WorldWideScience

Sample records for random number trains

  1. Random number generation and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, William

    2008-01-01

    A previous paper suggested that humans can generate genuinely random numbers. I tested this hypothesis by repeating the experiment with a larger number of highly numerate subjects, asking them to call out a sequence of digits selected from 0 through 9. The resulting sequences were substantially non-random, with an excess of sequential pairs of numbers and a deficit of repeats of the same number, in line with previous literature. However, the previous literature suggests that humans generate random numbers with substantial conscious effort, and distractions which reduce that effort reduce the randomness of the numbers. I reduced my subjects' concentration by asking them to call out in another language, and with alcohol - neither affected the randomness of their responses. This suggests that the ability to generate random numbers is a 'basic' function of the human mind, even if those numbers are not mathematically 'random'. I hypothesise that there is a 'creativity' mechanism, while not truly random, provides novelty as part of the mind's defence against closed programming loops, and that testing for the effects seen here in people more or less familiar with numbers or with spontaneous creativity could identify more features of this process. It is possible that training to perform better at simple random generation tasks could help to increase creativity, through training people to reduce the conscious mind's suppression of the 'spontaneous', creative response to new questions.

  2. Quantum random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-05-10

    A quantum random number generator (QRNG) and a photon generator for a QRNG are provided. The photon generator may be operated in a spontaneous mode below a lasing threshold to emit photons. Photons emitted from the photon generator may have at least one random characteristic, which may be monitored by the QRNG to generate a random number. In one embodiment, the photon generator may include a photon emitter and an amplifier coupled to the photon emitter. The amplifier may enable the photon generator to be used in the QRNG without introducing significant bias in the random number and may enable multiplexing of multiple random numbers. The amplifier may also desensitize the photon generator to fluctuations in power supplied thereto while operating in the spontaneous mode. In one embodiment, the photon emitter and amplifier may be a tapered diode amplifier.

  3. Random number generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coveyou, R.R.

    1974-01-01

    The subject of random number generation is currently controversial. Differing opinions on this subject seem to stem from implicit or explicit differences in philosophy; in particular, from differing ideas concerning the role of probability in the real world of physical processes, electronic computers, and Monte Carlo calculations. An attempt is made here to reconcile these views. The role of stochastic ideas in mathematical models is discussed. In illustration of these ideas, a mathematical model of the use of random number generators in Monte Carlo calculations is constructed. This model is used to set up criteria for the comparison and evaluation of random number generators. (U.S.)

  4. Quantum random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubusta, Jan; Haderka, Ondrej; Hendrych, Martin

    2001-03-01

    Since reflection or transmission of a quantum particle on a beamsplitter is inherently random quantum process, a device built on this principle does not suffer from drawbacks of neither pseudo-random computer generators or classical noise sources. Nevertheless, a number of physical conditions necessary for high quality random numbers generation must be satisfied. Luckily, in quantum optics realization they can be well controlled. We present an easy random number generator based on the division of weak light pulses on a beamsplitter. The randomness of the generated bit stream is supported by passing the data through series of 15 statistical test. The device generates at a rate of 109.7 kbit/s.

  5. Uniform random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Methods are presented for the generation of random numbers with uniform and normal distributions. Subprogram listings of Fortran generators for the Univac 1108, SDS 930, and CDC 3200 digital computers are also included. The generators are of the mixed multiplicative type, and the mathematical method employed is that of Marsaglia and Bray.

  6. Drawing a random number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard; Sørensen, Majken Vildrik

    2006-01-01

    Random numbers are used for a great variety of applications in almost any field of computer and economic sciences today. Examples ranges from stock market forecasting in economics, through stochastic traffic modelling in operations research to photon and ray tracing in graphics. The construction...... distributions into others with most of the required characteristics. In essence, a uniform sequence which is transformed into a new sequence with the required distribution. The subject of this article is to consider the well known highly uniform Halton sequence and modifications to it. The intent is to generate...

  7. [Intel random number generator-based true random number generator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Shen, Hong

    2004-09-01

    To establish a true random number generator on the basis of certain Intel chips. The random numbers were acquired by programming using Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 via register reading from the random number generator (RNG) unit of an Intel 815 chipset-based computer with Intel Security Driver (ISD). We tested the generator with 500 random numbers in NIST FIPS 140-1 and X(2) R-Squared test, and the result showed that the random number it generated satisfied the demand of independence and uniform distribution. We also compared the random numbers generated by Intel RNG-based true random number generator and those from the random number table statistically, by using the same amount of 7500 random numbers in the same value domain, which showed that the SD, SE and CV of Intel RNG-based random number generator were less than those of the random number table. The result of u test of two CVs revealed no significant difference between the two methods. Intel RNG-based random number generator can produce high-quality random numbers with good independence and uniform distribution, and solves some problems with random number table in acquisition of the random numbers.

  8. Random Numbers and Quantum Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Mark; Glass, David

    2002-01-01

    The topic of random numbers is investigated in such a way as to illustrate links between mathematics, physics and computer science. First, the generation of random numbers by a classical computer using the linear congruential generator and logistic map is considered. It is noted that these procedures yield only pseudo-random numbers since…

  9. Investigating the Randomness of Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Kenn L.

    2009-01-01

    The use of random numbers is pervasive in today's world. Random numbers have practical applications in such far-flung arenas as computer simulations, cryptography, gambling, the legal system, statistical sampling, and even the war on terrorism. Evaluating the randomness of extremely large samples is a complex, intricate process. However, the…

  10. Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yicheng; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Chng, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.

  11. Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yicheng; Kurtsiefer, Christian, E-mail: christian.kurtsiefer@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Center for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Chng, Brenda [Center for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2016-07-25

    We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.

  12. Microcomputer Unit: Generating Random Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an activity, suitable for students in grades 6-12, on generating random numbers. Objectives, equipment needed, list of prerequisite experiences, instructional strategies, and ready-to-copy student worksheets are included. (JN)

  13. Digital random-number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocker, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    For binary digit array of N bits, use N noise sources to feed N nonlinear operators; each flip-flop in digit array is set by nonlinear operator to reflect whether amplitude of generator which feeds it is above or below mean value of generated noise. Fixed-point uniform distribution random number generation method can also be used to generate random numbers with other than uniform distribution.

  14. The MIXMAX random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvidy, Konstantin G.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we study the randomness properties of unimodular matrix random number generators. Under well-known conditions, these discrete-time dynamical systems have the highly desirable K-mixing properties which guarantee high quality random numbers. It is found that some widely used random number generators have poor Kolmogorov entropy and consequently fail in empirical tests of randomness. These tests show that the lowest acceptable value of the Kolmogorov entropy is around 50. Next, we provide a solution to the problem of determining the maximal period of unimodular matrix generators of pseudo-random numbers. We formulate the necessary and sufficient condition to attain the maximum period and present a family of specific generators in the MIXMAX family with superior performance and excellent statistical properties. Finally, we construct three efficient algorithms for operations with the MIXMAX matrix which is a multi-dimensional generalization of the famous cat-map. First, allowing to compute the multiplication by the MIXMAX matrix with O(N) operations. Second, to recursively compute its characteristic polynomial with O(N2) operations, and third, to apply skips of large number of steps S to the sequence in O(N2 log(S)) operations.

  15. Pseudo-Random Number Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, L. W.; Rheinfurth, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    Package features comprehensive selection of probabilistic distributions. Monte Carlo simulations resorted to whenever systems studied not amenable to deterministic analyses or when direct experimentation not feasible. Random numbers having certain specified distribution characteristic integral part of simulations. Package consists of collector of "pseudorandom" number generators for use in Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Random Generators and Normal Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, David H.; Crandall, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    Pursuant to the authors' previous chaotic-dynamical model for random digits of fundamental constants, we investigate a complementary, statistical picture in which pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) are central. Some rigorous results are achieved: We establish b-normality for constants of the form $\\sum_i 1/(b^{m_i} c^{n_i})$ for certain sequences $(m_i), (n_i)$ of integers. This work unifies and extends previously known classes of explicit normals. We prove that for coprime $b,c>1$ the...

  17. On Random Numbers and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Morechai

    2004-01-01

    The term "random" is frequently used in discussion of the theory of evolution, even though the mathematical concept of randomness is problematic and of little relevance in the theory. Therefore, since the core concept of the theory of evolution is the non-random process of natural selection, the term random should not be used in teaching the…

  18. Fast integration using quasi-random numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, J.; Feindt, M.; Kerzel, U.

    2006-01-01

    Quasi-random numbers are specially constructed series of numbers optimised to evenly sample a given s-dimensional volume. Using quasi-random numbers in numerical integration converges faster with a higher accuracy compared to the case of pseudo-random numbers. The basic properties of quasi-random numbers are introduced, various generators are discussed and the achieved gain is illustrated by examples

  19. Fast integration using quasi-random numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, J.; Feindt, M.; Kerzel, U.

    2006-04-01

    Quasi-random numbers are specially constructed series of numbers optimised to evenly sample a given s-dimensional volume. Using quasi-random numbers in numerical integration converges faster with a higher accuracy compared to the case of pseudo-random numbers. The basic properties of quasi-random numbers are introduced, various generators are discussed and the achieved gain is illustrated by examples.

  20. Self-correcting random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble, Travis S.; Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-09-06

    A system and method for generating random numbers. The system may include a random number generator (RNG), such as a quantum random number generator (QRNG) configured to self-correct or adapt in order to substantially achieve randomness from the output of the RNG. By adapting, the RNG may generate a random number that may be considered random regardless of whether the random number itself is tested as such. As an example, the RNG may include components to monitor one or more characteristics of the RNG during operation, and may use the monitored characteristics as a basis for adapting, or self-correcting, to provide a random number according to one or more performance criteria.

  1. Analysis of android random number generator

    OpenAIRE

    Sarıtaş, Serkan

    2013-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Computer Engineering and the Graduate School of Engineering and Science of Bilkent University, 2013. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2013. Includes bibliographical references leaves 61-65. Randomness is a crucial resource for cryptography, and random number generators are critical building blocks of almost all cryptographic systems. Therefore, random number generation is one of the key parts of secure communication. Random number generatio...

  2. Generation of pseudo-random numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, L. W.; Rheinfurth, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    Practical methods for generating acceptable random numbers from a variety of probability distributions which are frequently encountered in engineering applications are described. The speed, accuracy, and guarantee of statistical randomness of the various methods are discussed.

  3. Microcomputer-Assisted Discoveries: Random Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberling, Clark

    1983-01-01

    A programing contest was designed to promote interest in mathematical randomness. Student-developed programs making clever uses of random numbers are presented. Modifications users might make are suggested. (MNS)

  4. Quality pseudo-random number generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasiuk, J.

    1996-01-01

    The pseudo-random number generator (RNG) was written to match needs of nuclear and high-energy physics computation which in some cases require very long and independent random number sequences. In this random number generator the repetition period is about 10 36 what should be sufficient for all computers in the world. In this article the test results of RNG correlation, speed and identity of computations for PC, Sun4 and VAX computer tests are presented

  5. The RANDOM computer program: A linear congruential random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, R. F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The RANDOM Computer Program is a FORTRAN program for generating random number sequences and testing linear congruential random number generators (LCGs). The linear congruential form of random number generator is discussed, and the selection of parameters of an LCG for a microcomputer described. This document describes the following: (1) The RANDOM Computer Program; (2) RANDOM.MOD, the computer code needed to implement an LCG in a FORTRAN program; and (3) The RANCYCLE and the ARITH Computer Programs that provide computational assistance in the selection of parameters for an LCG. The RANDOM, RANCYCLE, and ARITH Computer Programs are written in Microsoft FORTRAN for the IBM PC microcomputer and its compatibles. With only minor modifications, the RANDOM Computer Program and its LCG can be run on most micromputers or mainframe computers.

  6. All-optical fast random number generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Wang, Yun-Cai; Zhang, Jian-Zhong

    2010-09-13

    We propose a scheme of all-optical random number generator (RNG), which consists of an ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB) chaotic laser, an all-optical sampler and an all-optical comparator. Free from the electric-device bandwidth, it can generate 10Gbit/s random numbers in our simulation. The high-speed bit sequences can pass standard statistical tests for randomness after all-optical exclusive-or (XOR) operation.

  7. Source-Independent Quantum Random Number Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhu; Zhou, Hongyi; Yuan, Xiao; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-01-01

    Quantum random number generators can provide genuine randomness by appealing to the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. In general, a physical generator contains two parts—a randomness source and its readout. The source is essential to the quality of the resulting random numbers; hence, it needs to be carefully calibrated and modeled to achieve information-theoretical provable randomness. However, in practice, the source is a complicated physical system, such as a light source or an atomic ensemble, and any deviations in the real-life implementation from the theoretical model may affect the randomness of the output. To close this gap, we propose a source-independent scheme for quantum random number generation in which output randomness can be certified, even when the source is uncharacterized and untrusted. In our randomness analysis, we make no assumptions about the dimension of the source. For instance, multiphoton emissions are allowed in optical implementations. Our analysis takes into account the finite-key effect with the composable security definition. In the limit of large data size, the length of the input random seed is exponentially small compared to that of the output random bit. In addition, by modifying a quantum key distribution system, we experimentally demonstrate our scheme and achieve a randomness generation rate of over 5 ×103 bit /s .

  8. Source-Independent Quantum Random Number Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Cao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantum random number generators can provide genuine randomness by appealing to the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. In general, a physical generator contains two parts—a randomness source and its readout. The source is essential to the quality of the resulting random numbers; hence, it needs to be carefully calibrated and modeled to achieve information-theoretical provable randomness. However, in practice, the source is a complicated physical system, such as a light source or an atomic ensemble, and any deviations in the real-life implementation from the theoretical model may affect the randomness of the output. To close this gap, we propose a source-independent scheme for quantum random number generation in which output randomness can be certified, even when the source is uncharacterized and untrusted. In our randomness analysis, we make no assumptions about the dimension of the source. For instance, multiphoton emissions are allowed in optical implementations. Our analysis takes into account the finite-key effect with the composable security definition. In the limit of large data size, the length of the input random seed is exponentially small compared to that of the output random bit. In addition, by modifying a quantum key distribution system, we experimentally demonstrate our scheme and achieve a randomness generation rate of over 5×10^{3}  bit/s.

  9. True random numbers from amplified quantum vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofre, M; Curty, M; Steinlechner, F; Anzolin, G; Torres, J P; Mitchell, M W; Pruneri, V

    2011-10-10

    Random numbers are essential for applications ranging from secure communications to numerical simulation and quantitative finance. Algorithms can rapidly produce pseudo-random outcomes, series of numbers that mimic most properties of true random numbers while quantum random number generators (QRNGs) exploit intrinsic quantum randomness to produce true random numbers. Single-photon QRNGs are conceptually simple but produce few random bits per detection. In contrast, vacuum fluctuations are a vast resource for QRNGs: they are broad-band and thus can encode many random bits per second. Direct recording of vacuum fluctuations is possible, but requires shot-noise-limited detectors, at the cost of bandwidth. We demonstrate efficient conversion of vacuum fluctuations to true random bits using optical amplification of vacuum and interferometry. Using commercially-available optical components we demonstrate a QRNG at a bit rate of 1.11 Gbps. The proposed scheme has the potential to be extended to 10 Gbps and even up to 100 Gbps by taking advantage of high speed modulation sources and detectors for optical fiber telecommunication devices.

  10. Using Random Numbers in Science Research Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the importance of science process skills and describes ways to select sets of random numbers for selection of subjects for a research study in an unbiased manner. Presents an activity appropriate for grades 5-12. (JRH)

  11. Random numbers spring from alpha decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigerio, N.A.; Sanathanan, L.P.; Morley, M.; Clark, N.A.; Tyler, S.A.

    1980-05-01

    Congruential random number generators, which are widely used in Monte Carlo simulations, are deficient in that the number they generate are concentrated in a relatively small number of hyperplanes. While this deficiency may not be a limitation in small Monte Carlo studies involving a few variables, it introduces a significant bias in large simulations requiring high resolution. This bias was recognized and assessed during preparations for an accident analysis study of nuclear power plants. This report describes a random number device based on the radioactive decay of alpha particles from a 235 U source in a high-resolution gas proportional counter. The signals were fed to a 4096-channel analyzer and for each channel the frequency of signals registered in a 20,000-microsecond interval was recorded. The parity bits of these frequency counts (0 for an even count and 1 for an odd count) were then assembled in sequence to form 31-bit binary random numbers and transcribed to a magnetic tape. This cycle was repeated as many times as were necessary to create 3 million random numbers. The frequency distribution of counts from the present device conforms to the Brockwell-Moyal distribution, which takes into account the dead time of the counter (both the dead time and decay constant of the underlying Poisson process were estimated). Analysis of the count data and tests of randomness on a sample set of the 31-bit binary numbers indicate that this random number device is a highly reliable source of truly random numbers. Its use is, therefore, recommended in Monte Carlo simulations for which the congruential pseudorandom number generators are found to be inadequate. 6 figures, 5 tables

  12. How random are random numbers generated using photons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, Aldo; Angulo Martínez, Alí M; Ramírez Alarcón, Roberto; Cruz Ramírez, Hector; U’Ren, Alfred B; Hirsch, Jorge G

    2015-01-01

    Randomness is fundamental in quantum theory, with many philosophical and practical implications. In this paper we discuss the concept of algorithmic randomness, which provides a quantitative method to assess the Borel normality of a given sequence of numbers, a necessary condition for it to be considered random. We use Borel normality as a tool to investigate the randomness of ten sequences of bits generated from the differences between detection times of photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric downconversion. These sequences are shown to fulfil the randomness criteria without difficulties. As deviations from Borel normality for photon-generated random number sequences have been reported in previous work, a strategy to understand these diverging findings is outlined. (paper)

  13. On contact numbers in random rod packings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.; Luding, Stefan; Philipse, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Random packings of non-spherical granular particles are simulated by combining mechanical contraction and molecular dynamics, to determine contact numbers as a function of density. Particle shapes are varied from spheres to thin rods. The observed contact numbers (and packing densities) agree well

  14. Random walk of the baryon number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazaryan, A.M.; Khlebnikov, S.Y.; Shaposhnikov, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    A new approach is suggested for the anomalous nonconservation of baryon number in the electroweak theory at high temperatures. Arguments are presented in support of the idea that the baryon-number changing reactions may be viewed as random Markov processes. Making use of the general theory of Markov processes, the Fokker--Planck equation for the baryon-number distribution density is obtained and kinetic coefficients are calculated

  15. Statistical analysis of random pulse trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Costa, G.

    1977-02-01

    Some experimental and theoretical results concerning the statistical properties of optical beams formed by a finite number of independent pulses are presented. The considered waves (corresponding to each pulse) present important spatial variations of the illumination distribution in a cross-section of the beam, due to the time-varying random refractive index distribution in the active medium. Some examples of this kind of emission are: (a) Free-running ruby laser emission; (b) Mode-locked pulse trains; (c) Randomly excited nonlinear media

  16. Random Number Generation for High Performance Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    number streams, a quality metric for the parallel random number streams. * * * * * Atty. Dkt . No.: 5660-14400 Customer No. 35690 Eric B. Meyertons...responsibility to ensure timely payment of maintenance fees when due. Pagel of3 PTOL-85 (Rev. 02/11) Atty. Dkt . No.: 5660-14400 Page 1 Meyertons...with each subtask executed by a separate thread or process (henceforth, process). Each process has Atty. Dkt . No.: 5660-14400 Page 2 Meyertons

  17. Learning Random Numbers: A Matlab Anomaly

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Savický, Petr; Robnik-Šikonja, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2008), s. 254-265 ISSN 0883-9514 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : random number s * machine learning * classification * attribute evaluation * regression Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.795, year: 2008

  18. Standard random number generation for MBASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    A machine-independent algorithm is presented and analyzed for generating pseudorandom numbers suitable for the standard MBASIC system. The algorithm used is the polynomial congruential or linear recurrence modulo 2 method. Numbers, formed as nonoverlapping adjacent 28-bit words taken from the bit stream produced by the formula a sub m + 532 = a sub m + 37 + a sub m (modulo 2), do not repeat within the projected age of the solar system, show no ensemble correlation, exhibit uniform distribution of adjacent numbers up to 19 dimensions, and do not deviate from random runs-up and runs-down behavior.

  19. Motzkin numbers out of Random Domino Automaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Białecki, Mariusz, E-mail: bialecki@igf.edu.pl [Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Ks. Janusza 64, 01-452 Warszawa (Poland)

    2012-10-01

    Motzkin numbers are derived from a special case of Random Domino Automaton – recently proposed a slowly driven system being a stochastic toy model of earthquakes. It is also a generalisation of 1D Drossel–Schwabl forest-fire model. A solution of the set of equations describing stationary state of Random Domino Automaton in inverse-power case is presented. A link with Motzkin numbers allows to present explicit form of asymptotic behaviour of the automaton. -- Highlights: ► Motzkin numbers are derived from stochastic cellular automaton with avalanches. ► Explicit solution of toy model of earthquakes is presented. ► Case with inverse-power distribution of avalanches is found.

  20. Quantifiers for randomness of chaotic pseudo-random number generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, L; Larrondo, H A; Plastino, A; Rosso, O A

    2009-08-28

    We deal with randomness quantifiers and concentrate on their ability to discern the hallmark of chaos in time series used in connection with pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs). Workers in the field are motivated to use chaotic maps for generating PRNGs because of the simplicity of their implementation. Although there exist very efficient general-purpose benchmarks for testing PRNGs, we feel that the analysis provided here sheds additional didactic light on the importance of the main statistical characteristics of a chaotic map, namely (i) its invariant measure and (ii) the mixing constant. This is of help in answering two questions that arise in applications: (i) which is the best PRNG among the available ones? and (ii) if a given PRNG turns out not to be good enough and a randomization procedure must still be applied to it, which is the best applicable randomization procedure? Our answer provides a comparative analysis of several quantifiers advanced in the extant literature.

  1. Unbiased All-Optical Random-Number Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinle, Tobias; Greiner, Johannes N.; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Giessen, Harald; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2017-10-01

    The generation of random bits is of enormous importance in modern information science. Cryptographic security is based on random numbers which require a physical process for their generation. This is commonly performed by hardware random-number generators. These often exhibit a number of problems, namely experimental bias, memory in the system, and other technical subtleties, which reduce the reliability in the entropy estimation. Further, the generated outcome has to be postprocessed to "iron out" such spurious effects. Here, we present a purely optical randomness generator, based on the bistable output of an optical parametric oscillator. Detector noise plays no role and postprocessing is reduced to a minimum. Upon entering the bistable regime, initially the resulting output phase depends on vacuum fluctuations. Later, the phase is rigidly locked and can be well determined versus a pulse train, which is derived from the pump laser. This delivers an ambiguity-free output, which is reliably detected and associated with a binary outcome. The resulting random bit stream resembles a perfect coin toss and passes all relevant randomness measures. The random nature of the generated binary outcome is furthermore confirmed by an analysis of resulting conditional entropies.

  2. Efficient Training Methods for Conditional Random Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutton, Charles A

    2008-01-01

    .... In this thesis, I investigate efficient training methods for conditional random fields with complex graphical structure, focusing on local methods which avoid propagating information globally along the graph...

  3. Language and number: a bilingual training study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelke, E S; Tsivkin, S

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the role of a specific language in human representations of number. Russian-English bilingual college students were taught new numerical operations (Experiment 1), new arithmetic equations (Experiments 1 and 2), or new geographical or historical facts involving numerical or non-numerical information (Experiment 3). After learning a set of items in each of their two languages, subjects were tested for knowledge of those items, and new items, in both languages. In all the studies, subjects retrieved information about exact numbers more effectively in the language of training, and they solved trained problems more effectively than untrained problems. In contrast, subjects retrieved information about approximate numbers and non-numerical facts with equal efficiency in their two languages, and their training on approximate number facts generalized to new facts of the same type. These findings suggest that a specific, natural language contributes to the representation of large, exact numbers but not to the approximate number representations that humans share with other mammals. Language appears to play a role in learning about exact numbers in a variety of contexts, a finding with implications for practice in bilingual education. The findings prompt more general speculations about the role of language in the development of specifically human cognitive abilities.

  4. ComOn Coaching: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of a varied number of coaching sessions on transfer into clinical practice following communication skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niglio de Figueiredo, Marcelo; Rudolph, Bärbel; Rodolph, Bärbel; Bylund, Carma L; Goelz, Tanja; Heußner, Pia; Sattel, Heribert; Fritzsche, Kurt; Wuensch, Alexander

    2015-07-07

    Communication skills training has proven to be an effective means to enhance communication of health care professionals in oncology. These effects are well studied in standardized settings. The question of transferring these skills into clinical consultations remains open. We build up on a previous developed training concept consisting of a workshop and coaching. This training achieved a medium effect size in two studies with standardized patients. In the current study, we expanded and manualized the coaching concept, and we will evaluate effects of a varied number of coaching sessions on real clinical consultations. Our aim is to determine how much coaching oncologists need to transfer communication skills into clinical practice. Physicians of two German medical centers will participate in a workshop for communication skills and will be randomized to either a group with one coaching session or a group with four coaching sessions following the workshop. The participation is voluntary and the physicians will receive medical education points. Consultations held by the participating physicians with actual patients who gave their informed consent will be filmed at three time points. These consultations will be evaluated by blinded raters using a checklist based on the training content (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes will be the self-evaluated communication competence by physicians and an evaluation of the consultations by both physicians and patients. We will evaluate our communication training concept on three levels - rater, physician and patient - and concentrate on the transfer of communication skills into real life situations. As we emphasize the external validity in this study design, limitations will be expected due to heterogeneity of data. With this study we aim to gain data on how to improve communication skills training that will result in better patient outcomes. German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004385 .

  5. Random Numbers and Monte Carlo Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Philipp O. J.

    Many-body problems often involve the calculation of integrals of very high dimension which cannot be treated by standard methods. For the calculation of thermodynamic averages Monte Carlo methods are very useful which sample the integration volume at randomly chosen points. After summarizing some basic statistics, we discuss algorithms for the generation of pseudo-random numbers with given probability distribution which are essential for all Monte Carlo methods. We show how the efficiency of Monte Carlo integration can be improved by sampling preferentially the important configurations. Finally the famous Metropolis algorithm is applied to classical many-particle systems. Computer experiments visualize the central limit theorem and apply the Metropolis method to the traveling salesman problem.

  6. Astronomical random numbers for quantum foundations experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Calvin; Brown, Amy; Nguyen, Hien; Friedman, Andrew S.; Kaiser, David I.; Gallicchio, Jason

    2018-04-01

    Photons from distant astronomical sources can be used as a classical source of randomness to improve fundamental tests of quantum nonlocality, wave-particle duality, and local realism through Bell's inequality and delayed-choice quantum eraser tests inspired by Wheeler's cosmic-scale Mach-Zehnder interferometer gedanken experiment. Such sources of random numbers may also be useful for information-theoretic applications such as key distribution for quantum cryptography. Building on the design of an astronomical random number generator developed for the recent cosmic Bell experiment [Handsteiner et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 060401 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.060401], in this paper we report on the design and characterization of a device that, with 20-nanosecond latency, outputs a bit based on whether the wavelength of an incoming photon is greater than or less than ≈700 nm. Using the one-meter telescope at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Table Mountain Observatory, we generated random bits from astronomical photons in both color channels from 50 stars of varying color and magnitude, and from 12 quasars with redshifts up to z =3.9 . With stars, we achieved bit rates of ˜1 ×106Hz/m 2 , limited by saturation of our single-photon detectors, and with quasars of magnitudes between 12.9 and 16, we achieved rates between ˜102 and 2 ×103Hz /m2 . For bright quasars, the resulting bitstreams exhibit sufficiently low amounts of statistical predictability as quantified by the mutual information. In addition, a sufficiently high fraction of bits generated are of true astronomical origin in order to address both the locality and freedom-of-choice loopholes when used to set the measurement settings in a test of the Bell-CHSH inequality.

  7. Generation of Random Numbers and Parallel Random Number Streams for Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Barash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern methods and libraries for high quality pseudorandom number generation and for generation of parallel random number streams for Monte Carlo simulations are considered. The probability equidistribution property and the parameters when the property holds at dimensions up to logarithm of mesh size are considered for Multiple Recursive Generators.

  8. Application of quasi-random numbers for simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazachenko, O.N.; Takhtamyshev, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    Application of the Monte-Carlo method for multidimensional integration is discussed. The main goal is to check the statement that the application of quasi-random numbers instead of regular pseudo-random numbers provides more rapid convergency. The Sobol, Richtmayer and Halton algorithms of quasi-random sequences are described. Over 50 tests to compare these quasi-random numbers as well as pseudo-random numbers were fulfilled. In all cases quasi-random numbers have clearly demonstrated a more rapid convergency as compared with pseudo-random ones. Positive test results on quasi-random trend in Monte-Carlo method seem very promising

  9. Long period pseudo random number sequence generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Charles C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A circuit for generating a sequence of pseudo random numbers, (A sub K). There is an exponentiator in GF(2 sup m) for the normal basis representation of elements in a finite field GF(2 sup m) each represented by m binary digits and having two inputs and an output from which the sequence (A sub K). Of pseudo random numbers is taken. One of the two inputs is connected to receive the outputs (E sub K) of maximal length shift register of n stages. There is a switch having a pair of inputs and an output. The switch outputs is connected to the other of the two inputs of the exponentiator. One of the switch inputs is connected for initially receiving a primitive element (A sub O) in GF(2 sup m). Finally, there is a delay circuit having an input and an output. The delay circuit output is connected to the other of the switch inputs and the delay circuit input is connected to the output of the exponentiator. Whereby after the exponentiator initially receives the primitive element (A sub O) in GF(2 sup m) through the switch, the switch can be switched to cause the exponentiator to receive as its input a delayed output A(K-1) from the exponentiator thereby generating (A sub K) continuously at the output of the exponentiator. The exponentiator in GF(2 sup m) is novel and comprises a cyclic-shift circuit; a Massey-Omura multiplier; and, a control logic circuit all operably connected together to perform the function U(sub i) = 92(sup i) (for n(sub i) = 1 or 1 (for n(subi) = 0).

  10. A Method of Erasing Data Using Random Number Generators

    OpenAIRE

    井上,正人

    2012-01-01

    Erasing data is an indispensable step for disposal of computers or external storage media. Except physical destruction, erasing data means writing random information on entire disk drives or media. We propose a method which erases data safely using random number generators. These random number generators create true random numbers based on quantum processes.

  11. A random number generator for continuous random variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, V. M.; Tapia, R. A.; Thompson, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    A FORTRAN 4 routine is given which may be used to generate random observations of a continuous real valued random variable. Normal distribution of F(x), X, E(akimas), and E(linear) is presented in tabular form.

  12. Testing, Selection, and Implementation of Random Number Generators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collins, Joseph C

    2008-01-01

    An exhaustive evaluation of state-of-the-art random number generators with several well-known suites of tests provides the basis for selection of suitable random number generators for use in stochastic simulations...

  13. Graphical analysis of some pseudo-random number generators

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Peter A. W.

    1986-01-01

    There exist today many 'good' pseudo-random number generators; the problem is to retrieve them. This document discusses three commonly used pseudo- random number generators, the first being RANDU, a notoriously bad generator, but one which is still occasionally used. The next is the widely used prime modulus, multiplicative congruential generator used in LL-RANDOMII, the Naval Postgraduate School random number package, and the last is the random number generator provided for microcomputers wi...

  14. Extracting random numbers from quantum tunnelling through a single diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo-Gavito, Ramón; Bagci, Ibrahim Ethem; Roberts, Jonathan; Sexton, James; Astbury, Benjamin; Shokeir, Hamzah; McGrath, Thomas; Noori, Yasir J; Woodhead, Christopher S; Missous, Mohamed; Roedig, Utz; Young, Robert J

    2017-12-19

    Random number generation is crucial in many aspects of everyday life, as online security and privacy depend ultimately on the quality of random numbers. Many current implementations are based on pseudo-random number generators, but information security requires true random numbers for sensitive applications like key generation in banking, defence or even social media. True random number generators are systems whose outputs cannot be determined, even if their internal structure and response history are known. Sources of quantum noise are thus ideal for this application due to their intrinsic uncertainty. In this work, we propose using resonant tunnelling diodes as practical true random number generators based on a quantum mechanical effect. The output of the proposed devices can be directly used as a random stream of bits or can be further distilled using randomness extraction algorithms, depending on the application.

  15. Pseudo-random number generator based on asymptotic deterministic randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Pei, Wenjiang; Xia, Haishan; Cheung, Yiu-ming

    2008-06-01

    A novel approach to generate the pseudorandom-bit sequence from the asymptotic deterministic randomness system is proposed in this Letter. We study the characteristic of multi-value correspondence of the asymptotic deterministic randomness constructed by the piecewise linear map and the noninvertible nonlinearity transform, and then give the discretized systems in the finite digitized state space. The statistic characteristics of the asymptotic deterministic randomness are investigated numerically, such as stationary probability density function and random-like behavior. Furthermore, we analyze the dynamics of the symbolic sequence. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the symbolic sequence of the asymptotic deterministic randomness possesses very good cryptographic properties, which improve the security of chaos based PRBGs and increase the resistance against entropy attacks and symbolic dynamics attacks.

  16. Pseudo-random number generator based on asymptotic deterministic randomness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kai; Pei Wenjiang; Xia Haishan; Cheung Yiuming

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach to generate the pseudorandom-bit sequence from the asymptotic deterministic randomness system is proposed in this Letter. We study the characteristic of multi-value correspondence of the asymptotic deterministic randomness constructed by the piecewise linear map and the noninvertible nonlinearity transform, and then give the discretized systems in the finite digitized state space. The statistic characteristics of the asymptotic deterministic randomness are investigated numerically, such as stationary probability density function and random-like behavior. Furthermore, we analyze the dynamics of the symbolic sequence. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the symbolic sequence of the asymptotic deterministic randomness possesses very good cryptographic properties, which improve the security of chaos based PRBGs and increase the resistance against entropy attacks and symbolic dynamics attacks

  17. Towards a high-speed quantum random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Damien; Burri, Samuel; Charbon, Edoardo; Chunnilall, Christopher; Meneghetti, Alessio; Regazzoni, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    Randomness is of fundamental importance in various fields, such as cryptography, numerical simulations, or the gaming industry. Quantum physics, which is fundamentally probabilistic, is the best option for a physical random number generator. In this article, we will present the work carried out in various projects in the context of the development of a commercial and certified high speed random number generator.

  18. Evidence of significant bias in an elementary random number generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgwaldt, H.; Brandl, V.

    1981-03-01

    An elementary pseudo random number generator for isotropically distributed unit vectors in 3-dimensional space has ben tested for bias. This generator uses the IBM-suplied routine RANDU and a transparent rejection technique. The tests show clearly that non-randomness in the pseudo random numbers generated by the primary IBM generator leads to bias in the order of 1 percent in estimates obtained from the secondary random number generator. FORTRAN listings of 4 variants of the random number generator called by a simple test programme and output listings are included for direct reference. (orig.) [de

  19. Pseudo-Random Number Generator Based on Coupled Map Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Huaping; Wang, Shihong; Hu, Gang

    A one-way coupled chaotic map lattice is used for generating pseudo-random numbers. It is shown that with suitable cooperative applications of both chaotic and conventional approaches, the output of the spatiotemporally chaotic system can easily meet the practical requirements of random numbers, i.e., excellent random statistical properties, long periodicity of computer realizations, and fast speed of random number generations. This pseudo-random number generator system can be used as ideal synchronous and self-synchronizing stream cipher systems for secure communications.

  20. An integrable low-cost hardware random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Damith C.; Lim, Daihyun; Devadas, Srinivas; Jamali, Behnam; Zhu, Zheng; Cole, Peter H.

    2005-02-01

    A hardware random number generator is different from a pseudo-random number generator; a pseudo-random number generator approximates the assumed behavior of a real hardware random number generator. Simple pseudo random number generators suffices for most applications, however for demanding situations such as the generation of cryptographic keys, requires an efficient and a cost effective source of random numbers. Arbiter-based Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) proposed for physical authentication of ICs exploits statistical delay variation of wires and transistors across integrated circuits, as a result of process variations, to build a secret key unique to each IC. Experimental results and theoretical studies show that a sufficient amount of variation exits across IC"s. This variation enables each IC to be identified securely. It is possible to exploit the unreliability of these PUF responses to build a physical random number generator. There exists measurement noise, which comes from the instability of an arbiter when it is in a racing condition. There exist challenges whose responses are unpredictable. Without environmental variations, the responses of these challenges are random in repeated measurements. Compared to other physical random number generators, the PUF-based random number generators can be a compact and a low-power solution since the generator need only be turned on when required. A 64-stage PUF circuit costs less than 1000 gates and the circuit can be implemented using a standard IC manufacturing processes. In this paper we have presented a fast and an efficient random number generator, and analysed the quality of random numbers produced using an array of tests used by the National Institute of Standards and Technology to evaluate the randomness of random number generators designed for cryptographic applications.

  1. Program pseudo-random number generator for microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ososkov, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Program pseudo-random number generators (PNG) intended for the test of control equipment and communication channels are considered. In the case of 8-bit microcomputers it is necessary to assign 4 words of storage to allocate one random number. The proposed economical algorithms of the random number generation are based on the idea of the ''mixing'' of such quarters of the preceeding random number to obtain the next one. Test results of the PNG are displayed for two such generators. A FORTRAN variant of the PNG is presented along with a program realizing the PNG made on the base of the INTEL-8080 autocode

  2. Quantum random-number generator based on a photon-number-resolving detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Min; Wu, E; Liang Yan; Jian Yi; Wu Guang; Zeng Heping

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrated a high-efficiency quantum random number generator which takes inherent advantage of the photon number distribution randomness of a coherent light source. This scheme was realized by comparing the photon flux of consecutive pulses with a photon number resolving detector. The random bit generation rate could reach 2.4 MHz with a system clock of 6.0 MHz, corresponding to a random bit generation efficiency as high as 40%. The random number files passed all the stringent statistical tests.

  3. Pseudo-random number generator for the Sigma 5 computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    A technique is presented for developing a pseudo-random number generator based on the linear congruential form. The two numbers used for the generator are a prime number and a corresponding primitive root, where the prime is the largest prime number that can be accurately represented on a particular computer. The primitive root is selected by applying Marsaglia's lattice test. The technique presented was applied to write a random number program for the Sigma 5 computer. The new program, named S:RANDOM1, is judged to be superior to the older program named S:RANDOM. For applications requiring several independent random number generators, a table is included showing several acceptable primitive roots. The technique and programs described can be applied to any computer having word length different from that of the Sigma 5.

  4. Quantum random number generation for loophole-free Bell tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Morgan; Abellan, Carlos; Amaya, Waldimar

    2015-05-01

    We describe the generation of quantum random numbers at multi-Gbps rates, combined with real-time randomness extraction, to give very high purity random numbers based on quantum events at most tens of ns in the past. The system satisfies the stringent requirements of quantum non-locality tests that aim to close the timing loophole. We describe the generation mechanism using spontaneous-emission-driven phase diffusion in a semiconductor laser, digitization, and extraction by parity calculation using multi-GHz logic chips. We pay special attention to experimental proof of the quality of the random numbers and analysis of the randomness extraction. In contrast to widely-used models of randomness generators in the computer science literature, we argue that randomness generation by spontaneous emission can be extracted from a single source.

  5. A Repetition Test for Pseudo-Random Number Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Manuel; Gonnet, Gaston H.; Petersen, Wesley P.

    2017-01-01

    A new statistical test for uniform pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) is presented. The idea is that a sequence of pseudo-random numbers should have numbers reappear with a certain probability. The expectation time that a repetition occurs provides the metric for the test. For linear congruential generators (LCGs) failure can be shown theoretically. Empirical test results for a number of commonly used PRNGs are reported, showing that some PRNGs considered to have good statistical propert...

  6. A hybrid-type quantum random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai-Qiang, Ma; Wu, Zhu; Ke-Jin, Wei; Rui-Xue, Li; Hong-Wei, Liu

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a well-performing hybrid-type truly quantum random number generator based on the time interval between two independent single-photon detection signals, which is practical and intuitive, and generates the initial random number sources from a combination of multiple existing random number sources. A time-to-amplitude converter and multichannel analyzer are used for qualitative analysis to demonstrate that each and every step is random. Furthermore, a carefully designed data acquisition system is used to obtain a high-quality random sequence. Our scheme is simple and proves that the random number bit rate can be dramatically increased to satisfy practical requirements. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178010 and 11374042), the Fund of State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), China, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. bupt2014TS01).

  7. Semi-device-independent random-number expansion without entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongwei; Yin Zhenqiang; Wu Yuchun; Zou Xubo; Wang Shuang; Chen Wei; Guo Guangcan; Han Zhengfu

    2011-01-01

    By testing the classical correlation violation between two systems, true random numbers can be generated and certified without applying classical statistical method. In this work, we propose a true random-number expansion protocol without entanglement, where the randomness can be guaranteed only by the two-dimensional quantum witness violation. Furthermore, we only assume that the dimensionality of the system used in the protocol has a tight bound, and the whole protocol can be regarded as a semi-device-independent black-box scenario. Compared with the device-independent random-number expansion protocol based on entanglement, our protocol is much easier to implement and test.

  8. Microcomputer-Assisted Discoveries: Generate Your Own Random Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberling, Clark

    1984-01-01

    Having students try to generate their own random numbers can lead to much discovery learning as one tries to create 'patternlessness' from formulas. Developing an equidistribution test and runs test, plus other ideas for generating random numbers, is discussed, with computer programs given. (MNS)

  9. Generating random numbers by means of nonlinear dynamic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jiaqi; Hu, Haojie; Zhong, Juhua; Luo, Duanbin; Fang, Yi

    2018-07-01

    To introduce the randomness of a physical process to students, a chaotic pendulum experiment was opened in East China University of Science and Technology (ECUST) on the undergraduate level in the physics department. It was shown chaotic motion could be initiated through adjusting the operation of a chaotic pendulum. By using the data of the angular displacements of chaotic motion, random binary numerical arrays can be generated. To check the randomness of generated numerical arrays, the NIST Special Publication 800-20 method was adopted. As a result, it was found that all the random arrays which were generated by the chaotic motion could pass the validity criteria and some of them were even better than the quality of pseudo-random numbers generated by a computer. Through the experiments, it is demonstrated that chaotic pendulum can be used as an efficient mechanical facility in generating random numbers, and can be applied in teaching random motion to the students.

  10. Analysis of random number generators in abnormal usage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soucarros, M.

    2012-01-01

    Random numbers have been used through the ages for games of chance, more recently for secret codes and today they are necessary to the execution of computer programs. Random number generators have now evolved from simple dices to electronic circuits and algorithms. Accordingly, the ability to distinguish between random and non-random numbers has become more difficult. Furthermore, whereas in the past dices were loaded in order to increase winning chances, it is now possible to influence the outcome of random number generators. In consequence, this subject is still very much an issue and has recently made the headlines. Indeed, there was talks about the PS3 game console which generates constant random numbers and redundant distribution of secret keys on the internet. This thesis presents a study of several generators as well as different means to perturb them. It shows the inherent defects of their conceptions and possible consequences of their failure when they are embedded inside security components. Moreover, this work highlights problems yet to be solved concerning the testing of random numbers and the post-processing eliminating bias in these numbers distribution. (author) [fr

  11. RANDOMNUMBERS, Random Number Sequence Generated from Gas Ionisation Chamber Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigerio, N.A.; Sanathanan, L.P.; Morley, M.; Tyler, S.A.; Clark, N.A.; Wang, J.

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: RANDOM NUMBERS is a data collection of almost 2.7 million 31-bit random numbers generated by using a high resolution gas ionization detector chamber in conjunction with a 4096-channel multichannel analyzer to record the radioactive decay of alpha particles from a U-235 source. The signals from the decaying alpha particles were fed to the 4096-channel analyzer, and for each channel the frequency of signals registered in a 20,000-microsecond interval was recorded. The parity bits of these frequency counts, 0 for an even count and 1 for and odd count, were then assembled in sequence to form 31-bit random numbers and transcribed onto magnetic tape. This cycle was repeated to obtain the random numbers. 2 - Method of solution: The frequency distribution of counts from the device conforms to the Brockwell-Moyal distribution which takes into account the dead time of the counter. The count data were analyzed and tests for randomness on a sample indicate that the device is a highly reliable source of truly random numbers. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The RANDOM NUMBERS tape contains 2,669,568 31-bit numbers

  12. Parallel random number generator for inexpensive configurable hardware cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, J.; Tangen, U.; Bödekker, B.; Breyer, J.; Stoll, E.; McCaskill, J. S.

    2001-11-01

    A new random number generator ( RNG) adapted to parallel processors has been created. This RNG can be implemented with inexpensive hardware cells. The correlation between neighboring cells is suppressed with smart connections. With such connection structures, sequences of pseudo-random numbers are produced. Numerical tests including a self-avoiding random walk test and the simulation of the order parameter and energy of the 2D Ising model give no evidence for correlation in the pseudo-random sequences. Because the new random number generator has suppressed the correlation between neighboring cells which is usually observed in cellular automaton implementations, it is applicable for extended time simulations. It gives an immense speed-up factor if implemented directly in configurable hardware, and has recently been used for long time simulations of spatially resolved molecular evolution.

  13. A pseudo-random number generator and its spectral test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lai

    1998-01-01

    The author introduces a pseudo-random number generator and describes its algorithm and C language implementation. The performance of the generator is tested and compared with some well known LCG generators

  14. Hardware implementation of a GFSR pseudo-random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, G. R.; Budinich, M.; Milotti, E.

    1989-12-01

    We describe the hardware implementation of a pseudo-random number generator of the "Generalized Feedback Shift Register" (GFSR) type. After brief theoretical considerations we describe two versions of the hardware, the tests done and the performances achieved.

  15. Random number generation based on digital differential chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fully digital differential chaos based random number generator. The output of the digital circuit is proved to be chaotic by calculating the output time series maximum Lyapunov exponent. We introduce a new post processing

  16. Correlations of pseudo-random numbers of multiplicative sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukin, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    An algorithm is suggested for searching with a computer in unit n-dimensional cube the sets of planes where all the points fall whose coordinates are composed of n successive pseudo-random numbers of multiplicative sequence. This effect should be taken into account in Monte-Carlo calculations with definite constructive dimension. The parameters of these planes are obtained for three random number generators. 2 refs.; 2 tabs

  17. Recoverable Random Numbers in an Internet of Things Operating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeill Yoo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, several security issues with Linux Random Number Generator (LRNG on PCs and Androids have emerged. The main problem involves the process of entropy harvesting, particularly at boot time. An entropy source in the input pool of LRNG is not transferred into the non-blocking output pool if the entropy counter of the input pool is less than 192 bits out of 4098 bits. Because the entropy estimation of LRNG is highly conservative, the process may require more than one minute for starting the transfer. Furthermore, the design principle of the estimation algorithm is not only heuristic but also unclear. Recently, Google released an Internet of Things (IoT operating system called Brillo based on the Linux kernel. We analyze the behavior of the random number generator in Brillo, which inherits that of LRNG. In the results, we identify two features that enable recovery of random numbers. With these features, we demonstrate that random numbers of 700 bytes at boot time can be recovered with the success probability of 90% by using time complexity for 5.20 × 2 40 trials. Therefore, the entropy of random numbers of 700 bytes is merely about 43 bits. Since the initial random numbers are supposed to be used for sensitive security parameters, such as stack canary and key derivation, our observation can be applied to practical attacks against cryptosystem.

  18. Superparamagnetic perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions for true random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Bradley; Bapna, Mukund; Igbokwe, Julianne; Almasi, Hamid; Wang, Weigang; Majetich, Sara A.

    2018-05-01

    Superparamagnetic perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions are fabricated and analyzed for use in random number generators. Time-resolved resistance measurements are used as streams of bits in statistical tests for randomness. Voltage control of the thermal stability enables tuning the average speed of random bit generation up to 70 kHz in a 60 nm diameter device. In its most efficient operating mode, the device generates random bits at an energy cost of 600 fJ/bit. A narrow range of magnetic field tunes the probability of a given state from 0 to 1, offering a means of probabilistic computing.

  19. The intermittency of vector fields and random-number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, A. O.; Sokoloff, D. D.; Tutubalin, V. N.

    2017-09-01

    We examine how well natural random-number generators can reproduce the intermittency phenomena that arise in the transfer of vector fields in random media. A generator based on the analysis of financial indices is suggested as the most promising random-number generator. Is it shown that even this generator, however, fails to reproduce the phenomenon long enough to confidently detect intermittency, while the C++ generator successfully solves this problem. We discuss the prospects of using shell models of turbulence as the desired generator.

  20. On the number of spanning trees in random regular graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenhill, Catherine; Kwan, Matthew; Wind, David Kofoed

    2014-01-01

    Let d >= 3 be a fixed integer. We give an asympotic formula for the expected number of spanning trees in a uniformly random d-regular graph with n vertices. (The asymptotics are as n -> infinity, restricted to even n if d is odd.) We also obtain the asymptotic distribution of the number of spanning...

  1. A fast random number generator for the Intel Paragon supercomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutbrod, F.

    1995-06-01

    A pseudo-random number generator is presented which makes optimal use of the architecture of the i860-microprocessor and which is expected to have a very long period. It is therefore a good candidate for use on the parallel supercomputer Paragon XP. In the assembler version, it needs 6.4 cycles for a real∗4 random number. There is a FORTRAN routine which yields identical numbers up to rare and minor rounding discrepancies, and it needs 28 cycles. The FORTRAN performance on other microprocessors is somewhat better. Arguments for the quality of the generator and some numerical tests are given.

  2. Search for a perfect generator of random numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musyck, E.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical tests have been carried out by COVEYOU and MAC PHERSON to verify the applications of the LEHMER algorithm. In a similar way, a theoretical method is proposed to evaluate in a rigorous way the random character of numbers generated by a shift register. This theory introduces the concept of ''degree of randomness'' of the elements, taken in a definite order, of a shift register. It permits making the judicious choice of the elements of the shift register which will produce the bits of the random numbers. On the other hand, a calculation method is developed in order to verify the primitive character of any shift register of high complexity. A new test, called ''slice test'', of empirical and theoretical use is also described; it constitutes a significant contribution to the understanding of certain properties of pseudo-random sequences. As a practical example, a random number generator structure formed with 32 bits, built out of a shift register with 61 elements and 60 modulo-2 adder circuits was made. The author is convinced that this generator can be considered to be practically perfect for all empirical applications of random numbers, particularly for the solution of Monte-Carlo problems. (author)

  3. Brain potentials index executive functions during random number generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppich, Gregor; Däuper, Jan; Dengler, Reinhard; Johannes, Sönke; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2004-06-01

    The generation of random sequences is considered to tax different executive functions. To explore the involvement of these functions further, brain potentials were recorded in 16 healthy young adults while either engaging in random number generation (RNG) by pressing the number keys on a computer keyboard in a random sequence or in ordered number generation (ONG) necessitating key presses in the canonical order. Key presses were paced by an external auditory stimulus to yield either fast (1 press/800 ms) or slow (1 press/1300 ms) sequences in separate runs. Attentional demands of random and ordered tasks were assessed by the introduction of a secondary task (key-press to a target tone). The P3 amplitude to the target tone of this secondary task was reduced during RNG, reflecting the greater consumption of attentional resources during RNG. Moreover, RNG led to a left frontal negativity peaking 140 ms after the onset of the pacing stimulus, whenever the subjects produced a true random response. This negativity could be attributed to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and was absent when numbers were repeated. This negativity was interpreted as an index for the inhibition of habitual responses. Finally, in response locked ERPs a negative component was apparent peaking about 50 ms after the key-press that was more prominent during RNG. Source localization suggested a medial frontal source. This effect was tentatively interpreted as a reflection of the greater monitoring demands during random sequence generation.

  4. Testing random number generators for Monte Carlo applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, L.H.

    1992-01-01

    Central to any system for modelling radiation transport phenomena using Monte Carlo techniques is the method by which pseudo random numbers are generated. This method is commonly referred to as the Random Number Generator (RNG). It is usually a computer implemented mathematical algorithm which produces a series of numbers uniformly distributed on the interval [0,1]. If this series satisfies certain statistical tests for randomness, then for practical purposes the pseudo random numbers in the series can be considered to be random. Tests of this nature are important not only for new RNGs but also to test the implementation of known RNG algorithms in different computer environments. Six RNGs have been tested using six statistical tests and one visual test. The statistical tests are the moments, frequency (digit and number), serial, gap, and poker tests. The visual test is a simple two dimensional ordered pair display. In addition the RNGs have been tested in a specific Monte Carlo application. This type of test is often overlooked, however it is important that in addition to satisfactory performance in statistical tests, the RNG be able to perform effectively in the applications of interest. The RNGs tested here are based on a variety of algorithms, including multiplicative and linear congruential, lagged Fibonacci, and combination arithmetic and lagged Fibonacci. The effect of the Bays-Durham shuffling algorithm on the output of a known bad RNG has also been investigated. 18 refs., 11 tabs., 4 figs. of

  5. GASPRNG: GPU accelerated scalable parallel random number generator library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuang; Peterson, Gregory D.

    2013-04-01

    Graphics processors represent a promising technology for accelerating computational science applications. Many computational science applications require fast and scalable random number generation with good statistical properties, so they use the Scalable Parallel Random Number Generators library (SPRNG). We present the GPU Accelerated SPRNG library (GASPRNG) to accelerate SPRNG in GPU-based high performance computing systems. GASPRNG includes code for a host CPU and CUDA code for execution on NVIDIA graphics processing units (GPUs) along with a programming interface to support various usage models for pseudorandom numbers and computational science applications executing on the CPU, GPU, or both. This paper describes the implementation approach used to produce high performance and also describes how to use the programming interface. The programming interface allows a user to be able to use GASPRNG the same way as SPRNG on traditional serial or parallel computers as well as to develop tightly coupled programs executing primarily on the GPU. We also describe how to install GASPRNG and use it. To help illustrate linking with GASPRNG, various demonstration codes are included for the different usage models. GASPRNG on a single GPU shows up to 280x speedup over SPRNG on a single CPU core and is able to scale for larger systems in the same manner as SPRNG. Because GASPRNG generates identical streams of pseudorandom numbers as SPRNG, users can be confident about the quality of GASPRNG for scalable computational science applications. Catalogue identifier: AEOI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOI_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: UTK license. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 167900 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1422058 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C and CUDA. Computer: Any PC or

  6. Ultrafast quantum random number generation based on quantum phase fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feihu; Qi, Bing; Ma, Xiongfeng; Xu, He; Zheng, Haoxuan; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2012-05-21

    A quantum random number generator (QRNG) can generate true randomness by exploiting the fundamental indeterminism of quantum mechanics. Most approaches to QRNG employ single-photon detection technologies and are limited in speed. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an ultrafast QRNG at a rate over 6 Gbits/s based on the quantum phase fluctuations of a laser operating near threshold. Moreover, we consider a potential adversary who has partial knowledge on the raw data and discuss how one can rigorously remove such partial knowledge with postprocessing. We quantify the quantum randomness through min-entropy by modeling our system and employ two randomness extractors--Trevisan's extractor and Toeplitz-hashing--to distill the randomness, which is information-theoretically provable. The simplicity and high-speed of our experimental setup show the feasibility of a robust, low-cost, high-speed QRNG.

  7. On the Periods of the {ranshi} Random Number Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutbrod, F.

    The stochastic properties of the pseudo-random number generator {ranshi} are discussed, with emphasis on the average period. Within a factor 2 this turns out to be the root of the maximally possible period. The actual set of periods depends on minor details of the algorithm, and the system settles down in one of only a few different cycles. These features are in perfect agreement with absolute random motion in phase space, to the extent allowed by deterministic dynamics.

  8. Simulation of a directed random-walk model: the effect of pseudo-random-number correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Shchur, L. N.; Heringa, J. R.; Blöte, H. W. J.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the mechanism that leads to systematic deviations in cluster Monte Carlo simulations when correlated pseudo-random numbers are used. We present a simple model, which enables an analysis of the effects due to correlations in several types of pseudo-random-number sequences. This model provides qualitative understanding of the bias mechanism in a class of cluster Monte Carlo algorithms.

  9. Study on random number generator in Monte Carlo code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Kentaro; Kitada, Takanori; Tanaka, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    The Monte Carlo code uses a sequence of pseudo-random numbers with a random number generator (RNG) to simulate particle histories. A pseudo-random number has its own period depending on its generation method and the period is desired to be long enough not to exceed the period during one Monte Carlo calculation to ensure the correctness especially for a standard deviation of results. The linear congruential generator (LCG) is widely used as Monte Carlo RNG and the period of LCG is not so long by considering the increasing rate of simulation histories in a Monte Carlo calculation according to the remarkable enhancement of computer performance. Recently, many kinds of RNG have been developed and some of their features are better than those of LCG. In this study, we investigate the appropriate RNG in a Monte Carlo code as an alternative to LCG especially for the case of enormous histories. It is found that xorshift has desirable features compared with LCG, and xorshift has a larger period, a comparable speed to generate random numbers, a better randomness, and good applicability to parallel calculation. (author)

  10. Accelerating Pseudo-Random Number Generator for MCNP on GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunye; Liu, Jie; Chi, Lihua; Hu, Qingfeng; Deng, Li; Gong, Zhenghu

    2010-09-01

    Pseudo-random number generators (PRNG) are intensively used in many stochastic algorithms in particle simulations, artificial neural networks and other scientific computation. The PRNG in Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) requires long period, high quality, flexible jump and fast enough. In this paper, we implement such a PRNG for MCNP on NVIDIA's GTX200 Graphics Processor Units (GPU) using CUDA programming model. Results shows that 3.80 to 8.10 times speedup are achieved compared with 4 to 6 cores CPUs and more than 679.18 million double precision random numbers can be generated per second on GPU.

