis will include quality of life, compliance with the device, and attitudes about telemonitoring. Sample size is based on an 80% power to detect a 36% difference between the two groups. The primary analysis will involve Cox proportional time-to-event analysis. Secondary analysis will use t-test comparisons for continuous variables and the chi square test for proportional analysis. Discussion Patients randomized to home telemonitoring will have daily assessments of their health status using the device

  4. A Correction of Random Incidence Absorption Coefficients for the Angular Distribution of Acoustic Energy under Measurement Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2009-01-01

    discrepancies between the measured value and the theoretical random incidence absorption coefficient. Therefore the angular distribution of the incident acoustic energy onto an absorber sample should be taken into account. The angular distribution of the incident energy density was simulated using the beam...... tracing method for various room shapes and source positions. The averaged angular distribution is found to be similar to a Gaussian distribution. As a result, an angle-weighted absorption coefficient was proposed by considering the angular energy distribution to improve the agreement between...... the theoretical absorption coefficient and the reverberation room measurement. The angle-weighted absorption coefficient, together with the size correction, agrees satisfactorily with the measured absorption data by the reverberation chamber method. At high frequencies and for large samples, the averaged...

  5. UFO - The Universal FEYNRULES Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrande, Céline; Duhr, Claude; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so-called Universal FEYNRULES Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a PYTHON module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the MATHEMATICA package FEYNRULES that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

  6. Genetic correlations between body condition score, yield and fertility in Holstein heifers estimated by random regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, R.F.; Koenen, E.P.C.; Jong, de G.

    2001-01-01

    Twenty type classifiers scored body condition (BCS) of 91,738 first-parity cows from 601 sires and 5518 maternal grandsires. Fertility data during first lactation were extracted for 177,220 cows, of which 67,278 also had a BCS observation, and first-lactation 305-d milk, fat, and protein yields were

  7. A randomized controlled trial of a cognitive-behavioral program for the prevention of depression in adolescents compared with nonspecific and no-intervention control conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pössel, Patrick; Martin, Nina C; Garber, Judy; Hautzinger, Martin

    2013-07-01

    Adolescent depression is a common and recurrent disorder associated with significant impairment and other forms of psychopathology. Finding an effective intervention that prevents depression in adolescents is an important public health priority. Participants were 518 high school students (mean age = 15.09; SD = 0.76) from the mid-south of the United States. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: a cognitive-behavioral program (CB; n = 166), nonspecific control (NSp; n = 175), or a no-intervention control condition (NIC; n = 177). Both the CB and NSp conditions consisted of 90-min sessions administered once a week over a 10-week period during regular school hours. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) at baseline; postintervention; and at 4-, 8-, and 12-month follow-ups. The Time × Condition interaction was significant, F(8, 478.57) = 3.32, p = .001, indicating that at the 4-month follow-up, youth in the CB condition had significantly lower CDI scores compared with those in the NSp (p = .047, g = 0.29; CI [0.06, 0.52]) and the NIC conditions (p = .003, g = 0.30; CI [0.07, 0.53]). Future studies need to examine the importance of theory-driven change mechanisms, interpersonal relationships, and structural circumstances in schools as factors impacting the long-term effects of CB prevention programs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Phonological Learning with Output-Driven Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an output-driven map formally characterizes an intuitive notion about phonology: that disparities between the input and the output are introduced only to the extent necessary to satisfy restrictions on outputs. When all of the grammars definable in a phonological system are output-driven, the implied structure provides significant…

  9. Cocoa Flavanol Supplementation Influences Skin Conditions of Photo-Aged Women: A 24-Week Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Jong Rhan; Park, Gyeong Yul; Kim, Jong-Eun; Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Ki Won; Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of dietary antioxidants is considered to be a good strategy against photo-aging. However, the results of previous clinical trials that investigated the effects of oral consumption of high-flavanol cocoa products on skin photo-aging have been contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high-flavanol cocoa supplementation would improve the moderately photo-aged facial skin of female participants, by assessing skin wrinkles and elasticity. We performed a 24-wk, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effects of oral supplementation of cocoa flavanols on cutaneous photo-aging. All participants were moderately photo-aged Korean women with visible facial wrinkles (age range: 43-86 y). Participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo beverage or cocoa beverage that contained 320 mg total cocoa flavanols/d. We measured wrinkles, skin elasticity, and hydration at baseline and at 12 and 24 wk. The primary endpoint was the mean percentage change in the average roughness value (Rz) at 24 wk. At 24 wk, the mean percentage change in Rz (primary endpoint) was significantly lower in the cocoa group than in the placebo group (-8.7 percentage points; 95% CI: -16.1, -1.3 percentage points; P = 0.023). The mean percentage changes in gross elasticity, as determined by a cutometer, also differed between the groups at 12 wk (9.1 percentage points; 95% CI: 1.5, 16.7 percentage points; P = 0.020) and 24 wk (8.6 percentage points; 95% CI: 1.0, 16.2 percentage points; P = 0.027). However, there were no significant differences in skin hydration and barrier integrity between the 2 groups. In moderately photo-aged women, regular cocoa flavanol consumption had positive effects on facial wrinkles and elasticity. Cocoa flavanol supplementation may contribute to the prevention of the progression of photo-aging. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02060097. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Unbiased All-Optical Random-Number Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinle, Tobias; Greiner, Johannes N.; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Giessen, Harald; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2017-10-01

    The generation of random bits is of enormous importance in modern information science. Cryptographic security is based on random numbers which require a physical process for their generation. This is commonly performed by hardware random-number generators. These often exhibit a number of problems, namely experimental bias, memory in the system, and other technical subtleties, which reduce the reliability in the entropy estimation. Further, the generated outcome has to be postprocessed to "iron out" such spurious effects. Here, we present a purely optical randomness generator, based on the bistable output of an optical parametric oscillator. Detector noise plays no role and postprocessing is reduced to a minimum. Upon entering the bistable regime, initially the resulting output phase depends on vacuum fluctuations. Later, the phase is rigidly locked and can be well determined versus a pulse train, which is derived from the pump laser. This delivers an ambiguity-free output, which is reliably detected and associated with a binary outcome. The resulting random bit stream resembles a perfect coin toss and passes all relevant randomness measures. The random nature of the generated binary outcome is furthermore confirmed by an analysis of resulting conditional entropies.

  11. Unbiased All-Optical Random-Number Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Steinle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The generation of random bits is of enormous importance in modern information science. Cryptographic security is based on random numbers which require a physical process for their generation. This is commonly performed by hardware random-number generators. These often exhibit a number of problems, namely experimental bias, memory in the system, and other technical subtleties, which reduce the reliability in the entropy estimation. Further, the generated outcome has to be postprocessed to “iron out” such spurious effects. Here, we present a purely optical randomness generator, based on the bistable output of an optical parametric oscillator. Detector noise plays no role and postprocessing is reduced to a minimum. Upon entering the bistable regime, initially the resulting output phase depends on vacuum fluctuations. Later, the phase is rigidly locked and can be well determined versus a pulse train, which is derived from the pump laser. This delivers an ambiguity-free output, which is reliably detected and associated with a binary outcome. The resulting random bit stream resembles a perfect coin toss and passes all relevant randomness measures. The random nature of the generated binary outcome is furthermore confirmed by an analysis of resulting conditional entropies.

  12. Buck supplies output voltage ripple reduction using fuzzy control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu BIZON

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the PWM control for switching power supplies the peaks EMI noise appear at the switching frequency and its harmonics. Using randomize or chaotic PWM control techniques in these systems the power spectrum is spread out in all frequencies band spectral emissions, but with a bigger ripple in the output voltage. The proposed nonlinear feedback control method, which induces chaos, is based by fuzzy rules that minimize the output voltage ripple. The feasibility and effectiveness of this relative simple method is shown by simulation. A comparison with the previous control method is included, too.

  13. The effect of a cognitive-motor intervention on voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions in older adults: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichierri G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Pichierri,1 Amos Coppe,1 Silvio Lorenzetti,2 Kurt Murer,1 Eling D de Bruin11Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland; 2Institute for Biomechanics, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, SwitzerlandBackground: This randomized controlled pilot study aimed to explore whether a cognitive-motor exercise program that combines traditional physical exercise with dance video gaming can improve the voluntary stepping responses of older adults under attention demanding dual task conditions.Methods: Elderly subjects received twice weekly cognitive-motor exercise that included progressive strength and balance training supplemented by dance video gaming for 12 weeks (intervention group. The control group received no specific intervention. Voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions was recorded at baseline and post intervention (Week 12.Results: After intervention between-group comparison revealed significant differences for initiation time of forward steps under dual task conditions (U = 9, P = 0.034, r = 0.55 and backward steps under dual task conditions (U = 10, P = 0.045, r = 0.52 in favor of the intervention group, showing altered stepping levels in the intervention group compared to the control group.Conclusion: A cognitive-motor intervention based on strength and balance exercises with additional dance video gaming is able to improve voluntary step execution under both single and dual task conditions in older adults.Keywords: fall prevention, exercise, dance, video game

  14. Border control! Capillary pressure / saturation relationships in a diphasic flow in a random medium: Influence of the boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Eve-Agnès; Toussaint, Renaud; Moura, Marcel; Jankov, Mihailo; Schäfer, Gerhard; Jørgen Måløy, Knut

    2013-04-01

    Solving problems involving biphasic flows in porous media, at a scale larger than the pore one, normally requires the use of relationships between pressure and saturation. These allow the closure of generalized Darcy flow models for two phases, commonly used in hydrology or large scale problems of diphasic flow in porous media. There are mathematical models which approximate experimental records with curve-fitting equations. The two most common models are the Brooks-Corey and van Genüchten ones, they are used to complete a system of generalized Darcy equations. The purpose of the current study is the influence of the boundary conditions on the relationship between pressure and saturation. We perform numerical simulations of drainage experiments. Water is the wetting fluid and air is the non wetting fluid. The results highlight the fact that a filter which allows only water to flow at the exit face of the system modifies both the shape of the curve and the value of the residual saturation. The pressure of the models that are commonly used does not match with the pressure of real flows since there is no filter to cross, to flow from an elementary volume to another. Experiments performed in transparent Hele-Shaw cells exhibit the same features, showing the influence of the semi permeable boundary conditions on the pressure-saturation measures obtained. This effect corresponding to the formation of localized plugging clusters at the boundaries, is obtained in slow flow conditions, and is independent of any dynamic fingering, also known to affect such relations (1,2,3). Modeling flows in open media thus would require to use the central part of the curves pressure saturation where the effect of the boundaries is the least important, or to modify properly these relationships to extract the behavior unaffected by boundaries. References: (1) Two-phase flow: structure, upscaling, and consequences for macroscopic transport properties Renaud Toussaint ; Knut Jørgen M

  15. Manage at work: a randomized, controlled trial of a self-management group intervention to overcome workplace challenges associated with chronic physical health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, William S; Besen, Elyssa; Pransky, Glenn; Boot, Cécile R L; Nicholas, Michael K; McLellan, Robert K; Tveito, Torill H

    2014-05-28

    The percentage of older and chronically ill workers is increasing rapidly in the US and in many other countries, but few interventions are available to help employees overcome the workplace challenges of chronic pain and other physical health conditions. While most workers are eligible for job accommodation and disability compensation benefits, other workplace strategies might improve individual-level coping and problem solving to prevent work disability. In this study, we hypothesize that an employer-sponsored group intervention program employing self-management principles may improve worker engagement and reduce functional limitation associated with chronic disorders. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), workers participating in an employer-sponsored self-management group intervention will be compared with a no-treatment (wait list) control condition. Volunteer employees (n = 300) will be recruited from five participating employers and randomly assigned to intervention or control. Participants in the intervention arm will attend facilitated group workshop sessions at work (10 hours total) to explore methods for improving comfort, adjusting work habits, communicating needs effectively, applying systematic problem solving, and dealing with negative thoughts and emotions about work. Work engagement and work limitation are the principal outcomes. Secondary outcomes include fatigue, job satisfaction, self-efficacy, turnover intention, sickness absence, and health care utilization. Measurements will be taken at baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. A process evaluation will be performed alongside the randomized trial. This study will be most relevant for organizations and occupational settings where some degree of job flexibility, leeway, and decision-making autonomy can be afforded to affected workers. The study design will provide initial assessment of a novel workplace approach and to understand factors affecting its feasibility and effectiveness

  16. Swift heavy ion track formation in SrTiO3 and TiO2 under random, channeling and near-channeling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlušić, M.; Jakšić, M.; Lebius, H.; Ban-d'Etat, B.; Wilhelm, R. A.; Heller, R.; Schleberger, M.

    2017-05-01

    Conditions for ion track formation in single crystal SrTiO3 and TiO2 (rutile) after irradiations using swift heavy ion beams with specific energies below 1 MeV/amu were investigated in this work. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy in channeling was used to measure ion tracks in the bulk, while atomic force microscopy was used for observation of ion tracks on the surfaces. Variations in the ion track sizes and respective thresholds were observed after irradiations under random, channeling and near-channeling conditions close to normal incidence. These variations are attributed to the specifics of the electronic stopping power of swift heavy ions under the investigated conditions. In the case of ion channeling, electronic stopping power is reduced and observed ion tracks are smaller. The opposite was found under the near-channeling conditions when lowering of the ion track formation threshold was observed. We attribute this finding to the oscillating electronic stopping power with large peak values. For both materials, thresholds for bulk and surface ion track formation were found to be surprisingly close, around 10 keV nm-1. Obtained results are compared with predictions of the analytical thermal spike model.

  17. Cooperative Control for Uncertain Multiagent Systems via Distributed Output Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The distributed robust output regulation problem for multiagent systems is considered. For heterogeneous uncertain linear systems and a linear exosystem, the controlling aim is to stabilize the closed-loop system and meanwhile let the regulated outputs converge to the origin asymptotically, by the help of local interaction. The communication topology considered is directed acyclic graphs, which means directed graphs without loops. With distributed dynamic state feedback controller and output feedback controller, respectively, the solvability of the problem and the algorithm of controller design are both investigated. The solvability conditions are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. It is shown that, for polytopic uncertainties, the distributed controllers constructed by solving LMIs can satisfy the requirements of output regulation property.

  18. Integration of TMVA Output into Jupyter notebooks

    CERN Document Server

    Saliji, Albulena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the work that I have been doing during these past eight weeks as a Summer Student at CERN. The task which was assigned to me had to do with the integration of TMVA Output into Jupyter notebooks. In order to integrate the TMVA Output into the Jupyter notebook, first, improvement of the TMVA Output in the terminal was required. Once the output was improved, it needed to be transformed into HTML output and at the end it would be possible to integrate that output into the Jupyter notebook.

  19. Remote ischemic conditioning in ST-elevation myocardial infarction as adjuvant to primary angioplasty (RIC-STEMI): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, António; Pereira, Miguel Álvares; Azevedo, Pedro; Lourenço, André; Marques, Jorge; Leite-Moreira, Adelino

    2015-09-08

    ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) accounts for nearly one third of acute coronary syndromes. Despite improved STEMI patient care, mortality remains high, contributing significantly to the ischemic heart disease burden. This may partly be related to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC), through short cycles of ischemia-reperfusion applied to a limb, has been shown to reduce IRI in various clinical settings. Our primary hypothesis is that RIC will reduce adverse events related to STEMI when applied as adjunctive therapy to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). "Remote ischemic conditioning in ST-elevation myocardial infarction as adjuvant to primary angioplasty" (RIC-STEMI) is an ongoing prospective, single-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial to assess whether RIC as an adjunctive therapy during primary PCI in patients presenting with STEMI can improve clinical outcomes. After enrollment, participants are randomized according to a computer-generated randomization schedule, in a ratio of 1:1 to RIC or no intervention, in blocks of four individuals. RIC is begun at least 10 min before the estimated time of the first balloon inflation and its duration is 30 min. Ischemia is induced by three cycles of inflation of a blood pressure cuff placed on the left lower limb to 200 mmHg and then deflation to 0 mmHg for another 5 min. Primary endpoint is a combined endpoint of death from cardiac cause or hospitalization for heart failure (HF) on follow-up (including device implantation: implantable cardioverter defibrillator, cardiac resynchronization and left ventricular assist device). Secondary endpoints are myocardial infarction (MI) size (estimated by the 48 h area under the curve of serum troponin I levels), development of Q-wave MI, left ventricular function (assessed by echocardiography within the first 3 days after admission), contrast-induced nephropathy, in-hospital mortality, all-cause mortality and

  20. Modeling and Output Feedback Control of Networked Control Systems with Both Time Delays; and Packet Dropouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of modeling and output feedback controller design for a class of discrete-time networked control systems (NCSs with time delays and packet dropouts. A Markovian jumping method is proposed to deal with random time delays and packet dropouts. Different from the previous studies on the issue, the characteristics of networked communication delays and packet dropouts can be truly reflected by the unified model; namely, both sensor-to-controller (S-C and controller-to-actuator (C-A time delays, and packet dropouts are modeled and their history behavior is described by multiple Markov chains. The resulting closed-loop system is described by a new Markovian jump linear system (MJLS with Markov delays model. Based on Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI method, sufficient conditions of the stochastic stability and output feedback controller design method for NCSs with random time delays and packet dropouts are presented. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Mathematics and the Heart: Understanding Cardiac Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champanerkar, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    This paper illustrates a biological application of the concepts of relative change and area under a curve, from mathematics. We study two biological measures "relative change in cardiac output" and "cardiac output", which are predictors of heart blockages and other related ailments. Cardiac output refers to the quantity of…

  2. Probabilistic Output Analysis by Program Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of a probabilistic output analysis is to derive a probability distribution of possible output values for a program from a probability distribution of its input. We present a method for performing static output analysis, based on program transformation techniques. It generates a probability...

  3. The lack of public health research output from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar VS Udaya

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic assessment of recent health research output from India, and its relation with the estimated disease burden, is not available. This information would help understand the areas in health research that need improvement in India to enhance the health of India's population. Methods The health research output from India during 2002, which was accessible in the public domain, was assessed by searching PubMed and other internet health literature databases, and was related to the disease burden suggested by the Global Burden of Disease Study. The main outcome measures were number of health papers with abstracts in basic, clinical and public health sciences; quality-adjusted research output based on the impact factors of journals in which the papers were published; classification of papers in disease/condition categories and comparison of research output with the estimated disease burden in each category. Comparison of the health papers from India during 2002 included in PubMed was done with those from Australia during one quarter of 2002. Results Of the 4876 health papers from India in 2002 in PubMed, 48.4%, 47.1% and 4.4% were in basic, clinical and public health sciences, respectively. Of the 4495 papers based on original research, only 3.3% were in public health. Quality-adjusted original research output was highest for non-communicable diseases (62% of total. Of the total quality-adjusted original research output, the proportions in injuries (0.7%, cardiovascular diseases (3.6%, respiratory infections (0.2%, diarrhoeal diseases (1.9%, perinatal conditions (0.4%, childhood cluster diseases (0.5%, unipolar major depression (0%, and HIV/AIDS (1.5% were substantially lower than their proportional contribution to the disease burden in India. Human resources, health policy, health economics, and impact assessment of interventions were particularly poorly represented in public health research. The Australia-India ratio for

  4. Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Internet Therapy, Group Therapy and A Waiting List Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Eduard J; Bögels, Susan M; Oort, Frans J; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) in adolescents. A randomized controlled trial of CBTI in group therapy (GT), guided internet therapy (IT), and a waiting list (WL), with assessments at baseline, directly after treatment (post-test), and at 2 months follow-up. Diagnostic interviews were held at the laboratory of the Research Institute of Child Development and Education at the University of Amsterdam. Treatment for GT occurred at the mental health care center UvAMinds in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. One hundred sixteen adolescents (mean age = 15.6 y, SD = 1.6 y, 25% males) meeting DSM-IV criteria for insomnia, were randomized to IT, GT, or WL. CBTI of 6 weekly sessions, consisted of psychoeducation, sleep hygiene, restriction of time in bed, stimulus control, cognitive therapy, and relaxation techniques. GT was conducted in groups of 6 to 8 adolescents, guided by 2 trained sleep therapists. IT was applied through an online guided self-help website with programmed instructions and written feedback from a trained sleep therapist. Sleep was measured with actigraphy and sleep logs for 7 consecutive days. Symptoms of insomnia and chronic sleep reduction were measured with questionnaires. Results showed that adolescents in both IT and GT, compared to WL, improved significantly on sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, and total sleep time at post-test, and improvements were maintained at follow-up. Most of these improvements were found in both objective and subjective measures. Furthermore, insomnia complaints and symptoms of chronic sleep reduction also decreased significantly in both treatment conditions compared to WL. Effect sizes for improvements ranged from medium to large. A greater proportion of participants from the treatment conditions showed high end-state functioning and clinically significant improvement after treatment and at follow-up compared to WL. This study is the first randomized

  5. Effect of EDTA conditioning on cervical restorations bonded with a self-etch adhesive: A randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Martinez, Issis; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Mena-Serrano, Alexandra; Hass, Viviane; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro D

    2015-09-01

    To compare the 18-month retention rates of composite restorations in non-carious cervical lesions [NCCLs] bonded with a self-etch adhesive with and without preliminary conditioning with EDTA. Forty-eight patients with two similar-sized NCCL were selected and randomly allocated to one of two groups. Two calibrated operators placed 96 restorations with a one-step self-etch adhesive (Adper Easy One, 3M ESPE). Half of the restorations were placed according to the manufacturer's instructions while, for the other half, the surfaces of the lesions were conditioned with 17% EDTA for 2 min prior to adhesive application. Two blinded and independent examiners evaluated the restorations at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months, according to the FDI criteria. The comparison between groups in each period was conducted with the Fisher's exact test, and the performance of each group at the different periods was evaluated by McNemar's test (α=0.05). After 18 months, significantly higher retention rates (95% CI) were observed for the EDTA group (95.5 [84.9-98.7]) than the control group (79.6% [65.5-88.9]) (p=0.02). Significant deterioration of the marginal adaptation and marginal discoloration were observed for both groups over the 18-month evaluation. The preliminary conditioning with EDTA before application of a one-step self-etch adhesive significantly improved the retention rates of composite restorations in cervical lesions. Conditioning with EDTA is an alternative that improves the 18-month retention rate of cervical restorations bonded with a self-etch adhesive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Model output: fact or artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, Lieke

    2015-04-01

    As a third-year PhD-student, I relatively recently entered the wonderful world of scientific Hydrology. A science that has many pillars that directly impact society, for example with the prediction of hydrological extremes (both floods and drought), climate change, applications in agriculture, nature conservation, drinking water supply, etcetera. Despite its demonstrable societal relevance, hydrology is often seen as a science between two stools. Like Klemeš (1986) stated: "By their academic background, hydrologists are foresters, geographers, electrical engineers, geologists, system analysts, physicists, mathematicians, botanists, and most often civil engineers." Sometimes it seems that the engineering genes are still present in current hydrological sciences, and this results in pragmatic rather than scientific approaches for some of the current problems and challenges we have in hydrology. Here, I refer to the uncertainty in hydrological modelling that is often neglected. For over thirty years, uncertainty in hydrological models has been extensively discussed and studied. But it is not difficult to find peer-reviewed articles in which it is implicitly assumed that model simulations represent the truth rather than a conceptualization of reality. For instance in trend studies, where data is extrapolated 100 years ahead. Of course one can use different forcing datasets to estimate the uncertainty of the input data, but how to prevent that the output is not a model artefact, caused by the model structure? Or how about impact studies, e.g. of a dam impacting river flow. Measurements are often available for the period after dam construction, so models are used to simulate river flow before dam construction. Both are compared in order to qualify the effect of the dam. But on what basis can we tell that the model tells us the truth? Model validation is common nowadays, but validation only (comparing observations with model output) is not sufficient to assume that a

  7. Output regulation of linear plants subject to constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Shi, Guoyong; Sannuti, Peddapullaiah

    Output regulation problems for continuous-time linear systems with state and/or input constraints are studied. The problems are formulated in global and semi-global setting by using state or full information feedback. The goal of this paper is to develop solvability conditions for the posed

  8. Impact of different privacy conditions and incentives on survey response rate, participant representativeness, and disclosure of sensitive information: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Maureen; Simon, Alisha Baines; Polusny, Melissa Anderson; Bangerter, Ann Kay; Grill, Joseph Patrick; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Partin, Melissa Ruth

    2014-07-16

    Anonymous survey methods appear to promote greater disclosure of sensitive or stigmatizing information compared to non-anonymous methods. Higher disclosure rates have traditionally been interpreted as being more accurate than lower rates. We examined the impact of 3 increasingly private mailed survey conditions-ranging from potentially identifiable to completely anonymous-on survey response and on respondents' representativeness of the underlying sampling frame, completeness in answering sensitive survey items, and disclosure of sensitive information. We also examined the impact of 2 incentives ($10 versus $20) on these outcomes. A 3X2 factorial, randomized controlled trial of 324 representatively selected, male Gulf War I era veterans who had applied for United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) disability benefits. Men were asked about past sexual assault experiences, childhood abuse, combat, other traumas, mental health symptoms, and sexual orientation. We used a novel technique, the pre-merged questionnaire, to link anonymous responses to administrative data. Response rates ranged from 56.0% to 63.3% across privacy conditions (p = 0.49) and from 52.8% to 68.1% across incentives (p = 0.007). Respondents' characteristics differed by privacy and by incentive assignments, with completely anonymous respondents and $20 respondents appearing least different from their non-respondent counterparts. Survey completeness did not differ by privacy or by incentive. No clear pattern of disclosing sensitive information by privacy condition or by incentive emerged. For example, although all respondents came from the same sampling frame, estimates of sexual abuse ranged from 13.6% to 33.3% across privacy conditions, with the highest estimate coming from the intermediate privacy condition (p = 0.007). Greater privacy and larger incentives do not necessarily result in higher disclosure rates of sensitive information than lesser privacy and lower incentives. Furthermore

  9. Esthetic Outcome of Implant Supported Crowns With and Without Peri-Implant Conditioning Using Provisional Fixed Prosthesis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furze, David; Byrne, Ashley; Alam, Sonia; Wittneben, Julia-Gabriela

    2016-12-01

    Achieving an optimal esthetic result using dental implants is challenging. Fixed implant-supported provisional crowns are often used to customize the emergence profile and to individualize the surrounding peri-implant soft tissue. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether the use of a provisional implant-supported crown leads to an esthetic benefit on implants that are placed in the esthetic zone. The null hypothesis is that there is no-difference between the two study groups. Twenty single implants (Bone Level, Straumann AG, Basel, Switzerland) were inserted in consecutive patients. After reopening, a randomization process assigned them to either cohort group 1: a provisional phase with soft tissue conditioning using the "dynamic compression technique" or cohort group 2: without a provisional. Implants were finally restored with an all-ceramic crown. Follow-up examinations were performed at 3 and 12 months including implant success and survival, clinical, and radiographic parameters. After 1 year all implants successfully integrated, mean values of combined modPES and WES were 16.7 for group 1 and 10.5 for Group 2. This was statistically significant. Mean bone loss after 1 year was -0.09 and -0.08 for groups 1 and 2, respectively, without being statistically significant. A provisional phase with soft tissue conditioning does improve the final esthetic result. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Differential pharmacokinetics of diclofenac potassium for oral solution vs immediate-release tablets from a randomized trial: effect of fed and fasting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cuiping; Bujanover, Shay; Kareht, Stephanie; Rapoport, Alan M

    2015-02-01

    analyzed for diclofenac concentrations. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including peak concentration (Cmax ), time to Cmax (tmax ), area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to last measurable concentration (AUCt ), and extrapolation to infinity (AUC∞ ) were obtained using non-compartmental analysis. Comparative assessments for Cmax and AUC were performed between the solution and tablet under fed and fasting conditions and between fed and fasting states for both formulations. Bioequivalent exposure was defined as the geometric mean ratio and its 90% confidence interval falling within 80.0-125.0% for Cmax and AUC. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the trial. Sixty-one percent of the 36 randomized subjects were male, 91.7% were Caucasian, and the mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 31.9 (7.6) years. Thirty-three (91.7%) subjects completed all 4 treatments. When taken under fed conditions, the oral solution resulted in an approximately 80% faster median tmax (0.17 vs 1.25 hours, P = .00015) and a 21% lower Cmax (mean ± SD, ng/mL: 506 ± 305 vs 835 ± 449, P = .00061) compared with the tablet. AUC values were similar between the 2 formulations. When taken under fasting conditions, the oral solution exhibited a 50% faster median tmax (0.25 vs 0.50 hours, P = .00035) to achieve a 77% higher Cmax (mean ± SD, ng/mL: 1620 ± 538 vs 1160 ± 452, P = .00032) compared with the tablet. AUCt and AUC∞ were similar between the 2 formulations. When taken under fed conditions, the oral solution resulted in a similar median tmax (0.17 vs 0.25 hours, P = .185) and 64% lower Cmax (mean ± SD, ng/mL: 506 ± 305 vs 1620 ± 538, P fasting conditions. In comparison, the tablets under fed conditions resulted in a statistically significantly delayed median tmax (1.25 vs 0.50, P = .00143) and ∼30% lower Cmax (mean ± SD, ng/mL: 835 ± 449 vs 1160 ± 452, P = .00377). AUC values were

  11. Random fixed points and random differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos S. Papageorgiou

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, first, we study random best approximations to random sets, using fixed point techniques, obtaining this way stochastic analogues of earlier deterministic results by Browder-Petryshyn, KyFan and Reich. Then we prove two fixed point theorems for random multifunctions with stochastic domain that satisfy certain tangential conditions. Finally we consider a random differential inclusion with upper semicontinuous orientor field and establish the existence of random solutions.

  12. A multi-center prospective study randomizing the use of fat emulsion in intensive glucose control after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using a myeloablative conditioning regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuji, Shigeo; Kim, Sung-Won; Kamiya, Shigemi; Nakane, Takahiko; Matsumoto, Kenji; Onishi, Yasushi; Yakushijin, Kimikazu; Yamazaki, Etsuko; Hino, Masayuki; Kurosawa, Saiko; Yoshimura, Ken-Ichi; Fukuda, Takahiro

    2017-11-16

    Although parenteral nutrition (PN) is often used after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), there is controversy regarding PN management, for instance in the use of fat emulsion and glucose control (GC). To clarify these issues, we conducted a multi-center prospective study with intensive GC, randomizing the use of fat emulsion after allo-HSCT using a myeloablative conditioning regimen. The primary endpoint was the cumulative incidence of documented infectious disease, namely bacterial and fungal infection, at day 100 after allo-HSCT. Between August 2007 and March 2012, we enrolled 81 patients at 5 centers. Excluding 5 ineligible patients, 76 patients received the protocol treatment. The target fasting glucose level was 80-110 mg/dL. The median follow-up of surviving patients was 1796 days. The cumulative incidences of documented infectious disease at day 100 were 16% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6-29%) in the no-fat group and 19% (95% CI 8-32%) in the fat group, indicating no significant difference. The mean glucose level at 28 days after allo-HSCT was 107 mg/dL in the no-fat group and 111 mg/dL in the fat group. Grade 3 hyperglycemia (>250 mg/dL) and grade 3 hypoglycemia (fat group and 69% and 8% in the fat group, respectively. Irrespective of the use of fat emulsion, the long-term clinical outcomes of the enrolled patients were favorable under intensive GC. To further clarify the benefits of GC after allo-HSCT, a prospective study randomizing the level of GC is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Output order in immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lydia; Ward, Geoff

    2007-07-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effect of output order in immediate serial recall (ISR). In Experiment 1, three groups of participants saw lists of eight words and wrote down the words in the rows corresponding to their serial positions in an eight-row response grid. One group was precued to respond in forward order, a second group was precued to respond in any order, and a third group was postcued for response order. There were significant effects of output order, but not of cue type. Relative to the forward output order, the free output order led to enhanced recency and diminished primacy, with superior performance for words output early in recall. These results were replicated in Experiment 2 using six-item lists, which further suggests that output order plays an important role in the primacy effect in ISR and that the recency items are most highly accessible at recall.

  14. Cointegration of output, capital, labor, and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stresing, R.; Lindenberger, D.; Kã¼mmel, R.

    2008-11-01

    Cointegration analysis is applied to the linear combinations of the time series of (the logarithms of) output, capital, labor, and energy for Germany, Japan, and the USA since 1960. The computed cointegration vectors represent the output elasticities of the aggregate energy-dependent Cobb-Douglas function. The output elasticities give the economic weights of the production factors capital, labor, and energy. We find that they are for labor much smaller and for energy much larger than the cost shares of these factors. In standard economic theory output elasticities equal cost shares. Our heterodox findings support results obtained with LINEX production functions.

  15. Exercise efficiency of low power output cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, M; Peterman, J E; Kram, R; Byrnes, W C

    2013-12-01

    Exercise efficiency at low power outputs, energetically comparable to daily living activities, can be influenced by homeostatic perturbations (e.g., weight gain/loss). However, an appropriate efficiency calculation for low power outputs used in these studies has not been determined. Fifteen active subjects (seven females, eight males) performed 14, 5-min cycling trials: two types of seated rest (cranks vertical and horizontal), passive (motor-driven) cycling, no-chain cycling, no-load cycling, cycling at low (10, 20, 30, 40 W), and moderate (50, 60, 80, 100, 120 W) power outputs. Mean delta efficiency was 57% for low power outputs compared to 41.3% for moderate power outputs. Means for gross (3.6%) and net (5.7%) efficiencies were low at the lowest power output. At low power outputs, delta and work efficiency values exceeded theoretical values. In conclusion, at low power outputs, none of the common exercise efficiency calculations gave values comparable to theoretical muscle efficiency. However, gross efficiency and the slope and intercept of the metabolic power vs mechanical power output regression provide insights that are still valuable when studying homeostatic perturbations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. High output piezo/triboelectric hybrid generator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    .... Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric...

