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Sample records for random motion normal

  1. Normal values for cervical range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinkels, Raymond A H M; Swinkels-Meewisse, Ilse E J C M

    2014-03-01

    Cohort study. To generate normal values for active range of motion (ACROM) of the cervical spine in asymptomatic persons. There is a lack of normal values for ACROM based on large groups and stratified for different age categories. Four hundred asymptomatic persons were included, 100 for each decade of age from 20 years to 60 years and in each subgroup 50 males and 50 females. ACROM was measured with the cervical range of motion (CROM) device. Analysis of variance and the Scheffé post hoc test was used to investigate the differences of ACROM between the decades of age. Linear regression analysis was performed to examine the influence of age and sex on ACROM. The results of this study show that the ACROM decreases significantly in persons older than 50 years for all directions except extension and side flexion compared with that in the subgroup aged 40 to 50. Age had an overall significant effect on the ACROM for all directions. Sex proved to have no significant effect on the ACROM. Normal values were established for ACROM in a group of 400 persons without neck complaints. It was demonstrated that age has a significant influence on the ACROM, but sex has no influence. N/A.

  2. Brownian Motion Problem: Random Walk and Beyond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 8. Brownian Motion Problem: Random Walk and Beyond. Shama Sharma Vishwamittar. General Article Volume 10 Issue 8 August 2005 pp 49-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Chaos the science of predictable random motion

    CERN Document Server

    Kautz, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Based on only elementary mathematics, this engaging account of chaos theory bridges the gap between introductions for the layman and college-level texts. It develops the science of dynamics in terms of small time steps, describes the phenomenon of chaos through simple examples, and concludes with a close look at a homoclinic tangle, the mathematical monster at the heart of chaos. The presentation is enhanced by many figures, animations of chaotic motion (available on a companion CD), and biographical sketches of the pioneers of dynamics and chaos theory. To ensure accessibility to motivated high school students, care has been taken to explain advanced mathematical concepts simply, including exponentials and logarithms, probability, correlation, frequency analysis, fractals, and transfinite numbers. These tools help to resolve the intriguing paradox of motion that is predictable and yet random, while the final chapter explores the various ways chaos theory has been put to practical use.

  4. Integration of local motion is normal in amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert F.; Mansouri, Behzad; Dakin, Steven C.; Allen, Harriet A.

    2006-05-01

    We investigate the global integration of local motion direction signals in amblyopia, in a task where performance is equated between normal and amblyopic eyes at the single element level. We use an equivalent noise model to derive the parameters of internal noise and number of samples, both of which we show are normal in amblyopia for this task. This result is in apparent conflict with a previous study in amblyopes showing that global motion processing is defective in global coherence tasks [Vision Res. 43, 729 (2003)]. A similar discrepancy between the normalcy of signal integration [Vision Res. 44, 2955 (2004)] and anomalous global coherence form processing has also been reported [Vision Res. 45, 449 (2005)]. We suggest that these discrepancies for form and motion processing in amblyopia point to a selective problem in separating signal from noise in the typical global coherence task.

  5. Simulating intrafraction prostate motion with a random walk model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Pommer, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Random walk modeling is feasible and recreated the characteristics of the observed prostate motion. Introducing artificial transient motion did not improve the overall agreement, although the first 30 seconds of the traces were better reproduced. The model provides a simple estimate of prostate motion during delivery of radiation therapy.

  6. Killing (absorption) versus survival in random motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbaczewski, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    We address diffusion processes in a bounded domain, while focusing on somewhat unexplored affinities between the presence of absorbing and/or inaccessible boundaries. For the Brownian motion (Lévy-stable cases are briefly mentioned) model-independent features are established of the dynamical law that underlies the short-time behavior of these random paths, whose overall lifetime is predefined to be long. As a by-product, the limiting regime of a permanent trapping in a domain is obtained. We demonstrate that the adopted conditioning method, involving the so-called Bernstein transition function, works properly also in an unbounded domain, for stochastic processes with killing (Feynman-Kac kernels play the role of transition densities), provided the spectrum of the related semigroup operator is discrete. The method is shown to be useful in the case, when the spectrum of the generator goes down to zero and no isolated minimal (ground state) eigenvalue is in existence, like in the problem of the long-term survival on a half-line with a sink at origin.

  7. Cell motility as random motion: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmeczi, Dávid; Li, Liwen; Pedersen, Leif

    2008-01-01

    The historical co-evolution of biological motility models with models of Brownian motion is outlined. Recent results for how to derive cell-type-specific motility models from experimental cell trajectories are reviewed. Experimental work in progress, which tests the generality of this phenomenolo...... of this phenomenological model building is reported. So is theoretical work in progress, which explains the characteristic time scales and correlations of phenomenological models in terms of the dynamics of cytoskeleton, lamellipodia, and pseudopodia.......The historical co-evolution of biological motility models with models of Brownian motion is outlined. Recent results for how to derive cell-type-specific motility models from experimental cell trajectories are reviewed. Experimental work in progress, which tests the generality...