  11. New Trends in Pseudo-Random Number Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutbrod, F.

    Properties of pseudo-random number generators are reviewed. The emphasis is on correlations between successive random numbers and their suppression by improvement steps. The generators under discussion are the linear congruential generators, lagged Fibonacci generators with various operations, and the improvement techniques combination, shuffling and decimation. The properties of the RANSHI generator are reviewed somewhat more extensively. The transition to 64-bit technology is discussed in several cases. The generators are subject to several tests, which look both for short range and for long range correlations. Some performance figures are given for a Pentium Pro PC. Recommendations are presented in the final chapter.

  12. Security of Semi-Device-Independent Random Number Expansion Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan-Dan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Yu-Kun; Zhou, Yu-Qian; Gao, Fei

    2015-10-27

    Semi-device-independent random number expansion (SDI-RNE) protocols require some truly random numbers to generate fresh ones, with making no assumptions on the internal working of quantum devices except for the dimension of the Hilbert space. The generated randomness is certified by non-classical correlation in the prepare-and-measure test. Until now, the analytical relations between the amount of the generated randomness and the degree of non-classical correlation, which are crucial for evaluating the security of SDI-RNE protocols, are not clear under both the ideal condition and the practical one. In the paper, first, we give the analytical relation between the above two factors under the ideal condition. As well, we derive the analytical relation under the practical conditions, where devices' behavior is not independent and identical in each round and there exists deviation in estimating the non-classical behavior of devices. Furthermore, we choose a different randomness extractor (i.e., two-universal random function) and give the security proof.

  13. Analysis of entropy extraction efficiencies in random number generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-05-01

    Random numbers (RNs) have applications in many areas: lottery games, gambling, computer simulation, and, most importantly, cryptography [N. Gisin et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 74 (2002) 145]. In cryptography theory, the theoretical security of the system calls for high quality RNs. Therefore, developing methods for producing unpredictable RNs with adequate speed is an attractive topic. Early on, despite the lack of theoretical support, pseudo RNs generated by algorithmic methods performed well and satisfied reasonable statistical requirements. However, as implemented, those pseudorandom sequences were completely determined by mathematical formulas and initial seeds, which cannot introduce extra entropy or information. In these cases, “random” bits are generated that are not at all random. Physical random number generators (RNGs), which, in contrast to algorithmic methods, are based on unpredictable physical random phenomena, have attracted considerable research interest. However, the way that we extract random bits from those physical entropy sources has a large influence on the efficiency and performance of the system. In this manuscript, we will review and discuss several randomness extraction schemes that are based on radiation or photon arrival times. We analyze the robustness, post-processing requirements and, in particular, the extraction efficiency of those methods to aid in the construction of efficient, compact and robust physical RNG systems.

  14. DNA-based random number generation in security circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearheart, Christy M; Arazi, Benjamin; Rouchka, Eric C

    2010-06-01

    DNA-based circuit design is an area of research in which traditional silicon-based technologies are replaced by naturally occurring phenomena taken from biochemistry and molecular biology. This research focuses on further developing DNA-based methodologies to mimic digital data manipulation. While exhibiting fundamental principles, this work was done in conjunction with the vision that DNA-based circuitry, when the technology matures, will form the basis for a tamper-proof security module, revolutionizing the meaning and concept of tamper-proofing and possibly preventing it altogether based on accurate scientific observations. A paramount part of such a solution would be self-generation of random numbers. A novel prototype schema employs solid phase synthesis of oligonucleotides for random construction of DNA sequences; temporary storage and retrieval is achieved through plasmid vectors. A discussion of how to evaluate sequence randomness is included, as well as how these techniques are applied to a simulation of the random number generation circuitry. Simulation results show generated sequences successfully pass three selected NIST random number generation tests specified for security applications.

  15. The average crossing number of equilateral random polygons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, Y; Dobay, A; Kusner, R B; Millett, K; Stasiak, A

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we study the average crossing number of equilateral random walks and polygons. We show that the mean average crossing number ACN of all equilateral random walks of length n is of the form (3/16)n ln n + O(n). A similar result holds for equilateral random polygons. These results are confirmed by our numerical studies. Furthermore, our numerical studies indicate that when random polygons of length n are divided into individual knot types, the for each knot type K can be described by a function of the form = a(n-n 0 )ln(n-n 0 ) + b(n-n 0 ) + c where a, b and c are constants depending on K and n 0 is the minimal number of segments required to form K. The profiles diverge from each other, with more complex knots showing higher than less complex knots. Moreover, the profiles intersect with the profile of all closed walks. These points of intersection define the equilibrium length of K, i.e., the chain length n e (K) at which a statistical ensemble of configurations with given knot type K-upon cutting, equilibration and reclosure to a new knot type K'-does not show a tendency to increase or decrease . This concept of equilibrium length seems to be universal, and applies also to other length-dependent observables for random knots, such as the mean radius of gyration g >

  16. A random-matrix theory of the number sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannagan, T; Nieder, A; Viswanathan, P; Dehaene, S

    2017-02-19

    Number sense, a spontaneous ability to process approximate numbers, has been documented in human adults, infants and newborns, and many other animals. Species as distant as monkeys and crows exhibit very similar neurons tuned to specific numerosities. How number sense can emerge in the absence of learning or fine tuning is currently unknown. We introduce a random-matrix theory of self-organized neural states where numbers are coded by vectors of activation across multiple units, and where the vector codes for successive integers are obtained through multiplication by a fixed but random matrix. This cortical implementation of the 'von Mises' algorithm explains many otherwise disconnected observations ranging from neural tuning curves in monkeys to looking times in neonates and cortical numerotopy in adults. The theory clarifies the origin of Weber-Fechner's Law and yields a novel and empirically validated prediction of multi-peak number neurons. Random matrices constitute a novel mechanism for the emergence of brain states coding for quantity.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The origins of numerical abilities'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Quantum random number generator based on quantum tunneling effect

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Haihan; Li, Junlin; Pan, Dong; Zhang, Weixing; Long, Guilu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we proposed an experimental implementation of quantum random number generator(QRNG) with inherent randomness of quantum tunneling effect of electrons. We exploited InGaAs/InP diodes, whose valance band and conduction band shared a quasi-constant energy barrier. We applied a bias voltage on the InGaAs/InP avalanche diode, which made the diode works under Geiger mode, and triggered the tunneling events with a periodic pulse. Finally, after data collection and post-processing, our...

  18. Empirical training for conditional random fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Zhemin; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Apers, Peter M.G.; Wombacher, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper (Zhu et al., 2013), we present a practi- cally scalable training method for CRFs called Empir- ical Training (EP). We show that the standard train- ing with unregularized log likelihood can have many maximum likelihood estimations (MLEs). Empirical training has a unique closed form MLE

  19. Autoshaping, random control, and omission training in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locurto, C; Terrace, H S; Gibbon, J

    1976-11-01

    The role of the stimulus-reinforcer contingency in the development and maintenance of lever contact responding was studied in hooded rats. In Experiment I, three groups of experimentally naive rats were trained either on autoshaping, omission training, or a random-control procedure. Subjects trained by the autoshaping procedure responded more consistently than did either random-control or omission-trained subjects. The probability of at least one lever contact per trial was slightly higher in subjects trained by the omission procedure than by the random-control procedure. However, these differences were not maintained during extended training, nor were they evident in total lever-contact frequencies. When omission and random-control subjects were switched to the autoshaping condition, lever contacts increased in all animals, but a pronounced retardation was observed in omission subjects relative to the random-control subjects. In addition, subjects originally exposed to the random-control procedure, and later switched to autoshaping, acquired more rapidly than naive subjects that were exposed only on the autoshaping procedure. In Experiment II, subjects originally trained by an autoshaping procedure were exposed either to an omission, a random-control, or an extinction procedure. No differences were observed among the groups either in the rate at which lever contacts decreased or in the frequency of lever contacts at the end of training. These data implicate prior experience in the interpretation of omission-training effects and suggest limitations in the influence of stimulus-reinforcer relations in autoshaping.

  20. Autoshaping, random control, and omission training in the rat1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locurto, Charles; Terrace, H. S.; Gibbon, John

    1976-01-01

    The role of the stimulus-reinforcer contingency in the development and maintenance of lever contact responding was studied in hooded rats. In Experiment I, three groups of experimentally naive rats were trained either on autoshaping, omission training, or a random-control procedure. Subjects trained by the autoshaping procedure responded more consistently than did either random-control or omission-trained subjects. The probability of at least one lever contact per trial was slightly higher in subjects trained by the omission procedure than by the random-control procedure. However, these differences were not maintained during extended training, nor were they evident in total lever-contact frequencies. When omission and random-control subjects were switched to the autoshaping condition, lever contacts increased in all animals, but a pronounced retardation was observed in omission subjects relative to the random-control subjects. In addition, subjects originally exposed to the random-control procedure, and later switched to autoshaping, acquired more rapidly than naive subjects that were exposed only on the autoshaping procedure. In Experiment II, subjects originally trained by an autoshaping procedure were exposed either to an omission, a random-control, or an extinction procedure. No differences were observed among the groups either in the rate at which lever contacts decreased or in the frequency of lever contacts at the end of training. These data implicate prior experience in the interpretation of omission-training effects and suggest limitations in the influence of stimulus-reinforcer relations in autoshaping. PMID:16811960

  1. Building Kindergartners' Number Sense: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C; Glutting, Joseph; Dyson, Nancy; Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Irwin, Casey

    2012-08-01

    Math achievement in elementary school is mediated by performance and growth in number sense during kindergarten. The aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of a targeted small group number sense intervention for high-risk kindergartners from low-income communities. Children were randomly assigned to one of three groups ( n = 44 in each group): a number sense intervention group, a language intervention group, or a business as usual control group. Accounting for initial skill level in mathematical knowledge, children who received the number sense intervention performed better than controls at immediate post test, with meaningful effects on measures of number competencies and general math achievement. Many of the effects held eight weeks after the intervention was completed, suggesting that children internalized what they had learned. There were no differences between the language and control groups on any math-related measures.

  2. Building Kindergartners’ Number Sense: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C.; Glutting, Joseph; Dyson, Nancy; Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Irwin, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Math achievement in elementary school is mediated by performance and growth in number sense during kindergarten. The aim of the present study was to test the effectiveness of a targeted small group number sense intervention for high-risk kindergartners from low-income communities. Children were randomly assigned to one of three groups (n = 44 in each group): a number sense intervention group, a language intervention group, or a business as usual control group. Accounting for initial skill level in mathematical knowledge, children who received the number sense intervention performed better than controls at immediate post test, with meaningful effects on measures of number competencies and general math achievement. Many of the effects held eight weeks after the intervention was completed, suggesting that children internalized what they had learned. There were no differences between the language and control groups on any math-related measures. PMID:25866417

  3. Pediatric Basic Life Support Self-training is Comparable to Instructor-led Training: A randomized manikin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L. D.; Løfgren, Bo; Jessen, C.

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric Basic Life Support Self-training is comparable to Instructor-led Training: A randomized manikin study.......Pediatric Basic Life Support Self-training is comparable to Instructor-led Training: A randomized manikin study....

  4. Arithmetic Training Does Not Improve Approximate Number System Acuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Lindskog

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Approximate Number System (ANS is thought to support non-symbolic representations of numerical magnitudes in humans. Recently much debate has focused on the causal direction for an observed relation between ANS acuity and arithmetic fluency. Here we investigate if arithmetic training can improve ANS acuity. We show with an experimental training study consisting of six 45-minute training sessions that although feedback during arithmetic training improves arithmetic performance substantially, it does not influence ANS acuity. Hence, we find no support for a causal link where symbolic arithmetic training influences the ANS acuity. Further, although short-term number memory is likely involved in arithmetic tasks we did not find that short-term memory capacity for numbers, measured by a digit-span test, was effected by arithmetic training. This suggests that the improvement in arithmetic fluency may have occurred independent of short-term memory efficiency, but rather due to long-term memory processes and/or mental calculation strategy development. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Estimating passenger numbers in trains using existing weighing capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Frølich, Laura; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2013-01-01

    trains to control braking. This technique makes passenger counting cheaper and ensures a complete sample. The paper compares numbers estimated by this technique with manual counts and counts from an infrared system in trains in urban Copenhagen. It shows that the weighing system provides more accurate......Knowing passenger numbers is important for the planning and operation of the urban rail systems. Manual and electronic counting systems (typically infrared or video) are expensive and therefore entail small sample sizes. They usually count boarding and alighting passengers, which means that errors...... in estimates of total numbers of passengers propagate along train runs. Counting errors in manual and electronic counting systems are typically flow-dependent, making uncertainty a function of volume. This paper presents a new counting technique that exploits the weighing systems installed in most modern...

  6. Employing online quantum random number generators for generating truly random quantum states in Mathematica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszczak, Jarosław Adam

    2013-01-01

    The presented package for the Mathematica computing system allows the harnessing of quantum random number generators (QRNG) for investigating the statistical properties of quantum states. The described package implements a number of functions for generating random states. The new version of the package adds the ability to use the on-line quantum random number generator service and implements new functions for retrieving lists of random numbers. Thanks to the introduced improvements, the new version provides faster access to high-quality sources of random numbers and can be used in simulations requiring large amount of random data. New version program summaryProgram title: TRQS Catalogue identifier: AEKA_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKA_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 18 134 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 520 49 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica, C. Computer: Any supporting Mathematica in version 7 or higher. Operating system: Any platform supporting Mathematica; tested with GNU/Linux (32 and 64 bit). RAM: Case-dependent Supplementary material: Fig. 1 mentioned below can be downloaded. Classification: 4.15. External routines: Quantis software library (http://www.idquantique.com/support/quantis-trng.html) Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEKA_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 183(2012)118 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Generation of random density matrices and utilization of high-quality random numbers for the purpose of computer simulation. Solution method: Use of a physical quantum random number generator and an on-line service providing access to the source of true random

  7. Solution-Processed Carbon Nanotube True Random Number Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviria Rojas, William A; McMorrow, Julian J; Geier, Michael L; Tang, Qianying; Kim, Chris H; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2017-08-09

    With the growing adoption of interconnected electronic devices in consumer and industrial applications, there is an increasing demand for robust security protocols when transmitting and receiving sensitive data. Toward this end, hardware true random number generators (TRNGs), commonly used to create encryption keys, offer significant advantages over software pseudorandom number generators. However, the vast network of devices and sensors envisioned for the "Internet of Things" will require small, low-cost, and mechanically flexible TRNGs with low computational complexity. These rigorous constraints position solution-processed semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as leading candidates for next-generation security devices. Here, we demonstrate the first TRNG using static random access memory (SRAM) cells based on solution-processed SWCNTs that digitize thermal noise to generate random bits. This bit generation strategy can be readily implemented in hardware with minimal transistor and computational overhead, resulting in an output stream that passes standardized statistical tests for randomness. By using solution-processed semiconducting SWCNTs in a low-power, complementary architecture to achieve TRNG, we demonstrate a promising approach for improving the security of printable and flexible electronics.

  8. Chaos-based Pseudo-random Number Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.

    2014-04-10

    Various methods and systems related to chaos-based pseudo-random number generation are presented. In one example, among others, a system includes a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate a series of digital outputs and a nonlinear post processing circuit to perform an exclusive OR (XOR) operation on a first portion of a current digital output of the PRNG and a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output. In another example, a method includes receiving at least a first portion of a current output from a PRNG and performing an XOR operation on the first portion of the current PRNG output with a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output.

  9. Chaos-based Pseudo-random Number Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Barakat, Mohamed L.; Mansingka, Abhinav S.; Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa Ahmed; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    Various methods and systems related to chaos-based pseudo-random number generation are presented. In one example, among others, a system includes a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate a series of digital outputs and a nonlinear post processing circuit to perform an exclusive OR (XOR) operation on a first portion of a current digital output of the PRNG and a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output. In another example, a method includes receiving at least a first portion of a current output from a PRNG and performing an XOR operation on the first portion of the current PRNG output with a permutated version of a corresponding first portion of a previous post processed output to generate a corresponding first portion of a current post processed output.

  10. Monte Carlo learning/biasing experiment with intelligent random numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    A Monte Carlo learning and biasing technique is described that does its learning and biasing in the random number space rather than the physical phase-space. The technique is probably applicable to all linear Monte Carlo problems, but no proof is provided here. Instead, the technique is illustrated with a simple Monte Carlo transport problem. Problems encountered, problems solved, and speculations about future progress are discussed. 12 refs

  11. Note on Marsaglia\\'s Xorshift Random Number Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Brent

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Marsaglia (2003 has described a class of Xorshift random number generators (RNGs with periods 2n - 1 for n = 32, 64, etc. We show that the sequences generated by these RNGs are identical to the sequences generated by certain linear feedback shift register (LFSR generators using "exclusive or" (xor operations on n-bit words, with a recurrence defined by a primitive polynomial of degree n.

  12. Cellular Automata-Based Parallel Random Number Generators Using FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. K. Hoe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular computing represents a new paradigm for implementing high-speed massively parallel machines. Cellular automata (CA, which consist of an array of locally connected processing elements, are a basic form of a cellular-based architecture. The use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs for implementing CA accelerators has shown promising results. This paper investigates the design of CA-based pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs using an FPGA platform. To improve the quality of the random numbers that are generated, the basic CA structure is enhanced in two ways. First, the addition of a superrule to each CA cell is considered. The resulting self-programmable CA (SPCA uses the superrule to determine when to make a dynamic rule change in each CA cell. The superrule takes its inputs from neighboring cells and can be considered itself a second CA working in parallel with the main CA. When implemented on an FPGA, the use of lookup tables in each logic cell removes any restrictions on how the super-rules should be defined. Second, a hybrid configuration is formed by combining a CA with a linear feedback shift register (LFSR. This is advantageous for FPGA designs due to the compactness of the LFSR implementations. A standard software package for statistically evaluating the quality of random number sequences known as Diehard is used to validate the results. Both the SPCA and the hybrid CA/LFSR were found to pass all the Diehard tests.

  13. An investigation of the uniform random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Most random number generators that are in use today are of the congruential form X(i+1) + AX(i) + C mod M where A, C, and M are nonnegative integers. If C=O, the generator is called the multiplicative type and those for which C/O are called mixed congruential generators. It is easy to see that congruential generators will repeat a sequence of numbers after a maximum of M values have been generated. The number of numbers that a procedure generates before restarting the sequence is called the length or the period of the generator. Generally, it is desirable to make the period as long as possible. A detailed discussion of congruential generators is given. Also, several promising procedures that differ from the multiplicative and mixed procedure are discussed.

  14. Quantum random flip-flop and its applications in random frequency synthesis and true random number generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipčević, Mario, E-mail: mario.stipcevic@irb.hr [Photonics and Quantum Optics Research Unit, Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials and Sensing Devices, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2016-03-15

    In this work, a new type of elementary logic circuit, named random flip-flop (RFF), is proposed, experimentally realized, and studied. Unlike conventional Boolean logic circuits whose action is deterministic and highly reproducible, the action of a RFF is intentionally made maximally unpredictable and, in the proposed realization, derived from a fundamentally random process of emission and detection of light quanta. We demonstrate novel applications of RFF in randomness preserving frequency division, random frequency synthesis, and random number generation. Possible usages of these applications in the information and communication technology, cryptographic hardware, and testing equipment are discussed.

  15. Locomotor Training and Strength and Balance Exercises for Walking Recovery After Stroke: Response to Number of Training Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Dorian K; Nadeau, Stephen E; Wu, Samuel S; Tilson, Julie K; Dobkin, Bruce H; Pei, Qinglin; Duncan, Pamela W

    2017-11-01

    Evidence-based guidelines are needed to inform rehabilitation practice, including the effect of number of exercise training sessions on recovery of walking ability after stroke. The objective of this study was to determine the response to increasing number of training sessions of 2 interventions-locomotor training and strength and balance exercises-on poststroke walking recovery. This is a secondary analysis of the Locomotor Experience Applied Post-Stroke (LEAPS) randomized controlled trial. Six rehabilitation sites in California and Florida and participants' homes were used. Participants were adults who dwelled in the community (N=347), had had a stroke, were able to walk at least 3 m (10 ft) with assistance, and had completed the required number of intervention sessions. Participants received 36 sessions (3 times per week for 12 weeks), 90 minutes in duration, of locomotor training (gait training on a treadmill with body-weight support and overground training) or strength and balance training. Talking speed, as measured by the 10-Meter Walk Test, and 6-minute walking distance were assessed before training and following 12, 24, and 36 intervention sessions. Participants at 2 and 6 months after stroke gained in gait speed and walking endurance after up to 36 sessions of treatment, but the rate of gain diminished steadily and, on average, was very low during the 25- to 36-session epoch, regardless of treatment type or severity of impairment. Results may not generalize to people who are unable to initiate a step at 2 months after stroke or people with severe cardiac disease. In general, people who dwelled in the community showed improvements in gait speed and walking distance with up to 36 sessions of locomotor training or strength and balance exercises at both 2 and 6 months after stroke. However, gains beyond 24 sessions tended to be very modest. The tracking of individual response trajectories is imperative in planning treatment. Published by Oxford University

  16. Efficient Training Methods for Conditional Random Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutton, Charles A

    2008-01-01

    .... Unfortunately, parameter estimation in CRFs requires repeated inference. Complex graphical structures are increasingly desired in practical applications, but training time often becomes prohibitive...

  17. Low-wave-number statistics of randomly advected passive scalars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerstein, A.R.; McMurtry, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    A heuristic analysis of the decay of a passive scalar field subject to statistically steady random advection, predicts two low-wave-number spectral scaling regimes analogous to the similarity states previously identified by Chasnov [Phys. Fluids 6, 1036 (1994)]. Consequences of their predicted coexistence in a single flow are examined. The analysis is limited to the idealized case of narrow band advection. To complement the analysis, and to extend the predictions to physically more realistic advection processes, advection diffusion is simulated using a one-dimensional stochastic model. An experimental test of the predictions is proposed

  18. Quantum Statistical Testing of a Quantum Random Number Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humble, Travis S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The unobservable elements in a quantum technology, e.g., the quantum state, complicate system verification against promised behavior. Using model-based system engineering, we present methods for verifying the opera- tion of a prototypical quantum random number generator. We begin with the algorithmic design of the QRNG followed by the synthesis of its physical design requirements. We next discuss how quantum statistical testing can be used to verify device behavior as well as detect device bias. We conclude by highlighting how system design and verification methods must influence effort to certify future quantum technologies.

  19. Random number generation based on digital differential chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-07-29

    In this paper, we present a fully digital differential chaos based random number generator. The output of the digital circuit is proved to be chaotic by calculating the output time series maximum Lyapunov exponent. We introduce a new post processing technique to improve the distribution and statistical properties of the generated data. The post-processed output passes the NIST Sp. 800-22 statistical tests. The system is written in Verilog VHDL and realized on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA. The generator can fit into a very small area and have a maximum throughput of 2.1 Gb/s.

  20. Quiet eye training improves surgical knot tying more than traditional technical training: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causer, Joe; Harvey, Adrian; Snelgrove, Ryan; Arsenault, Gina; Vickers, Joan N

    2014-08-01

    We examined the effectiveness of technical training (TT) and quiet eye training (QE) on the performance of one-handed square knot tying in surgical residents. Twenty surgical residents were randomly assigned to the 2 groups and completed pretest, training, retention, and transfer tests. Participants wore a mobile eye tracker that simultaneously recorded their gaze and hand movements. Dependent variables were knot tying performance (%), QE duration (%), number of fixations, total movement time (s), and hand movement phase time (s). The QE training group had significantly higher performance scores, a longer QE duration, fewer fixations, faster total knot tying times, and faster movement phase times compared with the TT group. The QE group maintained performance in the transfer test, whereas the TT group significantly decreased performance from retention to transfer. QE training significantly improved learning, retention, and transfer of surgical knot tying compared with a traditional technical approach. Both performance effectiveness (performance outcome) and movement efficiency (hand movement times) were improved using QE modeling, instruction, and feedback. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Very high performance pseudo-random number generation on DAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. A.; Reddaway, S. F.; Scott, D. M.

    1985-07-01

    Since the National DAP Service began at QMC in 1980, extensive use has been made of pseudo-random numbers in Monte Carlo simulation. Matrices of uniform numbers have been produced by various generators: (a) multiplicative ( x+ 1 = 13 13xn mod 2 59); (b) very long period shift register ( x4423 + x271 + 1); (c) multiple shorter period ( x127 + x7 + 1) shift registers generating several matrices per iteration. The above uniform generators can also feed a normal distribution generator that uses the Box-Muller transformation. This paper describes briefly the generators, their implementation and speed. Generator (b) has been greatly speeded-up by re-implementation, and now produces more than 100 × 10 6 high quality 16-bit numbers/s. Generator (c) is under development and will achieve even higher performance, mainly due to producing data in greater bulk. High quality numbers are expected, and performance will range from 400 to 800 × 10 6 numbers/s, depending on how the generator is used.

  2. Primitive polynomials selection method for pseudo-random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, I. V.; Alnajjar, Kh

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we suggested the method for primitive polynomials selection of special type. This kind of polynomials can be efficiently used as a characteristic polynomials for linear feedback shift registers in pseudo-random number generators. The proposed method consists of two basic steps: finding minimum-cost irreducible polynomials of the desired degree and applying primitivity tests to get the primitive ones. Finally two primitive polynomials, which was found by the proposed method, used in pseudorandom number generator based on fuzzy logic (FRNG) which had been suggested before by the authors. The sequences generated by new version of FRNG have low correlation magnitude, high linear complexity, less power consumption, is more balanced and have better statistical properties.

  3. Eye Movement Training and Suggested Gaze Strategies in Tunnel Vision - A Randomized and Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Iliya V; Mackeben, Manfred; Vollmer, Annika; Martus, Peter; Nguyen, Nhung X; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP), lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision), which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST). Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses) that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental) and reading (control) training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group). To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT) during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS), the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field. In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the experimental training condition

  4. Pseudo random number generator based on quantum chaotic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhshani, A.; Akhavan, A.; Mobaraki, A.; Lim, S.-C.; Hassan, Z.

    2014-01-01

    For many years dissipative quantum maps were widely used as informative models of quantum chaos. In this paper, a new scheme for generating good pseudo-random numbers (PRNG), based on quantum logistic map is proposed. Note that the PRNG merely relies on the equations used in the quantum chaotic map. The algorithm is not complex, which does not impose high requirement on computer hardware and thus computation speed is fast. In order to face the challenge of using the proposed PRNG in quantum cryptography and other practical applications, the proposed PRNG is subjected to statistical tests using well-known test suites such as NIST, DIEHARD, ENT and TestU01. The results of the statistical tests were promising, as the proposed PRNG successfully passed all these tests. Moreover, the degree of non-periodicity of the chaotic sequences of the quantum map is investigated through the Scale index technique. The obtained result shows that, the sequence is more non-periodic. From these results it can be concluded that, the new scheme can generate a high percentage of usable pseudo-random numbers for simulation and other applications in scientific computing.

  5. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AND TRAINING IN SAFETY, A STATEMENT BY THE CENTRAL TRAINING COUNCIL. MEMORANDUM NUMBER 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministry of Labour, London (England).

    THE TRAINING OF WORKERS IN SAFETY AND IN SAFE METHODS OF WORK IS AN ESSENTIAL PART OF ACCIDENT PREVENTION. IT IS A MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITY TO DO THIS, AND, TO BE EFFECTIVE, MANAGEMENT ITSELF MUST BE CONVINCED OF THE NEED FOR SAFETY TRAINING. IT SHOULD BE CARRIED OUT AS PART OF THE NORMAL TRAINING WHICH ALL ENTRANTS TO INDUSTRY RECEIVE. THE…

  6. Effects of changing the random number stride in Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a common practice in Monte Carlo radiation transport codes which is to start each random walk a specified number of steps up the random number sequence from the previous one. This is called the stride in the random number sequence between source particles. It is used for correlated sampling or to provide tree-structured random numbers. A new random number generator algorithm for the major Monte Carlo code MCNP has been written to allow adjustment of the random number stride. This random number generator is machine portable. The effects of varying the stride for several sample problems are examined

  7. Fully Digital Chaotic Oscillators Applied to Pseudo Random Number Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2012-05-01

    adapted for pseudo random number generation by truncating statistically defective bits. Finally, a novel post-processing technique using the Fibonacci series is proposed and implemented with a non-autonomous driven hyperchaotic system to provide pseudo random number generators with high nonlinear complexity and controllable period length that enables full utilization of all branches of the chaotic output as statistically secure pseudo random output.

  8. Random number generators tested on quantum Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Kenta; Maezono, Ryo; Miura, Kenichi

    2010-08-01

    We have tested and compared several (pseudo) random number generators (RNGs) applied to a practical application, ground state energy calculations of molecules using variational and diffusion Monte Carlo metheds. A new multiple recursive generator with 8th-order recursion (MRG8) and the Mersenne twister generator (MT19937) are tested and compared with the RANLUX generator with five luxury levels (RANLUX-[0-4]). Both MRG8 and MT19937 are proven to give the same total energy as that evaluated with RANLUX-4 (highest luxury level) within the statistical error bars with less computational cost to generate the sequence. We also tested the notorious implementation of linear congruential generator (LCG), RANDU, for comparison. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Generative Learning Objects Instantiated with Random Numbers Based Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Bogdan Chirila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of interactive e-learning content requires special skills like programming techniques, web integration, graphic design etc. Generally, online educators do not possess such skills and their e-learning products tend to be static like presentation slides and textbooks. In this paper we propose a new interactive model of generative learning objects as a compromise betweenstatic, dull materials and dynamic, complex software e-learning materials developed by specialized teams. We find that random numbers based automatic initialization learning objects increases content diversity, interactivity thus enabling learners’ engagement. The resulted learning object model is at a limited level of complexity related to special e-learning software, intuitive and capable of increasing learners’ interactivity, engagement and motivation through dynamic content. The approach was applied successfully on several computer programing disciplines.

  10. Statistical evaluation of PACSTAT random number generation capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, G.F.; Toland, M.R.; Harty, H.; Budden, M.J.; Bartley, C.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in verifying the general purpose Monte Carlo driver-program PACSTAT. The main objective of the work was to verify the performance of PACSTAT's random number generation capabilities. Secondary objectives were to document (using controlled configuration management procedures) changes made in PACSTAT at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and to assure that PACSTAT input and output files satisfy quality assurance traceability constraints. Upon receipt of the PRIME version of the PACSTAT code from the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff converted the code to run on Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAXs. The modifications to PACSTAT were implemented using the WITNESS configuration management system, with the modifications themselves intended to make the code as portable as possible. Certain modifications were made to make the PACSTAT input and output files conform to quality assurance traceability constraints. 10 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Comparison of a quantum random number generator with pseudorandom number generators for their use in molecular Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghersi, Dario; Parakh, Abhishek; Mezei, Mihaly

    2017-12-05

    Four pseudorandom number generators were compared with a physical, quantum-based random number generator using the NIST suite of statistical tests, which only the quantum-based random number generator could successfully pass. We then measured the effect of the five random number generators on various calculated properties in different Markov-chain Monte Carlo simulations. Two types of systems were tested: conformational sampling of a small molecule in aqueous solution and liquid methanol under constant temperature and pressure. The results show that poor quality pseudorandom number generators produce results that deviate significantly from those obtained with the quantum-based random number generator, particularly in the case of the small molecule in aqueous solution setup. In contrast, the widely used Mersenne Twister pseudorandom generator and a 64-bit Linear Congruential Generator with a scrambler produce results that are statistically indistinguishable from those obtained with the quantum-based random number generator. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A randomized controlled trial of nasolaryngoscopy training techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew E; Leung, Billy C; Sharma, Rishi; Nazeer, Sammar; McFerran, Don J

    2014-09-01

    Flexible nasolaryngoscopy is an essential skill for otolaryngology trainees to develop, but there is a lack of standardized training for this procedure. The aim of this study was to assess whether using training on a realistic human mannequin together with structured video feedback improved trainees' performance at flexible nasolaryngoscopy. Three-armed, single-blinded, randomized controlled study. Thirty-six junior doctors and final-year medical students were randomly allocated to one of three groups. All received a lecture and video presentation on flexible nasolaryngoscopy. One group received additional tuition using a training mannequin. The last group received mannequin training and feedback on their performance using a video recording. The trainees then undertook flexible nasolaryngoscopy on volunteers with these endoscopies recorded. Blinded observers scored the trainees on a range of objective and subjective measures. The volunteers who were also blinded to the candidates' training scored the comfort of the procedure. Adding mannequin training showed a trend toward improvement of performance but did not reach statistical significance. Mannequin training together with video feedback produced significant performance improvement in patient comfort (P = .0065), time to reach the vocal folds (P = .017), and global ability (P = .0006). Inter-rater reliability was excellent with P training using an anatomically correct model of the upper airway together with formalized video-assisted feedback on that training is a simple and effective way to improve endoscopy skills prior to starting flexible nasolaryngoscopy on patients. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Random-Number Generator Validity in Simulation Studies: An Investigation of Normality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jung W.; Schumacker, Randall E.; Schlieve, Paul L.

    1998-01-01

    The normality of number distributions generated by various random-number generators were studied, focusing on when the random-number generator reached a normal distribution and at what sample size. Findings suggest the steps that should be followed when using a random-number generator in a Monte Carlo simulation. (SLD)

  14. Random number generation as an index of controlled processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, Marjan; Saleem, T; Ho, Aileen K; Dirnberger, Georg; Fuller, R

    2006-07-01

    Random number generation (RNG) is a functionally complex process that is highly controlled and therefore dependent on Baddeley's central executive. This study addresses this issue by investigating whether key predictions from this framework are compatible with empirical data. In Experiment 1, the effect of increasing task demands by increasing the rate of the paced generation was comprehensively examined. As expected, faster rates affected performance negatively because central resources were increasingly depleted. Next, the effects of participants' exposure were manipulated in Experiment 2 by providing increasing amounts of practice on the task. There was no improvement over 10 practice trials, suggesting that the high level of strategic control required by the task was constant and not amenable to any automatization gain with repeated exposure. Together, the results demonstrate that RNG performance is a highly controlled and demanding process sensitive to additional demands on central resources (Experiment 1) and is unaffected by repeated performance or practice (Experiment 2). These features render the easily administered RNG task an ideal and robust index of executive function that is highly suitable for repeated clinical use. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Effect of exercise order on the number of repeats and training volume in the tri-set training method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waynne Ferreira de Faria

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p187   Although the tri-set system is widely adopted by athletes and experienced weight training practitioners aimed at optimizing the metabolic overload, there are still few works in literature on the effect of exercise order manipulation on this training system. Therefore, this work was aimed at investigating the effect of exercise order manipulation on the number of repeats and training volume using the tri-set system for lower limbs. This is a randomized cross-over design study. The experimental group consisted of 14 healthy men (23.53 ± 5.40 years; 24.51 ± 2.96 kg/m2. Subjects were submitted to two experimental sessions at different exercise order for lower limbs: Sequence A: squat on guided bar, leg press 45° and bilateral leg extension; sequence B: bilateral leg extension, leg press 45° and squat on guided bar. Three sets to volitional fatigue in all exercises were performed, with intensity of 75% 1RM. Superiority for sequence B in the total number of repeats (70.14 ± 13 vs 60.93 ± 7.94 repeats, p = 0.004 and total training volume (9129.64 ± 2830.05 vs 8238.29 ± 2354.20 kg, p = 0.014 was observed. Based on the above, the performance of single-joint exercises before multi-joint exercises in the tri-set system adopted for lower limbs induced higher number of repeats and total training volume.

  16. The efficacy of virtual reality simulation training in laparoscopy: a systematic review of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Christian Rifbjerg; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Ottesen, Bent S; Soerensen, Jette Led

    2012-09-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulators for surgical training might possess the properties needed for basic training in laparoscopy. Evidence for training efficacy of VR has been investigated by research of varying quality over the past decade. To review randomized controlled trials regarding VR training efficacy compared with traditional or no training, with outcome measured as surgical performance in humans or animals. In June 2011 Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science and Google Scholar were searched using the following medical subject headings (MeSh) terms: Laparoscopy/standards, Computing methodologies, Programmed instruction, Surgical procedures, Operative, and the following free text terms: Virtual real* OR simulat* AND Laparoscop* OR train* Controlled trials. All randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of VR training in laparoscopy, with outcome measured as surgical performance. A total of 98 studies were screened, 26 selected and 12 included, with a total of 241 participants. Operation time was reduced by 17-50% by VR training, depending on simulator type and training principles. Proficiency-based training appeared superior to training based on fixed time or fixed numbers of repetition. Simulators offering training for complete operative procedures came out as more efficient than simulators offering only basic skills training. Skills in laparoscopic surgery can be increased by proficiency-based procedural VR simulator training. There is substantial evidence (grade IA - IIB) to support the use of VR simulators in laparoscopic training. © 2012 The Authors  Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Training the approximate number system improves math proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonkoo; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2013-10-01

    Humans and nonhuman animals share an approximate number system (ANS) that permits estimation and rough calculation of quantities without symbols. Recent studies show a correlation between the acuity of the ANS and performance in symbolic math throughout development and into adulthood, which suggests that the ANS may serve as a cognitive foundation for the uniquely human capacity for symbolic math. Such a proposition leads to the untested prediction that training aimed at improving ANS performance will transfer to improvement in symbolic-math ability. In the two experiments reported here, we showed that ANS training on approximate addition and subtraction of arrays of dots selectively improved symbolic addition and subtraction. This finding strongly supports the hypothesis that complex math skills are fundamentally linked to rudimentary preverbal quantitative abilities and provides the first direct evidence that the ANS and symbolic math may be causally related. It also raises the possibility that interventions aimed at the ANS could benefit children and adults who struggle with math.

  18. A method for generating skewed random numbers using two overlapping uniform distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermak, D.L.; Nasstrom, J.S.

    1995-02-01

    The objective of this work was to implement and evaluate a method for generating skewed random numbers using a combination of uniform random numbers. The method provides a simple and accurate way of generating skewed random numbers from the specified first three moments without an a priori specification of the probability density function. We describe the procedure for generating skewed random numbers from unifon-n random numbers, and show that it accurately produces random numbers with the desired first three moments over a range of skewness values. We also show that in the limit of zero skewness, the distribution of random numbers is an accurate approximation to the Gaussian probability density function. Future work win use this method to provide skewed random numbers for a Langevin equation model for diffusion in skewed turbulence

  19. Morphological changes after pelvic floor muscle training measured by 3-dimensional ultrasonography: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braekken, Ingeborg Hoff; Hoff Braekken, Ingeborg; Majida, Memona; Engh, Marie Ellström; Bø, Kari

    2010-02-01

    To investigate morphological and functional changes after pelvic floor muscle training in women with pelvic organ prolapse. This randomized controlled trial was conducted at a university hospital and a physical therapy clinic. One hundred nine women with pelvic organ prolapse stages I, II, and III were randomly allocated by a computer-generated random number system to pelvic floor muscle training (n=59) or control (n=50). Both groups received lifestyle advice and learned to contract the pelvic floor muscles before and during increases in intraabdominal pressure. In addition the pelvic floor muscle training group did individual strength training with a physical therapist and daily home exercise for 6 months. Primary outcome measures were pelvic floor muscle (pubovisceral muscle) thickness, levator hiatus area, pubovisceral muscle length at rest and Valsalva, and resting position of bladder and rectum, measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography. Seventy-nine percent of women in the pelvic floor muscle training group adhered to at least 80% of the training protocol. Compared with women in the control group, women in the pelvic floor muscle training group increased muscle thickness (difference between groups: 1.9 mm, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.7, Ppelvic floor muscle stiffness. Supervised pelvic floor muscle training can increase muscle volume, close the levator hiatus, shorten muscle length, and elevate the resting position of the bladder and rectum. www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00271297. I.

  20. Novel pseudo-random number generator based on quantum random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhao, Qian-Qian

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the potential application of quantum computation for constructing pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) and further construct a novel PRNG based on quantum random walks (QRWs), a famous quantum computation model. The PRNG merely relies on the equations used in the QRWs, and thus the generation algorithm is simple and the computation speed is fast. The proposed PRNG is subjected to statistical tests such as NIST and successfully passed the test. Compared with the representative PRNG based on quantum chaotic maps (QCM), the present QRWs-based PRNG has some advantages such as better statistical complexity and recurrence. For example, the normalized Shannon entropy and the statistical complexity of the QRWs-based PRNG are 0.999699456771172 and 1.799961178212329e-04 respectively given the number of 8 bits-words, say, 16Mbits. By contrast, the corresponding values of the QCM-based PRNG are 0.999448131481064 and 3.701210794388818e-04 respectively. Thus the statistical complexity and the normalized entropy of the QRWs-based PRNG are closer to 0 and 1 respectively than those of the QCM-based PRNG when the number of words of the analyzed sequence increases. It provides a new clue to construct PRNGs and also extends the applications of quantum computation.

  1. Novel pseudo-random number generator based on quantum random walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhao, Qian-Qian

    2016-02-04

    In this paper, we investigate the potential application of quantum computation for constructing pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) and further construct a novel PRNG based on quantum random walks (QRWs), a famous quantum computation model. The PRNG merely relies on the equations used in the QRWs, and thus the generation algorithm is simple and the computation speed is fast. The proposed PRNG is subjected to statistical tests such as NIST and successfully passed the test. Compared with the representative PRNG based on quantum chaotic maps (QCM), the present QRWs-based PRNG has some advantages such as better statistical complexity and recurrence. For example, the normalized Shannon entropy and the statistical complexity of the QRWs-based PRNG are 0.999699456771172 and 1.799961178212329e-04 respectively given the number of 8 bits-words, say, 16Mbits. By contrast, the corresponding values of the QCM-based PRNG are 0.999448131481064 and 3.701210794388818e-04 respectively. Thus the statistical complexity and the normalized entropy of the QRWs-based PRNG are closer to 0 and 1 respectively than those of the QCM-based PRNG when the number of words of the analyzed sequence increases. It provides a new clue to construct PRNGs and also extends the applications of quantum computation.

  2. 25 CFR 547.14 - What are the minimum technical standards for electronic random number generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... random number generation? 547.14 Section 547.14 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... CLASS II GAMES § 547.14 What are the minimum technical standards for electronic random number generation...) Unpredictability; and (3) Non-repeatability. (b) Statistical Randomness.(1) Numbers produced by an RNG shall be...

  3. Using Computer-Generated Random Numbers to Calculate the Lifetime of a Comet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesh, Iraj

    1991-01-01

    An educational technique to calculate the lifetime of a comet using software-generated random numbers is introduced to undergraduate physiques and astronomy students. Discussed are the generation and eligibility of the required random numbers, background literature related to the problem, and the solution to the problem using random numbers.…

  4. Mental skills training with basic combat training soldiers: A group-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Amy B; Bliese, Paul D; Pickering, Michael A; Hammermeister, Jon; Williams, Jason; Harada, Coreen; Csoka, Louis; Holliday, Bernie; Ohlson, Carl

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive skills training has been linked to greater skills, self-efficacy, and performance. Although research in a variety of organizational settings has demonstrated training efficacy, few studies have assessed cognitive skills training using rigorous, longitudinal, randomized trials with active controls. The present study examined cognitive skills training in a high-risk occupation by randomizing 48 platoons (N = 2,432 soldiers) in basic combat training to either (a) mental skills training or (b) an active comparison condition (military history). Surveys were conducted at baseline and 3 times across the 10-week course. Multilevel mixed-effects models revealed that soldiers in the mental skills training condition reported greater use of a range of cognitive skills and increased confidence relative to those in the control condition. Soldiers in the mental skills training condition also performed better on obstacle course events, rappelling, physical fitness, and initial weapons qualification scores, although effects were generally moderated by gender and previous experience. Overall, effects were small; however, given the rigor of the design, the findings clearly contribute to the broader literature by providing supporting evidence that cognitive training skills can enhance performance in occupational and sports settings. Future research should address gender and experience to determine the need for targeting such training appropriately. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Strength training and physical activity in boys: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Udo; Witassek, Fabienne; Petrò, Renato; Fritz, Chris; Eiholzer, Urs

    2013-12-01

    In developed societies levels of daily physical activity (PA) among school-age children are decreasing. This implies risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Specific strategies to improve levels of PA are needed. In prepubertal boys there is evidence that strength training increases spontaneous PA outside of training. A total of 102 schoolchildren (age 10-14 years) in Switzerland were randomly assigned to physical education classes or to participate twice weekly at a guided strength training program for 19 weeks. Spontaneous PA energy expenditure (PAEE; 3axial accelerometry for 7 days), leg and arm strength, and body composition (dual energy radiograph absorptiometry) were measured at baseline, after 19 weeks of training intervention, and after 3 months of washout. There were no significant differences between the groups at baseline. In the intervention group, PAEE increased by 10% from baseline to end of training in boys (P = .02), but not in girls. Leg and arm strength were increased owing to training intervention in both boys and girls. All other variables were unchanged. Baseline PAEE was significantly negatively correlated with changes of PAEE. Targeted strength training significantly increases daily spontaneous PA behavior in boys. The less active children showed the greatest increase in spontaneous PAEE. Girls showed a similar increase in strength, but not in spontaneous PAEE. This may be explained by their earlier pubertal development. Strength training may be a promising strategy in schools to counteract decreasing levels of PA.

  6. Psychological Effects of Automated External Defibrillator Training A randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meischke, Hendrika; Diehr, Paula; Phelps, Randi; Damon, Susan; Rea, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to test if an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) training program would positively affect the mental health of family members of high risk patients. Methods 305 ischemic heart disease patients and their family members were randomized to one of four AED training programs: two video-based training programs and two face-to-face training programs that emphasized self-efficacy and perceived control. Patients and family members were surveyed at baseline, 3 and 9 months post ischemic event on demographic characteristics, measures of quality of life (SF=36) , self-efficacy and perceived control. For this study, family members were the focus rather than the patients. Results Regression analyses showed that family members in the face-to-face training programs did not score better on any of the mental health status variables than family members who participated in the other training programs but for an increase in self-efficacy beliefs at 3 months post training. Conclusion The findings suggest that a specifically designed AED training program emphasizing self-efficacy and perceived control beliefs is not likely to enhance family member mental health. PMID:21411144

  7. An empirical test of pseudo random number generators by means of an exponential decaying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronel B, H.F.; Hernandez M, A.R.; Jimenez M, M.A.; Mora F, L.E.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical tests for pseudo random number generators based on the use of processes or physical models have been successfully used and are considered as complementary to theoretical tests of randomness. In this work a statistical methodology for evaluating the quality of pseudo random number generators is presented. The method is illustrated in the context of the so-called exponential decay process, using some pseudo random number generators commonly used in physics. (Author)

  8. Super fast physical-random number generation using laser diode frequency noises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushiki, Tetsuro; Doi, Kohei; Maehara, Shinya; Sato, Takashi; Ohkawa, Masashi; Ohdaira, Yasuo

    2011-02-01

    Random numbers can be classified as either pseudo- or physical-random in character. Pseudo-random numbers' periodicity renders them inappropriate for use in cryptographic applications, but naturally-generated physical-random numbers have no calculable periodicity, thereby making them ideally-suited to the task. The laser diode naturally produces a wideband "noise" signal that is believed to have tremendous capacity and great promise, for the rapid generation of physical-random numbers for use in cryptographic applications. We measured a laser diode's output, at a fast photo detector and generated physical-random numbers from frequency noises. We then identified and evaluated the binary-number-line's statistical properties. The result shows that physical-random number generation, at speeds as high as 40Gbps, is obtainable, using the laser diode's frequency noise characteristic.

  9. Eye Movement Training and Suggested Gaze Strategies in Tunnel Vision - A Randomized and Controlled Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliya V Ivanov

    Full Text Available Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP, lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision, which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST.Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental and reading (control training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group. To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS, the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field.In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the experimental training

  10. Humans can consciously generate random number sequences: a possible test for artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Navindra

    2005-01-01

    Computer algorithms can only produce seemingly random or pseudorandom numbers whereas certain natural phenomena, such as the decay of radioactive particles, can be utilized to produce truly random numbers. In this study, the ability of humans to generate random numbers was tested in healthy adults. Subjects were simply asked to generate and dictate random numbers. Generated numbers were tested for uniformity, independence and information density. The results suggest that humans can generate random numbers that are uniformly distributed, independent of one another and unpredictable. If humans can generate sequences of random numbers then neural networks or forms of artificial intelligence, which are purported to function in ways essentially the same as the human brain, should also be able to generate sequences of random numbers. Elucidating the precise mechanism by which humans generate random number sequences and the underlying neural substrates may have implications in the cognitive science of decision-making. It is possible that humans use their random-generating neural machinery to make difficult decisions in which all expected outcomes are similar. It is also possible that certain people, perhaps those with neurological or psychiatric impairments, are less able or unable to generate random numbers. If the random-generating neural machinery is employed in decision making its impairment would have profound implications in matters of agency and free will.

  11. Pseudo-random number generation using a 3-state cellular automaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Kamalika; Paul, Dipanjyoti; Das, Sukanta

    This paper investigates the potentiality of pseudo-random number generation of a 3-neighborhood 3-state cellular automaton (CA) under periodic boundary condition. Theoretical and empirical tests are performed on the numbers, generated by the CA, to observe the quality of it as pseudo-random number generator (PRNG). We analyze the strength and weakness of the proposed PRNG and conclude that the selected CA is a good random number generator.

  12. Endurance exercise training in orthostatic intolerance: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, Robert; Barth, Alfred; Bidmon, Daniela; Ponocny, Ivo; Weber, Michael; Mayr, Otmar; Robertson, David; Diedrich, André; Maier, Richard; Pilger, Alex; Haber, Paul; Rüdiger, Hugo W

    2005-03-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is a syndrome characterized by chronic orthostatic symptoms of light-headedness, fatigue, nausea, orthostatic tachycardia, and aggravated norepinephrine levels while standing. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effect of exercise endurance training on orthostatic symptoms and to examine its usefulness in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance. 2768 military recruits were screened for orthostatic intolerance by questionnaire. Tilt-table testing identified 36 cases of orthostatic intolerance out of the 2768 soldiers. Subsequently, 31 of these subjects with orthostatic intolerance entered a randomized, controlled trial. The patients were allocated randomly to either a "training" (3 months jogging) or a "control" group. The influence of exercise training on orthostatic intolerance was assessed by determination of questionnaire scores and tilt-table testing before and after intervention. After training, only 6 individuals of 16 still had orthostatic intolerance compared with 10 of 11 in the control group. The Fisher exact test showed a highly significant difference in diagnosis between the 2 groups (P=0.008) at the end of the study. Analysis of the questionnaire-score showed significant interaction between time and group (P=0.001). The trained subjects showed an improvement in the average symptom score from 1.79+/-0.4 to 1.04+/-0.4, whereas the control subjects showed no significant change in average symptom score (2.09+/-0.6 and 2.14+/-0.5, respectively). Our data demonstrate that endurance exercise training leads to an improvement of symptoms in the majority of patients with orthostatic intolerance. Therefore, we suggest that endurance training should be considered in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance patients.

  13. Multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of virtual-reality simulator training in acquisition of competency in colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan; Cohen, Seth A; Vora, Kinjal C; Xue, Xiaonan; Burdick, J Steven; Bank, Simmy; Bini, Edmund J; Bodenheimer, Henry; Cerulli, Maurice; Gerdes, Hans; Greenwald, David; Gress, Frank; Grosman, Irwin; Hawes, Robert; Mullin, Gerard; Mullen, Gerard; Schnoll-Sussman, Felice; Starpoli, Anthony; Stevens, Peter; Tenner, Scott; Villanueva, Gerald

    2006-09-01

    The GI Mentor is a virtual reality simulator that uses force feedback technology to create a realistic training experience. To define the benefit of training on the GI Mentor on competency acquisition in colonoscopy. Randomized, controlled, blinded, multicenter trial. Academic medical centers with accredited gastroenterology training programs. First-year GI fellows. Subjects were randomized to receive 10 hours of unsupervised training on the GI Mentor or no simulator experience during the first 8 weeks of fellowship. After this period, both groups began performing real colonoscopies. The first 200 colonoscopies performed by each fellow were graded by proctors to measure technical and cognitive success, and patient comfort level during the procedure. A mixed-effects model comparison between the 2 groups of objective and subjective competency scores and patient discomfort in the performance of real colonoscopies over time. Forty-five fellows were randomized from 16 hospitals over 2 years. Fellows in the simulator group had significantly higher objective competency rates during the first 100 cases. A mixed-effects model demonstrated a higher objective competence overall in the simulator group (P < .0001), with the difference between groups being significantly greater during the first 80 cases performed. The median number of cases needed to reach 90% competency was 160 in both groups. The patient comfort level was similar. Fellows who underwent GI Mentor training performed significantly better during the early phase of real colonoscopy training.

  14. The impact of soft skills training on female youth employment: Evidence from a randomized experiment in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Groh, Matthew; Krishnan, Nandini; McKenzie, David; Vishwanath, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Employers around the world complain that youth lack the soft skills needed for success in the workplace. In response, a number of employment programs have begun to incorporate soft skills training, but to date there has been little evidence as to the effectiveness of such programs. This paper reports on a randomized experiment in Jordan in which female community college graduates were randomly assigned to a soft skills training program. Despite this program being twice as long in length as th...

  15. Fast random-number generation using a diode laser's frequency noise characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamori, Hiroki; Doi, Kohei; Maehara, Shinya; Kawakami, Kohei; Sato, Takashi; Ohkawa, Masashi; Ohdaira, Yasuo

    2012-02-01

    Random numbers can be classified as either pseudo- or physical-random, in character. Pseudo-random numbers are generated by definite periodicity, so, their usefulness in cryptographic applications is somewhat limited. On the other hand, naturally-generated physical-random numbers have no calculable periodicity, thereby making them ideal for the task. Diode lasers' considerable wideband noise gives them tremendous capacity for generating physical-random numbers, at a high rate of speed. We measured a diode laser's output with a fast photo detector, and evaluated the binary-numbers from the diode laser's frequency noise characteristics. We then identified and evaluated the binary-number-line's statistical properties. We also investigate the possibility that much faster physical-random number parallel-generation is possible, using separate outputs of different optical-path length and character, which we refer to as "coherence collapse".

  16. Randomized, Controlled Trial of CBT Training for PTSD Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-29

    clinician applicants occurred. b. SP baseline interviews with eligible clinicians occurred. c. Automated random assignment of participants with Completed SP...intervention without web-centered supervision and a wait-list control with regard to improvements in two CBT-based skill areas (behavioral task...Secondary Aim #1: To compare improvements in knowledge and attitudes following internet- based training with or without web-centered supervision and

  17. Biofeedback Training in Crisis Managers: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka, A; Adler, C; Brunner, B; Oppenrieder, S; Duschek, S

    2017-06-01

    Working in crisis environments represents a major challenge, especially for executive personnel engaged in directing disaster operations, i.e. crisis managers. Crisis management involves operating under conditions of extreme stress resulting, for instance, from high-level decision-making, principal responsibility for personnel, multitasking or working under conditions of risk and time pressure. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of a newly developed biofeedback training procedure based on electrodermal activity, especially designed for the target group of crisis managers. The training comprised exercises promoting acquisition of control over sympathetic arousal under resting conditions and during exposure to visual, acoustic and cognitive stressors resembling situations related to crisis management. In a randomized controlled design, 36 crisis managers were assigned to either a biofeedback training group or waiting list control group. Subjective stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale. In the training group, stress level markedly decreased; the decrease remained stable at follow-up 2 months after the training. The results indicate that biofeedback training in crisis management is an effective method for stress management that may help to reduce vulnerability to stress-related performance decline and stress-related disease.

  18. Simulation and study of small numbers of random events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    Random events were simulated by computer and subjected to various statistical methods to extract important parameters. Various forms of curve fitting were explored, such as least squares, least distance from a line, maximum likelihood. Problems considered were dead time, exponential decay, and spectrum extraction from cosmic ray data using binned data and data from individual events. Computer programs, mostly of an iterative nature, were developed to do these simulations and extractions and are partially listed as appendices. The mathematical basis for the compuer programs is given.

  19. Effect of Playful Balancing Training - A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Jessen, Jari Due

    2013-01-01

    We used the modular playware in the form of modular interactive tiles for playful training of community-dwelling elderly with balancing problem. During short-term play on the modular interactive tiles, the elderly were playing physical, interactive games that were challenging their dynamic balance...... increase in balancing performance (DGI score: 21.3) after short-term playful training with the modular interactive tiles, whereas the control group remained with a score indicating balancing problems and risk of falling (DGI score: 16.6). The small pilot randomized controlled trial suggests...... that the playful interaction with the modular interactive tiles has a significant effect even after a very short time of play. The average total training time to obtain the statistical significant effect amounted to just 2h45m....

  20. Properties making a chaotic system a good Pseudo Random Number Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Falcioni, Massimo; Palatella, Luigi; Pigolotti, Simone; Vulpiani, Angelo

    2005-01-01

    We discuss two properties making a deterministic algorithm suitable to generate a pseudo random sequence of numbers: high value of Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and high-dimensionality. We propose the multi dimensional Anosov symplectic (cat) map as a Pseudo Random Number Generator. We show what chaotic features of this map are useful for generating Pseudo Random Numbers and investigate numerically which of them survive in the discrete version of the map. Testing and comparisons with other generat...

  1. A generator for unique quantum random numbers based on vacuum states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabriel, C.; Wittmann, C.; Sych, D.

    2010-01-01

    the purity of a continuous-variable quantum vacuum state to generate unique random numbers. We use the intrinsic randomness in measuring the quadratures of a mode in the lowest energy vacuum state, which cannot be correlated to any other state. The simplicity of our source, combined with its verifiably......Random numbers are a valuable component in diverse applications that range from simulations(1) over gambling to cryptography(2,3). The quest for true randomness in these applications has engendered a large variety of different proposals for producing random numbers based on the foundational...... unpredictability of quantum mechanics(4-11). However, most approaches do not consider that a potential adversary could have knowledge about the generated numbers, so the numbers are not verifiably random and unique(12-15). Here we present a simple experimental setup based on homodyne measurements that uses...