  17. Input error versus output error model reference adaptive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodson, Marc; Sastry, Shankar

    1987-01-01

    Algorithms for model reference adaptive control were developed in recent years, and their stability and convergence properties have been investigated. Typical algorithms in continuous time involve strictly positive real conditions on the reference model, while similar discrete time algorithms do not require such conditions. It is shown how algorithms differ by the use of an input error versus an output error, and present a continuous time input error adaptive control algorithm which does not involve SPR conditions. The connections with other schemes are discussed. The input error scheme has general stability and ocnvergence properties that are similar to the output error scheme. However, analysis using averaging methods reveals some preferable convergence properties of the input error scheme. Several other advantages are also discussed.

  18. Nonpharmacological Treatments of Insomnia for Long-Term Painful Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Patient-Reported Outcomes in Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Nicole K Y; Lereya, S Tanya; Boulton, Hayley; Miller, Michelle A; Wolke, Dieter; Cappuccio, Francesco P

    2015-11-01

    Insomnia is a debilitating comorbidity of chronic pain. This study evaluated the effect of nonpharmacological sleep treatments on patient-reported sleep quality, pain, and well-being in people with long-term cancer and non-cancer (e.g., back pain, arthritis, fibromyalgia) pain conditions. We systematically searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and PsychINFO for relevant studies. Search period was set to inception of these databases to March 2014. Studies were included if they were: original randomized controlled trials (RCTs); testing a nonpharmacological intervention; that targets sleep; in adults; with painful health conditions; that has a control group; includes a measure of sleep quality; and at least one other health and well-being outcome. Means and standard deviations of sleep quality, pain, fatigue, depression, anxiety, physical and psychological functioning were extracted for the sleep treatment and control groups at baseline, posttreatment and final follow-up. Methodological details concerning the treatment, participants, and study design were abstracted to guide heterogeneity and subgroup analyses. Eleven RCTs involving 1,066 participants (mean age 45-61 years) met the criteria for the meta-analysis. There was no systematic evidence of publication bias. Nonpharmacological sleep treatments in chronic pain patients were associated with a large improvement in sleep quality (standardized mean difference = 0.78, 95% Confidence Interval [0.42, 1.13]; P sleep quality and fatigue were maintained at follow-up (up to 1 year) when a moderate reduction in depression (0.31, [0.09, 0.53]; P sleep treatments. Face-to-face treatments achieved better outcomes than those delivered over the phone/internet. Although the body of evidence was small, nonpharmacological sleep interventions may represent a fruitful avenue for optimizing treatment outcomes in patients with chronic pain. PROSPERO registration: CRD42013004131. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies

  19. Lipid Extract from Hard-Shelled Mussel (Mytilus coruscus Improves Clinical Conditions of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqing Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested a lipid extract from hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus (HMLE possessed strong anti-inflammatory activity in arthritis model of rats. This study investigated whether HMLE could improve clinical conditions of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Fifty rheumatoid arthritis patients (28–75 years were randomly assigned to receive HMLE capsules or receive placebo capsules for 6 months. Forty-two subjects and 50 subjects were included in per-protocol and intention-to-treat analysis, respectively. Significant differences in changes on disease activity score (DAS28 and clinical disease activity index (CDAI after 6-month intervention (p < 0.01 were observed in both analyses with more evident efficacy shown in per-protocol population (∆DAS28 = 0.47; ∆CDAI = 4.17, which favored the benefits of the HMLE group. TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL-1β and PGE2 (prostaglandin E2 but not IL-6, were significantly decreased in both groups, and the decrements were much larger in the HMLE group for TNF-α and PGE2 after 6 months from baseline (p < 0.05. IL-10 was significantly increased in both groups and the change was much more evident in the HMLE group (p < 0.05. In conclusion, HMLE exhibited benefits for the clinical conditions of rheumatoid patients in relation to improvement in the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory factors, which indicated its potential to serve as adjunctive treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02173587.

  20. A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial of Classroom-Based Mindfulness Meditation Compared to an Active Control Condition in 6th Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Willoughby B.; Lepp, Nathaniel E.; Niles, Halsey F.; Rocha, Tomas; Fisher, Nathan; Gold, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Children in the United States are at risk for numerous psychological problems, such as anxiety, attention problems, and mood disorders, and are underserved by current mental health provisions. The current study is a pilot trial to examine the effects of a nonelective, classroom-based, teacher-implemented, mindfulness meditation intervention on standard clinical measures of mental health and affect in middle school children. A total of 101 healthy sixth-grade students (55 boys and 46 girls) were randomized to either an Asian history course with daily mindfulness meditation practice (intervention group) or an African history course with a matched experiential activity (active control group). Self-reported data was collected by administering the Youth Self Report (YSR), a modified Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Measure -Revised before and after 6 weeks of meditation or active control condition. Both meditators and active controls decreased significantly on the YSR Internalizing Problems, Externalizing Problems, and Attention Problems subscales but did not differ in the extent of their improvements. Both groups also showed comparable improvements on measures in affect. Meditators were significantly less likely to develop suicidal ideation or thoughts of self-harm than controls. Improvements in affect were correlated with increases in mindfulness in meditators but not controls. These results suggest that mindfulness training may yield both unique and nonspecific benefits that are shared by other novel activities. PMID:24930819

  1. Assessing the psychological factors predicting workers' output ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated job security, communication skills, interpersonal relationship and emotional intelligence as correlates of workers' output among local government employees in Oyo State. The research adopted descriptive design of an expose facto type. The research instruments used includes Workers' output scale, ...

  2. Early-Transition Output Decline Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crt Kostevc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the issue of aggregate output decline that took place in the early transition period. We propose an alternative explanation of output decline that is applicable to Central- and Eastern-European countries. In the first part of the paper we develop a simple dynamic general equilibrium model that builds on work by Gomulka and Lane (2001. In particular, we consider price liberalization, interpreted as elimination of distortionary taxation, as a trigger of the output decline. We show that price liberalization in interaction with heterogeneous adjustment costs and non-employment benefits lead to aggregate output decline and surge in wage inequality. While these patterns are consistent with actual dynamics in CEE countries, this model cannot generate output decline in all sectors. Instead sectors that were initially taxed even exhibit output growth. Thus, in the second part we consider an alternative general equilibrium model with only one production sector and two types of labor and distortion in a form of wage compression during the socialist era. The trigger for labor mobility and consequently output decline is wage liberalization. Assuming heterogeneity of workers in terms of adjustment costs and non-employment benefits can explain output decline in all industries.

  3. Experiments performed with bubbly flow in vertical pipes at different flow conditions covering the transition region: simulation by coupling Eulerian, Lagrangian and 3D random walks models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Cobo, José; Chiva, Sergio; El Aziz Essa, Mohamed; Mendes, Santos

    2012-08-01

    Two phase flow experiments with different superficial velocities of gas and water were performed in a vertical upward isothermal cocurrent air-water flow column with conditions ranging from bubbly flow, with very low void fraction, to transition flow with some cap and slug bubbles and void fractions around 25%. The superficial velocities of the liquid and the gas phases were varied from 0.5 to 3 m/s and from 0 to 0.6 m/s, respectively. Also to check the effect of changing the surface tension on the previous experiments small amounts of 1-butanol were added to the water. These amounts range from 9 to 75 ppm and change the surface tension. This study is interesting because in real cases the surface tension of the water diminishes with temperature, and with this kind of experiments we can study indirectly the effect of changing the temperature on the void fraction distribution. The following axial and radial distributions were measured in all these experiments: void fraction, interfacial area concentration, interfacial velocity, Sauter mean diameter and turbulence intensity. The range of values of the gas superficial velocities in these experiments covered the range from bubbly flow to the transition to cap/slug flow. Also with transition flow conditions we distinguish two groups of bubbles in the experiments, the small spherical bubbles and the cap/slug bubbles. Special interest was devoted to the transition region from bubbly to cap/slug flow; the goal was to understand the physical phenomena that take place during this transition A set of numerical simulations of some of these experiments for bubbly flow conditions has been performed by coupling a Lagrangian code, that tracks the three dimensional motion of the individual bubbles in cylindrical coordinates inside the field of the carrier liquid, to an Eulerian model that computes the magnitudes of continuous phase and to a 3D random walk model that takes on account the fluctuation in the velocity field of the

  4. Pharmacokinetics of single oral dose trazodone : a randomized, two-period, cross-over trial in healthy, adult, human volunteers under fed condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRASHANT eKALE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the bioequivalence of single dose trazodone hydrochloride USP 100 mg tablets administered as an oral dose under fed condition. Methods This study was an open-label, balanced, randomized, two-sequence, two-treatment, two-period, single oral dose, crossover bioequivalence study in healthy, adult, human subjects under fed conditions. After an overnight fast of at least 10 hours, the subjects were served a high fat and high calorie vegetarian breakfast, which they were required to consume within 30 minutes. A single oral dose (100 mg of either the test or the reference product was administered to the subjects. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC from time zero to last measurable concentration (AUC0-t and extrapolated to infinity (AUC0- were compared by an analysis of variance using log-transformed data. Bioequivalence was concluded if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs of the adjusted geometric mean (gMean ratios for Cmax and AUC were within the predetermined range of 80%-125%, in accordance with regulatory requirements. Results For the test formulation, the trazodone gMean Cmax was 1480.9 ng/mL (vs. 1520.2 ng/mL for reference, AUC0-t was 18193.0 ng·h/mL (vs. 18209.8 ng·h/mL and AUC0- was 19346.3 ng·h/mL (vs. 19393.4 ng·h/mL. The 90% CIs for the ratio (test/reference were 93.0-102.0% for Cmax, 96.7-103.2% for AUC0-t and 96.1-103.5% for AUC0-. There were no deaths or serious adverse events during the conduct of the study. Conclusion Test product when compared with the Reference product meets the bioequivalence criteria with respect to the rate and extent of absorption of Trazodone under fed condition.

  5. Probability output modeling for support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Xiao, Xiaoling; Tian, Jinwen; Liu, Jian

    2007-11-01

    In this paper we propose an approach to model the posterior probability output of multi-class SVMs. The sigmoid function is used to estimate the posterior probability output in binary classification. This approach modeling the posterior probability output of multi-class SVMs is achieved by directly solving the equations that are based on the combination of the probability outputs of binary classifiers using the Bayes's rule. The differences and different weights among these two-class SVM classifiers, based on the posterior probability, are considered and given for the combination of the probability outputs among these two-class SVM classifiers in this method. The comparative experiment results show that our method achieves the better classification precision and the better probability distribution of the posterior probability than the pairwise couping method and the Hastie's optimization method.

  6. Heavy-Tailed Fluctuations in the Spiking Output Intensity of Semiconductor Lasers with Optical Feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Leong Lan

    Full Text Available Although heavy-tailed fluctuations are ubiquitous in complex systems, a good understanding of the mechanisms that generate them is still lacking. Optical complex systems are ideal candidates for investigating heavy-tailed fluctuations, as they allow recording large datasets under controllable experimental conditions. A dynamical regime that has attracted a lot of attention over the years is the so-called low-frequency fluctuations (LFFs of semiconductor lasers with optical feedback. In this regime, the laser output intensity is characterized by abrupt and apparently random dropouts. The statistical analysis of the inter-dropout-intervals (IDIs has provided many useful insights into the underlying dynamics. However, the presence of large temporal fluctuations in the IDI sequence has not yet been investigated. Here, by applying fluctuation analysis we show that the experimental distribution of IDI fluctuations is heavy-tailed, and specifically, is well-modeled by a non-Gaussian stable distribution. We find a good qualitative agreement with simulations of the Lang-Kobayashi model. Moreover, we uncover a transition from a less-heavy-tailed state at low pump current to a more-heavy-tailed state at higher pump current. Our results indicate that fluctuation analysis can be a useful tool for investigating the output signals of complex optical systems; it can be used for detecting underlying regime shifts, for model validation and parameter estimation.

  7. Using mHealth Technology in a Self-Management Intervention to Promote Physical Activity Among Adults With Chronic Disabling Conditions: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plow, Matthew; Golding, Meghan

    2017-12-01

    Physical activity is considered a comprehensive approach for managing limitations in physical function among adults with chronic disabling conditions. However, adults with chronic disabling conditions often face many barriers to engaging in physical activity. A strategy to promote physical activity among adults with chronic disabling conditions is to encourage the use of mobile health (mHealth) apps. The objective of this pilot study was to examine the potential benefits of using commercially available mHealth apps in a self-management intervention among 46 adults with musculoskeletal or neurological conditions. Participants were randomized to one of 3 intervention groups: (1) mHealth-based self-management intervention, (2) paper-based self-management intervention, and (3) contact-control intervention. Participants in all 3 groups met in person once and received 3 follow-up phone calls with a trained graduate assistant. Participants in the mHealth-based and paper-based groups received a computer tablet or a paper diary, respectively, to facilitate goal setting, self-monitoring, and action planning. Participants in the contact-control group received information on healthy behaviors without being taught skills to change behaviors. The following outcomes were measured at baseline and at the 7th week: physical activity (Physical Activity and Disability Survey-revised), psychosocial factors (self-efficacy, self-regulation, and social support), and physical function (Patient Report Outcomes Measurement Information System, 6-min walk test, 1-min chair stands, and 1-min arm curls). Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated significant differences between groups in physical activity levels (Wilks λ=0.71, F6,76=2.34, P=.04). Both the mHealth-based and paper-based groups had large effect size increases in planned exercise and leisure-time physical activity compared with the contact-control group (Cohen d=1.20 and d=0.82, respectively). Repeated

  8. Measuring Potential Output and Output Gap and Macroeconomic Policy: The Case of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Angelica E. Njuguna; Stephen N. Karingi; Mwangi S. Kimenyi

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the level of an economy.s potential output and output gap are essential in identifying a sustainable non-inflationary growth and assessing appropriate macroeconomic policies. The estimation of potential output helps to determine the pace of sustainable growth while output gap estimates provide a key benchmark against which to assess inflationary or disinflationary pressures suggesting when to tighten or ease monetary policies. These measures also help to provide a gauge in the deter...

  9. Non-random temporary emigration and the robust design: Conditions for bias at the end of a time series: Section VIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langtimm, Catherine A.

    2008-01-01

    Deviations from model assumptions in the application of capture–recapture models to real life situations can introduce unknown bias. Understanding the type and magnitude of bias under these conditions is important to interpreting model results. In a robust design analysis of long-term photo-documented sighting histories of the endangered Florida manatee, I found high survival rates, high rates of non-random temporary emigration, significant time-dependence, and a diversity of factors affecting temporary emigration that made it difficult to model emigration in any meaningful fashion. Examination of the time-dependent survival estimates indicated a suspicious drop in survival rates near the end of the time series that persisted when the original capture histories were truncated and reanalyzed under a shorter time frame. Given the wide swings in manatee emigration estimates from year to year, a likely source of bias in survival was the convention to resolve confounding of the last survival probability in a time-dependent model with the last emigration probabilities by setting the last unmeasurable emigration probability equal to the previous year’s probability when the equality was actually false. Results of a series of simulations demonstrated that if the unmeasurable temporary emigration probabilities in the last time period were not accurately modeled, an estimation model with significant annual variation in survival probabilities and emigration probabilities produced bias in survival estimates at the end of the study or time series being explored. Furthermore, the bias propagated back in time beyond the last two time periods and the number of years affected varied positively with survival and emigration probabilities. Truncating the data to a shorter time frame and reanalyzing demonstrated that with additional years of data surviving temporary emigrants eventually return and are detected, thus in subsequent analysis unbiased estimates are eventually realized.

  10. High Output Piezo/Triboelectric Hybrid Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-03-01

    Recently, piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesting devices have been developed to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Especially, it is well known that triboelectric nanogenerators have a simple structure and a high output voltage. However, whereas nanostructures improve the output of triboelectric generators, its fabrication process is still complicated and unfavorable in term of the large scale and long-time durability of the device. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric generator, derived from the simultaneous use of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle. This hybrid generator combines high piezoelectric output current and triboelectric output voltage, which produces peak output voltage of ~370 V, current density of ~12 μA.cm-2, and average power density of ~4.44 mW.cm-2. The output power successfully lit up 600 LED bulbs by the application of a 0.2 N mechanical force and it charged a 10 μF capacitor to 10 V in 25 s. Beyond energy harvesting, this work will provide new opportunities for developing a small, built-in power source in self-powered electronics such as mobile electronics.

  11. Characteristics of output voltage and current of integrated nanogenerators

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Rusen

    2009-01-01

    Owing to the anisotropic property and small output signals of the piezoelectric nanogenerators (NGs) and the influence of the measurement system and environment, identification of the true signal generated by the NG is critical. We have developed three criteria: Schottky behavior test, switching-polarity tests, and linear superposition of current and voltage tests. The 11 tests can effectively rule out the system artifacts, whose sign does not change with the switching measurement polarity, and random signals, which might change signs but cannot consistently add up or cancel out under designed connection configurations. This study establishes the standards for designing and scale up of integrated nanogenerators. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Mapping Robinia Pseudoacacia Forest Health Conditions by Using Combined Spectral, Spatial, and Textural Information Extracted from IKONOS Imagery and Random Forest Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The textural and spatial information extracted from very high resolution (VHR remote sensing imagery provides complementary information for applications in which the spectral information is not sufficient for identification of spectrally similar landscape features. In this study grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM textures and a local statistical analysis Getis statistic (Gi, computed from IKONOS multispectral (MS imagery acquired from the Yellow River Delta in China, along with a random forest (RF classifier, were used to discriminate Robina pseudoacacia tree health levels. Specifically, eight GLCM texture features (mean, variance, homogeneity, dissimilarity, contrast, entropy, angular second moment, and correlation were first calculated from IKONOS NIR band (Band 4 to determine an optimal window size (13 × 13 and an optimal direction (45°. Then, the optimal window size and direction were applied to the three other IKONOS MS bands (blue, green, and red for calculating the eight GLCM textures. Next, an optimal distance value (5 and an optimal neighborhood rule (Queen’s case were determined for calculating the four Gi features from the four IKONOS MS bands. Finally, different RF classification results of the three forest health conditions were created: (1 an overall accuracy (OA of 79.5% produced using the four MS band reflectances only; (2 an OA of 97.1% created with the eight GLCM features calculated from IKONOS Band 4 with the optimal window size of 13 × 13 and direction 45°; (3 an OA of 93.3% created with the all 32 GLCM features calculated from the four IKONOS MS bands with a window size of 13 × 13 and direction of 45°; (4 an OA of 94.0% created using the four Gi features calculated from the four IKONOS MS bands with the optimal distance value of 5 and Queen’s neighborhood rule; and (5 an OA of 96.9% created with the combined 16 spectral (four, spatial (four, and textural (eight features. The most important feature ranked by RF

  13. Transplant conditioning with Treosulfan/Fludarabine with or without TBI. A randomized phase II trial in patients with MDS and AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeg, H Joachim; Stevens, Emily A; B Salit, Rachel; Ermoian, Ralph P; Fang, Min; Gyurkocza, Boglarka; Sorror, Mohamed L; Fatobene, Giancarlo; Baumgart, Joachim; Burroughs, Lauri M; Delaney, Colleen; Doney, Kris; Egan, Daniel N; Flowers, Mary E D; Milano, Filippo; Radich, Jerry P; Scott, Bart L; Sickle, Eileen J; Wood, Brent L; Yeung, Cecilia; Storer, Barry E

    2017-12-20

    In this prospective randomized phase II "pick the winner" trial we assessed the efficacy of transplant conditioning with treosulfan/fludarabine ± 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) in reducing post-transplant relapse in 100 patients, 2-70 (median 57) years of age, with myelodysplastic syndrome/chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (MDS/CMML; n=51) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n=49). Patients received intravenous (IV) treosulfan, 14 g/m2/day on days -6 to -4 and IV fludarabine, 30 mg/m2/day on days -6 to -2, alone or combined with 2 Gy TBI (day 0). Donors were related (n= 43) or unrelated (n=57). When a planned interim analysis showed superior PFS in the TBI arm (p=0.04), all subsequent patients received TBI. With a follow-up of 12-40 (median 20) months, the 1-year overall survival (OS) was 80% for the TBI arm and 69% for the non-TBI arm. The 1-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 22% and 34%, respectively (p=0.06). Among patients with low risk disease the 1-year relapse incidence was 15% and 31% (p=0.20), and for patients with high-risk disease, 26% and 36% (p=0.18), respectively. Among MDS patients the 1-year relapse incidence was 27% versus 33% (p=0.49), and among AML patients 16% versus 35% (p=0.05). The largest difference was among patients with unfavorable cytogenetics, with 1-year relapse incidences of 31% and 63% (p=0.18), respectively. Non-relapse mortality in this high risk patient population was 9% at 6 months and did not differ between arms. Thus, treosulfan/fludarabine/low-dose TBI provided effective conditioning for allogeneic HCT in high risk patients up to 70 years of age. The addition of TBI had a more profound effect in patients with AML than in those with MDS. High-risk disease features were associated with a lower overall success rate. Further studies are warranted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. The Effect of Sequence of Output Tasks on Noticing Vocabulary Items and Developing Vocabulary Knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Mahmoudabadi; Hassan Soleimani; Manoochehr Jafarigohar; Hasan Iravani

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of output-first presentation of vocabulary tasks in noticing lexical items and enhancing vocabulary knowledge of EFL learners. The participants were 103 elementary level female Iranian EFL learners who were randomly divided into three groups: input-only, input-output, and output-input groups. After all participants took a placement test and a vocabulary pretest, the input-only group of learners received only input tasks, while the members of the other two groups r...

  15. Enhanced output entanglement with reservoir engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Bo

    2017-11-01

    We study the output entanglement in a three-mode optomechanical system via reservoir engineering by shifting the center frequency of filter function away from resonant frequency. We find the bandwidth of the filter function can suppress the entanglement in the vicinity of resonant frequency of the system, while the entanglement will become strong if the center frequency departs from the resonant frequency. We obtain the approximate analytical expressions of the output entanglement, from which we give the optimal center frequency at which the entanglement takes the maximum. Furthermore, we study the effects of time delay between the two output fields on the output entanglement, and obtain the optimal time delay for the case of large filter bandwidth.

  16. Output filters for AC adjustable speed drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Hanigovszki, Norbert; Landkildehus, Jorn, Jorn

    2007-01-01

    The standard industrial solution for adjustable speed drives (ASD) is the use of induction motors (IM) fed by voltage-source inverters (VSI). The inverter generates a pulsewidth modulated (PWM) voltage, with dv/dt values of about 6 kV/¿s or even more. In three-leg inverters for three......-phase applications the occurrence of common-mode (CM) voltage is inherent due to asymmetrical output pulses [1]. Consequently, several secondary effects arise at the inverter's output: high-frequency conducted and radiated emissions, leakage current, motor insulation stress due to wave reflection [2], bearing stress...... due to bearing currents, acoustic switching noise. Depending on the specific application, the mitigation of some of these effects (or all) might be necessary. The common solution for mitigating the secondary effects at the output of PWM-VSI is the use of output filters [3],[5],[6]. Several types...

  17. Input-output rearrangement of isolated converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Kovacevic, Milovan; Mønster, Jakob Døllner

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new way of rearranging the input and output of isolated converters. The new arrangement posses several advantages, as increased voltage range, higher power handling capabilities, reduced voltage stress and improved efficiency, for applications where galvanic isolation...

  18. The Effects of Pre Modified Input, Interactionally Modified Input, and Modified Output on EFL Learners' Comprehension of New Vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Zinat; Pazhakh, AbdolReza

    2012-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to investigate the effects of premodified input, interactionally modified input and modified output on 80 EFL learners' comprehension of new words. The subjects were randomly assigned into four groups of pre modified input, interactionally modified input, modified output and unmodified (control) groups. Each group…

  19. Anomalous light output from lightning dart leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, C.; Krider, E. P.

    1985-01-01

    About 5 percent of the multiple-stroke cloud-to-ground lightning discharges recorded at the NASA Kennedy Space Center during the summer of 1981 contained dart leaders that produced an unusually large light output. An analysis of these cases indicates that the average peak light output per unit length in the leader may be comparable to or even exceed that of the return stroke that follows.

  20. Intermittent Smoothing Approaches for Wind Power Output: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jabir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is one of the most common types of renewable energy resource. Due to its sustainability and environmental benefits, it is an emerging source for electric power generation. Rapid and random changes of wind speed makes it an irregular and inconsistent power source when connected to the grid, causing different technical problems in protection, power quality and generation dispatch control. Due to these problems, effective intermittent smoothing approaches for wind power output are crucially needed to minimize such problems. This paper reviews various intermittent smoothing approaches used in smoothing the output power fluctuations caused by wind energy. Problems associated with the inclusion of wind energy resources to grid are also briefly reviewed. From this review, it has been found that battery energy storage system is the most suitable and effective smoothing approach, provided that an effective control strategy is available for optimal utilization of battery energy system. This paper further demonstrates different control strategies built for battery energy storage system to obtain the smooth output wind power.

  1. Randomness Amplification under Minimal Fundamental Assumptions on the Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Wojewódka, Hanna

    2016-12-01

    Recently, the physically realistic protocol amplifying the randomness of Santha-Vazirani sources producing cryptographically secure random bits was proposed; however, for reasons of practical relevance, the crucial question remained open regarding whether this can be accomplished under the minimal conditions necessary for the task. Namely, is it possible to achieve randomness amplification using only two no-signaling components and in a situation where the violation of a Bell inequality only guarantees that some outcomes of the device for specific inputs exhibit randomness? Here, we solve this question and present a device-independent protocol for randomness amplification of Santha-Vazirani sources using a device consisting of two nonsignaling components. We show that the protocol can amplify any such source that is not fully deterministic into a fully random source while tolerating a constant noise rate and prove the composable security of the protocol against general no-signaling adversaries. Our main innovation is the proof that even the partial randomness certified by the two-party Bell test [a single input-output pair (u* , x* ) for which the conditional probability P (x*|u*) is bounded away from 1 for all no-signaling strategies that optimally violate the Bell inequality] can be used for amplification. We introduce the methodology of a partial tomographic procedure on the empirical statistics obtained in the Bell test that ensures that the outputs constitute a linear min-entropy source of randomness. As a technical novelty that may be of independent interest, we prove that the Santha-Vazirani source satisfies an exponential concentration property given by a recently discovered generalized Chernoff bound.

  2. DEFINITION OF OPERATING PARAMETERS OUTPUT RANGE OF FUNCTIONAL SUBSYSTEMS HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS OF THE AIRCRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Bobrin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the operational tolerance field hydraulic output parameters under various working conditions and the flight stages are mathematical relationships and the results obtained in the environment Mathcad in graphical form.

  3. LOAD THAT MAXIMIZES POWER OUTPUT IN COUNTERMOVEMENT JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jimenez-Reyes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: One of the main problems faced by strength and conditioning coaches is the issue of how to objectively quantify and monitor the actual training load undertaken by athletes in order to maximize performance. It is well known that performance of explosive sports activities is largely determined by mechanical power. Objective: This study analysed the height at which maximal power output is generated and the corresponding load with which is achieved in a group of male-trained track and field athletes in the test of countermovement jump (CMJ with extra loads (CMJEL. Methods: Fifty national level male athletes in sprinting and jumping performed a CMJ test with increasing loads up to a height of 16 cm. The relative load that maximized the mechanical power output (Pmax was determined using a force platform and lineal encoder synchronization and estimating the power by peak power, average power and flight time in CMJ. Results: The load at which the power output no longer existed was at a height of 19.9 ± 2.35, referring to a 99.1 ± 1% of the maximum power output. The load that maximizes power output in all cases has been the load with which an athlete jump a height of approximately 20 cm. Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering the height achieved in CMJ with extra load instead of power because maximum power is always attained with the same height. We advise for the preferential use of the height achieved in CMJEL test, since it seems to be a valid indicative of an individual's actual neuromuscular potential providing a valid information for coaches and trainers when assessing the performance status of our athletes and to quantify and monitor training loads, measuring only the height of the jump in the exercise of CMJEL.

  4. Power outputs in the concentric phase of resistance exercises performed in the interval mode on stable and unstable surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemková, Erika; Jeleň, Michal; Kováčiková, Zuzana; Ollé, Gábor; Vilman, Tomáš; Hamar, Dušan

    2012-12-01

    The study compares power outputs in the concentric phase of chest presses and squats performed in the interval mode on stable and unstable surface, respectively. A group of 16 physical education students performed randomly on different days 6 sets of 8 repetitions of (a) chest presses on the bench and Swiss ball, respectively, and (b) squats on stable support base and Bosu ball, respectively, with 2 minutes of rest period between sets. The exercises were performed with previously established 70% of 1 repetition maximum under stable conditions. A PC-based system FiTRO Dyne Premium was used to monitor force and velocity and to calculate power. The results showed significantly lower power outputs when resistance exercises were performed on an unstable than a stable support base. In the initial set, mean power in concentric phase of lifting decreased more profoundly under unstable than under stable conditions during both chest presses (13.2 and 7.7%, respectively) and squats (10.3 and 7.2%, respectively). In the final set, the reduction rates of mean power in the concentric phase of chest presses were significantly (p Swiss ball than on the bench (19.9 and 11.8%, respectively). On the other hand, there were no significant differences in decline of mean power in the concentric phase of squats on the Bosu ball and on stable support base (11.4 and 9.6%, respectively). It may be concluded that power outputs during resistance exercises is more profoundly compromised under unstable than under stable conditions, and this effect is more evident for barbell chest presses on the Swiss ball than for barbell squats on the Bosu ball. These findings have to be taken into account when instability resistance exercises are implemented into the training program, namely, for sports that require production of maximal force in short time.

  5. Vocal output predicts territory quality in a Neotropical songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Lilian Tonelli; Maia, Rafael; Dias, Alexandre; Podos, Jeffrey; Macedo, Regina H

    2014-11-01

    Females who choose highly ornamented mates may gain resources that improve offspring production and survival. Studies have focused on the relationship between male quality and the complexity of sexual ornaments; however, less is known of the communicative content of courtship displays, and whether they indicate the quality of resources males can provide to mates. Here, we used blue-black grassquits (Volatinia jacarina) to test the relationship between male display attributes and territory quality, measured as food availability. Our main hypothesis was that territory quality would be better predicted by dynamic displays than by static ornaments. During four breeding seasons in central Brazil, we quantified display song attributes (output and consistency) and the timing of nuptial molt. We measured territorial seed density, body condition, and ectoparasite infestation. We found a positive relationship between song output and territory seed density, suggesting this attribute provides a reliable indicator of territory quality. However, the timing of molt was unrelated to territory quality. Additionally, no other male attribute was associated with seed density. The link between song output and territory quality might reflect variation in male condition in response to territorial resources, or extra time males on higher quality territories have to invest in territorial defense. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Random matrix techniques in quantum information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Benoît; Nechita, Ion

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present some of the latest developments using random techniques, and in particular, random matrix techniques in quantum information theory. Our review is a blend of a rather exhaustive review and of more detailed examples—coming mainly from research projects in which the authors were involved. We focus on two main topics, random quantum states and random quantum channels. We present results related to entropic quantities, entanglement of typical states, entanglement thresholds, the output set of quantum channels, and violations of the minimum output entropy of random channels.

  7. Random matrix techniques in quantum information theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Benoît, E-mail: collins@math.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Mathematics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Département de Mathématique et Statistique, Université d’Ottawa, 585 King Edward, Ottawa, Ontario K1N6N5 (Canada); CNRS, Lyon (France); Nechita, Ion, E-mail: nechita@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr [Zentrum Mathematik, M5, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstrasse 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS, IRSAMC, Université de Toulouse, UPS, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2016-01-15

    The purpose of this review is to present some of the latest developments using random techniques, and in particular, random matrix techniques in quantum information theory. Our review is a blend of a rather exhaustive review and of more detailed examples—coming mainly from research projects in which the authors were involved. We focus on two main topics, random quantum states and random quantum channels. We present results related to entropic quantities, entanglement of typical states, entanglement thresholds, the output set of quantum channels, and violations of the minimum output entropy of random channels.

  8. An Advanced simulation Code for Modeling Inductive Output Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuc Bui; R. Lawrence Ives

    2012-04-27

    During the Phase I program, CCR completed several major building blocks for a 3D large signal, inductive output tube (IOT) code using modern computer language and programming techniques. These included a 3D, Helmholtz, time-harmonic, field solver with a fully functional graphical user interface (GUI), automeshing and adaptivity. Other building blocks included the improved electrostatic Poisson solver with temporal boundary conditions to provide temporal fields for the time-stepping particle pusher as well as the self electric field caused by time-varying space charge. The magnetostatic field solver was also updated to solve for the self magnetic field caused by time changing current density in the output cavity gap. The goal function to optimize an IOT cavity was also formulated, and the optimization methodologies were investigated.