  8. Quantitative analysis of facial motion components: anatomic and nonanatomic motion in normal persons and in patients with complete facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj-Luthra, A; Mueller, T; Johnson, P C

    1997-06-01

    facial motion represents a ratio of this sum on the affected side to the corresponding sum on the unaffected side using only anatomic motions. The nonanatomic index of facial motion is a similar ratio using nonanatomic motion only (i.e., motions in directions that cannot be produced by the ipsilateral muscles). The anatomic index of facial motion represents a single number that can be used to assess facial motion. The value of the anatomic index of facial motion for patients with complete facial paralysis is 0.07 +/- 0.08. The anatomic index of facial motion for normal individuals is 1.05 +/- 0.13 (p recovery from complete facial paralysis, the anatomic index of facial motion and the nonanatomic index of facial motion each revert steadily toward normal values. The anatomic index of facial motion and the nonanatomic index of facial motion are single numbers based on the maximal static response assay, which quantitatively describes anatomic motion and nonanatomic motion in patients with complete facial paralysis. Although patients with complete facial paralysis have motion on the paralyzed hemiface, the motion is primarily nonanatomic. Both indices can be used to track recovery from complete facial paralysis.

  9. Circular random motion in diatom gliding under isotropic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Medina, Braulio; Guerra, Andrés Jiménez; Maldonado, Ana Iris Peña; Rubio, Yadiralia Covarrubias; Meza, Jessica Viridiana García

    2014-11-13

    How cells migrate has been investigated primarily for the case of trajectories composed by joined straight segments. In contrast, little is known when cellular motion follows intrinsically curved paths. Here, we use time-lapse optical microscopy and automated trajectory tracking to investigate how individual cells of the diatom Nitzschia communis glide across surfaces under isotropic environmental conditions. We find a distinct kind of random motion, where trajectories are formed by circular arcs traveled at constant speed, alternated with random stoppages, direction reversals and changes in the orientation of the arcs. Analysis of experimental and computer-simulated trajectories show that the circular random motion of diatom gliding is not optimized for long-distance travel but rather for recurrent coverage of limited surface area. These results suggest that one main biological role for this type of diatom motility is to efficiently build the foundation of algal biofilms.

  10. Performance characterization of Watson Ahumada motion detector using random dot rotary motion stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Jain

    Full Text Available The performance of Watson & Ahumada's model of human visual motion sensing is compared against human psychophysical performance. The stimulus consists of random dots undergoing rotary motion, displayed in a circular annulus. The model matches psychophysical observer performance with respect to most parameters. It is able to replicate some key psychophysical findings such as invariance of observer performance to dot density in the display, and decrease of observer performance with frame duration of the display.Associated with the concept of rotary motion is the notion of a center about which rotation occurs. One might think that for accurate estimation of rotary motion in the display, this center must be accurately known. A simple vector analysis reveals that this need not be the case. Numerical simulations confirm this result, and may explain the position invariance of MST(d cells. Position invariance is the experimental finding that rotary motion sensitive cells are insensitive to where in their receptive field rotation occurs.When all the dots in the display are randomly drawn from a uniform distribution, illusory rotary motion is perceived. This case was investigated by Rose & Blake previously, who termed the illusory rotary motion the omega effect. Two important experimental findings are reported concerning this effect. First, although the display of random dots evokes perception of rotary motion, the direction of motion perceived does not depend on what dot pattern is shown. Second, the time interval between spontaneous flips in perceived direction is lognormally distributed (mode approximately 2 s. These findings suggest the omega effect fits in the category of a typical bistable illusion, and therefore the processes that give rise to this illusion may be the same processes that underlie much of other bistable phenomenon.

  11. Transcranial cerebral oximetry in random normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Mukesh; Stark, Jennifer; Dujovny, Manuel; Alp, M. Serdar; Widman, Ronald; Ausman, James I.

    1997-08-01

    Near infrared optical spectroscopy is becoming a useful method for monitoring regional cerebral oxygenation status. The method is simple, reliable and noninvasive and the information which it provides is clinically significant in managing a growing number of neurological ailments. Use of this technique has been described previously by numerous authors. In the present study, regional cerebral oxygen saturation was measured at rest in 94 subjects randomly elected from a diverse population of individuals. This sample consisted of 38 males and 65 females, with the age ranging from 18 - 70. There were 68 light-skinned individuals and 35 with darker skin comprising various ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Mean regional cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation was recorded as 67.14 plus or minus 8.84%. The association of the mean regional cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation in various group of individuals in relationship of their age, race, sex and skin color is examined.