  2. Anosov C-systems and random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvidy, G. K.

    2016-08-01

    We further develop our previous proposal to use hyperbolic Anosov C-systems to generate pseudorandom numbers and to use them for efficient Monte Carlo calculations in high energy particle physics. All trajectories of hyperbolic dynamical systems are exponentially unstable, and C-systems therefore have mixing of all orders, a countable Lebesgue spectrum, and a positive Kolmogorov entropy. These exceptional ergodic properties follow from the C-condition introduced by Anosov. This condition defines a rich class of dynamical systems forming an open set in the space of all dynamical systems. An important property of C-systems is that they have a countable set of everywhere dense periodic trajectories and their density increases exponentially with entropy. Of special interest are the C-systems defined on higher-dimensional tori. Such C-systems are excellent candidates for generating pseudorandom numbers that can be used in Monte Carlo calculations. An efficient algorithm was recently constructed that allows generating long C-system trajectories very rapidly. These trajectories have good statistical properties and can be used for calculations in quantum chromodynamics and in high energy particle physics.

  3. Mathematical conversations multicolor problems, problems in the theory of numbers, and random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Dynkin, E B

    2006-01-01

    Comprises Multicolor Problems, dealing with map-coloring problems; Problems in the Theory of Numbers, an elementary introduction to algebraic number theory; Random Walks, addressing basic problems in probability theory. 1963 edition.

  4. The effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on suppression of habitual counting during random number generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, M; Profice, P; Brown, R G; Ridding, M C; Dirnberger, G; Rothwell, J C

    1998-08-01

    Random number generation is an attention-demanding task that engages working memory and executive processes. Random number generation requires holding information 'on line', suppression of habitual counting, internally driven response generation and monitoring of responses. Evidence from PET studies suggests that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved in the generation of random responses. We examined the effects of short trains of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the left or right DLPFC or medial frontal cortex on random number generation in healthy normal participants. As in previous evidence, in control trials without stimulation participants performed poorly on the random number generation task, showing repetition avoidance and a tendency to count. Brief disruption of processing with TMS over the left DLPFC changed the balance of the individuals' counting bias, increasing the most habitual counting in ones and reducing the lower probability response of counting in twos. This differential effect of TMS over the left DLPFC on the balance of the subject's counting bias was not obtained with TMS over the right DLPFC or the medial frontal cortex. The results suggest that, with disruption of the left DLPFC with TMS, habitual counting in ones that has previously been suppressed is released from inhibition. From these findings a network modulation model of random number generation is proposed, whereby suppression of habitual responses is achieved through the modulatory influence of the left DLPFC over a number-associative network in the superior temporal cortex. To allow emergence of appropriate random responses, the left DLPFC inhibits the superior temporal cortex to prevent spreading activation and habitual counting in ones.

  5. An experimental comparison of triggered and random pulse train uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzlova, Daniela; Menlove, Howard O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2010-01-01

    response) have used only one of the two analysis methods for the nuclear material assay. The aim of this study is to provide a systematic comparison of the precision of the measured S, D, T rates and 240 Pu effective mass obtained using the above mentioned pulse train sampling techniques. In order to perform this task, a LANL developed list mode based data acquisition system is used, where the entire pulse train is recorded and subsequently analyzed. The list mode acquisition brings an essential advantage for this type of comparison, since the very same pulse train can be analyzed using signal-triggered as well as randomly triggered counting gates. The aim of this study is not only to compare the precision of signal-triggered versus random triggered sampling techniques, but also to investigate the influence of fast accidental sampling on the precision of signal-triggered results. In addition the different random sampling techniques used in safeguards are investigated. For this purpose we implement two types of random sampling - non-overlapping gates (Feynrnan approach) and periodic overlapping gates (fast accidentals). In the following sections the equations utilized in the pulse train analysis are described, experimental setup and measurement techniques are discussed and finally the results are summarized and discussed.

  6. Number-conserving random phase approximation with analytically integrated matrix elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyotoku, M.; Schmid, K.W.; Gruemmer, F.; Faessler, A.

    1990-01-01

    In the present paper a number conserving random phase approximation is derived as a special case of the recently developed random phase approximation in general symmetry projected quasiparticle mean fields. All the occurring integrals induced by the number projection are performed analytically after writing the various overlap and energy matrices in the random phase approximation equation as polynomials in the gauge angle. In the limit of a large number of particles the well-known pairing vibration matrix elements are recovered. We also present a new analytically number projected variational equation for the number conserving pairing problem

  7. High-speed true random number generation based on paired memristors for security electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Yin, Minghui; Xu, Changmin; Lu, Xiayan; Sun, Xinhao; Yang, Yuchao; Huang, Ru

    2017-11-01

    True random number generator (TRNG) is a critical component in hardware security that is increasingly important in the era of mobile computing and internet of things. Here we demonstrate a TRNG using intrinsic variation of memristors as a natural source of entropy that is otherwise undesirable in most applications. The random bits were produced by cyclically switching a pair of tantalum oxide based memristors and comparing their resistance values in the off state, taking advantage of the more pronounced resistance variation compared with that in the on state. Using an alternating read scheme in the designed TRNG circuit, the unbiasedness of the random numbers was significantly improved, and the bitstream passed standard randomness tests. The Pt/TaO x /Ta memristors fabricated in this work have fast programming/erasing speeds of ˜30 ns, suggesting a high random number throughput. The approach proposed here thus holds great promise for physically-implemented random number generation.

  8. a Pseudo-Random Number Generator Employing Multiple RÉNYI Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Oi-Yan; Yuen, Ching-Hung; Wong, Kwok-Wo

    2013-11-01

    The increasing risk along with the drastic development of multimedia data transmission has raised a big concern on data security. A good pseudo-random number generator is an essential tool in cryptography. In this paper, we propose a novel pseudo-random number generator based on the controlled combination of the outputs of several digitized chaotic Rényi maps. The generated pseudo-random sequences have passed both the NIST 800-22 Revision 1a and the DIEHARD tests. Moreover, simulation results show that the proposed pseudo-random number generator requires less operation time than existing generators and is highly sensitive to the seed.

  9. Problems with the random number generator RANF implemented on the CDC cyber 205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Claus; Wansleben, Stephan

    1984-10-01

    We show that using RANF may lead to wrong results when lattice models are simulated by Monte Carlo methods. We present a shift-register sequence random number generator which generates two random numbers per cycle on a two pipe CDC Cyber 205.

  10. On the limiting characteristics of quantum random number generators at various clusterings of photocounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molotkov, S. N.

    2017-03-01

    Various methods for the clustering of photocounts constituting a sequence of random numbers are considered. It is shown that the clustering of photocounts resulting in the Fermi-Dirac distribution makes it possible to achieve the theoretical limit of the random number generation rate.

  11. Development and testing of high performance pseudo random number generator for Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Brahmananda

    2009-01-01

    Random number plays an important role in any Monte Carlo simulation. The accuracy of the results depends on the quality of the sequence of random numbers employed in the simulation. These include randomness of the random numbers, uniformity of their distribution, absence of correlation and long period. In a typical Monte Carlo simulation of particle transport in a nuclear reactor core, the history of a particle from its birth in a fission event until its death by an absorption or leakage event is tracked. The geometry of the core and the surrounding materials are exactly modeled in the simulation. To track a neutron history one needs random numbers for determining inter collision distance, nature of the collision, the direction of the scattered neutron etc. Neutrons are tracked in batches. In one batch approximately 2000-5000 neutrons are tracked. The statistical accuracy of the results of the simulation depends on the total number of particles (number of particles in one batch multiplied by the number of batches) tracked. The number of histories to be generated is usually large for a typical radiation transport problem. To track a very large number of histories one needs to generate a long sequence of independent random numbers. In other words the cycle length of the random number generator (RNG) should be more than the total number of random numbers required for simulating the given transport problem. The number of bits of the machine generally limits the cycle length. For a binary machine of p bits the maximum cycle length is 2 p . To achieve higher cycle length in the same machine one has to use either register arithmetic or bit manipulation technique

  12. Non-periodic pseudo-random numbers used in Monte Carlo calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, Gaston E.

    2007-09-01

    The generation of pseudo-random numbers is one of the interesting problems in Monte Carlo simulations, mostly because the common computer generators produce periodic numbers. We used simple pseudo-random numbers generated with the simplest chaotic system, the logistic map, with excellent results. The numbers generated in this way are non-periodic, which we demonstrated for 1013 numbers, and they are obtained in a deterministic way, which allows to repeat systematically any calculation. The Monte Carlo calculations are the ideal field to apply these numbers, and we did it for simple and more elaborated cases. Chemistry and Information Technology use this kind of simulations, and the application of this numbers to quantum Monte Carlo and cryptography is immediate. I present here the techniques to calculate, analyze and use these pseudo-random numbers, show that they lack periodicity up to 1013 numbers and that they are not correlated.

  13. Non-periodic pseudo-random numbers used in Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberis, Gaston E.

    2007-01-01

    The generation of pseudo-random numbers is one of the interesting problems in Monte Carlo simulations, mostly because the common computer generators produce periodic numbers. We used simple pseudo-random numbers generated with the simplest chaotic system, the logistic map, with excellent results. The numbers generated in this way are non-periodic, which we demonstrated for 10 13 numbers, and they are obtained in a deterministic way, which allows to repeat systematically any calculation. The Monte Carlo calculations are the ideal field to apply these numbers, and we did it for simple and more elaborated cases. Chemistry and Information Technology use this kind of simulations, and the application of this numbers to quantum Monte Carlo and cryptography is immediate. I present here the techniques to calculate, analyze and use these pseudo-random numbers, show that they lack periodicity up to 10 13 numbers and that they are not correlated

  14. Realistic noise-tolerant randomness amplification using finite number of devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Szarek, Tomasz; Wojewódka, Hanna

    2016-04-01

    Randomness is a fundamental concept, with implications from security of modern data systems, to fundamental laws of nature and even the philosophy of science. Randomness is called certified if it describes events that cannot be pre-determined by an external adversary. It is known that weak certified randomness can be amplified to nearly ideal randomness using quantum-mechanical systems. However, so far, it was unclear whether randomness amplification is a realistic task, as the existing proposals either do not tolerate noise or require an unbounded number of different devices. Here we provide an error-tolerant protocol using a finite number of devices for amplifying arbitrary weak randomness into nearly perfect random bits, which are secure against a no-signalling adversary. The correctness of the protocol is assessed by violating a Bell inequality, with the degree of violation determining the noise tolerance threshold. An experimental realization of the protocol is within reach of current technology.

  15. The linking number and the writhe of uniform random walks and polygons in confined spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagiotou, E; Lambropoulou, S; Millett, K C

    2010-01-01

    Random walks and polygons are used to model polymers. In this paper we consider the extension of the writhe, self-linking number and linking number to open chains. We then study the average writhe, self-linking and linking number of random walks and polygons over the space of configurations as a function of their length. We show that the mean squared linking number, the mean squared writhe and the mean squared self-linking number of oriented uniform random walks or polygons of length n, in a convex confined space, are of the form O(n 2 ). Moreover, for a fixed simple closed curve in a convex confined space, we prove that the mean absolute value of the linking number between this curve and a uniform random walk or polygon of n edges is of the form O(√n). Our numerical studies confirm those results. They also indicate that the mean absolute linking number between any two oriented uniform random walks or polygons, of n edges each, is of the form O(n). Equilateral random walks and polygons are used to model polymers in θ-conditions. We use numerical simulations to investigate how the self-linking and linking number of equilateral random walks scale with their length.

  16. Efficient implementation of Bailey and Borwein pseudo-random number generator based on normal numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliakov, G.; Creighton, D.; Johnstone, M.; Wilkin, T.

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes an implementation of a Linear Congruential Generator (LCG) based on the binary representation of the normal number α, and of a combined generator based on that LCG. The base LCG with the modulus 333 provides a quality sequence with the period ≈3.7ṡ1015, which passes all but two statistical tests from BigCrush test suite. We improved on the original implementation by adapting Barrett's modular reduction method, which resulted in four-fold increase in efficiency. The combined generator has the period of ≈1023 and passes all tests from BigCrush suite.

  17. A true random number generator based on mouse movement and chaotic cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yue; Liao Xiaofeng; Wong, Kwok-wo; Zhou Qing

    2009-01-01

    True random number generators are in general more secure than pseudo random number generators. In this paper, we propose a novel true random number generator which generates a 256-bit random number by computer mouse movement. It is cheap, convenient and universal for personal computers. To eliminate the effect of similar movement patterns generated by the same user, three chaos-based approaches, namely, discretized 2D chaotic map permutation, spatiotemporal chaos and 'MASK' algorithm, are adopted to post-process the captured mouse movements. Random bits generated by three users are tested using NIST statistical tests. Both the spatiotemporal chaos approach and the 'MASK' algorithm pass the tests successfully. However, the latter has a better performance in terms of efficiency and effectiveness and so is more practical for common personal computer applications.

  18. Treadmill training improves overground walking economy in Parkinson’s disease: A randomized, controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel eFERNANDEZ-DEL-OLMO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gait disturbances are one of the principal and most incapacitating symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD. In addition, walking economy is impaired in PD patients and could contribute to excess fatigue in this population. An important number of studies have shown that treadmill training can improve kinematic parameters in PD patients. However, the effects of treadmill and overground walking on the walking economy remain unknown. The goal of this study was to explore the walking economy changes in response to a treadmill and an overground training program, as well as the differences in the walking economy during treadmill and overground walking. 22 mild PD patients were randomly assigned to a treadmill or overground training group. The training program consisted of 5 weeks (3 sessions/week. We evaluated the energy expenditure of overground walking, before and after each of the training programs. The energy expenditure of treadmill walking (before the program was also evaluated. The treadmill, but not the overground training program, lead to an improvement in the walking economy (the rate of oxygen consumed per distance, during overground walking at a preferred speed in PD patients. In addition, walking on a treadmill required more energy expenditure compared with overground walking at the same speed. This study provides evidence that in mild PD patients, treadmill training is more beneficial compared with that of walking overground, leading to a greater improvement in the walking economy. This finding is of clinical importance for the therapeutic administration of exercise in Parkinson’s disease.

  19. Non-stationary random vibration analysis of a 3D train-bridge system using the probability density evolution method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-wu; Mao, Jian-feng; Guo, Feng-qi; Guo, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Rail irregularity is one of the main sources causing train-bridge random vibration. A new random vibration theory for the coupled train-bridge systems is proposed in this paper. First, number theory method (NTM) with 2N-dimensional vectors for the stochastic harmonic function (SHF) of rail irregularity power spectrum density was adopted to determine the representative points of spatial frequencies and phases to generate the random rail irregularity samples, and the non-stationary rail irregularity samples were modulated with the slowly varying function. Second, the probability density evolution method (PDEM) was employed to calculate the random dynamic vibration of the three-dimensional (3D) train-bridge system by a program compiled on the MATLAB® software platform. Eventually, the Newmark-β integration method and double edge difference method of total variation diminishing (TVD) format were adopted to obtain the mean value curve, the standard deviation curve and the time-history probability density information of responses. A case study was presented in which the ICE-3 train travels on a three-span simply-supported high-speed railway bridge with excitation of random rail irregularity. The results showed that compared to the Monte Carlo simulation, the PDEM has higher computational efficiency for the same accuracy, i.e., an improvement by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Additionally, the influences of rail irregularity and train speed on the random vibration of the coupled train-bridge system were discussed.

  20. Efficient Raman generation in a waveguide: A route to ultrafast quantum random number generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, D. G.; Bustard, P. J.; Moffatt, D. J.; Nunn, J.; Lausten, R.; Sussman, B. J., E-mail: ben.sussman@nrc.ca [National Research Council of Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2014-02-03

    The inherent uncertainty in quantum mechanics offers a source of true randomness which can be used to produce unbreakable cryptographic keys. We discuss the development of a high-speed random number generator based on the quantum phase fluctuations in spontaneously initiated stimulated Raman scattering (SISRS). We utilize the tight confinement and long interaction length available in a Potassium Titanyl Phosphate waveguide to generate highly efficient SISRS using nanojoule pulse energies, reducing the high pump power requirements of the previous approaches. We measure the random phase of the Stokes output using a simple interferometric setup to yield quantum random numbers at 145 Mbps.

  1. Autogenic training to reduce anxiety in nursing students: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, Nasim; White, Adrian; Ernst, Edzard

    2006-03-01

    This paper reports a study to determine the effectiveness of autogenic training in reducing anxiety in nursing students. Nursing is stressful, and nursing students also have the additional pressures and uncertainties shared with all academic students. Autogenic training is a relaxation technique consisting of six mental exercises and is aimed at relieving tension, anger and stress. Meta-analysis has found large effect sizes for autogenic trainings intervention comparisons, medium effect sizes against control groups, and no effects when compared with other psychological therapies. A controlled trial with 50 nursing students found that the number of certified days off sick was reduced by autogenic training compared with no treatment, and a second trial with only 18 students reported greater improvement in Trait Anxiety, but not State Anxiety, compared with untreated controls. A randomized controlled trial with three parallel arms was completed in 1998 with 93 nursing students aged 19-49 years. The setting was a university college in the United Kingdom. The treatment group received eight weekly sessions of autogenic training, the attention control group received eight weekly sessions of laughter therapy, and the time control group received no intervention. The outcome measures were the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, blood pressure and pulse rate completed at baseline, 2 months (end of treatment), and 5, 8, and 11 months from randomization. There was a statistically significantly greater reduction of State (Pautogenic training group than in both other groups immediately after treatment. There were no differences between the groups for the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The autogenic training group also showed statistically significantly greater reduction immediately after treatment in systolic (PAutogenic training has at least a short-term effect in alleviating stress in nursing students.

  2. Irisin and exercise training in humans - results from a randomized controlled training trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecksteden, Anne; Wegmann, Melissa; Steffen, Anke; Kraushaar, Jochen; Morsch, Arne; Ruppenthal, Sandra; Kaestner, Lars; Meyer, Tim

    2013-11-05

    The recent discovery of a new myokine (irisin) potentially involved in health-related training effects has gained great attention, but evidence for a training-induced increase in irisin remains preliminary. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether irisin concentration is increased after regular exercise training in humans. In a randomized controlled design, two guideline conforming training interventions were studied. Inclusion criteria were age 30 to 60 years, Physical performance provided positive control for the overall efficacy of training. Differences between groups were tested for significance using analysis of variance. For post hoc comparisons with the control group, Dunnett's test was used. Maximum performance increased significantly in the training groups compared with controls (controls: ±0.0 ± 0.7 km/h; AET: 1.1 ± 0.6 km/h, P error probability = 0.7). The general upward trend was mainly accounted for by a negative association of irisin concentration with the storage duration of frozen serum samples (P storage of samples from initial tests.

  3. Does training frequency and supervision affect compliance, performance and muscular health? A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalager, Tina; Bredahl, Thomas G V; Pedersen, Mogens T; Boyle, Eleanor; Andersen, Lars L; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2015-10-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of one weekly hour of specific strength training within working hours, performed with the same total training volume but with different training frequencies and durations, or with different levels of supervision, on compliance, muscle health and performance, behavior and work performance. In total, 573 office workers were cluster-randomized to: 1 WS: one 60-min supervised session/week, 3 WS: three 20-min supervised sessions/week, 9 WS: nine 7-min supervised sessions/week, 3 MS: three 20-min sessions/week with minimal supervision, or REF: a reference group without training. Outcomes were diary-based compliance, total training volume, muscle performance and questionnaire-based health, behavior and work performance. Comparisons were made among the WS training groups and between 3 WS and 3 MS. If no difference, training groups were collapsed (TG) and compared with REF. Results demonstrated similar degrees of compliance, mean(range) of 39(33-44)%, and total training volume, 13.266(11.977-15.096)kg. Musculoskeletal pain in neck and shoulders were reduced with approx. 50% in TG, which was significant compared with REF. Only the training groups improved significantly their muscle strength 8(4-13)% and endurance 27(12-37)%, both being significant compared with REF. No change in workability, productivity or self-rated health was demonstrated. Secondary analysis showed exercise self-efficacy to be a significant predictor of compliance. Regardless of training schedule and supervision, similar degrees of compliance were shown together with reduced musculoskeletal pain and improved muscle performance. These findings provide evidence that a great degree of flexibility is legitimate for companies in planning future implementation of physical exercise programs at the workplace. ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01027390. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The generation of 68 Gbps quantum random number by measuring laser phase fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, You-Qi; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei; Huang, Leilei; Payne, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The speed of a quantum random number generator is essential for practical applications, such as high-speed quantum key distribution systems. Here, we push the speed of a quantum random number generator to 68 Gbps by operating a laser around its threshold level. To achieve the rate, not only high-speed photodetector and high sampling rate are needed but also a very stable interferometer is required. A practical interferometer with active feedback instead of common temperature control is developed to meet the requirement of stability. Phase fluctuations of the laser are measured by the interferometer with a photodetector and then digitalized to raw random numbers with a rate of 80 Gbps. The min-entropy of the raw data is evaluated by modeling the system and is used to quantify the quantum randomness of the raw data. The bias of the raw data caused by other signals, such as classical and detection noises, can be removed by Toeplitz-matrix hashing randomness extraction. The final random numbers can pass through the standard randomness tests. Our demonstration shows that high-speed quantum random number generators are ready for practical usage

  5. Direct generation of all-optical random numbers from optical pulse amplitude chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Wang, Yun-Cai; Wang, An-Bang; Yang, Ling-Zhen; Zhang, Ming-Jiang; Zhang, Jian-Zhong

    2012-02-13

    We propose and theoretically demonstrate an all-optical method for directly generating all-optical random numbers from pulse amplitude chaos produced by a mode-locked fiber ring laser. Under an appropriate pump intensity, the mode-locked laser can experience a quasi-periodic route to chaos. Such a chaos consists of a stream of pulses with a fixed repetition frequency but random intensities. In this method, we do not require sampling procedure and external triggered clocks but directly quantize the chaotic pulses stream into random number sequence via an all-optical flip-flop. Moreover, our simulation results show that the pulse amplitude chaos has no periodicity and possesses a highly symmetric distribution of amplitude. Thus, in theory, the obtained random number sequence without post-processing has a high-quality randomness verified by industry-standard statistical tests.

  6. Post-processing Free Quantum Random Number Generator Based on Avalanche Photodiode Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yang; Liao Sheng-Kai; Liang Fu-Tian; Shen Qi; Liang Hao; Peng Cheng-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Quantum random number generators adopting single photon detection have been restricted due to the non-negligible dead time of avalanche photodiodes (APDs). We propose a new approach based on an APD array to improve the generation rate of random numbers significantly. This method compares the detectors' responses to consecutive optical pulses and generates the random sequence. We implement a demonstration experiment to show its simplicity, compactness and scalability. The generated numbers are proved to be unbiased, post-processing free, ready to use, and their randomness is verified by using the national institute of standard technology statistical test suite. The random bit generation efficiency is as high as 32.8% and the potential generation rate adopting the 32 × 32 APD array is up to tens of Gbits/s. (paper)

  7. On the number of subgraphs of the Barabasi-Albert random graph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabchenko, Aleksandr A; Samosvat, Egor A [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow Region, Russian Frderation (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-30

    We study a model of a random graph of the type of the Barabasi-Albert preferential attachment model. We develop a technique that makes it possible to estimate the mathematical expectation for a fairly wide class of random variables in the model under consideration. We use this technique to prove a theorem on the asymptotics of the mathematical expectation of the number of subgraphs isomorphic to a certain fixed graph in the random graphs of this model.

  8. On the number of subgraphs of the Barabási-Albert random graph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabchenko, Aleksandr A; Samosvat, Egor A

    2012-01-01

    We study a model of a random graph of the type of the Barabási-Albert preferential attachment model. We develop a technique that makes it possible to estimate the mathematical expectation for a fairly wide class of random variables in the model under consideration. We use this technique to prove a theorem on the asymptotics of the mathematical expectation of the number of subgraphs isomorphic to a certain fixed graph in the random graphs of this model.

  9. Strong Laws of Large Numbers for Arrays of Rowwise NA and LNQD Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some strong laws of large numbers and strong convergence properties for arrays of rowwise negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables are obtained. The results obtained not only generalize the result of Hu and Taylor to negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables, but also improve it.

  10. Pseudo-random-number generators and the square site percolation threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael J

    2008-09-01

    Selected pseudo-random-number generators are applied to a Monte Carlo study of the two-dimensional square-lattice site percolation model. A generator suitable for high precision calculations is identified from an application specific test of randomness. After extended computation and analysis, an ostensibly reliable value of p_{c}=0.59274598(4) is obtained for the percolation threshold.

  11. Raw and Central Moments of Binomial Random Variables via Stirling Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We consider here the problem of calculating the moments of binomial random variables. It is shown how formulae for both the raw and the central moments of such random variables may be obtained in a recursive manner utilizing Stirling numbers of the first kind. Suggestions are also provided as to how students might be encouraged to explore this…

  12. Running injuries in novice runners enrolled in different training interventions: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltich, J; Emery, C A; Whittaker, J L; Nigg, B M

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this trial was to evaluate injury risk in novice runners participating in different strength training interventions. This was a pilot randomized controlled trial. Novice runners (n = 129, 18-60 years old, running experience) were block randomized to one of three groups: a "resistance" strength training group, a "functional" strength training group, or a stretching "control" group. The primary outcome was running related injury. The number of participants with complaints and the injury rate (IR = no. injuries/1000 running hours) were quantified for each intervention group. For the first 8 weeks, participants were instructed to complete their training intervention three to five times a week. The remaining 4 months was a maintenance period. NCT01900262. A total of 52 of the 129 (40%) novice runners experienced at least one running related injury: 21 in the functional strength training program, 16 in the resistance strength training program and 15 in the control stretching program. Injury rates did not differ between study groups [IR = 32.9 (95% CI 20.8, 49.3) in the functional group, IR = 31.6 (95% CI 18.4, 50.5) in the resistance group, and IR = 26.7 (95% CI 15.2, 43.2)] in the control group. Although this was a pilot assessment, home-based strength training did not appear to alter injury rates compared to stretching. Future studies should consider methods to minimize participant drop out to allow for the assessment of injury risk. Injury risk in novice runners based on this pilot study will inform the development of future larger studies investigating the impact of injury prevention interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Three-dimensional pseudo-random number generator for implementing in hybrid computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.A.; Vasil'ev, N.P.; Voronin, A.V.; Kravtsov, M.Yu.; Maksutov, A.A.; Spiridonov, A.A.; Khudyakova, V.I.; Chugunkov, I.V.

    2012-01-01

    The algorithm for generating pseudo-random numbers oriented to implementation by using hybrid computer systems is considered. The proposed solution is characterized by a high degree of parallel computing [ru

  14. Unidirectional interference in use of nondominant hand during concurrent Grooved Pegboard and random number generation tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenge, Hans; Niederberger, Uwe

    2008-06-01

    The interference effect between Grooved Pegboard task with either hand and the executive task of cued verbal random number generation was investigated. 24 normal right-handed subjects performed each task under separate (single-task) and concurrent (dual-task) conditions. Articulatory suppression was required as an additional secondary task during pegboard performance. Analysis indicated an unambiguous distinction between the two hands. Comparisons of single-task and dual-task conditions showed an asymmetrical pattern of unidirectional interference with no practice effects during pegboard performance. Concurrent performance with nondominant hand but not the dominant hand of random number generation performance became continuously slower. There was no effect of divided attention on pegboard performance. Findings support the idea that the nondominant hand on the pegboard and random number tasks draw from the same processing resources but that for the executive aspect random number generation is more sensitive to changes in allocation of attentional resources.

  15. Private random numbers produced by entangled ions and certified by Bell's theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David; Matsukevich, Dzmitry; Maunz, Peter; Monroe, Chris; Olmschenk, Steven

    2010-03-01

    It has been shown that entangled particles can be used to generate numbers whose privacy and randomness are guaranteed by the violation of a Bell inequality [1,2]. The authenticity of the bit stream produced is guaranteed when the system used can close the detection loophole and when the entangled particles are non-interacting. We report the use of remotely located trapped ions with near perfect state detection efficiency as a private random number generator. By entangling the ions through photon interference and choosing the measurement settings using a pseudo-random number generator, we measure a CHSH correlation function that is more than seven standard deviations above the classical limit. With a total of 3016 events, we are able to certify the generation of 42 new random numbers with 99% confidence. [1] S. Pironio et al.(submitted to Nature, arXiv:0911.3427) [2] Colbeck, R. PhD Dissertation (2007)

  16. Recommendations and illustrations for the evaluation of photonic random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joseph D.; Terashima, Yuta; Uchida, Atsushi; Baumgartner, Gerald B.; Murphy, Thomas E.; Roy, Rajarshi

    2017-09-01

    The never-ending quest to improve the security of digital information combined with recent improvements in hardware technology has caused the field of random number generation to undergo a fundamental shift from relying solely on pseudo-random algorithms to employing optical entropy sources. Despite these significant advances on the hardware side, commonly used statistical measures and evaluation practices remain ill-suited to understand or quantify the optical entropy that underlies physical random number generation. We review the state of the art in the evaluation of optical random number generation and recommend a new paradigm: quantifying entropy generation and understanding the physical limits of the optical sources of randomness. In order to do this, we advocate for the separation of the physical entropy source from deterministic post-processing in the evaluation of random number generators and for the explicit consideration of the impact of the measurement and digitization process on the rate of entropy production. We present the Cohen-Procaccia estimate of the entropy rate h (𝜖 ,τ ) as one way to do this. In order to provide an illustration of our recommendations, we apply the Cohen-Procaccia estimate as well as the entropy estimates from the new NIST draft standards for physical random number generators to evaluate and compare three common optical entropy sources: single photon time-of-arrival detection, chaotic lasers, and amplified spontaneous emission.

  17. Recommendations and illustrations for the evaluation of photonic random number generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph D. Hart

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The never-ending quest to improve the security of digital information combined with recent improvements in hardware technology has caused the field of random number generation to undergo a fundamental shift from relying solely on pseudo-random algorithms to employing optical entropy sources. Despite these significant advances on the hardware side, commonly used statistical measures and evaluation practices remain ill-suited to understand or quantify the optical entropy that underlies physical random number generation. We review the state of the art in the evaluation of optical random number generation and recommend a new paradigm: quantifying entropy generation and understanding the physical limits of the optical sources of randomness. In order to do this, we advocate for the separation of the physical entropy source from deterministic post-processing in the evaluation of random number generators and for the explicit consideration of the impact of the measurement and digitization process on the rate of entropy production. We present the Cohen-Procaccia estimate of the entropy rate h(,τ as one way to do this. In order to provide an illustration of our recommendations, we apply the Cohen-Procaccia estimate as well as the entropy estimates from the new NIST draft standards for physical random number generators to evaluate and compare three common optical entropy sources: single photon time-of-arrival detection, chaotic lasers, and amplified spontaneous emission.

  18. Using pseudo-random number generator for making iterative algorithms of hashing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.A.; Vasil'ev, N.P.; Kozyrskij, B.L.

    2014-01-01

    The method of stochastic data transformation made for usage in cryptographic methods of information protection has been analyzed. The authors prove the usage of cryptographically strong pseudo-random number generators as a basis for Sponge construction. This means that the analysis of the quality of the known methods and tools for assessing the statistical security of pseudo-random number generators can be used effectively [ru

  19. High-Performance Pseudo-Random Number Generation on Graphics Processing Units

    OpenAIRE

    Nandapalan, Nimalan; Brent, Richard P.; Murray, Lawrence M.; Rendell, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    This work considers the deployment of pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) on graphics processing units (GPUs), developing an approach based on the xorgens generator to rapidly produce pseudo-random numbers of high statistical quality. The chosen algorithm has configurable state size and period, making it ideal for tuning to the GPU architecture. We present a comparison of both speed and statistical quality with other common parallel, GPU-based PRNGs, demonstrating favourable performance o...

  20. The average inter-crossing number of equilateral random walks and polygons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, Y; Dobay, A; Stasiak, A

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we study the average inter-crossing number between two random walks and two random polygons in the three-dimensional space. The random walks and polygons in this paper are the so-called equilateral random walks and polygons in which each segment of the walk or polygon is of unit length. We show that the mean average inter-crossing number ICN between two equilateral random walks of the same length n is approximately linear in terms of n and we were able to determine the prefactor of the linear term, which is a = 3ln2/8 ∼ 0.2599. In the case of two random polygons of length n, the mean average inter-crossing number ICN is also linear, but the prefactor of the linear term is different from that of the random walks. These approximations apply when the starting points of the random walks and polygons are of a distance ρ apart and ρ is small compared to n. We propose a fitting model that would capture the theoretical asymptotic behaviour of the mean average ICN for large values of ρ. Our simulation result shows that the model in fact works very well for the entire range of ρ. We also study the mean ICN between two equilateral random walks and polygons of different lengths. An interesting result is that even if one random walk (polygon) has a fixed length, the mean average ICN between the two random walks (polygons) would still approach infinity if the length of the other random walk (polygon) approached infinity. The data provided by our simulations match our theoretical predictions very well

  1. Cognitive training in Alzheimer's disease: a controlled randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovagnoli, A R; Manfredi, V; Parente, A; Schifano, L; Oliveri, S; Avanzini, G

    2017-08-01

    This controlled randomized single-blind study evaluated the effects of cognitive training (CT), compared to active music therapy (AMT) and neuroeducation (NE), on initiative in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). Secondarily, we explored the effects of CT on episodic memory, mood, and social relationships. Thirty-nine AD patients were randomly assigned to CT, AMT, or NE. Each treatment lasted 3 months. Before, at the end, and 3 months after treatment, neuropsychological tests and self-rated scales assessed initiative, episodic memory, depression, anxiety, and social relationships. At the end of the CT, initiative significantly improved, whereas, at the end of AMT and NE, it was unchanged. Episodic memory showed no changes at the end of CT or AMT and a worsening after NE. The rates of the patients with clinically significant improvement of initiative were greater after CT (about 62%) than after AMT (about 8%) or NE (none). At the 3-month follow-up, initiative and episodic memory declined in all patients. Mood and social relationships improved in the three groups, with greater changes after AMT or NE. In patients with mild to moderate AD, CT can improve initiative and stabilize memory, while the non-cognitive treatments can ameliorate the psychosocial aspects. The combining of CT and non-cognitive treatments may have useful clinical implications.

  2. Retention of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills after hands-only training versus conventional training in novices: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Joon; Cho, Youngsuk; Cho, Gyu Chong; Ji, Hyun Kyung; Han, Song Yi; Lee, Jin Hyuck

    2017-01-01

    Objective Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training can improve performance during simulated cardiac arrest; however, retention of skills after training remains uncertain. Recently, hands-only CPR has been shown to be as effective as conventional CPR. The purpose of this study is to compare the retention rate of CPR skills in laypersons after hands-only or conventional CPR training. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 CPR training methods: 80 minutes of hands-only CPR tra...

  3. Experimentally Generated Random Numbers Certified by the Impossibility of Superluminal Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierhorst, Peter; Shalm, Lynden K.; Mink, Alan; Jordan, Stephen; Liu, Yi-Kai; Rommal, Andrea; Glancy, Scott; Christensen, Bradley; Nam, Sae Woo; Knill, Emanuel

    Random numbers are an important resource for applications such as numerical simulation and secure communication. However, it is difficult to certify whether a physical random number generator is truly unpredictable. Here, we exploit the phenomenon of quantum nonlocality in a loophole-free photonic Bell test experiment to obtain data containing randomness that cannot be predicted by any theory that does not also allow the sending of signals faster than the speed of light. To certify and quantify the randomness, we develop a new protocol that performs well in an experimental regime characterized by low violation of Bell inequalities. Applying an extractor function to our data, we obtain 256 new random bits, uniform to within 10- 3 .

  4. Compact Quantum Random Number Generator with Silicon Nanocrystals Light Emitting Device Coupled to a Silicon Photomultiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisadi, Zahra; Acerbi, Fabio; Fontana, Giorgio; Zorzi, Nicola; Piemonte, Claudio; Pucker, Georg; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2018-02-01

    A small-sized photonic quantum random number generator, easy to be implemented in small electronic devices for secure data encryption and other applications, is highly demanding nowadays. Here, we propose a compact configuration with Silicon nanocrystals large area light emitting device (LED) coupled to a Silicon photomultiplier to generate random numbers. The random number generation methodology is based on the photon arrival time and is robust against the non-idealities of the detector and the source of quantum entropy. The raw data show high quality of randomness and pass all the statistical tests in national institute of standards and technology tests (NIST) suite without a post-processing algorithm. The highest bit rate is 0.5 Mbps with the efficiency of 4 bits per detected photon.

  5. Compact Quantum Random Number Generator with Silicon Nanocrystals Light Emitting Device Coupled to a Silicon Photomultiplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bisadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A small-sized photonic quantum random number generator, easy to be implemented in small electronic devices for secure data encryption and other applications, is highly demanding nowadays. Here, we propose a compact configuration with Silicon nanocrystals large area light emitting device (LED coupled to a Silicon photomultiplier to generate random numbers. The random number generation methodology is based on the photon arrival time and is robust against the non-idealities of the detector and the source of quantum entropy. The raw data show high quality of randomness and pass all the statistical tests in national institute of standards and technology tests (NIST suite without a post-processing algorithm. The highest bit rate is 0.5 Mbps with the efficiency of 4 bits per detected photon.

  6. A Comparison of Three Random Number Generators for Aircraft Dynamic Modeling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Jared A.

    2017-01-01

    Three random number generators, which produce Gaussian white noise sequences, were compared to assess their suitability in aircraft dynamic modeling applications. The first generator considered was the MATLAB (registered) implementation of the Mersenne-Twister algorithm. The second generator was a website called Random.org, which processes atmospheric noise measured using radios to create the random numbers. The third generator was based on synthesis of the Fourier series, where the random number sequences are constructed from prescribed amplitude and phase spectra. A total of 200 sequences, each having 601 random numbers, for each generator were collected and analyzed in terms of the mean, variance, normality, autocorrelation, and power spectral density. These sequences were then applied to two problems in aircraft dynamic modeling, namely estimating stability and control derivatives from simulated onboard sensor data, and simulating flight in atmospheric turbulence. In general, each random number generator had good performance and is well-suited for aircraft dynamic modeling applications. Specific strengths and weaknesses of each generator are discussed. For Monte Carlo simulation, the Fourier synthesis method is recommended because it most accurately and consistently approximated Gaussian white noise and can be implemented with reasonable computational effort.

  7. Stroke Rehabilitation in Frail Elderly with the Robotic Training Device ACRE: A Randomized Controlled Trial and Cost-Effectiveness Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schoone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ACRE (ACtive REhabilitation robotic device is developed to enhance therapeutic treatment of upper limbs after stroke. The aim of this study is to assess effects and costs of ACRE training for frail elderly patients and to establish if ACRE can be a valuable addition to standard therapy in nursing home rehabilitation. The study was designed as randomized controlled trial, one group receiving therapy as usual and the other receiving additional ACRE training. Changes in motor abilities, stroke impact, quality of life and emotional well-being were assessed. In total, 24 patients were included. In this small number no significant effects of the ACRE training were found. A large number of 136 patients were excluded. Main reasons for exclusion were lack of physiological or cognitive abilities. Further improvement of the ACRE can best be focused on making the system suitable for self-training and development of training software for activities of daily living.

  8. Modular Transformations, Order-Chaos Transitions and Pseudo-Random Number Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Antonio; Ruffo, Stefano

    Successive pairs of pseudo-random numbers generated by standard linear congruential transformations display ordered patterns of parallel lines. We study the "ordered" and "chaotic" distribution of such pairs by solving the eigenvalue problem for two-dimensional modular transformations over integers. We conjecture that the optimal uniformity for pair distribution is obtained when the slope of linear modular eigenspaces takes the value n opt =maxint (p/√ {p-1}), where p is a prime number. We then propose a new generator of pairs of independent pseudo-random numbers, which realizes an optimal uniform distribution (in the "statistical" sense) of points on the unit square (0, 1] × (0, 1]. The method can be easily generalized to the generation of k-tuples of random numbers (with k>2).

  9. Numerical Simulation of Vertical Random Vibration of Train-Slab Track-Bridge Interaction System by PEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-ping Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the numerical simulation of the vertical random vibration of train-slab track-bridge interaction system by means of finite element method and pseudoexcitation method. Each vehicle is modeled as four-wheelset mass-spring-damper system with two-layer suspension systems. The rail, slab, and bridge girder are modeled by three-layer elastic Bernoulli-Euler beams connected with each other by spring and damper elements. The equations of motion for the entire system are derived according to energy principle. By regarding rail irregularity as a series of multipoint, different-phase random excitations, the random load vectors of the equations of motion are obtained by pseudoexcitation method. Taking a nine-span simply supported beam bridge traveled by a train consisting of 8 vehicles as an example, the vertical random vibration responses of the system are investigated. Firstly, the suitable number of discrete frequencies of rail irregularity is obtained by numerical experimentations. Secondly, the reliability and efficiency of pseudoexcitation method are verified through comparison with Monte Carlo method. Thirdly, the random vibration characteristics of train-slab track-bridge interaction system are analyzed by pseudoexcitation method. Finally, applying the 3σ rule for Gaussian stochastic process, the maximum responses of train-slab track-bridge interaction system with respect to various train speeds are studied.

  10. Hockey Fans in Training: A Pilot Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrella, Robert J; Gill, Dawn P; Zou, Guangyong; DE Cruz, Ashleigh; Riggin, Brendan; Bartol, Cassandra; Danylchuk, Karen; Hunt, Kate; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Bunn, Christopher; Zwarenstein, Merrick

    2017-12-01

    Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) is a gender-sensitized weight loss and healthy lifestyle program. We investigated 1) feasibility of recruiting and retaining overweight and obese men into a pilot pragmatic randomized controlled trial and 2) potential for Hockey FIT to lead to weight loss and improvements in other outcomes at 12 wk and 12 months. Male fans of two ice hockey teams (35-65 yr; body mass index ≥28 kg·m) located in Ontario (Canada) were randomized to intervention (Hockey FIT) or comparator (wait-list control). Hockey FIT includes a 12-wk active phase (weekly, coach-led group meetings including provision of dietary information, practice of behavior change techniques, and safe exercise sessions plus incremental pedometer walking) and a 40-wk minimally supported phase (smartphone app for sustaining physical activity, private online social network, standardized e-mails, booster session/reunion). Measurement at baseline and 12 wk (both groups) and 12 months (intervention group only) included clinical outcomes (e.g., weight) and self-reported physical activity, diet, and self-rated health. Eighty men were recruited in 4 wk; trial retention was >80% at 12 wk and >75% at 12 months. At 12 wk, the intervention group lost 3.6 kg (95% confidence interval, -5.26 to -1.90 kg) more than the comparator group (P < 0.001) and maintained this weight loss to 12 months. The intervention group also demonstrated greater improvements in other clinical measures, physical activity, diet, and self-rated health at 12 wk; most sustained to 12 months. Results suggest feasible recruitment/retention of overweight and obese men in the Hockey FIT program. Results provide evidence for the potential effectiveness of Hockey FIT for weight loss and improved health in at-risk men and, thus, evidence to proceed with a definitive trial.

  11. Progressive learning in endoscopy simulation training improves clinical performance: a blinded randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Samir C; Scaffidi, Michael A; Khan, Rishad; Garg, Ankit; Al-Mazroui, Ahmed; Alomani, Tareq; Yu, Jeffrey J; Plener, Ian S; Al-Awamy, Mohamed; Yong, Elaine L; Cino, Maria; Ravindran, Nikila C; Zasowski, Mark; Grantcharov, Teodor P; Walsh, Catharine M

    2017-11-01

    A structured comprehensive curriculum (SCC) that uses simulation-based training (SBT) can improve clinical colonoscopy performance. This curriculum may be enhanced through the application of progressive learning, a training strategy centered on incrementally challenging learners. We aimed to determine whether a progressive learning-based curriculum (PLC) would lead to superior clinical performance compared with an SCC. This was a single-blinded randomized controlled trial conducted at a single academic center. Thirty-seven novice endoscopists were recruited and randomized to either a PLC (n = 18) or to an SCC (n = 19). The PLC comprised 6 hours of SBT, which progressed in complexity and difficulty. The SCC included 6 hours of SBT, with cases of random order of difficulty. Both groups received expert feedback and 4 hours of didactic teaching. Participants were assessed at baseline, immediately after training, and 4 to 6 weeks after training. The primary outcome was participants' performance during their first 2 clinical colonoscopies, as assessed by using the Joint Advisory Group Direct Observation of Procedural Skills assessment tool (JAG DOPS). Secondary outcomes were differences in endoscopic knowledge, technical and communication skills, and global performance in the simulated setting. The PLC group outperformed the SCC group during first and second clinical colonoscopies, measured by JAG DOPS (P PLC group had superior technical and communication skills and global performance in the simulated setting (P  .05). Our findings demonstrate the superiority of a PLC for endoscopic simulation, compared with an SCC. Challenging trainees progressively is a simple, theory-based approach to simulation whereby the performance of clinical colonoscopies can be improved. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT02000180.). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. True random number generation from mobile telephone photo based on chaotic cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Liang; Liao Xiaofeng; Xiao Di; Xiang Tao; Zhou Qing; Duan Shukai

    2009-01-01

    A cheap, convenient and universal TRNG based on mobile telephone photo for producing random bit sequence is proposed. To settle the problem of sequential pixels and comparability, three chaos-based approaches are applied to post-process the generated binary image. The random numbers produced by three users are tested using US NIST RNG statistical test software. The experimental results indicate that the Arnold cat map is the fastest way to generate a random bit sequence and can be accepted on general PC. The 'MASK' algorithm also performs well. Finally, comparing with the TRNG of Hu et al. [Hu Y, Liao X, Wong KW, Zhou Q. A true random number generator based on mouse movement and chaotic cryptography. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2007. doi: 10.1016/j.chaos.2007.10.022] which is presented by Hu et al., many merits of the proposed TRNG in this paper has been found.

  13. Note: Fully integrated 3.2 Gbps quantum random number generator with real-time extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Nie, You-Qi; Liang, Hao; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei; Zhou, Hongyi; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-01-01

    We present a real-time and fully integrated quantum random number generator (QRNG) by measuring laser phase fluctuations. The QRNG scheme based on laser phase fluctuations is featured for its capability of generating ultra-high-speed random numbers. However, the speed bottleneck of a practical QRNG lies on the limited speed of randomness extraction. To close the gap between the fast randomness generation and the slow post-processing, we propose a pipeline extraction algorithm based on Toeplitz matrix hashing and implement it in a high-speed field-programmable gate array. Further, all the QRNG components are integrated into a module, including a compact and actively stabilized interferometer, high-speed data acquisition, and real-time data post-processing and transmission. The final generation rate of the QRNG module with real-time extraction can reach 3.2 Gbps.

  14. Robust random number generation using steady-state emission of gain-switched laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Z. L.; Lucamarini, M.; Dynes, J. F.; Fröhlich, B.; Plews, A.; Shields, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate robust, high-speed random number generation using interference of the steady-state emission of guaranteed random phases, obtained through gain-switching a semiconductor laser diode. Steady-state emission tolerates large temporal pulse misalignments and therefore significantly improves the interference quality. Using an 8-bit digitizer followed by a finite-impulse-response unbiasing algorithm, we achieve random number generation rates of 8 and 20 Gb/s, for laser repetition rates of 1 and 2.5 GHz, respectively, with a ±20% tolerance in the interferometer differential delay. We also report a generation rate of 80 Gb/s using partially phase-correlated short pulses. In relation to the field of quantum key distribution, our results confirm the gain-switched laser diode as a suitable light source, capable of providing phase-randomized coherent pulses at a clock rate of up to 2.5 GHz.

  15. Note: Fully integrated 3.2 Gbps quantum random number generator with real-time extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Nie, You-Qi; Liang, Hao; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@ustc.edu.cn; Pan, Jian-Wei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); CAS Center for Excellence and Synergetic Innovation Center in Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhou, Hongyi; Ma, Xiongfeng [Center for Quantum Information, Institute for Interdisciplinary Information Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-07-15

    We present a real-time and fully integrated quantum random number generator (QRNG) by measuring laser phase fluctuations. The QRNG scheme based on laser phase fluctuations is featured for its capability of generating ultra-high-speed random numbers. However, the speed bottleneck of a practical QRNG lies on the limited speed of randomness extraction. To close the gap between the fast randomness generation and the slow post-processing, we propose a pipeline extraction algorithm based on Toeplitz matrix hashing and implement it in a high-speed field-programmable gate array. Further, all the QRNG components are integrated into a module, including a compact and actively stabilized interferometer, high-speed data acquisition, and real-time data post-processing and transmission. The final generation rate of the QRNG module with real-time extraction can reach 3.2 Gbps.

  16. High-Speed Device-Independent Quantum Random Number Generation without a Detection Loophole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yuan, Xiao; Li, Ming-Han; Zhang, Weijun; Zhao, Qi; Zhong, Jiaqiang; Cao, Yuan; Li, Yu-Huai; Chen, Luo-Kan; Li, Hao; Peng, Tianyi; Chen, Yu-Ao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Shi, Sheng-Cai; Wang, Zhen; You, Lixing; Ma, Xiongfeng; Fan, Jingyun; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Quantum mechanics provides the means of generating genuine randomness that is impossible with deterministic classical processes. Remarkably, the unpredictability of randomness can be certified in a manner that is independent of implementation devices. Here, we present an experimental study of device-independent quantum random number generation based on a detection-loophole-free Bell test with entangled photons. In the randomness analysis, without the independent identical distribution assumption, we consider the worst case scenario that the adversary launches the most powerful attacks against the quantum adversary. After considering statistical fluctuations and applying an 80 Gb ×45.6 Mb Toeplitz matrix hashing, we achieve a final random bit rate of 114 bits /s , with a failure probability less than 10-5. This marks a critical step towards realistic applications in cryptography and fundamental physics tests.

  17. Behavioral neurocardiac training in hypertension: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Robert P; Floras, John S; Harvey, Paula J; Kamath, Markad V; Picton, Peter E; Chessex, Caroline; Hiscock, Natalie; Powell, Jonathan; Catt, Michael; Hendrickx, Hilde; Talbot, Duncan; Chen, Maggie H

    2010-04-01

    It is not established whether behavioral interventions add benefit to pharmacological therapy for hypertension. We hypothesized that behavioral neurocardiac training (BNT) with heart rate variability biofeedback would reduce blood pressure further by modifying vagal heart rate modulation during reactivity and recovery from standardized cognitive tasks ("mental stress"). This randomized, controlled trial enrolled 65 patients with uncomplicated hypertension to BNT or active control (autogenic relaxation), with six 1-hour sessions over 2 months with home practice. Outcomes were analyzed with linear mixed models that adjusted for antihypertensive drugs. BNT reduced daytime and 24-hour systolic blood pressures (-2.4+/-0.9 mm Hg, P=0.009, and -2.1+/-0.9 mm Hg, P=0.03, respectively) and pulse pressures (-1.7+/-0.6 mm Hg, P=0.004, and -1.4+/-0.6 mm Hg, P=0.02, respectively). No effect was observed for controls (P>0.10 for all indices). BNT also increased RR-high-frequency power (0.15 to 0.40 Hz; P=0.01) and RR interval (P0.10). In contrast to relaxation therapy, BNT with heart rate variability biofeedback modestly lowers ambulatory blood pressure during wakefulness, and it augments tonic vagal heart rate modulation. It is unknown whether efficacy of this treatment can be improved with biofeedback of baroreflex gain. BNT, alone or as an adjunct to drug therapy, may represent a promising new intervention for hypertension.

  18. Retention of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills after hands-only training versus conventional training in novices: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Joon; Cho, Youngsuk; Cho, Gyu Chong; Ji, Hyun Kyung; Han, Song Yi; Lee, Jin Hyuck

    2017-06-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training can improve performance during simulated cardiac arrest; however, retention of skills after training remains uncertain. Recently, hands-only CPR has been shown to be as effective as conventional CPR. The purpose of this study is to compare the retention rate of CPR skills in laypersons after hands-only or conventional CPR training. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 CPR training methods: 80 minutes of hands-only CPR training or 180 minutes of conventional CPR training. Each participant's CPR skills were evaluated at the end of training and 3 months thereafter using the Resusci Anne manikin with a skill-reporting software. In total, 252 participants completed training; there were 125 in the hands-only CPR group and 127 in the conventional CPR group. After 3 months, 118 participants were randomly selected to complete a post-training test. The hands-only CPR group showed a significant decrease in average compression rate (P=0.015), average compression depth (P=0.031), and proportion of adequate compression depth (P=0.011). In contrast, there was no difference in the skills of the conventional CPR group after 3 months. Conventional CPR training appears to be more effective for the retention of chest compression skills than hands-only CPR training; however, the retention of artificial ventilation skills after conventional CPR training is poor.

  19. A data based random number generator for a multivariate distribution (using stochastic interpolation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. R.; Taylor, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    Let X be a K-dimensional random variable serving as input for a system with output Y (not necessarily of dimension k). given X, an outcome Y or a distribution of outcomes G(Y/X) may be obtained either explicitly or implicity. The situation is considered in which there is a real world data set X sub j sub = 1 (n) and a means of simulating an outcome Y. A method for empirical random number generation based on the sample of observations of the random variable X without estimating the underlying density is discussed.

  20. Quantum random number generator based on quantum nature of vacuum fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, A. E.; Chivilikhin, S. A.; Gleim, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Quantum random number generator (QRNG) allows obtaining true random bit sequences. In QRNG based on quantum nature of vacuum, optical beam splitter with two inputs and two outputs is normally used. We compare mathematical descriptions of spatial beam splitter and fiber Y-splitter in the quantum model for QRNG, based on homodyne detection. These descriptions were identical, that allows to use fiber Y-splitters in practical QRNG schemes, simplifying the setup. Also we receive relations between the input radiation and the resulting differential current in homodyne detector. We experimentally demonstrate possibility of true random bits generation by using QRNG based on homodyne detection with Y-splitter.

  1. A universal algorithm to generate pseudo-random numbers based on uniform mapping as homeomorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu-Lai, Wang

    2010-01-01

    A specific uniform map is constructed as a homeomorphism mapping chaotic time series into [0,1] to obtain sequences of standard uniform distribution. With the uniform map, a chaotic orbit and a sequence orbit obtained are topologically equivalent to each other so the map can preserve the most dynamic properties of chaotic systems such as permutation entropy. Based on the uniform map, a universal algorithm to generate pseudo random numbers is proposed and the pseudo random series is tested to follow the standard 0–1 random distribution both theoretically and experimentally. The algorithm is not complex, which does not impose high requirement on computer hard ware and thus computation speed is fast. The method not only extends the parameter spaces but also avoids the drawback of small function space caused by constraints on chaotic maps used to generate pseudo random numbers. The algorithm can be applied to any chaotic system and can produce pseudo random sequence of high quality, thus can be a good universal pseudo random number generator. (general)

  2. A universal algorithm to generate pseudo-random numbers based on uniform mapping as homeomorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Lai

    2010-09-01

    A specific uniform map is constructed as a homeomorphism mapping chaotic time series into [0,1] to obtain sequences of standard uniform distribution. With the uniform map, a chaotic orbit and a sequence orbit obtained are topologically equivalent to each other so the map can preserve the most dynamic properties of chaotic systems such as permutation entropy. Based on the uniform map, a universal algorithm to generate pseudo random numbers is proposed and the pseudo random series is tested to follow the standard 0-1 random distribution both theoretically and experimentally. The algorithm is not complex, which does not impose high requirement on computer hard ware and thus computation speed is fast. The method not only extends the parameter spaces but also avoids the drawback of small function space caused by constraints on chaotic maps used to generate pseudo random numbers. The algorithm can be applied to any chaotic system and can produce pseudo random sequence of high quality, thus can be a good universal pseudo random number generator.

  3. Impact of a simulation training curriculum on technical and nontechnical skills in colonoscopy: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Samir C; Garg, Ankit; Scaffidi, Michael A; Yu, Jeffrey J; Plener, Ian S; Yong, Elaine; Cino, Maria; Grantcharov, Teodor P; Walsh, Catharine M

    2015-12-01

    GI endoscopy simulation-based training augments early clinical performance; however, the optimal manner by which to deliver training is unknown. We aimed to validate a simulation-based structured comprehensive curriculum (SCC) designed to teach technical, cognitive, and integrative competencies in colonoscopy. Single-blinded, randomized, controlled trial. Endoscopic simulation course at an academic hospital. Thirty-three novice endoscopists were allocated to an SCC group or self-regulated learning (SRL) group. The SCC group received a curriculum consisting of 6 hours of didactic lectures and 8 hours of virtual reality simulation-based training with expert feedback. The SRL group was provided a list of desired objectives and was instructed to practice on the simulator for an equivalent time (8 hours). Clinical transfer was assessed during 2 patient colonoscopies using the Joint Advisory Group Direct Observation of Procedural Skills (JAG DOPS) scale. Secondary outcome measures included differences in procedural knowledge, immediate post-training simulation performance, and delayed post-training (4-6 weeks) performance during an integrated scenario test on the JAG DOPS communication and integrated scenario global rating scales. There was no significant difference in baseline or post-training performance on the simulator task. The SCC group performed superiorly during their first and second clinical colonoscopies. Additionally, the SCC group demonstrated significantly better knowledge and colonoscopy-specific performance, communication, and global performance during the integrated scenario. We were unable to measure SRL participants' effort outside of mandatory training. In addition, feedback metrics and number of available simulation cases are limited. These results support integration of endoscopy simulation into a structured curriculum incorporating instructional feedback and complementary didactic knowledge as a means to augment technical, cognitive, and

  4. Pólya number and first return of bursty random walk: Rigorous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, J.; Xu, X. P.

    2012-03-01

    The recurrence properties of random walks can be characterized by Pólya number, i.e., the probability that the walker has returned to the origin at least once. In this paper, we investigate Pólya number and first return for bursty random walk on a line, in which the walk has different step size and moving probabilities. Using the concept of the Catalan number, we obtain exact results for first return probability, the average first return time and Pólya number for the first time. We show that Pólya number displays two different functional behavior when the walk deviates from the recurrent point. By utilizing the Lagrange inversion formula, we interpret our findings by transferring Pólya number to the closed-form solutions of an inverse function. We also calculate Pólya number using another approach, which corroborates our results and conclusions. Finally, we consider the recurrence properties and Pólya number of two variations of the bursty random walk model.