  9. Adaptive Output Feedback Stabilization of Nonholonomic Systems with Nonlinear Parameterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Shang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of adaptive output feedback stabilization for a class of nonholonomic systems with nonlinear parameterization and strong nonlinear drifts. A parameter separation technique is introduced to transform nonlinearly parameterized system into a linear-like parameterized system. Then, by using the integrator backstepping approach based on observer and parameter estimator, a constructive design procedure for output feedback adaptive control is given. And a switching strategy is developed to eliminate the phenomenon of uncontrollability. It is shown that, under some conditions, the proposed controller can guarantee that all the system states globally converge to the origin, while other signals remain bounded. An illustrative example is also provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  10. The acute effect of lower-body training on average power output measured by loaded half-squat jump exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš Krčmár

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: High muscular power output is required in many athletic endeavors in order for success to be achieved. In the scientific community postactivation potentiation and its effect on performance are often discussed. There are many studies where the effect of resistance exercise on motor performance (such as vertical jump performance and running speed has been investigated but only a few of them studied power output. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the acute responses to a 2 set loaded half-squat jumps and 2 set loaded back half-squat protocols designed to induce the acute maximum average power output during loaded half-squat jumps. Methods: A randomized cross-over design was used. 11 participants of this study performed 3 trials in randomized order separated by at least 48 hours where maximum average power output was measured. The specific conditioning activities were comprised of 2 sets and 4 repetitions of half-squat jumps, 2 sets and 4 repetitions of back half-squat exercises and a control protocol without an intervention by specific a conditioning activity. Participants were strength trained athletes with different sport specializations (e.g. ice-hockey, volleyball. Mean age of the athletes was 22 ± 1.8 years, body mass 80 ± 7.1 kg and body height 185 ± 6.5 cm. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to determine differences between pre- and post-condition in each protocol, as well as between conditioning protocols, and also effect size was used to evaluate practical significance. Results: Maximum average power was significantly enhanced after application of the half-squat jump condition protocol (1496.2 ± 194.5 to 1552 ± 196.1 W, Δ ~ 3.72%, p < .001 and after application of the back half-squat protocol (1500.7 ± 193.2 to 1556 ± 191.2 W, Δ ~ 3.68%, p < .001 after 10 min of rest. Power output after control protocol was

  11. A comparison of the conditional inference survival forest model to random survival forests based on a simulation study as well as on two applications with time-to-event data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasejje, Justine B; Mwambi, Henry; Dheda, Keertan; Lesosky, Maia

    2017-07-28

    Random survival forest (RSF) models have been identified as alternative methods to the Cox proportional hazards model in analysing time-to-event data. These methods, however, have been criticised for the bias that results from favouring covariates with many split-points and hence conditional inference forests for time-to-event data have been suggested. Conditional inference forests (CIF) are known to correct the bias in RSF models by separating the procedure for the best covariate to split on from that of the best split point search for the selected covariate. In this study, we compare the random survival forest model to the conditional inference model (CIF) using twenty-two simulated time-to-event datasets. We also analysed two real time-to-event datasets. The first dataset is based on the survival of children under-five years of age in Uganda and it consists of categorical covariates with most of them having more than two levels (many split-points). The second dataset is based on the survival of patients with extremely drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) which consists of mainly categorical covariates with two levels (few split-points). The study findings indicate that the conditional inference forest model is superior to random survival forest models in analysing time-to-event data that consists of covariates with many split-points based on the values of the bootstrap cross-validated estimates for integrated Brier scores. However, conditional inference forests perform comparably similar to random survival forests models in analysing time-to-event data consisting of covariates with fewer split-points. Although survival forests are promising methods in analysing time-to-event data, it is important to identify the best forest model for analysis based on the nature of covariates of the dataset in question.

  12. Problems in Modelling Charge Output Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczyk Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents major issues associated with the problem of modelling change output accelerometers. The presented solutions are based on the weighted least squares (WLS method using transformation of the complex frequency response of the sensors. The main assumptions of the WLS method and a mathematical model of charge output accelerometers are presented in first two sections of this paper. In the next sections applying the WLS method to estimation of the accelerometer model parameters is discussed and the associated uncertainties are determined. Finally, the results of modelling a PCB357B73 charge output accelerometer are analysed in the last section of this paper. All calculations were executed using the MathCad software program. The main stages of these calculations are presented in Appendices A−E.

  13. Near continuous cardiac output by thermodilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J R; Johnson, R W; Yan, J Y; Verdouw, P D

    1997-07-01

    A new thermodilution method for frequent (near continuous) estimation of cardiac output, without manual injection of fluid into the blood, was tested. The method utilizes a pulmonary artery catheter equipped with a fluid filled heat exchanger. The technique is based on cyclic cooling of the blood in the right atrium and measurement of the temperature changes in the pulmonary artery. Using this technique, a new estimate of cardiac output can be obtained every 32 s. Cardiac output estimates, obtained for a running mean of three measurements with this method, were compared to the mean of three conventional thermodilution measurements. The measurements were obtained during short periods of stable respiration and circulation. In six pigs, we made 46 paired measurements of conventional thermodilution (TD) and near continuous (TDc) thermodilution. The cardiac output (COTD) ranged from 2.4-13.7 l/min (mean 5.4 l/min). The best linear fit through the paired data points was COTDc = -0.57 + 1.01 COTD. The mean difference between the methods was -0.50 l/min (S.D. = 0.39). The mean coefficient of variation of repeated measurements with the near continuous thermodilution was 3.6%. Considering changes of more than 0.25 l/min to be significant, all changes in cardiac output measured by conventional thermodilution were followed by the running mean of three near continuous thermodilution estimates. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the new method to monitor cardiac output, and to detect all changes greater than 0.25 l/min.

  14. Explaining output volatility: The case of taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf

    This paper studies the effects of taxation on output volatility in OECD countries to shed light on the sources of observed heterogeneity over time and across countries. To this end, we derive tax effects on macro aggregates in a stochastic neoclassical model. As a result, taxes are shown to affect...... the second moment of output growth rates without (long-run) effects on the first moment. Taking the model to the data, we exploit observed heterogeneity patterns to estimate effects of tax rates on macro volatility using panel estimation, explicitly modeling the unobserved variance process. We find a strong...

  15. Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for insomnia in adolescents: A randomized controlled trial with internet therapy, group therapy and a waiting list condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, E.J.; Bögels, S.M.; Oort, F.J.; Meijer, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) in adolescents. Design: A randomized controlled trial of CBTI in group therapy (GT), guided internet therapy (IT), and a waiting list (WL), with assessments at baseline, directly after treatment

  16. Dynamic coupling design for nonlinear output agreement and time-varying flow control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buerger, Mathias; De Persis, Claudio

    This paper studies the problem of output agreement in networks of nonlinear dynamical systems under time-varying disturbances, using dynamic diffusive couplings. Necessary conditions are derived for general networks of nonlinear systems, and these conditions are explicitly interpreted as conditions

  17. Adaptive output feedback control of flexible systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bong-Jun

    Neural network-based adaptive output feedback approaches that augment a linear control design are described in this thesis, and emphasis is placed on their real-time implementation with flexible systems. Two different control architectures that are robust to parametric uncertainties and unmodelled dynamics are presented. The unmodelled effects can consist of minimum phase internal dynamics of the system together with external disturbance process. Within this context, adaptive compensation for external disturbances is addressed. In the first approach, internal model-following control, adaptive elements are designed using feedback inversion. The effect of an actuator limit is treated using control hedging, and the effect of other actuation nonlinearities, such as dead zone and backlash, is mitigated by a disturbance observer-based control design. The effectiveness of the approach is illustrated through simulation and experimental testing with a three-disk torsional system, which is subjected to control voltage limit and stiction. While the internal model-following control is limited to minimum phase systems, the second approach, external model-following control, does not involve feedback linearization and can be applied to non-minimum phase systems. The unstable zero dynamics are assumed to have been modelled in the design of the existing linear controller. The laboratory tests for this method include a three-disk torsional pendulum, an inverted pendulum, and a flexible-base robot manipulator. The external model-following control architecture is further extended in three ways. The first extension is an approach for control of multivariable nonlinear systems. The second extension is a decentralized adaptive control approach for large-scale interconnected systems. The third extension is to make use of an adaptive observer to augment a linear observer-based controller. In this extension, augmenting terms for the adaptive observer can be used to achieve adaptation in

  18. A study of potential output and output gap in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Adamec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of economic cycle is of enormous importance for monitoring economic output and explaining price and wage inflation. It provides essential information for shaping economic and monetary policy of central authorities. Several methods are currently available to estimate potential output and output gap. In the current study, methods of Hodrick-Prescott filter and Cobb-Douglas production function were implemented to estimate potential output, which cannot be empirically observed. For the purpose of comparing the above methods, quarterly and annual time series of real GDP, labour and gross fixed capital starting in 1996 were used for estimation of the output gap. Relative contributions of labour, fixed capital formation and technology improvement factor towards growth of potential output were quantified for the studied series. The Cobb-Douglas production function appears to be superior to Hodrick-Prescott filter in providing quality estimates of potential output. Hodrick-Prescott filter allows estimation of potential output; nevertheless, it fails to identify components of cyclic behaviour of economic activity. Cobb-Douglas production function describes level of potential product assuming average utilization of production factors. A detailed analysis of components of economic growth in the observed period is provided.

  19. Cross-correlation of output fluctuation and system-balancing cost in photovoltaic integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Ikeda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors analysed the cross-correlation of photovoltaic (PV output fluctuation for the actual PV output time series data in both the Tokyo area and the whole of Japan using the principal component analysis with the random matrix theory. Based on the obtained cross-correlation coefficients, the forecast error for PV output was estimated with/without considering the cross-correlations. Then the operation schedule of thermal plants is calculated to integrate PV output using the proposed unit commitment model with the estimated forecast error. The system-balancing cost of PV system was also estimated with or without demand response. Finally, validity of the concept of ‘local production for local consumption of renewable energy’ and alternative policy implications were discussed.

  20. Meting Output Onderzoek FSW/EUR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. de Koster (Willem); M.J. van Meeteren (Masja); R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBinnen de universiteiten wordt het onderzoeksbeleid in toenemende mate ‘gerationaliseerd’. Dit houdt onder meer in dat de input aan menskracht en budgetten sterker afhankelijk wordt gemaakt van de output. Bestuurders sluizen dan meer middelen naar mensen en groepen die betere

  1. Line driver with adaptive output impedance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    1996-01-01

    A line driver comprising: an input terminal for receiving an input signal, an output terminal for connecting a load, a first and a second transconductance-controlled transconductor having substantially equal transconductances, each transconductor having a non-inverting input, an inverting input, an

  2. Farm-Level Determinants of output Commercialization:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARC-AB

    based farmers are family size, land size, age, livestock holding and dependency ratio. The study recommends that policy ... haricot bean output commercialization among smallholder farmers in moisture-stress areas of East Shewa and West Arsi .... the variables into its natural logarithm form.The model estimation resultwas ...

  3. Research Output, Socialization, and the Biglan Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Bean, John P.

    1981-01-01

    A test of the Biglan model of faculty subcultures using measures of research output and tests of the model controlling for the effects of faculty socialization are described. The Biglan model is found to be valid, and the distinctiveness of the Biglan groups appears to increase with the socialization of faculty into subject areas. (Author/MLW)

  4. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheat, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  5. Comparison of cardiac output measurement techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espersen, K; Jensen, E W; Rosenborg, D

    1995-01-01

    Simultaneously measured cardiac output obtained by thermodilution (TD), transcutaneous suprasternal ultrasonic Doppler (DOP), CO2-rebreathing (CR) and the direct Fick method (FI) were compared in eleven healthy subjects in a supine position (SU), a sitting position (SI), and during sitting exerci...

  6. Predicting Color Output of Additive Manufactured Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Pedersen, David Bue; Aanæs, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the colorimetric performance of a multicolor additive manufacturing process. A method on how to measure and characterize color performance of said process is presented. Furthermore, a method on predicting the color output is demonstrated, allowing for previsualization...

  7. Output Dynamics, Technology, and Public Investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Bom, P.R.; Heijdra, B.J.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    The paper studies the dynamic output effects of public infrastructure investment in a small open economy. We develop an overlapping generations model that includes a production externality of public capital and a wealth effect on labor supply. Public capital enters the firm's production function

  8. THE MALARIA BURDEN AND AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iya beji

    This being the case, the government is advised to make the rural areas, where majority of farmers reside, a priority in its malaria control efforts. Key Words: Malaria burden; Nigerian agricultural output; and malaria control efforts. INTRODUCTION. Malaria is a serious problem in Africa (Gallup and Sachs, 2001; Shepard, et al,.

  9. Income distributions in input-output models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, Albert E.; Serrano, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of income distribution (ID) has traditionally been of prime importance for economists and policy-makers. However, the standard input-output (I-O) model is not particularly well equipped for studying current issues such as the consequences of decreasing access to primary inputs or the

  10. Sampling estimators of total mill receipts for use in timber product output studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Brown; Richard G. Oderwald

    2012-01-01

    Data from the 2001 timber product output study for Georgia was explored to determine new methods for stratifying mills and finding suitable sampling estimators. Estimators for roundwood receipts totals comprised several types: simple random sample, ratio, stratified sample, and combined ratio. Two stratification methods were examined: the Dalenius-Hodges (DH) square...

  11. The Impact of Pushed Output on Accuracy and Fluency of Iranian EFL Learners' Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi Beniss, Aram Reza; Edalati Bazzaz, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    The current study attempted to establish baseline quantitative data on the impacts of pushed output on two components of speaking (i.e., accuracy and fluency). To achieve this purpose, 30 female EFL learners were selected from a whole population pool of 50 based on the standard test of IELTS interview and were randomly assigned into an…

  12. Analysis the Existence of Heterotrophic Bacteria in Active Water Desalination Plant Output of Kashan City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseindoost Gh. MSc,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims One of the consequences of taking ground water into surface is changing its chemical quality, specially increasing the concentration of dissolved salts. This research was performed in order to analyze growth possibility of heterotrophic bacteria in the membrane of active desalination plants in Kashan City, Iran. Instrument & Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was done on water output of 20 active desalination plants in 2013 in Kashan City, Iran and 200 specimens of input and output water was randomly extracted from desalination plants. Awareness and education level of system operators, filter changing intervals, HPC of input and output water and chlorine concentration of input and output water were measured and recorded. Obtained data were analyzed statistically with SPSS 18 software using one-way ANOVA, Chi-square, McNemar and one-sample T tests. Findings There was a significant relation between the interval time and output HPC level of the plants (p0.05. The mean concentration of chlorine in samples of 20 desalination plants was 0.76±0.44mg/l in input water and 0.64±0.52mg/l in output water (p>0.05. Level of awareness had significant relation with the output water pollution with HPC (p0.05. Conclusion The mean level of HPC

  13. The output characteristic of cantilever-like tactile sensor based on the inverse magnetostrictive effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The output characteristic model of a magnetostrictive cantilever-like tactile sensor has been founded based on the inverse-magnetostrictive effect, the flexure mode, and the Jiles-Atherton model. The magnetostrictive sensor has been designed and an output voltage is analyzed under the conditions of bias magnetic field, contact pressure and deflection of cantilever beam. The experiment has been performed to determine the relation among the induced output voltage, bias magnetic field, and pressure. It is found that the peak of the induced output voltage increases with an increasing pressure under the bias magnetic field of 4.8kA/m. The experimental result agrees well with the theoretical one and it means that the model can describe the relation among the induced output voltage, bias magnetic field, and pressure. The sensor with a Galfenol sheet may hold potentials in sample characterization and deformation predication in artificial intelligence area.

  14. COA based robust output feedback UPFC controller design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shayeghi, H., E-mail: hshayeghi@gmail.co [Technical Engineering Department, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Electrical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalilzadeh, S.; Safari, A. [Technical Engineering Department, Zanjan University, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, a novel method for the design of output feedback controller for unified power flow controller (UPFC) using chaotic optimization algorithm (COA) is developed. Chaotic optimization algorithms, which have the features of easy implementation, short execution time and robust mechanisms of escaping from the local optimum, is a promising tool for the engineering applications. The selection of the output feedback gains for the UPFC controllers is converted to an optimization problem with the time domain-based objective function which is solved by a COA based on Lozi map. Since chaotic mapping enjoys certainty, ergodicity and the stochastic property, the proposed chaotic optimization problem introduces chaos mapping using Lozi map chaotic sequences which increases its convergence rate and resulting precision. To ensure the robustness of the proposed stabilizers, the design process takes into account a wide range of operating conditions and system configurations. The effectiveness of the proposed controller for damping low frequency oscillations is tested and demonstrated through non-linear time-domain simulation and some performance indices studies. The results analysis reveals that the designed COA based output feedback UPFC damping controller has an excellent capability in damping power system low frequency oscillations and enhance greatly the dynamic stability of the power systems.

  15. Compensating Operator and Weak Convergence of Semi-Markov Process to the Diffusion Process without Balance Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Malyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak convergence of semi-Markov processes in the diffusive approximation scheme is studied in the paper. This problem is not new and it is studied in many papers, using convergence of random processes. Unlike other studies, we used in this paper concept of the compensating operator. It enables getting sufficient conditions of weak convergence under the conditions on the local characteristics of output semi-Markov process.

  16. Deterministic extraction from weak random sources

    CERN Document Server

    Gabizon, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    In this research monograph, the author constructs deterministic extractors for several types of sources, using a methodology of recycling randomness which enables increasing the output length of deterministic extractors to near optimal length.

  17. Power conditioning system for energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Sudip K [Chicago, IL; Burra, Rajni K [Chicago, IL; Acharya, Kaustuva [Chicago, IL

    2008-05-13

    Apparatus for conditioning power generated by an energy source includes an inverter for converting a DC input voltage from the energy source to a square wave AC output voltage, and a converter for converting the AC output voltage from the inverter to a sine wave AC output voltage.

  18. Determining the Frequency for Load-Independent Output Current in Three-Coil Wireless Power Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longzhao Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Conditions for load-independent output voltage or current in two-coil wireless power transfer (WPT systems have been studied. However, analysis of load-independent output current in three-coil WPT system is still lacking in previous studies. This paper investigates the output current characteristics of a three-coil WPT system against load variations, and determines the operating frequency to achieve a constant output current. First, a three-coil WPT system is modeled by circuit theory, and the analytical expression of the root-mean-square of the output current is derived. By substituting the coupling coefficients, the quality factor, and the resonant frequency of each coil, we propose a method of calculating the frequency for load-independent output current in a three-coil WPT system, which indicates that there are two frequencies that can achieve load-independent output current. Experiments are conducted to validate these analytical results.

  19. Effect of Carbohydrate Intake on Maximal Power Output and Cognitive Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pomportes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the beneficial effect of acute carbohydrate (7% CHO intake on muscular and cognitive performances. Seventeen high levels athletes in explosive sports (fencing and squash participated in a randomized, double-blind study consisting in series of 6 sprints (5s with a passive recovery (25s followed by 15 min submaximal cycling after either maltodextrine and fructose (CHO or placebo (Pl intake. Cognitive performances were assessed before and after sprint exercise using a simple reaction time (SRT task at rest, a visual scanning task (VS and a Go/Nogo task (GNG during a submaximal cycling exercise. Results showed a beneficial effect of exercise on VS task on both conditions (Pl: −283 ms; CHO: −423 ms and on SRT only during CHO condition (−26 ms. In the CHO condition, SRT was faster after exercise whereas no effect of exercise was observed in the Pl condition. According to a qualitative statistical method, a most likely and likely positive effect of CHO was respectively observed on peak power (+4% and tiredness (−23% when compared to Pl. Furthermore, a very likely positive effect of CHO was observed on SRT (−8% and a likely positive effect on visual scanning (−6% and Go/Nogo tasks (−4% without any change in accuracy. In conclusion acute ingestion of 250 mL of CHO, 60 min and 30 min before exercise, improve peak power output, decrease muscular tiredness and speed up information processing and visual detection without changing accuracy.

  20. Decentralized H∞ Control for Uncertain Interconnected Systems of Neutral Type via Dynamic Output Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of the dynamic output feedback H∞ control for uncertain interconnected systems of neutral type is investigated. In the framework of Lyapunov stability theory, a mathematical technique dealing with the nonlinearity on certain matrix variables is developed to obtain the solvability conditions for the anticipated controller. Based on the corresponding LMIs, the anticipated gains for dynamic output feedback can be achieved by solving some algebraic equations. Also, the norm of the transfer function from the disturbance input to the controlled output is less than the given index. A numerical example and the simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. INVESTIGATING MACROECONOMIC STABILITY USING THE OUTPUT GAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia TITAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to illustrate the importance of the output gap in analysing macroeconomic stability in general and business cycle dynamics in particular. Ten EU countries are considered, with five old members and five new members. For all ten countries the data for the period 1999-2014 is used, but for four countries, namely France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Spain additional data is available that goes back to 1965, such that the whole period 1965-2014 is covered, which allows for a particular analysis. An empirical analysis is performed with regard to the behaviour of the output gap for different countries over time. The results obtained allow for relevant comparisons and highlight the usefulness of this indicator as a tool in the study of business cycles.

  2. Chaos-based Pseudo-random Number Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.

    2014-04-10

    Various methods and systems related to chaos-based pseudo-random number generation are presented. In one example, among others, a system includes a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate a series of digital outputs and a nonlinear post processing circuit to perform an exclusive OR (XOR) operation on a first portion of a current digital output of the PRNG and a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output. In another example, a method includes receiving at least a first portion of a current output from a PRNG and performing an XOR operation on the first portion of the current PRNG output with a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output.

  3. What shapes output of policy reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kirsten

    This thesis deals with the factors shaping forest policy output during the stages implementation and bases its main message on empirical findings from the forestry sector in Ghana. Policy and institutional factors are important underlying causes for deforestation, especially in the tropics. Fores...... government, civil society, timber industry and local communities and thus provides important contributions to the existing logic within the field of tropical forest governance....

  4. A Statistical Representation of Pyrotechnic Igniter Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuyue; Cooper, Marcia

    2017-06-01

    The output of simplified pyrotechnic igniters for research investigations is statistically characterized by monitoring the post-ignition external flow field with Schlieren imaging. Unique to this work is a detailed quantification of all measurable manufacturing parameters (e.g., bridgewire length, charge cavity dimensions, powder bed density) and associated shock-motion variability in the tested igniters. To demonstrate experimental precision of the recorded Schlieren images and developed image processing methodologies, commercial exploding bridgewires using wires of different parameters were tested. Finally, a statistically-significant population of manufactured igniters were tested within the Schlieren arrangement resulting in a characterization of the nominal output. Comparisons between the variances measured throughout the manufacturing processes and the calculated output variance provide insight into the critical device phenomena that dominate performance. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Acute glucoregulatory and vascular outcomes of three strategies for interrupting prolonged sitting time in postmenopausal women: A pilot, laboratory-based, randomized, controlled, 4-condition, 4-period crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Kerr

    Full Text Available Prolonged sitting is associated with cardiometabolic and vascular disease. Despite emerging evidence regarding the acute health benefits of interrupting prolonged sitting time, the effectiveness of different modalities in older adults (who sit the most is unclear.In preparation for a future randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 10 sedentary, overweight or obese, postmenopausal women (mean age 66 years ±9; mean body mass index 30.6 kg/m2 ±4.2 in a 4-condition, 4-period crossover feasibility pilot study in San Diego to test 3 different sitting interruption modalities designed to improve glucoregulatory and vascular outcomes compared to a prolonged sitting control condition. The interruption modalities included: a 2 minutes standing every 20 minutes; b 2 minutes walking every hour; and c 10 minutes standing every hour. During each 5-hr condition, participants consumed two identical, standardized meals. Blood samples, blood pressure, and heart rate were collected every 30 minutes. Endothelial function of the superficial femoral artery was measured at baseline and end of each 5-hr condition using flow-mediated dilation (FMD. Participants completed each condition on separate days, in randomized order. This feasibility pilot study was not powered to detect statistically significant differences in the various outcomes, however, analytic methods (mixed models were used to test statistical significance within the small sample size.Nine participants completed all 4 study visits, one participant completed 3 study visits and then was lost to follow up. Net incremental area under the curve (iAUC values for postprandial plasma glucose and insulin during the 5-hr sitting interruption conditions were not significantly different compared to the control condition. Exploratory analyses revealed that the 2-minute standing every 20 minutes and the 2-minute walking every hour conditions were associated with a significantly lower glycemic response to the second

  6. Acute glucoregulatory and vascular outcomes of three strategies for interrupting prolonged sitting time in postmenopausal women: A pilot, laboratory-based, randomized, controlled, 4-condition, 4-period crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Crist, Katie; Vital, Daniela G; Dillon, Lindsay; Aden, Sabrina A; Trivedi, Minaxi; Castellanos, Luis R; Godbole, Suneeta; Li, Hongying; Allison, Matthew A; Khemlina, Galina L; Takemoto, Michelle L; Schenk, Simon; Sallis, James F; Grace, Megan; Dunstan, David W; Natarajan, Loki; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Sears, Dorothy D

    2017-01-01

    Prolonged sitting is associated with cardiometabolic and vascular disease. Despite emerging evidence regarding the acute health benefits of interrupting prolonged sitting time, the effectiveness of different modalities in older adults (who sit the most) is unclear. In preparation for a future randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 10 sedentary, overweight or obese, postmenopausal women (mean age 66 years ±9; mean body mass index 30.6 kg/m2 ±4.2) in a 4-condition, 4-period crossover feasibility pilot study in San Diego to test 3 different sitting interruption modalities designed to improve glucoregulatory and vascular outcomes compared to a prolonged sitting control condition. The interruption modalities included: a) 2 minutes standing every 20 minutes; b) 2 minutes walking every hour; and c) 10 minutes standing every hour. During each 5-hr condition, participants consumed two identical, standardized meals. Blood samples, blood pressure, and heart rate were collected every 30 minutes. Endothelial function of the superficial femoral artery was measured at baseline and end of each 5-hr condition using flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Participants completed each condition on separate days, in randomized order. This feasibility pilot study was not powered to detect statistically significant differences in the various outcomes, however, analytic methods (mixed models) were used to test statistical significance within the small sample size. Nine participants completed all 4 study visits, one participant completed 3 study visits and then was lost to follow up. Net incremental area under the curve (iAUC) values for postprandial plasma glucose and insulin during the 5-hr sitting interruption conditions were not significantly different compared to the control condition. Exploratory analyses revealed that the 2-minute standing every 20 minutes and the 2-minute walking every hour conditions were associated with a significantly lower glycemic response to the second meal

  7. Methodological concerns for determining power output in the jump squat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; Deane, Russell; McBride, Jeffrey M

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of power measurement techniques during the jump squat (JS) utilizing various combinations of a force plate and linear position transducer (LPT) devices. Nine men with at least 6 months of prior resistance training experience participated in this acute investigation. One repetition maximums (1RM) in the squat were determined, followed by JS testing under 2 loading conditions (30% of 1RM [JS30] and 90% of 1RM [JS90]). Three different techniques were used simultaneously in data collection: (a) 1 linear position transducer (1-LPT); (b) 1 linear position transducer and a force plate (1-LPT + FP); and (c) 2 linear position transducers and a force place (2-LPT + FP). Vertical velocity-, force-, and power-time curves were calculated for each lift using these methodologies and were compared. Peak force and peak power were overestimated by 1-LPT in both JS30 and JS90 compared with 2-LPT + FP and 1-LPT + FP (p power determined by 2-LPT + FP was significantly higher than that determined by 1-LPT + FP under the JS90 loading condition. Peak vertical velocity determined by 2-LPT + FP was significantly lower than that determined by either 1-LPT and 1-LPT + FP in JS90. This investigation indicates that peak power and the timing of power output in the jump squat varies according to the measurement technique utilized. The 1-LPT methodology is not a valid means of determining power output in the jump squat. Furthermore, the 1-LPT + FP method may not accurately represent power output in free weight movements that involve a significant amount of horizontal motion.

  8. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  9. Manage at work: a randomized, controlled trial of a self-management group intervention to overcome workplace challenges associated with chronic physical health conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaw, W.S.; Besen, E.; Pransky, G.; Boot, C.R.L.; Nicholas, M.K.; McLellan, R.K.; Tveito, T.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The percentage of older and chronically ill workers is increasing rapidly in the US and in many other countries, but few interventions are available to help employees overcome the workplace challenges of chronic pain and other physical health conditions. While most workers are eligible

  10. Source-Independent Quantum Random Number Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhu; Zhou, Hongyi; Yuan, Xiao; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-01-01

    Quantum random number generators can provide genuine randomness by appealing to the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. In general, a physical generator contains two parts—a randomness source and its readout. The source is essential to the quality of the resulting random numbers; hence, it needs to be carefully calibrated and modeled to achieve information-theoretical provable randomness. However, in practice, the source is a complicated physical system, such as a light source or an atomic ensemble, and any deviations in the real-life implementation from the theoretical model may affect the randomness of the output. To close this gap, we propose a source-independent scheme for quantum random number generation in which output randomness can be certified, even when the source is uncharacterized and untrusted. In our randomness analysis, we make no assumptions about the dimension of the source. For instance, multiphoton emissions are allowed in optical implementations. Our analysis takes into account the finite-key effect with the composable security definition. In the limit of large data size, the length of the input random seed is exponentially small compared to that of the output random bit. In addition, by modifying a quantum key distribution system, we experimentally demonstrate our scheme and achieve a randomness generation rate of over 5 ×103 bit /s .

  11. Optimal loading range for the development of peak power output in the hexagonal barbell jump squat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Thomas S; Tobin, Daniel P; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that the utilization of the hexagonal barbell jump squat (HBJS) compared with the traditional barbell jump squat may offer a superior method of developing peak power. The notion that a single optimal load may be prescribed in training programs aiming to develop peak power is subject to debate. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal load corresponding with peak power output during the HBJS in professional rugby union players. Seventeen professional rugby union players participated in this study. Participants performed 3 unloaded countermovement jumps on a force plate and 3 HBJS at each of the following randomized loads: 10, 20, 30, and 40% of box squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Peak power output was the dependent variable of interest. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare peak power output across each load. Peak power output was the dependent variable of interest. A significant main effect for load was observed (Wilk's Lambda = 0.11, F(4,13) = 18.07, p power output in the HBJS is optimized at a load range between 10 and 20% of box squat 1RM. The results of this study indicate that the use of the HBJS with a training load between 10 and 20% of box squat 1RM optimizes peak power output in professional rugby union players.

  12. The impact of pushed output on accuracy and fluency of Iranian EFL learners’ speaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Reza Sadeghi Beniss

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study attempted to establish baseline quantitative data on the impacts of pushed output on two components of speaking (i.e., accuracy and fluency. To achieve this purpose, 30 female EFL learners were selected from a whole population pool of 50 based on the standard test of IELTS interview and were randomly assigned into an experimental group and a control group. The participants in the experimental group received pushed output treatment while the students in the control group received non-pushed output instruction. The data were collected through IELTS interview and then the interview of each participant was separately tape-recorded and later transcribed and coded to measure accuracy and fluency. Then, the independent samples t-test was employed to analyze the collected data. The results revealed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in accuracy. In contrast, findings substantiated that pushed output had no impact on fluency. The positive impact of pushed output demonstrated in this study is consistent with the hypothesized function of Swain’s (1985 pushed output. The results can provide some useful insights into syllabus design and English language teaching.

  13. Power Flows and Efficiency of Output Compound e-CVT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bottiglione

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybridization is the most promising vehicular technology to get significant improvements of the vehicle efficiency and performance in the short-term. Mechanical transmissions for hybrid vehicles are very often multiple modes transmission, which permit improving the performance in different working conditions. In this context, optimal design and control of these transmissions are a key point to improve the performance of the vehicles, and mathematical models which supports the design can play an important role in this field. In this work, an approach for evaluating the performance of Output Compound Split e-CVT (electric Continuously Variable Transmission in steady-state is proposed. This approach, in addition to a kinematic analysis of the device, leads to the calculation of the internal power circulation modes and the efficiency of the device in different working conditions.

  14. Input and output constraints affecting irrigation development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, G.

    1981-05-01

    In many of the developing countries the expansion of irrigated agriculture is used as a major development tool for bringing about increases in agricultural output, rural economic growth and income distribution. Apart from constraints imposed by water availability, the major limitations considered to any acceleration of such programs are usually thought to be those of costs and financial resources. However, as is shown on the basis of empirical data drawn from Mexico, in reality the feasibility and effectiveness of such development programs is even more constrained by the lack of specialized physical and human factors on the input and market limitations on the output side. On the input side, the limited availability of complementary factors such as, for example, truly functioning credit systems for small-scale farmers or effective agricultural extension services impose long-term constraints on development. On the output side the limited availability, high risk, and relatively slow growth of markets for high-value crops sharply reduce the usually hoped-for and projected profitable crop mix that would warrant the frequently high costs of irrigation investments. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) Factors in limited supply have to be shadow-priced to reflect their high opportunity costs in alternative uses. (2) Re-allocation of financial resources from immediate construction of projects to longer-term increase in the supply of scarce, highly-trained manpower resources are necessary in order to optimize development over time. (3) Inclusion of high-value, high-income producing crops in the benefit-cost analysis of new projects is inappropriate if these crops could potentially be grown in already existing projects.

  15. Fluctuations of the SNR at the output of the MVDR with Regularized Tyler Estimators

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2016-12-27

    This paper analyzes the statistical properties of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the output of the Capon\\'s minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamformers when operating over impulsive noises. Particularly, we consider the supervised case in which the receiver employs the regularized Tyler estimator in order to estimate the covariance matrix of the interference-plus-noise process using n observations of size N×1N×1. The choice for the regularized Tylor estimator (RTE) is motivated by its resilience to the presence of outliers and its regularization parameter that guarantees a good conditioning of the covariance estimate. Of particular interest in this paper is the derivation of the second order statistics of the SINR. To achieve this goal, we consider two different approaches. The first one is based on considering the classical regime, referred to as the n-large regime, in which N is assumed to be fixed while n grows to infinity. The second approach is built upon recent results developped within the framework of random matrix theory and assumes that N and n grow large together. Numerical results are provided in order to compare between the accuracies of each regime under different settings.

  16. Uncertainties in predicting solar panel power output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of calculating solar panel power output at launch and during a space mission is considered. The major sources of uncertainty and error in predicting the post launch electrical performance of the panel are considered. A general discussion of error analysis is given. Examples of uncertainty calculations are included. A general method of calculating the effect on the panel of various degrading environments is presented, with references supplied for specific methods. A technique for sizing a solar panel for a required mission power profile is developed.

  17. On output measurements via radiation pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeman, S.; Healey, A.J.; Forsberg, F.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown, by simple physical argument, that measurements of intensity with a radiation pressure balance should not agree with those based on calorimetric techniques. The conclusion is ultimately a consequence of the circumstance that radiation pressure measurements relate to wave momentum, while...... calorimetric methods relate to wave energy. Measurements with some typical ultrasound fields are performed with a novel type of hydrophone, and these allow an estimate to be made of the magnitude of the discrepancy to be expected between the two types of output measurement in a typical case....