  12. Kinematic Earthquake Ground‐Motion Simulations on Listric Normal Faults

    KAUST Repository

    Passone, Luca

    2017-11-28

    Complex finite-faulting source processes have important consequences for near-source ground motions, but empirical ground-motion prediction equations still lack near-source data and hence cannot fully capture near-fault shaking effects. Using a simulation-based approach, we study the effects of specific source parameterizations on near-field ground motions where empirical data are limited. Here, we investigate the effects of fault listricity through near-field kinematic ground-motion simulations. Listric faults are defined as curved faults in which dip decreases with depth, resulting in a concave upward profile. The listric profiles used in this article are built by applying a specific shape function and varying the initial dip and the degree of listricity. Furthermore, we consider variable rupture speed and slip distribution to generate ensembles of kinematic source models. These ensembles are then used in a generalized 3D finite-difference method to compute synthetic seismograms; the corresponding shaking levels are then compared in terms of peak ground velocities (PGVs) to quantify the effects of breaking fault planarity. Our results show two general features: (1) as listricity increases, the PGVs decrease on the footwall and increase on the hanging wall, and (2) constructive interference of seismic waves emanated from the listric fault causes PGVs over two times higher than those observed for the planar fault. Our results are relevant for seismic hazard assessment for near-fault areas for which observations are scarce, such as in the listric Campotosto fault (Italy) located in an active seismic area under a dam.

  13. 'Dicty dynamics': Dictyostelium motility as persistent random motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Liang; Cox, Edward C; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    than the usual tracking by centroid or nucleus. Our data account for cell individuality and dictate a model that extends the cell-type specific models recently derived for mammalian cells. Two generalized Langevin equations model stochastic periodic pseudopod motion parallel and orthogonal...... to the amoeba's direction of motion. This motion propels the amoeba with a random periodic left–right waddle in a direction that has a long persistence time. The model fully accounts for the statistics of the experimental trajectories, including velocity power spectra and auto-correlations, non......-Gaussian velocity distributions, and multiplicative noise. Thus, we find neither need nor place in our data for an interpretation in terms of anomalous diffusion. The model faithfully captures cell individuality as different parameter values in the model, and serves as a basis for integrating the local mechanics...

  14. Random forcing of geostrophic motion in rotating stratified turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Michael L.

    2017-12-01

    Random forcing of geostrophic motion is a common approach in idealized simulations of rotating stratified turbulence. Such forcing represents the injection of energy into large-scale balanced motion, and the resulting breakdown of quasi-geostrophic turbulence into inertia-gravity waves and stratified turbulence can shed light on the turbulent cascade processes of the atmospheric mesoscale. White noise forcing is commonly employed, which excites all frequencies equally, including frequencies much higher than the natural frequencies of large-scale vortices. In this paper, the effects of these high frequencies in the forcing are investigated. Geostrophic motion is randomly forced with red noise over a range of decorrelation time scales τ, from a few time steps to twice the large-scale vortex time scale. It is found that short τ (i.e., nearly white noise) results in about 46% more gravity wave energy than longer τ, despite the fact that waves are not directly forced. We argue that this effect is due to wave-vortex interactions, through which the high frequencies in the forcing are able to excite waves at their natural frequencies. It is concluded that white noise forcing should be avoided, even if it is only applied to the geostrophic motion, when a careful investigation of spontaneous wave generation is needed.

  15. Normal sensory and range of motion (ROM) responses during Thoracic Slump Test (ST) in asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ketaki C; Eapen, Charu; Kumar, Senthil P

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the normal sensory and range of motion (ROM) responses during the movement components of Thoracic Slump Test (Thoracic ST) in asymptomatic subjects. Sixty asymptomatic subjects were included in the study. Thoracic ST was performed in two sequences, proximal initiation, which was proximal to distal and distal initiation, which was distal to proximal. Subjects were randomized into four groups depending on the order of sequences and sides. Outcome measures of sensory responses (intensity, type, and location) and ROM responses were recorded after each sequence. Friedman's test was done to compare between sensory responses of the subjects. Between-component comparison for prevalence of sensory responses within each sequence was done using Kruskal-Wallis test and Wilcoxonsigned ranks test was used for between-component comparisons of intensity of symptoms within each sequence of testing. Independent t test was used to assess the ROM responses. Results show the prevalence of sensory responses, its nature, area and intensity. These sensory and ROM responses may be considered as normal response of Thoracic ST. The intensity of the symptoms of proximal initiation sequence (1.09±1.35 cm) was significant (PROM was significant (P<0.05) for distal initiation (7.55±4.51 degrees) when compared to proximal initiation (4.96±3.76 degrees). These normal responses may be used as a reference when using the Thoracic ST as an assessment technique.

  16. The Poincaré Map of Randomly Perturbed Periodic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitczenko, Pawel; Medvedev, Georgi S.

    2013-10-01

    A system of autonomous differential equations with a stable limit cycle and perturbed by small white noise is analyzed in this work. In the vicinity of the limit cycle of the unperturbed deterministic system, we define, construct, and analyze the Poincaré map of the randomly perturbed periodic motion. We show that the time of the first exit from a small neighborhood of the fixed point of the map, which corresponds to the unperturbed periodic orbit, is well approximated by the geometric distribution. The parameter of the geometric distribution tends to zero together with the noise intensity. Therefore, our result can be interpreted as an estimate of the stability of periodic motion to random perturbations. In addition, we show that the geometric distribution of the first exit times translates into statistical properties of solutions of important differential equation models in applications. To this end, we demonstrate three distinct examples from mathematical neuroscience featuring complex oscillatory patterns characterized by the geometric distribution. We show that in each of these models the statistical properties of emerging oscillations are fully explained by the general properties of randomly perturbed periodic motions identified in this paper.