  5. 40 CFR 761.308 - Sample selection by random number generation on any two-dimensional square grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample selection by random number... § 761.79(b)(3) § 761.308 Sample selection by random number generation on any two-dimensional square... area created in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, select two random numbers: one each for...

  6. Pseudo-random number generators for Monte Carlo simulations on ATI Graphics Processing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchik, Vadim

    2011-03-01

    Basic uniform pseudo-random number generators are implemented on ATI Graphics Processing Units (GPU). The performance results of the realized generators (multiplicative linear congruential (GGL), XOR-shift (XOR128), RANECU, RANMAR, RANLUX and Mersenne Twister (MT19937)) on CPU and GPU are discussed. The obtained speed up factor is hundreds of times in comparison with CPU. RANLUX generator is found to be the most appropriate for using on GPU in Monte Carlo simulations. The brief review of the pseudo-random number generators used in modern software packages for Monte Carlo simulations in high-energy physics is presented.

  7. An efficient algorithm for generating random number pairs drawn from a bivariate normal distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. W.

    1983-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for generating random number pairs from a bivariate normal distribution was developed. Any desired value of the two means, two standard deviations, and correlation coefficient can be selected. Theoretically the technique is exact and in practice its accuracy is limited only by the quality of the uniform distribution random number generator, inaccuracies in computer function evaluation, and arithmetic. A FORTRAN routine was written to check the algorithm and good accuracy was obtained. Some small errors in the correlation coefficient were observed to vary in a surprisingly regular manner. A simple model was developed which explained the qualities aspects of the errors.

  8. Expected number of real roots for random linear combinations of orthogonal polynomials associated with radial weights

    OpenAIRE

    Bayraktar, Turgay

    2017-01-01

    In this note, we obtain asymptotic expected number of real zeros for random polynomials of the form $$f_n(z)=\\sum_{j=0}^na^n_jc^n_jz^j$$ where $a^n_j$ are independent and identically distributed real random variables with bounded $(2+\\delta)$th absolute moment and the deterministic numbers $c^n_j$ are normalizing constants for the monomials $z^j$ within a weighted $L^2$-space induced by a radial weight function satisfying suitable smoothness and growth conditions.

  9. Random Number Simulations Reveal How Random Noise Affects the Measurements and Graphical Portrayals of Self-Assessed Competency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Nuhfer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-assessment measures of competency are blends of an authentic self-assessment signal that researchers seek to measure and random disorder or "noise" that accompanies that signal. In this study, we use random number simulations to explore how random noise affects critical aspects of self-assessment investigations: reliability, correlation, critical sample size, and the graphical representations of self-assessment data. We show that graphical conventions common in the self-assessment literature introduce artifacts that invite misinterpretation. Troublesome conventions include: (y minus x vs. (x scatterplots; (y minus x vs. (x column graphs aggregated as quantiles; line charts that display data aggregated as quantiles; and some histograms. Graphical conventions that generate minimal artifacts include scatterplots with a best-fit line that depict (y vs. (x measures (self-assessed competence vs. measured competence plotted by individual participant scores, and (y vs. (x scatterplots of collective average measures of all participants plotted item-by-item. This last graphic convention attenuates noise and improves the definition of the signal. To provide relevant comparisons across varied graphical conventions, we use a single dataset derived from paired measures of 1154 participants' self-assessed competence and demonstrated competence in science literacy. Our results show that different numerical approaches employed in investigating and describing self-assessment accuracy are not equally valid. By modeling this dataset with random numbers, we show how recognizing the varied expressions of randomness in self-assessment data can improve the validity of numeracy-based descriptions of self-assessment.

  10. On the design of henon and logistic map-based random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magfirawaty; Suryadi, M. T.; Ramli, Kalamullah

    2017-10-01

    The key sequence is one of the main elements in the cryptosystem. True Random Number Generators (TRNG) method is one of the approaches to generating the key sequence. The randomness source of the TRNG divided into three main groups, i.e. electrical noise based, jitter based and chaos based. The chaos based utilizes a non-linear dynamic system (continuous time or discrete time) as an entropy source. In this study, a new design of TRNG based on discrete time chaotic system is proposed, which is then simulated in LabVIEW. The principle of the design consists of combining 2D and 1D chaotic systems. A mathematical model is implemented for numerical simulations. We used comparator process as a harvester method to obtain the series of random bits. Without any post processing, the proposed design generated random bit sequence with high entropy value and passed all NIST 800.22 statistical tests.

  11. A Bidirectional Generalized Synchronization Theorem-Based Chaotic Pseudo-random Number Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Shuangshuang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a bidirectional generalized synchronization theorem for discrete chaos system, this paper introduces a new 5-dimensional bidirectional generalized chaos synchronization system (BGCSDS, whose prototype is a novel chaotic system introduced in [12]. Numerical simulation showed that two pair variables of the BGCSDS achieve generalized chaos synchronization via a transform H.A chaos-based pseudo-random number generator (CPNG was designed by the new BGCSDS. Using the FIPS-140-2 tests issued by the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST verified the randomness of the 1000 binary number sequences generated via the CPNG and the RC4 algorithm respectively. The results showed that all the tested sequences passed the FIPS-140-2 tests. The confidence interval analysis showed the statistical properties of the randomness of the sequences generated via the CPNG and the RC4 algorithm do not have significant differences.

  12. A robust random number generator based on differential comparison of chaotic laser signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Yuncai; Liu, Ming; Xue, Lugang; Li, Pu; Wang, Anbang; Zhang, Mingjiang

    2012-03-26

    We experimentally realize a robust real-time random number generator by differentially comparing the signal from a chaotic semiconductor laser and its delayed signal through a 1-bit analog-to-digital converter. The probability density distribution of the output chaotic signal based on the differential comparison method possesses an extremely small coefficient of Pearson's median skewness (1.5 × 10⁻⁶), which can yield a balanced random sequence much easily than the previously reported method that compares the signal from the chaotic laser with a certain threshold value. Moveover, we experimently demonstrate that our method can stably generate good random numbers at rates of 1.44 Gbit/s with excellent immunity from external perturbations while the previously reported method fails.

  13. Experimental study of a quantum random-number generator based on two independent lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi-Hai; Xu, Feihu

    2017-12-01

    A quantum random-number generator (QRNG) can produce true randomness by utilizing the inherent probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics. Recently, the spontaneous-emission quantum phase noise of the laser has been widely deployed for quantum random-number generation, due to its high rate, its low cost, and the feasibility of chip-scale integration. Here, we perform a comprehensive experimental study of a phase-noise-based QRNG with two independent lasers, each of which operates in either continuous-wave (CW) or pulsed mode. We implement the QRNG by operating the two lasers in three configurations, namely, CW + CW, CW + pulsed, and pulsed + pulsed, and demonstrate their trade-offs, strengths, and weaknesses.

  14. A portable high-quality random number generator for lattice field theory simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, M.

    1993-09-01

    The theory underlying a proposed random number generator for numerical simulations in elementary particle physics and statistical mechanics is discussed. The generator is based on an algorithm introduced by Marsaglia and Zaman, with an important added feature leading to demonstrably good statistical properties. It can be implemented exactly on any computer complying with the IEEE-754 standard for single precision floating point arithmetic. (orig.)

  15. Similarity and number of alternatives in the random-dot motion paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, L.; Grasman, R.P.P.P.; Forstmann, B.U.; Keuken, M.C.; Brown, S.D.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2012-01-01

    The popular random-dot motion (RDM) task has recently been applied to multiple-choice perceptual decisionmaking. However, changes in the number of alternatives on an RDM display lead to changes in the similarity between the alternatives, complicating the study of multiple-choice effects. To

  16. Pseudo-Random Number Generators for Vector Processors and Multicore Processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Agner

    2015-01-01

    Large scale Monte Carlo applications need a good pseudo-random number generator capable of utilizing both the vector processing capabilities and multiprocessing capabilities of modern computers in order to get the maximum performance. The requirements for such a generator are discussed. New ways...

  17. Learning Binomial Probability Concepts with Simulation, Random Numbers and a Spreadsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochowicz, John A., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the reader to the concepts of binomial probability and simulation. A spreadsheet is used to illustrate these concepts. Random number generators are great technological tools for demonstrating the concepts of probability. Ideas of approximation, estimation, and mathematical usefulness provide numerous ways of learning…

  18. Random Numbers Demonstrate the Frequency of Type I Errors: Three Spreadsheets for Class Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Sean

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes three spreadsheet exercises demonstrating the nature and frequency of type I errors using random number generation. The exercises are designed specifically to address issues related to testing multiple relations using correlation (Demonstration I), t tests varying in sample size (Demonstration II) and multiple comparisons…

  19. Examining Psychokinesis: The Interaction of Human Intention with Random Number Generators--A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Holger; Steinkamp, Fiona; Boller, Emil

    2006-01-01

    Seance-room and other large-scale psychokinetic phenomena have fascinated humankind for decades. Experimental research has reduced these phenomena to attempts to influence (a) the fall of dice and, later, (b) the output of random number generators (RNGs). The meta-analysis combined 380 studies that assessed whether RNG output correlated with human…

  20. Generating Random Samples of a Given Size Using Social Security Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard C.; Brauchle, Paul E.

    1984-01-01

    The purposes of this article are (1) to present a method by which social security numbers may be used to draw cluster samples of a predetermined size and (2) to describe procedures used to validate this method of drawing random samples. (JOW)

  1. Reduction of the number of parameters needed for a polynomial random regression test-day model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, M.H.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.

    2000-01-01

    Legendre polynomials were used to describe the (co)variance matrix within a random regression test day model. The goodness of fit depended on the polynomial order of fit, i.e., number of parameters to be estimated per animal but is limited by computing capacity. Two aspects: incomplete lactation

  2. Effects of Anger Awareness and Expression Training versus Relaxation Training on Headaches: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin-Spenny, Olga; Lumley, Mark A.; Thakur, Elyse R.; Nevedal, Dana C.; Hijazi, Alaa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Stress contributes to headaches, and effective interventions for headaches routinely include relaxation training (RT) to directly reduce negative emotions and arousal. Yet, suppressing negative emotions, particularly anger, appears to augment pain, and experimental studies suggest that expressing anger may reduce pain. Therefore, we developed and tested anger awareness and expression training (AAET) on people with headaches. Methods Young adults with headaches (N = 147) were randomized to AAET, RT, or a wait-list control. We assessed affect during sessions, and process and outcome variables at baseline and 4 weeks after treatment. Results On process measures, both interventions increased self-efficacy to manage headaches, but only AAET reduced alexithymia and increased emotional processing and assertiveness. Yet, both interventions were equally effective at improving headache outcomes relative to controls. Conclusions Enhancing anger awareness and expression may improve chronic headaches, although not more than RT. Researchers should study which patients are most likely to benefit from emotional expression versus emotional reduction approaches to chronic pain. PMID:23620190

  3. Effect of movement velocity on the relationship between training load and the number of repetitions of bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Akihiro; Sinclair, Peter J

    2006-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of movement velocity on the relationship between loading intensity and the number of repetitions of bench press. Thirteen healthy men (age = 21.7 +/- 1.0 years; weight = 76.8 +/- 2.5 kg; 1 repetition maximum [1RM] = 99.5 +/- 6.0 kg), who were involved in regular weight training, voluntarily participated in the experiment. Subjects performed bench presses on a Smith machine at 5 different intensities (40-80% 1RM), repeated for 4 velocity conditions (slow: 0.15 +/- 0.03 m.s(-1); medium: 0.32 +/- 0.07 m.s(-1); fast: 0.52 +/- 0.12 m.s(-1); ballistic: maximum velocity), which were randomly assigned over 5 experimental sessions after a 1RM test. Velocity significantly changed the relationship between intensity (%1RM) and the number of reps performed (p velocities producing a higher number of reps. A significant interaction between intensity and velocity meant that velocity had a much greater effect on repetitions at lower intensities. These results suggest that the benefits of using a stretch-shortening cycle during faster movements outweigh the associated disadvantages from the force-velocity relationship. The practical applications of this study are that, when trainees are assigned a resistance training with specific RM values, the lifted intensity (%1RM) or weights will not be consistent unless velocity is controlled during training.

  4. Analysis of random point images with the use of symbolic computation codes and generalized Catalan numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, A. L.; Tuzikov, A. V.; Solov'ev, A. A.; Torgov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    Original codes and combinatorial-geometrical computational schemes are presented, which are developed and applied for finding exact analytical formulas that describe the probability of errorless readout of random point images recorded by a scanning aperture with a limited number of threshold levels. Combinatorial problems encountered in the course of the study and associated with the new generalization of Catalan numbers are formulated and solved. An attempt is made to find the explicit analytical form of these numbers, which is, on the one hand, a necessary stage of solving the basic research problem and, on the other hand, an independent self-consistent problem.

  5. ACORN—A new method for generating sequences of uniformly distributed Pseudo-random Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikramaratna, R. S.

    1989-07-01

    A new family of pseudo-random number generators, the ACORN ( additive congruential random number) generators, is proposed. The resulting numbers are distributed uniformly in the interval [0, 1). The ACORN generators are defined recursively, and the ( k + 1)th order generator is easily derived from the kth order generator. Some theorems concerning the period length are presented and compared with existing results for linear congruential generators. A range of statistical tests are applied to the ACORN generators, and their performance is compared with that of the linear congruential generators and the Chebyshev generators. The tests show the ACORN generators to be statistically superior to the Chebyshev generators, while being statistically similar to the linear congruential generators. However, the ACORN generators execute faster than linear congruential generators for the same statistical faithfulness. The main advantages of the ACORN generator are speed of execution, long period length, and simplicity of coding.

  6. Digital-Analog Hybrid Scheme and Its Application to Chaotic Random Number Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zeshi; Li, Hongtao; Miao, Yunchi; Hu, Wen; Zhu, Xiaohua

    2017-12-01

    Practical random number generation (RNG) circuits are typically achieved with analog devices or digital approaches. Digital-based techniques, which use field programmable gate array (FPGA) and graphics processing units (GPU) etc. usually have better performances than analog methods as they are programmable, efficient and robust. However, digital realizations suffer from the effect of finite precision. Accordingly, the generated random numbers (RNs) are actually periodic instead of being real random. To tackle this limitation, in this paper we propose a novel digital-analog hybrid scheme that employs the digital unit as the main body, and minimum analog devices to generate physical RNs. Moreover, the possibility of realizing the proposed scheme with only one memory element is discussed. Without loss of generality, we use the capacitor and the memristor along with FPGA to construct the proposed hybrid system, and a chaotic true random number generator (TRNG) circuit is realized, producing physical RNs at a throughput of Gbit/s scale. These RNs successfully pass all the tests in the NIST SP800-22 package, confirming the significance of the scheme in practical applications. In addition, the use of this new scheme is not restricted to RNGs, and it also provides a strategy to solve the effect of finite precision in other digital systems.

  7. Efficient pseudo-random number generation for monte-carlo simulations using graphic processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Siddhant; Mohanty, A. K.; Carminati, F.

    2012-06-01

    A hybrid approach based on the combination of three Tausworthe generators and one linear congruential generator for pseudo random number generation for GPU programing as suggested in NVIDIA-CUDA library has been used for MONTE-CARLO sampling. On each GPU thread, a random seed is generated on fly in a simple way using the quick and dirty algorithm where mod operation is not performed explicitly due to unsigned integer overflow. Using this hybrid generator, multivariate correlated sampling based on alias technique has been carried out using both CUDA and OpenCL languages.

  8. Efficient pseudo-random number generation for Monte-Carlo simulations using graphic processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, Siddhant; Mohanty, A K; Carminati, F

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid approach based on the combination of three Tausworthe generators and one linear congruential generator for pseudo random number generation for GPU programing as suggested in NVIDIA-CUDA library has been used for MONTE-CARLO sampling. On each GPU thread, a random seed is generated on fly in a simple way using the quick and dirty algorithm where mod operation is not performed explicitly due to unsigned integer overflow. Using this hybrid generator, multivariate correlated sampling based on alias technique has been carried out using both CUDA and OpenCL languages.

  9. Self-Powered Random Number Generator Based on Coupled Triboelectric and Electrostatic Induction Effects at the Liquid-Dielectric Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Aifang; Chen, Xiangyu; Cui, Haotian; Chen, Libo; Luo, Jianjun; Tang, Wei; Peng, Mingzeng; Zhang, Yang; Zhai, Junyi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-12-27

    Modern cryptography increasingly employs random numbers generated from physical sources in lieu of conventional software-based pseudorandom numbers, primarily owing to the great demand of unpredictable, indecipherable cryptographic keys from true random numbers for information security. Thus, far, the sole demonstration of true random numbers has been generated through thermal noise and/or quantum effects, which suffers from expensive and complex equipment. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for self-powered creation of true random numbers by using triboelectric technology to collect random signals from nature. This random number generator based on coupled triboelectric and electrostatic induction effects at the liquid-dielectric interface includes an elaborately designed triboelectric generator (TENG) with an irregular grating structure, an electronic-optical device, and an optical-electronic device. The random characteristics of raindrops are harvested through TENG and consequently transformed and converted by electronic-optical device and an optical-electronic device with a nonlinear characteristic. The cooperation of the mechanical, electrical, and optical signals ensures that the generator possesses complex nonlinear input-output behavior and contributes to increased randomness. The random number sequences are deduced from final electrical signals received by an optical-electronic device using a familiar algorithm. These obtained random number sequences exhibit good statistical characteristics, unpredictability, and unrepeatability. Our study supplies a simple, practical, and effective method to generate true random numbers, which can be widely used in cryptographic protocols, digital signatures, authentication, identification, and other information security fields.

  10. Covariance of the number of real zeros of a random trigonometric polynomial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Farahmand

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For random coefficients aj and bj we consider a random trigonometric polynomial defined as Tn(θ=∑j=0n{ajcos⁡jθ+bjsin⁡jθ}. The expected number of real zeros of Tn(θ in the interval (0,2π can be easily obtained. In this note we show that this number is in fact n/3. However the variance of the above number is not known. This note presents a method which leads to the asymptotic value for the covariance of the number of real zeros of the above polynomial in intervals (0,π and (π,2π. It can be seen that our method in fact remains valid to obtain the result for any two disjoint intervals. The applicability of our method to the classical random trigonometric polynomial, defined as Pn(θ=∑j=0naj(ωcos⁡jθ, is also discussed. Tn(θ has the advantage on Pn(θ of being stationary, with respect to θ, for which, therefore, a more advanced method developed could be used to yield the results.

  11. Robotic Assistance for Training Finger Movement Using a Hebbian Model: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Justin B; Chan, Vicky; Ingemanson, Morgan L; Cramer, Steven C; Wolbrecht, Eric T; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2017-08-01

    Robots that physically assist movement are increasingly used in rehabilitation therapy after stroke, yet some studies suggest robotic assistance discourages effort and reduces motor learning. To determine the therapeutic effects of high and low levels of robotic assistance during finger training. We designed a protocol that varied the amount of robotic assistance while controlling the number, amplitude, and exerted effort of training movements. Participants (n = 30) with a chronic stroke and moderate hemiparesis (average Box and Blocks Test 32 ± 18 and upper extremity Fugl-Meyer score 46 ± 12) actively moved their index and middle fingers to targets to play a musical game similar to GuitarHero 3 h/wk for 3 weeks. The participants were randomized to receive high assistance (causing 82% success at hitting targets) or low assistance (55% success). Participants performed ~8000 movements during 9 training sessions. Both groups improved significantly at the 1-month follow-up on functional and impairment-based motor outcomes, on depression scores, and on self-efficacy of hand function, with no difference between groups in the primary endpoint (change in Box and Blocks). High assistance boosted motivation, as well as secondary motor outcomes (Fugl-Meyer and Lateral Pinch Strength)-particularly for individuals with more severe finger motor deficits. Individuals with impaired finger proprioception at baseline benefited less from the training. Robot-assisted training can promote key psychological outcomes known to modulate motor learning and retention. Furthermore, the therapeutic effectiveness of robotic assistance appears to derive at least in part from proprioceptive stimulation, consistent with a Hebbian plasticity model.

  12. Long-term retention of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills after shortened chest compression-only training and conventional training: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Chika; Iwami, Taku; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Ando, Masahiko; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Marukawa, Seishiro; Kawamura, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear how much the length of a cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training program can be reduced without ruining its effectiveness. The authors aimed to compare CPR skills 6 months and 1 year after training between shortened chest compression-only CPR training and conventional CPR training. Participants were randomly assigned to either the compression-only CPR group, which underwent a 45-minute training program consisting of chest compressions and automated external defibrillator (AED) use with personal training manikins, or the conventional CPR group, which underwent a 180-minute training program with chest compressions, rescue breathing, and AED use. Participants' resuscitation skills were evaluated 6 months and 1 year after the training. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of appropriate chest compressions 1 year after the training. A total of 146 persons were enrolled, and 63 (87.5%) in the compression-only CPR group and 56 (75.7%) in the conventional CPR group completed the 1-year evaluation. The compression-only CPR group was superior to the conventional CPR group regarding the proportion of appropriate chest compression (mean ± SD = 59.8% ± 40.0% vs. 46.3% ± 28.6%; p = 0.036) and the number of appropriate chest compressions (mean ± SD = 119.5 ± 80.0 vs. 77.2 ± 47.8; p = 0.001). Time without chest compression in the compression-only CPR group was significantly shorter than that in the conventional CPR group (mean ± SD = 11.8 ± 21.1 seconds vs. 52.9 ± 14.9 seconds; p CPR training program appears to help the general public retain CPR skills better than the conventional CPR training program. UMIN-CTR UMIN000001675. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  13. An On-Demand Optical Quantum Random Number Generator with In-Future Action and Ultra-Fast Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipčević, Mario; Ursin, Rupert

    2015-06-09

    Random numbers are essential for our modern information based society e.g. in cryptography. Unlike frequently used pseudo-random generators, physical random number generators do not depend on complex algorithms but rather on a physical process to provide true randomness. Quantum random number generators (QRNG) do rely on a process, which can be described by a probabilistic theory only, even in principle. Here we present a conceptually simple implementation, which offers a 100% efficiency of producing a random bit upon a request and simultaneously exhibits an ultra low latency. A careful technical and statistical analysis demonstrates its robustness against imperfections of the actual implemented technology and enables to quickly estimate randomness of very long sequences. Generated random numbers pass standard statistical tests without any post-processing. The setup described, as well as the theory presented here, demonstrate the maturity and overall understanding of the technology.

  14. Randomized trial to examine procedure-to-procedure transfer in laparoscopic simulator training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, F; Sorensen, J L; Konge, L

    2016-01-01

    -centre educational superiority trial. Surgical novices practised basic skills on a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator. On reaching proficiency, participants were randomized to proficiency-based training. The intervention group practised two procedures on the simulator (appendicectomy followed by salpingectomy...

  15. Generating log-normally distributed random numbers by using the Ziggurat algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty analyses are usually based on the Monte Carlo method. Using an efficient random number generator(RNG) is a key element in success of Monte Carlo simulations. Log-normal distributed variates are very typical in NPP PSAs. This paper proposes an approach to generate log normally distributed variates based on the Ziggurat algorithm and evaluates the efficiency of the proposed Ziggurat RNG. The proposed RNG can be helpful to improve the uncertainty analysis of NPP PSAs. This paper focuses on evaluating the efficiency of the Ziggurat algorithm from a NPP PSA point of view. From this study, we can draw the following conclusions. - The Ziggurat algorithm is one of perfect random number generators to product normal distributed variates. - The Ziggurat algorithm is computationally much faster than the most commonly used method, Marsaglia polar method

  16. A revision of the subtract-with-borrow random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibidanov, Alexei

    2017-12-01

    The most popular and widely used subtract-with-borrow generator, also known as RANLUX, is reimplemented as a linear congruential generator using large integer arithmetic with the modulus size of 576 bits. Modern computers, as well as the specific structure of the modulus inferred from RANLUX, allow for the development of a fast modular multiplication - the core of the procedure. This was previously believed to be slow and have too high cost in terms of computing resources. Our tests show a significant gain in generation speed which is comparable with other fast, high quality random number generators. An additional feature is the fast skipping of generator states leading to a seeding scheme which guarantees the uniqueness of random number sequences. Licensing provisions: GPLv3 Programming language: C++, C, Assembler

  17. Random number generators in support of Monte Carlo problems in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyadkin, I.G.

    1993-01-01

    The ability to support a modern users' expectations of random number generators to solve problems in physics is analyzed. The capabilities of the newest concepts and the old pseudo-random algorithms are compared. The author is in favor of multiplicative generators. Due to the 64-bit arithmetic of a modern PC, multiplicative generators have a sufficient number of periods (up to 2 62 ) and are quicker to generate and to govern independent sequences for parallel processing. In addition they are able to replicate sub-sequences (without storing their seeds) for each standard trial in any code and to simulate spatial and planar directions and EXP(-x) distributions often needed as ''bricks'' for simulating events in physics. Hundreds of multipliers for multiplicative generators have been tabulated and tested, and the required speeds have been obtained. (author)

  18. Security Flaws in an Efficient Pseudo-Random Number Generator for Low-Power Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Hernandez-Castro, Julio C.; Tapiador, Juan M. E.; Millán, Enrique San; van der Lubbe, Jan C. A.

    In 2004, Settharam and Rhee tackled the design of a lightweight Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) suitable for low-power environments (e.g. sensor networks, low-cost RFID tags). First, they explicitly fixed a set of requirements for this primitive. Then, they proposed a PRNG conforming to these requirements and using a free-running timer [9]. We analyze this primitive discovering important security faults. The proposed algorithm fails to pass even relatively non-stringent batteries of randomness such as ENT (i.e. a pseudorandom number sequence test program). We prove that their recommended PRNG has a very short period due to the flawed design of its core. The internal state can be easily revealed, compromising its backward and forward security. Additionally, the rekeying algorithm is defectively designed mainly related to the unpractical value proposed for this purpose.

  19. A homodyne detector integrated onto a photonic chip for measuring quantum states and generating random numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelli, Francesco; Ferranti, Giacomo; Mahler, Dylan H.; Sibson, Philip; Kennard, Jake E.; Santamato, Alberto; Sinclair, Gary; Bonneau, Damien; Thompson, Mark G.; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.

    2018-04-01

    Optical homodyne detection has found use as a characterisation tool in a range of quantum technologies. So far implementations have been limited to bulk optics. Here we present the optical integration of a homodyne detector onto a silicon photonics chip. The resulting device operates at high speed, up 150 MHz, it is compact and it operates with low noise, quantified with 11 dB clearance between shot noise and electronic noise. We perform on-chip quantum tomography of coherent states with the detector and show that it meets the requirements for characterising more general quantum states of light. We also show that the detector is able to produce quantum random numbers at a rate of 1.2 Gbps, by measuring the vacuum state of the electromagnetic field and applying off-line post processing. The produced random numbers pass all the statistical tests provided by the NIST test suite.

  20. Recurrence and Polya Number of General One-Dimensional Random Walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaokun; Wan Jing; Lu Jingju; Xu Xinping

    2011-01-01

    The recurrence properties of random walks can be characterized by Polya number, i.e., the probability that the walker has returned to the origin at least once. In this paper, we consider recurrence properties for a general 1D random walk on a line, in which at each time step the walker can move to the left or right with probabilities l and r, or remain at the same position with probability o (l + r + o = 1). We calculate Polya number P of this model and find a simple expression for P as, P = 1 - Δ, where Δ is the absolute difference of l and r (Δ = |l - r|). We prove this rigorous expression by the method of creative telescoping, and our result suggests that the walk is recurrent if and only if the left-moving probability l equals to the right-moving probability r. (general)

  1. Pseudo-random number generation for Brownian Dynamics and Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations on GPU devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Carolyn L.; Anderson, Joshua A.; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Molecular Dynamics codes implemented on GPUs have achieved two-order of magnitude computational accelerations. → Brownian Dynamics and Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations require a large number of random numbers per time step. → We introduce a method for generating small batches of pseudorandom numbers distributed over many threads of calculations. → With this method, Dissipative Particle Dynamics is implemented on a GPU device without requiring thread-to-thread communication. - Abstract: Brownian Dynamics (BD), also known as Langevin Dynamics, and Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) are implicit solvent methods commonly used in models of soft matter and biomolecular systems. The interaction of the numerous solvent particles with larger particles is coarse-grained as a Langevin thermostat is applied to individual particles or to particle pairs. The Langevin thermostat requires a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate the stochastic force applied to each particle or pair of neighboring particles during each time step in the integration of Newton's equations of motion. In a Single-Instruction-Multiple-Thread (SIMT) GPU parallel computing environment, small batches of random numbers must be generated over thousands of threads and millions of kernel calls. In this communication we introduce a one-PRNG-per-kernel-call-per-thread scheme, in which a micro-stream of pseudorandom numbers is generated in each thread and kernel call. These high quality, statistically robust micro-streams require no global memory for state storage, are more computationally efficient than other PRNG schemes in memory-bound kernels, and uniquely enable the DPD simulation method without requiring communication between threads.

  2. Distributed Pseudo-Random Number Generation and Its Application to Cloud Database

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiageng; Miyaji, Atsuko; Su, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    Cloud database is now a rapidly growing trend in cloud computing market recently. It enables the clients run their computation on out-sourcing databases or access to some distributed database service on the cloud. At the same time, the security and privacy concerns is major challenge for cloud database to continue growing. To enhance the security and privacy of the cloud database technology, the pseudo-random number generation (PRNG) plays an important roles in data encryptions and privacy-pr...

  3. Pseudo-random number generator based on mixing of three chaotic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, M.; Grosges, T.; Barchiesi, D.; Erra, R.

    2014-04-01

    A secure pseudo-random number generator three-mixer is proposed. The principle of the method consists in mixing three chaotic maps produced from an input initial vector. The algorithm uses permutations whose positions are computed and indexed by a standard chaotic function and a linear congruence. The performance of that scheme is evaluated through statistical analysis. Such a cryptosystem lets appear significant cryptographic qualities for a high security level.

  4. Leveraging Random Number Generation for Mastery of Learning in Teaching Quantitative Research Courses via an E-Learning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsathorn, Wasita; Charoen, Danuvasin; Dryver, Arthur L.

    2014-01-01

    E-Learning brings access to a powerful but often overlooked teaching tool: random number generation. Using random number generation, a practically infinite number of quantitative problem-solution sets can be created. In addition, within the e-learning context, in the spirit of the mastery of learning, it is possible to assign online quantitative…

  5. Generation of pseudo-random numbers from given probabilistic distribution with the use of chaotic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawnik, Marcin

    2018-01-01

    The scope of the paper is the presentation of a new method of generating numbers from a given distribution. The method uses the inverse cumulative distribution function and a method of flattening of probabilistic distributions. On the grounds of these methods, a new construction of chaotic maps was derived, which generates values from a given distribution. The analysis of the new method was conducted on the example of a newly constructed chaotic recurrences, based on the Box-Muller transformation and the quantile function of the exponential distribution. The obtained results certify that the proposed method may be successively applicable for the construction of generators of pseudo-random numbers.

  6. Reconstruction of photon number conditioned states using phase randomized homodyne measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrzanowski, H M; Assad, S M; Bernu, J; Hage, B; Lam, P K; Symul, T; Lund, A P; Ralph, T C

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the reconstruction of a photon number conditioned state without using a photon number discriminating detector. By using only phase randomized homodyne measurements, we reconstruct up to the three photon subtracted squeezed vacuum state. The reconstructed Wigner functions of these states show regions of pronounced negativity, signifying the non-classical nature of the reconstructed states. The techniques presented allow for complete characterization of the role of a conditional measurement on an ensemble of states, and might prove useful in systems where photon counting still proves technically challenging. (paper)

  7. The additive congruential random number generator--A special case of a multiple recursive generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikramaratna, Roy S.

    2008-07-01

    This paper considers an approach to generating uniformly distributed pseudo-random numbers which works well in serial applications but which also appears particularly well-suited for application on parallel processing systems. Additive Congruential Random Number (ACORN) generators are straightforward to implement for arbitrarily large order and modulus; if implemented using integer arithmetic, it becomes possible to generate identical sequences on any machine. Previously published theoretical analysis has demonstrated that a kth order ACORN sequence approximates to being uniformly distributed in up to k dimensions, for any given k. ACORN generators can be constructed to give period lengths exceeding any given number (for example, with period length in excess of 230p, for any given p). Results of empirical tests have demonstrated that, if p is greater than or equal to 2, then the ACORN generator can be used successfully for generating double precision uniform random variates. This paper demonstrates that an ACORN generator is a particular case of a multiple recursive generator (and, therefore, also a special case of a matrix generator). Both these latter approaches have been widely studied, and it is to be hoped that the results given in the present paper will lead to greater confidence in using the ACORN generators.

  8. Generation of pseudo-random numbers with the use of inverse chaotic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawnik Marcin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In (Lawnik M., Generation of numbers with the distribution close to uniform with the use of chaotic maps, In: Obaidat M.S., Kacprzyk J., Ören T. (Ed., International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications (SIMULTECH (28-30 August 2014, Vienna, Austria, SCITEPRESS, 2014 Lawnik discussed a method of generating pseudo-random numbers from uniform distribution with the use of adequate chaotic transformation. The method enables the “flattening” of continuous distributions to uniform one. In this paper a inverse process to the above-mentioned method is presented, and, in consequence, a new manner of generating pseudo-random numbers from a given continuous distribution. The method utilizes the frequency of the occurrence of successive branches of chaotic transformation in the process of “flattening”. To generate the values from the given distribution one discrete and one continuous value of a random variable are required. The presented method does not directly involve the knowledge of the density function or the cumulative distribution function, which is, undoubtedly, a great advantage in comparison with other well-known methods. The described method was analysed on the example of the standard normal distribution.

  9. Randomized, Controlled Trial of CBT Training for PTSD Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    implement and evaluate a cost effective, web based self-paced training program to provide skills- oriented continuing education for mental health...Product Aim(s) The purpose of this study is to design, implement and evaluate a web based training program providing skills- oriented continuing education ...Rates and Data Quality i. The team collaborated with the VHA NCPTSD to monitor the collection rates and data quality on a weekly basis . b. Create Interim

  10. Attention Training in Individuals with Generalized Social Phobia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Nader; Beard, Courtney; Taylor, Charles T.; Klumpp, Heide; Elias, Jason; Burns, Michelle; Chen, Xi

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial to examine the efficacy of an attention training procedure in reducing symptoms of social anxiety in 44 individuals diagnosed with generalized social phobia (GSP). Attention training comprised a probe detection task in which pictures of faces with either a threatening or…

  11. A randomized clinical trial comparing fitness and biofeedback training versus basic treatment in patients with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, Marijke; Bolwijn, Paulien; Verstappen, Frans; Bakker, Carla; Hidding, Alita; Houben, Harry; van der Heijde, Desiree; Landewé, Robert; van der Linden, Sjef

    2002-01-01

    To compare the therapeutic effects of physical fitness training or biofeedback training with the results of usual care in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). One hundred forty-three female patients with FM (American College of Rheumatology criteria) were randomized into 3 groups: a fitness program (n =

  12. Randomized Trial of Anger Control Training for Adolescents with Tourette's Syndrome and Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhdolsky, Denis G.; Vitulano, Lawrence A.; Carroll, Deirdre H.; McGuire, Joseph; Leckman, James F.; Scahill, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    A randomized trial to examine the efficacy of anger control training for treating adolescents with Tourette's syndrome and disruptive behavior reveals that those administered with the anger control training showed a decrease in their Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale score by 52 percent as compared with a decrease of 11 percent in the treatment as…

  13. Emotion Regulation Training for Adolescents with Borderline Personality Disorder Traits: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppert, H. Marieke; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Bloo, Josephine; van Gemert, Tonny G.; Wiersema, Herman M.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Nauta, Maaike H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Emotion Regulation Training (ERT), a 17-session weekly group training for adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. Method: One hundred nine adolescents with borderline traits (73% meeting the full criteria for BPD) were randomized to treatment as usual only (TAU) or ERT + TAU.…

  14. Emotion Regulation Training for Adolescents With Borderline Personality Disorder Traits : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuppert, H. Marieke; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Bloo, Josephine; van Gemert, Tonny G.; Wiersema, Herman M.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Nauta, Maaike H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Emotion Regulation Training (ERT), a 17-session weekly group training for adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. Method: One hundred nine adolescents with borderline traits (73% meeting the full criteria for BPD) were randomized

  15. Emotion regulation training for adolescents with borderline personality disorder traits: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuppert, H.M.; Timmerman, M.E.; Bloo, J.; van Gemert, T.G.; Wiersema, H.M.; Minderaa, R.B.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Nauta, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Emotion Regulation Training (ERT), a 17-session weekly group training for adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. Method: One hundred nine adolescents with borderline traits (73% meeting the full criteria for BPD) were randomized

  16. Do bacterial cell numbers follow a theoretical Poisson distribution? Comparison of experimentally obtained numbers of single cells with random number generation via computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kento; Hokunan, Hidekazu; Hasegawa, Mayumi; Kawamura, Shuso; Koseki, Shigenobu

    2016-12-01

    We investigated a bacterial sample preparation procedure for single-cell studies. In the present study, we examined whether single bacterial cells obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a theoretical Poisson distribution. Four serotypes of Salmonella enterica, three serotypes of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli and one serotype of Listeria monocytogenes were used as sample bacteria. An inoculum of each serotype was prepared via a 10-fold dilution series to obtain bacterial cell counts with mean values of one or two. To determine whether the experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts follow a theoretical Poisson distribution, a likelihood ratio test between the experimentally obtained cell counts and Poisson distribution which parameter estimated by maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) was conducted. The bacterial cell counts of each serotype sufficiently followed a Poisson distribution. Furthermore, to examine the validity of the parameters of Poisson distribution from experimentally obtained bacterial cell counts, we compared these with the parameters of a Poisson distribution that were estimated using random number generation via computer simulation. The Poisson distribution parameters experimentally obtained from bacterial cell counts were within the range of the parameters estimated using a computer simulation. These results demonstrate that the bacterial cell counts of each serotype obtained via 10-fold dilution followed a Poisson distribution. The fact that the frequency of bacterial cell counts follows a Poisson distribution at low number would be applied to some single-cell studies with a few bacterial cells. In particular, the procedure presented in this study enables us to develop an inactivation model at the single-cell level that can estimate the variability of survival bacterial numbers during the bacterial death process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of random number generators in genetic algorithms to improve rainfall-runoff modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlumecký, Martin; Buchtele, Josef; Richta, Karel

    2017-10-01

    The efficient calibration of rainfall-runoff models is a difficult issue, even for experienced hydrologists. Therefore, fast and high-quality model calibration is a valuable improvement. This paper describes a novel methodology and software for the optimisation of a rainfall-runoff modelling using a genetic algorithm (GA) with a newly prepared concept of a random number generator (HRNG), which is the core of the optimisation. The GA estimates model parameters using evolutionary principles, which requires a quality number generator. The new HRNG generates random numbers based on hydrological information and it provides better numbers compared to pure software generators. The GA enhances the model calibration very well and the goal is to optimise the calibration of the model with a minimum of user interaction. This article focuses on improving the internal structure of the GA, which is shielded from the user. The results that we obtained indicate that the HRNG provides a stable trend in the output quality of the model, despite various configurations of the GA. In contrast to previous research, the HRNG speeds up the calibration of the model and offers an improvement of rainfall-runoff modelling.

  18. Training health professionals to recruit into challenging randomized controlled trials improved confidence: the development of the QuinteT randomized controlled trial recruitment training intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Nicola; Gaunt, Daisy; Blazeby, Jane M; Elliott, Daisy; Husbands, Samantha; Holding, Peter; Rooshenas, Leila; Jepson, Marcus; Young, Bridget; Bower, Peter; Tudur Smith, Catrin; Gamble, Carrol; Donovan, Jenny L

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe and evaluate a training intervention for recruiting patients to randomized controlled trials (RCTs), particularly for those anticipated to be difficult for recruitment. One of three training workshops was offered to surgeons and one to research nurses. Self-confidence in recruitment was measured through questionnaires before and up to 3 months after training; perceived impact of training on practice was assessed after. Data were analyzed using two-sample t-tests and supplemented with findings from the content analysis of free-text comments. Sixty-seven surgeons and 32 nurses attended. Self-confidence scores for all 10 questions increased after training [range of mean scores before 5.1-6.9 and after 6.9-8.2 (scale 0-10, all 95% confidence intervals are above 0 and all P-values recruitment following training was high-surgeons' mean score 8.8 [standard deviation (SD), 1.2] and nurses' 8.4 (SD, 1.3) (scale 0-10); 50% (19/38) of surgeons and 40% (10/25) of nurses reported on a 4-point Likert scale that training had made "a lot" of difference to their RCT discussions. Analysis of free text revealed this was mostly in relation to how to convey equipoise, explain randomization, and manage treatment preferences. Surgeons and research nurses reported increased self-confidence in discussing RCTs with patients, a raised awareness of hidden challenges and a positive impact on recruitment practice following QuinteT RCT Recruitment Training. Training will be made more available and evaluated in relation to recruitment rates and informed consent. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vibrotactile neurofeedback balance training in patients with Parkinson's disease: reducing the number of falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Izquierdo, Marcos; Ernst, Arne; Soto-Varela, Andrés; Santos-Pérez, Sofía; Faraldo-García, Ana; Sesar-Ignacio, Angel; Basta, Dietmar

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess effectiveness of balance training with a vibrotactile neurofeedback system in improving overall stability in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Ten patients diagnosed with idiopathic PD were included. Individualization of the rehabilitation program started with a body sway analysis of stance and gait tasks (Standard Balance Deficit Test, SBDT) by using the diagnostic tool of the applied device (Vertiguard(®)-RT). Those tasks with the poorest outcome as related to age- and gender-related controls were included in the training program (not more than six tasks). Improvement of postural stability was assessed by performing SBDT, Sensory Organization Test (SOT) of Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP), Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), activity-specific balance confidence scale and recording the number of falls over the past three months. Furthermore, scores of SOT and DHI of 10 PD patients previously trained in an earlier study (by using CDP) were compared with results of those in the present study. After neurofeedback training (NFT), there was a statistically significant improvement in body sway (calculated over all training tasks), number of falls, and scores of SOT, DHI and ABC. In comparison with CDP-training, a statistically significant higher increase of SOT score was observed for patients after NFT with the Vertiguard-RT device compared to CDP training. Our results showed that a free-field vibrotactile NFT with Vertiguard(®)-RT device can improve balance in PD patients in everyday life conditions very effectively, which might led in turn to a reduction of falls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Training to develop sense of numbers and quantities for preschool children with special needs

    OpenAIRE

    Kuplenk, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Children as well as adults have to cope with mathematics every day either at nursery school, at work or at home. Mathematics has a great impact on our lives and work. When I was working with children with special needs I noticed that they found it very difficult to understand numbers and numbers relations. That is why I devoted my diploma work to preparing a complete training for developing a feeling of number sense with children with special needs. I believe that it is of great importan...

  1. Cluster randomized trial to evaluate the impact of team training on surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, A; Peix, J L; Piriou, V; Occelli, P; Denis, A; Bourdy, S; Carty, M J; Gawande, A A; Debouck, F; Vacca, C; Lifante, J C; Colin, C

    2016-12-01

    The application of safety principles from the aviation industry to the operating room has offered hope in reducing surgical complications. This study aimed to assess the impact on major surgical complications of adding an aviation-based team training programme after checklist implementation. A prospective parallel-group cluster trial was undertaken between September 2011 and March 2013. Operating room teams from 31 hospitals were assigned randomly to participate in a team training programme focused on major concepts of crew resource management and checklist utilization. The primary outcome measure was the occurrence of any major adverse event, including death, during the hospital stay within the first 30 days after surgery. Using a difference-in-difference approach, the ratio of the odds ratios (ROR) was estimated to compare changes in surgical outcomes between intervention and control hospitals. Some 22 779 patients were enrolled, including 5934 before and 16 845 after team training implementation. The risk of major adverse events fell from 8·8 to 5·5 per cent in 16 intervention hospitals (adjusted odds ratio 0·57, 95 per cent c.i. 0·48 to 0·68; P trends revealed significant improvements among ten institutions, equally distributed across intervention and control hospitals. Surgical outcomes improved substantially, with no difference between trial arms. Successful implementation of an aviation-based team training programme appears to require modification and adaptation of its principles in the context of the the surgical milieu. Registration number: NCT01384474 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Adding high-intensity interval training to conventional training modalities: optimizing health-related outcomes during chemotherapy for breast cancer: the OptiTrain randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijwel, Sara; Backman, Malin; Bolam, Kate A; Jervaeus, Anna; Sundberg, Carl Johan; Margolin, Sara; Browall, Maria; Rundqvist, Helene; Wengström, Yvonne

    2018-02-01

    Exercise training is an effective and safe way to counteract cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and to improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL). High-intensity interval training has proven beneficial for the health of clinical populations. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of resistance and high-intensity interval training (RT-HIIT), and moderate-intensity aerobic and high-intensity interval training (AT-HIIT) to usual care (UC) in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was CRF and the secondary endpoints were HRQoL and cancer treatment-related symptoms. Two hundred and forty women planned to undergo chemotherapy were randomized to supervised RT-HIIT, AT-HIIT, or UC. Measurements were performed at baseline and at 16 weeks. Questionnaires included Piper Fatigue Scale, EORTC-QLQ-C30, and Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. The RT-HIIT group was superior to UC for CRF: total CRF (p = 0.02), behavior/daily life (p = 0.01), and sensory/physical (p = 0.03) CRF. Role functioning significantly improved while cognitive functioning was unchanged for RT-HIIT compared to declines shown in the UC group (p = 0.04). AT-HIIT significantly improved emotional functioning versus UC (p = 0.01) and was superior to UC for pain symptoms (p = 0.03). RT-HIIT reported a reduced symptom burden, while AT-HIIT remained stable compared to deteriorations shown by UC (p HIIT was superior to UC for total symptoms (p HIIT was effective in preventing increases in CRF and in reducing symptom burden for patients during chemotherapy for breast cancer. These findings add to a growing body of evidence supporting the inclusion of structured exercise prescriptions, including HIIT, as a vital component of cancer rehabilitation. Clinicaltrials.gov Registration Number: NCT02522260.

  3. Random Number Generation in HIV Disease: Associations with Neuropsychological Functions and Activities of Daily Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, David P; Woods, Steven Paul; Doyle, Katie L; Verduzco, Marizela

    2017-02-01

    HIV is associated with frontostriatal dysregulation and executive dysfunction. This study evaluated whether HIV-infected individuals evidence deficits in random number generation (RNG), which is a strategic task requiring paced, rule-guided production of digits. In total, 74 HIV+ adults and 54 seronegative comparison participants completed a comprehensive research neuropsychological battery. Participants produced a random digit sequence by avoiding any order and using numbers 1 through 10 for 100 s at a pace of 1 digit/s. Outcomes included intrusions, repetitions, seriation (1-2-3-4), and cycling (median length of gaps between repeating digits). HIV disease was associated with higher levels of seriation and cycling (ps  .10). Among HIV+ individuals, higher seriation was associated with neuropsychological performance including poorer auditory attention, verbal learning, and delayed memory, whereas higher cycling scores were associated with poorer delayed memory and verbal fluency (ps random sequences, which showed medium associations with higher order verbal abilities and may contribute to greater declines in everyday functioning outcomes. Future studies might examine RNG's role in health behaviors such as medical decision-making or medication adherence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Chaotic oscillation and random-number generation based on nanoscale optical-energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Makoto; Kim, Song-Ju; Aono, Masashi; Hori, Hirokazu; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2014-08-12

    By using nanoscale energy-transfer dynamics and density matrix formalism, we demonstrate theoretically and numerically that chaotic oscillation and random-number generation occur in a nanoscale system. The physical system consists of a pair of quantum dots (QDs), with one QD smaller than the other, between which energy transfers via optical near-field interactions. When the system is pumped by continuous-wave radiation and incorporates a timing delay between two energy transfers within the system, it emits optical pulses. We refer to such QD pairs as nano-optical pulsers (NOPs). Irradiating an NOP with external periodic optical pulses causes the oscillating frequency of the NOP to synchronize with the external stimulus. We find that chaotic oscillation occurs in the NOP population when they are connected by an external time delay. Moreover, by evaluating the time-domain signals by statistical-test suites, we confirm that the signals are sufficiently random to qualify the system as a random-number generator (RNG). This study reveals that even relatively simple nanodevices that interact locally with each other through optical energy transfer at scales far below the wavelength of irradiating light can exhibit complex oscillatory dynamics. These findings are significant for applications such as ultrasmall RNGs.

  5. Theoretical and empirical convergence results for additive congruential random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikramaratna, Roy S.

    2010-03-01

    Additive Congruential Random Number (ACORN) generators represent an approach to generating uniformly distributed pseudo-random numbers that is straightforward to implement efficiently for arbitrarily large order and modulus; if it is implemented using integer arithmetic, it becomes possible to generate identical sequences on any machine. This paper briefly reviews existing results concerning ACORN generators and relevant theory concerning sequences that are well distributed mod 1 in k dimensions. It then demonstrates some new theoretical results for ACORN generators implemented in integer arithmetic with modulus M=2[mu] showing that they are a family of generators that converge (in a sense that is defined in the paper) to being well distributed mod 1 in k dimensions, as [mu]=log2M tends to infinity. By increasing k, it is possible to increase without limit the number of dimensions in which the resulting sequences approximate to well distributed. The paper concludes by applying the standard TestU01 test suite to ACORN generators for selected values of the modulus (between 260 and 2150), the order (between 4 and 30) and various odd seed values. On the basis of these and earlier results, it is recommended that an order of at least 9 be used together with an odd seed and modulus equal to 230p, for a small integer value of p. While a choice of p=2 should be adequate for most typical applications, increasing p to 3 or 4 gives a sequence that will consistently pass all the tests in the TestU01 test suite, giving additional confidence in more demanding applications. The results demonstrate that the ACORN generators are a reliable source of uniformly distributed pseudo-random numbers, and that in practice (as suggested by the theoretical convergence results) the quality of the ACORN sequences increases with increasing modulus and order.

  6. Cognitive training for children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial of cogmed working memory training and 'paying attention in class'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Donk, Marthe; Hiemstra-Beernink, Anne-Claire; Tjeenk-Kalff, Ariane; van der Leij, Aryan; Lindauer, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this randomized controlled trial was to replicate and extend previous studies of Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT) in children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While a large proportion of children with ADHD suffer from academic difficulties, only few previous

  7. Calculation of large Reynolds number two-dimensional flow using discrete vortices with random walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinazzo, F.; Saffman, P.G.

    1977-01-01

    The numerical calculation of two-dimensional rotational flow at large Reynolds number is considered. The method of replacing a continuous distribution of vorticity by a finite number, N, of discrete vortices is examined, where the vortices move under their mutually induced velocities plus a random component to simulate effects of viscosity. The accuracy of the method is studied by comparison with the exact solution for the decay of a circular vortex. It is found, and analytical arguments are produced in support, that the quantitative error is significant unless N is large compared with a characteristic Reynolds number. The mutually induced velocities are calculated by both direct summation and by the ''cloud in cell'' technique. The latter method is found to produce comparable error and to be much faster

  8. Body weight-supported treadmill training vs. overground walking training for persons with chronic stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs-Miller, Stephanie A; Kalpathi Parameswaran, Anu; Colburn, Dawn; Ertel, Tara; Harmeyer, Amanda; Tucker, Lindsay; Schmid, Arlene A

    2014-09-01

    To compare the effects of body weight-supported treadmill training and overground walking training when matched for task and dose (duration/frequency/intensity) on improving walking function, activity, and participation after stroke. Single-blind, pilot randomized controlled trial with three-month follow-up. University and community settings. A convenience sample of participants (N = 20) at least six months post-stroke and able to walk independently were recruited. Thirty-minute walking interventions (body weight-supported treadmill training or overground walking training) were administered five times a week for two weeks. Intensity was monitored with the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale at five-minute increments to maintain a moderate training intensity. Walking speed (comfortable/fast 10-meter walk), walking endurance (6-minute walk), spatiotemporal symmetry, and the ICF Measure of Participation and ACTivity were assessed before, immediately after, and three months following the intervention. The overground walking training group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in comfortable walking speed compared with the body weight-supported treadmill training group immediately (change of 0.11 m/s vs. 0.06 m/s, respectively; p = 0.047) and three months (change of 0.14 m/s vs. 0.08 m/s, respectively; p = 0.029) after training. Only the overground walking training group significantly improved comfortable walking speed (p = 0.001), aspects of gait symmetry (p = 0.032), and activity (p = 0.003) immediately after training. Gains were maintained at the three-month follow-up (p training was more beneficial than body weight-supported treadmill training at improving self-selected walking speed for the participants in this study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Randomized Trial of Law Enforcement Training on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teagardin, Jill; Dixon, Dennis R.; Smith, Marlena N.; Granpeesheh, Doreen

    2012-01-01

    The core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are likely to affect interactions between law enforcement officers and persons with ASD. If law enforcement officers are not trained to identify and appropriately respond to persons with ASD, it is possible that officers may exacerbate a situation, resulting in unnecessary trauma, injury, or…

  10. Randomized, Controlled Trial of CBT Training for PTSD Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    PI, program manager, and two research assistants will guide the mixed-method coding, analysis, and synthesis of the three consultation data sources...A randomized clinical trial of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), fluoxetine , and pill placebo in the treatment of

  11. A Data Management System Integrating Web-based Training and Randomized Trials: Requirements, Experiences and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroff, Jordana; Amodeo, Maryann; Larson, Mary Jo; Carey, Margaret; Loftin, Ralph D

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a data management system (DMS) developed to support a large-scale randomized study of an innovative web-course that was designed to improve substance abuse counselors' knowledge and skills in applying a substance abuse treatment method (i.e., cognitive behavioral therapy; CBT). The randomized trial compared the performance of web-course-trained participants (intervention group) and printed-manual-trained participants (comparison group) to determine the effectiveness of the web-course in teaching CBT skills. A single DMS was needed to support all aspects of the study: web-course delivery and management, as well as randomized trial management. The authors briefly reviewed several other systems that were described as built either to handle randomized trials or to deliver and evaluate web-based training. However it was clear that these systems fell short of meeting our needs for simultaneous, coordinated management of the web-course and the randomized trial. New England Research Institute's (NERI) proprietary Advanced Data Entry and Protocol Tracking (ADEPT) system was coupled with the web-programmed course and customized for our purposes. This article highlights the requirements for a DMS that operates at the intersection of web-based course management systems and randomized clinical trial systems, and the extent to which the coupled, customized ADEPT satisfied those requirements. Recommendations are included for institutions and individuals considering conducting randomized trials and web-based training programs, and seeking a DMS that can meet similar requirements.

  12. Effects of physical randomness training on virtual and laboratory golf putting performance in novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, T C; Lamb, P F

    2018-06-01

    External randomness exists in all sports but is perhaps most obvious in golf putting where robotic putters sink only 80% of 5 m putts due to unpredictable ball-green dynamics. The purpose of this study was to test whether physical randomness training can improve putting performance in novices. A virtual random-physics golf-putting game was developed based on controlled ball-roll data. Thirty-two subjects were assigned a unique randomness gain (RG) ranging from 0.1 to 2.0-times real-world randomness. Putter face kinematics were measured in 5 m laboratory putts before and after five days of virtual training. Performance was quantified using putt success rate and "miss-adjustment correlation" (MAC), the correlation between left-right miss magnitude and subsequent right-left kinematic adjustments. Results showed no RG-success correlation (r = -0.066, p = 0.719) but mildly stronger correlations with MAC for face angle (r = -0.168, p = 0.358) and clubhead path (r = -0.302, p = 0.093). The strongest RG-MAC correlation was observed during virtual training (r = -0.692, p golf putting kinematics. Adaptation to external physical randomness during virtual training may therefore help golfers adapt to external randomness in real-world environments.

  13. Pseudo-random number generation for Brownian Dynamics and Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations on GPU devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Carolyn L.; Anderson, Joshua A.; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    2011-08-01

    Brownian Dynamics (BD), also known as Langevin Dynamics, and Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) are implicit solvent methods commonly used in models of soft matter and biomolecular systems. The interaction of the numerous solvent particles with larger particles is coarse-grained as a Langevin thermostat is applied to individual particles or to particle pairs. The Langevin thermostat requires a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) to generate the stochastic force applied to each particle or pair of neighboring particles during each time step in the integration of Newton's equations of motion. In a Single-Instruction-Multiple-Thread (SIMT) GPU parallel computing environment, small batches of random numbers must be generated over thousands of threads and millions of kernel calls. In this communication we introduce a one-PRNG-per-kernel-call-per-thread scheme, in which a micro-stream of pseudorandom numbers is generated in each thread and kernel call. These high quality, statistically robust micro-streams require no global memory for state storage, are more computationally efficient than other PRNG schemes in memory-bound kernels, and uniquely enable the DPD simulation method without requiring communication between threads.

  14. Body weight supported treadmill training versus traditional training in patients dependent on walking assistance after stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høyer, Ellen; Jahnsen, Reidun; Stanghelle, Johan Kvalvik; Strand, Liv Inger

    2012-01-01

    Treadmill training with body weight support (TTBWS) for relearning walking ability after brain damage is an approach under current investigation. Efficiency of this method beyond traditional training is lacking evidence, especially in patients needing walking assistance after stroke. The objective of this study was to investigate change in walking and transfer abilities, comparing TTBWS with traditional walking training. A single-blinded, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Sixty patients referred for multi-disciplinary primary rehabilitation were assigned into one of two intervention groups, one received 30 sessions of TTBWS plus traditional training, the other traditional training alone. Daily training was 1 hr. Outcome measures were Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC), Walking, Functional Independence Measure (FIM); shorter transfer and stairs, 10 m and 6-min walk tests. Substantial improvements in walking and transfer were shown within both groups after 5 and 11 weeks of intervention. Overall no statistical significant differences were found between the groups, but 12 of 17 physical measures tended to show improvements in favour of the treadmill approach. Both training strategies provided significant improvements in the tested activities, suggesting that similar outcomes can be obtained in the two modalities by systematic, intensive and goal directed training.