  18. SPRINT spray intercooling augments LM6000 output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David

    1998-09-01

    By injecting water between the low pressure and high pressure compressors of an aeroderivative gas turbine, GE-IAD engineers have demonstrated that a 9 per cent increase in output accompanied by reduced life cycle costs can be achieved. Designated the SPRINT system, uprated LM 6000 units with augmented efficiency have been introduced to the market. The first two production units, both supplied to Southern Electric Power Generation in England for mid-merit independent power generation plants at Chickerell in Dorset and Burghfield in Berkshire, have each clocked in excess of 500 operating hours since start-up in early April 1998. MPS visited the Chickerell installation in late July 1998. (UK)

  19. Modelling Waste Output from Trout Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, J. O.; From, J.; Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    The aim of waste modelling in aquaculture is to provide tools for simulating input, transformation, output and subsidiary degradation in recipients of organic compounds, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The direct purpose of this modelling is to make it possible for caretakers and water authorities...... to calculate waste discharge from existing and planned aquaculture activities. A special purpose is simulating outcome of waste water treatment and altered feeding programmes. Different submodels must be applied for P, N, and organics, as well as for the different phases of food and waste treatment. Altogether...

  20. INVESTIGATING MACROECONOMIC STABILITY USING THE OUTPUT GAP

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia TITAN; Vladimir GEORGESCU

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to illustrate the importance of the output gap in analysing macroeconomic stability in general and business cycle dynamics in particular. Ten EU countries are considered, with five old members and five new members. For all ten countries the data for the period 1999-2014 is used, but for four countries, namely France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Spain additional data is available that goes back to 1965, such that the whole period 1965-2014 is covered, which allo...

  1. Comparison of surgical conditions following premedication with oral clonidine versus oral diazepam for endoscopic sinus surgery: A randomized, double-blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini V Bhat Pai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS provides a challenge and an opportunity to the anesthesiologists to prove their mettle and give the surgeons a surgical field which can make their delicate surgery safer,more precise and faster. The aim of the study was to evaluate the surgical field and the rate of blood loss in patients premedicated with oral clonidine versus oral diazepam for endoscopic sinus surgery. Material and Methods: ASA I or II patients who were scheduled to undergo ESS were randomly allocated to group D (n = 30 or group C (n = 30. The patients′ vital parameters, propofol infusion rate, and rate of blood loss were observed and calculated. The surgeon, who was blinded, rated the visibility of the surgical field from grade 0-5. Results: In the clonidine group, the rate of blood loss, the surgical time, propofol infusion rate was found to be statistically lower as compared to the diazepam group. Also a higher number of patients in the clonidine group had a better surgical score (better surgical field than the diazepam group and vice versa. Conclusions: Premedication with clonidine as compared to diazepam, provides a better surgical field with less blood loss in patients undergoing ESS.

  2. Connecting the dots: Semi-analytical and random walk numerical solutions of the diffusion-reaction equation with stochastic initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paster, Amir; Bolster, Diogo; Benson, David A.

    2014-04-01

    We study a system with bimolecular irreversible kinetic reaction A+B→∅ where the underlying transport of reactants is governed by diffusion, and the local reaction term is given by the law of mass action. We consider the case where the initial concentrations are given in terms of an average and a white noise perturbation. Our goal is to solve the diffusion-reaction equation which governs the system, and we tackle it with both analytical and numerical approaches. To obtain an analytical solution, we develop the equations of moments and solve them approximately. To obtain a numerical solution, we develop a grid-less Monte Carlo particle tracking approach, where diffusion is modeled by a random walk of the particles, and reaction is modeled by annihilation of particles. The probability of annihilation is derived analytically from the particles' co-location probability. We rigorously derive the relationship between the initial number of particles in the system and the amplitude of white noise represented by that number. This enables us to compare the particle simulations and the approximate analytical solution and offer an explanation of the late time discrepancies.

  3. A bibliographic review of public health dissemination and implementation research output and citation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Luke; Milat, Andrew J; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Skelton, Eliza; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Williams, Christopher; Wiggers, John; Chai, Li Kheng; Yoong, Sze Lin

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the research output and citation rates (academic impact) of public health dissemination and implementation research according to research design and study type. A cross sectional bibliographic study was undertaken in 2013. All original data-based studies and review articles focusing on dissemination and implementation research that had been published in 10 randomly selected public health journals in 2008 were audited. The electronic database 'Scopus' was used to calculate 5-year citation rates for all included publications. Of the 1648 publications examined, 216 were original data-based research or literature reviews focusing on dissemination and implementation research. Of these 72% were classified as descriptive/epidemiological, 26% were intervention and just 1.9% were measurement research. Cross-sectional studies were the most common study design (47%). Reviews, randomized trials, non-randomized trials and decision/cost-effectiveness studies each represented between 6 and 10% of all output. Systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials and cohort studies were the most frequently cited study designs. The study suggests that publications that had the greatest academic impact (highest citation rates) made up only a small proportion of overall public health dissemination and implementation research output.

  4. Dynamic Output-Feedback Passivity Control for Fuzzy Systems under Variable Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyi Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the problem of dynamic output-feedback control for a class of nonlinear systems with nonuniform uncertain sampling via Takagi-Sugeno (T-S fuzzy control approach. The sampling is not required to be periodic, and the state variables are not required to be measurable. A new type fuzzy dynamic output-feedback sampled-data controller is constructed, and a novel time-dependent Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is chosen for fuzzy systems under variable sampling. By using Lyapunov stability theory, a sufficient condition for very-strict passive analysis of fuzzy systems with nonuniform uncertain sampling is derived. Based on this condition, a novel fuzzy dynamic output-feedback controller is designed such that the closed-loop system is very-strictly passive. The existence condition of the controller can be solved by convex optimization approach. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Using the infrastructure of a conditional cash transfer program to deliver a scalable integrated early child development program in Colombia: cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Orazio P; Fernández, Camila; Fitzsimons, Emla O A; Grantham-McGregor, Sally M; Meghir, Costas; Rubio-Codina, Marta

    2014-09-29

    To assess the effectiveness of an integrated early child development intervention, combining stimulation and micronutrient supplementation and delivered on a large scale in Colombia, for children's development, growth, and hemoglobin levels. Cluster randomized controlled trial, using a 2 × 2 factorial design, with municipalities assigned to one of four groups: psychosocial stimulation, micronutrient supplementation, combined intervention, or control. 96 municipalities in Colombia, located across eight of its 32 departments. 1420 children aged 12-24 months and their primary carers. Psychosocial stimulation (weekly home visits with play demonstrations), micronutrient sprinkles given daily, and both combined. All delivered by female community leaders for 18 months. Cognitive, receptive and expressive language, and fine and gross motor scores on the Bayley scales of infant development-III; height, weight, and hemoglobin levels measured at the baseline and end of intervention. Stimulation improved cognitive scores (adjusted for age, sex, testers, and baseline levels of outcomes) by 0.26 of a standard deviation (P=0.002). Stimulation also increased receptive language by 0.22 of a standard deviation (P=0.032). Micronutrient supplementation had no significant effect on any outcome and there was no interaction between the interventions. No intervention affected height, weight, or hemoglobin levels. Using the infrastructure of a national welfare program we implemented the integrated early child development intervention on a large scale and showed its potential for improving children's cognitive development. We found no effect of supplementation on developmental or health outcomes. Moreover, supplementation did not interact with stimulation. The implementation model for delivering stimulation suggests that it may serve as a promising blueprint for future policy on early childhood development.Trial registration Current Controlled trials ISRCTN18991160. © Attanasio et al 2014.

  6. Partial state estimation for linear systems with output and input time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Q P; That, Nguyen D; Nam, Phan T; Trinh, H

    2014-03-01

    This paper deals with the problem of partial state observer design for linear systems that are subject to time delays in the measured output as well as the control input. By choosing a set of appropriate augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals with a triple-integral term and using the information of both the delayed output and input, a novel approach to design a minimal-order observer is proposed to guarantee that the observer error is ε-convergent with an exponential rate. Existence conditions of such an observer are derived in terms of matrix inequalities for the cases with time delays in both the output and input and with output delay only. Constructive design algorithms are introduced. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the design procedure, practicality and effectiveness of the proposed observer. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Monte Carlo Study on Multiple Output Stochastic Frontiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Géraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Jensen, Uwe

    In the estimation of multiple output technologies in a primal approach, the main question is how to handle the multiple outputs. Often an output distance function is used, where the classical approach is to exploit its homogeneity property by selecting one output quantity as the dependent variable...... of both specifications for the case of a Translog output distance function with respect to different common statistical problems as well as problems arising as a consequence of zero values in the output quantities. Although, our results partly show clear reactions to statistical misspecifications...

  8. Dense Output for Strong Stability Preserving Runge–Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2016-12-10

    We investigate dense output formulae (also known as continuous extensions) for strong stability preserving (SSP) Runge–Kutta methods. We require that the dense output formula also possess the SSP property, ideally under the same step-size restriction as the method itself. A general recipe for first-order SSP dense output formulae for SSP methods is given, and second-order dense output formulae for several optimal SSP methods are developed. It is shown that SSP dense output formulae of order three and higher do not exist, and that in any method possessing a second-order SSP dense output, the coefficient matrix A has a zero row.

  9. Variances and covariances in the Central Limit Theorem for the output of a transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Clemens; Kropf, Sara; Wagner, Stephan

    2015-10-01

    We study the joint distribution of the input sum and the output sum of a deterministic transducer. Here, the input of this finite-state machine is a uniformly distributed random sequence. We give a simple combinatorial characterization of transducers for which the output sum has bounded variance, and we also provide algebraic and combinatorial characterizations of transducers for which the covariance of input and output sum is bounded, so that the two are asymptotically independent. Our results are illustrated by several examples, such as transducers that count specific blocks in the binary expansion, the transducer that computes the Gray code, or the transducer that computes the Hamming weight of the width-[Formula: see text] non-adjacent form digit expansion. The latter two turn out to be examples of asymptotic independence.

  10. Output rate of atom lasers in a Raman-type output-coupling scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Yang, Xiaoxue

    2000-07-01

    We present a theory to derive the output rate of an atom laser consisting of an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate in a magnetic trap and two additional rf fields transferring trapped atoms to a repelled Zeeman sublevel via an intermediate untrapped Zeeman sublevel. We explicitly obtain the dependence of the output rate Γout on various characteristic parameters such as a coupling parameter (the Rabi frequency), the atom number density in the center of the condensate, and the strength of the atom-atom interaction.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of manual therapy for the management of musculoskeletal conditions: a systematic review and narrative synthesis of evidence from randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Clar, Christine; Court, Rachel; Clarke, Aileen; Mistry, Hema; Sutcliffe, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review trial-based economic evaluations of manual therapy relative to other alternative interventions used for the management of musculoskeletal conditions. A comprehensive literature search was undertaken in major medical, health-related, science and health economic electronic databases. Twenty-five publications were included (11 trial-based economic evaluations). The studies compared cost-effectiveness and/or cost-utility of manual therapy interventions to other treatment alternatives in reducing pain (spinal, shoulder, ankle). Manual therapy techniques (e.g., osteopathic spinal manipulation, physiotherapy manipulation and mobilization techniques, and chiropractic manipulation with or without other treatments) were more cost-effective than usual general practitioner (GP) care alone or with exercise, spinal stabilization, GP advice, advice to remain active, or brief pain management for improving low back and shoulder pain/disability. Chiropractic manipulation was found to be less costly and more effective than alternative treatment compared with either physiotherapy or GP care in improving neck pain. Preliminary evidence from this review shows some economic advantage of manual therapy relative to other interventions used for the management of musculoskeletal conditions, indicating that some manual therapy techniques may be more cost-effective than usual GP care, spinal stabilization, GP advice, advice to remain active, or brief pain management for improving low back and shoulder pain/disability. However, at present, there is a paucity of evidence on the cost-effectiveness and/or cost-utility evaluations for manual therapy interventions. Further improvements in the methodological conduct and reporting quality of economic evaluations of manual therapy are warranted in order to facilitate adequate evidence-based decisions among policy makers, health care practitioners, and patients. Copyright © 2014 National University

  12. Postoperative Hydrocortisone Infusion Reduces the Prevalence of Low Cardiac Output Syndrome After Neonatal Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Stephen M; Borasino, Santiago; Dabal, Robert J; Cleveland, David C; Hock, Kristal M; Alten, Jeffrey A

    2015-09-01

    Neonatal cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is often complicated by morbidity associated with inflammation and low cardiac output syndrome. Hydrocortisone "stress dosing" is reported to provide hemodynamic benefits in some patients with refractory shock. Development of cardiopulmonary bypass-induced adrenal insufficiency may provide further rationale for postoperative hydrocortisone administration. We sought to determine whether prophylactic, postoperative hydrocortisone infusion could decrease prevalence of low cardiac output syndrome after neonatal cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Double-blind, randomized control trial. Pediatric cardiac ICU and operating room in tertiary care center. Forty neonates undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were randomized (19 hydrocortisone and 21 placebo). Demographics and known risk factors were similar between groups. After cardiopulmonary bypass separation, bolus hydrocortisone (50 mg/m²) or placebo was administered, followed by continuous hydrocortisone infusion (50 mg/m²/d) or placebo tapered over 5 days. Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation testing (1 μg) was performed before and after cardiopulmonary bypass, prior to steroid administration. Blood was collected for cytokine analysis before and after cardiopulmonary bypass. Subjects receiving hydrocortisone were less likely to develop low cardiac output syndrome (5/19, 26% vs 12/21, 57%; p = 0.049). Hydrocortisone group had more negative net fluid balance at 48 hours (-114 vs -64 mL/kg; p = 0.01) and greater urine output at 0-24 hours (2.7 vs 1.2 mL/kg/hr; p = 0.03). Hydrocortisone group weaned off catecholamines and vasopressin sooner than placebo, with a difference in inotrope-free subjects apparent after 48 hours (p = 0.033). Five placebo subjects (24%) compared with no hydrocortisone subjects required rescue steroids (p = 0.02). Thirteen (32.5%) had adrenal insufficiency after cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients with adrenal

  13. Grouping influences output interference in short-term memory: a mixture modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Suk eKang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Output interference is a source of forgetting induced by recalling. We investigated how grouping influences output interference in short-term memory. In Experiment 1, the participants were asked to remember four colored items. Those items were grouped by temporal coincidence as well as spatial alignment: two items were presented in the first memory array and two were presented in the second, and the items in both arrays were either vertically or horizontally aligned as well. The participants then performed two recall tasks in sequence by selecting a color presented at a cued location from a color wheel. In the same-group condition, the participants reported both items from the same memory array; however, in the different-group condition, the participants reported one item from each memory array. We analyzed participant responses with a mixture model, which yielded two measures: guess rate and precision of recalled memories. The guess rate in the second recall was higher for the different-group condition than for the same-group condition; however, the memory precisions obtained for both conditions were similarly degraded in the second recall. In Experiment 2, we varied the probability of the same- and different-group conditions with a ratio of 3 to 7. We expected output interference to be higher in the same-group condition than in the different-group condition. This is because items of the other group are more likely to be probed in the second recall phase and, thus, protecting those items during the first recall phase leads to a better performance. Nevertheless, the same pattern of results was robustly reproduced, suggesting grouping shields the grouped items from output interference because of the secured accessibility. We discussed how grouping influences output interference.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and adhesion of a transdermal patch containing ethinyl estradiol and gestodene under conditions of heat, humidity, and exercise: A single-center, open-label, randomized, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurth, Christian; Schuett, Barbara; Casjens, Manuela; Ludwig, Matthias; Waellnitz, Katrin

    2015-07-01

    In this open-label, randomized study, 36 women (18-45 years) applied an ethinyl estradiol/gestodene contraceptive patch once-weekly for 3 weeks followed by a 1-week, patch-free interval, in 3 treatment periods. The primary objective was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ethinyl estradiol and gestodene under conditions of heat, humidity, and exercise. The secondary objective was to evaluate patch adhesion under the same conditions. Weeks 1 and 2 of each period comprised "standardized normal activity" (SNA); in week 3, SNA continued or women used a sauna, whirlpool, swimming pool, or performed an exercise combination. Thirty-one women completed the study; 23 yielded evaluable pharmacokinetic data. Analyses were exploratory and conducted using an analysis of variance. Area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 168 hours (AUC0-168 ) for gestodene and ethinyl estradiol during sauna, swimming, and whirlpool was equivalent to previous SNA recordings. For exercise combination, the gestodene AUC0-168 was 12% lower compared with SNA, albeit not considered clinically relevant. Two women lost a total of 3 patches during sporting activities; other detachments during this week were not correlated with sporting activity. Overall, hormone delivery using the ethinyl estradiol/gestodene patch under conditions of heat, humidity, and exercise corresponded to delivery under normal conditions. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  15. Design of laser diode stable output system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Cao, Rui-ming

    2008-03-01

    High-stability output's system of laser diode is introduced in this paper. The system which is based on the MCU of MSP430 has been designed light power feedback loop and coller of TEC. It includes stable current, protecting circuit, light power feedback loop, temperature controlling, power display and so on. It is also able to control and show the power at the real time. The power could be set by botton too. The software of slow start up, slow close and the protecting relay are adopted by MCU. DRV592 is introduced as PWM driver to control the current of TEC. The duty cycle is generate by MCU. In order to control temperature, it is changed to influence the current of TEC. The power that is sampled by photodiode which is integrated in the laser diode is controlled by the micro-processing. The laser is monitored by voltage control circuit and current control circuit at the real time.

  16. FEL system with homogeneous average output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, David R.; Legg, Robert; Whitney, R. Roy; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas Joseph

    2018-01-16

    A method of varying the output of a free electron laser (FEL) on very short time scales to produce a slightly broader, but smooth, time-averaged wavelength spectrum. The method includes injecting into an accelerator a sequence of bunch trains at phase offsets from crest. Accelerating the particles to full energy to result in distinct and independently controlled, by the choice of phase offset, phase-energy correlations or chirps on each bunch train. The earlier trains will be more strongly chirped, the later trains less chirped. For an energy recovered linac (ERL), the beam may be recirculated using a transport system with linear and nonlinear momentum compactions M.sub.56, which are selected to compress all three bunch trains at the FEL with higher order terms managed.

  17. Advanced Output Coupling for High Power Gyrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Michael [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Ives, Robert Lawrence [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Marsden, David [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Collins, George [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Guss, William [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lohr, John [General Atomics, La Jolla, CA (United States); Neilson, Jeffrey [Lexam Research, Redwood City, CA (United States); Bui, Thuc [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2016-11-28

    The Phase II program developed an internal RF coupler that transforms the whispering gallery RF mode produced in gyrotron cavities to an HE11 waveguide mode propagating in corrugated waveguide. This power is extracted from the vacuum using a broadband, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, Brewster angle window capable of transmitting more than 1.5 MW CW of RF power over a broad range of frequencies. This coupling system eliminates the Mirror Optical Units now required to externally couple Gaussian output power into corrugated waveguide, significantly reducing system cost and increasing efficiency. The program simulated the performance using a broad range of advanced computer codes to optimize the design. Both a direct coupler and Brewster angle window were built and tested at low and high power. Test results confirmed the performance of both devices and demonstrated they are capable of achieving the required performance for scientific, defense, industrial, and medical applications.

  18. Turbulent Output-Based Anisotropic Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Michael A.; Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2010-01-01

    Controlling discretization error is a remaining challenge for computational fluid dynamics simulation. Grid adaptation is applied to reduce estimated discretization error in drag or pressure integral output functions. To enable application to high O(10(exp 7)) Reynolds number turbulent flows, a hybrid approach is utilized that freezes the near-wall boundary layer grids and adapts the grid away from the no slip boundaries. The hybrid approach is not applicable to problems with under resolved initial boundary layer grids, but is a powerful technique for problems with important off-body anisotropic features. Supersonic nozzle plume, turbulent flat plate, and shock-boundary layer interaction examples are presented with comparisons to experimental measurements of pressure and velocity. Adapted grids are produced that resolve off-body features in locations that are not known a priori.

  19. Achromatic waveguide input/output coupler design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, K E; Morris, G M

    1991-03-20

    An investigation into methods for achromatizing the coupling angle characteristics of waveguide input/output couplers is described. The basic approach involves correcting the inherent angular dispersion of conventional waveguide couplers with a diffraction grating. Two configurations are analyzed in detail: a hybrid prism/grating coupler and a double grating coupler. Expressions are derived for values of the grating parameters that produce achromatic coupling. A method is also presented to predict the achromatic wavelength range and maximize it with the available degrees of freedom. For a coupling angle tolerance of 0.005 degrees , it is found that with double grating couplers achromatic wavelength ranges of the order of 10 nm can be obtained, and that with prism/grating couplers this range can be as large as 200 nm.

  20. Alternative output measurement for the US retail trade sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, M.P.; Inklaar, R.; van Ark, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental alternative estimate of real output in retail trade, based on double deflated margins might be a viable methodology for measuring retail trade output, but important data issues need to be resolved and further research is necessary.

  1. Does combined cognitive training and physical activity training enhance cognitive abilities more than either alone? A four-condition randomized controlled trial among healthy older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn eShatil

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive training and aerobic training are known to improve cognitive functions. To examine the separate and combined effects of such training on cognitive performance, four groups of healthy older adults embarked on a four months cognitive and/or mild aerobic training. A first group (n=33, mean age=80 [66-90] engaged in cognitive training, a second (n=29, mean age=81 [65-89] in mild aerobic training, a third (n=29, mean age=79 [70-93] in the combination of both and a fourth (n=31, mean age=79 [71-92] control group engaged in book-reading activity. The outcome was a well validated multi-domain computerized cognitive evaluation for older adults. The results indicate that, when compared to older adults who did not engage in cognitive training (the mild aerobic and control groups older adults who engaged in cognitive training (separate or combined training groups showed significant improvement in cognitive performance on Hand-Eye Coordination, Global Visual Memory (working memory and long-term memory, Speed of Information Processing, Visual Scanning and Naming. Indeed, individuals who did not engage in cognitive training showed no such improvements. Those results suggest that cognitive training is effective in improving cognitive performance and that it (and not mild aerobic training is driving the improvement in the combined condition. Results are discussed in terms of the special circumstances of aerobic and cognitive training for older adults who are above 80 years of age.

  2. Industrial output restriction and the Kyoto protocol. An input-output approach with application to Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lixon, Benoit [A.D.E Consulting Services, Rue de Clairvaux, 40/101, 1348 Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Thomassin, Paul J. [Department of Agricultural Economics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Hamaide, Bertrand [Faculty of Economics, Social and Political Sciences, Facultes Universitaires Saint-Louis, 43 boulevard du jardin botanique, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the economic impacts of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by decreasing industrial output in Canada to a level that will meet the target set out in the Kyoto Protocol. The study uses an ecological-economic Input-Output model combining economic components valued in monetary terms with ecologic components - GHG emissions - expressed in physical terms. Economic and greenhouse gas emissions data for Canada are computed in the same sectoral disaggregation. Three policy scenarios are considered: the first one uses the direct emission coefficients to allocate the reduction in industrial output, while the other two use the direct plus indirect emission coefficients. In the first two scenarios, the reduction in industrial sector output is allocated uniformly across sectors while it is allocated to the 12 largest emitting industries in the last one. The estimated impacts indicate that the results vary with the different allocation methods. The third policy scenario, allocation to the 12 largest emitting sectors, is the most cost effective of the three as the impacts of the Kyoto Protocol reduces Gross Domestic Product by 3.1% compared to 24% and 8.1% in the first two scenarios. Computed economic costs should be considered as upper-bounds because the model assumes immediate adjustment to the Kyoto Protocol and because flexibility mechanisms are not incorporated. The resulting upper-bound impact of the third scenario may seem to contradict those who claim that the Kyoto Protocol would place an unbearable burden on the Canadian economy. (author)

  3. Study of 2-input 2-output Blind Signal Separation by Output Decorrelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Davidek

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The simulations and experiments representing the initial study of the output decorrelation approach to blind signal separation are presented in this paper. The definition of performance indexes for the evaluation and comparison of different algorithms are proposed. Two algorithms are compared. Some first results of real experiments are discussed.

  4. Output-input coupling in thermally fluctuating biomolecular machines

    CERN Document Server

    Kurzynski, Michal; Chelminiak, Przemyslaw

    2011-01-01

    Biological molecular machines are proteins that operate under isothermal conditions hence are referred to as free energy transducers. They can be formally considered as enzymes that simultaneously catalyze two chemical reactions: the free energy-donating reaction and the free energy-accepting one. Most if not all biologically active proteins display a slow stochastic dynamics of transitions between a variety of conformational substates composing their native state. In the steady state, this dynamics is characterized by mean first-passage times between transition substates of the catalyzed reactions. On taking advantage of the assumption that each reaction proceeds through a single pair (the gate) of conformational transition substates of the enzyme-substrates complex, analytical formulas were derived for the flux-force dependence of the both reactions, the respective stalling forces and the degree of coupling between the free energy-accepting (output) reaction flux and the free energy-donating (input) one. Th...

  5. New Design of Crypto-Based Pseudo random number generator (CBPRNG) using BLOW FISH cipher

    OpenAIRE

    T.Chalama Reddy; Dr.R.Seshadri

    2013-01-01

    Random Number Generators (RNGs) are an important building block for algorithms and protocols in cryptography. Random number generation is used in a wide variety of cryptographic operations, such as key generation and challenge/response protocols. A random number generator outputs a sequence of 0s and 1s such that at any position, the next bit cannot be expected on the previous bits. However, true random number produces non- deterministic output since if the same random generator is run twice,...

  6. A Monte Carlo study on multiple output stochastic frontiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Jensen, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    In the estimation of multiple output technologies in a primal approach, the mainquestion is how to handle the multiple outputs. Often, an output distance function is used,where the classical approach is to exploit its homogeneity property by selecting one outputquantity as the dependent variable,...

  7. Waste treatment in physical input-output analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, E

    2005-01-01

    When compared to monetary input-output tables (MIOTs), a distinctive feature of physical input-output tables (PIOTs) is that they include the generation of waste as part of a consistent accounting framework. As a consequence, however, physical input-output analysis thus requires that the treatment

  8. External Suction and Fluid Output in Chest Drains After Lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lijkendijk, Marike; Neckelmann, Kirsten; Licht, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    was delegated to staff nurses: air leakage less than 20 mL/min for 6 hours regardless of fluid output, provided it was serous. The primary end point was fluid output after 24 and 48 hours. RESULTS: Mean fluid output was significantly higher with high suction after both 24 (338 ± 265 mL versus 523 ± 215 m...

  9. Effects of Creatine and Sodium Bicarbonate Coingestion on Multiple Indices of Mechanical Power Output During Repeated Wingate Tests in Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffen, Corbin; Rogerson, David; Ranchordas, Mayur; Ruddock, Alan

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of creatine and sodium bicarbonate coingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints. Nine well-trained men (age = 21.6 ± 0.9 yr, stature = 1.82 ± 0.05 m, body mass = 80.1 ±12.8 kg) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, crossover study using six 10-s repeated Wingate tests. Participants ingested either a placebo (0.5 g·kg(-1) of maltodextrin), 20 g·d(-1) of creatine monohydrate + placebo, 0.3 g·kg(-1) of sodium bicarbonate + placebo, or coingestion + placebo for 7 days, with a 7-day washout between conditions. Participants were randomized into two groups with a differential counterbalanced order. Creatine conditions were ordered first and last. Indices of mechanical power output (W), total work (J) and fatigue index (W·s(-1)) were measured during each test and analyzed using the magnitude of differences between groups in relation to the smallest worthwhile change in performance. Compared with placebo, both creatine (effect size (ES) = 0.37-0.83) and sodium bicarbonate (ES = 0.22-0.46) reported meaningful improvements on indices of mechanical power output. Coingestion provided small meaningful improvements on indices of mechanical power output (W) compared with sodium bicarbonate (ES = 0.28-0.41), but not when compared with creatine (ES = -0.21-0.14). Coingestion provided a small meaningful improvement in total work (J; ES = 0.24) compared with creatine. Fatigue index (W·s(-1)) was impaired in all conditions compared with placebo. In conclusion, there was no meaningful additive effect of creatine and sodium bicarbonate coingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints.

  10. MCNP output data analysis with ROOT (MODAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasco, C.

    2010-12-01

    MCNP Output Data Analysis with ROOT (MODAR) is a tool based on CERN's ROOT software. MODAR has been designed to handle time-energy data issued by MCNP simulations of neutron inspection devices using the associated particle technique. MODAR exploits ROOT's Graphical User Interface and functionalities to visualize and process MCNP simulation results in a fast and user-friendly way. MODAR allows to take into account the detection system time resolution (which is not possible with MCNP) as well as detectors energy response function and counting statistics in a straightforward way. New version program summaryProgram title: MODAR Catalogue identifier: AEGA_v1_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGA_v1_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 150 927 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 981 633 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Most Unix workstations and PCs Operating system: Most Unix systems, Linux and windows, provided the ROOT package has been installed. Examples where tested under Suse Linux and Windows XP. RAM: Depends on the size of the MCNP output file. The example presented in the article, which involves three two dimensional 139×740 bins histograms, allocates about 60 MB. These data are running under ROOT and include consumption by ROOT itself. Classification: 17.6 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEGA_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 181 (2010) 1161 External routines: ROOT version 5.24.00 ( http://root.cern.ch/drupal/) Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: The output of a MCNP simulation is an ascii file. The data processing is usually performed by copying and pasting the relevant parts of the ascii

  11. Analysis of influence factors on 2 μm Tm3+-doped fiber laser output characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Jin, Guang-yong; Wang, Ji

    2016-10-01

    The affecting factors of 2 μm Tm3+-doped fiber laser output characteristics were theoretical analyzed. On the basis of the energy level structure and optical absorption properties of Tm3+ ion, combining with the basic principle of Tm3+-doped fiber laser, and starting from the energy level structures and the cross relaxation processes of Tm3+ ion, the three pumping methods of Tm doped fiber laser (TDF) were analyzed and discussed. The influences of output characteristics by different influence factors were simulated. Based on optimization of the equations, for different fiber lengths, doping concentrations and pumping absorption coefficients and other influence factors, the laser output characteristics under different conditions were obtained and analyzed. Combination the simulation analysis, through the reasonable design and the selection of the optimum parameters of the laser system, the high laser output performance scan be achieved by improving the injection power and controlling of fiber coil diameter. The influences of different factors on the output characteristics were analyzed in the issue. The high laser output performances can be obtained and the laser loss was reduced by selecting the parameters of the laser system properly.

  12. Output Containment Control of Linear Heterogeneous Multi-Agent Systems Using Internal Model Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Shan; Song, Yongduan; Lewis, Frank L; Davoudi, Ali

    2017-01-04

    This paper studies the output containment control of linear heterogeneous multi-agent systems, where the system dynamics and even the state dimensions can generally be different. Since the states can have different dimensions, standard results from state containment control do not apply. Therefore, the control objective is to guarantee the convergence of the output of each follower to the dynamic convex hull spanned by the outputs of leaders. This can be achieved by making certain output containment errors go to zero asymptotically. Based on this formulation, two different control protocols, namely, full-state feedback and static output-feedback, are designed based on internal model principles. Sufficient local conditions for the existence of the proposed control protocols are developed in terms of stabilizing the local followers' dynamics and satisfying a certain H∞ criterion. Unified design procedures to solve the proposed two control protocols are presented by formulation and solution of certain local state-feedback and static output-feedback problems, respectively. Numerical simulations are given to validate the proposed control protocols.

  13. True randomness from an incoherent source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bing

    2017-11-01

    Quantum random number generators (QRNGs) harness the intrinsic randomness in measurement processes: the measurement outputs are truly random, given the input state is a superposition of the eigenstates of the measurement operators. In the case of trusted devices, true randomness could be generated from a mixed state ρ so long as the system entangled with ρ is well protected. We propose a random number generation scheme based on measuring the quadrature fluctuations of a single mode thermal state using an optical homodyne detector. By mixing the output of a broadband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source with a single mode local oscillator (LO) at a beam splitter and performing differential photo-detection, we can selectively detect the quadrature fluctuation of a single mode output of the ASE source, thanks to the filtering function of the LO. Experimentally, a quadrature variance about three orders of magnitude larger than the vacuum noise has been observed, suggesting this scheme can tolerate much higher detector noise in comparison with QRNGs based on measuring the vacuum noise. The high quality of this entropy source is evidenced by the small correlation coefficients of the acquired data. A Toeplitz-hashing extractor is applied to generate unbiased random bits from the Gaussian distributed raw data, achieving an efficiency of 5.12 bits per sample. The output of the Toeplitz extractor successfully passes all the NIST statistical tests for random numbers.

  14. Modal Parameter Identification from Responses of General Unknown Random Inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, S. R.; Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune

    1996-01-01

    Modal parameter identification from ambient responses due to a general unknown random inputs is investigated. Existing identification techniques which are based on assumptions of white noise and or stationary random inputs are utilized even though the inputs conditions are not satisfied....... This is accomplished via adding. In cascade. A force cascade conversion to the structures system under consideration. The input to the force conversion system is white noise and the output of which is the actual force(s) applied to the structure. The white noise input(s) and the structures responses are then used...... to identify the compined system. Identification results are then sorted as either structural parameters or input force(s) characteristics....

  15. The Acute Effect of Loperamide on Ileostomy Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Katrine; Qvist, Niels

    2017-01-01

    High stoma output is a common problem in patients with ileostomy and can lead to dehydration and electrolyte disturbances. The first drug of choice to reduce stoma output is often loperamide. The aim was to assess the acute effect of loperamide on (a) ileostomy output in g/day, (b) gastrointestinal...... stoma output and noted food and fluid intake over 48 hr and swallowed a capsule with radiopaque markers for the determination of gastrointestinal transit time over 24 hr. At the end of the study, patients were asked to report their treatment sequence. Ileostomy output was significantly reduced during...