  17. Normal left ventricular wall motion measured with two-dimensional myocardial tagging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, P; Thomsen, C; Ståhlberg, F

    1993-01-01

    Using a myocardial tagging technique, normal left ventricular wall motion was studied in 3 true short axis views and a double oblique 4-chamber view in 14 and 11 volunteers, respectively. Three orthogonal directions of left ventricular motion were observed throughout the systole; a concentric...

  18. Normal sensory and range of motion (ROM) responses during Thoracic Slump Test (ST) in asymptomatic subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ketaki C; Eapen, Charu; Kumar, Senthil P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the normal sensory and range of motion (ROM) responses during the movement components of Thoracic Slump Test (Thoracic ST) in asymptomatic subjects. Sixty asymptomatic subjects were included in the study. Thoracic ST was performed in two sequences, proximal initiation, which was proximal to distal and distal initiation, which was distal to proximal. Subjects were randomized into four groups depending on the order of sequences and sides. Outcome measures of sensory responses (intensity, type, and location) and ROM responses were recorded after each sequence. Friedman’s test was done to compare between sensory responses of the subjects. Between-component comparison for prevalence of sensory responses within each sequence was done using Kruskal–Wallis test and Wilcoxonsigned ranks test was used for between-component comparisons of intensity of symptoms within each sequence of testing. Independent t test was used to assess the ROM responses. Results show the prevalence of sensory responses, its nature, area and intensity. These sensory and ROM responses may be considered as normal response of Thoracic ST. The intensity of the symptoms of proximal initiation sequence (1.09±1.35 cm) was significant (P<0.05) when compared to distal initiation sequence (0.08±1.26 cm). The change in the ROM was significant (P<0.05) for distal initiation (7.55±4.51 degrees) when compared to proximal initiation (4.96±3.76 degrees). These normal responses may be used as a reference when using the Thoracic ST as an assessment technique. PMID:24421610

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Lorazepam to Reduce Liver Motion in Patients Receiving Upper Abdominal Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Derek S.; Voncken, Francine E.M.; Tse, Regina V. [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Sykes, Jenna [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Wong, Rebecca K.S.; Dinniwell, Rob E.; Kim, John; Ringash, Jolie; Brierley, James D.; Cummings, Bernard J.; Brade, Anthony [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Dawson, Laura A., E-mail: laura.dawson@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Reduction of respiratory motion is desirable to reduce the volume of normal tissues irradiated, to improve concordance of planned and delivered doses, and to improve image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). We hypothesized that pretreatment lorazepam would lead to a measurable reduction of liver motion. Methods and Materials: Thirty-three patients receiving upper abdominal IGRT were recruited to a double-blinded randomized controlled crossover trial. Patients were randomized to 1 of 2 study arms: arm 1 received lorazepam 2 mg by mouth on day 1, followed by placebo 4 to 8 days later; arm 2 received placebo on day 1, followed by lorazepam 4 to 8 days later. After tablet ingestion and daily radiation therapy, amplitude of liver motion was measured on both study days. The primary outcomes were reduction in craniocaudal (CC) liver motion using 4-dimensional kV cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and the proportion of patients with liver motion ≤5 mm. Secondary endpoints included motion measured with cine magnetic resonance imaging and kV fluoroscopy. Results: Mean relative and absolute reduction in CC amplitude with lorazepam was 21% and 2.5 mm respectively (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.9, P=.001), as assessed with CBCT. Reduction in CC amplitude to ≤5 mm residual liver motion was seen in 13% (95% CI 1%-25%) of patients receiving lorazepam (vs 10% receiving placebo, P=NS); 65% (95% CI 48%-81%) had reduction in residual CC liver motion to ≤10 mm (vs 52% with placebo, P=NS). Patients with large respiratory movement and patients who took lorazepam ≥60 minutes before imaging had greater reductions in liver CC motion. Mean reductions in liver CC amplitude on magnetic resonance imaging and fluoroscopy were nonsignificant. Conclusions: Lorazepam reduces liver motion in the CC direction; however, average magnitude of reduction is small, and most patients have residual motion >5 mm.