  15. Protocol for Shoulder function training reducing musculoskeletal pain in shoulder and neck: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christoffer H; Andersen, Lars L; Mortensen, Ole S

    2011-01-01

    treated by physical therapists. The exact mechanism of neck pain is rarely revealed by clinical examination and the treatment has varied from passive rest to active treatments. Active treatments have often been divided into either training of the painful area or the surrounding musculature avoiding direct...... training of the painful area. Our study investigates the effect of the latter approach. METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial of 10 weeks duration is currently being conducted. Employed office workers with severe neck-shoulder pain are randomized to 3 × 20 min shoulder function training...... with training supervision or to a reference group receiving advice to stay physically active. Shoulder function training primarily focuses on the serratus anterior and lower trapezius muscle with only minimal activation the upper trapezius.An announcement was sent to the administrative section of the university...

  16. Using random matrix theory to determine the number of endmembers in a hyperspectral image

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cawse, K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available apply our method to synthetic images, including a standard test image developed by Chein-I Chang, with good results for Gaussian independent noise. Index Terms— Hyperspectral Unmixing, Random Ma- trix Theory, Linear Mixture Model, Virtual Dimension... function, and K is the number of endmembers. We assume Gaussian noise following the methods of [1] [5]. The first step in unmixing the image is to determine how many endmembers or constituents are contained in the scene. This is known as the Virtual...

  17. Scope of Various Random Number Generators in ant System Approach for TSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S. K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    Experimented on heuristic, based on an ant system approach for traveling salesman problem, are several quasi- and pseudo-random number generators. This experiment is to explore if any particular generator is most desirable. Such an experiment on large samples has the potential to rank the performance of the generators for the foregoing heuristic. This is mainly to seek an answer to the controversial issue "which generator is the best in terms of quality of the result (accuracy) as well as cost of producing the result (time/computational complexity) in a probabilistic/statistical sense."

  18. Law of large numbers and central limit theorem for randomly forced PDE's

    CERN Document Server

    Shirikyan, A

    2004-01-01

    We consider a class of dissipative PDE's perturbed by an external random force. Under the condition that the distribution of perturbation is sufficiently non-degenerate, a strong law of large numbers (SLLN) and a central limit theorem (CLT) for solutions are established and the corresponding rates of convergence are estimated. It is also shown that the estimates obtained are close to being optimal. The proofs are based on the property of exponential mixing for the problem in question and some abstract SLLN and CLT for mixing-type Markov processes.

  19. Randomized, Controlled Trial of CBT Training for PTSD Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions have been shown to be effective in alleviating symptoms of Post - Traumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ) and related... traumatic stress disorder treatment providers: design and methods for a randomized, prospective intervention study. Implement Sci, 7, 43. doi: 10.1186...Friedman, M. J., Young-Xu, Y., & Stevens, S. P. (2006). Cognitive processing therapy for veterans with military-related posttraumatic stress disorder

  20. Transplant surgery fellow perceptions about training and the ensuing job market-are the right number of surgeons being trained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, D J; Magee, J C; Gifford, K; Merion, R M; Roberts, J P; Klintmalm, G B G; Stock, P G

    2011-02-01

    The American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS) sought whether the right number of abdominal organ transplant surgeons are being trained in the United States. Data regarding fellowship training and the ensuing job market were obtained by surveying program directors and fellowship graduates from 2003 to 2005. Sixty-four ASTS-approved programs were surveyed, representing 139 fellowship positions in kidney, pancreas and/or liver transplantation. One-quarter of programs did not fill their positions. Forty-five fellows graduated annually. Most were male (86%), aged 31-35 years (57%), married (75%) and parents (62%). Upon graduation, 12% did not find transplant jobs (including 8% of Americans/Canadians), 14% did not get jobs for transplanting their preferred organ(s), 11% wished they focused more on transplantation and 27% changed jobs early. Half fellows were international medical graduates; 45% found US/Canadian transplant jobs, particularly 73% with US/Canadian residency training. Fellows reported adequate exposure to training volume, candidate selection, pre/postoperative care and organ procurement, but not to donor management/selection, outpatient care and core didactics. One-sixth noted insufficient 'mentoring/preparation for a transplantation career'. Currently, there seem to be enough trainees to fill entry-level positions. One-third program directors believe that there are too many trainees, given the current and foreseeable job market. ASTS is assessing the total workforce of transplant surgeons and evolving manpower needs. ©2011 The Authors Journal compilation©2011 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  1. Task-Oriented Training with Computer Games for People with Rheumatoid Arthritis or Hand Osteoarthritis: A Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikesavan, Cynthia Swarnalatha; Shay, Barbara; Szturm, Tony

    2016-09-13

    To examine the feasibility of a clinical trial on a novel, home-based task-oriented training with conventional hand exercises in people with rheumatoid arthritis or hand osteoarthritis. To explore the experiences of participants who completed their respective home exercise programmes. Thirty volunteer participants aged between 30 and 60 years and diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis or hand osteoarthritis were proposed for a single-center, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial ( ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT01635582). Participants received task-oriented training with interactive computer games and objects of daily life or finger mobility and strengthening exercises. Both programmes were home based and were done four sessions per week with 20 minutes each session for 6 weeks. Major feasibility outcomes were number of volunteers screened, randomized, and retained; completion of blinded assessments, exercise training, and home exercise sessions; equipment and data management; and clinical outcomes of hand function. Reaching the recruitment target in 18 months and achieving exercise compliance >80% were set as success criteria. Concurrent with the trial, focus group interviews explored experiences of those participants who completed their respective programmes. After trial initiation, revisions in inclusion criteria were required to promote recruitment. A total of 17 participants were randomized and 15 were retained. Completion of assessments, exercise training, and home exercise sessions; equipment and data collection and management demonstrated excellent feasibility. Both groups improved in hand function outcomes and exercise compliance was above 85%. Participants perceived both programmes as appropriate and acceptable. Participants who completed task-oriented training also agreed that playing different computer games was enjoyable, engaging, and motivating. Findings demonstrate initial evidence on recruitment, feasibility of trial procedures, and acceptability of

  2. Training auscultatory skills: computer simulated heart sounds or additional bedside training? A randomized trial on third-year medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The present study compares the value of additional use of computer simulated heart sounds, to conventional bedside auscultation training, on the cardiac auscultation skills of 3rd year medical students at Oslo University Medical School. Methods In addition to their usual curriculum courses, groups of seven students each were randomized to receive four hours of additional auscultation training either employing a computer simulator system or adding on more conventional bedside training. Cardiac auscultation skills were afterwards tested using live patients. Each student gave a written description of the auscultation findings in four selected patients, and was rewarded from 0-10 points for each patient. Differences between the two study groups were evaluated using student's t-test. Results At the auscultation test no significant difference in mean score was found between the students who had used additional computer based sound simulation compared to additional bedside training. Conclusions Students at an early stage of their cardiology training demonstrated equal performance of cardiac auscultation whether they had received an additional short auscultation course based on computer simulated training, or had had additional bedside training. PMID:20082701

  3. Does clinical teacher training always improve teaching effectiveness as opposed to no teacher training? A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckwoldt, Jan; Svensson, Jörg; Lingemann, Christian; Gruber, Hans

    2014-01-08

    Teacher training may improve teaching effectiveness, but it might also have paradoxical effects. Research on expertise development suggests that the integration of new strategies may result in a temporary deterioration of performance until higher levels of competence are reached. In this study, the impact of a clinical teacher training on teaching effectiveness was assessed in an intensive course in emergency medicine. As primary study outcome students' practical skills at the end of their course were chosen. The authors matched 18 clinical teachers according to clinical experience and teaching experience and then randomly assigned them to a two-day-teacher training, or no training. After 14 days, both groups taught within a 12-hour intensive course in emergency medicine for undergraduate students. The course followed a clearly defined curriculum. After the course students were assessed by structured clinical examination (SCE) and MCQ. The teaching quality was rated by students using a questionnaire. Data for 96 students with trained teachers, and 97 students with untrained teachers were included. Students taught by untrained teachers performed better in the SCE domains 'alarm call' (p teaching quality was rated significantly better by students of untrained teachers (p = 0.05). At the end of a structured intensive course in emergency medicine, students of trained clinical teachers performed worse in 2 of 4 practical SCE domains compared to students of untrained teachers. In addition, subjective evaluations of teaching quality were worse in the group of trained teachers. Difficulties in integrating new strategies in their teaching styles might be a possible explanation.

  4. Comparative Assessment of Three Approaches of Teaching Nonmedically Trained Persons in the Handling of Supraglottic Airways: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Mario; Schmidbauer, Willi; Benker, Michael; Schmieder, Paula; Kerner, Thoralf

    2017-03-01

    The use of supraglottic airways has been recommended in combat trauma airway management. To ensure an adequate airway management on the battlefield, suitable training concepts are sought to efficiently teach as many soldiers as possible. Our aim was to compare three approaches of teaching laypersons in the handling of supraglottic airways in a mannequin model. In this prospective randomized blinded study, 285 military service men without any medical background were divided into three groups and trained in the use of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme (LMA) and the Laryngeal Tube Disposable (LT-D). The first group received a theoretical lecture, the second group was shown an instruction video, and the third group underwent a practical training. Immediately after instruction participants were asked to place the supraglottic airway and ventilate the mannequin within 60 seconds. The entire test was repeated 3 months later. Test results were evaluated with regard to success rate, insertion time, ability to judge the correct placement, and degree of difficulty. Practical training showed the highest success rate when placing supraglottic airways immediately after the instruction (lecture: 68%, video: 74%, training: 94%); (training vs. lecture and training vs. video, p training: 78%); (training vs. lecture, p = 0.019 and training vs. video, p = 0.025). Immediately after the instruction practical training was also superior in terms of insertion time, ability to judge the correct placement, and the self-rated degree of difficulty (p place a supraglottic airway immediately following minimal instruction and after 3 months as well. Study participants achieved the best results after practical training followed by video presentation and finally lecture regardless of the airway device used. There are two possible reasons why practical training is the superior method. Firstly, the success is tied to more time spent with the learners. Secondly, practical training seems to be the best

  5. PUFKEY: a high-security and high-throughput hardware true random number generator for sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongfang; Lu, Zhaojun; Zou, Xuecheng; Liu, Zhenglin

    2015-10-16

    Random number generators (RNG) play an important role in many sensor network systems and applications, such as those requiring secure and robust communications. In this paper, we develop a high-security and high-throughput hardware true random number generator, called PUFKEY, which consists of two kinds of physical unclonable function (PUF) elements. Combined with a conditioning algorithm, true random seeds are extracted from the noise on the start-up pattern of SRAM memories. These true random seeds contain full entropy. Then, the true random seeds are used as the input for a non-deterministic hardware RNG to generate a stream of true random bits with a throughput as high as 803 Mbps. The experimental results show that the bitstream generated by the proposed PUFKEY can pass all standard national institute of standards and technology (NIST) randomness tests and is resilient to a wide range of security attacks.

  6. PUFKEY: A High-Security and High-Throughput Hardware True Random Number Generator for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfang Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Random number generators (RNG play an important role in many sensor network systems and applications, such as those requiring secure and robust communications. In this paper, we develop a high-security and high-throughput hardware true random number generator, called PUFKEY, which consists of two kinds of physical unclonable function (PUF elements. Combined with a conditioning algorithm, true random seeds are extracted from the noise on the start-up pattern of SRAM memories. These true random seeds contain full entropy. Then, the true random seeds are used as the input for a non-deterministic hardware RNG to generate a stream of true random bits with a throughput as high as 803 Mbps. The experimental results show that the bitstream generated by the proposed PUFKEY can pass all standard national institute of standards and technology (NIST randomness tests and is resilient to a wide range of security attacks.

  7. Number sense or working memory? The effect of two computer-based trainings on mathematical skills in elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias; Holling, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Research on the improvement of elementary school mathematics has shown that computer-based training of number sense (e.g., processing magnitudes or locating numbers on the number line) can lead to substantial achievement gains in arithmetic skills. Recent studies, however, have highlighted that training domain-general cognitive abilities (e.g., working memory [WM]) may also improve mathematical achievement. This study addressed the question of whether a training of domain-specific number sense skills or domain-general WM abilities is more appropriate for improving mathematical abilities in elementary school. Fifty-nine children (M age = 9 years, 32 girls and 27 boys) received either a computer-based, adaptive training of number sense (n = 20), WM skills (n = 19), or served as a control group (n = 20). The training duration was 20 min per day for 15 days. Before and after training, we measured mathematical ability using a curriculum-based math test, as well as spatial WM. For both training groups, we observed substantial increases in the math posttest compared to the control group (d = .54 for number sense skills training, d = .57 for WM training, respectively). Whereas the number sense group showed significant gains in arithmetical skills, the WM training group exhibited marginally significant gains in word problem solving. However, no training group showed significant posttest gains on the spatial WM task. Results indicate that a short training of either domain-specific or domain-general skills may result in reliable short-term training gains in math performance, although no stable training effects were found in the spatial WM task.

  8. A mindfulness-based stress prevention training for medical students (MediMind): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Sophie Merle; Bürger, Arne; Esser, Günter; Hammerle, Florian

    2015-02-08

    are voluntary participation and the risk of attrition, especially concerning participants that are allocated to the control group. Strengths are the study design, namely random allocation, follow-up assessment, the use of control groups and inclusion of participants at different stages of medical training with the possibility of differential analysis. This trial is recorded at German Clinical Trials Register under the number DRKS00005354 (08 November 2013).

  9. Antenatal hypnosis training and childbirth experience: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Anette; Uldbjerg, Niels; Zachariae, Robert; Wu, Chun Sen; Nohr, Ellen A

    2013-12-01

    Childbirth is a demanding event in a woman's life. The aim of this study was to explore whether a brief intervention in the form of an antenatal course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth could improve the childbirth experience. In a randomized, controlled, single-blinded trial, 1,222 healthy nulliparous women were allocated to one of three groups during pregnancy: A hypnosis group participating in three 1-hour sessions teaching self-hypnosis to ease childbirth, a relaxation group receiving three 1-hour lessons in various relaxation methods and Mindfulness, and a usual care group receiving ordinary antenatal care only. Wijmas Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) was used to measure the childbirth experience 6 weeks postpartum. The intention-to-treat analysis indicated that women in the hypnosis group experienced their childbirth as better compared with the other two groups (mean W-DEQ score of 42.9 in the Hypnosis group, 47.2 in the Relaxation group, and 47.5 in the Care as usual group (p = 0.01)). The tendency toward a better childbirth experience in the hypnosis group was also seen in subgroup analyses for mode of delivery and for levels of fear. In this large randomized controlled trial, a brief course in self-hypnosis improved the women's childbirth experience. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Training in Using Earplugs or Using Earplugs with a Higher than Necessary Noise Reduction Rating? A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Salmani Nodoushan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is one of the most common occupational diseases and the second most common cause of workers' claims for occupational injuries. Objective: Due to high prevalence of NIHL and several reports of improper use of hearing protective devices (HPDs, we conducted this study to compare the effect of face-to-face training in effective use of earplugs with appropriate NRR to overprotection of workers by using earplugs with higher than necessary noise reduction rating (NRR. Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 150 workers referred to occupational medicine clinic were randomly allocated to three arms—a group wearing earplugs with an NRR of 25 with no training in appropriate use of the device; a group wearing earplugs with an NRR of 25 with training; another group wearing earplugs with an NRR of 30, with no training. Hearing threshold was measured in the study groups by real ear attenuation at threshold (REAT method. This trial is registered with Australian New Zealand clinical trials Registry, number ACTRN00363175. Results: The mean±SD age of the participants was 28±5 (range: 19–39 years. 42% of participants were female. The mean noise attenuation in the group with training was 13.88 dB, significantly higher than those observed in other groups. The highest attenuation was observed in high frequencies (4, 6, and 8 kHz in the group with training. Conclusion: Training in appropriate use of earplugs significantly affects the efficacy of earplugs—even more than using an earplug with higher NRR.

  11. MAXIMUM NUMBER OF REPETITIONS, TOTAL WEIGHT LIFTED AND NEUROMUSCULAR FATIGUE IN INDIVIDUALS WITH DIFFERENT TRAINING BACKGROUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Panissa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, as well as neuromuscular activity, in a strength task in subjects with different training backgrounds. Participants (n = 26 were divided into three groups according to their training backgrounds (aerobic, strength or mixed and submitted to three sessions: (1 determination of the maximum oxygen uptake during the incremental treadmill test to exhaustion and familiarization of the evaluation of maximum strength (1RM for the half squat; (2 1RM determination; and (3 strength exercise, four sets at 80�0of the 1RM, in which the maximum number of repetitions (MNR, the total weight lifted (TWL, the root mean square (RMS and median frequency (MF of the electromyographic (EMG activity for the second and last repetition were computed. There was an effect of group for MNR, with the aerobic group performing a higher MNR compared to the strength group (P = 0.045, and an effect on MF with a higher value in the second repetition than in the last repetition (P = 0.016. These results demonstrated that individuals with better aerobic fitness were more fatigue resistant than strength trained individuals. The absence of differences in EMG signals indicates that individuals with different training backgrounds have a similar pattern of motor unit recruitment during a resistance exercise performed until failure, and that the greater capacity to perform the MNR probably can be explained by peripheral adaptations.

  12. Water-Based Aerobic Training Successfully Improves Lipid Profile of Dyslipidemic Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rochelle Rocha; Pilla, Carmen; Buttelli, Adriana Cristine Koch; Barreto, Michelle Flores; Vieiro, Priscila Azevedo; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Bracht, Cláudia Gomes; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of water-based aerobic training on the lipid profile and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) levels in premenopausal women with dyslipidemia. Method: Forty women were randomly assigned to: aquatic training (WA; n = 20) or a control group (CG; n = 20). The WA group underwent 12 weeks of water-based interval…

  13. Effectiveness of Shockwave Treatment Combined With Eccentric Training for Patellar Tendinopathy : A Double-Blinded Randomized Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Karin M; Zwerver, Johannes; Backx, Frank J G; Steeneken, Victor; Rayer, Stephan; Groenenboom, Petra; Moen, Maarten H

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a combined treatment of focused shockwave therapy (ESWT) and eccentric training compared with sham-shockwave therapy (placebo) and eccentric training in participants with patellar tendinopathy (PT) after 24 weeks. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial.

  14. Effectiveness of Shockwave Treatment Combined With Eccentric Training for Patellar Tendinopathy : A Double-Blinded Randomized Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, Karin M.; Zwerver, Johannes; Backx, Frank J. G.; Steeneken, Victor; Rayer, Stephan; Groenenboom, Petra; Moen, Maarten H.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a combined treatment of focused shockwave therapy (ESWT) and eccentric training compared with sham-shockwave therapy (placebo) and eccentric training in participants with patellar tendinopathy (PT) after 24 weeks. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial.

  15. Respiratory health in Latin America: number of specialists and human resources training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-García, Juan-Carlos; Salas-Hernández, Jorge; Pérez Padilla, Rogelio; Montes de Oca, María

    2014-01-01

    Latin America is made up of a number of developing countries. Demographic changes are occurring in the close to 600 million inhabitants, in whom a significant growth in population is combined with the progressive ageing of the population. This part of the world poses great challenges for general and respiratory health. Most of the countries have significant, or even greater, rates of chronic respiratory diseases or exposure to risk. Human resources in healthcare are not readily available, particularly in the area of respiratory disease specialists. Academic training centers are few and even non-existent in the majority of the countries. The detailed analysis of these conditions provides a basis for reflection on the main challenges and proposals for the management and training of better human resources in this specialist area. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Feasibility of ballistic strength training in sub-acute stroke: A randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrey, Genevieve; Clark, Ross A; Holland, Anne E; Mentiplay, Benjamin F; Davis, Carly; Windfeld-Lund, Cristie; Raymond, Melissa J; Williams, Gavin

    2018-05-30

    To establish the feasibility and effectiveness of a six week ballistic strength training protocol in people with stroke. Randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded study. Sub-acute inpatient rehabilitation. Consecutively admitted inpatients with a primary diagnosis of first ever stroke with lower limb weakness, functional ambulation category score of ≥3, and ability to walk ≥14m were screened for eligibility to recruit 30 participants for randomization. Participants were randomized to standard therapy or ballistic strength training three times per week for six weeks. The primary aim was to evaluate feasibility and outcomes included recruitment rate, participant retention and attrition, feasibility of the exercise protocol, therapist burden and participant safety. Secondary outcomes included measures of mobility, lower limb muscle strength, muscle power and quality of life. Thirty participants (11% of those screened) with mean age of 50 (SD 18) years were randomized. The median number of sessions attended was 15/18 and 17/18 for the ballistic and control groups respectively. Earlier than expected discharge home (n=4) and illness (n=7) were the most common reasons for non-attendance. Participants performed the exercises safely, with no study-related adverse events. There were significant (pballistic group for comfortable gait velocity (mean difference (MD) 0.31m/s, 95% confidence interval CI: 0.08 to 0.52), muscle power, as measured by peak jump height (MD 8cm, 95% CI: 3 to 13) and peak propulsive velocity (MD 64cm/s, 95% CI: 17 to 112). Ballistic training was safe and feasible in select ambulant people with stroke. Similar rates of retention and attrition suggest that ballistic training was acceptable to patients. Secondary outcomes provide promising results that warrant further investigation in a larger trial. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The distribution of the number of node neighbors in random hypergraphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Hypergraphs, the generalization of graphs in which edges become conglomerates of r nodes called hyperedges of rank r ⩾ 2, are excellent models to study systems with interactions that are beyond the pairwise level. For hypergraphs, the node degree ℓ (number of hyperedges connected to a node) and the number of neighbors k of a node differ from each other in contrast to the case of graphs, where counting the number of edges is equivalent to counting the number of neighbors. In this paper, I calculate the distribution of the number of node neighbors in random hypergraphs in which hyperedges of uniform rank r have a homogeneous (equal for all hyperedges) probability p to appear. This distribution is equivalent to the degree distribution of ensembles of graphs created as projections of hypergraph or bipartite network ensembles, where the projection connects any two nodes in the projected graph when they are also connected in the hypergraph or bipartite network. The calculation is non-trivial due to the possibility that neighbor nodes belong simultaneously to multiple hyperedges (node overlaps). From the exact results, the traditional asymptotic approximation to the distribution in the sparse regime (small p) where overlaps are ignored is rederived and improved; the approximation exhibits Poisson-like behavior accompanied by strong fluctuations modulated by power-law decays in the system size N with decay exponents equal to the minimum number of overlapping nodes possible for a given number of neighbors. It is shown that the dense limit cannot be explained if overlaps are ignored, and the correct asymptotic distribution is provided. The neighbor distribution requires the calculation of a new combinatorial coefficient Q r−1 (k, ℓ), which counts the number of distinct labeled hypergraphs of k nodes, ℓ hyperedges of rank r − 1, and where every node is connected to at least one hyperedge. Some identities of Q r−1 (k, ℓ) are derived and applied to the

  18. Using the mind as a simulator: a randomized controlled trial of mental training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldred-Evans, David; Grange, Philippe; Cheang, Adrian; Yamamoto, Hidekazu; Ayis, Salma; Mulla, Mubashir; Immenroth, Marc; Sharma, Davendra; Reedy, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic simulators have been introduced as safe and effective methods of developing basic skills. Mental training is a novel training method likened to using the mind as a simulator to mentally rehearse the movements of a task or operation. It is widely used by professional athletes and musicians and has been suggested as a technique that could be used by surgical trainees. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of mental training in developing basic laparoscopic skills in novices. Sixty-four medical students without laparoscopic experience were randomized into 4 groups. The first 3 groups were trained to cut a circle on a box trainer. Group 1 received no additional training (BT), Group 2 received additional virtual reality training (BT + VRS), and Group 3 received additional mental training (BT + MT). The fourth group was trained on a virtual reality simulator with additional mental training (box-free). The following 4 assessment criterias: time, accuracy, precision and overall performance were measured on both the box-trainer and virtual simulator. The mental training group (BT + MT) demonstrated improved laparoscopic skills over both assessments. The improvement in skills in the VRS group (BT + VRS) was limited to VRS assessment and not observed in the box assessment. The fourth group (box-free) had the worst performance on both methods of assessment. The addition of mental training led to improved laparoscopic skills development. It is a flexible technique and has the potential to challenge VRS as a more cost-effective training method associated with lower capital investment. Given the benefits of mental training with further research, it could be considered for inclusion in training curricula. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multimedia-based training on Internet platforms improves surgical performance: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape-Koehler, Carolina; Immenroth, Marc; Sauerland, Stefan; Lefering, Rolf; Lindlohr, Cornelia; Toaspern, Jens; Heiss, Markus

    2013-05-01

    Surgical procedures are complex motion sequences that require a high level of preparation, training, and concentration. In recent years, Internet platforms providing surgical content have been established. Used as a surgical training method, the effect of multimedia-based training on practical surgical skills has not yet been evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of multimedia-based training on surgical performance. A 2 × 2 factorial, randomized controlled trial with a pre- and posttest design was used to test the effect of multimedia-based training in addition to or without practical training on 70 participants in four groups defined by the intervention used: multimedia-based training, practical training, and combination training (multimedia-based training + practical training) or no training (control group). The pre- and posttest consisted of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a Pelvi-Trainer and was video recorded, encoded, and saved on DVDs. These were evaluated by blinded raters using a modified objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS). The main evaluation criterion was the difference in OSATS score between the pre- and posttest (ΔOSATS) results in terms of a task-specific checklist (procedural steps scored as correct or incorrect). The groups were homogeneous in terms of demographic parameters, surgical experience, and pretest OSATS scores. The ΔOSATS results were highest in the multimedia-based training group (4.7 ± 3.3; p Multimedia-based training improved surgical performance significantly and thus could be considered a reasonable tool for inclusion in surgical curricula.

  20. Hardware random number generator base on monostable multivibrators dedicated for distributed measurement and control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernik, Pawel

    2013-10-01

    The hardware random number generator based on the 74121 monostable multivibrators for applications in cryptographically secure distributed measurement and control systems with asymmetric resources was presented. This device was implemented on the basis of the physical electronic vibration generator in which the circuit is composed of two "loop" 74121 monostable multivibrators, D flip-flop and external clock signal source. The clock signal, witch control D flip-flop was generated by a computer on one of the parallel port pins. There was presented programmed the author's acquisition process of random data from the measuring system to a computer. The presented system was designed, builded and thoroughly tested in the term of cryptographic security in our laboratory, what there is the most important part of this publication. Real cryptographic security was tested based on the author's software and the software environment called RDieHarder. The obtained results was here presented and analyzed in detail with particular reference to the specificity of distributed measurement and control systems with asymmetric resources.

  1. Random number generators for large-scale parallel Monte Carlo simulations on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Wang, F.; Liu, B.

    2018-05-01

    Through parallelization, field programmable gate array (FPGA) can achieve unprecedented speeds in large-scale parallel Monte Carlo (LPMC) simulations. FPGA presents both new constraints and new opportunities for the implementations of random number generators (RNGs), which are key elements of any Monte Carlo (MC) simulation system. Using empirical and application based tests, this study evaluates all of the four RNGs used in previous FPGA based MC studies and newly proposed FPGA implementations for two well-known high-quality RNGs that are suitable for LPMC studies on FPGA. One of the newly proposed FPGA implementations: a parallel version of additive lagged Fibonacci generator (Parallel ALFG) is found to be the best among the evaluated RNGs in fulfilling the needs of LPMC simulations on FPGA.

  2. On the strong law of large numbers for $\\varphi$-subgaussian random variables

    OpenAIRE

    Zajkowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    For $p\\ge 1$ let $\\varphi_p(x)=x^2/2$ if $|x|\\le 1$ and $\\varphi_p(x)=1/p|x|^p-1/p+1/2$ if $|x|>1$. For a random variable $\\xi$ let $\\tau_{\\varphi_p}(\\xi)$ denote $\\inf\\{a\\ge 0:\\;\\forall_{\\lambda\\in\\mathbb{R}}\\; \\ln\\mathbb{E}\\exp(\\lambda\\xi)\\le\\varphi_p(a\\lambda)\\}$; $\\tau_{\\varphi_p}$ is a norm in a space $Sub_{\\varphi_p}=\\{\\xi:\\;\\tau_{\\varphi_p}(\\xi)1$) there exist positive constants $c$ and $\\alpha$ such that for every natural number $n$ the following inequality $\\tau_{\\varphi_p}(\\sum_{i=1...

  3. Engineering applications of fpgas chaotic systems, artificial neural networks, random number generators, and secure communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tlelo-Cuautle, Esteban; de la Fraga, Luis Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    This book offers readers a clear guide to implementing engineering applications with FPGAs, from the mathematical description to the hardware synthesis, including discussion of VHDL programming and co-simulation issues. Coverage includes FPGA realizations such as: chaos generators that are described from their mathematical models; artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict chaotic time series, for which a discussion of different ANN topologies is included, with different learning techniques and activation functions; random number generators (RNGs) that are realized using different chaos generators, and discussions of their maximum Lyapunov exponent values and entropies. Finally, optimized chaotic oscillators are synchronized and realized to implement a secure communication system that processes black and white and grey-scale images. In each application, readers will find VHDL programming guidelines and computer arithmetic issues, along with co-simulation examples with Active-HDL and Simulink. Readers will b...

  4. Synthesis of Polystyrene-Based Random Copolymers with Balanced Number of Basic or Acidic Functional Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2010-01-01

    for the functionalization were applied. The first one involved direct functionalization of the template backbone through alkylation of the phenolic groups with suitable reagents. The second modification approach was based on "click" chemistry, where the introduction of alkyne groups onto the template backbone was followed......Pairs of polystyrene-based random copolymers with balanced number of pendant basic or acidic groups were synthesized utilizing the template strategy. The same poly[(4-hydroxystyrene)-ran-styrene] was used as a template backbone for modification. Two different synthetic approaches...... by copper-catalyzed 1,3 cycloaddition of aliphatic sulfonate- or amine-contaning azides. Both synthetic approaches proved to be highly efficient as evidenced by H-1-NMR analyses. The thermal properties were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analyses and were influenced...

  5. Money matters: evidence from a large-scale randomized field experiment with vouchers for adult training

    OpenAIRE

    Messer, Dolores; Wolter, Stefan C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a randomized experiment analyzing the use of vouchers for adult training. In 2006, 2,400 people were issued with a training voucher which they were entitled to use in payment for a training course of their choice. User behavior was compared with a control group of 14,000 people. People in the treatment and in the control group were not aware at any time that they were part of an experiment. The experiment shows that the voucher had a significant causal impac...

  6. Does perturbation-based balance training prevent falls? Systematic review and meta-analysis of preliminary randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Avril; Wong, Jennifer S; Bryce, Jessica; Knorr, Svetlana; Patterson, Kara K

    2015-05-01

    Older adults and individuals with neurological conditions are at an increased risk for falls. Although physical exercise can prevent falls, certain types of exercise may be more effective. Perturbation-based balance training is a novel intervention involving repeated postural perturbations aiming to improve control of rapid balance reactions. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of perturbation-based balance training on falls in daily life. MEDLINE (1946-July 2014), EMBASE (1974-July 2014), PEDro (all dates), CENTRAL (1991-July 2014), and Google Scholar (all dates) were the data sources used in this study. Randomized controlled trials written in English were included if they focused on perturbation-based balance training among older adults or individuals with neurological conditions and collected falls data posttraining. Two investigators extracted data independently. Study authors were contacted to obtain missing information. A PEDro score was obtained for each study. Primary outcomes were proportion of participants who reported one or more falls (ie, number of "fallers") and the total number of falls. The risk ratio (proportion of fallers) and rate ratio (number of falls) were entered into the analysis. Eight studies involving 404 participants were included. Participants who completed perturbation-based balance training were less likely to report a fall (overall risk ratio=0.71; 95% confidence interval=0.52, 0.96; P=.02) and reported fewer falls than those in the control groups (overall rate ratio=0.54; 95% confidence interval=0.34, 0.85; P=.007). Study authors do not always identify that they have included perturbation training in their intervention; therefore, it is possible that some appropriate studies were not included. Study designs were heterogeneous, preventing subanalyses. Perturbation-based balance training appears to reduce fall risk among older adults and individuals with Parkinson disease. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  7. Aerobic training for improved memory in patients with stress-related exhaustion: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskilsson, Therese; Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth; Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna; Stigsdotter Neely, Anna; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan

    2017-09-02

    Patients with stress-related exhaustion suffer from cognitive impairments, which often remain after psychological treatment or work place interventions. It is important to find effective treatments that can address this problem. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects on cognitive performance and psychological variables of a 12-week aerobic training program performed at a moderate-vigorous intensity for patients with exhaustion disorder who participated in a multimodal rehabilitation program. In this open-label, parallel, randomized and controlled trial, 88 patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder participated in a 24-week multimodal rehabilitation program. After 12 weeks in the program the patients were randomized to either a 12-week aerobic training intervention or to a control group with no additional training. Primary outcome measure was cognitive function, and secondary outcome measures were psychological health variables and aerobic capacity. In total, 51% patients in the aerobic training group and 78% patients in the control group completed the intervention period. The aerobic training group significantly improved in maximal oxygen uptake and episodic memory performance. No additional improvement in burnout, depression or anxiety was observed in the aerobic group compared with controls. Aerobic training at a moderate-vigorous intensity within a multimodal rehabilitation program for patients with exhaustion disorder facilitated episodic memory. A future challenge would be the clinical implementation of aerobic training and methods to increase feasibility in this patient group. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03073772 . Retrospectively registered 21 February 2017.

  8. Porcine cadaver organ or virtual-reality simulation training for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bruwaene, Siska; Schijven, Marlies P; Napolitano, Daniel; De Win, Gunter; Miserez, Marc

    2015-01-01

    As conventional laparoscopic procedural training requires live animals or cadaver organs, virtual simulation seems an attractive alternative. Therefore, we compared the transfer of training for the laparoscopic cholecystectomy from porcine cadaver organs vs virtual simulation to surgery in a live animal model in a prospective randomized trial. After completing an intensive training in basic laparoscopic skills, 3 groups of 10 participants proceeded with no additional training (control group), 5 hours of cholecystectomy training on cadaver organs (= organ training) or proficiency-based cholecystectomy training on the LapMentor (= virtual-reality training). Participants were evaluated on time and quality during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on a live anaesthetized pig at baseline, 1 week (= post) and 4 months (= retention) after training. All research was performed in the Center for Surgical Technologies, Leuven, Belgium. In total, 30 volunteering medical students without prior experience in laparoscopy or minimally invasive surgery from the University of Leuven (Belgium). The organ training group performed the procedure significantly faster than the virtual trainer and borderline significantly faster than control group at posttesting. Only 1 of 3 expert raters suggested significantly better quality of performance of the organ training group compared with both the other groups at posttesting (p virtual trainer group did not outperform the control group at any time. For trainees who are proficient in basic laparoscopic skills, the long-term advantage of additional procedural training, especially on a virtual but also on the conventional organ training model, remains to be proven. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety of strength training in premenopausal women: musculoskeletal injuries from a two-year randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Meghan; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2009-01-01

    The health benefits of strength training must be weighed against risks, including injuries. A prior study observed 4.2 injuries that limited usual activities for a day per 1000 strength training sessions among men and women. The analysis herein explores the incidence rates of musculoskeletal injuries from strength training in women. Randomized controlled trial. SETTING; Free-living community. A total of 163 injury-free, overweight, sedentary, premenopausal women aged 25 to 44 years. Two years of strength training (n = 81) or standard care (n = 82). The intervention followed published guidelines (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) with hypothesized injury prevention strategies. An injury survey was administered at years 1 and 2. Injury was defined as physical activity or strength training associated injuries that limited daily activities for 1 week or more. Denominators for rate calculation were accelerometer-measured physical activity and strength training attendance (strength training only). The between-group probability of injuries was assessed using generalized estimating equations. Injury incidence rates were higher in strength training compared with standard care. In strength training, the injury rates were 3.6 per 1000 strength training sessions (95% confidence interval: 2.5-4.8 per 1000) for physical activity-related injuries, and 2.6 per 1000 (95% confidence interval: 1.5-3.6 per 1000) for strength training-related injuries. Injury rates varied by definition and denominator. Strength training had lower injury rates than previously reported, providing preliminary support for the prevention strategies. The finding of strength training injuries underscores the need for balancing the benefits against the potential risks of this exercise modality.

  10. A national survey of prevalence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and knowledge of the emergency number in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, S

    2009-07-06

    AIM: The aim of this survey was to establish prevalence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training within the last 5 years and reasons preventing training and initiation of CPR in Ireland as well as awareness of the emergency numbers. METHODS: An in-home omnibus survey was undertaken in 2008 with quota sampling reflecting the age, gender, social class and geography of Ireland. RESULTS: Of the 974 respondents, 23.5% had undergone CPR training in the previous 5 years with lower social class and age 65 years and older significantly less likely to be trained. The workplace was both a major source of awareness as well as training for those trained. In the untrained group lack of awareness of the need for CPR training was the most significant reason for non-training. Cost was not cited as a barrier. 88.9% of people gave a correct emergency number with geographical variation. Notably, the European emergency number 112 was not well known. CONCLUSION: Previous Irish and American population targets for CPR training have been surpassed in Ireland in 2008. New internationally agreed targets are now required. Meanwhile older people and those in lower socio-economic groups should be targeted for training. Awareness of at least one emergency number is very high in Ireland. Some geographical variation was found and this should be studied further.

  11. The effect of peer-group size on the delivery of feedback in basic life support refresher training: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngsuk; Je, Sangmo; Yoon, Yoo Sang; Roh, Hye Rin; Chang, Chulho; Kang, Hyunggoo; Lim, Taeho

    2016-07-04

    Students are largely providing feedback to one another when instructor facilitates peer feedback rather than teaching in group training. The number of students in a group affect the learning of students in the group training. We aimed to investigate whether a larger group size increases students' test scores on a post-training test with peer feedback facilitated by instructor after video-guided basic life support (BLS) refresher training. Students' one-rescuer adult BLS skills were assessed by a 2-min checklist-based test 1 year after the initial training. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of student number in a group on BLS refresher training. Participants included 115 final-year medical students undergoing their emergency medicine clerkship. The median number of students was 8 in the large groups and 4 in the standard group. The primary outcome was to examine group differences in post-training test scores after video-guided BLS training. Secondary outcomes included the feedback time, number of feedback topics, and results of end-of-training evaluation questionnaires. Scores on the post-training test increased over three consecutive tests with instructor-led peer feedback, but not differ between large and standard groups. The feedback time was longer and number of feedback topics generated by students were higher in standard groups compared to large groups on the first and second tests. The end-of-training questionnaire revealed that the students in large groups preferred the smaller group size compared to their actual group size. In this BLS refresher training, the instructor-led group feedback increased the test score after tutorial video-guided BLS learning, irrespective of the group size. A smaller group size allowed more participations in peer feedback.

  12. S-22: Upper Extremity Plyometric Training for the Pediatric Overhead Athletes; Randomized Controled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Turgut

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION/ PURPOSE: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week upper extremity plyometric training program on upper body explosive power, strength and endurance in pediatric overhead athletes.MATERIALS-METHOD: Twenty-eight female pediatric volleyball players participated in the study. The participants were randomly divided into two study groups: an intervention group (upper extremity plyometric training, n = 14 and a control group (n = 14. All of the participants were assessed before and after a 12-week training program for upper body explosive power, strength and endurance. Statistical comparison was performed using an analysis of variance test. FINDINGS: Comparisons showed that after a 12-week training program, the upper body plyometric training program resulted in more improvements in an overhead medicine-ball throwing distance and a push-up performance when compared to control training. DISCUSSION / CONCLUSION: Compared to regular training, upper body plyometric training resulted in additional improvements in upper body power and strength and endurance among female pediatric volleyball players. The findings of the study provide a basis for developing training protocols for pediatric volleyball players.

  13. Stimulus number, duration and intensity encoding in randomly connected attractor networks with synaptic depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eMiller

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Randomly connected recurrent networks of excitatory groups of neurons can possess a multitude of attractor states. When the internal excitatory synapses of these networks are depressing, the attractor states can be destabilized with increasing input. This leads to an itinerancy, where with either repeated transient stimuli, or increasing duration of a single stimulus, the network activity advances through sequences of attractor states. We find that the resulting network state, which persists beyond stimulus offset, can encode the number of stimuli presented via a distributed representation of neural activity with non-monotonic tuning curves for most neurons. Increased duration of a single stimulus is encoded via different distributed representations, so unlike an integrator, the network distinguishes separate successive presentations of a short stimulus from a single presentation of a longer stimulus with equal total duration. Moreover, different amplitudes of stimulus cause new, distinct activity patterns, such that changes in stimulus number, duration and amplitude can be distinguished from each other. These properties of the network depend on dynamic depressing synapses, as they disappear if synapses are static. Thus short-term synaptic depression allows a network to store separately the different dynamic properties of a spatially constant stimulus.

  14. Effects of Assertiveness Training and Expressive Writing on Acculturative Stress in International Students: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Shedeh; Lumley, Mark A.; Hijazi, Alaa M.; Slavin-Spenny, Olga M.; Parris, George P.

    2009-01-01

    International university students often experience acculturative stress, and culturally appropriate techniques to manage stress are needed. This randomized trial tested the effects of group assertiveness training, private expressive writing, their combination, and a wait-list control on the acculturative stress, affect, and health of 118…

  15. Pilot randomized controlled trial of dialectical behavior therapy group skills training for ADHD among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Andrew P; McMahon, Robert J; Moran, Lyndsey R; Peterson, A Paige; Dreessen, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    ADHD affects between 2% and 8% of college students and is associated with broad functional impairment. No prior randomized controlled trials with this population have been published. The present study is a pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) group skills training adapted for college students with ADHD. Thirty-three undergraduates with ADHD between ages 18 and 24 were randomized to receive either DBT group skills training or skills handouts during an 8-week intervention phase. ADHD symptoms, executive functioning (EF), and related outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Participants receiving DBT group skills training showed greater treatment response rates (59-65% vs. 19-25%) and clinical recovery rates (53-59% vs. 6-13%) on ADHD symptoms and EF, and greater improvements in quality of life. DBT group skills training may be efficacious, acceptable, and feasible for treating ADHD among college students. A larger randomized trial is needed for further evaluation. © 2014 SAGE Publications.

  16. Effectiveness of a parent training program in (pre)adolescence: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, P.H.O.; Overbeek, G.J.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The present randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of the parent training program Parents and Children Talking Together (PCTT) for parents with children in the preadolescent period who experience parenting difficulties. The program is focused on reducing child problem behavior by

  17. Working Memory Training in Young Children with ADHD: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongen-Boomsma, Martine; Vollebregt, Madelon A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Until now, working memory training has not reached sufficient evidence as effective treatment for ADHD core symptoms in children with ADHD; for young children with ADHD, no studies are available. To this end, a triple-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed to assess the efficacy of Cogmed Working Memory Training…

  18. Intrahospital Weight and Aerobic Training in Children with Cystic Fibrosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sosa, Elena Santana; Groeneveld, Iris F.; Gonzalez-Saiz, Laura; López-Mojares, Luis M.; Villa-Asensi, José R.; Gonzalez, María I. Barrio; Fleck, Steven J.; Pérez, Margarita; Lucia, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    SOSA, E. S., I. F. GROENEVELD, L. GONZALEZ-SAIZ, L. M. LOPEZ-MOJARES, J. R. VILLA-ASENSI, M. I. BARRIO GONZALEZ, S. J. FLECK, M. PEREZ, and A. LUCIA. Intrahospital Weight and Aerobic Training in Children with Cystic Fibrosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 44, No. 1,

  19. Random forest predictive modeling of mineral prospectivity with small number of prospects and data with missing values in Abra (Philippines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Laborte, Alice G.

    2015-01-01

    Machine learning methods that have been used in data-driven predictive modeling of mineral prospectivity (e.g., artificial neural networks) invariably require large number of training prospect/locations and are unable to handle missing values in certain evidential data. The Random Forests (RF) algorithm, which is a machine learning method, has recently been applied to data-driven predictive mapping of mineral prospectivity, and so it is instructive to further study its efficacy in this particular field. This case study, carried out using data from Abra (Philippines), examines (a) if RF modeling can be used for data-driven modeling of mineral prospectivity in areas with a few (i.e., individual layers of evidential data. Furthermore, RF modeling can handle missing values in evidential data through an RF-based imputation technique whereas in WofE modeling values are simply represented by zero weights. Therefore, the RF algorithm is potentially more useful than existing methods that are currently used for data-driven predictive mapping of mineral prospectivity. In particular, it is not a purely black-box method like artificial neural networks in the context of data-driven predictive modeling of mineral prospectivity. However, further testing of the method in other areas with a few mineral occurrences is needed to fully investigate its usefulness in data-driven predictive modeling of mineral prospectivity.

  20. Efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training and hypopressive exercises for treating pelvic organ prolapse in women: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Teixeira Bernardes

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that women with pelvic floor dysfunctions present decreased cross-sectional area (CSA of the levator ani muscle. One way to assess the effects of training programs is to measure the CSA of the muscle, using ultrasonography. The aim here was to evaluate the efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training and hypopressive exercises for increasing the CSA of the levator ani muscle in women with pelvic organ prolapse. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective randomized controlled trial at the Urogynecology outpatient clinic of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Fifty-eight women with stage II pelvic organ prolapse were divided into three groups for physiotherapy: a pelvic floor muscle training group (GI; a hypopressive exercise group (GII; and a control group (GIII. The patients underwent transperineal ultrasonographic evaluation using a transducer of frequency 4-9 MHz. The (CSA of the levator ani muscle was measured before physiotherapy and after 12 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: The groups were homogeneous regarding age, number of pregnancies, number of vaginal deliveries, body mass index and hormonal status. Statistically significant differences in CSA were found in GI and GII from before to after the treatment (P < 0.001, but not in relation to GIII (P = 0.816. CONCLUSIONS: The CSA of the levator ani muscle increased significantly with physiotherapy among the women with pelvic organ prolapse. Pelvic floor muscle training and hypopressive exercises produced similar improvements in the CSA of the levator ani muscle.

  1. Study protocol for improving asthma outcomes through cross-cultural communication training for physicians: a randomized trial of physician training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal R; Thomas, Lara J; Hafeez, Kausar; Shankin, Matthew; Wilkin, Margaret; Brown, Randall W

    2014-06-16

    Massive resources are expended every year on cross-cultural communication training for physicians. Such training is a focus of continuing medical education nationwide and is part of the curriculum of virtually every medical school in America. There is a pressing need for evidence regarding the effects on patients of cross-cultural communication training for physicians. There is a need to understand the added benefit of such training compared to more general communication. We know of no rigorous study that has assessed whether cross-cultural communication training for physicians results in better health outcomes for their patients. The current study aims to answer this question by enhancing the Physician Asthma Care Education (PACE) program to cross cultural communication (PACE Plus), and comparing the effect of the enhanced program to PACE on the health outcomes of African American and Latino/Hispanic children with asthma. A three-arm randomized control trial is used to compare PACE Plus, PACE, and usual care. Both PACE and PACE Plus are delivered in two, two-hour sessions over a period of two weeks to 5-10 primary care physicians who treat African American and Latino/Hispanic children with asthma. One hundred twelve physicians and 1060 of their pediatric patients were recruited who self-identify as African American or Latino/Hispanic and experience persistent asthma. Physicians were randomized into receiving either the PACE Plus or PACE intervention or into the control group. The comparative effectiveness of PACE and PACE Plus on clinician's therapeutic and communication practices with the family/patient, children's urgent care use for asthma, asthma control, and quality of life, and parent/caretaker satisfaction with physician performance will be assessed. Data are collected via telephone survey and medical record review at baseline, 9 months following the intervention, and 21 months following the intervention. This study aims to reduce disparities in asthma

  2. Embedded Platform for Automatic Testing and Optimizing of FPGA Based Cryptographic True Random Number Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Varchola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an evaluation platform for cryptographic True Random Number Generators (TRNGs based on the hardware implementation of statistical tests for FPGAs. It was developed in order to provide an automatic tool that helps to speed up the TRNG design process and can provide new insights on the TRNG behavior as it will be shown on a particular example in the paper. It enables to test sufficient statistical properties of various TRNG designs under various working conditions on the fly. Moreover, the tests are suitable to be embedded into cryptographic hardware products in order to recognize TRNG output of weak quality and thus increase its robustness and reliability. Tests are fully compatible with the FIPS 140 standard and are implemented by the VHDL language as an IP-Core for vendor independent FPGAs. A recent Flash based Actel Fusion FPGA was chosen for preliminary experiments. The Actel version of the tests possesses an interface to the Actel’s CoreMP7 softcore processor that is fully compatible with the industry standard ARM7TDMI. Moreover, identical tests suite was implemented to the Xilinx Virtex 2 and 5 in order to compare the performance of the proposed solution with the performance of already published one based on the same FPGAs. It was achieved 25% and 65% greater clock frequency respectively while consuming almost equal resources of the Xilinx FPGAs. On the top of it, the proposed FIPS 140 architecture is capable of processing one random bit per one clock cycle which results in 311.5 Mbps throughput for Virtex 5 FPGA.

  3. Systematic errors due to linear congruential random-number generators with the Swendsen-Wang algorithm: a warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossola, Giovanni; Sokal, Alan D

    2004-08-01

    We show that linear congruential pseudo-random-number generators can cause systematic errors in Monte Carlo simulations using the Swendsen-Wang algorithm, if the lattice size is a multiple of a very large power of 2 and one random number is used per bond. These systematic errors arise from correlations within a single bond-update half-sweep. The errors can be eliminated (or at least radically reduced) by updating the bonds in a random order or in an aperiodic manner. It also helps to use a generator of large modulus (e.g., 60 or more bits).

  4. A Randomized Controlled Study of Art Observation Training to Improve Medical Student Ophthalmology Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurwin, Jaclyn; Revere, Karen E; Niepold, Suzannah; Bassett, Barbara; Mitchell, Rebecca; Davidson, Stephanie; DeLisser, Horace; Binenbaum, Gil

    2018-01-01

    Observation and description are critical to the practice of medicine, and to ophthalmology in particular. However, medical education does not provide explicit training in these areas, and medical students are often criticized for deficiencies in these skills. We sought to evaluate the effects of formal observation training in the visual arts on the general and ophthalmologic observational skills of medical students. Randomized, single-masked, controlled trial. Thirty-six first-year medical students, randomized 1:1 into art-training and control groups. Students in the art-training group were taught by professional art educators at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, during 6 custom-designed, 1.5-hour art observation sessions over a 3-month period. All subjects completed pre- and posttesting, in which they described works of art, retinal pathology images, and external photographs of eye diseases. Grading of written descriptions for observational and descriptive abilities by reviewers using an a priori rubric and masked to group assignment and pretesting/posttesting status. Observational skills, as measured by description testing, improved significantly in the training group (mean change +19.1 points) compared with the control group (mean change -13.5 points), P = 0.001. There were significant improvements in the training vs. control group for each of the test subscores. In a poststudy questionnaire, students reported applying the skills they learned in the museum in clinically meaningful ways at medical school. Art observation training for first-year medical students can improve clinical ophthalmology observational skills. Principles from the field of visual arts, which is reputed to excel in teaching observation and descriptive abilities, can be successfully applied to medical training. Further studies can examine the impact of such training on clinical care. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of Random Assignment in Training and Test Sets using Generalized Cluster Analysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana D. BOLBOACĂ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The properness of random assignment of compounds in training and validation sets was assessed using the generalized cluster technique. Material and Method: A quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship model using Molecular Descriptors Family on Vertices was evaluated in terms of assignment of carboquinone derivatives in training and test sets during the leave-many-out analysis. Assignment of compounds was investigated using five variables: observed anticancer activity and four structure descriptors. Generalized cluster analysis with K-means algorithm was applied in order to investigate if the assignment of compounds was or not proper. The Euclidian distance and maximization of the initial distance using a cross-validation with a v-fold of 10 was applied. Results: All five variables included in analysis proved to have statistically significant contribution in identification of clusters. Three clusters were identified, each of them containing both carboquinone derivatives belonging to training as well as to test sets. The observed activity of carboquinone derivatives proved to be normal distributed on every. The presence of training and test sets in all clusters identified using generalized cluster analysis with K-means algorithm and the distribution of observed activity within clusters sustain a proper assignment of compounds in training and test set. Conclusion: Generalized cluster analysis using the K-means algorithm proved to be a valid method in assessment of random assignment of carboquinone derivatives in training and test sets.

  6. Harvesting Entropy for Random Number Generation for Internet of Things Constrained Devices Using On-Board Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Piotr Pawlowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Entropy in computer security is associated with the unpredictability of a source of randomness. The random source with high entropy tends to achieve a uniform distribution of random values. Random number generators are one of the most important building blocks of cryptosystems. In constrained devices of the Internet of Things ecosystem, high entropy random number generators are hard to achieve due to hardware limitations. For the purpose of the random number generation in constrained devices, this work proposes a solution based on the least-significant bits concatenation entropy harvesting method. As a potential source of entropy, on-board integrated sensors (i.e., temperature, humidity and two different light sensors have been analyzed. Additionally, the costs (i.e., time and memory consumption of the presented approach have been measured. The results obtained from the proposed method with statistical fine tuning achieved a Shannon entropy of around 7.9 bits per byte of data for temperature and humidity sensors. The results showed that sensor-based random number generators are a valuable source of entropy with very small RAM and Flash memory requirements for constrained devices of the Internet of Things.

  7. Harvesting Entropy for Random Number Generation for Internet of Things Constrained Devices Using On-Board Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Marcin Piotr; Jara, Antonio; Ogorzalek, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Entropy in computer security is associated with the unpredictability of a source of randomness. The random source with high entropy tends to achieve a uniform distribution of random values. Random number generators are one of the most important building blocks of cryptosystems. In constrained devices of the Internet of Things ecosystem, high entropy random number generators are hard to achieve due to hardware limitations. For the purpose of the random number generation in constrained devices, this work proposes a solution based on the least-significant bits concatenation entropy harvesting method. As a potential source of entropy, on-board integrated sensors (i.e., temperature, humidity and two different light sensors) have been analyzed. Additionally, the costs (i.e., time and memory consumption) of the presented approach have been measured. The results obtained from the proposed method with statistical fine tuning achieved a Shannon entropy of around 7.9 bits per byte of data for temperature and humidity sensors. The results showed that sensor-based random number generators are a valuable source of entropy with very small RAM and Flash memory requirements for constrained devices of the Internet of Things. PMID:26506357

  8. Harvesting entropy for random number generation for internet of things constrained devices using on-board sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Marcin Piotr; Jara, Antonio; Ogorzalek, Maciej

    2015-10-22

    Entropy in computer security is associated with the unpredictability of a source of randomness. The random source with high entropy tends to achieve a uniform distribution of random values. Random number generators are one of the most important building blocks of cryptosystems. In constrained devices of the Internet of Things ecosystem, high entropy random number generators are hard to achieve due to hardware limitations. For the purpose of the random number generation in constrained devices, this work proposes a solution based on the least-significant bits concatenation entropy harvesting method. As a potential source of entropy, on-board integrated sensors (i.e., temperature, humidity and two different light sensors) have been analyzed. Additionally, the costs (i.e., time and memory consumption) of the presented approach have been measured. The results obtained from the proposed method with statistical fine tuning achieved a Shannon entropy of around 7.9 bits per byte of data for temperature and humidity sensors. The results showed that sensor-based random number generators are a valuable source of entropy with very small RAM and Flash memory requirements for constrained devices of the Internet of Things.

  9. Acceptance lowers stress reactivity: Dismantling mindfulness training in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Emily K; Young, Shinzen; Smyth, Joshua M; Brown, Kirk Warren; Creswell, J David

    2018-01-01

    Mindfulness interventions, which train practitioners to monitor their present-moment experience with a lens of acceptance, are known to buffer stress reactivity. Little is known about the active mechanisms driving these effects. We theorize that acceptance is a critical emotion regulation mechanism underlying mindfulness stress reduction effects. In this three-arm parallel trial, mindfulness components were dismantled into three structurally equivalent 15-lesson smartphone-based interventions: (1) training in both monitoring and acceptance (Monitor+Accept), (2) training in monitoring only (Monitor Only), or (3) active control training (Coping control). 153 stressed adults (mean age=32years; 67% female; 53% white, 21.5% black, 21.5% Asian, 4% other race) were randomly assigned to complete one of three interventions. After the intervention, cortisol, blood pressure, and subjective stress reactivity were assessed using a modified Trier Social Stress Test. As predicted, Monitor+Accept training reduced cortisol and systolic blood pressure reactivity compared to Monitor Only and control trainings. Participants in all three conditions reported moderate levels of subjective stress. This study provides the first experimental evidence that brief smartphone mindfulness training can impact stress biology, and that acceptance training drives these effects. We discuss implications for basic and applied research in contemplative science, emotion regulation, stress and coping, health, and clinical interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Topological relics of symmetry breaking: winding numbers and scaling tilts from random vortex–antivortex pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, W H

    2013-01-01

    I show that random distributions of vortex–antivortex pairs (rather than of individual vortices) lead to scaling of typical winding numbers W trapped inside a loop of circumference C with the square root of that circumference, W∼√C, when the expected winding numbers are large, |W| ≫ 1. Such scaling is consistent with the Kibble–Zurek mechanism (KZM), with 〈W 2 〉 inversely proportional to ξ-hat , the typical size of the domain that can break symmetry in unison. (The dependence of ξ-hat on quench rate is predicted by KZM from critical exponents of the phase transition.) Thus, according to KZM, the dispersion √ 2 > scales as √(C/ ξ-hat ) for large W. By contrast, a distribution of individual vortices with randomly assigned topological charges would result in the dispersion scaling with the square root of the area inside C (i.e., √ 2 > ∼ C). Scaling of the dispersion of W as well as of the probability of detection of non-zero W with C and ξ-hat can be also studied for loops so small that non-zero windings are rare. In this case I show that dispersion varies not as 1/√( ξ-hat ), but as 1/ ξ-hat , which results in a doubling of the scaling of dispersion with the quench rate when compared to the large |W| regime. Moreover, the probability of trapping of non-zero W becomes approximately equal to 〈W 2 〉, and scales as 1/ ξ-hat 2 . This quadruples—as compared with √ 2 > ≃ √C/ξ-circumflex valid for large W—the exponent in the power law dependence of the frequency of trapping of |W| = 1 on ξ-hat when the probability of |W| > 1 is negligible. This change of the power law exponent by a factor of four—from 1/√( ξ-hat ) for the dispersion of large W to 1/ ξ-hat 2 for the frequency of non-zero W when |W| > 1 is negligibly rare—is of paramount importance for experimental tests of KZM. (paper)

  11. Study protocol: a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of a psychosexual training program for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Kirsten; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Tick, Nouchka T; Verhulst, Frank C; Maras, Athanasios; van der Vegt, Esther J M

    2015-08-28

    Previous research shows that adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) run several risks in their psychosexual development and that these adolescents can have limited access to reliable information on puberty and sexuality, emphasizing the need for specific guidance of adolescents with ASD in their psychosexual development. Few studies have investigated the effects of psychosexual training programs for adolescents with ASD and to date no randomized controlled trials are available to study the effects of psychosexual interventions for this target group. The randomized controlled trial (RCT) described in this study protocol aims to investigate the effects of the Tackling Teenage Training (TTT) program on the psychosexual development of adolescents with ASD. This parallel clinical trial, conducted in the South-West of the Netherlands, has a simple equal randomization design with an intervention and a waiting-list control condition. Two hundred adolescents and their parents participate in this study. We assess the participants in both conditions using self-report as well as parent-report questionnaires at three time points during 1 year: at baseline (T1), post-treatment (T2), and for follow-up (T3). To our knowledge, the current study is the first that uses a randomized controlled design to study the effects of a psychosexual training program for adolescents with ASD. It has a number of methodological strengths, namely a large sample size, a wide range of functionally relevant outcome measures, the use of multiple informants, and a standardized research and intervention protocol. Also some limitations of the described study are identified, for instance not making a comparison between two treatment conditions, and no use of blinded observational measures to investigate the ecological validity of the research results. Dutch Trial Register NTR2860. Registered on 20 April 2011.