  16. Experimental Investigation on Power Output in Aged Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Murugan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation on the power output on effect of tower height with same diameter of rotor was conducted in a wind turbine site. As the wind acceleration is varying with height, 3 levels were selected according to the availability of tower. The responses of power output with respect to variation of wind speed are changing for the tower heights of 30, 40, and 50 m. The study showed that the actual ideal power output and measured real power output follow the same trend within range of operating wind speed. The empirical model used for calculation of actual ideal power output was compared with real power output and the overall concepts in power output also had been analysed.

  17. Methods and apparatus for determining cardiac output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor); Mukkamala, Ramakrishna (Inventor); Sherman, Derin A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for determining a dynamical property of the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree using long time scale information, i.e., information obtained from measurements over time scales greater than a single cardiac cycle. In one aspect, the invention provides a method and apparatus for monitoring cardiac output (CO) from a single blood pressure signal measurement obtained at any site in the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree or from any related measurement including, for example, fingertip photoplethysmography.According to the method the time constant of the arterial tree, defined to be the product of the total peripheral resistance (TPR) and the nearly constant arterial compliance, is determined by analyzing the long time scale variations (greater than a single cardiac cycle) in any of these blood pressure signals. Then, according to Ohm's law, a value proportional to CO may be determined from the ratio of the blood pressure signal to the estimated time constant. The proportional CO values derived from this method may be calibrated to absolute CO, if desired, with a single, absolute measure of CO (e.g., thermodilution). The present invention may be applied to invasive radial arterial blood pressure or pulmonary arterial blood pressure signals which are routinely measured in intensive care units and surgical suites or to noninvasively measured peripheral arterial blood pressure signals or related noninvasively measured signals in order to facilitate the clinical monitoring of CO as well as TPR.

  18. Hybrid optoelectronic device with multiple bistable outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costazo-Caso, Pablo A.; Jin, Yiye; Gelh, Michael; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad

    2011-01-01

    Optoelectronic circuits which exhibit optical and electrical bistability with hysteresis behavior are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The systems are based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), bipolar junction transistors (BJT), PIN photodiodes (PD) and laser diodes externally modulated with integrated electro-absorption modulators (LD-EAM). The device operates based on two independent phenomena leading to both electrical bistability and optical bistability. The electrical bistability is due to the series connection of two p-i-n structures (SOA, BJT, PD or LD) in reverse bias. The optical bistability is consequence of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) in the multi-quantum well (MQW) structure in the intrinsic region of the device. This effect produces the optical modulation of the transmitted light through the SOA (or reflected from the PD). Finally, because the optical transmission of the SOA (in reverse bias) and the reflected light from the PD are so small, a LD-EAM modulated by the voltage across these devices are employed to obtain a higher output optical power. Experiments show that the maximum switching frequency is in MHz range and the rise/fall times lower than 1 us. The temporal response is mainly limited by the electrical capacitance of the devices and the parasitic inductances of the connecting wires. The effects of these components can be reduced in current integration technologies.

  19. Optimizing power output by varying repetition tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Riana R; Sforzo, Gary A; King, Deborah L

    2011-11-01

    The effects of varying interrepetition rest and eccentric velocity on power output (PO) and the number of repetitions performed during a bench press set were examined in 24 college-aged resistance trained men. On 6 separate occasions, subjects performed a set of bench press at 80% 1 repetition maximum until volitional fatigue. For each of the 6 repetition tempo trials, the bench press set was paced by metronome to a unique repetition tempo involving a combination of the following: interrepetition rest of 0 or 4 seconds; eccentric velocity of 1 or 4 seconds and bottom rest of 0 or 3 seconds. The velocity of concentric contraction was maximal during all 6 tempo trials. During each trial, video data were captured to determine PO variables and number of successful repetitions completed at each tempo. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed tempos with a fast eccentric phase (1 second), and no bottom rest produced significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) PO and repetitions than tempos involving slower eccentric velocity (4 seconds) or greater bottom rest (4 seconds). This combination of greater repetitions and PO resulted in a greater volume of work. Varying interrepetition rest (1 or 4 seconds) did not significantly affect PO or repetitions. The results of this study support the use of fast eccentric speed and no bottom rest during acute performance testing to maximize PO and number of repetitions during a set of bench press.

  20. Monitoring cardiac output during hyperbaric oxygen treatment of haemodynamically unstable patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marco Bo; Treschow, Frederik; Skielboe, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Patients suffering from necrotizing fasciitis (NF) are often haemodynamically unstable and require extended monitoring of cardiovascular parameters; yet this is limited during hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT). We aimed to evaluate the use and safety of transoesophageal Doppler (TED) monitoring ...... of cardiac output (CO) under hyperbaric conditions in haemodynamically unstable patients diagnosed with NF and sepsis or septic shock....

  1. DETERMINE THE RANGE OF VARIATION OF THE CONTROL SUBSYSTEM OUTPUT PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Bobrin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the evaluation of the tolerance of output parameters of the controls functional subsystem the hydraulic system under different operating conditions and phases of flight are given mathematical relationships and the results obtained in Mathcad are given in graphical form.

  2. Universal versus conditional three-day follow up visit for children with uncomplicated fever at the community level: design of a cluster-randomized, community-based, non-inferiority trial in Tanganyika, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boetzelaer, Elburg; Ho, Lara S; Gutman, Julie R; Steinhardt, Laura C; Wittcoff, Alison; Barbera, Yolanda; Ngoy, Pascal; Harvey, Steven A; Mullany, Luke C

    2017-01-26

    The current recommendation within integrated Community Case Management guidelines that all children presenting with uncomplicated fever and no danger signs be followed up after three days may not be necessary. Such fevers often resolve rapidly (usually within 48-96 h), and previous studies suggest that expectant home care for uncomplicated fever can be safely recommended. We aim to determine the non-inferiority of a conditional versus a universal follow-up visit for these children. We are conducting a cluster-randomized, community-based, non-inferiority trial enrolling ~4300 children (ages 2-59 months) presenting to community health workers (CHWs) with uncomplicated fever in Tanganyika Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Clusters (n = 28) of CHWs are randomized to advise caretakers of such children to either 1) return for a follow-up visit on Day 3 following the initial consultation (Day 1), regardless of illness resolution (as per current guidelines) or 2) return for a follow-up visit on Day 3 only if the child's signs have not resolved. Enrolled children are followed up at Day 7 for a repeat assessment and recording of the primary outcome of the study, "failure", which is defined as having fever, diarrhea, pneumonia or decline of health status (e.g. hospitalization, presenting danger signs, or death). The results of this trial will be interpreted in conjunction with a similarly designed trial currently ongoing in Ethiopia. If a follow-up visit conditional on continued illness is shown to be non-inferior to current guidelines stipulating universal follow-up, appropriate updating of such guidelines could reduce time and human resource pressures on both providers and caregivers throughout communities of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02595827 ) on November 2nd, 2015.

  3. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  4. Design and implementation of the NaI (Tl)CsI (Na) detectors output signal generator

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Xu; Zhao, Jian-Ling; Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Yi-Fei; Li, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Xu-Fang; Lu, Xue-Feng; Xu, Zhen-Ling; Lu, Fang-Jun

    2013-01-01

    We designed and implemented a signal generator that can simulate the output of the NaI (Tl)CsI (Na) detectors pre amplifier onboard the Hard X ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). Using the development of FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) with VHDL language and adding random constituent, we have finally produced the double exponential random pulse signal generator. The statistical distribution of signal amplitude is programmable. The occurrence time intervals of adjacent signals content negative exponential distribution statistically.

  5. Joint Estimation of Multiple Conditional Gaussian Graphical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feihu; Chen, Songcan; Huang, Sheng-Jun

    2017-06-28

    In this paper, we propose a joint conditional graphical Lasso to learn multiple conditional Gaussian graphical models, also known as Gaussian conditional random fields, with some similar structures. Our model builds on the maximum likelihood method with the convex sparse group Lasso penalty. Moreover, our model is able to model multiple multivariate linear regressions with unknown noise covariances via a convex formulation. In addition, we develop an efficient approximated Newton's method for optimizing our model. Theoretically, we establish the asymptotic properties of our model on consistency and sparsistency under the high-dimensional settings. Finally, extensive numerical results on simulations and real data sets demonstrate that our method outperforms the compared methods on structure recovery and structured output prediction. To the best of our knowledge, the joint learning of multiple multivariate regressions with unknown covariance is first studied.

  6. Input/output plugin architecture for MDSplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillerman, Joshua, E-mail: jas@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fredian, Thomas, E-mail: twf@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Manduchi, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.manduchi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    The first version of MDSplus was released in 1991 for VAX/VMS. Since that time the underlying file formats have remained constant. The software however has evolved, it was ported to unix, linux, Windows, and Macintosh. In 1997 a TCP based protocol, mdsip, was added to provide network access to MDSplus data. In 2011 a mechanism was added to allow protocol plugins to permit the use of other transport mechanisms such as ssh to access data users. This paper describes a similar design which permits the insertion of plugins to handle the reading and writing of MDSplus data at the data storage level. Tree paths become URIs which specify the protocol, host, and protocol specific information. The protocol is provided by a dynamically activated shared library that can provide any consistent subset of the data store access API, treeshr. The existing low level network protocol called mdsip, is activated by defining tree paths like “host::/directory”. Using the new plugin mechanism this is re-implemented as an instance of the general plugin that replaces the low level treeshr input/output routines. It is specified by using a path like “mdsip://host/directory”. This architecture will make it possible to adapt the MDSplus data organization and analysis tools to other underlying data storage. The first new application of this, after the existing network protocol is implemented, will be a plugin based on a key value store. Key value stores, can provide inexpensive scalable, redundant data storage. An example of this might be an Amazon G3 plugin which would let you specify a tree path such as “AG3://container” to access MDSplus data stored in the cloud.

  7. Neural network based adaptive output feedback control: Applications and improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutay, Ali Turker

    Application of recently developed neural network based adaptive output feedback controllers to a diverse range of problems both in simulations and experiments is investigated in this thesis. The purpose is to evaluate the theory behind the development of these controllers numerically and experimentally, identify the needs for further development in practical applications, and to conduct further research in directions that are identified to ultimately enhance applicability of adaptive controllers to real world problems. We mainly focus our attention on adaptive controllers that augment existing fixed gain controllers. A recently developed approach holds great potential for successful implementations on real world applications due to its applicability to systems with minimal information concerning the plant model and the existing controller. In this thesis the formulation is extended to the multi-input multi-output case for distributed control of interconnected systems and successfully tested on a formation flight wind tunnel experiment. The command hedging method is formulated for the approach to further broaden the class of systems it can address by including systems with input nonlinearities. Also a formulation is adopted that allows the approach to be applied to non-minimum phase systems for which non-minimum phase characteristics are modeled with sufficient accuracy and treated properly in the design of the existing controller. It is shown that the approach can also be applied to augment nonlinear controllers under certain conditions and an example is presented where the nonlinear guidance law of a spinning projectile is augmented. Simulation results on a high fidelity 6 degrees-of-freedom nonlinear simulation code are presented. The thesis also presents a preliminary adaptive controller design for closed loop flight control with active flow actuators. Behavior of such actuators in dynamic flight conditions is not known. To test the adaptive controller design in

  8. Non-linear Membrane Properties in Entorhinal Cortical Stellate Cells Reduce Modulation of Input-Output Responses by Voltage Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Fernando R.; Malerba, Paola; White, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of voltage fluctuations arising from synaptic activity is a critical component in models of gain control, neuronal output gating, and spike rate coding. The degree to which individual neuronal input-output functions are modulated by voltage fluctuations, however, is not well established across different cortical areas. Additionally, the extent and mechanisms of input-output modulation through fluctuations have been explored largely in simplified models of spike generation, and with limited consideration for the role of non-linear and voltage-dependent membrane properties. To address these issues, we studied fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses in medial entorhinal cortical (MEC) stellate cells of rats, which express strong sub-threshold non-linear membrane properties. Using in vitro recordings, dynamic clamp and modeling, we show that the modulation of input-output responses by random voltage fluctuations in stellate cells is significantly limited. In stellate cells, a voltage-dependent increase in membrane resistance at sub-threshold voltages mediated by Na+ conductance activation limits the ability of fluctuations to elicit spikes. Similarly, in exponential leaky integrate-and-fire models using a shallow voltage-dependence for the exponential term that matches stellate cell membrane properties, a low degree of fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses can be attained. These results demonstrate that fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses is not a universal feature of neurons and can be significantly limited by subthreshold voltage-gated conductances. PMID:25909971

  9. Efficient Training Methods for Conditional Random Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Learning (ICML), 2007. [63] Bruce G. Lindsay. Composite likelihood methods. Contemporary Mathematics, pages 221–239, 1988. 189 [64] Yan Liu , Jaime...graphical models: Approximate MCMC algorithms. In Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI), 2004. [86] Ara V. Nefian, Luhong Liang, Xiaobo ...Pi, Liu Xiaoxiang, Crusoe Mao, and Kevin Murphy. A coupled HMM for audio-visual speech recognition. In IEEE Int’l Conference on Acoustics, Speech and

  10. Empirical training for conditional random fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Zhemin; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Apers, Peter M.G.; Wombacher, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper (Zhu et al., 2013), we present a practi- cally scalable training method for CRFs called Empir- ical Training (EP). We show that the standard train- ing with unregularized log likelihood can have many maximum likelihood estimations (MLEs). Empirical training has a unique closed form MLE

  11. Genetic algorithms optimization of photonic crystal fibers for half diffraction angle reduction of output beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jyun-Hong; Cai, Dong-Po; Tsai, Ya-Lun; Chen, Chii-Chang; Lin, Chu-En; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2014-09-22

    In this work, we optimize the structure of the photonic crystal fibers by using genetic algorithms to provide strong light confinement in fiber and small half diffraction angle of output beam. Furthermore, this article shows the potentials of this study, such as optimizing three purposes at the same time and the arbitrary structure design is achieved. We report two optimized results obtained by different optimization conditions. The results show that the half diffraction angle of the output beam of the photonic crystal fibers can be reduced.

  12. Cardiac output measurement using an ultrasound dilution method: a validation study in ventilated piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boode, Willem P; van Heijst, Arno F J; Hopman, Jeroen C W; Tanke, Ronald B; van der Hoeven, Hans G; Liem, Kian D

    2010-01-01

    To assess agreement between a new method of cardiac output monitoring, using ultrasound dilution technology and ultrasound transit time-based measurement of pulmonary blood flow in a piglet model. Prospective, experimental juvenile animal study. Animal laboratory of a university hospital. Nine random-bred piglets. After the animals received general anesthesia, we placed intravascular arterial and central venous catheters with the tip positioned in the abdominal aorta and the right atrium, respectively. The catheters were connected to the ultrasound dilution cardiac output monitor. An ultrasound transit time perivascular flow probe was positioned around the common pulmonary artery and served as the standard reference measurement. Cardiac output was manipulated during the experiment by creating hemorrhagic hypotension. Ultrasound dilution cardiac output was measured intermittently with injection volumes of 0.5 mL/kg and 1.0 mL/kg of isotonic saline at body temperature. Ultrasound dilution cardiac output (Q) measurement was compared with pulmonary blood flow (Q). Bias, defined as Q minus Q, was calculated for each measurement. Mean bias with standard deviation was calculated for measurements with volumes of injected saline, 0.5 mL/kg and 1.0 mL/kg, and compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Mean bias (sd) between Q and Q was 0.040 (0.132) and 0.058 (0.136) L/min for measurement with 0.5 mL/kg and 1.0 mL/kg of isotonic saline, respectively (no statistically significant difference). Ultrasound dilution cardiac output measurement is reliable in piglets with the use of a small volume of a nontoxic indicator (isotonic saline).

  13. From sensor output to improved product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, M.L.A.T.M.; Vollebregt, Martijntje; Unzueta, I.; Hoofman, R.J.O.M.; Lammertyn, J.

    2015-01-01

    The research conducted in the European PASTEUR project focussed on perishables monitoring through smart tracking of lifetime and quality. The aim was to develop a wireless sensor platform to monitor the environmental conditions of perishable goods in the supply chain between producer and

  14. Optimum load in various vertical jumps support the maximum dynamic output hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzovic, D; Markovic, G; Pasic, M; Jaric, S

    2013-11-01

    The aim was to generalize the maximum dynamic output (MDO) hypothesis [i. e., the muscle power output in vertical jumps (VJ) is maximized when loaded with one's own body mass] to variety of VJ. We hypothesized that the subjects' own body (a) would be the optimal load for maximizing the power output (i. e., the no-load condition) and also (b) reveal the maximum benefits of stretch-shortening cycle (SSC). 13 participants performed the maximum squat and various counter-movement jumps when loaded by approximately constant external force ranging from -40% to  + 40% of their body weight (BW). Regarding the first hypothesis, the differences in both the peak and mean power recorded under different load magnitudes revealed maxima close to no-load condition (i. e., from -3% BW to  + 8% BW; R2=0.65-0.96; all Phypothesis, the differences in performance between VJ executed with and without SSC also revealed maxima close to no-load conditions (0-2% BW), while the same differences in the power output were observed under relatively low positive loads (14-25% BW; R² = 0.56-0.95; all Phypothesis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. CORDEX Coordinated Output for Regional Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, William; Giorgi, Filippo; Lake, Irene

    2017-04-01

    The Science Advisory Team for the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) has developed a baseline framework of specified regions, resolutions and simulation periods intended to provide a foundation for ongoing regional CORDEX activities: the CORDEX Coordinated Output for Regional Evaluation, or CORDEX-CORE. CORDEX-CORE was conceived in part to be responsive to IPCC needs for coordinated simulations that could provide regional climate downscaling (RCD) that yields fine-scale climate information beyond that resolved by GCMs. For each CORDEX region, a matrix of GCM-RCD experiments is designed based on the need to cover as much as possible different dimensions of the uncertainty space (e.g., different emissions and land-use scenarios, GCMs, RCD models and techniques). An appropriate set of driving GCMs can allow a program of simulations that efficiently addresses key scientific issues within CORDEX, while facilitating comparison and transfer of results and lessons learned across different regions. The CORDEX-CORE program seeks to provide, as much as possible, homogeneity across domains, so it is envisioned that a standard set of regional climate models (RCMs) and empirical statistical downscaling (ESD) methods will downscale a standard set of GCMs over all or at least most CORDEX domains for a minimum set of scenarios (high and low end). The focus is on historical climate simulations for the 20th century and projections for 21st century, implying that data would be needed minimally for the period 1950-2100 (but ideally 1900-2100). This foundational ensemble can be regionally enriched with further contributions (additional GCM-RCD pairs) by individual groups over their selected domains of interest. The RCM model resolution for these core experiments will be in the range of 10-20 km, a resolution that has been shown to provide substantial added value for a variety of climate variables and that represents a significant forward step compared in the CORDEX

  16. Stock Returns and Output Growth in Emerging and Advanced Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Mauro

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies the correlation between output growth and lagged stock returns in a panel of emerging market economies and advanced economies. It finds that the correlation is as strong in emerging market economies as in advanced economies. Asset prices therefore contain valuable information to forecast output also in emerging market economies. Moreover, the paper finds that the strength of the correlation between output growth and lagged stock returns is significantly related to a number ...

  17. Self-correcting random number generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humble, Travis S.; Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-09-06

    A system and method for generating random numbers. The system may include a random number generator (RNG), such as a quantum random number generator (QRNG) configured to self-correct or adapt in order to substantially achieve randomness from the output of the RNG. By adapting, the RNG may generate a random number that may be considered random regardless of whether the random number itself is tested as such. As an example, the RNG may include components to monitor one or more characteristics of the RNG during operation, and may use the monitored characteristics as a basis for adapting, or self-correcting, to provide a random number according to one or more performance criteria.

  18. Using the Yield Curve in Forecasting Output Growth and In‡flation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillebrand, Eric Tobias; Huang, Huiyu; Lee, Tae-Hwy

    Following Diebold and Li (2006), we use the Nelson-Siegel (NS, 1987) yield curve factors. However the NS yield curve factors are not supervised for a specifi…c forecast target in the sense that the same factors are used for forecasting different variables, e.g., output growth or infl‡ation. We...... propose a modifed NS factor model, where the new NS yield curve factors are supervised for a specifi…c variable to forecast. We show it outperforms the conventional (non-supervised) NS factor model in out-of-sample forecasting of monthly US output growth and infl‡ation. The original NS yield factor model...... is to combine information (CI) of predictors and uses factors of predictors (yield curve). The new supervised NS factor model is to combine forecasts (CF) and uses factors of forecasts of output growth or infl‡ation conditional on the yield curve. We formalize the concept of supervision, and demonstrate...

  19. Detecting, categorizing and forecasting large romps in wind farm power output using meteorological observations and WPPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutler, N.; Kay, M.; Jacka, K.

    2007-01-01

    The Wind Power Prediction Tool (WPPT) has been installed in Australia for the first time, to forecast the power output from the 65MW Roaring 40s Renewable Energy P/L Woolnorth Bluff Point wind form. This article analyses the general performance of WPPT as well as its performance during large romps...... (swings) in power output. In addition to this, detected large ramps are studied in detail and categorized. WPPT combines wind speed and direction forecasts from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology regional numerical weather prediction model, MesoLAPS, with real-time wind power observations to make hourly...... forecasts of the wind farm power output. The general performances of MesoLAPS and WPPTore evaluated over I year using the root mean square error (RMSE). The errors are significantly lower than for basic benchmark forecasts but higher than for many other WPPT installations, where the site conditions...

  20. Inflation, inflation uncertainty and output growth in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhar, Ramprasad; Mallik, Girijasankar

    2010-12-01

    Employing a multivariate EGARCH-M model, this study investigates the effects of inflation uncertainty and growth uncertainty on inflation and output growth in the United States. Our results show that inflation uncertainty has a positive and significant effect on the level of inflation and a negative and significant effect on the output growth. However, output uncertainty has no significant effect on output growth or inflation. The oil price also has a positive and significant effect on inflation. These findings are robust and have been corroborated by use of an impulse response function. These results have important implications for inflation-targeting monetary policy, and the aim of stabilization policy in general.

  1. Complementary power output characteristics of electromagnetic generators and triboelectric generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Feng-Ru; Tang, Wei; Yao, Yan; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-04-04

    Recently, a triboelectric generator (TEG) has been invented to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic generator (EMG) that produces a high output current but low voltage, the TEG has different output characteristics of low output current but high output voltage. In this paper, we present a comparative study regarding the fundamentals of TEGs and EMGs. The power output performances of the EMG and the TEG have a special complementary relationship, with the EMG being a voltage source and the TEG a current source. Utilizing a power transformed and managed (PTM) system, the current output of a TEG can reach as high as ∼3 mA, which can be coupled with the output signal of an EMG to enhance the output power. We also demonstrate a design to integrate a TEG and an EMG into a single device for simultaneously harvesting mechanical energy. In addition, the integrated NGs can independently output a high voltage and a high current to meet special needs.

  2. NACP Regional: Supplemental Gridded Observations, Biosphere and Inverse Model Outputs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains standardized gridded observation data, terrestrial biospheric model output, and inverse model simulations that were compiled but not...

  3. Global output gap and domestic inflation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chengsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates whether globalization has led to greater sensitivity of Chinese consumer price inflation to the global output gap. The empirical analysis uses quarterly data over the period 1995-2012. The global output gap is measured by weighted output gap of China’s top eighteen trading partners. Estimating Phillips curve models and vector autoregressive models, we find that global capacity constraints have both explanatory and predictive power for domestic consumer’s price inflation in China. Therefore, the central bank of China should react to developments in global output gaps.

  4. Thoracic electrical bioimpedance measurement of cardiac output in postaortocoronary bypass patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sageman, W S; Amundson, D E

    1993-08-01

    To assess the degree of correlation and agreement between cardiac output by thermodilution and bioimpedance using the BoMed NCCOM3-R7 monitor in postaortocoronary bypass patients. Prospective, randomized sampling. Military teaching hospital intensive care unit. Fifty patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery with thermodilution pulmonary artery catheters in place. Simultaneous determination of cardiac output by thermodilution and thoracic bioimpedance was performed. Readings were taken between 8 and 24 hrs after surgery. Forty patients were intubated; 19 patients had left-sided tube thoracotomy in addition to two mediastinal tubes, and 19 patients were obese. None. The overall degree of correlation between the two measures was fair (r2 = .24). The bias and precision measurements were inaccurate as well (-0.33 +/- 3.14). Patients with normal body habitus or who were not receiving mechanical ventilation showed the best correlation (r2 = .40 and r2 = .45, respectively). Only 62% (31/50) of all patients had simultaneous measurements fall within 20% of each other, and there were no clinical features that made identification of those patients possible. Use of the BoMed NCCOM3-R7 bioimpedance monitor as a replacement for thermodilution-derived cardiac output cannot be recommended in postaortocoronary bypass patients. The distortions of patients' normal anatomy and physiology, coupled with the presence of endotracheal tubes and mechanical ventilation, mediastinal tubes and chest tubes, result in only fair correlation, significant bias, and poor precision between the two measures of cardiac output.

  5. Peak Power Output Test on a Rowing Ergometer: A Methodological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metikos, Boris; Mikulic, Pavle; Sarabon, Nejc; Markovic, Goran

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the peak power output test on a rowing ergometer (Concept II Model D Inc.) and to establish the "optimal resistance" at which this peak power output was observed in 87 participants with varying levels of physical activity and rowing expertise: 15 male and 12 female physically inactive students (age: 21 ± 2 years), 16 male and 20 female physically active students (age: 23 ± 2 years), and 15 male and 9 female trained rowers (age: 19 ± 2 years). The participants performed countermovement jump (CMJ) test on a force plate, followed by 3 maximal-effort rowing trials using the lowest, medium, and the highest adjustable resistance settings (i.e., "1", "5," and "10" on the resistance control dial on the ergometer) in randomized order. The test proved to be reliable (coefficients of variation: 2.6-6.5%; intraclass correlation coefficients: 0.87-0.98). The correlation coefficients between CMJ peak power and rowing peak power (both in watts per kilogram) were fairly consistent across all 3 groups of participants and resistance levels, ranging between r = 0.70 and r = 0.78. Finally, the highest power output was observed at the highest resistance setting in 2 nonathletic groups (p rowing ergometer may serve as a reliable and valid tool for assessing whole-body peak power output in untrained individuals and rowing athletes.

  6. Failure of a patient-centered intervention to substantially increase the identification and referral for-treatment of ambulatory emergency department patients with occult psychiatric conditions: a randomized trial [ISRCTN61514736

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezami Wais A

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously demonstrated that a computerized psychiatric screening interview (the PRIME-MD can be used in the Emergency Department (ED waiting room to identify patients with mental illness. In that trial, however, informing the ED physician of the PRIME-MD results did not increase the frequency of psychiatric diagnosis, consultation or referral. We conducted this study to determine whether telling the patient and physician the PRIME-MD result would result in the majority of PRIME-MD-diagnosed patients being directed toward treatment for their mental illness. Methods In this single-site RCT, consenting patients with non-specific somatic chief complaints (e.g., fatigue, back pain, etc. completed the computerized PRIME-MD in the waiting room and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: patient and physician told PRIME-MD results, patient told PRIME-MD results, and neither told PRIME-MD results. The main outcome measure was the percentage of patients with a PRIME-MD diagnosis who received a psychiatric consultation or referral from the ED. Results 183 (5% of all ED patients were approached. 123 eligible patients consented to participate, completed the PRIME-MD and were randomized. 95 patients had outcomes recorded. 51 (54% had a PRIME-MD diagnosis and 8 (16% of them were given a psychiatric consultation or referral in the ED. While the frequency of consultation or referral increased as the intervention's intensity increased (tell neither = 11% (1/9, tell patient 15% (3/20, tell patient and physician 18% (4/22, no group came close to the 50% threshold we sought. For this reason, we stopped the trial after an interim analysis. Conclusion Patients willingly completed the PRIME-MD and 54% had a PRIME-MD diagnosis. Unfortunately, at our institution, informing the patient (and physician of the PRIME-MD results infrequently led to the patient being directed toward care for their psychiatric condition.

  7. Development of output signal-to-noise ratio tester for microchannel plate and fluorescent screen component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinglin; Qiu, Yafeng; Zhou, Jin; Qian, Yunsheng

    The core components of Image intensifier is microchannel plate (MCP) and fluorescent screen component. The present paper deeply studies output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) characteristics of MCP and fluorescent screen component. A tester system using to the evaluation of characteristics of the output SNR of MCP and fluorescent screen component, consists of a vacuum system, a surface electron source, mechanical mechanism components ,a high-voltage power supply system, a signal processing system, communication interfaces, a data acquisition and control system, computer system, and testing software. a hot cathode used as an electron source, generates a surface electron flow to provide the input signal. A photomultiplier tube is used to detection faceplate output brightness of the light spot. Then, the output SNR of MCP and fluorescent screen component is processed with a combination of methods of the hardware filter and digital filtering software. The output SNR of MCP and fluorescent screen component is measured under different conditions, and the results are analyzed. This test system Provide a technical to promote the image intensifier research, and experience to testing other parameters or in other areas of research.

  8. Dynamic randomization and a randomization model for clinical trials data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Lee D

    2012-12-20

    Randomization models are useful in supporting the validity of linear model analyses applied to data from a clinical trial that employed randomization via permuted blocks. Here, a randomization model for clinical trials data with arbitrary randomization methodology is developed, with treatment effect estimators and standard error estimators valid from a randomization perspective. A central limit theorem for the treatment effect estimator is also derived. As with permuted-blocks randomization, a typical linear model analysis provides results similar to the randomization model results when, roughly, unit effects display no pattern over time. A key requirement for the randomization inference is that the unconditional probability that any patient receives active treatment is constant across patients; when this probability condition is violated, the treatment effect estimator is biased from a randomization perspective. Most randomization methods for balanced, 1 to 1, treatment allocation satisfy this condition. However, many dynamic randomization methods for planned unbalanced treatment allocation, like 2 to 1, do not satisfy this constant probability condition, and these methods should be avoided. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Measuring cutaneous thermal nociception in group-housed pigs using laser technique-Effects of laser power output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S; Ladevig, Jan; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    nociceptive stimulation from a computer-controlled CO2-laser beam applied to either the caudal part of the metatarsus on the hind legs or the shoulder region of gilts. In Exp. 1, effects of laser power output (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 W) on nociceptive responses toward stimulation on the caudal aspects...... of the metatarsus were examined using 15 gilts kept in one group and tested in individual feeding stalls after feeding. Increasing the power output led to gradually decreasing latency to respond (P ... gilts kept under the same conditions. Again, increasing the power output led to gradually decreasing latency to respond (P 

  10. Measures of the Contribution made by ICT to Innovation Output. An Update of the ICT Innovation Output Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    PESOLE ANNAROSA

    2016-01-01

    This report presents an update of the ICT Innovation Output Indicator based on the latest available data, and provides a measure of the performance of the European Union (EU) and its Member States in ICT innovation. The ICT Innovation Output Indicator is the contribution of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to the Innovation Output Indicator elaborated by the European Commission in 2013. The contribution of ICT has been computed for each underlying component of the Innovati...

  11. Verification of hourly forecasts of wind turbine power output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegley, H.L.

    1984-08-01

    A verification of hourly average wind speed forecasts in terms of hourly average power output of a MOD-2 was performed for four sites. Site-specific probabilistic transformation models were developed to transform the forecast and observed hourly average speeds to the percent probability of exceedance of an hourly average power output. (This transformation model also appears to have value in predicting annual energy production for use in wind energy feasibility studies.) The transformed forecasts were verified in a deterministic sense (i.e., as continuous values) and in a probabilistic sense (based upon the probability of power output falling in a specified category). Since the smoothing effects of time averaging are very pronounced, the 90% probability of exceedance was built into the transformation models. Semiobjective and objective (model output statistics) forecasts were made compared for the four sites. The verification results indicate that the correct category can be forecast an average of 75% of the time over a 24-hour period. Accuracy generally decreases with projection time out to approx. 18 hours and then may increase due to the fairly regular diurnal wind patterns that occur at many sites. The ability to forecast the correct power output category increases with increasing power output because occurrences of high hourly average power output (near rated) are relatively rare and are generally not forecast. The semiobjective forecasts proved superior to model output statistics in forecasting high values of power output and in the shorter time frames (1 to 6 hours). However, model output statistics were slightly more accurate at other power output levels and times. Noticeable differences were observed between deterministic and probabilistic (categorical) forecast verification results.

  12. Do blood growth factors offer additional benefit in refractory lateral epicondylitis? A prospective, randomized pilot trial of dry needling as a stand-alone procedure versus dry needling and autologous conditioned plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhouse, Gregor; Sookur, Paul; Watson, Martin

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate whether autologous conditioned plasma offers any therapeutic advantage over ultrasound-guided dry needling as a stand-alone procedure in the treatment of refractory lateral epicondylitis. Prospective, randomized pilot study of 28 patients (11 men, 17 women, mean age, 49.1  years) with refractory lateral epicondylitis (mean symptom duration, 19.1 months) who underwent either dry needling (n = 13) or dry needling combined with autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) injection (n = 15). Each patient received two separate injections (0 weeks and 1 month) and analysis of visual analogue pain scores (VAS) and Nirschl scores were performed pre-procedure, at 2 months and final evaluation at 6 months. Successful treatment was defined as more than a 25 % reduction in pain scores without re-intervention. Data was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test and local research ethics committee approval was obtained. At 2 months, the mean VAS improvement was 0.85 (12.3 %) in the dry needling group compared to 2.19 (27.1 %) in the ACP group (p = 0.76) and there was a 5.83-point and 20.3-point Nirschl score improvement respectively (p = 0.72). At the final follow-up of 6 months, the mean VAS improvement was 2.37 (34 %) in the dry needling group compared to 3.92 (48.5 %) in the ACP group (p = 0.74) and there was a 22.5-point and 40-point Nirschl score improvement, respectively (p = 0.82). There is a trend to greater clinical improvement in the short term for patients treated with additional ACP, however no significant difference between the two treatment groups was demonstrated at each follow-up interval. A larger, multicenter, randomized controlled trial is required to corroborate the results of this pilot study.