  20. Saccadic Tracking with Random Walk (brownian Motion) Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Douglas Gordon

    This study was designed to evaluate the saccadic system's response to continuously presented random walk (Brownian motion) stimuli. Our goals were: (1) to examine how closely timed consecutive saccades interact; and (2) to estimate the response modification time for the new position of the stimulus to give an estimate of integration and decision delays. Horizontal eye movements resulting from rapid continuous random target movements were recorded. Step amplitudes of 1.5 and 3.0 degrees were alternated between single- and rapid double-step movements every 200 to 400 msec. From these random multiple stimulus step sequences, saccadic responses to single 3.0 degree step stimuli were collected for subjects to evaluate interactions of consecutive saccades. The results showed that: (1) subjects are capable of making independent goal directed saccades with intersaccadic intervals as short as 50 msec, and (2) subjects had individual biases in the direction of the successive saccades. The main interaction between saccades was related to the spatial error of the preceding saccade combining with the new stimulus step to yield the new error signal for the next saccade. The magnitude of the new retinal error signal was reflected in the latency of the following saccade. To evaluate the decision period of the saccadic system, the single-step responses were used as templates to assess the modification times for staircase, pulse under -return and pulse over-return double-step stimuli. The responses were organized by whether consecutive saccades continued in the same direction or in the opposite direction. The results on the modification times indicate saccadic responses are directed to the new stimulus 85 to 90 msec after the new position of the stimulus. This modification time was independent of stimuli and preferred direction of responses. The 85-90 msec modification delay is used to estimate the time interval needed to program the next saccade.

  1. In search of random uncorrelated particle motion (RUM) in a simple random flow field

    CERN Document Server

    Reeks, Michael W; Soldati, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    DNS studies of dispersed particle motion in isotropic homogeneous turbulence [1] have revealed the existence of a component of random uncorrelated motion (RUM)dependent on the particle inertia {\\tau}p(normalised particle response time or Stoke number). This paper reports the presence of RUM in a simple linear random smoothly varying flow field of counter rotating vortices where the two-particle velocity correlation was measured as a function of spatial separation. Values of the correlation less than one for zero separation indicated the presence of RUM. In terms of Stokes number, the motion of the particles in one direction corresponds to either a heavily damped ({\\tau}p 0.25)harmonic oscillator. In the lightly damped case the particles overshoot the stagnation lines of the flow and are projected from one vortex to another (the so-called sling-shot effect). It is shown that RUM occurs only when {\\tau}p > 0.25, increasing monotonically with increasing Stokes number. Calculations of the particle pair separatio...

  2. Relationships between nonlinear normal modes and response to random inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoneman, Joseph D.; Allen, Matthew S.; Kuether, Robert J.

    2017-02-01

    The ability to model nonlinear structures subject to random excitation is of key importance in designing hypersonic aircraft and other advanced aerospace vehicles. When a structure is linear, superposition can be used to construct its response to a known spectrum in terms of its linear modes. Superposition does not hold for a nonlinear system, but several works have shown that a system's dynamics can still be understood qualitatively in terms of its nonlinear normal modes (NNMs). This work investigates the connection between a structure's undamped nonlinear normal modes and the spectrum of its response to high amplitude random forcing. Two examples are investigated: a spring-mass system and a clamped-clamped beam modeled within a geometrically nonlinear finite element package. In both cases, an intimate connection is observed between the smeared peaks in the response spectrum and the frequency-energy dependence of the nonlinear normal modes. In order to understand the role of coupling between the underlying linear modes, reduced order models with and without modal coupling terms are used to separate the effect of each NNM's backbone from the nonlinear couplings that give rise to internal resonances. In the cases shown here, uncoupled, single-degree-of-freedom nonlinear models are found to predict major features in the response with reasonable accuracy; a highly inexpensive approximation such as this could be useful in design and optimization studies. More importantly, the results show that a reduced order model can be expected to give accurate results only if it is also capable of accurately predicting the frequency-energy dependence of the nonlinear modes that are excited.

  3. Valgus-varus motion of the knee in normal level walking and stair climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B; Stuart, M J; Kienbacher, T; Growney, E S; An, K-N

    1997-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The knee valgus-varus moment and the knee angles were compared between normal level walking and stair climbing. DESIGN: Ten healthy subjects were tested for ascent, descent, and level walking. BACKGROUND: An understanding of the normal valgus-varus motion of the knee during stair climbing is needed to apply biomechanical analysis of stair climbing as a evaluation tool for knee osteoarthritis patients. METHODS: A motion analysis system, three force plates, and a flight of stairs were used to collect kinematic and kinetic data. The knee angles and moments were calculated from the collected kinematic and kinetic data. RESULTS: The knee varus angle for the maximum knee valgus moments in stair climbing was significantly greater than that in level walking. The knee valgus moment was significantly correlated to ground reaction forces and knee valgus-varus angle during stair climbing and level walking. CONCLUSIONS: There is a coupling between the knee valgus-varus motion and flexion-extension motion. Ground reaction forces are the major contributors to the within-subject variation in the knee valgus-varus moment during stair climbing and level walking. The knee valgus-varus angle is a major contributor to the between-subject variation in the knee valgus moment during stair climbing and level walking.