  12. The effects of assertiveness training in patients with schizophrenia: a randomized, single-blind, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tso-Ying; Chang, Shih-Chin; Chu, Hsin; Yang, Chyn-Yng; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chung, Min-Huey; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of group assertiveness training on assertiveness, social anxiety and satisfaction with interpersonal communication among patients with chronic schizophrenia. Only limited studies highlighted the effectiveness of group assertiveness training among inpatients with schizophrenia. Given the lack of group assertiveness training among patients with schizophrenia, further development of programmes focusing on facilitating assertiveness, self-confidence and social skills among inpatients with chronic schizophrenia is needed. This study used a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, parallel-group design. This study employed a prospective, randomized, parallel-group design. Seventy-four patients were randomly assigned to experimental group receiving 12 sessions of assertiveness training, or a supportive control group. Data collection took place for the period of June 2009-July 2010. Among patients with chronic schizophrenia, assertiveness, levels of social anxiety and satisfaction with interpersonal communication significantly improved immediately after the intervention and at the 3-month follow-up in the intervention group. The results of a generalized estimating equation (GEE) indicated that: (1) assertiveness significantly improved from pre- to postintervention and was maintained until the follow-up; (2) anxiety regarding social interactions significantly decreased after assertiveness training; and (3) satisfaction with interpersonal communication slightly improved after the 12-session intervention and at the 3-month follow-up. Assertivenss training is a non-invasive and inexpensive therapy that appears to improve assertiveness, social anxiety and interpersonal communication among inpatients with chronic schizophrenia. These findings may provide a reference guide to clinical nurses for developing assertiveness-training protocols. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Sustained effect of simulation-based ultrasound training on clinical performance: a randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolsgaard, M G; Ringsted, C; Dreisler, E; Nørgaard, L N; Petersen, J H; Madsen, M E; Freiesleben, N L C; Sørensen, J L; Tabor, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of initial simulation-based transvaginal sonography (TVS) training compared with clinical training only, on the clinical performance of residents in obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn), assessed 2 months into their residency. Methods In a randomized study, new Ob-Gyn residents (n = 33) with no prior ultrasound experience were recruited from three teaching hospitals. Participants were allocated to either simulation-based training followed by clinical training (intervention group; n = 18) or clinical training only (control group; n = 15). The simulation-based training was performed using a virtual-reality TVS simulator until an expert performance level was attained, and was followed by training on a pelvic mannequin. After 2 months of clinical training, one TVS examination was recorded for assessment of each resident's clinical performance (n = 26). Two ultrasound experts blinded to group allocation rated the scans using the Objective Structured Assessment of Ultrasound Skills (OSAUS) scale. Results During the 2 months of clinical training, participants in the intervention and control groups completed an average ± SD of 58 ± 41 and 63 ± 47 scans, respectively (P = 0.67). In the subsequent clinical performance test, the intervention group achieved higher OSAUS scores than did the control group (mean score, 59.1% vs 37.6%, respectively; P training leads to substantial improvement in clinical performance that is sustained after 2 months of clinical training. © 2015 The Authors. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. PMID:25580809

  14. The lung cancer exercise training study: a randomized trial of aerobic training, resistance training, or both in postsurgical lung cancer patients: rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford Jeffrey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lung Cancer Exercise Training Study (LUNGEVITY is a randomized trial to investigate the efficacy of different types of exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak, patient-reported outcomes, and the organ components that govern VO2peak in post-operative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Methods/Design Using a single-center, randomized design, 160 subjects (40 patients/study arm with histologically confirmed stage I-IIIA NSCLC following curative-intent complete surgical resection at Duke University Medical Center (DUMC will be potentially eligible for this trial. Following baseline assessments, eligible participants will be randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (1 aerobic training alone, (2 resistance training alone, (3 the combination of aerobic and resistance training, or (4 attention-control (progressive stretching. The ultimate goal for all exercise training groups will be 3 supervised exercise sessions per week an intensity above 70% of the individually determined VO2peak for aerobic training and an intensity between 60 and 80% of one-repetition maximum for resistance training, for 30-45 minutes/session. Progressive stretching will be matched to the exercise groups in terms of program length (i.e., 16 weeks, social interaction (participants will receive one-on-one instruction, and duration (30-45 mins/session. The primary study endpoint is VO2peak. Secondary endpoints include: patient-reported outcomes (PROs (e.g., quality of life, fatigue, depression, etc. and organ components of the oxygen cascade (i.e., pulmonary function, cardiac function, skeletal muscle function. All endpoints will be assessed at baseline and postintervention (16 weeks. Substudies will include genetic studies regarding individual responses to an exercise stimulus, theoretical determinants of exercise adherence, examination of the psychological mediators of the exercise - PRO relationship, and exercise-induced changes

  15. Increased certification of semi-device independent random numbers using many inputs and more post-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironowicz, Piotr; Tavakoli, Armin; Hameedi, Alley; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed; Pawłowski, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Quantum communication with systems of dimension larger than two provides advantages in information processing tasks. Examples include higher rates of key distribution and random number generation. The main disadvantage of using such multi-dimensional quantum systems is the increased complexity of the experimental setup. Here, we analyze a not-so-obvious problem: the relation between randomness certification and computational requirements of the post-processing of experimental data. In particular, we consider semi-device independent randomness certification from an experiment using a four dimensional quantum system to violate the classical bound of a random access code. Using state-of-the-art techniques, a smaller quantum violation requires more computational power to demonstrate randomness, which at some point becomes impossible with today’s computers although the randomness is (probably) still there. We show that by dedicating more input settings of the experiment to randomness certification, then by more computational postprocessing of the experimental data which corresponds to a quantum violation, one may increase the amount of certified randomness. Furthermore, we introduce a method that significantly lowers the computational complexity of randomness certification. Our results show how more randomness can be generated without altering the hardware and indicate a path for future semi-device independent protocols to follow. (paper)

  16. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of participatory ergonomic low back pain training on workplace improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiki, Shigeyuki; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Hayashida, Kenshi; Kusumoto, Akira; Nagata, Tomohisa; Mori, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effects of participatory workplace improvement (PWI) -based provision of ergonomic training and ergonomic action checklists (ACLs) to on-site managers on workplace improvement activities for low back pain (LBP). Methods: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted at a manufacturing company in Japan. Teams entered in the study were randomly assigned to a control and an intervention group. A total of three interventional training sessions on methods of ergonomics were provided to on-site managers in the intervention group, with 1-month intervals between sessions. Ergonomic ACLs were provided at the same time. After completion of the training sessions, each team then provided a report of improvements each month for the next 10 months. Two people in charge of safety and health chose two major objectives of the implemented activities from the five categories. The reported number of improvements was analyzed using a Poisson regression model. Results: In the intervention group, although the incident rate ratio (IRR) of PWIs in countermeasures for the LBP category was significantly elevated after the training sessions, the IRR of improvements decreased over time during the 10-month follow-up period. No significant difference was observed in the IRR of total PWIs in either the control or intervention group. Conclusions: PWI-based provision of ergonomic training sessions and ergonomics ACLs to on-site managers was shown to be effective for workplace improvement activities targeted at LBP. However, because the effects decrease over time, efforts should be made to maintain the effects through regular interventions. PMID:28320978

  17. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of participatory ergonomic low back pain training on workplace improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiki, Shigeyuki; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Hayashida, Kenshi; Kusumoto, Akira; Nagata, Tomohisa; Mori, Koji

    2017-05-25

    This study aimed to determine the effects of participatory workplace improvement (PWI) -based provision of ergonomic training and ergonomic action checklists (ACLs) to on-site managers on workplace improvement activities for low back pain (LBP). A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted at a manufacturing company in Japan. Teams entered in the study were randomly assigned to a control and an intervention group. A total of three interventional training sessions on methods of ergonomics were provided to on-site managers in the intervention group, with 1-month intervals between sessions. Ergonomic ACLs were provided at the same time. After completion of the training sessions, each team then provided a report of improvements each month for the next 10 months. Two people in charge of safety and health chose two major objectives of the implemented activities from the five categories. The reported number of improvements was analyzed using a Poisson regression model. In the intervention group, although the incident rate ratio (IRR) of PWIs in countermeasures for the LBP category was significantly elevated after the training sessions, the IRR of improvements decreased over time during the 10-month follow-up period. No significant difference was observed in the IRR of total PWIs in either the control or intervention group. PWI-based provision of ergonomic training sessions and ergonomics ACLs to on-site managers was shown to be effective for workplace improvement activities targeted at LBP. However, because the effects decrease over time, efforts should be made to maintain the effects through regular interventions.

  18. Vicious random walkers in the limit of a large number of walkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The vicious random walker problem on a line is studied in the limit of a large number of walkers. The multidimensional integral representing the probability that the p walkers will survive a time t (denoted P t (p) ) is shown to be analogous to the partition function of a particular one-component Coulomb gas. By assuming the existence of the thermodynamic limit for the Coulomb gas, one can deduce asymptotic formulas for P t (p) in the large-p, large-t limit. A straightforward analysis gives rigorous asymptotic formulas for the probability that after a time t the walkers are in their initial configuration (this event is termed a reunion). Consequently, asymptotic formulas for the conditional probability of a reunion, given that all walkers survive, are derived. Also, an asymptotic formula for the conditional probability density that any walker will arrive at a particular point in time t, given that all p walkers survive, is calculated in the limit t >> p

  19. Aerobic physical activity and resistance training: an application of the theory of planned behavior among adults with type 2 diabetes in a random, national sample of Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunamuni Nandini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aerobic physical activity (PA and resistance training are paramount in the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D, but few studies have examined the determinants of both types of exercise in the same sample. Objective The primary purpose was to investigate the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB in explaining aerobic PA and resistance training in a population sample of T2D adults. Methods A total of 244 individuals were recruited through a random national sample which was created by generating a random list of household phone numbers. The list was proportionate to the actual number of household telephone numbers for each Canadian province (with the exception of Quebec. These individuals completed self-report TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention, and a 3-month follow-up that assessed aerobic PA and resistance training. Results TPB explained 10% and 8% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training; and accounted for 39% and 45% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training intentions. Conclusion These results may guide the development of appropriate PA interventions for aerobic PA and resistance training based on the TPB.

  20. Randomized Clinical Trial of Virtual Reality Simulation Training for Transvaginal Gynecologic Ultrasound Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Coline; Chalouhi, Gihad E; Bouhanna, Philippe; Ville, Yves; Dommergues, Marc

    2015-09-01

    To compare the impact of virtual reality simulation training and theoretical teaching on the ability of inexperienced trainees to produce adequate virtual transvaginal ultrasound images. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with parallel groups. Participants included inexperienced residents starting a training program in Paris. The intervention consisted of 40 minutes of virtual reality simulation training using a haptic transvaginal simulator versus 40 minutes of conventional teaching including a conference with slides and videos and answers to the students' questions. The outcome was a 19-point image quality score calculated from a set of 4 images (sagittal and coronal views of the uterus and left and right ovaries) produced by trainees immediately after the intervention, using the same simulator on which a new virtual patient had been uploaded. Experts assessed the outcome on stored images, presented in a random order, 2 months after the trial was completed. They were blinded to group assignment. The hypothesis was an improved outcome in the intervention group. Randomization was 1 to 1. The mean score was significantly greater in the simulation group (n = 16; mean score, 12; SEM, 0.8) than the control group (n = 18; mean score, 9; SEM, 1.0; P= .0302). The quality of virtual vaginal images produced by inexperienced trainees was greater immediately after a single virtual reality simulation training session than after a single theoretical teaching session. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  1. Independent and Social Living Skills Training for People with Schizophrenia in Iran: a Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Ashraf Karbalaee-Nouri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Schizophrenia is responsible for a significant proportion of burden of mental diseases in Iran. Lack of a follow-up system has resulted in the repeated hospitalizations. In this study it is hypothesized that standardized living skills training delivered to participants with schizophrenia in outpatient and inpatient centers can be effective compared to a  control group (with occupational therapy in reducing psychopathology severity and increasing quality of life. Methods: This is a multi-centered parallel group randomized controlled trial in Iran and it is single-blinded. Eligible participants are randomly allocated into two groups in a 1:1 ratio. Participants are assigned by stratified balanced block randomization method. The trial is conducted in the cities of Tehran and Mashhad. Its aim is to recruit 160 clients with schizophrenia. The intervention for the experimental group is social living skills training. The intervention for the control group is occupational therapy. The intervention for both groups is conducted in 90 to 120-minute group sessions. Results: The primary outcome of the study would be a decrease in  psychopathology severity, an improvement in participants' quality of life, and reduction in family burden will be followed for 6 months. Discussion: This paper presents a protocol for a randomized controlled trial of independent and social living skills training intervention delivered to participants with schizophrenia. If this intervention is effective, it could be scaled up to be developing for policymaking and improving outcomes for schizophrenic participants and their families in Iran.

  2. Working Memory Training in Post-Secondary Students with ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karizma Mawjee

    Full Text Available To determine whether standard-length computerized training enhances working memory (WM, transfers to other cognitive domains and shows sustained effects, when controlling for motivation, engagement, and expectancy.97 post-secondary students (59.8% female aged 18-35 years with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, were randomized into standard-length adaptive Cogmed WM training (CWMT; 45-min/session, a shortened-length adaptive version of CWMT (15 min/session that controlled for motivation, engagement and expectancy of change, or into a no training group (waitlist-control group. All three groups received weekly telephone calls from trained coaches, who supervised the CWMT and were independent from the research team. All were evaluated before and 3 weeks post-training; those in the two CWMT groups were also assessed 3 months post-training. Untrained outcome measures of WM included the WAIS-IV Digit Span (auditory-verbal WM, CANTAB Spatial Span (visual-spatial WM and WRAML Finger Windows (visual-spatial WM. Transfer-of-training effects included measures of short-term memory, cognitive speed, math and reading fluency, complex reasoning, and ADHD symptoms.Performance on 5/7 criterion measures indicated that shortened-length CWMT conferred as much benefit on WM performance as did standard-length training, with both CWMT groups improving more than the waitlist-control group. Only 2 of these findings remained robust after correcting for multiple comparisons. Follow-up analyses revealed that post-training improvements on WM performance were maintained for at least three months. There was no evidence of any transfer effects but the standard-length group showed improvement in task-specific strategy use.This study failed to find robust evidence of benefits of standard-length CWMT for improving WM in college students with ADHD and the overall pattern of findings raise questions about the specificity of training effects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01657721.

  3. EFFECT OF HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING ON ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mohamed Taha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postmenopausal hypertension is the most common risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As the exercises training conveys benefits of the setting of secondary prevention of hypertension. High intensity interval training (HIIT emerged as a new form of physical training and presents as therapeutic alternative to patients and health care professionals. This study aimed to investigate the effect of high intensity interval training on endothelial function in postmenopausal hypertension. Methods: Forty six mildly hypertensive postmenopausal women, their ages ranged from (45-55 years old, were randomly allocated to two groups: HIIT group (group-I; n=23 performed a high intensity interval training 3 times a week for 10 weeks at an intensity of (80-85% HR max for 40 minutes and control group (group-II; n=23 remains sedentary during this period. Serum nitric oxide (NO, vascular endothelial growth factor levels (VEGF and blood pressures were measured before and after intervention. Results: A significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values by 9.5% and 7 % respectively, was seen after high intensity interval training which was accompanied by increase in NO and VEGF levels by 43.3% and 15.2 % respectively, while no significant change observed in the control group. Conclusion: High intensity interval training had obvious benefits in improving plasma No, VEGF concentrations and controlling hypertension in postmenopausal women.

  4. Controlling memory impairment in elderly adults using virtual reality memory training: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optale, Gabriele; Urgesi, Cosimo; Busato, Valentina; Marin, Silvia; Piron, Lamberto; Priftis, Konstantinos; Gamberini, Luciano; Capodieci, Salvatore; Bordin, Adalberto

    2010-05-01

    Memory decline is a prevalent aspect of aging but may also be the first sign of cognitive pathology. Virtual reality (VR) using immersion and interaction may provide new approaches to the treatment of memory deficits in elderly individuals. The authors implemented a VR training intervention to try to lessen cognitive decline and improve memory functions. The authors randomly assigned 36 elderly residents of a rest care facility (median age 80 years) who were impaired on the Verbal Story Recall Test either to the experimental group (EG) or the control group (CG). The EG underwent 6 months of VR memory training (VRMT) that involved auditory stimulation and VR experiences in path finding. The initial training phase lasted 3 months (3 auditory and 3 VR sessions every 2 weeks), and there was a booster training phase during the following 3 months (1 auditory and 1 VR session per week). The CG underwent equivalent face-to-face training sessions using music therapy. Both groups participated in social and creative and assisted-mobility activities. Neuropsychological and functional evaluations were performed at baseline, after the initial training phase, and after the booster training phase. The EG showed significant improvements in memory tests, especially in long-term recall with an effect size of 0.7 and in several other aspects of cognition. In contrast, the CG showed progressive decline. The authors suggest that VRMT may improve memory function in elderly adults by enhancing focused attention.

  5. A web-based training program using cognitive behavioral therapy to alleviate psychological distress among employees: randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Makiko; Tajima, Miyuki; Kimura, Risa; Sasaki, Norio; Somemura, Hironori; Ito, Yukio; Okanoya, June; Yamamoto, Megumi; Nakamura, Saki; Tanaka, Katsutoshi

    2014-12-02

    A number of psychoeducational programs based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to alleviate psychological distress have been developed for implementation in clinical settings. However, while these programs are considered critical components of stress management education in a workplace setting, they are required to be brief and simple to implement, which can hinder development. The intent of the study was to examine the effects of a brief training program based on CBT in alleviating psychological distress among employees and facilitating self-evaluation of stress management skills, including improving the ability to recognize dysfunctional thinking patterns, transform dysfunctional thoughts to functional ones, cope with stress, and solve problems. Of the 187 employees at an information technology company in Tokyo, Japan, 168 consented to participate in our non-blinded randomized controlled study. The training group received CBT group education by a qualified CBT expert and 1 month of follow-up Web-based CBT homework. The effects of this educational program on the psychological distress and stress management skills of employees were examined immediately after completion of training and then again after 6 months. Although the training group did exhibit lower mean scores on the Kessler-6 (K6) scale for psychological distress after 6 months, the difference from the control group was not significant. However, the ability of training group participants to recognize dysfunctional thinking was significantly improved both immediately after training completion and after 6 months. While the ability of participants to cope with stress was not significantly improved immediately after training, improvement was noted after 6 months in the training group. No notable improvements were observed in the ability of participants to transform thoughts from dysfunctional to functional or in problem-solving skills. A sub-analysis of participants who initially exhibited clinically

  6. Peers versus professional training of basic life support in Syria: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Fatima; Sawaf, Bisher; Hanafi, Ibrahem; Hajeer, Mohammad Younis; Zakaria, Mhd Ismael; Abbas, Wafaa; Alabdeh, Fadi; Ibrahim, Nazir

    2018-06-18

    Peer training has been identified as a useful tool for delivering undergraduate training in basic life support (BLS) which is fundamental as an initial response in cases of emergency. This study aimed to (1) Evaluate the efficacy of peer-led model in basic life support training among medical students in their first three years of study, compared to professional-led training and (2) To assess the efficacy of the course program and students' satisfaction of peer-led training. A randomized controlled trial with blinded assessors was conducted on 72 medical students from the pre-clinical years (1st to 3rd years in Syria) at Syrian Private University. Students were randomly assigned to peer-led or to professional-led training group for one-day-course of basic life support skills. Sixty-four students who underwent checklist based assessment using objective structured clinical examination design (OSCE) (practical assessment of BLS skills) and answered BLS knowledge checkpoint-questionnaire were included in the analysis. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in delivering BLS skills to medical students in practical (P = 0.850) and BLS knowledge questionnaire outcomes (P = 0.900). Both groups showed statistically significant improvement from pre- to post-course assessment with significant statistical difference in both practical skills and theoretical knowledge (P-Value life support for medical students was beneficial and it provided a quality of education which was as effective as training conducted by professionals. This method is applicable and desirable especially in poor-resource countries and in crisis situation.

  7. Effects of yoga, strength training and advice on back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brämberg, Elisabeth Björk; Bergström, Gunnar; Jensen, Irene; Hagberg, Jan; Kwak, Lydia

    2017-03-29

    Among the working population, non-specific low-back pain and neck pain are one of the most common reasons for sickness absenteeism. The aim was to evaluate the effects of an early intervention of yoga - compared with strength training or evidence-based advice - on sickness absenteeism, sickness presenteeism, back and neck pain and disability among a working population. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 159 participants with predominantly (90%) chronic back and neck pain. After screening, the participants were randomized to kundalini yoga, strength training or evidence-based advice. Primary outcome was sickness absenteeism. Secondary outcomes were sickness presenteeism, back and neck pain and disability. Self-reported questionnaires and SMS text messages were completed at baseline, 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months. The results did not indicate that kundalini yoga and strength training had any statistically significant effects on the primary outcome compared with evidence-based advice. An interaction effect was found between adherence to recommendations and sickness absenteeism, indicating larger significant effects among the adherers to kundalini yoga versus evidence-based advice: RR = 0.47 (CI 0.30; 0.74, p = 0.001), strength training versus evidence-based advice: RR = 0.60 (CI 0.38; 0.96, p = 0.032). Some significant differences were also found for the secondary outcomes to the advantage of kundalini yoga and strength training. Guided exercise in the forms of kundalini yoga or strength training does not reduce sickness absenteeism more than evidence-based advice alone. However, secondary analyses reveal that among those who pursue kundalini yoga or strength training at least two times a week, a significantly reduction in sickness absenteeism was found. Methods to increase adherence to treatment recommendations should be further developed and applied in exercise interventions. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01653782, date of registration: June, 28

  8. LapTrain: multi-modality training curriculum for laparoscopic cholecystectomy-results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, K F; Garrow, C R; Proctor, T; Preukschas, A A; Friedrich, M; Müller, P C; Kenngott, H G; Fischer, L; Müller-Stich, B P; Nickel, F

    2018-02-12

    Multiple training modalities for laparoscopy have different advantages, but little research has been conducted on the benefit of a training program that includes multiple different training methods compared to one method only. This study aimed to evaluate benefits of a combined multi-modality training program for surgical residents. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) was performed on a porcine liver as the pre-test. Randomization was stratified for experience to the multi-modality Training group (12 h of training on Virtual Reality (VR) and box trainer) or Control group (no training). The post-test consisted of a VR LC and porcine LC. Performance was rated with the Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills (GOALS) score by blinded experts. Training (n = 33) and Control (n = 31) were similar in the pre-test (GOALS: 13.7 ± 3.4 vs. 14.7 ± 2.6; p = 0.198; operation time 57.0 ± 18.1 vs. 63.4 ± 17.5 min; p = 0.191). In the post-test porcine LC, Training had improved GOALS scores (+ 2.84 ± 2.85 points, p < 0.001), while Control did not (+ 0.55 ± 2.34 points, p = 0.154). Operation time in the post-test was shorter for Training vs. Control (40.0 ± 17.0 vs. 55.0 ± 22.2 min; p = 0.012). Junior residents improved GOALS scores to the level of senior residents (pre-test: 13.7 ± 2.7 vs. 18.3 ± 2.9; p = 0.010; post-test: 15.5 ± 3.4 vs. 18.8 ± 3.8; p = 0.120) but senior residents remained faster (50.1 ± 20.6 vs. 25.0 ± 1.9 min; p < 0.001). No differences were found between groups on the post-test VR trainer. Structured multi-modality training is beneficial for novices to improve basics and overcome the initial learning curve in laparoscopy as well as to decrease operation time for LCs in different stages of experience. Future studies should evaluate multi-modality training in comparison with single modalities. German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00011040.

  9. [Training in iterative hypothesis testing as part of psychiatric education. A randomized study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampen-Imkamp, S; Alte, C; Sipos, V; Kordon, A; Hohagen, F; Schweiger, U; Kahl, K G

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of medical education is at the center of efforts to reform the studies of medicine. Furthermore, an excellent teaching program for students is a quality feature of medical universities. Besides teaching of disease-specific contents, the acquisition of interpersonal and decision-making skills is important. However, the cognitive style of senior physicians leading to a diagnosis cannot easily be taught. Therefore, the following study aimed at examining whether specific training in iterative hypothesis testing (IHT) may improve the correctness of the diagnostic process. Seventy-one medical students in their 9th-11th terms were randomized to medical teaching as usual or to IHT training for 4 weeks. The intervention group received specific training according to the method of IHT. All students were examined by a multiple choice (MC) exam and additionally by simulated patients (SP). The SPs were instructed to represent either a patient with depression and comorbid anxiety and substance use disorder (SP1) or to represent a patient with depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and acute suicidal tendencies (SP2). All students identified the diagnosis of major depression in the SPs, but IHT-trained students recognized more diagnostic criteria. Furthermore, IHT-trained students recognized acute suicide tendencies in SP2 more often and identified more comorbid psychiatric disorders. The results of the MC exam were comparable in both groups. An analysis of the satisfaction with the different training programs revealed that the IHT training received a better appraisal. Our results point to the role of IHT in teaching diagnostic skills. However, the results of the MC exam were not influenced by IHT training. Furthermore, our results show that students are in need of training in practical clinical skills.

  10. Mental health first aid training for high school teachers: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Anthony F; Kitchener, Betty A; Sawyer, Michael G; Scales, Helen; Cvetkovski, Stefan

    2010-06-24

    Mental disorders often have their first onset during adolescence. For this reason, high school teachers are in a good position to provide initial assistance to students who are developing mental health problems. To improve the skills of teachers in this area, a Mental Health First Aid training course was modified to be suitable for high school teachers and evaluated in a cluster randomized trial. The trial was carried out with teachers in South Australian high schools. Teachers at 7 schools received training and those at another 7 were wait-listed for future training. The effects of the training on teachers were evaluated using questionnaires pre- and post-training and at 6 months follow-up. The questionnaires assessed mental health knowledge, stigmatizing attitudes, confidence in providing help to others, help actually provided, school policy and procedures, and teacher mental health. The indirect effects on students were evaluated using questionnaires at pre-training and at follow-up which assessed any mental health help and information received from school staff, and also the mental health of the student. The training increased teachers' knowledge, changed beliefs about treatment to be more like those of mental health professionals, reduced some aspects of stigma, and increased confidence in providing help to students and colleagues. There was an indirect effect on students, who reported receiving more mental health information from school staff. Most of the changes found were sustained 6 months after training. However, no effects were found on teachers' individual support towards students with mental health problems or on student mental health. Mental Health First Aid training has positive effects on teachers' mental health knowledge, attitudes, confidence and some aspects of their behaviour. ACTRN12608000561381.

  11. Mental health first aid training for high school teachers: a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental disorders often have their first onset during adolescence. For this reason, high school teachers are in a good position to provide initial assistance to students who are developing mental health problems. To improve the skills of teachers in this area, a Mental Health First Aid training course was modified to be suitable for high school teachers and evaluated in a cluster randomized trial. Methods The trial was carried out with teachers in South Australian high schools. Teachers at 7 schools received training and those at another 7 were wait-listed for future training. The effects of the training on teachers were evaluated using questionnaires pre- and post-training and at 6 months follow-up. The questionnaires assessed mental health knowledge, stigmatizing attitudes, confidence in providing help to others, help actually provided, school policy and procedures, and teacher mental health. The indirect effects on students were evaluated using questionnaires at pre-training and at follow-up which assessed any mental health help and information received from school staff, and also the mental health of the student. Results The training increased teachers' knowledge, changed beliefs about treatment to be more like those of mental health professionals, reduced some aspects of stigma, and increased confidence in providing help to students and colleagues. There was an indirect effect on students, who reported receiving more mental health information from school staff. Most of the changes found were sustained 6 months after training. However, no effects were found on teachers' individual support towards students with mental health problems or on student mental health. Conclusions Mental Health First Aid training has positive effects on teachers' mental health knowledge, attitudes, confidence and some aspects of their behaviour. Trial registration ACTRN12608000561381

  12. Effects of Video Game Training on Behavioral and Electrophysiological Measures of Attention and Memory: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Ruiz-Marquez, Eloisa; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar; Ponce de Leon, Laura; de Ceballos, Maria L; Reales Avilés, José Manuel

    2017-01-24

    Neuroplasticity-based approaches seem to offer promising ways of maintaining cognitive health in older adults and postponing the onset of cognitive decline symptoms. Although previous research suggests that training can produce transfer effects, this study was designed to overcome some limitations of previous studies by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of training expectations. The main objectives of this study are (1) to evaluate the effects of a randomized computer-based intervention consisting of training older adults with nonaction video games on brain and cognitive functions that decline with age, including attention and spatial working memory, using behavioral measures and electrophysiological recordings (event-related potentials [ERPs]) just after training and after a 6-month no-contact period; (2) to explore whether motivation, engagement, or expectations might account for possible training-related improvements; and (3) to examine whether inflammatory mechanisms assessed with noninvasive measurement of C-reactive protein in saliva impair cognitive training-induced effects. A better understanding of these mechanisms could elucidate pathways that could be targeted in the future by either behavioral or neuropsychological interventions. A single-blinded randomized controlled trial with an experimental group and an active control group, pretest, posttest, and 6-month follow-up repeated measures design is used in this study. A total of 75 cognitively healthy older adults were randomly distributed into experimental and active control groups. Participants in the experimental group received 16 1-hour training sessions with cognitive nonaction video games selected from Lumosity, a commercial brain training package. The active control group received the same number of training sessions with The Sims and SimCity, a simulation strategy game. We have recruited participants, have conducted the training protocol and pretest assessments, and are

  13. Computer-Based Cognitive Training for Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results from a Pilot Randomized, Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Deborah E.; Yaffe, Kristine; Belfor, Nataliya; Jagust, William J.; DeCarli, Charles; Reed, Bruce R.; Kramer, Joel H.

    2009-01-01

    We performed a pilot randomized, controlled trial of intensive, computer-based cognitive training in 47 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The intervention group performed exercises specifically designed to improve auditory processing speed and accuracy for 100 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks; the control group performed more passive computer activities (reading, listening, visuospatial game) for similar amounts of time. Subjects had a mean age of 74 years and 60% were men; 7...

  14. Aerobic training in aquatic environment improves the position sense of stroke patients: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia de Andrade e Souza Mazuchi; Aline Bigongiari; Juliana Valente Francica; Patricia Martins Franciulli; Luis Mochizuki; Joseph Hamill; Ulysses Fernandes Ervilha

    2018-01-01

    Abstract AIMS (Stroke patients often present sensory-motor alterations and less aerobic capacity. Joint position sense, which is crucial for balance and gait control, is also affected in stroke patients). To compare the effect of two exercise training protocols (walking in deep water and on a treadmill) on the knee position sense of stroke patients. METHODS This study was designed as a randomized controlled clinical trial. Twelve adults, who suffered a stroke at least one year prior to the ...

  15. Parallel Monte Carlo Particle Transport and the Quality of Random Number Generators: How Good is Good Enough?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procassini, R J; Beck, B R

    2004-01-01

    It might be assumed that use of a ''high-quality'' random number generator (RNG), producing a sequence of ''pseudo random'' numbers with a ''long'' repetition period, is crucial for producing unbiased results in Monte Carlo particle transport simulations. While several theoretical and empirical tests have been devised to check the quality (randomness and period) of an RNG, for many applications it is not clear what level of RNG quality is required to produce unbiased results. This paper explores the issue of RNG quality in the context of parallel, Monte Carlo transport simulations in order to determine how ''good'' is ''good enough''. This study employs the MERCURY Monte Carlo code, which incorporates the CNPRNG library for the generation of pseudo-random numbers via linear congruential generator (LCG) algorithms. The paper outlines the usage of random numbers during parallel MERCURY simulations, and then describes the source and criticality transport simulations which comprise the empirical basis of this study. A series of calculations for each test problem in which the quality of the RNG (period of the LCG) is varied provides the empirical basis for determining the minimum repetition period which may be employed without producing a bias in the mean integrated results

  16. Mindfulness meditation training alters stress-related amygdala resting state functional connectivity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, Adrienne A; Gianaros, Peter J; Greco, Carol M; Lindsay, Emily K; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L; Bursley, James K; Ramsburg, Jared; Creswell, J David

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that mindfulness meditation training interventions reduce stress and improve stress-related health outcomes, but the neural pathways for these effects are unknown. The present research evaluates whether mindfulness meditation training alters resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the amygdala, a region known to coordinate stress processing and physiological stress responses. We show in an initial discovery study that higher perceived stress over the past month is associated with greater bilateral amygdala-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) rsFC in a sample of community adults (n = 130). A follow-up, single-blind randomized controlled trial shows that a 3-day intensive mindfulness meditation training intervention (relative to a well-matched 3-day relaxation training intervention without a mindfulness component) reduced right amygdala-sgACC rsFC in a sample of stressed unemployed community adults (n = 35). Although stress may increase amygdala-sgACC rsFC, brief training in mindfulness meditation could reverse these effects. This work provides an initial indication that mindfulness meditation training promotes functional neuroplastic changes, suggesting an amygdala-sgACC pathway for stress reduction effects. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Slow Versus Fast Robot-Assisted Locomotor Training After Severe Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Thais Amanda; Goroso, Daniel Gustavo; Westgate, Philip M; Carrico, Cheryl; Batistella, Linamara R; Sawaki, Lumy

    2017-10-01

    Robot-assisted locomotor training on a bodyweight-supported treadmill is a rehabilitation intervention that compels repetitive practice of gait movements. Standard treadmill speed may elicit rhythmic movements generated primarily by spinal circuits. Slower-than-standard treadmill speed may elicit discrete movements, which are more complex than rhythmic movements and involve cortical areas. Compare effects of fast (i.e., rhythmic) versus slow (i.e., discrete) robot-assisted locomotor training on a bodyweight-supported treadmill in subjects with chronic, severe gait deficit after stroke. Subjects (N = 18) were randomized to receive 30 sessions (5 d/wk) of either fast or slow robot-assisted locomotor training on a bodyweight-supported treadmill in an inpatient setting. Functional ambulation category, time up and go, 6-min walk test, 10-m walk test, Berg Balance Scale, and Fugl-Meyer Assessment were administered at baseline and postintervention. The slow group had statistically significant improvement on functional ambulation category (first quartile-third quartile, P = 0.004), 6-min walk test (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8 to 49.0, P = 0.040), Berg Balance Scale (95% CI = 7.4 to 14.8, P locomotor training on a bodyweight-supported treadmill after severe stroke, slow training targeting discrete movement may yield greater benefit than fast training.

  18. Virtual reality training versus blended learning of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized controlled trial with laparoscopic novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Felix; Brzoska, Julia A; Gondan, Matthias; Rangnick, Henriette M; Chu, Jackson; Kenngott, Hannes G; Linke, Georg R; Kadmon, Martina; Fischer, Lars; Müller-Stich, Beat P

    2015-05-01

    This study compared virtual reality (VR) training with low cost-blended learning (BL) in a structured training program.Training of laparoscopic skills outside the operating room is mandatory to reduce operative times and risks.Laparoscopy-naïve medical students were randomized in 2 groups stratified for sex. The BL group (n = 42) used E-learning for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and practiced basic skills with box trainers. The VR group (n = 42) trained basic skills and LC on the LAP Mentor II (Simbionix, Cleveland, OH). Each group trained 3 × 4 hours followed by a knowledge test concerning LC. Blinded raters assessed the operative performance of cadaveric porcine LC using the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). The LC was discontinued when it was not completed within 80 min. Students evaluated their training modality with questionnaires.The VR group completed the LC significantly faster and more often within 80 min than BL (45% v 21%, P = .02). The BL group scored higher than the VR group in the knowledge test (13.3 ± 1.3 vs 11.0 ± 1.7, P advantages of both approaches.

  19. Efficacy of memory training in healthy community-dwelling older people: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Anna; Roqué, Marta; Domènech, Sara; Monteserín, Rosa; Soriano, Núria; Blancafort, Xavier; Bosom, Maria; Vidal, Cristina; Petit, Montse; Hortal, Núria; Gil, Carles; Espelt, Albert; López, Maria José

    2015-10-01

    There is limited evidence on the efficacy and social utility of cognitive training. To address this, we have designed a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of memory training workshops for healthy older people in terms of their short- and long-term impact on cognitive function, health-related quality of life, and functionality. A randomized controlled trial will be performed in health care centers in Barcelona (Spain) through comparison of a group of individuals participating in memory training workshops (experimental group) with another group with similar characteristics not participating in the workshops (control group). The intervention will consist of twelve 90-minute group sessions imparted once a week by a psychologist specialized in memory training. The groups will each comprise approximately 15 people, for a total number of 230 patients involved in the study. Each session has its own objectives, materials and activities. The content of the intervention is based on memory training from different perspectives, including cognitive and emotional aspects and social and individual skills. Data will be collected at baseline, at 3-4 months and at 6 months. To assess the efficacy of the intervention on cognitive function, health-related quality of life and functionality, a statistical analysis will be performed by fitting a repeated-measures mixed effects model for each main outcome: Self-perceived memory, measured by a Subjective Self-reported Memory Score (from 0 to 10) and by the Memory Failures in Everyday life questionnaire (MFE); Everyday memory, measured using the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test-3 (RBMT-3) and Executive control abilities, measured in terms of visual-perceptual ability, working memory and task-switching ability with the Trail Making Test (TMT) and with the digit span scale of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III (WAIS III). The results of this study will be highly useful for social and public health policies related

  20. Overcoming Barriers to Disseminating Exposure Therapies for Anxiety Disorders: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Training Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Harned, Melanie S.; Dimeff, Linda A.; Woodcock, Eric A.; Skutch, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated methods for training mental health providers (N=46) in exposure therapies (ETs) for anxiety disorders. A pilot randomized controlled trial compared: 1) an interactive, multimedia online training (ET OLT), 2) the ET OLT plus a brief Motivational Interviewing-based intervention (ET OLT + MI), and 3) a placebo control OLT. Assessments were completed at baseline, post-training, and one week following training. Both ET OLT and ET OLT + MI received high satisfaction rati...

  1. Simulation-based camera navigation training in laparoscopy-a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Cecilia; Sørensen, Jette Led; Konge, Lars

    2017-01-01

    patient safety. The objectives of this trial were to examine how to train laparoscopic camera navigation and to explore the transfer of skills to the operating room. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, single-center superiority trial with three groups: The first group practiced simulation-based camera...... navigation tasks (camera group), the second group practiced performing a simulation-based cholecystectomy (procedure group), and the third group received no training (control group). Participants were surgical novices without prior laparoscopic experience. The primary outcome was assessment of camera.......033), had a higher score. CONCLUSIONS: Simulation-based training improves the technical skills required for camera navigation, regardless of practicing camera navigation or the procedure itself. Transfer to the clinical setting could, however, not be demonstrated. The control group demonstrated higher...

  2. Heartbeats Do Not Make Good Pseudo-Random Number Generators: An Analysis of the Randomness of Inter-Pulse Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Ortiz-Martin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of wearable and implantable medical devices has given rise to an interest in developing security schemes suitable for these systems and the environment in which they operate. One area that has received much attention lately is the use of (human biological signals as the basis for biometric authentication, identification and the generation of cryptographic keys. The heart signal (e.g., as recorded in an electrocardiogram has been used by several researchers in the last few years. Specifically, the so-called Inter-Pulse Intervals (IPIs, which is the time between two consecutive heartbeats, have been repeatedly pointed out as a potentially good source of entropy and are at the core of various recent authentication protocols. In this work, we report the results of a large-scale statistical study to determine whether such an assumption is (or not upheld. For this, we have analyzed 19 public datasets of heart signals from the Physionet repository, spanning electrocardiograms from 1353 subjects sampled at different frequencies and with lengths that vary between a few minutes and several hours. We believe this is the largest dataset on this topic analyzed in the literature. We have then applied a standard battery of randomness tests to the extracted IPIs. Under the algorithms described in this paper and after analyzing these 19 public ECG datasets, our results raise doubts about the use of IPI values as a good source of randomness for cryptographic purposes. This has repercussions both in the security of some of the protocols proposed up to now and also in the design of future IPI-based schemes.

  3. Active Video Game Exercise Training Improves the Clinical Control of Asthma in Children: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelim L F D Gomes

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma.A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20 or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16. Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO, maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol and lung function.No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p < 0.05. Although the mean energy expenditure at rest and during exercise training was similar for both groups, the maximum energy expenditure was higher in the VGG.The present findings strongly suggest that aerobic training promoted by an active video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvement in their exercise capacity and a reduction in pulmonary inflammation.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294.

  4. Music Training Increases Phonological Awareness and Reading Skills in Developmental Dyslexia: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaugnacco, Elena; Lopez, Luisa; Terribili, Chiara; Montico, Marcella; Zoia, Stefania; Schön, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence for a role of music training in boosting phonological awareness, word segmentation, working memory, as well as reading abilities in children with typical development. Poor performance in tasks requiring temporal processing, rhythm perception and sensorimotor synchronization seems to be a crucial factor underlying dyslexia in children. Interestingly, children with dyslexia show deficits in temporal processing, both in language and in music. Within this framework, we test the hypothesis that music training, by improving temporal processing and rhythm abilities, improves phonological awareness and reading skills in children with dyslexia. The study is a prospective, multicenter, open randomized controlled trial, consisting of test, rehabilitation and re-test (ID NCT02316873). After rehabilitation, the music group (N = 24) performed better than the control group (N = 22) in tasks assessing rhythmic abilities, phonological awareness and reading skills. This is the first randomized control trial testing the effect of music training in enhancing phonological and reading abilities in children with dyslexia. The findings show that music training can modify reading and phonological abilities even when these skills are severely impaired. Through the enhancement of temporal processing and rhythmic skills, music might become an important tool in both remediation and early intervention programs.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02316873

  5. Music Training Increases Phonological Awareness and Reading Skills in Developmental Dyslexia: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Flaugnacco

    Full Text Available There is some evidence for a role of music training in boosting phonological awareness, word segmentation, working memory, as well as reading abilities in children with typical development. Poor performance in tasks requiring temporal processing, rhythm perception and sensorimotor synchronization seems to be a crucial factor underlying dyslexia in children. Interestingly, children with dyslexia show deficits in temporal processing, both in language and in music. Within this framework, we test the hypothesis that music training, by improving temporal processing and rhythm abilities, improves phonological awareness and reading skills in children with dyslexia. The study is a prospective, multicenter, open randomized controlled trial, consisting of test, rehabilitation and re-test (ID NCT02316873. After rehabilitation, the music group (N = 24 performed better than the control group (N = 22 in tasks assessing rhythmic abilities, phonological awareness and reading skills. This is the first randomized control trial testing the effect of music training in enhancing phonological and reading abilities in children with dyslexia. The findings show that music training can modify reading and phonological abilities even when these skills are severely impaired. Through the enhancement of temporal processing and rhythmic skills, music might become an important tool in both remediation and early intervention programs.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02316873

  6. Teacher-Child Interaction Training: A Pilot Study With Random Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Melanie A; Adelstein, Jonathan S; Miller, Samantha P; Areizaga, Margaret J; Gold, Dylann C; Sanchez, Amanda L; Rothschild, Sara A; Hirsch, Emily; Gudiño, Omar G

    2015-07-01

    Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT), adapted from Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), is a classroom-based program designed to provide teachers with behavior management skills that foster positive teacher-student relationships and to improve student behavior by creating a more constructive classroom environment. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate TCIT in more classrooms than previously reported in the literature, with older children than previously reported, using random assignment of classrooms to TCIT or to a no-TCIT control condition and conducting all but two sessions within the classroom to enhance feasibility. Participants included 11 kindergarten and first grade classroom teachers and their 118 students from three urban, public schools in Manhattan, with five classrooms randomly assigned to receive TCIT and six to the no-TCIT control condition. Observations of teacher skill acquisition were conducted before, during, and after TCIT for all 11 teachers, and teacher reports of student behavior were obtained at these same time points. Teacher satisfaction with TCIT was assessed following training. Results suggested that after receiving TCIT, teachers increased rates of positive attention to students' appropriate behavior, decreased rates of negative attention to misbehavior, reported significantly less distress related to student disruptive behavior, and reported high satisfaction with the training program. Our study supports the growing evidence-base suggesting that TCIT is a promising approach for training teachers in positive behavior management strategies and for improving student disruptive behavior in the classroom. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effectiveness of oncogenetics training on general practitioners' consultation skills: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwink, Elisa J F; Muijtjens, Arno M M; van Teeffelen, Sarah R; Henneman, Lidewij; Rethans, Jan Joost; van der Jagt, Liesbeth E J; van Luijk, Scheltus J; Dinant, Geert Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees; Cornel, Martina C

    2014-01-01

    General practitioners are increasingly called upon to deliver genetic services and could play a key role in translating potentially life-saving advancements in oncogenetic technologies to patient care. If general practitioners are to make an effective contribution in this area, their genetics competencies need to be upgraded. The aim of this study was to investigate whether oncogenetics training for general practitioners improves their genetic consultation skills. In this pragmatic, blinded, randomized controlled trial, the intervention consisted of a 4-h training (December 2011 and April 2012), covering oncogenetic consultation skills (family history, familial risk assessment, and efficient referral), attitude (medical ethical issues), and clinical knowledge required in primary-care consultations. Outcomes were measured using observation checklists by unannounced standardized patients and self-reported questionnaires. Of 88 randomized general practitioners who initially agreed to participate, 56 completed all measurements. Key consultation skills significantly and substantially improved; regression coefficients after intervention were equivalent to 0.34 and 0.28 at 3-month follow-up, indicating a moderate effect size. Satisfaction and perceived applicability of newly learned skills were highly scored. The general practitioner-specific training proved to be a feasible, satisfactory, and clinically applicable method to improve oncogenetics consultation skills and could be used as an educational framework to inform future training activities with the ultimate aim of improving medical care.

  8. Aerobic training in aquatic environment improves the position sense of stroke patients: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia de Andrade e Souza Mazuchi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIMS (Stroke patients often present sensory-motor alterations and less aerobic capacity. Joint position sense, which is crucial for balance and gait control, is also affected in stroke patients. To compare the effect of two exercise training protocols (walking in deep water and on a treadmill on the knee position sense of stroke patients. METHODS This study was designed as a randomized controlled clinical trial. Twelve adults, who suffered a stroke at least one year prior to the start of the study, were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 1 pool group submitted to aerobic deep water walking training; and 2 the treadmill group which was submitted to aerobic walk on a treadmill. Measurements: The position sense, absolute error and variable error, of the knee joint was evaluated prior to and after nine weeks of aerobic training. RESULTS The pool group presented smaller absolute (13.9o versus 6.1o; p < 0.05 and variable (9.2o versus 3.9o; p < 0.05 errors after nine-weeks gait training than the treadmill group. CONCLUSIONS Nine-week aerobic exercise intervention in aquatic environment improved precision in the position sense of the knee joint of stroke patients, suggesting a possible application in a rehabilitation program.

  9. Aerobic treadmill plus Bobath walking training improves walking in subacute stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eich, H-J; Mach, H; Werner, C; Hesse, S

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the immediate and long-term effects of aerobic treadmill plus Bobath walking training in subacute stroke survivors compared with Bobath walking training alone. Randomized controlled trial. Rehabilitation unit. Fifty patients, first-time supratentorial stroke, stroke interval less than six weeks, Barthel Index (0-100) from 50 to 80, able to walk a minimum distance of 12 m with either intermittent help or stand-by while walking, cardiovascular stable, minimum 50 W in the bicycle ergometry, randomly allocated to two groups, A and B. Group A 30 min of treadmill training, harness secured and minimally supported according to patients' needs, and 30 min of physiotherapy, every workday for six weeks, speed and inclination of the treadmill were adjusted to achieve a heart rate of HR: (Hrmax-HRrest)*0.6+HRrest; in group B 60 min of daily physiotherapy for six weeks. Primary outcome variables were the absolute improvement of walking velocity (m/s) and capacity (m), secondary were gross motor function including walking ability (score out of 13) and walking quality (score out of 41), blindly assessed before and after the intervention, and at follow-up three months later. Patients tolerated the aerobic training well with no side-effects, significantly greater improvement of walking velocity and capacity both at study end (p =0.001 versus p =0.002) and at follow-up (p Bobath walking training in moderately affected stroke patients was better than Bobath walking training alone with respect to the improvement of walking velocity and capacity. The treatment approach is recommended in patients meeting the inclusion criteria. A multicentre trial should follow to strengthen the evidence.

  10. Effects of 5 Weeks of Bench Press Training on Muscle Synergies: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Mathias; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal; Hansen, Ernst A

    2016-07-01

    Kristiansen, M, Samani, A, Madeleine, P, and Hansen, EA. Effects of 5 weeks of bench press training on muscle synergies: A randomized controlled study. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1948-1959, 2016-The ability to perform forceful muscle contractions has important implications in sports performance and in activities of daily living. However, there is a lack of knowledge on adaptations in intermuscular coordination after strength training. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess muscle synergies before and after 5 weeks of bench press training. Thirty untrained male subjects were randomly allocated to a training group (TRA) or a control group (CON). After the pretest, TRA completed 5 weeks of bench press training, before completing a posttest, whereas subjects in CON continued their normal life. During test sessions, surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from 13 different muscles. Muscle synergies were extracted from EMG data using nonnegative matrix factorization. To evaluate differences between pretest and posttest, we performed a cross-correlation analysis and a cross-validation analysis, in which the synergy components extracted in the pretest session were recomputed, using the fixed synergy components from the posttest session. Two muscle synergies accounted for 90% of the total variance and reflected the concentric and eccentric phase, respectively. TRA significantly increased 3 repetition maximum in bench press with 19.0% (25th; 75th percentile, 10.3%; 21.7%) (p < 0.001), whereas no change occurred in CON. No significant differences were observed in synergy components between groups. However, decreases in correlation values for intragroup comparisons in TRA may suggest that the synergy components changed, whereas this was not the case in CON. Strength and conditioning professionals may consider monitoring changes in muscle synergies in training and rehabilitation programs as a way to benchmark changes in intermuscular coordination.

  11. Exact simulation of Brown-Resnick random fields at a finite number of locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieker, Ton; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin

    2015-01-01

    We propose an exact simulation method for Brown-Resnick random fields, building on new representations for these stationary max-stable fields. The main idea is to apply suitable changes of measure.......We propose an exact simulation method for Brown-Resnick random fields, building on new representations for these stationary max-stable fields. The main idea is to apply suitable changes of measure....

  12. Processing speed and working memory training in multiple sclerosis: a double-blind randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Laura M; Bruce, Jared M; Bruce, Amanda S; Lynch, Sharon G

    2015-01-01

    Between 40-65% of multiple sclerosis patients experience cognitive deficits, with processing speed and working memory most commonly affected. This pilot study investigated the effect of computerized cognitive training focused on improving processing speed and working memory. Participants were randomized into either an active or a sham training group and engaged in six weeks of training. The active training group improved on a measure of processing speed and attention following cognitive training, and data trended toward significance on measures of other domains. Results provide preliminary evidence that cognitive training with multiple sclerosis patients may produce moderate improvement in select areas of cognitive functioning.

  13. Gaze training enhances laparoscopic technical skill acquisition and multi-tasking performance: a randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark R; Vine, Samuel J; Bright, Elizabeth; Masters, Rich S W; Defriend, David; McGrath, John S

    2011-12-01

    The operating room environment is replete with stressors and distractions that increase the attention demands of what are already complex psychomotor procedures. Contemporary research in other fields (e.g., sport) has revealed that gaze training interventions may support the development of robust movement skills. This current study was designed to examine the utility of gaze training for technical laparoscopic skills and to test performance under multitasking conditions. Thirty medical trainees with no laparoscopic experience were divided randomly into one of three treatment groups: gaze trained (GAZE), movement trained (MOVE), and discovery learning/control (DISCOVERY). Participants were fitted with a Mobile Eye gaze registration system, which measures eye-line of gaze at 25 Hz. Training consisted of ten repetitions of the "eye-hand coordination" task from the LAP Mentor VR laparoscopic surgical simulator while receiving instruction and video feedback (specific to each treatment condition). After training, all participants completed a control test (designed to assess learning) and a multitasking transfer test, in which they completed the procedure while performing a concurrent tone counting task. Not only did the GAZE group learn more quickly than the MOVE and DISCOVERY groups (faster completion times in the control test), but the performance difference was even more pronounced when multitasking. Differences in gaze control (target locking fixations), rather than tool movement measures (tool path length), underpinned this performance advantage for GAZE training. These results suggest that although the GAZE intervention focused on training gaze behavior only, there were indirect benefits for movement behaviors and performance efficiency. Additionally, focusing on a single external target when learning, rather than on complex movement patterns, may have freed-up attentional resources that could be applied to concurrent cognitive tasks.

  14. Does robotic gait training improve balance in Parkinson's disease? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picelli, Alessandro; Melotti, Camilla; Origano, Francesca; Waldner, Andreas; Gimigliano, Raffaele; Smania, Nicola

    2012-09-01

    Treadmill training (with or without robotic assistance) has been reported to improve balance skills in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, its effectiveness on postural instability has been evaluated mainly in patients with mild to moderate PD (Hoehn & Yahr stage ≤3). Patients with more severe disease may benefit from robot-assisted gait training performed by the Gait-Trainer GT1, as a harness supports them with their feet placed on motor-driven footplates. The aim of this study was to determine whether robot-assisted gait training could have a positive influence on postural stability in patients with PD at Hoehn & Yahr stage 3-4. Thirty-four patients with PD at Hoehn & Yahr stage 3-4 were randomly assigned into two groups. All patients received twelve, 40-min treatment sessions, three days/week, for four consecutive weeks. The Robotic Training group (n = 17) underwent robot-assisted gait training, while the Physical Therapy group (n = 17) underwent a training program not specifically aimed at improving postural stability. Patients were evaluated before, immediately after and 1-month post-treatment. Primary outcomes were: Berg Balance scale; Nutt's rating. A significant improvement was found after treatment on the Berg Balance Scale and the Nutt's rating in favor of the Robotic Training group (Berg: 43.44 ± 2.73; Nutt: 1.38 ± 0.50) compared to the Physical Therapy group (Berg: 37.27 ± 5.68; Nutt: 2.07 ± 0.59). All improvements were maintained at the 1-month follow-up evaluation. Robot-assisted gait training may improve postural instability in patients with PD at Hoehn & Yahr stage 3-4. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficacy of the LiSN & Learn auditory training software: randomized blinded controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Cameron

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Children with a spatial processing disorder (SPD require a more favorable signal-to-noise ratio in the classroom because they have difficulty perceiving sound source location cues. Previous research has shown that a novel training program - LiSN & Learn - employing spatialized sound, overcomes this deficit. Here we investigate whether improvements in spatial processing ability are specific to the LiSN & Learn training program. Participants were ten children (aged between 6;0 [years;months] and 9;9 with normal peripheral hearing who were diagnosed as having SPD using the Listening in Spatialized Noise - Sentences test (LiSN-S. In a blinded controlled study, the participants were randomly allocated to train with either the LiSN & Learn or another auditory training program - Earobics - for approximately 15 min per day for twelve weeks. There was a significant improvement post-training on the conditions of the LiSN-S that evaluate spatial processing ability for the LiSN & Learn group (P=0.03 to 0.0008, η 2=0.75 to 0.95, n=5, but not for the Earobics group (P=0.5 to 0.7, η 2=0.1 to 0.04, n=5. Results from questionnaires completed by the participants and their parents and teachers revealed improvements in real-world listening performance post-training were greater in the LiSN & Learn group than the Earobics group. LiSN & Learn training improved binaural processing ability in children with SPD, enhancing their ability to understand speech in noise. Exposure to non-spatialized auditory training does not produce similar outcomes, emphasizing the importance of deficit-specific remediation.