  13. Taking the Measure: Applying Reference Outputs to Collection Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carolyn M.; Mielke, Linda

    1986-01-01

    Presents preliminary results of Clearwater Public Library's study of the usefulness of "Output Measures for Public Libraries" as an indicator of reference performance, and the impact of collection development choices on reference output measures. Data on turnover rate, in-library use, reference fill rate, and reference transactions per…

  14. Open Access Policy for IDRC-Funded Project Outputs | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC-funded project outputs consist of journal articles, books, and grey literature resulting from IDRC-funded activities — including those outputs produced beyond the funding period. Grey literature includes, though is not limited to, final technical reports, theses, papers, workshop reports, conference proceedings, ...

  15. Macroeconomic Uncertainty and Sectoral Output Performance: Empirical Evidence from Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Katrakilidis, Constantinos P.; Tabakis, Nikolaos M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical investigation of the links between macroeconomic uncertainty and sectoral output using Greek data. Uncertainty is considered in three distinct components, namely the inflation uncertainty, the exchange rate uncertainty and the output uncertainty. The results highlight the differences in sectoral responsiveness and the importance of a stable macroeconomic environment.

  16. The Role of Entrepreneurial Financing on National Output: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Abstract. Due to the magnanimous role of entrepreneurial finance in spurring output thereby fostering economic performance as supported by the intermediation and entrepreneurial financing theory, this study explored the influx of entrepreneurial financing on output generation in Nigeria utilizing secondary sourced data ...

  17. A reappraisal of existing expressions for estimating radiation output ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The considerable differences in radiation output from different X-ray machine with given kVp and mAs has led a number of expressions being proposed for skin does in diagnostic radiography each having a power dependence of the output with the peak tube voltage. The values of the exponent in the power expression and ...

  18. High output stomas: ensuring safe discharge from hospital to home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lisa

    High-output stomas are a challenge for the patient and all health professionals involved. This article discusses safe discharge home for this patient group, encouraging collaborative working practices between acute care trust and the community services. The authors also discuss the management of a high-output stoma and preparation and education of the patient before discharge home.

  19. Factors that Influence Research Output of Academic Librarians in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survey was carried out to determine the factors that influence research output of academic librarians in Niger state. It was aimed at providing the reality of the opinion on research output of academic librarians who are working in Niger state. Questionnaire were designed and distributed to (65) sixty five of the (85) eighty ...

  20. Output-based Job Descriptions: Beyond Skills and Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mary Norris

    2000-01-01

    Explains output-based job descriptions, which describe the work rather than the worker. Topics include identifying job outputs; job analyses; identifying skills and competencies as support elements; and benefits over traditional job descriptions, including help in achieving business goals, use in strategic planning, clarifying role relationships,…

  1. Against Journal Articles for Measuring Value in University Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbali, C.

    2010-01-01

    The following lines of arguments against the metrics of journal articles is developed: (1) Textual output should no longer be main valued output; (2) Digitalization enables other ways of advancing knowledge; (3) Measures by journal article favours the disciplines of Natural Science and Engineering (NSE) and moulds other disciplines of Social…

  2. Mengartikulasikan Tabel Input-Output dan Kerangka Analisisnya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Cahyono

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Input -Output (I-O table can be used to analyse economic projection and present some service and good transactions in production activities, final demand, and bruto added value (BAV. I-O table can help to analyse government policy, such as impact analysis to output, bruto added value, and worker needed.

  3. Duplicating MC-15 Output with Python and MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSpaden, Alexander Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-23

    Two Python scripts have been written that process the output files of MCNP6 into a format that mimics the list-mode output of Los Alamos National Laboratory’s MC-15 and NPOD neutron detection systems. This report details the methods implemented in these scripts and instructions on their use.

  4. 30 CFR 7.66 - Output energy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Output energy test. 7.66 Section 7.66 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Multiple-Shot Blasting Units § 7.66 Output energy...

  5. Bibliometrics analysis of publication output in library and information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper used bibliometrics to examine patterns of publication output in library and information science (LIS) research in Nigerian universities from 2000-2014 in terms of total publication output and trend in LIS research, most productive universities and authors, most cited universities and authors, journals use in ...

  6. High efficiency input-output prism waveguide coupler: an analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarid, D

    1979-09-01

    The theory and experimental results of the performance of a practical prism waveguide input-output coupler are presented. The coupling scheme, which results in a 94% coupling efficiency, uses a single prism for both input and output coupling, with the light propagating 1 cm in the LiNbO(3) Ti in diffused waveguide.

  7. Research Output of Academics in the Science and Engineering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analysed the research output of academics in the science and engineering faculties of Federal Government-owned universities in Nigeria. It explored their level of research output during 1997-2006 in terms of the publication of journal articles and linked research and publication trends with place of publication ...

  8. Output Regulation of Large-Scale Hydraulic Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, C.; Jensen, T.N.; Ortega, R.; Wisniewski, R.

    The problem of output regulation for a class of hydraulic networks found in district heating systems is addressed in this brief. The results show that global asymptotic and semiglobal exponential output regulation is achievable using a set of decentralized proportional-integral controllers. The fact

  9. Output Enhancement in the Transfer-Field Machine Using Rotor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rotor windings not only give rise to an increase in the induced emf but also augment output by effectively lowering the synchronous reactance of the output winding. The rotor circuit current can be increased by connecting it to a synchronous condenser load, and thereby further increase both the emf and the synchronous ...

  10. The Role of Entrepreneurial Financing on National Output: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the magnanimous role of entrepreneurial finance in spurring output thereby fostering economic performance as supported by the intermediation and entrepreneurial financing theory, this study explored the influx of entrepreneurial financing on output generation in Nigeria utilizing secondary sourced data over the ...

  11. Are output measurements always necessary after CT tube replacement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Stauduhar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: TX regulations and the ACR require that CT radiation output be measured within 30 days of major service. The most common major service is tube replacement. We hypothesized that historical QC data could be used instead to determine if output measurements are necessary, reducing the need for costly output measurements.Methods: We reviewed 66 records of tube replacements to determine with what frequency output falls outside specifications. We also conducted an experiment to verify that clinically significant output changes could be identified by comparing image noise in historical QC data with the same data after tube replacement. We used 30 days of historical QC data to establish a baseline noise level and 95% confidence interval (CI for individual noise measurements. To simulate output changes, we acquired phantom images with our QC protocol while manually changing output (mA. We acquired 10 images using the baseline output and 10 images at each different “output”. We evaluated individual images and subsets of images at each “output” to determine if the system was within the manufacturer’s specifications.Results: None of the 66 tube replacements resulted in an output change that exceeded specifications. Analysis of 30 days of historic QC data for our experimental system indicated a mean noise of 5.4 HU with 95% CI of 5.1 ‒ 5.7 HU. When using the mean noise of 10 images acquired at each of the varying outputs, we were able to identify, with 100% accuracy, images acquired at outputs outside manufacturer’s specifications.Conclusion: The results of our review of historical tube replacement data indicated the likelihood of output falling outside manufacturer’s specifications is low. Considering this, it is likely that by using QC data from programs required by regulation and the ACR physicists can reliably verify radiation output stability remotely instead of making physical measurements.--------------------Cite this article

  12. A two stage data envelopment analysis model with undesirable output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff Adli Aminuddin, Adam; Izzati Jaini, Nur; Mat Kasim, Maznah; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd

    2017-09-01

    The dependent relationship among the decision making units (DMU) is usually assumed to be non-existent in the development of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model. The dependency can be represented by the multi-stage DEA model, where the outputs from the precedent stage will be the inputs for the latter stage. The multi-stage DEA model evaluate both the efficiency score for each stages and the overall efficiency of the whole process. The existing multi stage DEA models do not focus on the integration with the undesirable output, in which the higher input will generate lower output unlike the normal desirable output. This research attempts to address the inclusion of such undesirable output and investigate the theoretical implication and potential application towards the development of multi-stage DEA model.

  13. Quantum state majorization at the output of bosonic Gaussian channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, A.; Giovannetti, V.; Holevo, A. S.

    2014-05-01

    Quantum communication theory explores the implications of quantum mechanics to the tasks of information transmission. Many physical channels can be formally described as quantum Gaussian operations acting on bosonic quantum states. Depending on the input state and on the quality of the channel, the output suffers certain amount of noise. For a long time it has been conjectured, but never proved, that output states of Gaussian channels corresponding to coherent input signals are the less noisy ones (in the sense of a majorization criterion). Here we prove this conjecture. Specifically we show that every output state of a phase-insensitive Gaussian channel is majorized by the output state corresponding to a coherent input. The proof is based on the optimality of coherent states for the minimization of strictly concave output functionals. Moreover we show that coherent states are the unique optimizers.

  14. Programmable Input Mode Instrumentation Amplifier Using Multiple Output Current Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankiewicz Bogdan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a programmable input mode instrumentation amplifier (IA utilising second generation, multiple output current conveyors and transmission gates is presented. Its main advantage is the ability to choose a voltage or current mode of inputs by setting the voltage of two configuration nodes. The presented IA is prepared as an integrated circuit block to be used alone or as a sub-block in a microcontroller or in a field programmable gate array (FPGA, which shall condition analogue signals to be next converted by an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC. IA is designed in AMS 0.35 µm CMOS technology and the power supply is 3.3 V; the power consumption is approximately 9.1 mW. A linear input range in the voltage mode reaches ± 1.68 V or ± 250 µA in current mode. A passband of the IA is above 11 MHz. The amplifier works in class A, so its current supply is almost constant and does not cause noise disturbing nearby working precision analogue circuits.

  15. Cost-utility of collaborative care for the treatment of comorbid major depressive disorder in outpatients with chronic physical conditions. A randomized controlled trial in the general hospital setting (CC-DIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goorden M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Maartje Goorden,1 Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis,2,3 Kirsten M van Steenbergen-Weijenburg,4 Eva K Horn,5 Aartjan TF Beekman,6,7 Leona Hakkaart-van Roijen1 1Institute of Health Policy and Management (iBMG/Institute for Medical Technology Assessment (iMTA, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, 2Tranzo Department, Tilburg University, 3Clinical Centre of Excellence for Body, Mind and Health, GGzBreburg, Tilburg, 4Trimbos Instituut, Utrecht, 5Viersprong Institute for Studies on Personality Disorders, Halsteren, 6Department of Psychiatry, 7EMGO+ Research Institute VUmc, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Purpose: Major depressive disorder (MDD is highly prevalent in patients with a chronic physical condition, and this comorbidity has a negative influence on quality of life, health care costs, self-care, morbidity, and mortality. Research has shown that collaborative care (CC may be a cost-effective treatment. However, its cost-effectiveness in this patient group has not yet been established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-utility of CC for the treatment of comorbid MDD in chronically ill patients in the outpatient general hospital setting. The study was conducted from a health care and societal perspective.Patients and methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 81 patients with moderate-to-severe MDD were included; 42 were randomly assigned to the CC group and 39 to the care as usual (CAU group. We applied the TiC-P, short-form Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire, and EuroQol EQ-5D 3 level version, measuring the use of health care, informal care, and household work, respectively, at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months follow-up.Results: The mean annual direct medical costs in the CC group were €6,718 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3,541 to 10,680 compared to €4,582 (95% CI: 2,782 to 6,740 in the CAU group. The average quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained were 0.07 higher

  16. Postactivation potentiation of dynamic conditioning contractions on rowing sprint performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doma, Kenji; Sinclair, Wade H; Hervert, Sarah R; Leicht, Anthony S

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the post-activation potentiation effects of maximal dynamic contractions and gender on rowing sprint ability. Repeated measures. Thirty-four male (n=17) and female (n=17) university students with experience in rowing took part in this study conducted across three weeks. Following familiarisation of the 10-second maximal rowing performance test on a rowing ergometer during Week 1, participants were randomly allocated to either complete a control or experimental session during Week 2 and 3. One rowing performance test was conducted during the control session whilst two rowing performance tests were conducted during the experimental session separated by 6-min. The first rowing performance test during the experimental session was used to: (1) compare measures with the control session to assess day-to-day repeatability; and (2) induce post-activation potentiation effects for the second rowing performance test. Based on effect size calculations, results showed moderate-large increases for average power output (+2.5%), peak power output (+1.5%) and power output during first stroke (+0.79%). Maximal dynamic contractions on a rowing ergometer improved subsequent rowing sprint ability in recreationally experienced male and female rowers. Accordingly, dynamic conditioning contractions on a rowing ergometer may enhance subsequent sprint-start for rowing competition success. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Algerian medical teachers' research output and its determinants during the 2000-2009 decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzaoucha, A; Atif, M L; Bouamra, A; El Kebboub, A; Benzerga, M; Ben Abdelaziz, A; Soulimane, A; Ladner, J; Borgès Da Silva, G; Meguenni, K; Quessar, A; Heroual, N; Bouguizi, A; Boussouf, N; Makhlouf, F; Lamdjadani, N; Tibiche, A; Abbassene, S; Regagba, D; Benameur, M

    2014-02-01

    Publications are the primary output of scientific research. We conducted a national study to quantify Algerian medical teachers' research output and identify its determinants during the 2000-2009 decade. The American Medline database and the French Pascal database were used. A publication was eligible only if the lead author was an Algerian medical teacher (in medicine, pharmacy, or dentistry) working in Algeria. The same questionnaire was completed by cases (teachers who were first authors of an original article during the study period) and randomly selected controls. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors related to research output. A total of 79 original articles (42.2% of publications) were retrieved, a quarter of which were listed in Pascal alone. The publication rate was 2.6 original articles per 1000 teachers per year. The journals that published these original articles had a median impact factor of 0.83. The ability to publish an original article was 4.3 times higher if the teacher had undergone training in biostatistics and/or epidemiology (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=4.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.79-10.38). A promotion evaluation grid that did not encourage writing (aOR=3.44, 95% CI: 1.42-8.33), a doctoral thesis, seniority, foreign collaboration, and English language proficiency were found to be associated with publication output. Algerian medical teachers' research output was particularly low. Replacing the current promotion grid with a grid that promotes writing, developing abilities to read and write articles and developing English language proficiency are likely to improve this situation. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Muscle force output and electromyographic activity in squats with various unstable surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeterbakken, Atle H; Fimland, Marius S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare force output and muscle activity of leg and trunk muscles in isometric squats executed on stable surface (i.e., floor), power board, BOSU ball, and balance cone. Fifteen healthy men (23.3 ± 2.7 years, mass: 80.5 ± 8.5 kg, height: 1.81 ± 0.09 m) volunteered. The force output and electromyographic (EMG) activities of the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, soleus, rectus abdominis, oblique external, and erector spinae were assessed. The order of the surfaces was randomized. One familiarization session was executed before the experimental test. Compared with stable surface (749 ± 222 N), the force output using power board was similar (-7%, p = 0.320) but lower for BOSU ball (-19%, p = 0.003) and balance cone (-24%, p ≤ 0.001). The force output using BOSU ball and balance cone was approximately 13% (p = 0.037) and approximately 18% (p = 0.001) less than the power board. There were similar EMG activities between the surfaces in all muscles except for rectus femoris, in which stable squat provided greater EMG activity than did the other exercises (p = 0.004-0.030). Lower EMG activity was observed in the rectus femoris using balance cone compared with the BOSU ball (p = 0.030). In conclusion, increasing the instability of the surface during maximum effort isometric squats usually maintains the muscle activity of lower-limb and superficial trunk muscles although the force output is reduced. This suggests that unstable surfaces in the squat may be beneficial in rehabilitation and as a part of periodized training programs, because similar muscle activity can be achieved with reduced loads.

  19. Identification of yeast transcriptional regulation networks using multivariate random forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Xiao

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent availability of whole-genome scale data sets that investigate complementary and diverse aspects of transcriptional regulation has spawned an increased need for new and effective computational approaches to analyze and integrate these large scale assays. Here, we propose a novel algorithm, based on random forest methodology, to relate gene expression (as derived from expression microarrays to sequence features residing in gene promoters (as derived from DNA motif data and transcription factor binding to gene promoters (as derived from tiling microarrays. We extend the random forest approach to model a multivariate response as represented, for example, by time-course gene expression measures. An analysis of the multivariate random forest output reveals complex regulatory networks, which consist of cohesive, condition-dependent regulatory cliques. Each regulatory clique features homogeneous gene expression profiles and common motifs or synergistic motif groups. We apply our method to several yeast physiological processes: cell cycle, sporulation, and various stress conditions. Our technique displays excellent performance with regard to identifying known regulatory motifs, including high order interactions. In addition, we present evidence of the existence of an alternative MCB-binding pathway, which we confirm using data from two independent cell cycle studies and two other physioloigical processes. Finally, we have uncovered elaborate transcription regulation refinement mechanisms involving PAC and mRRPE motifs that govern essential rRNA processing. These include intriguing instances of differing motif dosages and differing combinatorial motif control that promote regulatory specificity in rRNA metabolism under differing physiological processes.

  20. Abdominal surgery alters the calibration of bioimpedance cardiac output measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, L A; Leung, D H; Short, T G

    1996-02-01

    The performance of impedance cardiography (TEBco), using the BoMed NCCOM3-R7S, and thermodilution (TDco) were compared in eight patients during major abdominal surgery. An opioid, volatile and relaxant anaesthetic technique was employed. This was supplemented with an epidural in five cases. Sets of three cardiac output readings, for both methods, were made at 10-20 min intervals throughout surgery. Data were compared using the Bland and Altman method, regression analysis and a nested model to measure variance components at different stages of surgery. Data from 157 sets of readings are presented. Agreement between the two devices was poor, with a ratio of TDco/TEBco of 115% and limits of agreement of 51-193%. The regression line was TDco = (0.98) x TEBco-0.95 with r = 0.60. A more detailed analysis, using nested data, showed good repeatability with coefficients of variation of 5.4% for TDco and 4.8% for TEBco. During surgery shifts in the bias between the two devices occurred, which were related to changes in surgical conditions. Between shifts both devices showed good repeatability over time. Variance components were 0.27 within nested data and 0.082 between bias shifts, with a significantly greater overall component of 1.2 (ANOVA; P = 0.0001). Shifts could be explained by deficiencies in the algorithm used to calculate TEBco. Current TEBco technology is too inaccurate for intra-operative use. However, under stable operating conditions TEBco and TDco showed good repeatability.

  1. Validation of Fick cardiac output calculated with assumed oxygen consumption : a study of cardiac output during epoprostenol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, A; van den Heuvel, A F M; Zijlstra, F; Berger, R M F; Mook, G A; van Veldhuisen, D J

    OBJECTIVE: To test the validity of using assumed oxygen consumption for Fick cardiac output during administration of epoprostenol. METHODS: In 24 consecutive patients Fick cardiac output calculated with assumed oxygen consumption according to LaFarge and Miettinen (COLM) and according to Bergstra et

  2. Output-only modal dynamic identification of frames by a refined FDD algorithm at seismic input and high damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioldi, Fabio; Ferrari, Rosalba; Rizzi, Egidio

    2016-02-01

    The present paper deals with the seismic modal dynamic identification of frame structures by a refined Frequency Domain Decomposition (rFDD) algorithm, autonomously formulated and implemented within MATLAB. First, the output-only identification technique is outlined analytically and then employed to characterize all modal properties. Synthetic response signals generated prior to the dynamic identification are adopted as input channels, in view of assessing a necessary condition for the procedure's efficiency. Initially, the algorithm is verified on canonical input from random excitation. Then, modal identification has been attempted successfully at given seismic input, taken as base excitation, including both strong motion data and single and multiple input ground motions. Rather than different attempts investigating the role of seismic response signals in the Time Domain, this paper considers the identification analysis in the Frequency Domain. Results turn-out very much consistent with the target values, with quite limited errors in the modal estimates, including for the damping ratios, ranging from values in the order of 1% to 10%. Either seismic excitation and high values of damping, resulting critical also in case of well-spaced modes, shall not fulfill traditional FFD assumptions: this shows the consistency of the developed algorithm. Through original strategies and arrangements, the paper shows that a comprehensive rFDD modal dynamic identification of frames at seismic input is feasible, also at concomitant high damping.

  3. Evaluation of Key Dependent S-Box Based Data Security Algorithm using Hamming Distance and Balanced Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balajee Maram K.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Data security is a major issue because of rapid evolution of data communication over unsecured internetwork. Here the proposed system is concerned with the problem of randomly generated S-box. The generation of S-box depends on Pseudo-Random-Number-Generators and shared-secret-key. The process of Pseudo-Random-Number-Generator depends on large prime numbers. All Pseudo-Random-Numbers are scrambled according to shared-secret-key. After scrambling, the S-box is generated. In this research, large prime numbers are the inputs to the Pseudo-Random-Number-Generator. The proposed S-box will reduce the complexity of S-box generation. Based on S-box parameters, it experimentally investigates the quality and robustness of the proposed algorithm which was tested. It yields better results with the S-box parameters like Hamming Distance, Balanced Output and Avalanche Effect and can be embedded to popular cryptography algorithms

  4. The ACHRU-CPP versus usual care for older adults with type-2 diabetes and multiple chronic conditions and their family caregivers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle-Reid, Maureen; Ploeg, Jenny; Fraser, Kimberly D; Fisher, Kathryn Ann; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori; Bartholomew, Amy; Gafni, Amiram; Gruneir, Andrea; Hirst, Sandra P; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Stradiotto, Caralyn Kelly; Miklavcic, John; Rojas-Fernandez, Carlos; Sadowski, Cheryl A; Thabane, Lehana; Triscott, Jean A C; Upshur, Ross

    2017-02-06

    Many community-based self-management programs have been developed for older adults with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), bolstered by evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that T2DM can be prevented and managed through lifestyle modifications. However, the evidence for their effectiveness is contradictory and weakened by reliance on single-group designs and/or small samples. Additionally, older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC) are often excluded because of recruiting and retention challenges. This paper presents a protocol for a two-armed, multisite, pragmatic, mixed-methods RCT examining the effectiveness and implementation of the Aging, Community and Health Research Unit-Community Partnership Program (ACHRU-CPP), a new 6-month interprofessional, nurse-led program to promote self-management in older adults (aged 65 years or older) with T2DM and MCC and support their caregivers (including family and friends). The study will enroll 160 participants in two Canadian provinces, Ontario and Alberta. Participants will be randomly assigned to the control (usual care) or program study arm. The program will be delivered by registered nurses (RNs) and registered dietitians (RDs) from participating diabetes education centers (Ontario) or primary care networks (Alberta) and program coordinators from partnering community-based organizations. The 6-month program includes three in-home visits, monthly group sessions, monthly team meetings for providers, and nurse-led care coordination. The primary outcome is the change in physical functioning as measured by the Physical Component Summary (PCS-12) score from the short form-12v2 health survey (SF-12). Secondary client outcomes include changes in mental functioning, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and self-efficacy. Caregiver outcomes include health-related quality of life and depressive symptoms. The study includes a comparison of health care service costs for the intervention and control groups, and a

  5. INFLUENCE OF FISCAL POLICY DYNAMICS ON OUTPUT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predescu Antoniu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of fiscal policy, more specific rise in fiscal pressure, increase which can be obtained either through enforcing one or more taxes, or by augmenting at least a tax, has a powerful impact on output management – visible, in the first place, in the realm of output size. But, not only output size will vary, after an increase in fiscal pressure, at least because output management is dealing with more than issue of producing a certain quantity of products, material or not, goods and/or services. Products are made for selling, but selling is impossible but through price and with a price; price is an essential economic variable, both in microeconomic and macroeconomic spheres. Thus, on one side rise in fiscal pressure determines, at least in short term, and, of course, if producers pay, or even support, a tax, be it newly enforced or (newly augmented, a rise of prices for sold products, and, on the other side, this results in a variation in output size, e.g. a reduced output volume, but, though, not in a linear trend. The dynamics, in this case of economic mechanism whose yield is a reduced volume of goods and/or services, in not linear, because essential are, too, the characteristics of products, from which effects of demand price elasticity and offer price elasticity influence significantly, in this framework, output management.

  6. The Effect of Comprehensible Input and Comprehensible Output on the Accuracy and Complexity of Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    omid tabatabaie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the relative impact of comprehensible input and comprehensible output on the development of grammatical accuracy and syntactic complexity of Iranian EFL learners’ oral production. Participants were 60 female EFL learners selected from a whole population pool of 80 based on the standard test of IELTS. To investigate the research questions, the participants were randomly divided into three groups: Input group, output group, and control group. The study involved two phases: the pre-task phase, and the main-task phase. During the pre-task phase, the input group received comprehensible input. In the same phase, the output group was pushed to be engaged in comprehensible output production. The control group neither received input, nor was engaged in output production. In the main-task phase, all subjects performed monologues that were separately recorded, and later transcribed and coded in terms of accuracy and complexity through Bygate's (2001 standard coding system and finally scored. The statistical analysis of the results revealed that while the output group outperformed the input group in grammatical accuracy, the input group proved to be more rigorous and influential in developing speech complexity. The study supports Swain’s (1985 claim that there are roles for comprehensible output that are different from and independent of comprehensible input, and Skehan & Foster's (2001 theory regarding human beings’ limited attentional capacities that can be devoted to one aspect of oral speech at the expense of the other. Generally, it is implied that the most effective way for improving oral speech, based on the literature and the results obtained from this study, is an eclectic approach which conflates both comprehensible input and comprehensible output.

  7. Application of a Linear Input/Output Model to Tankless Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher T.; Schoenbauer, B.

    2011-12-31

    In this study, the applicability of a linear input/output model to gas-fired, tankless water heaters has been evaluated. This simple model assumes that the relationship between input and output, averaged over both active draw and idle periods, is linear. This approach is being applied to boilers in other studies and offers the potential to make a small number of simple measurements to obtain the model parameters. These parameters can then be used to predict performance under complex load patterns. Both condensing and non-condensing water heaters have been tested under a very wide range of load conditions. It is shown that this approach can be used to reproduce performance metrics, such as the energy factor, and can be used to evaluate the impacts of alternative draw patterns and conditions.

  8. Robust Admissibilization of Descriptor Systems by Static Output-Feedback: An LMI Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chaabane

    2011-01-01

    static output-feedback is studied in this paper and an approach to solve it is proposed. For this, sufficient conditions are derived for the closed-loop system to be admissible (i.e., stable, regular, and impulse-free. These conditions are expressed in terms of a strict Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI; so they are tractable using numerical computations. The proposed controller design methodology is based on two steps: the first is dedicated to synthesizing a classical state-feedback controller, which is used as the initial value for the second step, which uses an LMI problem to obtain static output-feedback controllers that give admissibility. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the results.

  9. Assessing Consistency in Radiated Thermal Output of Beef Steers by Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Cook

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of radiated thermal output are claimed to reflect the metabolic efficiency of mammals. This is important in food-producing animals because a measure of metabolic efficiency may translate to desirable characteristics, such as growth efficiency or residual feed intake, and permit the grouping of animals by metabolic characteristics that can be more precisely managed. This study addresses the question of whether radiated thermal parameters are characteristic of individual animals under normal and metabolically-challenging conditions. Consistency in radiated thermal output was demonstrated over a period of four weeks on condition that a sufficiently representative sample of measurements could be made on individual animals. The study provided evidence that infrared thermography could be used as an automated, rapid, and reliable tool for assessing thermoregulatory processes.

  10. Random eigenvalue problems revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The description of real-life engineering structural systems is associated with some amount of uncertainty in specifying material properties, geometric parameters, boundary conditions and applied loads. In the context of structural dynamics it is necessary to consider random eigenvalue problems in order to account for these ...

  11. ADAPTIVE OUTPUT CONTROL: SUBJECT MATTER, APPLICATION TASKS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Bobtsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of adaptive output control for parametric and functionally uncertain plants is considered. Application examples illustrating the practical use of the discussed theory are given along with the mathematical formulation of the problem. A brief review of adaptive output control methods, by both linear and non-linear systems, is presented and an extensive bibliography, in which the reader will find a detailed description of the specific algorithms and their properties, is represented. A new approach to the output control problem - a method of consecutive compensator - is considered in detail.

  12. Research output in medieval and crusades studies 1981-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Kjersgaard

    2017-01-01

    of the methodological considerations necessary in carrying out this kind of quantitative research. On the basis of bibliometric statistics generated from the International Medieval Bibliography (IMB) and Bibliographie de Civilisation Médiévale (BCM), the article identifies a numeric decrease in research output both......This article investigates the numerical research output of crusade studies over the past thirty years. The article compares its findings to the output of medieval studies in general in the same period. It shows in detail how the applied bibliometric statistics are generated and elaborates on some...

  13. Determining power outputs for cycle ergometers with different sized flywheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, N; Jamnik, R

    1995-01-01

    A number of cycle ergometers are presently being used in a variety of laboratory applications for which the quantification of power output is required. To calculate the power output of cycle ergometers with varying sized flywheels, the circumference of the resistance track on the flywheel is multiplied by the number of flywheel revolutions produced with one complete revolution of the pedal. This provides the "effective distance travelled," and by selecting an appropriate combination of pedalling rate plus flywheel resistance, any desired power output can be produced.

  14. The influence of tendon compliance on muscle power output and efficiency during cyclic contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtwark, G A; Barclay, C J

    2010-03-01

    Muscle power output and efficiency during cyclical contractions are influenced by the timing and duration of stimulation of the muscle and the interaction of the muscle with its mechanical environment. It has been suggested that tendon compliance may reduce the energy required for power production from the muscle by reducing the required shortening of the muscle fibres. Theoretically this may allow the muscle to maintain both high power output and efficiency during cyclical contraction; however, this has yet to be demonstrated experimentally. To investigate how tendon compliance might act to increase muscle power output and/or efficiency, we attached artificial tendons of varying compliance to muscle fibre bundles in vitro and measured power output and mechanical efficiency during stretch-shorten cycles (2 Hz) with a range of stretch amplitudes and stimulation patterns. The results showed that peak power, average power output and efficiency (none of which can have direct contributions from the compliant tendon) all increased with increasing tendon compliance, presumably due to the tendon acting to minimise muscle energy use by allowing the muscle fibres to shorten at optimal speeds. Matching highly compliant tendons with a sufficiently large amplitude length change and appropriate stimulation pattern significantly increased the net muscle efficiency compared with stiff tendons acting at the same frequency. The maximum efficiency for compliant tendons was also similar to the highest value measured under constant velocity and force conditions, which suggests that tendon compliance can maximise muscle efficiency in the conditions tested here. These results provide experimental evidence that during constrained cyclical contractions, muscle power and efficiency can be enhanced with compliant tendons.

  15. Analytical and Experimental Study Using Output-Only Modal Testing for On-Orbit Satellite Appendages

    OpenAIRE

    Mashiul Alam; Ramin Sedaghati; Yvan Soucy; Rama B. Bhat

    2009-01-01

    Output-only modal testing is an effective technique to identify the modal parameters of structural systems under ambient or operational conditions and has potential applications in civil, mechanical, and aerospace engineering. It may effectively be used for model validation, model updating, quality control, and health monitoring through the determination of modal characteristics of the structures. This approach to modal testing has great potential for ground and on-orbit modal testing of spac...

  16. Evaluation of Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) System Capacity with Spatial Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Gunasekaran, T; K. R.S. Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Todays wireless technologies just wont get us to the hyper connectivity of uninterrupted access from any mobile device with unlimited bandwidth at real-time speeds. This is due to the low data throughput and scarcity in spectrum. Approach: Under the condition of uncorrelated antenna elements, capacity of the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) system can be increased linearly with the number of antennas. But in practice correlation among the antenna elements exists and it...

  17. When are cellular automata random?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, J. B.; Ahnert, S. E.; Fink, T. M. A.

    2008-12-01

    A random cellular automaton is one in which a cell's behaviour is independent of its previous states. We derive analytical conditions which must be satisfied by random cellular automata and find deterministic and probabilistic cellular automata that satisfy these conditions. Many random cellular automata are seen to have a flow as they are updated through time. We define a correlation current that describes this flow and develop an analytical expression for its size. We compare results from this analytical expression with those from simulation. The randomness in a cell comes from randomness in adjacent cells or from the stochastic nature of update rules. We give an expression for how much randomness comes from each of these two sources.

  18. Random thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ajansen; kwhitefoot; panteltje1; edprochak; sudhakar, the

    2014-07-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “How to make a quantum random-number generator from a mobile phone” (16 May, http://ow.ly/xFiYc, see also p5), which describes a way of delivering random numbers by counting the number of photons that impinge on each of the individual pixels in the camera of a Nokia N9 smartphone.

  19. Enhanced output voltage generation via ZnO nanowires (50 nm): Effect of diameter thinning on voltage enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mansoor; Iqbal, Muhammad Azhar; Kiely, Janice; Luxton, Richard; Jabeen, Musarrat

    2017-05-01

    50 nm ZnO nanowires were grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated poly ethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by adapting facile aqueous growth technique using low temperature and vacuum conditions. Prior to growth of ZnO nanowires, pure hexagonal wurtzite structured seed layer was grown on flexible substrates. Surface morphology of nanostructure has been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Vertical growth orientation has been evidenced in XRD patterns. Minute external mechanical force ( 50 nN) has produced periodic voltage peaks. 2.5 nm and 7.5 nm thick sputtered Pt electrode have been tested to obtain output voltages. 50 nm ZnO nanowires has produced a maximum output voltage of 2.717 volts having an output power density of 397.1 mW/cm2. By squeezing the diameter, we have reduced reverse leakage current through nanowires and enhanced output voltage.