  4. Objective assessment with establishment of normal values for lumbar spinal range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, G K; Wynveen, K J; Rheault, W; Rothschild, B

    1983-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an assessment method, in conjunction with age-related normal values, for lumbar spinal range of motion. Lumbar flexion, lumbar extension, and right and left lateral flexion were measured on 172 subjects by a combination of goniometry and spinal distraction techniques. Normal values are given for six age groups; each group had a range of 10 years. The results demonstrate that a significant decrease in lumbar spinal range of motion is expected with increasing age. The interobserver reliability based on 17 subjects was substantial for the four measurements taken; coefficients ranged from +.76 to +1.0. The information may prove useful to the clinician as an improved method for assessing the lumbar spine.

  5. Visual deficits in amblyopia constrain normal models of second-order motion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmers, A J; Ledgeway, T; Hutchinson, C V; Knox, P J

    2011-09-15

    It is well established that amblyopes exhibit deficits in processing first-order (luminance-defined) patterns. This is readily manifest by measuring spatiotemporal sensitivity (i.e. the "window of visibility") to moving luminance gratings. However the window of visibility to moving second-order (texture-defined) patterns has not been systematically studied in amblyopia. To address this issue monocular modulation sensitivity (1/threshold) to first-order motion and four different varieties of second-order motion (modulations of either the contrast, flicker, size or orientation of visual noise) was measured over a five-octave range of spatial and temporal frequencies. Compared to normals amblyopes are not only impaired in the processing of first-order motion, but overall they exhibit both higher thresholds and a much narrower window of visibility to second-order images. However amblyopia can differentially impair the perception of some types of second-order motion much more than others and crucially the precise pattern of deficits varies markedly between individuals (even for those with the same conventional visual acuity measures). For the most severely impaired amblyopes certain second-order (texture) cues to movement in the environment are effectively invisible. These results place important constraints on the possible architecture of models of second-order motion perception in human vision. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Normal form of particle motion under the influence of an ac dipole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tomás

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available ac dipoles in accelerators are used to excite coherent betatron oscillations at a drive frequency close to the tune. These beam oscillations may last arbitrarily long and, in principle, there is no significant emittance growth if the ac dipole is adiabatically turned on and off. Therefore the ac dipole seems to be an adequate tool for nonlinear diagnostics provided the particle motion is well described in the presence of the ac dipole and nonlinearities. Normal forms and Lie algebra are powerful tools to study the nonlinear content of an accelerator lattice. In this article a way to obtain the normal form of the Hamiltonian of an accelerator with an ac dipole is described. The particle motion to first order in the nonlinearities is derived using Lie algebra techniques. The dependence of the Hamiltonian terms on the longitudinal coordinate is studied showing that they vary differently depending on the ac dipole parameters. The relation is given between the lines of the Fourier spectrum of the turn-by-turn motion and the Hamiltonian terms.

  7. Immediate passive motion versus immobilization after endoscopic supraspinatus tendon repair: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, J; Clavert, P; Mielcarek, P; Bouchaib, J; Meyer, N; Kempf, J-F

    2012-10-01

    Rehabilitation programs after rotator cuff repair should allow recovery of shoulder function without preventing tendon healing. The aim of this randomized prospective study was to compare the clinical results after two types of postoperative management: immediate passive motion versus immobilization. We followed 100 patients, mean age 55 years old, who underwent arthroscopic repair of a non-retracted supraspinatus tear. Patients were randomized to receive postoperative management of immediate passive motion or strict immobilization for 6 weeks. A clinical evaluation was performed in 92 patients, and CT arthrography in 82. Mean follow-up was 15 months. The mean preoperative Constant score improved significantly from 46.1 points to 73.9 at the final follow-up. The rate of intact cuffs was 58.5%. Functional results were statistically better after immediate passive motion with a mean passive external rotation of 58.7° at the final follow-up versus 49.1° after immobilization (P=0.011), a passive anterior elevation of 172.4° versus 163.3° (P=0.094) respectively, a Constant score of 77.6 points versus 69.7 (P=0.045) respectively, and a lower rate of adhesive capsulitis and complex regional pain syndrome. Results for healing seemed to be slightly better with immobilization, but this was not statistically significant: the cuff had a normal appearance in 35.9% of cases after immobilization compared to 25.6% after passive motion, an image of intratendinous addition was found in 25.6% versus 30.2%, punctiform leaks in 23.1% versus 20.9%, and recurrent tears in 15.4% versus 23.3% respectively. The rehabilitation program that results in better tendon healing by preventing postoperative stiffness has not yet been identified. Our results suggest that early passive motion should be authorized: the functional results were better with no significant difference in healing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. The Electrical Activity of He II with Relative Motion of Normal and Superfluid Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamenko, I. N.; Nemchenko, E. K.

    2017-08-01

    It is shown that in the relative motion of the normal and superfluid components of He II with velocity w, an electric potential difference arises. The causes of this phenomenon are electrical properties of quantum vortex rings (QVR) and the anisotropic QVR energy dependence on its momentum due to w. Explicit analytical expressions for the potentials arising from the second sound wave in an external electric field are derived. The comparison of calculated values with observed ones is made, and new experiments are proposed.