  16. Efficacy of the LiSN & Learn Auditory Training Software: randomized blinded controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Cameron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with a spatial processing disorder (SPD require a more favorable signal-to-noise ratio in the classroom because they have difficulty perceiving sound source location cues. Previous research has shown that a novel training program - LiSN & Learn - employing spatialized sound, overcomes this deficit. Here we investigate whether improvements in spatial processing ability are specific to the LiSN & Learn training program. Materials and methods: Participants were ten children (aged between 6;0 [years;months] and 9;9 with normal peripheral hearing who were diagnosed as having SPD using the Listening in Spatialized Noise – Sentences Test (LISN-S. In a blinded controlled study, the participants were randomly allocated to train with either the LiSN & Learn or another auditory training program – Earobics - for approximately 15 minutes per day for twelve weeks. Results: There was a significant improvement post-training on the conditions of the LiSN-S that evaluate spatial processing ability for the LiSN & Learn group (p=0.03 to 0.0008, η2=0.75 to 0.95, n=5, but not for the Earobics group (p=0.5 to 0.7, η2=0.1 to 0.04, n=5. Results from questionnaires completed by the participants and their parents and teachers revealed improvements in real-world listening performance post-training were greater in the LiSN & Learn group than the Earobics group. Conclusions: LiSN & Learn training improved binaural processing ability in children with SPD, enhancing their ability to understand speech in noise. Exposure to non-spatialized auditory training does not produce similar outcomes, emphasizing the importance of deficit-specific remediation.

  17. Effects of Physical-Cognitive Dual Task Training on Executive Function and Gait Performance in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, S; Condello, G; Capranica, L; Forte, R; Pesce, C

    2016-01-01

    Physical and cognitive training seem to counteract age-related decline in physical and mental function. Recently, the possibility of integrating cognitive demands into physical training has attracted attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of twelve weeks of designed physical-cognitive training on executive cognitive function and gait performance in older adults. Thirty-six healthy, active individuals aged 72.30 ± 5.84 years were assigned to two types of physical training with major focus on physical single task (ST) training ( n = 16) and physical-cognitive dual task (DT) training ( n = 20), respectively. They were tested before and after the intervention for executive function (inhibition, working memory) through Random Number Generation and for gait (walking with/without negotiating hurdles) under both single and dual task (ST, DT) conditions. Gait performance improved in both groups, while inhibitory performance decreased after exercise training with ST focus but tended to increase after training with physical-cognitive DT focus. Changes in inhibition performance were correlated with changes in DT walking performance with group differences as a function of motor task complexity (with/without hurdling). The study supports the effectiveness of group exercise classes for older individuals to improve gait performance, with physical-cognitive DT training selectively counteracting the age-related decline in a core executive function essential for daily living.

  18. Provider Training to Screen and Initiate Evidence-Based Pediatric Obesity Treatment in Routine Practice Settings: A Randomized Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolko, Rachel P; Kass, Andrea E; Hayes, Jacqueline F; Levine, Michele D; Garbutt, Jane M; Proctor, Enola K; Wilfley, Denise E

    This randomized pilot trial evaluated two training modalities for first-line, evidence-based pediatric obesity services (screening and goal setting) among nursing students. Participants (N = 63) were randomized to live interactive training or Web-facilitated self-study training. Pretraining, post-training, and 1-month follow-up assessments evaluated training feasibility, acceptability, and impact (knowledge and skill via simulation). Moderator (previous experience) and predictor (content engagement) analyses were conducted. Nearly all participants (98%) completed assessments. Both types of training were acceptable, with higher ratings for live training and participants with previous experience (ps pediatric obesity services. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Randomized Trial Comparing Two Tongue-Pressure Resistance Training Protocols for Post-Stroke Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M; Bayley, Mark T; Peladeau-Pigeon, Melanie; Nagy, Ahmed; Namasivayam, Ashwini M; Stokely, Shauna L; Wolkin, Talia

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of two tongue resistance training protocols. One protocol ("tongue-pressure profile training") emphasized the pressure-timing patterns that are typically seen in healthy swallows by focusing on gradual pressure release and saliva swallowing tasks. The second protocol ("tongue-pressure strength and accuracy training") emphasized strength and accuracy in tongue-palate pressure generation and did not include swallowing tasks. A prospective, randomized, parallel allocation trial was conducted. Of 26 participants who were screened for eligibility, 14 received up to 24 sessions of treatment. Outcome measures of posterior tongue strength, oral bolus control, penetration-aspiration and vallecular residue were made based on videofluoroscopy analysis by blinded raters. Complete data were available for 11 participants. Significant improvements were seen in tongue strength and post-swallow vallecular residue with thin liquids, regardless of treatment condition. Stage transition duration (a measure of the duration of the bolus presence in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation, which had been chosen to capture impairments in oral bolus control) showed no significant differences. Similarly, significant improvements were not seen in median scores on the penetration-aspiration scale. This trial suggests that tongue strength can be improved with resistance training for individuals with tongue weakness following stroke. We conclude that improved penetration-aspiration does not necessarily accompany improvements in tongue strength; however, tongue-pressure resistance training does appear to be effective for reducing thin liquid vallecular residue.

  20. High-speed resistance training and balance training for people with knee osteoarthritis to reduce falls risk: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, Pazit; Dunn, Jeremy; Bifera, Nancy; Butson, Michael; Elias, George; Hill, Keith D

    2017-08-18

    The number of falls experienced by people with knee osteoarthritis (OA) is almost double the number experienced by people with no OA. The neuromuscular elements required to arrest a fall are more impaired in people with knee OA compared to their asymptomatic counterparts. Therefore, these elements may need to be incorporated into an exercise intervention to reduce the risk of falling. The aim of this study will be to examine the feasibility, safety and patient satisfaction of a high-speed resistance-training program, with and without balance exercises, in people with knee OA compared to a control group. The effect of these exercise programs on lower-limb muscle strength and physiological and functional risk factors for falls will also be examined. This study will be a pilot randomized controlled trial with a pre- and post-intervention design (outcome assessments at baseline and 8 weeks after participation commencement) comparing three groups: a control group (no intervention), a high-speed resistance-training group and a high-speed resistance-training plus balance exercises group. Thirty people with knee osteoarthritis aged 60-90 years will be recruited and randomized to one of the three groups. Feasibility and safety will be assessed by examining adherence to the exercise program, dropout rate, pain level during and following exercise, number of exercises stopped due to pain, and any adverse event or any incident that prevents the participant from completing the prescribed exercise. Secondary measures of lower-limb strength, physical function, self-reported pain and function, fear of falls, and executive function and quality of life will also be assessed. To determine statistical trends of effectiveness and hence to inform sample size for a fully powered study, analyses of the secondary outcomes will be performed to assess the changes within and between groups over time (pre-post) using repeated measure ANOVA. The results of this study will improve understanding

  1. Relationship between the number of repetitions and selected percentages of one repetition maximum in free weight exercises in trained and untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimano, Tomoko; Kraemer, William J; Spiering, Barry A; Volek, Jeff S; Hatfield, Disa L; Silvestre, Ricardo; Vingren, Jakob L; Fragala, Maren S; Maresh, Carl M; Fleck, Steven J; Newton, Robert U; Spreuwenberg, Luuk P B; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2006-11-01

    Resistance exercise intensity is commonly prescribed as a percent of 1 repetition maximum (1RM). However, the relationship between percent 1RM and the number of repetitions allowed remains poorly studied, especially using free weight exercises. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximal number of repetitions that trained (T) and untrained (UT) men can perform during free weight exercises at various percentages of 1RM. Eight T and 8 UT men were tested for 1RM strength. Then, subjects performed 1 set to failure at 60, 80, and 90% of 1RM in the back squat, bench press, and arm curl in a randomized, balanced design. There was a significant (p squat than the bench press or arm curl at 60% 1RM for T and UT. At 80 and 90% 1RM, there were significant differences between the back squat and other exercises; however, differences were much less pronounced. No differences in number of repetitions performed at a given exercise intensity were noted between T and UT (except during bench press at 90% 1RM). In conclusion, the number of repetitions performed at a given percent of 1RM is influenced by the amount of muscle mass used during the exercise, as more repetitions can be performed during the back squat than either the bench press or arm curl. Training status of the individual has a minimal impact on the number of repetitions performed at relative exercise intensity.

  2. One Model Fits All: Explaining Many Aspects of Number Comparison within a Single Coherent Model-A Random Walk Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reike, Dennis; Schwarz, Wolf

    2016-01-01

    The time required to determine the larger of 2 digits decreases with their numerical distance, and, for a given distance, increases with their magnitude (Moyer & Landauer, 1967). One detailed quantitative framework to account for these effects is provided by random walk models. These chronometric models describe how number-related noisy…

  3. Augmenting Outpatient Alcohol Treatment as Usual With Online Alcohol Avoidance Training: Protocol for a Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratti-van der Werf, Marleen Kj; Laurens, Melissa C; Postel, Marloes G; Pieterse, Marcel E; Ben Allouch, Somaya; Wiers, Reinout W; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Salemink, Elske

    2018-03-01

    Recent theoretical models emphasize the role of impulsive processes in alcohol addiction, which can be retrained with computerized Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) training. In this study, the focus is on action tendencies that are activated relatively automatically. The aim of the study is to examine the effectiveness of online CBM Alcohol Avoidance Training using an adapted Approach-Avoidance Task as a supplement to treatment as usual (TAU) in an outpatient treatment setting. The effectiveness of 8 online sessions of CBM Alcohol Avoidance Training added to TAU is tested in a double-blind, randomized controlled trial with pre- and postassessments, plus follow-up assessments after 3 and 6 months. Participants are adult patients (age 18 years or over) currently following Web-based or face-to-face TAU to reduce or stop drinking. These patients are randomly assigned to a CBM Alcohol Avoidance or a placebo training. The primary outcome measure is a reduction in alcohol consumption. We hypothesize that TAU + CBM will result in up to a 13-percentage point incremental effect in the number of patients reaching the safe drinking guidelines compared to TAU + placebo CBM. Secondary outcome measures include an improvement in health status and a decrease in depression, anxiety, stress, and possible mediation by the change in approach bias. Finally, patients' adherence, acceptability, and credibility will be examined. The trial was funded in 2014 and is currently in the active participant recruitment phase (since May 2015). Enrolment will be completed in 2019. First results are expected to be submitted for publication in 2020. The main purpose of this study is to increase our knowledge about the added value of online Alcohol Avoidance Training as a supplement to TAU in an outpatient treatment setting. If the added effectiveness of the training is proven, the next step could be to incorporate the intervention into current treatment. Netherlands Trial Register NTR5087; http

  4. Effect of interactive cognitive motor training on gait and balance among older adults: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ching-Chiu; Chiu, Huei-Ling; Liu, Doresses; Chan, Pi-Tuan; Tseng, Ing-Jy; Chen, Ruey; Niu, Shu-Fen; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2018-06-01

    Aging is a normal degenerative process that results in a decline in the gait and balance performance of older adults. Interactive cognitive motor training is an intervention that integrates cognitive and motor tasks to promote individuals' physical and cognitive fall risk factors. However, the additive effects of the interactive cognitive motor training on objective quantitative data and comprehensive descriptions of gait and balance warrants further investigation. To investigate the effect of interactive cognitive motor training on older adults' gait and balance from immediate to long-term time points. A double-blind randomized control trial. Four senior service centers and community service centers in Taiwan. 62 older adults who met the inclusion criteria. The study participants were older adults without cognitive impairment, and they were randomly allocated to the experimental group or active control group. In both groups, older adults participated in three sessions of 30-min training per week for a total of 8 weeks, with the total number of training sessions being 24. The primary outcome was gait performance, which was measured using objective and subjective indicators. iWALK was used as an objective indicator to measure pace and dynamic stability; the Functional Gait Assessment was employed as a subjective indicator. The secondary outcome was balance performance, which was measured using iSWAY. A generalized estimating equation was used to identify whether the results of the two groups differ after receiving different intervention measures; the results were obtained from immediate to long-term posttests. Stride length in the pace category of the experimental group improved significantly in immediate posttest (p = 0.01), 3-month follow-up (p = 0.01), and 6-month follow-up (p = 0.04). The range of motion of the leg exhibited significant improvement in immediate posttest (p = 0.04) and 3-month follow-up (p = 0.04). The Functional Gait

  5. Student tutors for hands-on training in focused emergency echocardiography – a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kühl Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Focused emergency echocardiography performed by non-cardiologists has been shown to be feasible and effective in emergency situations. During resuscitation a short focused emergency echocardiography has been shown to narrow down potential differential diagnoses and to improve patient survival. Quite a large proportion of physicians are eligible to learn focused emergency echocardiography. Training in focused emergency echocardiography usually comprises a lecture, hands-on trainings in very small groups, and a practice phase. There is a shortage of experienced echocardiographers who can supervise the second step, the hands-on training. We thus investigated whether student tutors can perform the hands-on training for focused emergency echocardiography. Methods A total of 30 volunteer 4th and 5th year students were randomly assigned to a twelve-hour basic echocardiography course comprising a lecture followed by a hands-on training in small groups taught either by an expert cardiographer (EC or by a student tutor (ST. Using a pre-post-design, the students were evaluated by an OSCE. The students had to generate two still frames with the apical five-chamber view and the parasternal long axis in five minutes and to correctly mark twelve anatomical cardiac structures. Two blinded expert cardiographers rated the students’ performance using a standardized checklist. Students could achieve a maximum of 25 points. Results Both groups showed significant improvement after the training (p Conclusions Hands-on training by student tutors led to a significant gain in echocardiography skills, although inferior to teaching by an expert cardiographer.

  6. Task-specific ankle robotics gait training after stroke: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Larry W; Roy, Anindo; Hafer-Macko, Charlene; Krebs, Hermano I; Macko, Richard F

    2016-06-02

    An unsettled question in the use of robotics for post-stroke gait rehabilitation is whether task-specific locomotor training is more effective than targeting individual joint impairments to improve walking function. The paretic ankle is implicated in gait instability and fall risk, but is difficult to therapeutically isolate and refractory to recovery. We hypothesize that in chronic stroke, treadmill-integrated ankle robotics training is more effective to improve gait function than robotics focused on paretic ankle impairments. Participants with chronic hemiparetic gait were randomized to either six weeks of treadmill-integrated ankle robotics (n = 14) or dose-matched seated ankle robotics (n = 12) videogame training. Selected gait measures were collected at baseline, post-training, and six-week retention. Friedman, and Wilcoxon Sign Rank and Fisher's exact tests evaluated within and between group differences across time, respectively. Six weeks post-training, treadmill robotics proved more effective than seated robotics to increase walking velocity, paretic single support, paretic push-off impulse, and active dorsiflexion range of motion. Treadmill robotics durably improved gait dorsiflexion swing angle leading 6/7 initially requiring ankle braces to self-discarded them, while their unassisted paretic heel-first contacts increased from 44 % to 99.6 %, versus no change in assistive device usage (0/9) following seated robotics. Treadmill-integrated, but not seated ankle robotics training, durably improves gait biomechanics, reversing foot drop, restoring walking propulsion, and establishing safer foot landing in chronic stroke that may reduce reliance on assistive devices. These findings support a task-specific approach integrating adaptive ankle robotics with locomotor training to optimize mobility recovery. NCT01337960. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01337960?term=NCT01337960&rank=1.

  7. A randomized controlled trial of smartphone-based mindfulness training for smoking cessation: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Pal, Prasanta; Rojiani, Rahil; Dallery, Jesse; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Brewer, Judson A

    2015-04-14

    Tobacco use is responsible for the death of about 1 in 10 individuals worldwide. Mindfulness training has shown preliminary efficacy as a behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Recent advances in mobile health suggest advantages to smartphone-based smoking cessation treatment including smartphone-based mindfulness training. This study evaluates the efficacy of a smartphone app-based mindfulness training program for improving smoking cessation rates at 6-months follow-up. A two-group parallel-randomized clinical trial with allocation concealment will be conducted. Group assignment will be concealed from study researchers through to follow-up. The study will be conducted by smartphone and online. Daily smokers who are interested in quitting smoking and own a smartphone (n = 140) will be recruited through study advertisements posted online. After completion of a baseline survey, participants will be allocated randomly to the control or intervention group. Participants in both groups will receive a 22-day smartphone-based treatment program for smoking. Participants in the intervention group will receive mobile mindfulness training plus experience sampling. Participants in the control group will receive experience sampling-only. The primary outcome measure will be one-week point prevalence abstinence from smoking (at 6-months follow-up) assessed using carbon monoxide breath monitoring, which will be validated through smartphone-based video chat. This is the first intervention study to evaluate smartphone-based delivery of mindfulness training for smoking cessation. Such an intervention may provide treatment in-hand, in real-world contexts, to help individuals quit smoking. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02134509 . Registered 7 May 2014.

  8. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Ruiz-Marquez, Eloísa; Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508) tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/) or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group). Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM) and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1) the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task); (2) a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations. PMID:29163136

  9. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Ballesteros

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508 tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/ or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group. Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1 the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task; (2 a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations.

  10. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Ruiz-Marquez, Eloísa; Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M

    2017-01-01

    Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508) tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity , a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/) or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group). Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM) and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1) the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task); (2) a marginal training effect was observed for the N -back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations.

  11. Polynomial Chaos Expansion of Random Coefficients and the Solution of Stochastic Partial Differential Equations in the Tensor Train Format

    KAUST Repository

    Dolgov, Sergey

    2015-11-03

    We apply the tensor train (TT) decomposition to construct the tensor product polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) of a random field, to solve the stochastic elliptic diffusion PDE with the stochastic Galerkin discretization, and to compute some quantities of interest (mean, variance, and exceedance probabilities). We assume that the random diffusion coefficient is given as a smooth transformation of a Gaussian random field. In this case, the PCE is delivered by a complicated formula, which lacks an analytic TT representation. To construct its TT approximation numerically, we develop the new block TT cross algorithm, a method that computes the whole TT decomposition from a few evaluations of the PCE formula. The new method is conceptually similar to the adaptive cross approximation in the TT format but is more efficient when several tensors must be stored in the same TT representation, which is the case for the PCE. In addition, we demonstrate how to assemble the stochastic Galerkin matrix and to compute the solution of the elliptic equation and its postprocessing, staying in the TT format. We compare our technique with the traditional sparse polynomial chaos and the Monte Carlo approaches. In the tensor product polynomial chaos, the polynomial degree is bounded for each random variable independently. This provides higher accuracy than the sparse polynomial set or the Monte Carlo method, but the cardinality of the tensor product set grows exponentially with the number of random variables. However, when the PCE coefficients are implicitly approximated in the TT format, the computations with the full tensor product polynomial set become possible. In the numerical experiments, we confirm that the new methodology is competitive in a wide range of parameters, especially where high accuracy and high polynomial degrees are required.

  12. Polynomial Chaos Expansion of Random Coefficients and the Solution of Stochastic Partial Differential Equations in the Tensor Train Format

    KAUST Repository

    Dolgov, Sergey; Khoromskij, Boris N.; Litvinenko, Alexander; Matthies, Hermann G.

    2015-01-01

    We apply the tensor train (TT) decomposition to construct the tensor product polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) of a random field, to solve the stochastic elliptic diffusion PDE with the stochastic Galerkin discretization, and to compute some

  13. Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effects of CCTV Training on Quality of Life, Depression, and Adaptation to Vision Loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burggraaff, M.C.; van Nispen, R.M.A.; Knol, D.L.; Ringens, P.J.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE. In addition to performance-based measures, visionrelated quality of life (QOL) and other subjective measures of psychosocial functioning are considered important outcomes of training in the visually impaired. In a multicenter, masked, randomized controlled trial, subjective effects of

  14. Computer-Assisted Training as a Complement in Rehabilitation of Patients With Chronic Vestibular Dizziness-A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Michael Smærup; Gro¨nvall, Erik; Larsen, Simon B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare a computer exercise program with conservative home-training following printed instructions in the rehabilitation of elderly patients with vestibular dysfunction. Design Single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Setting Geriatric Department, Aarhus University Hospital...

  15. On a direct algorithm for the generation of log-normal pseudo-random numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Chamayou, J M F

    1976-01-01

    The random variable ( Pi /sub i=1//sup n/X/sub i//X/sub i+n/)/sup 1/ square root 2n/ is used to generate standard log normal variables Lambda (0, 1), where the X/sub i/ are independent uniform variables on (0, 1). (8 refs).

  16. Working Memory Training in Post-Secondary Students with ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawjee, Karizma; Woltering, Steven; Tannock, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether standard-length computerized training enhances working memory (WM), transfers to other cognitive domains and shows sustained effects, when controlling for motivation, engagement, and expectancy. Methods 97 post-secondary students (59.8% female) aged 18–35 years with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, were randomized into standard-length adaptive Cogmed WM training (CWMT; 45-min/session), a shortened-length adaptive version of CWMT (15 min/session) that controlled for motivation, engagement and expectancy of change, or into a no training group (waitlist-control group). All three groups received weekly telephone calls from trained coaches, who supervised the CWMT and were independent from the research team. All were evaluated before and 3 weeks post-training; those in the two CWMT groups were also assessed 3 months post-training. Untrained outcome measures of WM included the WAIS-IV Digit Span (auditory-verbal WM), CANTAB Spatial Span (visual-spatial WM) and WRAML Finger Windows (visual-spatial WM). Transfer-of-training effects included measures of short-term memory, cognitive speed, math and reading fluency, complex reasoning, and ADHD symptoms. Results Performance on 5/7 criterion measures indicated that shortened-length CWMT conferred as much benefit on WM performance as did standard-length training, with both CWMT groups improving more than the waitlist-control group. Only 2 of these findings remained robust after correcting for multiple comparisons. Follow-up analyses revealed that post-training improvements on WM performance were maintained for at least three months. There was no evidence of any transfer effects but the standard-length group showed improvement in task-specific strategy use. Conclusions This study failed to find robust evidence of benefits of standard-length CWMT for improving WM in college students with ADHD and the overall pattern of findings raise questions about the specificity of training effects

  17. Multimodal exercise training in multiple sclerosis: A randomized controlled trial in persons with substantial mobility disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M; Bollaert, Rachel E; Pilutti, Lara A; Peterson, Melissa L; Baynard, Tracy; Fernhall, Bo; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W

    2017-10-01

    Mobility disability is a common, debilitating feature of multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise training has been identified as an approach to improve MS-related mobility disability. However, exercise randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on mobility in MS have generally not selectively targeted those with the onset of irreversible mobility disability. The current multi-site RCT compared the efficacy of 6-months of supervised, multimodal exercise training with an active control condition for improving mobility, gait, physical fitness, and cognitive outcomes in persons with substantial MS-related mobility disability. 83 participants with substantial MS-related mobility disability underwent initial mobility, gait, fitness, and cognitive processing speed assessments and were randomly assigned to 6-months of supervised multimodal (progressive aerobic, resistance, and balance) exercise training (intervention condition) or stretching-and-toning activities (control condition). Participants completed the same outcome assessments halfway through and immediately following the 6-month study period. There were statistically significant improvements in six-minute walk performance (F(2158)=3.12, p=0.05, η p 2 =0.04), peak power output (F(2150)=8.16, pmobility disability. This is critical for informing the development of multi-site exercise rehabilitation programs in larger samples of persons with MS-related mobility disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mental health first aid training by e-learning: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Anthony F; Kitchener, Betty A; Fischer, Julie-Anne; Cvetkovski, Stefan

    2010-12-01

    Mental Health First Aid training is a course for the public that teaches how to give initial help to a person developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis. The present study evaluated the effects of Mental Health First Aid training delivered by e-learning on knowledge about mental disorders, stigmatizing attitudes and helping behaviour. A randomized controlled trial was carried out with 262 members of the Australian public. Participants were randomly assigned to complete an e-learning CD, read a Mental Health First Aid manual or be in a waiting list control group. The effects of the interventions were evaluated using online questionnaires pre- and post-training and at 6-months follow up. The questionnaires covered mental health knowledge, stigmatizing attitudes, confidence in providing help to others, actions taken to implement mental health first aid and participant mental health. Both e-learning and the printed manual increased aspects of knowledge, reduced stigma and increased confidence compared to waiting list. E-learning also improved first aid actions taken more than waiting list, and was superior to the printed manual in reducing stigma and disability due to mental ill health. Mental Health First Aid information received by either e-learning or printed manual had positive effects, but e-learning was better at reducing stigma.

  19. Computerized cognitive training to improve mood in senior living settings: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith M

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Marianne Smith,1 Michael P Jones,2 Megan M Dotson,1 Fredric D Wolinsky3 1College of Nursing, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; 2Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA; 3Department of Health, Management and Policy, College of Public Health, the University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA Purpose: This two-arm, randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate a computerized cognitive speed of processing (SOP training known as Road Tour in the generally older group of adults residing in assisted living (AL and related senior housing. Study aims focused on depression-related outcomes that were observed in earlier SOP studies using Road Tour with younger, home-dwelling seniors. Study design and baseline outcomes are discussed. Participants and methods: A community-based design engaged AL and related senior living settings as partners in research. Selected staff served as on-site research assistants who were trained to recruit, consent, and train a target of 300 participants from AL and independent living (IL programs to use the intervention and attention control computerized training. Ten hours of initial computerized training was followed by two booster sessions at 5 and 11 months. Outcome measures included Useful Field of View, 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, 12-item Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorders, Brief Pain Inventory, and SF-36 Health Survey. Assessments occurred before randomization (pretraining and posttraining, 26 and 52 weeks. Results: A total of 351 participants were randomized to the intervention (n = 173 and attention control (n = 178 groups. There were no significant differences between groups in demographic characteristics, with the exception of education and reported osteoporosis. There were no significant differences in study outcomes between groups at baseline. Participants in AL had significantly lower

  20. Hydrotherapy added to endurance training versus endurance training alone in elderly patients with chronic heart failure: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminiti, Giuseppe; Volterrani, Maurizio; Marazzi, Giuseppe; Cerrito, Anna; Massaro, Rosalba; Sposato, Barbara; Arisi, Arianna; Rosano, Giuseppe

    2011-04-14

    To assess if Hydrotherapy (HT) added to endurance training (ET) is more effective than ET alone in order to improve exercise tolerance of elderly male patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Twenty-one male CHF patients, age 68+/-7 (mean+/-DS) years; ejection fraction 32+/-9. NYHA II-III were enrolled. Eleven pts were randomized to combined training (CT) group performing HT+ET and 10 patients to ET group (ET only). At baseline and after 24 weeks all patients underwent: 6-minute walking test (6MWT), assessment of quadriceps maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and peak torque (PT), blood pressure and heart rate (HR), echocardiography and non-invasive hemodynamic evaluation. HT was performed 3 times/week in upright position at up to the xyphoid process at a temperature of 31°C. ET was performed 3 times/week. Exercise was well tolerated. No patients had adverse events. Distance at 6MWT improved in both groups (CT group: 150+/-32 m; ET group:105+/-28 m) with significant intergroup differences (p 0.001). On land diastolic BP and HR significantly decreased in the CT group while remained unchanged in the ET group (-11 mmHg+/-2, p 0.04; e - 12 bpm, p 0.03; respectively) CO and SV had a relative despite no significant increase in CT group TPR on land significantly decreased in CT group (-23+/-3 mmHg/l/m; p 0.01) while remained unchanged in ET group. Patients of CT group had no significant higher increase of both MVC and PT than ET group. CT training, significantly improves exercise tolerance and hemodynamic profile of patients with CHF. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Number of Repetitions and Number of Hours of Shaping Practice during Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auwal Abdullahi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT is effective in improving motor outcomes after stroke. However, its existing protocols are resource-intensive and difficult to implement. The aim of this study is to design an easier CIMT protocol using number of repetitions of shaping practice. Method. The study design was randomized controlled trial. Participants within 4 weeks after stroke were recruited at Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospital. They were randomly assigned to groups A, B, C, and D. Group A received 3 hours of traditional therapy. Groups B, C, and D received modified CIMT consisting of 3 hours of shaping practice per session, 300 repetitions of shaping practice in 3 sessions, and 600 repetitions of shaping practice in 3 sessions per day, respectively, and constraint for 90% of the waking hours. All treatment protocols were administered 5 times per week for 4 weeks. The primary outcome was measured using upper limb Fugl-Meyer assessment, while the secondary outcome was measured using motor activity log, Wolf Motor Function Test, and upper limb self-efficacy test at baseline, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after intervention. Result. There were 48 participants 4 weeks after intervention. The result showed that there was no significant difference between groups at baseline (p>0.05. Within-group improvements attained minimal clinically important difference (MCID in modified CIMT and 300 repetitions and 600 repetitions groups. Conclusion. Number of repetitions of shaping practice significantly improved motor function, real-world arm use, and upper limb self-efficacy after stroke. Therefore, it seems to be a simple alternative for the use of number of hours. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with Pan African Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: PACTR201610001828172 (date of registration: 21/10/2016.

  2. Controlling the Instructional Development Process. Training Development and Research Center Project Number Fifteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleezer, Catherine M.; Swanson, Richard A.

    Process control is a way of training managers in business and industry to plan, monitor, and communicate the instructional development process of training projects. Two simple and useful tools that managers use in controlling the process of instructional development are the Process Control Planning Sheet and the Process Control Record. The Process…

  3. Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle induced by strength training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen; Aagaard, Per; Kadi, Fawzi

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of creatine and protein supplementation on satellite cell frequency and number of myonuclei in human skeletal muscle during 16 weeks of heavy-resistance training. In a double-blinded design 32 healthy, male subjects (19-26 years) were assigned to stren......The present study investigated the influence of creatine and protein supplementation on satellite cell frequency and number of myonuclei in human skeletal muscle during 16 weeks of heavy-resistance training. In a double-blinded design 32 healthy, male subjects (19-26 years) were assigned...

  4. Inspiratory muscle training in bronchiectasis patients: a prospective randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Mei-Yun; Wang, Yi-Hsi; Tsai, Yu-Chin; Huang, Kuo-Tung; Chang, Pei-Wen; Chen, Yung-Che; Lin, Meng-Chih

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the efficacy and feasibility of home-based inspiratory muscle training in patients with bronchiectasis. A prospective, single-blind, randomized, controlled study. Outpatient clinic of a tertiary care medical centre. Twenty-six patients with bronchiectasis were randomly divided into inspiratory muscle training and control groups. In the inspiratory muscle training group (n = 13), the training programme started with an intensity of 30% maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), which was increased by 2 cmH(2)O each week, for 30 minutes daily, 5 days a week for eight weeks. The control group (n = 13) did not receive inspiratory muscle training. Main outcome measures included spirometry, resting oxyhaemoglobin saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO(2)), lowest SpO(2) and Borg Scale during 6-minute walking tests, 6-minute walking distance (6MWD), 6-minute walking work (6M(work)), MIP, maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire. There were significant differences in change from baseline in 6MWD (411.9 (133.5) vs. 473.2 (117.2) m, P = 0.021), 6M(work) (21 051.0 (8286.7) vs. 23 915.5 (8343.0) kg-m, P = 0.022), MIP (60.8 (21.8) vs. 84.6 (29.0) cmH(2)O, P = 0.004), and MEP (72.3 (31.1) vs. 104.2 (35.7) cmH(2)O, P = 0.004) in the inspiratory muscle training group. Significant improvements in both MIP (23.8 (25.3) vs. 2.3 (16.4) cmH(2)O, adjusted P-value = 0.005) and MEP (31.9 (30.8) vs. 11.5 (20.8) cmH(2)O, adjusted P-value = 0.038) levels after adjusting for age by linear regression analysis were observed between groups. An eight-week home-based inspiratory muscle training is feasible and effective in improving both inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength, but has no effect on respiratory function and quality of life in patients with bronchiectasis.

  5. Tele-education vs classroom training of neonatal resuscitation: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A; Agarwal, R; Chawla, D; Paul, V; Deorari, A

    2010-12-01

    To compare gain in knowledge and skills of neonatal resuscitation using tele-education instruction vs conventional classroom teaching. This randomized controlled trial was conducted in the tele-education facility of a tertiary care center. In-service staff nurses were randomized to receive training by tele-education instruction (TI, n=26) or classroom teaching (CT, n=22) method from two neonatology instructors using a standardized teaching module on neonatal resuscitation. Gain in knowledge and skill scores of neonatal resuscitation were measured using objective assessment methods. Age, educational qualification and professional experience of the participants in two groups were comparable. Pre-training mean knowledge scores were higher in TI group (8.3±1.7 vs 6.6±1.4, P=0.004). However, skill scores were comparable in the two groups (11.7±3 vs 10.3±2.9, P=0.13). Training resulted in a significant and comparable gain in knowledge scores (4.2±2.2 vs 5.3±1.7; P=0.06) and skills scores (4.5±3.3 vs 5.0±3.1, P=0.62) in both the groups. The post-training knowledge scores (TI: 12.5±1.7 vs CT: 12.0±1.7, P=0.37) and the post-training skill scores (TI: 16.0±0.5 vs CT: 15.6±2.5, P=0.55) were comparable in the two groups. However, the post-training scores, adjusted for baseline knowledge scores, were statistically higher in the in-person group compared with the telemedicine group (knowledge: 12.46±0.03 vs 12.16±0.01, P=0.00; skills: 15.6±2.5 vs 16.0±2.8, P=0.00). The quantum of lower scores in the telemedicine group was only 2% for knowledge and 6% for skills. This difference was felt to be of only marginal importance. Satisfaction scores among trainees and instructors were comparable in the two groups. Tele-education offers a feasible and effective alternative to conventional training in neonatal resuscitation among health-care providers.

  6. Research of the method of pseudo-random number generation based on asynchronous cellular automata with several active cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilan Stepan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, there are many tasks that are aimed at studying the dynamic changes in physical processes. These tasks do not give advance known result. The solution of such problems is based on the construction of a dynamic model of the object. Successful structural and functional implementation of the object model can give a positive result in time. This approach uses the task of constructing artificial biological objects. To solve such problems, pseudo-random number generators are used, which also find wide application for information protection tasks. Such generators should have good statistical properties and give a long repetition period of the generated pseudo-random bit sequence. This work is aimed at improving these characteristics. The paper considers the method of forming pseudo-random sequences of numbers on the basis of aperiodic cellular automata with two active cells. A pseudo-random number generator is proposed that generates three bit sequences. The first two bit sequences are formed by the corresponding two active cells in the cellular automaton. The third bit sequence is the result of executing the XOR function over the bits of the first two sequences and it has better characteristics compared to them. The use of cellular automata with two active cells allowed to improve the statistical properties of the formed bit sequence, as well as its repetition period. This is proved by using graphical tests for generators built based on cellular automata using the neighborhoods of von Neumann and Moore. The tests showed high efficiency of the generator based on an asynchronous cellular automaton with the neighborhood of Moore. The proposed pseudo-random number generators have good statistical properties, which makes it possible to use them in information security systems, as well as for simulation tasks of various dynamic processes.

  7. Brain training game improves executive functions and processing speed in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Akitsuki, Yuko; Shigemune, Yayoi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kotozaki, Yuka; Tsukiura, Takashi; Yomogida, Yukihito; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions, but these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Here we investigate the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on cognitive functions in the elderly. Thirty-two elderly volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). This study was completed by 14 of the 16 members in the Brain Age group and 14 of the 16 members in the Tetris group. To maximize the benefit of the interventions, all participants were non-gamers who reported playing less than one hour of video games per week over the past 2 years. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Each group played for a total of about 20 days. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into four categories (global cognitive status, executive functions, attention, and processing speed). Results showed that the effects of the brain training game were transferred to executive functions and to processing speed. However, the brain training game showed no transfer effect on any global cognitive status nor attention. Our results showed that playing Brain Age for 4 weeks could lead to improve cognitive functions (executive functions and processing speed) in the elderly. This result indicated that there is a possibility which the elderly could improve executive functions and processing speed in short term training. The results need replication in large samples. Long-term effects and relevance for every-day functioning remain uncertain as yet. UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000002825.

  8. Brain training game improves executive functions and processing speed in the elderly: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Nouchi

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions, but these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Here we investigate the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age on cognitive functions in the elderly.Thirty-two elderly volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris. This study was completed by 14 of the 16 members in the Brain Age group and 14 of the 16 members in the Tetris group. To maximize the benefit of the interventions, all participants were non-gamers who reported playing less than one hour of video games per week over the past 2 years. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Each group played for a total of about 20 days. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into four categories (global cognitive status, executive functions, attention, and processing speed. Results showed that the effects of the brain training game were transferred to executive functions and to processing speed. However, the brain training game showed no transfer effect on any global cognitive status nor attention.Our results showed that playing Brain Age for 4 weeks could lead to improve cognitive functions (executive functions and processing speed in the elderly. This result indicated that there is a possibility which the elderly could improve executive functions and processing speed in short term training. The results need replication in large samples. Long-term effects and relevance for every-day functioning remain uncertain as yet.UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000002825.

  9. Effects of Interpersonal Skills Training on MRI Operations in a Saturated Market: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajam, Amna A; Nguyen, Xuan V; Kelly, Ronda A; Ladapo, Joseph A; Lang, Elvira V

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of team training on operational efficiency during outpatient MRI. In this institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant study, six MRI outpatient sites of a midwestern hospital system were randomized to serve as controls or have their teams trained in advanced communication skills. The fourth quarter of fiscal year 2015 was the trial baseline. The trial ended in the third quarter (Q3) of fiscal year 2016 (FY16). Equipment utilization (completed scans/available slots), hourly scan rates (total orders completed per machine per hour of operation), and no-show rates stratified by time were analyzed using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel method, with individual comparisons performed with Bonferroni correction. The study encompassed 27,425 MRI examinations. Overall volume peaked at baseline and then declined over the following quarters. Compared with baseline, untrained sites experienced significant drops in equipment utilization (P trained sites, these metrics showed no significant change, with maintenance of hourly scan rates of 1.23 and 1.27 and equipment utilization rates of 83% and 85% between baseline and Q3 FY16. No-show rates remained stable at trained sites but increased at untrained sites in the last two quarters (P trained sites from 56th at baseline to 70th and successively decreased at untrained sites from 66th to 44th. MRI outpatient facilities trained in advanced communication techniques may have more favorable operational efficiency than untrained sites in a saturated market. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mindfulness Meditation Training and Executive Control Network Resting State Functional Connectivity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, Adrienne A; Gianaros, Peter J; Greco, Carol M; Lindsay, Emily K; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L; Creswell, J David

    Mindfulness meditation training has been previously shown to enhance behavioral measures of executive control (e.g., attention, working memory, cognitive control), but the neural mechanisms underlying these improvements are largely unknown. Here, we test whether mindfulness training interventions foster executive control by strengthening functional connections between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC)-a hub of the executive control network-and frontoparietal regions that coordinate executive function. Thirty-five adults with elevated levels of psychological distress participated in a 3-day randomized controlled trial of intensive mindfulness meditation or relaxation training. Participants completed a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan before and after the intervention. We tested whether mindfulness meditation training increased resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) between dlPFC and frontoparietal control network regions. Left dlPFC showed increased connectivity to the right inferior frontal gyrus (T = 3.74), right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) (T = 3.98), right supplementary eye field (T = 4.29), right parietal cortex (T = 4.44), and left middle temporal gyrus (T = 3.97, all p < .05) after mindfulness training relative to the relaxation control. Right dlPFC showed increased connectivity to right MFG (T = 4.97, p < .05). We report that mindfulness training increases rsFC between dlPFC and dorsal network (superior parietal lobule, supplementary eye field, MFG) and ventral network (right IFG, middle temporal/angular gyrus) regions. These findings extend previous work showing increased functional connectivity among brain regions associated with executive function during active meditation by identifying specific neural circuits in which rsFC is enhanced by a mindfulness intervention in individuals with high levels of psychological distress. Clinicaltrials.gov,NCT01628809.

  11. Working memory training in survivors of pediatric cancer: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Kristina K; Willard, Victoria W; Allen, Taryn M; Bonner, Melanie J

    2013-08-01

    Survivors of pediatric brain tumors and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at increased risk for neurocognitive deficits, but few empirically supported treatment options exist. We examined the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a home-based, computerized working memory training program, CogmedRM, with survivors of childhood cancer. Survivors of brain tumors or ALL (n = 20) with identified deficits in attention and/or working memory were randomized to either the success-adapted computer intervention or a non-adaptive, active control condition. Specifically, children in the adaptive condition completed exercises that became more challenging with each correct trial, whereas those in the non-adaptive version trained with exercises that never increased in difficulty. All participants were asked to complete 25 training sessions at home, with weekly, phone-based coaching support. Brief assessments were completed pre-intervention and post-intervention; outcome measures included both performance-based and parent-report measures of working memory and attention. Eighty-five percent of survivors were compliant with the intervention, with no adverse events reported. After controlling for baseline intellectual functioning, survivors who completed the intervention program evidenced significant post-training improvements in their visual working memory and in parent-rated learning problems compared with those in the active control group. No differences in verbal working memory functioning were evident between groups, however. Home-based, computerized cognitive training demonstrates good feasibility and acceptability in our sample. Children with higher intellectual functioning at baseline appeared to benefit more from the training, although further study is needed to clarify the strength, scope, and particularly the generalizability of potential treatment effects. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. On random number generators providing convergence more rapid than 1/√N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    To realize the simulation of processes in High Energy Physics a practical test of the efficiency in applying quasirandom numbers to check multiple integration with Monte-Karlo method is presented together with the comparison of the wellknown generators of quasirandom and pseudorandom numbers [ru

  13. Application of random numbers at computerized simulation of proton magnetic resonance signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Populyakh, S.N.; Sapiga, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    One calculated numerically spectra of proton magnetic resonance of water molecules diffusing along the regular positions in a natrolite. One reached adequate conformity of the experimental and the calculated spectra within wide temperature range including a transition region. To ensure calculations one used generators of the pseudorandom Markov sequences. The numerical analysis, in particular, has shown that at the binary Markov process the time period when physical value remains unchanged is described by the random value with exponential distribution [ru

  14. Comprehensive simulation-enhanced training curriculum for an advanced minimally invasive procedure: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevin, Boris; Dedy, Nicolas J; Bonrath, Esther M; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    2017-05-01

    There is no comprehensive simulation-enhanced training curriculum to address cognitive, psychomotor, and nontechnical skills for an advanced minimally invasive procedure. 1) To develop and provide evidence of validity for a comprehensive simulation-enhanced training (SET) curriculum for an advanced minimally invasive procedure; (2) to demonstrate transfer of acquired psychomotor skills from a simulation laboratory to live porcine model; and (3) to compare training outcomes of SET curriculum group and chief resident group. University. This prospective single-blinded, randomized, controlled trial allocated 20 intermediate-level surgery residents to receive either conventional training (control) or SET curriculum training (intervention). The SET curriculum consisted of cognitive, psychomotor, and nontechnical training modules. Psychomotor skills in a live anesthetized porcine model in the OR was the primary outcome. Knowledge of advanced minimally invasive and bariatric surgery and nontechnical skills in a simulated OR crisis scenario were the secondary outcomes. Residents in the SET curriculum group went on to perform a laparoscopic jejunojejunostomy in the OR. Cognitive, psychomotor, and nontechnical skills of SET curriculum group were also compared to a group of 12 chief surgery residents. SET curriculum group demonstrated superior psychomotor skills in a live porcine model (56 [47-62] versus 44 [38-53], Ppsychomotor skills in the live porcine model and in the OR in a human patient (56 [47-62] versus 63 [61-68]; P = .21). SET curriculum group demonstrated inferior knowledge (13 [11-15] versus 16 [14-16]; P<.05), equivalent psychomotor skill (63 [61-68] versus 68 [62-74]; P = .50), and superior nontechnical skills (41 [38-45] versus 34 [27-35], P<.01) compared with chief resident group. Completion of the SET curriculum resulted in superior training outcomes, compared with conventional surgery training. Implementation of the SET curriculum can standardize training

  15. Moderate aerobic exercise training for improving reproductive function in infertile patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh Maleki, Behzad; Tartibian, Bakhtyar

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated for the first time the changes in seminal markers of inflammation, oxidative stress status, semen parameters, sperm DNA integrity as well as pregnancy rate following 24weeks of moderate aerobic exercise in infertile patients. A total of 1026 sedentary men (aged 25-40years) attending the infertility clinic with history of more than one year of infertility, were screened and 419 were randomized to either exercise (EX, n=210) or non-exercise (NON-EX, n=209) groups. Exercise training favorably attenuated seminal markers of both inflammation (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) and oxidative stress (ROS, MDA, 8-Isoprostane) as well as enhanced antioxidant defense system (SOD, catalase and TAC) (Paerobic exercise training as a treatment option for male factor infertility. The 4-week detraining period was not enough to reverse all benefits promoted by exercise intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cigar Box Arthroscopy: A Randomized Controlled Trial Validates Nonanatomic Simulation Training of Novice Arthroscopy Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Rory P; Sherman, Nathan C; Latt, L Daniel; Hardy, Jolene C

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this study was to validate the cigar box arthroscopy trainer (CBAT) as a training tool and then compare its effectiveness to didactic training and to another previously validated low-fidelity but anatomic model, the anatomic knee arthroscopy trainer (AKAT). A nonanatomic knee arthroscopy training module was developed at our institution. Twenty-four medical students with no prior arthroscopic or laparoscopic experience were enrolled as subjects. Eight subjects served as controls. The remaining 16 subjects were randomized to participate in 4 hours of either the CBAT or a previously validated AKAT. Subjects' skills were assessed by 1 of 2 faculty members through repeated attempts at performing a diagnostic knee arthroscopy on a cadaveric specimen. Objective scores were given using a minimally adapted version of the Basic Arthroscopic Knee Skill Scoring System. Total cost differences were calculated. Seventy-five percent of subjects in the CBAT and AKAT groups succeeded in reaching minimum proficiency in the allotted time compared with 25% in the control group (P arthroscopy trainer that may decrease the learning curve of residents without significant cost to a residency program. This study demonstrates the need for an agreed-upon objective scoring system to properly evaluate residents and compare the effectiveness of different training tools. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuromuscular training reduces lower limb injuries in elite female basketball players. A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, M; Benis, R; La Torre, A

    2018-04-01

    The study was a two-armed, parallel group, cluster randomized controlled trial in which 15 teams (160 players) were assigned to either an experimental group (EG, 8 teams n = 86), which warmed-up with bodyweight neuromuscular exercises, or a control group (CG, 7 teams, n = 74) that performed standard tactical-technical exercises before training. All injuries during the 2015-2016 regular season were counted. Epidemiologic incidence proportion and incidence rate were also calculated. Countermovement jump (CMJ) and composite Y-Excursion Balance test (YBT) were used to assess lower limb strength and postural control. A total of 111 injuries were recorded. Chi-square test detected statistically significant differences between EG and CG (32 vs 79, P = .006). Significant differences in the injuries sustained in the EG (21 vs 11, P = .024) and CG (52 vs 27, P = .0001) during training and matches, respectively, were observed. Significant differences in post-intervention injuries were observed between in EG and CG during training (21 vs 52, P training into warm-up routines reduced the incidence of serious lower limb injuries in elite female basketball players. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Parent Training and Emotion Socialization Program for Families of Hyperactive Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Sharonne D.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Jasmin L.; Wichowski, Kayla; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a parent training and emotion socialization program designed specifically for hyperactive preschoolers. Participants were 31 preschool-aged children whose parents were randomly assigned to a parent training (PT) or waitlist (WL) control group. PT parents took part in a 14-week parenting program that…

  19. Efficacy of an internet-based problem-solving training for teachers: results of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, D.D.; Lehr, D.; BoB, L.; Riper, H.; Cuijpers, P.; Andersson, G.; Thiart, H.; Heber, E.; Berking, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The primary purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the efficacy of internet-based problem-solving training (iPST) for employees in the educational sector (teachers) with depressive symptoms. The results of training were compared to those of a waitlist control

  20. One or two trainees per workplace in a structured multimodality training curriculum for laparoscopic surgery? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial – DRKS00004675

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Laparoscopy training courses have been established in many centers worldwide to ensure adequate skill learning before performing operations on patients. Different training modalities and their combinations have been compared regarding training effects. Multimodality training combines different approaches for optimal training outcome. However, no standards currently exist for the number of trainees assigned per workplace. Methods This is a monocentric, open, three-arm randomized controlled trial. The participants are laparoscopically-naive medical students from Heidelberg University. After a standardized introduction to laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with online learning modules, the participants perform a baseline test for basic skills and LC performance on a virtual reality (VR) trainer. A total of 100 students will be randomized into three study arms, in a 2:2:1 ratio. The intervention groups participate individually (Group 1) or in pairs (Group 2) in a standardized and structured multimodality training curriculum. Basic skills are trained on the box and VR trainers. Procedural skills and LC modules are trained on the VR trainer. The control group (Group C) does not receive training between tests. A post-test is performed to reassess basic skills and LC performance on the VR trainer. The performance of a cadaveric porcine LC is then measured as the primary outcome using standardized and validated ratings by blinded experts with the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills. The Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Surgical skills score and the time taken for completion are used as secondary outcome measures as well as the improvement of skills and VR LC performance between baseline and post-test. Cognitive tests and questionnaires are used to identify individual factors that might exert influence on training outcome. Discussion This study aims to assess whether workplaces in laparoscopy training courses for beginners should be used

  1. Parent Stress in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Atomoxetine and Parent Training for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecavalier, Luc; Pan, Xueliang; Smith, Tristram; Handen, Benjamin L.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Silverman, Laura; Tumuluru, Rameshwari V.; Hollway, Jill; Aman, Michael G.

    2018-01-01

    We previously reported a 2 × 2 randomized clinical trial of atomoxetine (ATX) and parent training (PT) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and behavioral noncompliance in 128 children with autism spectrum disorder, ages 5-14 years. Children were randomized to one of four conditions: ATX alone, placebo alone, ATX + PT, or…

  2. Virtual reality training versus blended learning of laparoscopic cholecystectomy:a randomized controlled trial with laparoscopic novices

    OpenAIRE

    Nickel, Felix; Brzoska, Julia Anja; Gondan, Matthias; Rangnick, Henriette Maria; Chu, Jackson; Kenngott, Hannes Götz; Linke, Georg Richard; Kadmon, Martina; Fischer, Lars; Müller-Stich, Beat Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study compared virtual reality (VR) training with low cost blended learning (BL) in a structured training program. Background: Training of laparoscopic skills outside the operating room is mandatory to reduce operative times and risks. Methods: Laparoscopy-naïve medical students were randomized in two groups stratified for gender. The BL group (n = 42) used E-learning for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and practiced basic skills with box trainers. The VR group (n = 42) trai...

  3. The impact of the National Treatment Purchase Fund on numbers of core urology training cases at University Hospital Galway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harney, T J

    2011-06-01

    Since the National Treatment Purchase Fund (NTPF) scheme was introduced in 2002, public patients waiting longer than three months for investigations and treatment are offered care in the private medical sector. Our aim was to assess the impact of the NTPF scheme on the number of training cases performed at University Hospital Galway (UHG). The number and type of urological procedures performed in the private medical sector under the NTFP scheme in 2008 were obtained from the UHG waiting list office. The number of these procedures performed on public patients by trainees at UHG in 2008 was determined retrospectively by reviewing theatre records. A significant number of core urology procedures were performed in the private sector via the NTPF scheme. Cancer centre designation and implementation of the EWTD will also place further pressures on urological training opportunities in Ireland.

  4. Application of random number generators in genetic algorithms to improve rainfall-runoff modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlumecký, M.; Buchtele, Josef; Richta, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 553, October (2017), s. 350-355 ISSN 0022-1694 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : genetic algorithm * optimisation * rainfall-runoff modeling * random generator Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Hydrology Impact factor: 3.483, year: 2016 https://ac.els-cdn.com/S0022169417305516/1-s2.0-S0022169417305516-main.pdf?_tid=fa1bad8a-bd6a-11e7-8567-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1509365462_a1335d3d997e9eab19e23b1eee977705

  5. Non-Stoichiometric SixN Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor for Compact Random Number Generator with 0.3 Mbit/s Generation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mari; Ohba, Ryuji; Yasuda, Shin-ichi; Uchida, Ken; Tanamoto, Tetsufumi; Fujita, Shinobu

    2008-08-01

    The demand for random numbers for security applications is increasing. A conventional random number generator using thermal noise can generate unpredictable high-quality random numbers, but the circuit is extremely large because of large amplifier circuit for a small thermal signal. On the other hand, a pseudo-random number generator is small but the quality of randomness is bad. For a small circuit and a high quality of randomness, we purpose a non-stoichiometric SixN metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) noise source device. This device generates a very large noise signal without an amplifier circuit. As a result, it is shown that, utilizing a SiN MOSFET, we can attain a compact random number generator with a high generation rate near 1 Mbit/s, which is suitable for almost all security applications.

  6. Random number generation in bilingual Balinese and German students: preliminary findings from an exploratory cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenge, Hans; Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus Jaya; Suryani, Luh Ketut

    2009-08-01

    Verbal random number generation is a procedurally simple task to assess executive function and appears ideally suited for the use under diverse settings in cross-cultural research. The objective of this study was to examine ethnic group differences between young adults in Bali (Indonesia) and Kiel (Germany): 50 bilingual healthy students, 30 Balinese and 20 Germans, attempted to generate a random sequence of the digits 1 to 9. In Balinese participants, randomization was done in Balinese (native language L1) and Indonesian (first foreign language L2), in German subjects in the German (L1) and English (L2) languages. 10 of 30 Balinese (33%), but no Germans, were unable to inhibit habitual counting in more than half of the responses. The Balinese produced significantly more nonrandom responses than the Germans with higher rates of counting and significantly less occurrence of the digits 2 and 3 in L1 compared with L2. Repetition and cycling behavior did not differ between the four languages. The findings highlight the importance of taking into account culture-bound psychosocial factors for Balinese individuals when administering and interpreting a random number generation test.

  7. Effect of different number of players and training regimes on physiological and technical demands of ball-drills in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Daniele; Favero, Terence G; Niederhausen, Meike; Capranica, Laura; Tessitore, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the effects of two factors (number of players and training regimes) on players' physiological and technical demands in basketball ball-drills. Twenty-one young basketball players performed four different ball-drills (two levels for each factor). The number of players involved was 2vs2 and 4vs4, while ball-drill regimes were continuous and intermittent. Physiological demand was assessed using the percentage of maximal heart rate (%HRmax), Edwards' training load and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Furthermore, the following technical actions were collected: dribbles, steals, rebounds, turnovers, passes (total, correct, wrong and % of correct pass) and shots (total, scored, missed and % of made shot). A 2 × 2 (number of players × regime) two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was applied for physiological parameters and technical actions. The 2vs2 condition showed higher %HRmax (P training load (P training load (P < 0.001), RPE (P = 0.006) and dribbles (P < 0.001) than the intermittent regime. This study showed that both number of players and regime are useful variables able to modify basketball ball-drills workload.

  8. Implementation of a RANLUX Based Pseudo-Random Number Generator in FPGA Using VHDL and Impulse C

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Dąbrowska-Boruch; Grzegorz Gancarczyk; Kazimierz Wiatr

    2014-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are widely used e.g. in the field of physics and molecular modelling. The main role played in these is by the high performance random number generators, such as RANLUX or MERSSENE TWISTER. In this paper the authors introduce the world's first implementation of the RANLUX algorithm on an FPGA platform for high performance computing purposes. A significant speed-up of one generator instance over 60 times, compared with a graphic card based solution, can be noticed. Compa...

  9. Building research capacity in Botswana: a randomized trial comparing training methodologies in the Botswana ethics training initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Little empirical data are available on the extent to which capacity-building programs in research ethics prepare trainees to apply ethical reasoning skills to the design, conduct, or review of research. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Botswana in 2010 to assess the effectiveness of a case-based intervention using email to augment in-person seminars. Methods University faculty and current and prospective IRB/REC members took part in a semester-long training program in research ethics. Participants attended two 2-day seminars and were assigned at random to one of two on-line arms of the trial. Participants in both arms completed on-line international modules from the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative. Between seminars, intervention-arm participants were also emailed a weekly case to analyze in response to set questions; responses and individualized faculty feedback were exchanged via email. Tests assessing ethics knowledge were administered at the start of each seminar. The post-test included an additional section in which participants were asked to identify the ethical issues highlighted in five case studies from a list of multiple-choice responses. Results were analyzed using regression and ANOVA. Results Of the 71 participants (36 control, 35 intervention) enrolled at the first seminar, 41 (57.7%) attended the second seminar (19 control, 22 intervention). In the intervention arm, 19 (54.3%) participants fully completed and 8 (22.9%) partially completed all six weekly cases. The mean score was higher on the post-test (30.3/40) than on the pre-test (28.0/40), and individual post- and pre-test scores were highly correlated (r = 0.65, p  0.84), but intervention-arm subjects who completed all assigned cases answered an average of 3.2 more questions correctly on the post-test than others, controlling for pre-test scores (p = 0.003). Conclusions Completion of the case-based intervention improved respondents’ test

  10. Building research capacity in Botswana: a randomized trial comparing training methodologies in the Botswana ethics training initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchi, Francis H; Kasimatis-Singleton, Megan; Kasule, Mary; Khulumani, Pilate; Merz, Jon F

    2013-02-01

    Little empirical data are available on the extent to which capacity-building programs in research ethics prepare trainees to apply ethical reasoning skills to the design, conduct, or review of research. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Botswana in 2010 to assess the effectiveness of a case-based intervention using email to augment in-person seminars. University faculty and current and prospective IRB/REC members took part in a semester-long training program in research ethics. Participants attended two 2-day seminars and were assigned at random to one of two on-line arms of the trial. Participants in both arms completed on-line international modules from the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative. Between seminars, intervention-arm participants were also emailed a weekly case to analyze in response to set questions; responses and individualized faculty feedback were exchanged via email. Tests assessing ethics knowledge were administered at the start of each seminar. The post-test included an additional section in which participants were asked to identify the ethical issues highlighted in five case studies from a list of multiple-choice responses. Results were analyzed using regression and ANOVA. Of the 71 participants (36 control, 35 intervention) enrolled at the first seminar, 41 (57.7%) attended the second seminar (19 control, 22 intervention). In the intervention arm, 19 (54.3%) participants fully completed and 8 (22.9%) partially completed all six weekly cases. The mean score was higher on the post-test (30.3/40) than on the pre-test (28.0/40), and individual post- and pre-test scores were highly correlated (r = 0.65, p  0.84), but intervention-arm subjects who completed all assigned cases answered an average of 3.2 more questions correctly on the post-test than others, controlling for pre-test scores (p = 0.003). Completion of the case-based intervention improved respondents' test scores, with those who completed all six

  11. Active Video Game Exercise Training Improves the Clinical Control of Asthma in Children: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Evelim L. F. D.; Carvalho, Celso R. F.; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Teixeira-Carvalho, Etiene Farah; Mendonça, Juliana Fernandes Barreto; Stirbulov, Roberto; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Costa, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma. Design A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20) or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16). Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO), maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol) and lung function. Results No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvementin their exercise capacity and a reductionin pulmonary inflammation. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294 PMID:26301706

  12. Active Video Game Exercise Training Improves the Clinical Control of Asthma in Children: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Evelim L F D; Carvalho, Celso R F; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Teixeira-Carvalho, Etiene Farah; Mendonça, Juliana Fernandes Barreto; Stirbulov, Roberto; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá; Costa, Dirceu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma. A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20) or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16). Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO), maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol) and lung function. No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvement in their exercise capacity and a reduction in pulmonary inflammation. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294.