  20. Contrast Loading Increases Upper Body Power Output in Junior Volleyball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilios, Ilias; Sotiropoulos, Konstantinos; Barzouka, Karolina; Christou, Marios; Tokmakidis, Savvas P

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the acute effects of contrast loading on mechanical power output during bench-press throws in junior volleyball players. Eleven males (age: 16.5 ± 0.5 years) performed a contrast loading and a control protocol. The contrast protocol included the execution of 3 bench-throws with a 30% load of 1RM, after 3 min a conditioning set of 5 bench-throws with a 60% load of 1RM and after 3 and 5 min two more sets of 3 bench-throws with a 30% load of 1RM. The control protocol included the execution of 3 sets of 3 bench-throws with a 30% load of 1RM at the same time points as in the contrast protocol without the execution of the conditioning set. Mechanical power with a 30% load was higher (p < .05) 3 and 5 min following the conditioning set at the contrast protocol compared with the control protocol (8.7 ± 7.5 and 10.4 ± 3.4%, respectively). High correlations (p < .05) were obtained between participant's relative maximal strength (r = .87) and power (r = .82) and the increases in power output. Contrast loading increases upper body power output produced with a light load by junior athletes. The potential for increased upper body performance is more evident in stronger or more powerful individuals.

  1. Global analysis of the effect of local climate on the hatchling output of leatherback turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santidrián Tomillo, Pilar; Saba, Vincent S.; Lombard, Claudia D.; Valiulis, Jennifer M.; Robinson, Nathan J.; Paladino, Frank V.; Spotila, James R.; Fernández, Carlos; Rivas, Marga L.; Tucek, Jenny; Nel, Ronel; Oro, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The most recent climate change projections show a global increase in temperatures along with precipitation changes throughout the 21st century. However, regional projections do not always match global projections and species with global distributions may exhibit varying regional susceptibility to climate change. Here we show the effect of local climatic conditions on the hatchling output of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) at four nesting sites encompassing the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. We found a heterogeneous effect of climate. Hatchling output increased with long-term precipitation in areas with dry climatic conditions (Playa Grande, Pacific Ocean and Sandy Point, Caribbean Sea), but the effect varied in areas where precipitation was high (Pacuare, Caribbean Sea) and was not detected at the temperate site (Maputaland, Indian Ocean). High air temperature reduced hatchling output only at the area experiencing seasonal droughts (Playa Grande). Climatic projections showed a drastic increase in air temperature and a mild decrease in precipitation at all sites by 2100. The most unfavorable conditions were projected for Sandy Point where hatching success has already declined over time along with precipitation levels. The heterogeneous effect of climate may lead to local extinctions of leatherback turtles in some areas but survival in others by 2100.

  2. Muscular pre-conditioning using light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) for high-intensity exercise: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial with a single elite runner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresi, Cleber; Beltrame, Thomas; Fabrizzi, Fernando; do Nascimento, Eduardo Sanches Pereira; Karsten, Marlus; Francisco, Cristina de Oliveira; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Cardoso, Daniel Rodrigues; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Hamblin, Michael R; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Recently, low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been used to improve muscle performance. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of near-infrared light-emitting diode therapy (LEDT) and its mechanisms of action to improve muscle performance in an elite athlete. The kinetics of oxygen uptake (VO2), blood and urine markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase--CK and alanine), and fatigue (lactate) were analyzed. Additionally, some metabolic parameters were assessed in urine using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR). A LED cluster with 50 LEDs (λ = 850 nm; 50 mW 15 s; 37.5 J) was applied on legs, arms and trunk muscles of a single runner athlete 5 min before a high-intense constant workload running exercise on treadmill. The athlete received either Placebo-1-LEDT; Placebo-2-LEDT; or Effective-LEDT in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial with washout period of 7 d between each test. LEDT improved the speed of the muscular VO2 adaptation (∼-9 s), decreased O2 deficit (∼-10 L), increased the VO2 from the slow component phase (∼+348 ml min(-1)), and increased the time limit of exercise (∼+589 s). LEDT decreased blood and urine markers of muscle damage and fatigue (CK, alanine and lactate levels). The results suggest that a muscular pre-conditioning regimen using LEDT before intense exercises could modulate metabolic and renal function to achieve better performance.

  3. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model Output Data in Original Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the original model output data submissions from the 24 terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) that participated in the North American Carbon...

  4. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model Output Data in Original Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains the original model output data submissions from the 24 terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) that participated in the North American...

  5. Research Output of Academics in the Science and Engineering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... of the publication of journal articles and linked research and publication trends with place of publication and ... Data on research output were collected through a questionnaire survey of the academics.

  6. A simple output voltage control scheme for single phase wavelet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -phase pulse-width-modulated (PWM) dc-ac inverter. ... function, derived using wavelet theory, can be used to generate the switching signal as well as to model the inverter output which is not possible with other modulation techniques.

  7. Factors related to innovative output in the Dutch agrifood industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batterink, M.H.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2006-01-01

    The present study assessed the factors related to innovative output in the Dutch agrifood industry, a scale-intensive, supplierdominated industry. We concentrated on explanatory variables related to cooperation, information sources, innovation objectives, obstacles to innovation, and innovation

  8. Development of a Selectable Output Ultraviolet Laser System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Here, we propose to develop a breadboard laser system that is capable of producing radiation in two UV wavelengths.  This Selectable Output Ultraviolet Laser...

  9. NACP Regional: Supplemental Gridded Observations, Biosphere and Inverse Model Outputs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains standardized gridded observation data, terrestrial biospheric model output, and inverse model simulations that were compiled but not used in...

  10. SiC MOSFETs based split output half bridge inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    . This paper makes the current commutation mechanism and efficiency analysis of half bridge with split output based on SiC MOSFETs. Current commutation process analysis is illustrated together with LTspice simulation and afterwards, verified by the experimental results of a double pulse test circuit with split......Body diode of SiC MOSFETs has a relatively high forward voltage drop and still experiences reverse recovery phenomenon. Half bridge with split output aims to decouple both the body diode and junction capacitance of SiC MOSFETs, therefore achieving a reduced switching loss in a bridge configuration...... output. The double pulse test shows the devices' current during commutation process and the reduced switching losses of SiC MOSFETs compared to that of the traditional half bridge. The efficiency comparison is presented with experimental results of half bridge power inverter with split output...

  11. Antiretroviral therapy increases thymic output in children with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Sandgaard, Katrine; Lewis, Joanna; Adams, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Disease progression and response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children is different to that of adults. Immune reconstitution in adults is mainly from memory T cells, whereas in children it occurs predominantly from the naive T-cell pool. It is unclear however what...... and cannot in themselves be used as quantitative estimates of thymic output. DESIGN: To compare thymic output in HIV-infected children on ART, HIV-infected children not on ART and uninfected children of different ages. METHOD: Combined T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) and proliferation data are used...... with a recently described mathematical model to give explicit measures of thymic output. RESULTS: We found that age-adjusted thymic output is reduced in untreated children with HIV, which increases significantly with length of time on ART. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a highly active thymus in early...

  12. Public Investment and Output Performance: Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aregbeyen Omo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the direct/indirect long-run relationships and dynamic interactions between public investment (PI and output performance in Nigeria using annual data spanning 1970-2010. A macro-econometric model derived from Keynes’ income-expenditure framework was employed. The model was disaggregated into demand and supply sides to trace the direct and indirect effects of PI on aggregate output. The direct supply side effect was assessed using the magnitude of PI multiplier coefficient, while the indirect effect of PI on the demand side was evaluated with marginal propensity to consume, accelerator coefficient and import multiplier. The results showed relatively less strong direct effect of PI on aggregate output, while the indirect effects were stronger with the import multiplier being the most pronounced. This is attributed to declining capital expenditure, poor implementation and low quality of PI projects due to widespread corruption. By and large, we concluded that PI exerted considerable influence on aggregate output.

  13. Aqueous Extract of Flueggea leucopyrus Increases Urine Output in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FLAE) on the urinary output of rats. Method: Three different doses of FLAE (500, 1000 and 1500 mgkg-1), furosemide (13 mg kg-1 as diuretic reference) and distilled water (as control) were orally administered to healthy adult hydrated rats.

  14. Temperature transducer has high output, is time stable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, W. H.

    1965-01-01

    Compact, lightweight temperature transducer requires no amplification of its output signal and is time stable. It uses the temperature-dependent characteristics of a silicon transistor to provide a zero-to-five-volt signal proportional to temperature.

  15. CMAQv502 Base AQS Hourly site compare output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Monthly AQS hourly site compare output files for the CMAQv502 Base simulation. Monthly files contain hourly paired model/ob data for the AQS network. These data were...

  16. Somatotype-variables related to muscle torque and power output in female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buśko, Krzysztof; Lewandowska, Joanna; Lipińska, Monika; Michalski, Radosław; Pastuszak, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between somatotype, muscle torque, maximal power output and height of rise of the body mass centre measured in akimbo counter movement jump (ACMJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and spike jump (SPJ), and power output measured in maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts in female volleyball players. Fourteen players participated in the study. Somatotype was determined using the Heath-Carter method. Maximal muscle torque was measured under static conditions. Power output was measured in 5 maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts, 10 s each, at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% of body weight (BW). All jump trials (ACMJ, SPJ and CMJ) were performed on a force plate. The mean somatotype of volleyball players was: 4.9-3.5-2.5. The value of the sum of muscle torque of the left upper extremities was significantly correlated only with mesomorphic component. Mesomorphic and ectomorphic components correlated significantly with values of maximal power measured during ACMJ and CMJ. Power output measured in maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% of BW was significantly correlated with endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy.

  17. Effects of red cell transfusion on cardiac output and perfusion index in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmaz, H Gozde; Sarikabadayi, Y Unal; Canpolat, Emre; Altug, Nahide; Oguz, S Suna; Dilmen, Ugur

    2013-09-01

    The present investigation was designed to study the effect of blood transfusion on cardiac output and perfusion index. The aim was to demonstrate a relationship between hematocrit, lactate, cardiac output and perfusion index in anemic preterm infants and to investigate significant changes in these parameters induced by RBC transfusion. Anemic infants who were under 35 weeks of gestational age (GA) and were in a stable clinical condition without respiratory or cardiac problems, signs of sepsis, or renal disease at the time of investigation were enrolled in the study. Enrolled infants received 15 ml/kg pure red blood cells over 4 h. Hematocrit and lactate levels were studied before and after transfusion. Cardiac output was measured by an ultrasound device (USCOM 1A) and perfusion index was monitored by pulse oximeter (MasimoRad7). Cardiac output decreased by 9% (p transfusion (p transfusion (r = 0.07, p = 0.7 and r = 0.007, p =0.97). Our data support that heart rate, CO and CI and lactate levels increased as a response to anemia in preterm infants and RBC transfusion improved perfusion index suggesting better tissue oxygenation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Epilepsy Research in Iran: a Scientometric Analysis of Publications Output During 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasolabadi, Masoud; Rasouli-Ghahfarkhi, Seyedeh Moloud; Ardalan, Marlin; Kalhor, Marya Maryam; Seidi, Jamal; Gharib, Alireza

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the epilepsy research output of Iran in national and global contexts, as reflected in its publication output indexed in Scopus citation database during 2000-2014. This study was based on the publications of epilepsy research from Iranian authors retrieved Feb. 2015 from Scopus Citation database [www.scopus.com]. The string used to retrieve the data was developed using "epilepsy OR epilepsies" keywords in title, abstract and keywords and Iran in affiliation field was our main string. Cumulative publication output of Iran in epilepsy research consisted of 702 papers from 2000 to 2014, with an average number of 46.53 papers per year. The total publication output of Iran in epilepsy research increased from 2 papers in 2000 to 88 papers in 2014. Hence, with 702 paper, Iran ranked 25(th) among the top 25 countries with a global share of 0.82 %. Iranian publication average citation per paper increased from 0 in 2000 to 7.88 in 2014. Overall, the received citations were 3184 citations during those years. Iran is collaborating with 36 countries with no more than 244 of its papers (35% of its total papers). It is necessary to prepare conditions for epilepsy researchers to collaborate more with international scientific societies in order to produce more and high quality papers.

  19. Robo-Psychophysics: Extracting Behaviorally Relevant Features from the Output of Sensors on a Prosthetic Finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaye, Benoit P; Schluter, Erik W; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2016-01-01

    Efforts are underway to restore sensorimotor function in amputees and tetraplegic patients using anthropomorphic robotic hands. For this approach to be clinically viable, sensory signals from the hand must be relayed back to the patient. To convey tactile feedback necessary for object manipulation, behaviorally relevant information must be extracted in real time from the output of sensors on the prosthesis. In the present study, we recorded the sensor output from a state-of-the-art bionic finger during the presentation of different tactile stimuli, including punctate indentations and scanned textures. Furthermore, the parameters of stimulus delivery (location, speed, direction, indentation depth, and surface texture) were systematically varied. We developed simple decoders to extract behaviorally relevant variables from the sensor output and assessed the degree to which these algorithms could reliably extract these different types of sensory information across different conditions of stimulus delivery. We then compared the performance of the decoders to that of humans in analogous psychophysical experiments. We show that straightforward decoders can extract behaviorally relevant features accurately from the sensor output and most of them outperform humans.

  20. Dynamic Changes in Acetylcholine Output in the Medial Striatum During Place Reversal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragozzino, Michael E.; Choi, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The present studies explored the role of the medial striatum in learning when taskcontingencies change. Experiment 1 examined whether the medial striatum is involved in place reversal learning. Testing occurred in a modified cross-maze across two consecutive sessions. Injections of the local anesthetic, bupivacaine, into the medial striatum, did not impair place acquisition, but impaired place reversal learning. The reversal-learning deficit was due to an inability to maintain the new choice pattern following the initial shift. Experiment 2 determined whether changes in acetylcholine (ACh) output occur during the acquisition or reversal learning of a place discrimination. Extracellular ACh output from the medial striatum was assessed in samples collected at 6-min intervals using in vivo microdialysis during behavioral testing. ACh output did not change from basal levels during place acquisition. During reversal learning, ACh output significantly increased as rats began to learn the new choice pattern, and returned to near basal levels as a rat reliably executed the new place strategy. The present results suggest that the medial striatum may be critical for flexible adaptations involving spatial information, and that ACh actions in this area enable the shifting of choice patterns when environmental conditions change. PMID:14747519

  1. Energy Inputs, Output and Productivity in Organic and Conventional Maize and Tomato Production, under Mediterranean Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bilalis, Dimitrios; Panoraia-Eirini KAMARIARI; Anestis KARKANIS; Aspasia EFTHIMIADOU; Antonis ZORPAS; Ioanna KAKABOUKI

    2013-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) are two important crops in Mediterranean countries. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the differences and similarities in energy flow between conventional and organic tomato and maize crops. Our results indicated that the total energy input in the conventional system was higher than in organic system and for individual crops was 25.90 and 29.34% higher for tomato and maize, respectively, than the organic system. Of the input...

  2. State Space Consistency and Differentiability Conditions for a Class of Causal Dynamical Input-Output Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    kvk 4-10 NSWCDD/TR-08/3 = sup v supr 2 R10 R10 f(r; 1; 2)u(r 1)v(r 2)d1d2 kvk sup v 2 supr qR1 0 R1 0 kf(r; 1; 2)k 2 d1d2 qR1 ...0 R1 0 ku(1)v(2)k 2 d1d2 kvk = sup v 2 supr qR1 0 R1 0 kf(r; 1; 2)k 2 d1d2 qR1 0 ku(1)k 2 d1 qR1 0 kv(2)k 2 d2 kvk 2M kuk kvkkvk

  3. Genetic Structures and Conditions of their Expression, which Allow Receiving Native Recombinant Proteins with High Output

    OpenAIRE

    Michael M. Shavlovsky, PhD, ScD¹; Irina V. Morozova¹; Dmitry S. Polyakov, PhD¹; Tatyana D. Aleynikova, PhD¹; Anna M. Kern²; Natalya A. Grudinina, PhD¹; Kirill V. Solovyov, PhD¹

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of obtaining native recombinant amyloidogenic proteins by creating genetic constructs encoding fusion proteins of target proteins with Super Folder Green Fluorescent Protein (sfGFP). In this study, we show that the structures, containing the sfGFP gene, provide a synthesis, within a bacterial system, of fusion proteins with minimal formation of inclusion bodies. Constructs containing genes of the target proteins in the 3'-terminal region of the sfGFP gene follo...

  4. Technology-intensive industries - Input-output analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Olteanu, Dan

    2010-01-01

    By the analyses included in this paper I tried to quantify â using the input-output method â the amplitude of upstream and downstream linkages between manufacturing industries, structured by technological groups, for Romania and other six EU member countries, for comparison. Since intermediate products are the main carrier of knowledge diffused by high-tech industries towards other industries, by processing data from input-output tables we can obtain a measure of the inter-industry effects of...

  5. TrustGuard: A Containment Architecture with Verified Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    support structures . Finally, the link consumes a geomean 5.0% of the energy of the untrusted processor. 84 Chapter 7 The Simplicity of the Sentry Chapter 2...TRUSTGUARD: A CONTAINMENT ARCHITECTURE WITH VERIFIED OUTPUT SOUMYADEEP GHOSH A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY IN...depends on claims made by each party supplying the system’s components. This dissertation presents the Containment Architecture with Verified Output

  6. Relationship among cardiac output, shunt, and inspired O2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, P D; Schaffartzik, W; Prediletto, R; Knight, D R

    1991-12-01

    In comparing gas exchange responses of the methacholine- (MCh) challenged mongrel dog with leukotriene receptor blockers and placebo at different inspiratory O2 fractions (FIO2), we previously noted systematically different values of cardiac output as a function of drug administration and/or FIO2. This confounds identification of the effects of FIO2 and/or drugs on gas exchange, because shunt is well known to vary directly with cardiac output when other factors are equal. Accordingly, in six dogs we examined the dependence of combined shunt and low ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) blood flow ("shunt") on cardiac output in the MCh-challenged mongrel dog. Two dogs breathed 100% O2, another two breathed room air, and the final pair breathed 12% O2 while cardiac output was altered several times by sequentially opening and closing arteriovenous fistulas every 10 min for approximately 90 min after a standard MCh challenge. On 100% O2, shunt increased by 11.0% of the cardiac output per 1-l/min increase in cardiac output. On room air, the value was 7.4%. With 12% O2 breathing shunt rose by only 2.2% per 1-l/min rise in blood flow. This FIO2 -dependent behavior of the shunt-cardiac output relationship was highly reproducible, both within and between animals. It suggests that the increase in shunt with cardiac output depends more on vascular tone of noninjured areas than on tone of the low VA/Q regions (which are hypoxic at all FIO2 values).

  7. Output Feedback M-MRAC Backstepping With Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Sriniva

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a certainty equivalence output feedback backstepping adaptive control design method for the systems of any relative degree with unmatched uncertainties without over-parametrization. It uses a fast prediction model to estimate the unknown parameters, which is independent of the control design. It is shown that the system's input and output tracking errors can be systematically decreased by the proper choice of the design parameters. The approach is applied to aerospace control problems and tested in numerical simulations.

  8. Scientific Output of Croatian Universities: Comparison with Neighbouring Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Podobnik

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We compared the Croatian research output with the neighboring countries and the Croatian universities with the largest Slovenian, Hungarian, and Serbian universities. As far as papers listed by Social Science Citation Index are concerned, since 2000 the University of Zagreb exhibits best results in social sciences compared to the competing universities, that is not the case in “hard” sciences. For the last 12 years, only the University of Ljubljana has shown better results in total research output than the University of Zagreb. The difference in research output between the University of Zagreb and the rest of the Croatian universities has been constantly decreasing. As a case study we compare research output at Faculty of Civil Engeenering on different Croatian universities. By analyzing European countries, we show a functional dependence between the gross domestic product (GDP and the research output. From this fit we conclude that the Croatian science exhibits research output as expected for the given level of GDP.

  9. Validation of the concept risk for decreased cardiac output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Eduarda Ribeiro; de Souza, Mariana Fernandes; de Gutiérrez, Maria Gaby Rivero; Maria, Vera Lucia Regina; de Barros, Alba Lucia Bottura Leite

    2013-01-01

    to validate the concept "risk for decreased cardiac output". Six of the eight steps suggested in the technique developed by Walker & Avant were adopted to analyze the concept of the phenomenon under study and the proposal made by Hoskins was used for content validation, taking into account agreement achieved among five experts. the concept "decreased cardiac output" was found in the nursing and medical fields and refers to the heart's pumping capacity while the concept "risk" is found in a large number of disciplines. In regard to the defining attributes, "impaired pumping capacity" was the main attribute of decreased cardiac output and "probability" was the main attribute of risk. The uses and defining attributes of the concepts "decreased cardiac output" and "risk" were analyzed as well as their antecedent and consequent events in order to establish the definition of "risk for decreased cardiac output", which was validated by 100% of the experts. The obtained data indicate that the risk for decreased cardiac output phenomenon can be a nursing diagnosis and refining it can contribute to the advancement of nursing classifications in this context.

  10. Random selection of Borel sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Günther

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A theory of random Borel sets is presented, based on dyadic resolutions of compact metric spaces. The conditional expectation of the intersection of two independent random Borel sets is investigated. An example based on an embedding of Sierpinski’s universal curve into the space of Borel sets is given.

  11. Quantum randomness and unpredictability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Gregg [Quantum Communication and Measurement Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Division of Natural Science and Mathematics, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Quantum mechanics is a physical theory supplying probabilities corresponding to expectation values for measurement outcomes. Indeed, its formalism can be constructed with measurement as a fundamental process, as was done by Schwinger, provided that individual measurements outcomes occur in a random way. The randomness appearing in quantum mechanics, as with other forms of randomness, has often been considered equivalent to a form of indeterminism. Here, it is argued that quantum randomness should instead be understood as a form of unpredictability because, amongst other things, indeterminism is not a necessary condition for randomness. For concreteness, an explication of the randomness of quantum mechanics as the unpredictability of quantum measurement outcomes is provided. Finally, it is shown how this view can be combined with the recently introduced view that the very appearance of individual quantum measurement outcomes can be grounded in the Plenitude principle of Leibniz, a principle variants of which have been utilized in physics by Dirac and Gell-Mann in relation to the fundamental processes. This move provides further support to Schwinger's ''symbolic'' derivation of quantum mechanics from measurement. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Perspectives on randomized clinical trials : the case for albuminuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo Jan

    2008-01-01

    Large scale randomized clinical trials are needed to detect small but meaningful effects of new drugs. However, large scale randomized clinical trials are expensive undertakings and they are in imbalance with the scientific output. As a consequence there is a strong voice for more efficacious

  13. Estimation of Frequency Response Functions by Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune

    1996-01-01

    A method for estimating frequency response functions by the Random Decrement technique is investigated in this paper. The method is based on the auto and cross Random Decrement functions of the input process and the output process of a linear system. The Fourier transformation of these functions ...... Decrement function. The method is demonstrated by a simulation study....

  14. Robust Stabilization Approach and ∞ Performance via Static Output Feedback for a Class of Nonlinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Bedioui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the stability and stabilization problems for a class of discrete-time nonlinear systems. The systems are composed of a linear constant part perturbated by an additive nonlinear function which satisfies a quadratic constraint. A new approach to design a static output feedback controller is proposed. A sufficient condition, formulated as an LMI optimization convex problem, is developed. In fact, the approach is based on a family of LMI parameterized by a scalar, offering an additional degree of freedom. The problem of performance taking into account an ∞ criterion is also investigated. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed conditions.

  15. Private randomness expansion with untrusted devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian, E-mail: rcolbeck@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: a.p.a.kent@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2011-03-04

    Randomness is an important resource for many applications, from gambling to secure communication. However, guaranteeing that the output from a candidate random source could not have been predicted by an outside party is a challenging task, and many supposedly random sources used today provide no such guarantee. Quantum solutions to this problem exist, for example a device which internally sends a photon through a beamsplitter and observes on which side it emerges, but, presently, such solutions require the user to trust the internal workings of the device. Here, we seek to go beyond this limitation by asking whether randomness can be generated using untrusted devices-even ones created by an adversarial agent-while providing a guarantee that no outside party (including the agent) can predict it. Since this is easily seen to be impossible unless the user has an initially private random string, the task we investigate here is private randomness expansion. We introduce a protocol for private randomness expansion with untrusted devices which is designed to take as input an initially private random string and produce as output a longer private random string. We point out that private randomness expansion protocols are generally vulnerable to attacks that can render the initial string partially insecure, even though that string is used only inside a secure laboratory; our protocol is designed to remove this previously unconsidered vulnerability by privacy amplification. We also discuss extensions of our protocol designed to generate an arbitrarily long random string from a finite initially private random string. The security of these protocols against the most general attacks is left as an open question.

  16. Universal randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Viktor S [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-31

    In the last two decades, it has been established that a single universal probability distribution function, known as the Tracy-Widom (TW) distribution, in many cases provides a macroscopic-level description of the statistical properties of microscopically different systems, including both purely mathematical ones, such as increasing subsequences in random permutations, and quite physical ones, such as directed polymers in random media or polynuclear crystal growth. In the first part of this review, we use a number of models to examine this phenomenon at a simple qualitative level and then consider the exact solution for one-dimensional directed polymers in a random environment, showing that free energy fluctuations in such a system are described by the universal TW distribution. The second part provides detailed appendix material containing the necessary mathematical background for the first part. (reviews of topical problems)

  17. Improving predictive mapping of deep-water habitats: Considering multiple model outputs and ensemble techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Katleen; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Roberts, J. Murray; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2016-07-01

    In the deep sea, biological data are often sparse; hence models capturing relationships between observed fauna and environmental variables (acquired via acoustic mapping techniques) are often used to produce full coverage species assemblage maps. Many statistical modelling techniques are being developed, but there remains a need to determine the most appropriate mapping techniques. Predictive habitat modelling approaches (redundancy analysis, maximum entropy and random forest) were applied to a heterogeneous section of seabed on Rockall Bank, NE Atlantic, for which landscape indices describing the spatial arrangement of habitat patches were calculated. The predictive maps were based on remotely operated vehicle (ROV) imagery transects high-resolution autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) sidescan backscatter maps. Area under the curve (AUC) and accuracy indicated similar performances for the three models tested, but performance varied by species assemblage, with the transitional species assemblage showing the weakest predictive performances. Spatial predictions of habitat suitability differed between statistical approaches, but niche similarity metrics showed redundancy analysis and random forest predictions to be most similar. As one statistical technique could not be found to outperform the others when all assemblages were considered, ensemble mapping techniques, where the outputs of many models are combined, were applied. They showed higher accuracy than any single model. Different statistical approaches for predictive habitat modelling possess varied strengths and weaknesses and by examining the outputs of a range of modelling techniques and their differences, more robust predictions, with better described variation and areas of uncertainties, can be achieved. As improvements to prediction outputs can be achieved without additional costly data collection, ensemble mapping approaches have clear value for spatial management.

  18. Predictors of low cardiac output in decompensated severe heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Eidi Ochiai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of low cardiac output and mortality in decompensated heart failure. INTRODUCTION: Introduction: Patients with decompensated heart failure have a high mortality rate, especially those patients with low cardiac output. However, this clinical presentation is uncommon, and its management is controversial. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 452 patients hospitalized with decompensated heart failure with an ejection fraction of 60 years, and 64.6% were men. Low cardiac output was present in 281 (63% patients on admission. Chagas disease was the cause of heart failure in 92 (20.4% patients who had higher B type natriuretic peptide levels (1,978.38 vs. 1,697.64 pg/mL; P = 0.015. Predictors of low cardiac output were Chagas disease (RR: 3.655, P<0.001, lower ejection fraction (RR: 2.414, P<0.001, hyponatremia (RR: 1.618, P = 0.036, and renal dysfunction (RR: 1.916, P = 0.007. Elderly patients were inversely associated with low cardiac output (RR: 0.436, P = 0.001. Predictors of mortality were Chagas disease (RR: 2.286, P<0.001, ischemic etiology (RR: 1.449, P = 0.035, and low cardiac output (RR: 1.419, P = 0.047. CONCLUSIONS: In severe decompensated heart failure, predictors of low cardiac output are Chagas disease, lower ejection fraction, hyponatremia, and renal dysfunction. Additionally, Chagas disease patients have higher B type natriuretic peptide levels and a worse prognosis independent of lower ejection fraction.

  19. Impact of Altitude on Power Output during Cycling Stage Racing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Garvican-Lewis

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of moderate-high altitude on power output, cadence, speed and heart rate during a multi-day cycling tour.Power output, heart rate, speed and cadence were collected from elite male road cyclists during maximal efforts of 5, 15, 30, 60, 240 and 600 s. The efforts were completed in a laboratory power-profile assessment, and spontaneously during a cycling race simulation near sea-level and an international cycling race at moderate-high altitude. Matched data from the laboratory power-profile and the highest maximal mean power output (MMP and corresponding speed and heart rate recorded during the cycling race simulation and cycling race at moderate-high altitude were compared using paired t-tests. Additionally, all MMP and corresponding speeds and heart rates were binned per 1000 m (3000 m according to the average altitude of each ride. Mixed linear modelling was used to compare cycling performance data from each altitude bin.Power output was similar between the laboratory power-profile and the race simulation, however MMPs for 5-600 s and 15, 60, 240 and 600 s were lower (p ≤ 0.005 during the race at altitude compared with the laboratory power-profile and race simulation, respectively. Furthermore, peak power output and all MMPs were lower (≥ 11.7%, p ≤ 0.001 while racing >3000 m compared with rides completed near sea-level. However, speed associated with MMP 60 and 240 s was greater (p < 0.001 during racing at moderate-high altitude compared with the race simulation near sea-level.A reduction in oxygen availability as altitude increases leads to attenuation of cycling power output during competition. Decrement in cycling power output at altitude does not seem to affect speed which tended to be greater at higher altitudes.

  20. Impact of Altitude on Power Output during Cycling Stage Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Clark, Bradley; Martin, David T; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; McDonald, Warren; Stephens, Brian; Ma, Fuhai; Thompson, Kevin G; Gore, Christopher J; Menaspà, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of moderate-high altitude on power output, cadence, speed and heart rate during a multi-day cycling tour. Power output, heart rate, speed and cadence were collected from elite male road cyclists during maximal efforts of 5, 15, 30, 60, 240 and 600 s. The efforts were completed in a laboratory power-profile assessment, and spontaneously during a cycling race simulation near sea-level and an international cycling race at moderate-high altitude. Matched data from the laboratory power-profile and the highest maximal mean power output (MMP) and corresponding speed and heart rate recorded during the cycling race simulation and cycling race at moderate-high altitude were compared using paired t-tests. Additionally, all MMP and corresponding speeds and heart rates were binned per 1000 m (3000 m) according to the average altitude of each ride. Mixed linear modelling was used to compare cycling performance data from each altitude bin. Power output was similar between the laboratory power-profile and the race simulation, however MMPs for 5-600 s and 15, 60, 240 and 600 s were lower (p ≤ 0.005) during the race at altitude compared with the laboratory power-profile and race simulation, respectively. Furthermore, peak power output and all MMPs were lower (≥ 11.7%, p ≤ 0.001) while racing >3000 m compared with rides completed near sea-level. However, speed associated with MMP 60 and 240 s was greater (p cycling power output during competition. Decrement in cycling power output at altitude does not seem to affect speed which tended to be greater at higher altitudes.

  1. Automated non-invasive measurement of cardiac output: comparison of electrical bioimpedance and carbon dioxide rebreathing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S A; Russell, A E; West, M J; Chalmers, J

    1988-01-01

    Two commercial automated, non-invasive systems for estimation of cardiac output were evaluated. Values of cardiac output obtained by electrical bioimpedance cardiography (BoMed NCCOM3 machine) were compared with values derived from an indirect Fick technique that uses carbon dioxide rebreathing (Gould 9000 IV system) during 103 simultaneous measurements made at rest in 19 randomly selected subjects and on exercise in 11 subjects. Cardiac output values obtained with impedance cardiography were significantly correlated with those measured by the indirect Fick method, although there was a wide scatter with over 73% of the readings lying outside the limits defined by the line of identity +/- 20%. This correlation was greatly reduced when stroke volume index was used instead of cardiac output. Indirect Fick results were linearly related to oxygen uptake both at rest and on exercise, while impedance cardiography results did not correlate with oxygen uptake. Impedance cardiography gave consistently lower results for cardiac output than indirect Fick at all levels of exercise. Both machines were easy to use and produced acceptable mean (SE) coefficients of variation (BoMed NCCOM3 7.7 (1.0)%, Gould 9000 IV 10.6 (1.4)%). Further validation is required before either of these machines can be recommended as an alternative to invasive monitoring in clinical practice. PMID:3128316

  2. No effect of fibrin sealant on drain output or functional recovery following simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Christian; Holm, Bente; Troelsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Blood loss after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may lead to anemia, blood transfusions, and increased total costs. Also, bleeding into the periarticular tissue may cause swelling and a reduction in quadriceps strength, thus impairing early functional recovery. In this random...... in TKA showed no benefit in reducing drain output or in facilitating early functional recovery when used with a tourniquet, tranexamic acid, and a femoral bone plug....

  3. Random triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Matula, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    The author summarizes some previous results concerning random triangles. He describes the Gaussian triangle and random triangles whose vertices lie in a unit n-dimensional ball, in a rectangle or in a general bounded convex set. In the second part, the author deals with an inscribed triangle in a triangle - let ABC be an equilateral triangle and let M, N, O be three points, each laying on one side of the ABC. We call MNO inscribed triangle (in an equi- laterral triangle). The median triangle ...