  9. Normal and tumoral melanocytes exhibit q-Gaussian random search patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila C A da Silva

    Full Text Available In multicellular organisms, cell motility is central in all morphogenetic processes, tissue maintenance, wound healing and immune surveillance. Hence, failures in its regulation potentiates numerous diseases. Here, cell migration assays on plastic 2D surfaces were performed using normal (Melan A and tumoral (B16F10 murine melanocytes in random motility conditions. The trajectories of the centroids of the cell perimeters were tracked through time-lapse microscopy. The statistics of these trajectories was analyzed by building velocity and turn angle distributions, as well as velocity autocorrelations and the scaling of mean-squared displacements. We find that these cells exhibit a crossover from a normal to a super-diffusive motion without angular persistence at long time scales. Moreover, these melanocytes move with non-Gaussian velocity distributions. This major finding indicates that amongst those animal cells supposedly migrating through Lévy walks, some of them can instead perform q-Gaussian walks. Furthermore, our results reveal that B16F10 cells infected by mycoplasmas exhibit essentially the same diffusivity than their healthy counterparts. Finally, a q-Gaussian random walk model was proposed to account for these melanocytic migratory traits. Simulations based on this model correctly describe the crossover to super-diffusivity in the cell migration tracks.

  10. Normal and tumoral melanocytes exhibit q-Gaussian random search patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Priscila C A; Rosembach, Tiago V; Santos, Anésia A; Rocha, Márcio S; Martins, Marcelo L

    2014-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, cell motility is central in all morphogenetic processes, tissue maintenance, wound healing and immune surveillance. Hence, failures in its regulation potentiates numerous diseases. Here, cell migration assays on plastic 2D surfaces were performed using normal (Melan A) and tumoral (B16F10) murine melanocytes in random motility conditions. The trajectories of the centroids of the cell perimeters were tracked through time-lapse microscopy. The statistics of these trajectories was analyzed by building velocity and turn angle distributions, as well as velocity autocorrelations and the scaling of mean-squared displacements. We find that these cells exhibit a crossover from a normal to a super-diffusive motion without angular persistence at long time scales. Moreover, these melanocytes move with non-Gaussian velocity distributions. This major finding indicates that amongst those animal cells supposedly migrating through Lévy walks, some of them can instead perform q-Gaussian walks. Furthermore, our results reveal that B16F10 cells infected by mycoplasmas exhibit essentially the same diffusivity than their healthy counterparts. Finally, a q-Gaussian random walk model was proposed to account for these melanocytic migratory traits. Simulations based on this model correctly describe the crossover to super-diffusivity in the cell migration tracks.

  11. A biomechanical approach for in vivo diaphragm muscle motion prediction during normal respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Brett; Karami, Elham; Haddad, Seyyed M. H.; Seify, Behzad; Samani, Abbas

    2017-03-01

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in men and women. External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) is a commonly used primary treatment for the condition. A major challenge with such treatments is the delivery of sufficient radiation dose to the lung tumor while ensuring that surrounding healthy lung parenchyma receives only minimal dose. This can be achieved by coupling EBRT with respiratory computer models which can predict the tumour location as a function of phase during the breathing cycle1. The diaphragm muscle contraction is mainly responsible for a large portion of the lung tumor motion during normal breathing, especially when tumours are in the lower lobes, therefore the importance of accurately modelling the diaphragm is paramount in lung tumour motion prediction. The goal of this research is to develop a biomechanical model of the diaphragm, including its active and passive response, using detailed geometric, biomechanical and anatomical information that mimics the diaphragmatic behaviour in a patient specific manner. For this purpose, a Finite Element Model (FEM) of the diaphragm was developed in order to predict the in vivo motion of the diaphragm, paving the way for computer assisted lung cancer tumor tracking in EBRT. Preliminary results obtained from the proposed model are promising and they indicate that it can be used as a plausible tool for effective lung cancer EBRT to improve patient care.

  12. Acute myocarditis with normal wall motion detected with 2D speckle tracking echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sturmberger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 26-year-old male with acute tonsillitis who was referred for coronary angiography because of chest pain, elevated cardiac biomarkers, and biphasic T waves. The patient had no cardiovascular risk factors. Echocardiography showed no wall motion abnormalities and no pericardial effusion. 2D speckle tracking revealed distinct decreased regional peak longitudinal systolic strain in the lateral and posterior walls. Ischemic disease was extremely unlikely in view of his young age, negative family history regarding coronary artery disease, and lack of regional wall motion abnormalities on the conventional 2D echocardiogram. Coronary angiography was deferred as myocarditis was suspected. To confirm the diagnosis, cardiac magnetic resonance tomography (MRT was performed, showing subepicardial delayed hyperenhancement in the lateral and posterior walls correlating closely with the strain pattern obtained by 2D speckle tracking echocardiography. With a working diagnosis of acute myocarditis associated with acute tonsillitis, we prescribed antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The patient’s clinical signs resolved along with normalization of serum creatine kinase (CK levels, and the patient was discharged on the third day after admission. Learning points: • Acute myocarditis can mimic acute coronary syndromes. • Conventional 2D echocardiography lacks specific features for detection of subtle regional wall motion abnormalities. • 2D speckle tracking expands the scope of echocardiography in identifying myocardial dysfunction derived from edema in acute myocarditis.