  13. Multi-objective random search algorithm for simultaneously optimizing wind farm layout and number of turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong; Xu, Chang

    2016-01-01

    A new algorithm for multi-objective wind farm layout optimization is presented. It formulates the wind turbine locations as continuous variables and is capable of optimizing the number of turbines and their locations in the wind farm simultaneously. Two objectives are considered. One is to maximi...

  14. Peripheral venous catheter insertion simulation training: A randomized controlled trial comparing performance after instructor-led teaching versus peer-assisted learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelloux, Sophie; Grégoire, Arnaud; Kirmizigul, Patrice; Maillot, Sandrine; Bui-Xuan, Bernard; Llorca, Guy; Boet, Sylvain; Lehot, Jean-Jacques; Rimmelé, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Peripheral venous catheter insertion is a procedural skill that every medical student should master. Training is often limited to a small number of students and is poorly evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of peer-assisted learning in comparison to instructor-led teaching for peripheral venous catheter insertion training. Students were randomized to the control group attending a traditional instructor-led training session (slideshow and demonstration by an anesthetist instructor, followed by training on a procedural simulator) or to the test group attending a peer-assisted training session (slideshow and demonstration video-recorded by the same instructor, followed by training on a procedural simulator). The primary endpoint was the performance of peripheral venous catheter insertion, assessed on procedural simulator one week later by blinded experts using a standardized 20-item grid. Students self-evaluated their confidence levels using a numeric 10-point scale. Eighty-six students were included, 73 of whom attended the assessment session. The median performance score was 12/20 [8-15] in the instructor-led teaching group versus 13/20 [11-15] in the peer-assisted learning group (P=0.430). Confidence levels improved significantly after the assessment session and were significantly higher in the peer-assisted learning group (7.6/10 [7.0-8.0] versus 7.0/10 [5.0-8.0], P=0.026). Peer-assisted learning is effective for peripheral venous catheter insertion training and can be as effective as instructor-led teaching. Given the large number of students to train, this finding is important for optimizing the cost-effectiveness of peripheral venous catheter insertion training. Copyright © 2017 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of a food-specific inhibition training in individuals with binge eating disorder-findings from a randomized controlled proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Speer, Eva; Schag, Kathrin; Leehr, Elisabeth Johanna; Zipfel, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    Impulsivity might contribute to the development and maintenance of obesity and eating disorders. Patients suffering from binge eating disorder (BED) show an impulsive eating pattern characterized by regular binge eating episodes. Novel behavioral interventions increasing inhibitory control could improve eating behavior in BED. We piloted a novel food-specific inhibition training in individuals with BED. N = 22 BED patients according to SCID-I were randomly assigned to three sessions of a training or control condition. In both conditions, pictures of high-caloric food items were presented in peripheral vision on a computer screen while assessing gaze behavior. The training group had to suppress the urge to turn their gaze towards these pictures (i.e., to perform antisaccades). The control group was allowed to freely explore the pictures. We assessed self-reported food craving, food addiction, and wanting/liking of food pictures pre- and post-intervention. Twenty participants completed the study. The training proved to be feasible and acceptable. Patients of the training group significantly improved inhibitory control towards high-caloric food stimuli. Both groups reported a significantly lower number of binge eating episodes in the last four weeks after termination of the study. No changes were found in food craving, food addiction, liking, and wanting ratings. A food-specific inhibition training could be a useful element in the treatment of BED and other eating disorders; however, larger efficacy studies in patient samples are needed to investigate the efficacy of this and similar training approaches.

  16. Instrumentation and controls training in TVA: a story of large numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority currently has four nuclear units on line with seventeen units planned prior to the year 2000. Providing a permanent instrumentation and controls workforce, projected to be approximately 700 trades and labor craftsmen, is a formidable task requiring the cooperative efforts of many diverse groups: mangement and labor, engineers and craftsmen, students and instructors. In TVA, the primary source of skilled I and C craftsmen is through formal training programs conducted in cooperation with the craft bargaining unit, the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers. The purpose of this paper is to describe and review the progress of two of these programs: the Instrument Mechanic Training Program and the Senior Instrument Mechanic Training Program

  17. Meaningful task-specific training (MTST) for stroke rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Kamal Narayan; Verma, Rajesh; Garg, R K; Sharma, V P; Agarwal, Monika; Aggarwal, G G

    2012-01-01

    The upper extremity motor deficit is one of the functional challenges in post stroke patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the meaningful task-specific training (MTST) on the upper extremity motor recovery during the subacute phase after a stroke. This was a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial in the neurology department of a university hospital and occupational therapy unit of a rehabilitation institute. A convenience sample of 103 people, 4 to 24 weeks (mean, 12.15 weeks) after the stroke, was randomized into 2 groups (MTST, 51; standard training group, 52). Subjects in the Brunnstrom stage of arm recovery of 2 to 5 were included in the study. Ninety-five participants completed the 8-week follow-up. Participants were assigned to receive either the MTST or dose-matched standard training program based on the Brunnstrom stage and Bobath neurodevelopmental technique, 4 to 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Graded Wolf Motor Function Test (GWMFT), and Motor Activity Log (MAL) were outcome measures The MTST group showed a positive improvement in the mean scores on the outcome measures at post and follow-up assessments in comparison to the control group. Further, statistically significant differences were observed in changes between the groups at post and follow-up assessment for FMA, ARAT, GWMFT, and MAL. The MTST produced statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements in the upper extremity motor recovery of the patients who had a subacute stroke.

  18. A Comparison of Online versus On-site Training in Health Research Methodology: A Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchanaraksa Sukon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distance learning may be useful for building health research capacity. However, evidence that it can improve knowledge and skills in health research, particularly in resource-poor settings, is limited. We compared the impact and acceptability of teaching two distinct content areas, Biostatistics and Research Ethics, through either on-line distance learning format or traditional on-site training, in a randomized study in India. Our objective was to determine whether on-line courses in Biostatistics and Research Ethics could achieve similar improvements in knowledge, as traditional on-site, classroom-based courses. Methods Subjects: Volunteer Indian scientists were randomly assigned to one of two arms. Intervention: Students in Arm 1 attended a 3.5-day on-site course in Biostatistics and completed a 3.5-week on-line course in Research Ethics. Students in Arm 2 attended a 3.5-week on-line course in Biostatistics and 3.5-day on-site course in Research Ethics. For the two course formats, learning objectives, course contents and knowledge tests were identical. Main Outcome Measures: Improvement in knowledge immediately and 3-months after course completion, compared to baseline. Results Baseline characteristics were similar in both arms (n = 29 each. Median knowledge score for Biostatistics increased from a baseline of 49% to 64% (p Conclusion On-line and on-site training formats led to marked and similar improvements of knowledge in Biostatistics and Research Ethics. This, combined with logistical and cost advantages of on-line training, may make on-line courses particularly useful for expanding health research capacity in resource-limited settings.

  19. Comparison of confirmed inactive and randomly selected compounds as negative training examples in support vector machine-based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikamp, Kathrin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2013-07-22

    The choice of negative training data for machine learning is a little explored issue in chemoinformatics. In this study, the influence of alternative sets of negative training data and different background databases on support vector machine (SVM) modeling and virtual screening has been investigated. Target-directed SVM models have been derived on the basis of differently composed training sets containing confirmed inactive molecules or randomly selected database compounds as negative training instances. These models were then applied to search background databases consisting of biological screening data or randomly assembled compounds for available hits. Negative training data were found to systematically influence compound recall in virtual screening. In addition, different background databases had a strong influence on the search results. Our findings also indicated that typical benchmark settings lead to an overestimation of SVM-based virtual screening performance compared to search conditions that are more relevant for practical applications.

  20. Visual Biofeedback Balance Training Using Wii Fit after Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcala, Luciana; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Colella, Fernanda; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Salgado, Afonso Shiguemi Inoue; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of balance training with visual biofeedback on balance, body symmetry, and function among individuals with hemiplegia following a stroke. [Subjects and Methods] The present study was performed using a randomized controlled clinical trial with a blinded evaluator. The subjects were twenty adults with hemiplegia following a stroke. The experimental group performed balance training with visual biofeedback using Wii Fit® together with conventional physical therapy. The control group underwent conventional physical therapy alone. The intervention lasted five weeks, with two sessions per week. Body symmetry (baropodometry), static balance (stabilometry), functional balance (Berg Balance Scale), functional mobility (Timed Up and Go test), and independence in activities of daily living (Functional Independence Measure) were assessed before and after the intervention. [Results] No statistically significant differences were found between the experimental and control groups. In the intragroup analysis, both groups demonstrated a significant improvement in all variables studied. [Conclusion] The physical therapy program combined with balance training involving visual biofeedback (Wii Fit®) led to an improvement in body symmetry, balance, and function among stroke victims. However, the improvement was similar to that achieved with conventional physical therapy alone. PMID:24259909

  1. Perturbation Training Can Reduce Community-Dwelling Older Adults’ Annual Fall Risk: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Tanvi; Yang, Feng; Wang, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Background. Previous studies indicated that a single session of repeated-slip exposure can reduce over 40% of laboratory-induced falls among older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine to what degree such perturbation training translated to the reduction of older adults’ annual falls risk in their everyday living. Methods. Two hundred and twelve community-dwelling older adults (≥65 years old) were randomly assigned to either the training group (N = 109), who then were exposed to 24 unannounced repeated slips, or the control group (N = 103), who merely experienced one slip during the same walking in the same protective laboratory environment. We recorded their falls in the preceding year (through self-reported history) and during the next 12 months (through falls diary and monitored with phone calls). Results. With this single session of repeated-slip exposure, training cut older adults’ annual risk of falls by 50% (from 34% to 15%, p fall during the same 12-month follow-up period (p falls. Conclusion. A single session of repeated-slip exposure could improve community-dwelling older adults’ resilience to postural disturbances and, hence, significantly reduce their annual risk of falls. PMID:24966227

  2. Perturbation training can reduce community-dwelling older adults' annual fall risk: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yi-Chung; Bhatt, Tanvi; Yang, Feng; Wang, Edward

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies indicated that a single session of repeated-slip exposure can reduce over 40% of laboratory-induced falls among older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine to what degree such perturbation training translated to the reduction of older adults' annual falls risk in their everyday living. Two hundred and twelve community-dwelling older adults (≥65 years old) were randomly assigned to either the training group (N = 109), who then were exposed to 24 unannounced repeated slips, or the control group (N = 103), who merely experienced one slip during the same walking in the same protective laboratory environment. We recorded their falls in the preceding year (through self-reported history) and during the next 12 months (through falls diary and monitored with phone calls). With this single session of repeated-slip exposure, training cut older adults' annual risk of falls by 50% (from 34% to 15%, p fall during the same 12-month follow-up period (p falls. A single session of repeated-slip exposure could improve community-dwelling older adults' resilience to postural disturbances and, hence, significantly reduce their annual risk of falls. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A randomized study of internet parent training accessed from community technology centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, A Blair; Gelatt, Vicky A; Hammond, Michael; Seeley, John R

    2015-05-01

    Behavioral parent training (BPT) has been shown to be efficacious to improve parenting skills for problematic interactions with adolescents displaying oppositional and antisocial behaviors. Some research suggests that support group curricula might be transferred to the Internet, and some studies suggest that other curriculum designs might also be effective. In this research, a BPT program for parents of at-risk adolescents was tested on the Internet in a randomized trial (N = 307) from computer labs at six community technology centers in or near large metropolitan areas. The instructional design was based on asynchronous scenario-based e-learning, rather than a traditional parent training model where presentation of course material builds content sequentially over multiple class sessions. Pretest to 30-day follow-up analyses indicated significant treatment effects on parent-reported discipline style (Parenting Scale, Adolescent version), child behavior (Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory), and on social cognitive theory constructs of intentions and self-efficacy. The effect sizes were small to medium. These findings suggest the potential to provide effective parent training programs on the Internet.

  4. The effects of multi-domain versus single-domain cognitive training in non-demented older people: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether healthy older people can benefit from cognitive training (CogTr remains controversial. This study explored the benefits of CogTr in community dwelling, healthy, older adults and compared the effects of single-domain with multi-domain CogTr interventions. Methods A randomized, controlled, 3-month trial of CogTr with double-blind assessments at baseline and immediate, 6-month and 12-month follow-up after training completion was conducted. A total of 270 healthy Chinese older people, 65 to 75 years old, were recruited from the Ganquan-area community in Shanghai. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups: multi-domain CogTr, single-domain CogTr, and a wait-list control group. Twenty-four sessions of CogTr were administrated to the intervention groups over a three-month period. Six months later, three booster training sessions were offered to 60% of the initial training participants. The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS, Form A, the Color Word Stroop test (CWST, the Visual Reasoning test and the Trail Making test (TMT were used to assess cognitive function. Results Multi-domain CogTr produced statistically significant training effects on RBANS, visual reasoning, and immediate and delayed memory, while single-domain CogTr showed training effects on RBANS, visual reasoning, word interference, and visuospatial/constructional score (all P Conclusions Cognitive training can improve memory, visual reasoning, visuospatial construction, attention and neuropsychological status in community-living older people and can help maintain their functioning over time. Multi-domain CogTr enhanced memory proficiency, while single-domain CogTr augmented visuospatial/constructional and attention abilities. Multi-domain CogTr had more advantages in training effect maintenance. Clinical Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Registration number: ChiCTR-TRC-09000732.

  5. Cervical stability training with and without core stability training for patients with cervical disc herniation: A randomized, single-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukturan, B; Guclu-Gunduz, A; Buyukturan, O; Dadali, Y; Bilgin, S; Kurt, E E

    2017-11-01

    This study aims at evaluating and comparing the effects of cervical stability training to combined cervical and core stability training in patients with neck pain and cervical disc herniation. Fifty patients with neck pain and cervical disc herniation were included in the study, randomly divided into two groups as cervical stability and cervical-core stability. Training was applied three times a week in three phases, and lasted for a total duration of 8 weeks. Pain, activation and static endurance of deep cervical flexor muscles, static endurance of neck muscles, cross-sectional diameter of M. Longus Colli, static endurance of trunk muscles, disability and kinesiophobia were assessed. Pain, activation and static endurance of deep cervical flexors, static endurance of neck muscles, cross-sectional diameter of M. Longus Colli, static endurance of trunk muscles, disability and kinesiophobia improved in both groups following the training sessions (p training methods revealed that the cervical stability group produced a greater increase in the right transverse diameter of M. Longus Colli (p training provided benefit to patients with cervical disc herniation. The addition of core stability training did not provide any additional significant benefit. Further research is required to investigate the efficacy of combining other techniques with cervical stability training in patients with cervical disc herniation. Both cervical stability training and its combination with core stability training were significantly and similarly effective on neck pain and neck muscle endurance in patients with cervical disc herniation. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  6. One or two trainees per workplace in a structured multimodality training curriculum for laparoscopic surgery? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial - DRKS00004675.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Felix; Jede, Felix; Minassian, Andreas; Gondan, Matthias; Hendrie, Jonathan D; Gehrig, Tobias; Linke, Georg R; Kadmon, Martina; Fischer, Lars; Müller-Stich, Beat P

    2014-04-23

    Laparoscopy training courses have been established in many centers worldwide to ensure adequate skill learning before performing operations on patients. Different training modalities and their combinations have been compared regarding training effects. Multimodality training combines different approaches for optimal training outcome. However, no standards currently exist for the number of trainees assigned per workplace. This is a monocentric, open, three-arm randomized controlled trial. The participants are laparoscopically-naive medical students from Heidelberg University. After a standardized introduction to laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with online learning modules, the participants perform a baseline test for basic skills and LC performance on a virtual reality (VR) trainer. A total of 100 students will be randomized into three study arms, in a 2:2:1 ratio. The intervention groups participate individually (Group 1) or in pairs (Group 2) in a standardized and structured multimodality training curriculum. Basic skills are trained on the box and VR trainers. Procedural skills and LC modules are trained on the VR trainer. The control group (Group C) does not receive training between tests. A post-test is performed to reassess basic skills and LC performance on the VR trainer. The performance of a cadaveric porcine LC is then measured as the primary outcome using standardized and validated ratings by blinded experts with the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills. The Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Surgical skills score and the time taken for completion are used as secondary outcome measures as well as the improvement of skills and VR LC performance between baseline and post-test. Cognitive tests and questionnaires are used to identify individual factors that might exert influence on training outcome. This study aims to assess whether workplaces in laparoscopy training courses for beginners should be used by one trainee or two trainees

  7. Effects of standard training in the use of closed-circuit televisions in visually impaired adults: design of a training protocol and a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rens Ger HMB

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reading problems are frequently reported by visually impaired persons. A closed-circuit television (CCTV can be helpful to maintain reading ability, however, it is difficult to learn how to use this device. In the Netherlands, an evidence-based rehabilitation program in the use of CCTVs was lacking. Therefore, a standard training protocol needed to be developed and tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT to provide an evidence-based training program in the use of this device. Methods/Design To develop a standard training program, information was collected by studying literature, observing training in the use of CCTVs, discussing the content of the training program with professionals and organizing focus and discussion groups. The effectiveness of the program was evaluated in an RCT, to obtain an evidence-based training program. Dutch patients (n = 122 were randomized into a treatment group: normal instructions from the supplier combined with training in the use of CCTVs, or into a control group: instructions from the supplier only. The effect of the training program was evaluated in terms of: change in reading ability (reading speed and reading comprehension, patients' skills to operate the CCTV, perceived (vision-related quality of life and tasks performed in daily living. Discussion The development of the CCTV training protocol and the design of the RCT in the present study may serve as an example to obtain an evidence-based training program. The training program was adjusted to the needs and learning abilities of individual patients, however, for scientific reasons it might have been preferable to standardize the protocol further, in order to gain more comparable results. Trial registration http://www.trialregister.nl, identifier: NTR1031

  8. Academic Outcomes 2 Years After Working Memory Training for Children With Low Working Memory: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gehan; Quach, Jon; Spencer-Smith, Megan; Anderson, Peter J; Gathercole, Susan; Gold, Lisa; Sia, Kah-Ling; Mensah, Fiona; Rickards, Field; Ainley, John; Wake, Melissa

    2016-05-02

    Working memory training may help children with attention and learning difficulties, but robust evidence from population-level randomized controlled clinical trials is lacking. To test whether a computerized adaptive working memory intervention program improves long-term academic outcomes of children 6 to 7 years of age with low working memory compared with usual classroom teaching. Population-based randomized controlled clinical trial of first graders from 44 schools in Melbourne, Australia, who underwent a verbal and visuospatial working memory screening. Children were classified as having low working memory if their scores were below the 15th percentile on either the Backward Digit Recall or Mister X subtest from the Automated Working Memory Assessment, or if their scores were below the 25th percentile on both. These children were randomly assigned by an independent statistician to either an intervention or a control arm using a concealed computerized random number sequence. Researchers were blinded to group assignment at time of screening. We conducted our trial from March 1, 2012, to February 1, 2015; our final analysis was on October 30, 2015. We used intention-to-treat analyses. Cogmed working memory training, comprising 20 to 25 training sessions of 45 minutes' duration at school. Directly assessed (at 12 and 24 months) academic outcomes (reading, math, and spelling scores as primary outcomes) and working memory (also assessed at 6 months); parent-, teacher-, and child-reported behavioral and social-emotional functioning and quality of life; and intervention costs. Of 1723 children screened (mean [SD] age, 6.9 [0.4] years), 226 were randomized to each arm (452 total), with 90% retention at 1 year and 88% retention at 2 years; 90.3% of children in the intervention arm completed at least 20 sessions. Of the 4 short-term and working memory outcomes, 1 outcome (visuospatial short-term memory) benefited the children at 6 months (effect size, 0.43 [95% CI, 0

  9. Participation in Training for Depression Care Quality Improvement: A Randomized Trial of Community Engagement or Technical Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bowen; Ngo, Victoria K; Ong, Michael K; Pulido, Esmeralda; Jones, Felica; Gilmore, James; Stoker-Mtume, Norma; Johnson, Megan; Tang, Lingqi; Wells, Kenneth Brooks; Sherbourne, Cathy; Miranda, Jeanne

    2015-08-01

    Community engagement and planning (CEP) could improve dissemination of depression care quality improvement in underresourced communities, but whether its effects on provider training participation differ from those of standard technical assistance, or resources for services (RS), is unknown. This study compared program- and staff-level participation in depression care quality improvement training among programs enrolled in CEP, which trained networks of health care and social-community agencies jointly, and RS, which provided technical support to individual programs. Matched programs from health care and social-community service sectors in two communities were randomly assigned to RS or CEP. Data were from 1,622 eligible staff members from 95 enrolled programs. Primary outcomes were any staff trained (for programs) and total hours of training (for staff). Secondary staff-level outcomes were hours of training in specific depression collaborative care components. CEP programs were more likely than RS programs to participate in any training (p=.006). Within health care sectors, CEP programs were more likely than RS programs to participate in training (p=.016), but within social-community sectors, there was no difference in training by intervention. Among staff who participated in training, mean training hours were greater among CEP programs versus RS programs for any type of training (ptraining related to each component of depression care (p<.001) except medication management. CEP may be an effective strategy to promote staff participation in depression care improvement efforts in underresourced communities.

  10. Exercise Training and Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial (ETIP Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Krohn Garnæs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of exercise training for preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is still uncertain. As maternal obesity is associated with both GWG and GDM, there is a special need to assess whether prenatal exercise training programs provided to obese women reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our primary aim was to assess whether regular supervised exercise training in pregnancy could reduce GWG in women with prepregnancy overweight/obesity. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of exercise in pregnancy on 30 outcomes including GDM incidence, blood pressure, blood measurements, skinfold thickness, and body composition.This was a single-center study where we randomized (1:1 91 pregnant women with a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 to exercise training (n = 46 or control (standard maternity care (n = 45. Assessments were done at baseline (pregnancy week 12-18 and in late pregnancy (week 34-37, as well as at delivery. The exercise group was offered thrice weekly supervised sessions of 35 min of moderate intensity endurance exercise and 25 min of strength training. Seventeen women were lost to follow-up (eight in the exercise group and nine in the control group. Our primary endpoint was GWG from baseline testing to delivery. The principal analyses were done as intention-to-treat analyses, with supplementary per protocol analyses where we assessed outcomes in the women who adhered to the exercise program (n = 19 compared to the control group. Mean GWG from baseline to delivery was 10.5 kg in the exercise group and 9.2 kg in the control group, with a mean difference of 0.92 kg (95% CI -1.35, 3.18; p = 0.43. Among the 30 secondary outcomes in late pregnancy, an apparent reduction was recorded in the incidence of GDM (2009 WHO definition in the exercise group (2 cases; 6.1% compared to the control group (9 cases; 27.3%, with an odds ratio of 0.1 (95% CI 0.02, 0.95; p = 0

  11. Effect of physical training on urinary incontinence: a randomized parallel group trial in nursing homes

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    Vinsnes AG

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Anne G Vinsnes1, Jorunn L Helbostad2, Signe Nyrønning3, Gene E Harkless1,4, Randi Granbo5, Arnfinn Seim61Faculty of Nursing, Sør-Trøndelag University College, 2Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 3Søbstad Community Hospital and Teaching Nursing Home, Trondheim, Norway; 4University of New Hampshire, College of Health and Social Services, Nursing Faculty, Durham, New Hampshire, USA; 5Department of Physiotherapy, Sør-Trøndelag University College, 6Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, NorwayBackground: Residents in nursing homes (NHs are often frail older persons who have impaired physical activity. Urinary incontinence (UI is a common complaint for residents in NHs. Reduced functional ability and residence in NHs are documented to be risk factors for UI.Objective: To investigate if an individualized training program designed to improve activity of daily living (ADL and physical capacity among residents in nursing homes has any impact on UI.Materials and methods: This randomized controlled trial was a substudy of a Nordic multicenter study. Participants had to be >65 years, have stayed in the NH for more than 3 months and in need of assistance in at least one ADL. A total of 98 residents were randomly allocated to either a training group (n = 48 or a control group (n = 50 after baseline registrations. The training program lasted for 3 months and included accommodated physical activity and ADL training. Personal treatment goals were elicited for each subject. The control group received their usual care. The main outcome measure was UI as measured by a 24-hour pad-weighing test. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups on this measure at baseline (P = 0.15. Changes were calculated from baseline to 3 months after the end of the intervention.Results: Altogether, 68 participants were included in the analysis

  12. Robot-assisted gait training in patients with Parkinson disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picelli, Alessandro; Melotti, Camilla; Origano, Francesca; Waldner, Andreas; Fiaschi, Antonio; Santilli, Valter; Smania, Nicola

    2012-05-01

    . Gait impairment is a common cause of disability in Parkinson disease (PD). Electromechanical devices to assist stepping have been suggested as a potential intervention. . To evaluate whether a rehabilitation program of robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) is more effective than conventional physiotherapy to improve walking. . A total of 41 patients with PD were randomly assigned to 45-minute treatment sessions (12 in all), 3 days a week, for 4 consecutive weeks of either robotic stepper training (RST; n = 21) using the Gait Trainer or physiotherapy (PT; n = 20) with active joint mobilization and a modest amount of conventional gait training. Participants were evaluated before, immediately after, and 1 month after treatment. Primary outcomes were 10-m walking speed and distance walked in 6 minutes. . Baseline measures revealed no statistical differences between groups, but the PT group walked 0.12 m/s slower; 5 patients withdrew. A statistically significant improvement was found in favor of the RST group (walking speed 1.22 ± 0.19 m/s [P = .035]; distance 366.06 ± 78.54 m [P < .001]) compared with the PT group (0.98 ± 0.32 m/s; 280.11 ± 106.61 m). The RAGT mean speed increased by 0.13 m/s, which is probably not clinically important. Improvements were maintained 1 month later. . RAGT may improve aspects of walking ability in patients with PD. Future trials should compare robotic assistive training with treadmill or equal amounts of overground walking practice.

  13. Resist diabetes: A randomized clinical trial for resistance training maintenance in adults with prediabetes.

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    Brenda M Davy

    Full Text Available To determine whether a social cognitive theory (SCT-based intervention improves resistance training (RT maintenance and strength, and reduces prediabetes prevalence.Sedentary, overweight/obese (BMI: 25-39.9 kg/m2 adults aged 50-69 (N = 170 with prediabetes participated in the 15-month trial. Participants completed a supervised 3-month RT (2×/wk phase and were randomly assigned (N = 159 to one of two 6-month maintenance conditions: SCT or standard care. Participants continued RT at a self-selected facility. The final 6-month period involved no contact. Assessments occurred at baseline and months 3, 9, and 15. The SCT faded-contact intervention consisted of nine tailored transition (i.e., supervised training to training alone and nine follow-up sessions. Standard care involved six generic follow-up sessions. Primary outcomes were prevalence of normoglycemia and muscular strength.The retention rate was 76%. Four serious adverse events were reported. After 3 months of RT, 34% of participants were no longer prediabetic. This prevalence of normoglycemia was maintained through month 15 (30%, with no group difference. There was an 18% increase in the odds of being normoglycemic for each % increase in fat-free mass. Increases in muscular strength were evident at month 3 and maintained through month 15 (P<0.001, which represented improvements of 21% and 14% for chest and leg press, respectively. Results did not demonstrate a greater reduction in prediabetes prevalence in the SCT condition.Resistance training is an effective, maintainable strategy for reducing prediabetes prevalence and increasing muscular strength. Future research which promotes RT initiation and maintenance in clinical and community settings is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01112709.

  14. Resist diabetes: A randomized clinical trial for resistance training maintenance in adults with prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Brenda M; Winett, Richard A; Savla, Jyoti; Marinik, Elaina L; Baugh, Mary Elizabeth; Flack, Kyle D; Halliday, Tanya M; Kelleher, Sarah A; Winett, Sheila G; Williams, David M; Boshra, Soheir

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether a social cognitive theory (SCT)-based intervention improves resistance training (RT) maintenance and strength, and reduces prediabetes prevalence. Sedentary, overweight/obese (BMI: 25-39.9 kg/m2) adults aged 50-69 (N = 170) with prediabetes participated in the 15-month trial. Participants completed a supervised 3-month RT (2×/wk) phase and were randomly assigned (N = 159) to one of two 6-month maintenance conditions: SCT or standard care. Participants continued RT at a self-selected facility. The final 6-month period involved no contact. Assessments occurred at baseline and months 3, 9, and 15. The SCT faded-contact intervention consisted of nine tailored transition (i.e., supervised training to training alone) and nine follow-up sessions. Standard care involved six generic follow-up sessions. Primary outcomes were prevalence of normoglycemia and muscular strength. The retention rate was 76%. Four serious adverse events were reported. After 3 months of RT, 34% of participants were no longer prediabetic. This prevalence of normoglycemia was maintained through month 15 (30%), with no group difference. There was an 18% increase in the odds of being normoglycemic for each % increase in fat-free mass. Increases in muscular strength were evident at month 3 and maintained through month 15 (Pprediabetes prevalence in the SCT condition. Resistance training is an effective, maintainable strategy for reducing prediabetes prevalence and increasing muscular strength. Future research which promotes RT initiation and maintenance in clinical and community settings is warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01112709.

  15. Assessment of the suitability of different random number generators for Monte Carlo simulations in gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo Diaz, N.; Vergara Gil, A.; Jurado Vargas, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method has become a valuable numerical laboratory framework in which to simulate complex physical systems. It is based on the generation of pseudo-random number sequences by numerical algorithms called random generators. In this work we assessed the suitability of different well-known random number generators for the simulation of gamma-ray spectrometry systems during efficiency calibrations. The assessment was carried out in two stages. The generators considered (Delphi's linear congruential, mersenne twister, XorShift, multiplier with carry, universal virtual array, and non-periodic logistic map based generator) were first evaluated with different statistical empirical tests, including moments, correlations, uniformity, independence of terms and the DIEHARD battery of tests. In a second step, an application-specific test was conducted by implementing the generators in our Monte Carlo program DETEFF and comparing the results obtained with them. The calculations were performed with two different CPUs, for a typical HpGe detector and a water sample in Marinelli geometry, with gamma-rays between 59 and 1800 keV. For the Non-periodic Logistic Map based generator, dependence of the most significant bits was evident. This explains the bias, in excess of 5%, of the efficiency values obtained with this generator. The results of the application-specific assessment and the statistical performance of the other algorithms studied indicate their suitability for the Monte Carlo simulation of gamma-ray spectrometry systems for efficiency calculations.

  16. Assessment of the suitability of different random number generators for Monte Carlo simulations in gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, N Cornejo; Gil, A Vergara; Vargas, M Jurado

    2010-03-01

    The Monte Carlo method has become a valuable numerical laboratory framework in which to simulate complex physical systems. It is based on the generation of pseudo-random number sequences by numerical algorithms called random generators. In this work we assessed the suitability of different well-known random number generators for the simulation of gamma-ray spectrometry systems during efficiency calibrations. The assessment was carried out in two stages. The generators considered (Delphi's linear congruential, mersenne twister, XorShift, multiplier with carry, universal virtual array, and non-periodic logistic map based generator) were first evaluated with different statistical empirical tests, including moments, correlations, uniformity, independence of terms and the DIEHARD battery of tests. In a second step, an application-specific test was conducted by implementing the generators in our Monte Carlo program DETEFF and comparing the results obtained with them. The calculations were performed with two different CPUs, for a typical HpGe detector and a water sample in Marinelli geometry, with gamma-rays between 59 and 1800 keV. For the Non-periodic Logistic Map based generator, dependence of the most significant bits was evident. This explains the bias, in excess of 5%, of the efficiency values obtained with this generator. The results of the application-specific assessment and the statistical performance of the other algorithms studied indicate their suitability for the Monte Carlo simulation of gamma-ray spectrometry systems for efficiency calculations. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Brain training improves recovery after stroke but waiting list improves equally: A multicenter randomized controlled trial of a computer-based cognitive flexibility training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate M van de Ven

    Full Text Available Brain training is currently widely used in an attempt to improve cognitive functioning. Computer-based training can be performed at home and could therefore be an effective add-on to available rehabilitation programs aimed at improving cognitive functioning. Several studies have reported cognitive improvements after computer training, but most lacked proper active and passive control conditions.Our aim was to investigate whether computer-based cognitive flexibility training improves executive functioning after stroke. We also conducted within-group analyses similar to those used in previous studies, to assess inferences about transfer effects when comparisons to proper control groups are missing.We conducted a randomized controlled, double blind trial. Adults (30-80 years old who had suffered a stroke within the last 5 years were assigned to either an intervention group (n = 38, active control group (i.e., mock training; n = 35, or waiting list control group (n = 24. The intervention and mock training consisted of 58 half-hour sessions within a 12-week period. Cognitive functioning was assessed using several paper-and-pencil and computerized neuropsychological tasks before the training, immediately after training, and 4 weeks after training completion.Both training groups improved on training tasks, and all groups improved on several transfer tasks (three executive functioning tasks, attention, reasoning, and psychomotor speed. Improvements remained 4 weeks after training completion. However, the amount of improvement in executive and general cognitive functioning in the intervention group was similar to that of both control groups (active control and waiting list. Therefore, this improvement was likely due to training-unspecific effects. Our results stress the importance to include both active and passive control conditions in the study design and analyses. Results from studies without proper control conditions should be interpreted with care.

  18. Performance of medical residents in sterile techniques during central vein catheterization: randomized trial of efficacy of simulation-based training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouli, Hassan; Jahnes, Katherine; Shapiro, Janet; Rose, Keith; Mathew, Joseph; Gohil, Amit; Han, Qifa; Sotelo, Andre; Jones, James; Aqeel, Adnan; Eden, Edward; Fried, Ethan

    2011-01-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is a preventable cause of a potentially lethal ICU infection. The optimal method to teach health-care providers correct sterile techniques during central vein catheterization (CVC) remains unclear. We randomly assigned second- and third-year internal medicine residents trained by a traditional apprenticeship model to simulation-based plus video training or video training alone from December 2007 to January 2008, with a follow-up period to examine CRBSI ending in July 2009. During the follow-up period, a simulation-based training program in sterile techniques during CVC was implemented in the medical ICU (MICU). A surgical ICU (SICU) where no residents received study interventions was used for comparison. The primary outcome measures were median residents' scores in sterile techniques and rates of CRBSI per 1,000 catheter-days. Of the 47 enrolled residents, 24 were randomly assigned to the simulation-based plus video training group and 23 to the video training group. Median baseline scores in both groups were equally poor: 12.5 to 13 (52%-54%) out of maximum score of 24 (P = .95; median difference, 0; 95% CI, 0.2-2.0). After training, median score was significantly higher for the simulation-based plus video training group: 22 (92%) vs 18 (75%) for the video training group (P training in sterile techniques during CVC is superior to traditional training or video training alone and is associated with decreased rate of CRBSI. Simulation-based training in CVC should be routinely used to reduce iatrogenic risk. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00612131; URL: clinicaltrials.gov.

  19. Motivational characteristics and resistance training in older adults: a randomized controlled trial and 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekäläinen, Tiia; Kokko, Katja; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipilä, Sarianna; Walker, Simon

    2018-06-07

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a nine-month supervised resistance training intervention on motivational and volitional characteristics related to exercise, and whether the absolute level and/or intervention-induced change in these characteristics predict self-directed continuation of resistance training one year after the intervention. Community-dwelling older adults aged 65-75, who did not fulfill physical activity recommendations, were randomized into resistance training intervention groups: training once- (n=26), twice- (n=27), three-times-a-week (n=28) or non-training control group (n=25). Training groups participated in supervised resistance training for nine months: during months 1-3 all groups trained twice-a-week and then with allocated frequencies during months 4-9. Exercise-related motivation, self-efficacy and planning were measured with questionnaires at baseline, month-3 and month-9. The continuance of resistance training was determined by interviews six and twelve months after the end of the intervention. The intervention improved action and coping planning as well as intrinsic motivation (group×time p<.05). During one-year follow-up, 54% of participants did not continue self-directed regular resistance training, 22% continued regular resistance training once-a-week and 24% twice-a-week. Increases in exercise self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation related to training during the intervention predicted continuation of resistance training twice-a-week. Resistance training improved exercise-related motivational and volitional characteristics in older adults. These improvements were linked to continuing resistance training one year after the supervised intervention. The role of these characteristics should be taken into account when promoting long-term resistance training participation among older adults. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigating bang for your training buck: a randomized controlled trial comparing three methods of training clinicians in two core strategies of dialectical behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeff, Linda A; Harned, Melanie S; Woodcock, Eric A; Skutch, Julie M; Koerner, Kelly; Linehan, Marsha M

    2015-05-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of online training (OLT), instructor-led training (ILT), and a treatment manual (TM) in training mental health clinicians in two core strategies of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT): chain analysis and validation. A randomized controlled trial compared OLT, ILT, and TM among clinicians naïve to DBT (N=172) who were assessed at baseline, post-training, and 30, 60, and 90 days following training. Primary outcomes included satisfaction, self-efficacy, motivation, knowledge, clinical proficiency, and clinical use. Overall, ILT outperformed OLT and TM in satisfaction, self-efficacy, and motivation, whereas OLT was the most effective method for increasing knowledge. The conditions did not differ in observer-rated clinical proficiency or self-reported clinical use, which both increased to moderate levels after training. In addition, ILT was particularly effective at improving motivation to use chain analysis, whereas OLT was particularly effective at increasing knowledge of validation strategies. These findings suggest that these types of brief, didactic trainings may be effective methods of increasing knowledge of new treatment strategies, but may not be sufficient to enable clinicians to achieve a high level of clinical use or proficiency. Additional research examining the possible advantages of matching training methods to types of treatment strategies may help to determine a tailored, more effective approach to training clinicians in empirically supported treatments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Comparative study on Virtual Reality Training (VRT over Sensory Motor Training (SMT in Unilateral Chronic Osteoarthritis – A Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathy Abdelazim Awwad Elshazly

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is a common rheumatologic disease. Several non operative interventions have been described for the treatment. But the available evidences of comparing the effectiveness of Virtual reality training over sensory motor training are very few. So, the purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of Virtual reality training over sensory motor training in the treatment of Osteoarthritis. 60 subjects who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were divided into three Groups (1, 2 & 3 with randomized sampling method. Group 1 treated with Virtual reality training (VRT, Group 2 treated with sensory motor training (SMT and Group 3 (control treated with conventional exercise training (CET. The duration of the treatment was three times per week for 8 weeks in all the three groups. Subjects were assessed at baseline, at 4th and 8th week. Pain Intensity by Visual Analog scale (VAS, Joint Proprioception by Perception Sense, Functional Disability by WOMAC Score, and Quality of Life by HRQOL score were measured. A statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05 difference between all the 3 groups were noted at the period of 8 week for pain intensity, joint proprioception, functional disability and quality of life. Group-1 treated with (VRT shows more significant improvement in all parameters compared with Group-2 (SMT and Group-3 (CET. In conclusion, the addition of virtual reality training to conventional training exercises could improve pain and proprioception which subsequently improve the functional level and quality of life of OA patients

  2. Comparison of body weight-supported treadmill training versus body weight-supported overground training in people with incomplete tetraplegia: a pilot randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilvelkumar, Thangavelu; Magimairaj, Henry; Fletcher, Jebaraj; Tharion, George; George, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of body weight-supported treadmill training and body weight-supported overground training for improving gait and strength in people with traumatic incomplete tetraplegia. Assessor blinded randomized trial. Rehabilitation institute of a tertiary care teaching hospital in India. Sixteen participants with traumatic motor incomplete tetraplegia and within two years of injury. Participants were randomised to one of two groups: body weight-supported overground training on level ground and body weight-supported treadmill training. Both groups received 30 minutes of gait training per day, five days a week for eight weeks. In addition, both groups received regular rehabilitation which included flexibility, strength, balance, self care and functional training. The primary outcome measure was the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (/20 points) and the secondary outcome was the Lower Extremity Muscle Score (/50 points). There was no statistically significant between group differences in the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury [mean difference=0.3points; 95% CI (-4.8 to 5.4); p=0.748] or the Lower Extremity Muscle Score [mean difference=0.2 points; 95% CI (-3.8 to 5.1); p=0.749]. Gait training with body weight-supported overground training is comparable to treadmill training for improving locomotion in people with traumatic incomplete tetraplegia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Comprehensive self-control training benefits depressed college students: A six-month randomized controlled intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueling; Zhao, Jiubo; Chen, Yu; Zu, Simeng; Zhao, Jingbo

    2018-01-15

    Depressive disorder was associated with dysfunctional self-regulation. The current study attempted to design and test a comprehensive self-control training (CSCT) program with an overall emphasis on behaviral activation in depressed Chinese college students. Participants included 74 students who had diagnosed with major depression, they were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: intervention group (n=37), and control group (n=37). The intervention participants received an eight-week CSCT and four-month follow-up consolidation program, as compared to the control group who received only pre-post-and-follow-up measurements. All participants measured Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-Ⅱ) and Self-control Scale (SCS) at three time points: baseline, post-training, and four-month follow-up. The dropout rates were 6 (8.1%) in the intervention group and 3 (4.1%) in the control group at the end of six-month intervention. The general linear model repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that comparing with the control group, the intervention group participants had more increase in their trait self-control score, at the meantime, their depressive symptoms had significantly improved. Univariate and logistic regression analyses revealed that participants with milder baseline depressive symptoms were more likely to benefit from CSCT interventions; depression improvement was also associated with the number of sessions attended. The main limitation was related to the small sample size which consisted of college students who were relatively young and well educated. The current study demonstrates that CSCT program could temporarily enhance self-control capacity as well as improve depressive symptoms; participants who are mildly to moderately depressed, and who could adhere to the training protocol are more likely to benefit from the intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Slow movement resistance training using body weight improves muscle mass in the elderly: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuku, S; Kajioka, T; Sakakibara, H; Shimaoka, K

    2018-04-01

    To examine the effect of a 12-week slow movement resistance training using body weight as a load (SRT-BW) on muscle mass, strength, and fat distribution in healthy elderly people. Fifty-three men and 35 women aged 70 years old or older without experience in resistance training participated, and they were randomly assigned to a SRT-BW group or control group. The control group did not receive any intervention, but participants in this group underwent a repeat measurement 12 weeks later. The SRT-BW program consisted of 3 different exercises (squat, tabletop push-up, and sit-up), which were designed to stimulate anterior major muscles. Initially, these exercises were performed by 2 sets of 10 repetitions, and subsequently, the number of repetitions was increased progressively by 2 repetitions every 4 weeks. Participants were instructed to perform each eccentric and concentric phase of movement slowly (spending 4 seconds on each movement), covering the full range of motion. We evaluated muscle mass, strength, and fat distribution at baseline and after 12 weeks of training. Changes over 12 weeks were significantly greater in the SRT-BW group than in the control group, with a decrease in waist circumference, hip circumference, and abdominal preperitoneal and subcutaneous fat thickness, and an increase in thigh muscle thickness, knee extension strength, and hip flexion strength. In conclusion, relatively short-term SRT-BW was effective in improving muscle mass, strength, and fat distribution in healthy elderly people. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. PARTIAL TRAINING METHOD FOR HEURISTIC ALGORITHM OF POSSIBLE CLUSTERIZATION UNDER UNKNOWN NUMBER OF CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Viattchenin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for constructing a subset of labeled objects which is used in a heuristic algorithm of possible  clusterization with partial  training is proposed in the  paper.  The  method  is  based  on  data preprocessing by the heuristic algorithm of possible clusterization using a transitive closure of a fuzzy tolerance. Method efficiency is demonstrated by way of an illustrative example.

  6. Effects of Dual-Task Management and Resistance Training on Gait Performance in Older Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollesen, Bettina; Mattes, Klaus; Schulz, Sören; Bischoff, Laura L.; Seydell, L.; Bell, Jeffrey W.; von Duvillard, Serge P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dual-task (DT) training is a well-accepted modality for fall prevention in older adults. DT training should include task-managing strategies such as task switching or task prioritization to improve gait performance under DT conditions. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate a balance and task managing training (BDT group) in gait performance compared to a single task (ST) strength and resistance training and a control group, which received no training. A total of 78 older individuals (72.0 ± 4.9 years) participated in this study. The DT group performed task managing training incorporating balance and coordination tasks while the ST group performed resistance training only. Training consisted of 12 weekly sessions, 60 min each, for 12 weeks. We assessed the effects of ST and BDT training on walking performance under ST and DT conditions in independent living elderly adults. ST and DT walking (visual verbal Stroop task) were measured utilizing a treadmill at self-selected walking speed (mean for all groups: 4.4 ± 1 km h-1). Specific gait variables, cognitive performance, and fear of falling were compared between all groups. >Results: Training improved gait performance for step length (p changes in cognitive performance. Both interventions reduced fear of falling (p management strategies into balance and strength training in our population revealed a promising modality to prevent falls in older individuals. Trial registration: German register of clinical trials DRKS00012382. PMID:29326581

  7. Cancer-Related Fatigue and Rehabilitation : A Randomized Controlled Multicenter Trial Comparing Physical Training Combined With Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy With Physical Training Only and With No Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, E.; May, A.M.; Korstjens, I.; Post, W.J.; van der Schans, C.P.; van den Borne, B.; Mesters, I.; Ros, W.J.G.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Research suggests that cancer rehabilitation reduces fatigue in survivors of cancer. To date, it is unclear what type of rehabilitation is most beneficial. Objective. This randomized controlled trial compared the effect on cancer-related fatigue of physical training combined with

  8. Cancer-related fatigue and rehabilitation: A randomized controlled multicenter trial comparing physical training combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy with physical training only and with no intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Weert (Ellen); A.M. May (Anne); I. Korstjens (Irene); W.J. Post (Wendy); C.P. van der Schans (Cees); B. van den Borne (Bart); I. Mesters (Ilse); W.J.G. Ros (Wynand); J.E.H.M. Hoekstra-Weebers (Josette)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Research suggests that cancer rehabilitation reduces fatigue in survivors of cancer. To date, it is unclear what type of rehabilitation is most beneficial. Objective. This randomized controlled trial compared the effect on cancerrelated fatigue of physical training combined

  9. Cognitive training for children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial of cogmed working memory training and ‘paying attention in class’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Donk, M.; Hiemstra-Beernink, A.-C.; Tjeenk-Kalff, A.C.; van der Leij, A.; Lindauer, R.

    The goal of this randomized controlled trial was to replicate and extend previous studies of Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT) in children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While a large proportion of children with ADHD suffer from academic difficulties, only few previous

  10. Can pelvic floor muscle training improve sexual function in women with pelvic organ prolapse? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braekken, Ingeborg H; Majida, Memona; Ellström Engh, Marie; Bø, Kari

    2015-02-01

    Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) has level 1 evidence of reducing the size and symptoms associated with pelvic organ prolapse (POP). There is scant knowledge, however, regarding whether PFMT has an effect on sexual function. The aim of the trial was to evaluate the effect of PFMT on sexual function in women with POP. In this randomized controlled trial, 50 women were randomized to an intervention group (6 months of PFMT and lifestyle advice) and 59 women were randomized to a control group (lifestyle advice only). Participants completed a validated POP-specific questionnaire to describe frequency and bother of prolapse, bladder, bowel, and sexual symptoms and answered a semi-structured interview. No significant change in number of women being sexually active was reported. There were no significant differences between groups regarding change in satisfaction with frequency of intercourse. Interview data revealed that 19 (39%) of women in the PFMT group experienced improved sexual function vs. two (5%) in the control group (Ppelvic floor, improved self-confidence, sensation of a "tighter" vagina, improved libido and orgasms, resolution of pain with intercourse, and heightened sexual gratification for partners. Women who described improved sexual function demonstrated the greatest increases in pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength (mean 16 ± 10 cmH2 0) and endurance (mean 150 ± 140 cmH2 0s) (P<0.01). PFMT can improve sexual function in some women. Women reporting improvement in sexual function demonstrated the greatest increase in PFM strength and endurance. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. High Intensity Interval- vs Moderate Intensity- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight or Obese Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Fisher

    Full Text Available To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI, blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group.28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2 participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure.A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185 in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P < 0.05.Participation in HIIT or MIT exercise training displayed: 1 improved SI, 2 reduced blood lipids, 3 decreased % body fat, and 4 improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or

  12. High Intensity Interval- vs Moderate Intensity- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight or Obese Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Gordon; Brown, Andrew W; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Alcorn, Amy; Noles, Corey; Winwood, Leah; Resuehr, Holly; George, Brandon; Jeansonne, Madeline M; Allison, David B

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT) vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT) for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI), blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group. 28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2) participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure. A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185) in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P training displayed: 1) improved SI, 2) reduced blood lipids, 3) decreased % body fat, and 4) improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or obese young men, with no clear advantage between these

  13. Random Vibration and Dynamic Analysis of a Planetary Gear Train in a Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature failure of gearboxes is a big challenge facing the wind power industry. It highly depends on fully understanding the embedded dynamics to solve this problem. To this end, this paper investigates the random vibration and dynamics of planetary gear trains (PGTs in wind turbines under the excitation of wind turbulence. The turbulence is represented by the Von Karmon spectrum and implemented by passing white noise through a 2nd-order shaping filter. Then, extra equations are formed and added to the original governing equations of motion. With this augmented equation set, a recursive numerical algorithm based on stochastic Newmark scheme is applied to solve for the statistics of the responses starting from initial conditions. After simulation, the variances of the vibration responses and the dynamic meshing forces at gear meshes are obtained.

  14. Study protocol: effect of playful training on functional abilities of older adults - a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jari Due; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2017-01-01

    of community dwelling elderly as a result of short-term playing with an exergame system in the form of interactive modular tiles. Such playful training may be motivational to perform and viewed by the subjects to offer life-fulfilling quality, while providing improvement in physical abilities, e.g. related...... to prevent fall accidents. The RCT will test for a variety of health parameters of community-dwelling elderly playing on interactive modular tiles.Methods: The study will be a single blinded, randomized controlled trial with 60 community-dwelling adults 70+ years. The trial will consist an intervention group...... paired t-test, otherwise using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. "Intention to treat" analysis will be done.Discussion: The trial tests for increased mobility, agility, balancing and general fitness of community-dwelling elderly as a result of playing, in this case on modular interactive tiles. A positive...

  15. Autogenic training reduces anxiety after coronary angioplasty: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, N; White, A R; Ernst, E

    2004-03-01

    Autogenic training (AT) is a method of autosuggestion with some potential for reducing anxiety. This study tests whether AT lowers anxiety levels experienced by patients undergoing coronary angioplasty. Fifty-nine patients were randomly assigned to receive regular AT or no such therapy as an adjunct to standard care for 5 months. The primary outcome measure was State Anxiety at 2 months. Qualitative information was generated by face-to-face interviews. State Anxiety showed a significant intergroup difference both at 2 and 5 months. This finding was corroborated by secondary outcome measures, for example, quality of life, and by qualitative information about patients' experiences. The results do not allow us to determine whether the observed effects are specific to AT or of a nonspecific nature. Our results suggest that AT may have a role in reducing anxiety of patients undergoing coronary angioplasty.

  16. Home-based virtual reality balance training and conventional balance training in Parkinson's disease: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chieh Yang

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This study did not find any difference between the effects of the home-based virtual reality balance training and conventional home balance training. The two training options were equally effective in improving balance, walking, and quality of life among community-dwelling patients with PD.

  17. Training of resistance to proactive interference and working memory in older adults: a randomized double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, Sandra V; Falquez, Rosalux; Unterrainer, Josef M; Weiller, Cornelius; Rahm, Benjamin; Kaller, Christoph P

    2016-03-01

    Working memory (WM) performance is often decreased in older adults. Despite the growing popularity of WM trainings, underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Resistance to proactive interference (PI) constitutes a candidate process that contributes to WM performance and might influence training or transfer effects. Here, we investigated whether PI resistance can be enhanced in older adults using a WM training with specifically increased PI-demands. Further, we investigated whether potential effects of such a training were stable and entailed any transfer on non-trained tasks. Healthy old adults (N = 25, 68.8 ± 5.5 years) trained with a recent-probes and an n-back task daily for two weeks. Two different training regimens (high vs. low PI-amount in the tasks) were applied as between-participants manipulation, to which participants were randomly assigned. Near transfer tasks included interference tasks; far transfer tasks assessed fluid intelligence (gF) or speed. Immediate transfer was assessed directly after training; a follow-up measurement was conducted after two months. Both groups similarly improved in PI resistance in both training tasks. Thus, PI susceptibility was generally reduced in the two training groups and there was no difference between WM training with high versus low PI demands. Further, there was no differential near or far transfer on non-trained tasks, neither immediately after the training nor in the follow-up. PI-demands in WM training tasks do not seem critical for enhancing WM performance or PI resistance in older adults. Instead, improved resistance to PI appears to be an unspecific side-effect of a WM training.

  18. Clinical Efficacy of Jump Training Augmented With Body Weight Support After ACL Reconstruction: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Audrey R C; Harris, Kari J; LaStayo, Paul C; Mizner, Ryan L

    2018-06-01

    Limited knee flexion and increased muscle co-contraction during jump landing are believed to diminish outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The efficacy of jump training to improve patients' mechanical and neuromuscular deficits is understudied. Jump training will improve functional, mechanical, and neuromuscular outcomes and higher repetition training augmented by body weight support will result in better retention of gains. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Thirty athletes (18 months after surgery) were screened, and 19 with mechanical deficits and limited clinical outcomes were enrolled in the trial. Testing included the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) questionnaire, leg landing mechanics via motion analysis, knee joint effusion using a stroke test, and a surface electromyography-generated co-contraction index during a single-legged landing. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: jump training with normal body weight (JTBW) and high-repetition jump training with body weight support (JTBWS). Knee effusion grading throughout training was used to assess joint tolerance. Changes in outcomes over time were analyzed with mixed-effects modeling. Immediate outcomes were compared with retention testing at 8 weeks after training by use of 2-way analyses of variance with effects of time and group. Significant effects of time were found during the training phase for all outcome measures, but no effects of group or sex were found. IKDC score (pooled; mean ± SD) increased from 76 ± 12 to 87 ± 8 ( P Jump training mitigated some risk factors for second injury and osteoarthritis in patients after ACL reconstruction. Training made lasting improvements in physical function measures as well as mechanical and neuromuscular coordination deficits. Higher repetitions used with body weight support did not improve retention but substantially reduced risk for effusion. Jump training is an efficacious

  19. A randomized controlled trial of an online, modular, active learning training program for behavioral activation for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Ajeng J; Kanter, Jonathan W; Busch, Andrew M; Leonard, Rachel; Dunsiger, Shira; Cahill, Shawn; Martell, Christopher; Koerner, Kelly

    2017-08-01

    This randomized-controlled trial assessed the efficacy of a trainer-led, active-learning, modular, online behavioral activation (BA) training program compared with a self-paced online BA training with the same modular content. Seventy-seven graduate students (M = 30.3 years, SD = 6.09; 76.6% female) in mental health training programs were randomly assigned to receive either the trainer-led or self-paced BA training. Both trainings consisted of 4 weekly sessions covering 4 core BA strategies. Primary outcomes were changes in BA skills as measured by an objective role-play assessment and self-reported use of BA strategies. Assessments were conducted at pre-, post-, and 6-weeks after training. A series of longitudinal mixed effect models assessed changes in BA skills and a longitudinal model implemented with generalized estimating equations assessed BA use over time. Significantly greater increases in total BA skills were found in the trainer-led training condition. The trainer-led training condition also showed greater increases in all core BA skills either at posttraining, follow-up, or both. Reported use of BA strategies with actual clients increased significantly from pre- to posttraining and maintained at follow-up in both training conditions. This trial adds to the literature on the efficacy of online training as a method to disseminate BA. Online training with an active learning, modular approach may be a promising and accessible implementation strategy. Additional strategies may need to be paired with the online BA training to assure the long-term implementation and sustainability of BA in clinical practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Training intervention for health care staff in the provision of existential support to patients with cancer: a randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henoch, Ingela; Danielson, Ella; Strang, Susann; Browall, Maria; Melin-Johansson, Christina

    2013-12-01

    When a patient receives a cancer diagnosis, existential issues become more compelling. Throughout the illness trajectory, patients with cancer are cared for in oncology wards, by home care teams or in hospices. Nurses working with these patients are sometimes aware of the patients' existential needs but do not feel confident when discussing these issues. To determine the effects of a training intervention, where the focus is on existential issues and nurses' perceived confidence in communication and their attitude toward caring for dying patients. This was a randomized, controlled trial with a training intervention comprising theoretical training in existential issues combined with individual and group reflection. In total, 102 nurses in oncology and hospice wards and in palliative home care teams were randomized to a training or non-training group. Primary outcomes, confidence in communication, and attitude toward the care of dying patients were measured at baseline, immediately after the training, and five to six months later. Confidence in communication improved significantly in the training group from baseline (before the training) to both the first and second follow-up, that is, immediately after the training and five months later. The attitude toward caring for the dying did not improve in the training group. This study shows that short-term training with reflection improves the confidence of health care staff when communicating, which is important for health care managers with limited resources. Further studies are needed to explore how patients experience the communication skills of health care staff after such training. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.