  4. Random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Madan Lal

    1990-01-01

    Since the publication of Random Matrices (Academic Press, 1967) so many new results have emerged both in theory and in applications, that this edition is almost completely revised to reflect the developments. For example, the theory of matrices with quaternion elements was developed to compute certain multiple integrals, and the inverse scattering theory was used to derive asymptotic results. The discovery of Selberg's 1944 paper on a multiple integral also gave rise to hundreds of recent publications. This book presents a coherent and detailed analytical treatment of random matrices, leading

  5. Decreased Hering-Breuer input-output entrainment in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Rishi R; Zhu, Yenan; Jacono, Frank J; Katz, David M; Galán, Roberto F; Dick, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Rett syndrome, a severe X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (Mecp2), is associated with a highly irregular respiratory pattern including severe upper-airway dysfunction. Recent work suggests that hyperexcitability of the Hering-Breuer reflex (HBR) pathway contributes to respiratory dysrhythmia in Mecp2 mutant mice. To assess how enhanced HBR input impacts respiratory entrainment by sensory afferents in closed-loop in vivo-like conditions, we investigated the input (vagal stimulus trains) - output (phrenic bursting) entrainment via the HBR in wild-type and MeCP2-deficient mice. Using the in situ perfused brainstem preparation, which maintains an intact pontomedullary axis capable of generating an in vivo-like respiratory rhythm in the absence of the HBR, we mimicked the HBR feedback input by stimulating the vagus nerve (at threshold current, 0.5 ms pulse duration, 75 Hz pulse frequency, 100 ms train duration) at an inter-burst frequency matching that of the intrinsic oscillation of the inspiratory motor output of each preparation. Using this approach, we observed significant input-output entrainment in wild-type mice as measured by the maximum of the cross-correlation function, the peak of the instantaneous relative phase distribution, and the mutual information of the instantaneous phases. This entrainment was associated with a reduction in inspiratory duration during feedback stimulation. In contrast, the strength of input-output entrainment was significantly weaker in Mecp2 (-/+) mice. However, Mecp2 (-/+) mice also had a reduced inspiratory duration during stimulation, indicating that reflex behavior in the HBR pathway was intact. Together, these observations suggest that the respiratory network compensates for enhanced sensitivity of HBR inputs by reducing HBR input-output entrainment.

  6. Decreased Hering-Breuer input-output entrainment in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi R Dhingra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome, a severe X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (Mecp2, is associated with a highly irregular respiratory pattern including severe upper-airway dysfunction. Recent work suggests that hyperexcitability of the Hering-Breuer reflex (HBR pathway contributes to respiratory dysrhythmia in Mecp2 mutant mice. To assess how enhanced HBR input impacts respiratory entrainment by sensory afferents in closed-loop in vivo-like conditions, we investigated the input (vagal stimulus trains – output (phrenic bursting entrainment via the HBR in wild-type and Mecp2-deficient mice. Using the in situ perfused brainstem preparation, which maintains an intact pontomedullary axis capable of generating an in vivo-like respiratory rhythm in the absence of the HBR, we mimicked the HBR feedback input by stimulating the vagus nerve (at threshold current, 0.5 ms pulse duration, 75 Hz pulse frequency, 100 ms train duration at an inter-burst frequency matching that of the intrinsic oscillation of the inspiratory motor output of each preparation. Using this approach, we observed significant input-output entrainment in wild-type mice as measured by the maximum of the cross-correlation function, the peak of the instantaneous relative phase distribution, and the mutual information of the instantaneous phases. This entrainment was associated with a reduction in inspiratory duration during feedback stimulation. In contrast, the strength of input-output entrainment was significantly weaker in Mecp2-/+ mice. However, Mecp2-/+ mice also had a reduced inspiratory duration during stimulation, indicating that reflex behavior in the HBR pathway was intact. Together, these observations suggest that the respiratory network compensates for enhanced sensitivity of HBR inputs by reducing HBR input-output entrainment.

  7. Optimal cycling time trial position models: aerodynamics versus power output and metabolic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fintelman, D M; Sterling, M; Hemida, H; Li, F-X

    2014-06-03

    The aerodynamic drag of a cyclist in time trial (TT) position is strongly influenced by the torso angle. While decreasing the torso angle reduces the drag, it limits the physiological functioning of the cyclist. Therefore the aims of this study were to predict the optimal TT cycling position as function of the cycling speed and to determine at which speed the aerodynamic power losses start to dominate. Two models were developed to determine the optimal torso angle: a 'Metabolic Energy Model' and a 'Power Output Model'. The Metabolic Energy Model minimised the required cycling energy expenditure, while the Power Output Model maximised the cyclists׳ power output. The input parameters were experimentally collected from 19 TT cyclists at different torso angle positions (0-24°). The results showed that for both models, the optimal torso angle depends strongly on the cycling speed, with decreasing torso angles at increasing speeds. The aerodynamic losses outweigh the power losses at cycling speeds above 46km/h. However, a fully horizontal torso is not optimal. For speeds below 30km/h, it is beneficial to ride in a more upright TT position. The two model outputs were not completely similar, due to the different model approaches. The Metabolic Energy Model could be applied for endurance events, while the Power Output Model is more suitable in sprinting or in variable conditions (wind, undulating course, etc.). It is suggested that despite some limitations, the models give valuable information about improving the cycling performance by optimising the TT cycling position. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Design of output feedback UPFC controller for damping of electromechanical oscillations using PSO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shayeghi, H. [Technical Engineering Dept., Univ. of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran); Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of Excellence for Power Automation and Operation, Electrical Engineering Dept., Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran); Jalilzadeh, S.; Safari, A. [Technical Engineering Dept., Zanjan Univ., Zanjan (Iran)

    2009-10-15

    In this paper, a novel method for the design of output feedback controller for unified power flow controller (UPFC) is developed. The selection of the output feedback gains for the UPFC controllers is converted to an optimization problem with the time domain-based objective function which is solved by a particle swarm optimization technique (PSO) that has a strong ability to find the most optimistic results. Only local and available state variables are adopted as the input signals of each controller for the decentralized design. Thus, structure of the designed UPFC controller is simple and easy to implement. To ensure the robustness of the proposed stabilizers, the design process takes into account a wide range of operating conditions and system configurations. The effectiveness of the proposed controller for damping low frequency oscillations is tested and demonstrated through nonlinear time-domain simulation and some performance indices studies. The results analysis reveals that the designed PSO-based output feedback UPFC damping controller has an excellent capability in damping power system low frequency oscillations and enhance greatly the dynamic stability of the power systems. Moreover, the system performance analysis under different operating conditions show that the {delta}{sub E} based controller is superior to both the m{sub B} based controller and conventional power system stablizer. (author)

  9. Conditional Neural Fields untuk Pengenalan Fase Gerak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Nurma Yulita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pengenalan pola merupakan area informatika yang banyak dikaji hingga saat ini. Hal ini dikarenakan pemanfaatannya yang luas diterapkan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Di dalam makalah ini disajikan pengenalan pola untuk gerakan khususnya fase gerak. Secara khusus pengenalan fase gerak di dalam makalah ini menitik beratkan pada pengenalan pola pada data berbentuk sekuensial. Pengenalan ini dapat saja mengabaikan faktor sekuensialnya, namun tentu akan menurunkan akurasi yang akan diperoleh. Oleh karena itu untuk mengatasi tantangan tersebut, maka ditawarkan penggunaan Conditional Neural Fields (CNF. Metode ini merupakan gabungan antara Conditional Random Fields (CRF dan Artifisial Neural Networks (ANN. Representasi ANN disajikan dalam bentuk gate pada lapisan tengah dari CRF. Lapisan ini bertujuan untuk memetakan hubungan non-linear antara input dan output yang terdapat di dalam data. Sebagai hasilnya diperoleh bahwa CNF terbukti lebih efektif dan efisien dibandingkan CRF berdasarkan akurasi dan banyaknya iterasi yang dibutuhkan. Namun penggunaan terlalu banyak gate ternyata tidak efektif dikarenakan konvergensi dari model pengenalan semakin sulit tercapai. Di sisi lain, jika hanya satu gate yang digunakan maka konvergensi tercapai namun akuarsi yang diperoleh rendah. Sehingga diperlukan upaya untuk menemukan banyaknya gate optimal yang diperlukan.

  10. Transportation network with fluctuating input/output designed by the bio-inspired Physarum algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shin; Takamatsu, Atsuko

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose designing transportation network topology and traffic distribution under fluctuating conditions using a bio-inspired algorithm. The algorithm is inspired by the adaptive behavior observed in an amoeba-like organism, plasmodial slime mold, more formally known as plasmodium of Physarum plycephalum. This organism forms a transportation network to distribute its protoplasm, the fluidic contents of its cell, throughout its large cell body. In this process, the diameter of the transportation tubes adapts to the flux of the protoplasm. The Physarum algorithm, which mimics this adaptive behavior, has been widely applied to complex problems, such as maze solving and designing the topology of railroad grids, under static conditions. However, in most situations, environmental conditions fluctuate; for example, in power grids, the consumption of electric power shows daily, weekly, and annual periodicity depending on the lifestyles or the business needs of the individual consumers. This paper studies the design of network topology and traffic distribution with oscillatory input and output traffic flows. The network topology proposed by the Physarum algorithm is controlled by a parameter of the adaptation process of the tubes. We observe various rich topologies such as complete mesh, partial mesh, Y-shaped, and V-shaped networks depending on this adaptation parameter and evaluate them on the basis of three performance functions: loss, cost, and vulnerability. Our results indicate that consideration of the oscillatory conditions and the phase-lags in the multiple outputs of the network is important: The building and/or maintenance cost of the network can be reduced by introducing the oscillating condition, and when the phase-lag among the outputs is large, the transportation loss can also be reduced. We use stability analysis to reveal how the system exhibits various topologies depending on the parameter.

  11. Transportation network with fluctuating input/output designed by the bio-inspired Physarum algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Watanabe

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose designing transportation network topology and traffic distribution under fluctuating conditions using a bio-inspired algorithm. The algorithm is inspired by the adaptive behavior observed in an amoeba-like organism, plasmodial slime mold, more formally known as plasmodium of Physarum plycephalum. This organism forms a transportation network to distribute its protoplasm, the fluidic contents of its cell, throughout its large cell body. In this process, the diameter of the transportation tubes adapts to the flux of the protoplasm. The Physarum algorithm, which mimics this adaptive behavior, has been widely applied to complex problems, such as maze solving and designing the topology of railroad grids, under static conditions. However, in most situations, environmental conditions fluctuate; for example, in power grids, the consumption of electric power shows daily, weekly, and annual periodicity depending on the lifestyles or the business needs of the individual consumers. This paper studies the design of network topology and traffic distribution with oscillatory input and output traffic flows. The network topology proposed by the Physarum algorithm is controlled by a parameter of the adaptation process of the tubes. We observe various rich topologies such as complete mesh, partial mesh, Y-shaped, and V-shaped networks depending on this adaptation parameter and evaluate them on the basis of three performance functions: loss, cost, and vulnerability. Our results indicate that consideration of the oscillatory conditions and the phase-lags in the multiple outputs of the network is important: The building and/or maintenance cost of the network can be reduced by introducing the oscillating condition, and when the phase-lag among the outputs is large, the transportation loss can also be reduced. We use stability analysis to reveal how the system exhibits various topologies depending on the parameter.

  12. Soluble TNF-related apoptosis induced ligand (sTRAIL) is augmented by Post-Conditioning and correlates to infarct size and left ventricle dysfunction in STEMI patients: a substudy from a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, André; Santos, Mário; Magalhães, Rui; Oliveira, José Carlos; Pacheco, Ana; Silveira, João; Cabral, Sofia; Torres, Severo; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Carvalho, Henrique

    2017-02-01

    Low levels of Soluble TNF-related apoptosis induced ligand (sTRAIL) seem to be related to worse prognosis after an acute coronary syndrome. PostConditioning (PostCond) may protect the heart from reperfusion injury. We sought to evaluate the impact of PostCond on sTRAIL in relationship to infarct size (area under the curve of Troponin T, AUCTnT) and left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) in a series of patients undergoing primary coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In a substudy of a randomized trial that tested the effects of PostCond in STEMI-patients, sTRAIL was measured 24 h after reperfusion (PostCond n = 39, Control n = 39). Correlations between sTRAIL and both AUCTnT and LVEF were studied for each study arm. At 24 h, sTRAIL was higher for PostCond vs Controls (46.4 ± 30.6 vs 32.9 ± 23.4, p = 0.031), was negatively related to AUCTnT [B = -0.09, 95 % CI (-0.15 to -0.30), p = 0.005] and was positively related to both in-hospital [B = 0.10, 95 % CI (0.02-0.17), p = 0.018], and follow-up LVEF [B = 0.21, 95 % (0.10-0.32), p = 0.001]. No significant relationship was found for Controls. On multivariate analysis, PostCond was an independent predictor for sTRAIL [B = 12.13 95 % CI (0.40-23.87), p = 0.043]. In conclusion, PostCond positively influenced sTRAIL, which was related to reduced infarct size and better LVEF. Further studies are needed to understand potential mechanisms elicited by PostCond in infarct size reduction.

  13. Study of double-ring slow-light gyroscope with two input-output waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hong; Liu, Xiao-qing

    2017-10-01

    A novel structure of double-ring slow-light gyroscope with two input-output waveguides is studied. We utilize interferometric detection method, and sufficiently combine the advantages of Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyro (I-FOG) and Resonator Optic Gyro (ROG). The responses of the structure are derived and simulated. Here two experimental schemes are also proposed. By applying a square wave to the integrated phase modulator, we can make the structure work at the highest sensitivity. After applied the square wave, the system runs at linear zone, thus the angular velocity can be obtained according to the linear relationship between the phase difference and the angular velocity. The optimal parameters for the largest phase difference of light signal monitored at different output ports are investigated. Some comparisons are done in the condition of various values of transmission loss coefficients.

  14. Robust output feedback cruise control for high-speed train movement with uncertain parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Kai; Yang, Li-Xing; Li, Ke-Ping

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the robust output feedback cruise control for high-speed train movement with uncertain parameters is investigated. The dynamic of a high-speed train is modeled by a cascade of cars connected by flexible couplers, which is subject to rolling mechanical resistance, aerodynamic drag and wind gust. Based on Lyapunov’s stability theory, the sufficient condition for the existence of the robust output feedback cruise control law is given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), under which the high-speed train tracks the desired speed, the relative spring displacement between the two neighboring cars is stable at the equilibrium state, and meanwhile a small prescribed H∞ disturbance attenuation level is guaranteed. One numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No.2014JBM150).

  15. High-Input and Low-Output Impedance Voltage-Mode Universal DDCC and FDCCII Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua-Pin; Yang, Wan-Shing

    Despite the extensive literature on current conveyor-based universal (namely, low-pass, band-pass, high-pass, notch, and all-pass) biquads with three inputs and one output, no filter circuits have been reported to date which simultaneously achieve the following seven important features: (i) employment of only two current conveyors, (ii) employment of only grounded capacitors, (iii) employment of only grounded resistors, (iv) high-input and low-output impedance, (v) no need to employ inverting type input signals, (vi) no need to impose component choice conditions to realize specific filtering functions, and (vii) low active and passive sensitivity performances. This letter describes a new voltage-mode biquad circuit that satisfies all the above features simultaneously, and without trade-offs.

  16. Model reference adaptive synchronization of T-S fuzzy discrete chaotic systems using output tracking control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won-Ki [ICS Laboratory (B723), Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 134, Shinchon-Dong, Sudaemoon-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: ppsteel@hotmail.com; Hyun, Chang-Ho [ICS Laboratory (B723), Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 134, Shinchon-Dong, Sudaemoon-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Heejin [Department of Information and Control Engineering, Hankyong National University, 67, Seokjeong-Dong, Ansung, Gyonggi-Do 456-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Euntai [ICS Laboratory (B723), Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 134, Shinchon-Dong, Sudaemoon-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mignon [ICS Laboratory (B723), Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 134, Shinchon-Dong, Sudaemoon-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    This paper presents a model reference adaptive control approach for the synchronization of a discrete-time chaotic systems using output tracking control. The reference model system is chosen using the output of master system and Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is employed to represent the discrete-time chaotic slave system. Design the control input so that the controlled slave system achieves asymptotic synchronization with the reference system given that two systems start from different initial conditions, different parameters and/or different type of model. Using a gradient algorithm, the ideal controller gains which can stabilize the error equation are estimated. Simulation examples of two cases are given to demonstrate the validity of our proposed adaptive method.

  17. Management of the Low Cardiac Output Syndrome Following Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Heather K; Kirsch, Roxanne

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the management of the low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) following surgery for congenital heart disease. The LCOS is a well-recognized, frequent post-operative complication with an accepted collection of hemodynamic and physiologic aberrations. Approximately 25% of children experience a decrease in cardiac index of less than 2 L/min/m2 within 6-18 hours after cardiac surgery. Post-operative strategies that may be used to manage patients as risk for or in a state of low cardiac output include the use of hemodynamic monitoring, enabling a timely and accurate assessment of cardiovascular function and tissue oxygenation; optimization of ventricular loading conditions; the judicious use of inotropic agents; an appreciation of and the utilization of positive pressure ventilation for circulatory support; and, in some circumstances, mechanical circulatory support. All interventions and strategies should culminate in improving the relationship between oxygen supply and demand, ensuring adequate tissue oxygenation.

  18. Circadian output, input, and intracellular oscillators: insights into the circadian systems of single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loros, J J; Dunlap, J C; Larrondo, L F; Shi, M; Belden, W J; Gooch, V D; Chen, C-H; Baker, C L; Mehra, A; Colot, H V; Schwerdtfeger, C; Lambreghts, R; Collopy, P D; Gamsby, J J; Hong, C I

    2007-01-01

    Circadian output comprises the business end of circadian systems in terms of adaptive significance. Work on Neurospora pioneered the molecular analysis of circadian output mechanisms, and insights from this model system continue to illuminate the pathways through which clocks control metabolism and overt rhythms. In Neurospora, virtually every strain examined in the context of rhythms bears the band allele that helps to clarify the overt rhythm in asexual development. Recent cloning of band showed it to be an allele of ras-1 and to affect a wide variety of signaling pathways yielding enhanced light responses and asexual development. These can be largely phenocopied by treatments that increase levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Although output is often unidirectional, analysis of the prd-4 gene provided an alternative paradigm in which output feeds back to affect input. prd-4 is an allele of checkpoint kinase-2 that bypasses the requirement for DNA damage to activate this kinase; FRQ is normally a substrate of activated Chk2, so in Chk2(PRD-4), FRQ is precociously phosphorylated and the clock cycles more quickly. Finally, recent adaptation of luciferase to fully function in Neurospora now allows the core FRQ/WCC feedback loop to be followed in real time under conditions where it no longer controls the overt rhythm in development. This ability can be used to describe the hierarchical relationships among FRQ-Less Oscillators (FLOs) and to see which are connected to the circadian system. The nitrate reductase oscillator appears to be connected, but the oscillator controlling the long-period rhythm elicited upon choline starvation appears completely disconnected from the circadian system; it can be seen to run with a very long noncompensated 60-120-hour period length under conditions where the circadian FRQ/WCC oscillator continues to cycle with a fully compensated circadian 22-hour period.

  19. Output Current Ripple Reduction Algorithms for Home Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyuk Park

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an output current ripple reduction algorithm using a proportional-integral (PI controller for an energy storage system (ESS. In single-phase systems, the DC/AC inverter has a second-order harmonic at twice the grid frequency of a DC-link voltage caused by pulsation of the DC-link voltage. The output current of a DC/DC converter has a ripple component because of the ripple of the DC-link voltage. The second-order harmonic adversely affects the battery lifetime. The proposed algorithm has an advantage of reducing the second-order harmonic of the output current in the variable frequency system. The proposed algorithm is verified from the PSIM simulation and experiment with the 3 kW ESS model.

  20. A Single Switch Dual Output Non-Isolated Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimczak, Pawel; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2008-01-01

    very simple dual output non-isolated boost converter is presented. Single active switch is used to control both, positive and negative output voltages. The converter is desired to boost unregulated low input voltage 25-50 Vdc to regulated high voltage ±400 Vdc in dual dc-link. In this paper proposed......There are many applications for high gain dc-dc converters. In several of these applications galvanic isolation is not required, but there are some safety issues regarding missing isolation and leakage current. Usage of a half-bridge inverter and a dual dc-link may solve this issues. In this paper...... topology is analyzed and explained. Obtained experimental results prove good performance of the converter over wide range of input voltage and output power....

  1. Pulse contour-derived cardiac output in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Joakim; Ladefoged, Soeren D

    2010-01-01

    Reliable methods for cardiac output determination are essential for studying the pathophysiology of intradialytic hypotension. Use of the current gold standard, the Transonic monitor, requires an arteriovenous fistula. We wished to verify the accuracy of a method based on finger pulse contour...... analysis, namely the Finometer monitor (FNM) for further use on patients dialyzing on a central vascular catheter. Fifty simultaneous cardiac output measurements were obtained during hemodialysis sessions in 25 patients. The internal variability of the FNM measurements was assessed by comparing 24 pairs...... of immediately successive measurements. The variability of successive FNM measurements was small (bias 0.28%, SD +/- 6.1%; NS). The absolute cardiac output values reported by the FNM were unreliable (bias 20.1%, SD +/- 35.3%; P...

  2. Protozoan grazing reduces the current output of microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Dawn E; Nevin, Kelly P; Snoeyenbos-West, Oona L; Woodard, Trevor L; Strickland, Justin N; Lovley, Derek R

    2015-10-01

    Several experiments were conducted to determine whether protozoan grazing can reduce current output from sediment microbial fuel cells. When marine sediments were amended with eukaryotic inhibitors, the power output from the fuel cells increased 2-5-fold. Quantitative PCR showed that Geobacteraceae sequences were 120 times more abundant on anodes from treated fuel cells compared to untreated fuel cells, and that Spirotrichea sequences in untreated fuel cells were 200 times more abundant on anode surfaces than in the surrounding sediments. Defined studies with current-producing biofilms of Geobacter sulfurreducens and pure cultures of protozoa demonstrated that protozoa that were effective in consuming G. sulfurreducens reduced current production up to 91% when added to G. sulfurreducens fuel cells. These results suggest that anode biofilms are an attractive food source for protozoa and that protozoan grazing can be an important factor limiting the current output of sediment microbial fuel cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Aspect Ratio on the Light Output of Scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Pauwels, Kristof; Gundacker, S.; Knapitsch, A.; Lecoq, P.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the geometry of the scintillators is presented in this paper. We focus on the effect of narrowing down the section of crystals that have a given length. The light output of a set of crystals with very similar scintillating properties but different geometries measured with several coupling/wrapping configurations is provided. We observe that crystals shaped in thin rods have a lower light output as compared to bulk or sliced crystals. The effect of unpolishing the crystal faces is also investigated, and it is shown that highest light outputs are not necessarily obtained with crystals having all faces polished. Simulation results based on a realistic model of the crystal that implements light scattering on the crystal edges are in agreement with the experimental data. Fine-tuning of this model would allow us to further explore the details of light propagation in scintillators and would be highly valuable to fast timing detection and highly granular detectors.

  4. PENDUGAAN ELASTISITAS PENAWARAN OUTPUT DAN PERMINTAAN INPUT USAHATANI JAGUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adang Agustian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of changes in output and input prices, corn research expenditures and road infrastructure on output supply and input demand for corn in the Province of East Java and West Java. The data that are analyzed are those of structure of costs of corn farming in the Province of East Java and West Java in 1985-2009. Estimation model employed is the method of Seemingly Unrelated Regression. The results showed that the output supply of corn both in the province of East Java and West Java are elastic to its price changes, however it is inelastic to the price changes of: seed, urea, TSP and labor. Input demand of seed, urea, TSP and labor area inelastic to their price changes. Policy implications of this research is efforts to increase the supply of corn can be carried out by increasing its price, expenditures of corn research, and road infrastructure.

  5. Orchestrating the management of patients with high-output stomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Alison

    Working in isolation, managing high-output stomas can be stressful and difficult, with patient outcomes varying significantly. For the stoma care clinical nurse specialist, managing the choice of stoma appliance is only a small part of the care provided. To standardise and improve outcomes for patients with high-output stomas, team working is required. After contacting other stoma care services and using guidance from the High Impact Actions for Stoma Care document ( Coloplast, 2010 ), it was evident that the team should put together an algorithm/flow chart to guide both specialists and ward nursing staff in the evidence-based and standardised management of patients with high-output stomas. This article presents the flowchart that was produced and uses case studies to demonstrate improvements.

  6. GaN Nanowire Arrays for High-Output Nanogenerators

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chi-Te

    2010-04-07

    Three-fold symmetrically distributed GaN nanowire (NW) arrays have been epitaxially grown on GaN/sapphire substrates. The GaN NW possesses a triangular cross section enclosed by (0001), (2112), and (2112) planes, and the angle between the GaN NW and the substrate surface is ∼62°. The GaN NW arrays produce negative output voltage pulses when scanned by a conductive atomic force microscope in contact mode. The average of piezoelectric output voltage was about -20 mV, while 5-10% of the NWs had piezoelectric output voltages exceeding -(0.15-0.35) V. The GaN NW arrays are highly stable and highly tolerate to moisture in the atmosphere. The GaN NW arrays demonstrate an outstanding potential to be utilized for piezoelectric energy generation with a performance probably better than that of ZnO NWs. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  7. Residual urine output and postoperative mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Feng; Wu, Vin-Cent; Ko, Wen-Je; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chen, Yung-Ming; Li, Wen-Yi; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Chao, Anne; Huang, Tao-Min; Chang, Fan-Chi; Chen, Shih-I; Shiao, Chih-Chung; Wang, Wei-Jie; Tsai, Hung-Bin; Tsai, Pi-Ru; Hu, Fu-Chang; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2009-09-01

    The relationship between residual urine output and postoperative survival in maintenance hemodialysis patients is unknown. To explore the relationship between amount of urine before surgery and postoperative mortality and differences between postoperative nonanuria and anuria in maintenance hemodialysis patients. A total of 109 maintenance hemodialysis patients underwent major operations. Anuria was defined as urine output anuria were developed. Postoperative residual urine output was 159.2 mL/8 h (SD, 115.1) in 33 patients; 76 patients were anuric. Preoperative residual urine output and adequate perioperative blood transfusion were positively related to postoperative urine output. Propensity-adjusted 30-day mortality was associated with postoperative anuria (odds ratio [OR], 4.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-17.96; P = .03), prior stroke (OR, 4.46; 95% CI, 1.43-13.89; P = .01) and higher disease severity (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21; P = .049) at the first postoperative dialysis. OR of 30-day mortality was 5.38 for nonanuria to anuria vs nonanuria to nonanuria (P = .03) and 5.13 for preoperative anuria vs nonanuria to nonanuria (P = .01). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, 30-day mortality differed significantly among patients for nonanuria to nonanuria, anuria, and nonanuria to anuria (log rank, P = .045). Patients with preoperative nonanuria and postoperative anuria had higher mortality than did patients with no anuria before and after surgery and patients with anuria before surgery. Postoperative residual urine output is an important surrogate marker for disease severity.

  8. A Matrix PRNG with S-Box Output Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alvarez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a modification to a previously published pseudorandom number generator improving security while maintaining high performance. The proposed generator is based on the powers of a word-packed block upper triangular matrix and it is designed to be fast and easy to implement in software since it mainly involves bitwise operations between machine registers and, in our tests, it presents excellent security and statistical characteristics. The modifications include a new, key-derived s-box based nonlinear output filter and improved seeding and extraction mechanisms. This output filter can also be applied to other generators.

  9. Replacing a battery by a nanogenerator with 20 V output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Youfan; Lin, Long; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2012-01-03

    Replacing batteries by nanogenerators (NGs) in small consumer electronics is one of the goals in the emerging field of self-powered nanotechnology. We show that the maximum measured output voltage of an NG optimized with pretreatments on the as-grown ZnO nanowire films reaches 20 V and the output current exceeds 6 {mu}A, which corresponds to a power density of 0.2 W cm{sup -3}. The NG is also demonstrated to replace a battery for driving a electronic watch. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Predicting manure volatile solid output of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhamy, J A D R N; Moraes, L E; Wagner-Riddle, C; Casper, D P; Kebreab, E

    2018-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) in livestock manure consisting of biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions is known as volatile solids (VS). According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 2 guidelines, methane produced by stored manure is determined based on VS. However, only biodegradable OM generates methane production. Therefore, estimates of biodegradable VS (dVS; dVS = VS - lignin) would yield better estimates of methane emissions from manure. The objective of the study was to develop mathematical models for estimating VS and dVS outputs of lactating dairy cows. Dry matter intake, dietary nutrient contents, milk yield and composition, body weight, and days in milk were used as potential predictor variables. Multicollinearity, model simplicity, and random study effects were taken into account during model development that used 857 VS and dVS measurements made on individual cows (kg/cow per day) from 43 metabolic trials conducted at the USDA Energy and Metabolism laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland. The new models and the IPCC Tier 2 model were evaluated with an independent data set including 209 VS and dVS measurements (kg/cow per day) from 2 metabolic trials conducted at the University of California, Davis. Organic matter intake (kg/d) and dietary crude protein and neutral detergent fiber contents (% of dry matter) were significantly associated with VS. A new model including these variables fitted best to data. When evaluated with independent data, the new model had a root mean squared prediction error as a percentage of average observed value (RMSPE) of 12.5%. Mean and slope biases were negligible at IPCC Tier 2 model had a RMSPE of 13.7% and a notable mean bias for VS to be overpredicted by 0.4 kg/cow per day. A separate model including OM intake as well as dietary crude protein and neutral detergent fiber contents as predictor variables fitted best to dVS data and performed well on independent data (RMSPE = 12.7%). The Cornell Net

  11. Continuous cardiac output measurement: arterial pressure analysis versus thermodilution technique during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorsomradee, S.; Lorsomradee, S. R.; Cromheecke, S.; de Hert, S. G.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared cardiac output measured with an arterial pressure-based cardiac output measurement system and a thermodilution cardiac output measurement system. We studied 36 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Simultaneous arterial pressure-based and thermodilution

  12. RECOVERY OF POWER OUTPUT AND HEART RATE KINETICS DURING REPEATED BOUTS OF ROWING EXERCISE WITH DIFFERENT REST INTERVALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Mavrommataki

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of recovery time on the maintenance of power output and the heart rate response during repeated maximal rowing exercise. Nine male, junior rowers (age: 16 ± 1 years; body mass: 74.0 ± 9.1 kg; height: 1.78 ± 0.03 m performed two consecutive all-out 1000 m bouts on a rowing ergometer on three separate occasions. The rest interval between the two bouts was 1.5 (INT1.5, 3 (INT3 and 6 min (INT6, allocated in random order. Power output was averaged for each 1000 m bout and for the first and last 500 m of each bout. Heart rate kinetics were determined using a two-component exponential model. Performance time and mean power output for the first bout was 209 ± 3 s and 313 ± 10 W respectively. Recovery of mean power output was incomplete even after 6 min (78 ± 2, 81 ± 2 and 84 ± 2 % for INT1.5, INT3 and INT6 respectively. Mean power output after INT6 was higher (p < 0.01 only compared with INT1.5. Power output during the first 500 m of bout 2 after INT6 was 10% higher compared with the second 500 m. During INT1.5 and INT3 power output during the first and the second 500 m of bout 2 was similar. Peak heart rate (~197 b·min-1 and the HR time constant (~13 s were unaffected by prior exercise and recovery time. However, when the recovery was short (INT1.5, HR during the first 50 s of bout 2 was significantly higher compared with corresponding values during bout 1. The present study has shown that in order to maintain similar power outputs during repeated maximal rowing exercise, the recovery interval must be greater than 6 min. The influence of a longer recovery time (INT6 on maintenance of power output was only evident during the first half of the second 1000 m bout.

  13. Determinations of the reproductive output of populations of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-04-13

    Apr 13, 1987 ... spring and summer breeding cycles tended to merge, forming a longer breeding season, with the adult females apparently producing three broods of eggs per annum. The brood size of these females ranged from about 1304 to 4819 eggs. The calculated reproductive output (Pr) and reproductive biomass ...

  14. relationship between the exposure outputs of single-phase and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Physics, 178 (2005) 203. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE EXPOSURE OUTPUTS ... 2Department of Physics, University of lbadan, lbadan, Nigeria. Abstract. 'lhe indirect determination of the patient dose .... The x-ray machine, a GEC Medical Apollo,. Roentgen 501 with an x-ray tube made by. Machlett at ...

  15. Factors Influencing Farmer Output in the International Fund for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria. Email: cunwaobiala@gmail.com ... Efforts to implement these programmes through some public extension systems such as Agricultural .... Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the factors that influence output realised from CBNRMP ...

  16. The World Input-Output Database : Content, Concepts and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Marcel P.; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Los, Bart; Stehrer, Robert; de Vries, Gaaitzen J.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the contents and construction of the World Input-Output Database (WIOD). This database contains annual time-series of world inputoutput tables, covering the period from 1995 onwards. Underlying concepts, construction methods and data sources are considered. In addition, the

  17. Aggregate Energy Consumption and Sectoral Output in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2012-10-27

    Oct 27, 2012 ... Journal of Energy and Development, 3, 401-403. Liew, V. K., Nathan, T. M. and Wong, W. (2012) Are Sectoral Outputs in. Pakistan Led by energy Consumption? Economic Bulletin, 32(3), pp. 2326-2331. Narayan, P. K. and Singh, B. (2007). The Electricity Consumption and GDP. Nexus for the Fiji Islands.

  18. QUALITATIVE DATA AND ERROR MEASUREMENT IN INPUT-OUTPUT-ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NIJKAMP, P; OOSTERHAVEN, J; OUWERSLOOT, H; RIETVELD, P

    1992-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the rapidly emerging field of qualitative data analysis in economics. Ordinal data techniques and error measurement in input-output analysis are here combined in order to test the reliability of a low level of measurement and precision of data by means of a stochastic

  19. Linearised model for PV panel power output variation with changes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PALLAVI BHARADWAJ

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... This equivalent resistance represents the load seen at the PV panel terminals. It is dependent on the actual power drawn by the system and the interfacing converter between the PV panels and the load. Thus it is a function of the converter duty ratio and load characteristics. Due to the disturbance, output ...

  20. Open access publishing in Africa: advancing research outputs to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to examine the status of Africa in the open access environment as well as the challenges of providing global visibility to African research outputs. A descriptive bibliometric approach was adopted for the study. Data was extracted from two world repository directories (Registry of Open Access ...