  13. Normal functional range of motion of the lumbar spine during 15 activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; Biswas, Debdut; Miller, Christopher P; Whang, Peter G; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2010-04-01

    Prospective clinical study. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify normal lumbar range of motion (ROM) and compare these results with those used to perform 15 simulated activities of daily living (ADLs) in asymptomatic subjects. Previous studies reporting the ROM of the lumbar spine during ADLs have been limited, only focusing on 4 ADLs. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the extent of normal lumbar ROM and determine how much motion is necessary to perform 15 simulated ADLs. A noninvasive electrogoniometer and torsiometer were used to measure the ROM of the lumbar spine. The accuracy and reliability of the devices were confirmed by comparing the ROM values acquired from dynamic flexion/extension and lateral bending radiographs with those provided by the device that was activated while the radiographs were obtained. Intraobserver reliability was established by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient for repeated measurements on the same subjects by 1 investigator on consecutive days. These tools were employed in a clinical laboratory setting to evaluate the full active ROM of the lumbar spines (ie, flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation) of 60 asymptomatic subjects (30 women and 30 men; age 20 to 75 y) and to assess the functional ROM required to complete 15 simulated ADLs. When compared with radiographic measurements, the electrogoniometer was found to be accurate within 2.3+/-2.6 degrees (mean+/-SD). The intraobserver reliabilities for assessing full and functional ROM were both excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.96 and 0.88, respectively). The absolute ROM and percentage of full active lumbar spinal ROM used during the 15 ADLs was 3 to 49 degrees and 4% to 59% (median: 9 degrees/11%) for flexion/extension, 2 to 11 degrees and 6% to 31% (6 degrees/17%) for lateral bending, and 2 to 7 degrees and 6% to 20% (5 degrees/13%) for rotation. Picking up an object from the ground, either using a bending

  14. Human confort response to random motions with a dominant rolling motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Subjective ride comfort response ratings were measured on a visual motion simulator with rolling velocity inputs with various power spectra shapes and magnitudes. The results show only little influence of spectra shape on comfort response. The effects of magnitude on comfort response indicate the applicability of psychophysical precepts for comfort modeling.

  15. Evaluation of diaphragmatic motion in normal and diaphragmatic paralyzed dogs using M-mode ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mihyun; Lee, Namsoon; Kim, Ahyoung; Keh, Seoyeon; Lee, Jinsoo; Kim, Hyunwook; Choi, Mincheol

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis in dogs is currently based on fluoroscopic detection of unequal movement between the crura. Bilateral paralysis may be more difficult to confirm with fluoroscopy because diaphragmatic movement is sometimes produced by compensatory abdominal muscle contractions. The purpose of this study was to develop a new method to evaluate diaphragmatic movement using M-mode ultrasonography and to describe findings for normal and diaphragmatic paralyzed dogs. Fifty-five clinically normal dogs and two dogs with diaphragmatic paralysis were recruited. Thoracic radiographs were acquired for all dogs and fluoroscopy studies were also acquired for clinically affected dogs. Two observers independently measured diaphragmatic direction of motion and amplitude of excursion using M-mode ultrasonography for dogs meeting study inclusion criteria. Eight of the clinically normal dogs were excluded due to abnormal thoracic radiographic findings. For the remaining normal dogs, the lower limit values of diaphragmatic excursion were 2.85-2.98 mm during normal breathing. One dog with bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis showed paradoxical movement of both crura at the end of inspiration. One dog with unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis had diaphragmatic excursion values of 2.00 ± 0.42 mm on the left side and 4.05 ± 1.48 mm on the right side. The difference between left and right diaphragmatic excursion values was 55%. Findings indicated that M-mode ultrasonography is a relatively simple and objective method for measuring diaphragmatic movement in dogs. Future studies are needed in a larger number of dogs with diaphragmatic paralysis to determine the diagnostic sensitivity of this promising new technique. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  16. Motion analysis of Chinese normal knees during gait based on a novel portable system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yao, Zilong; Wang, Shaobai; Huang, Wenhan; Ma, Limin; Huang, Huayang; Xia, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Normative tibiofemoral data of Chinese or Asian subjects during gait is rarely reported. This study is aimed at investigating the six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) knee kinematics of adult Chinese during gait, based on a novel portable system. Twenty-eight healthy Chinese subjects (56 knees) were studied during their treadmill gaits. A set of optical marker clusters were attached to the thighs and shanks of each subject, who was tracked by an optical joint kinematics measurement system. Knee landmarks were initially digitized with respect to the marker cluster sets to determine the local coordinate systems for calculation of 6DOF knee joint kinematics. The range of motion (ROM) in 6DOF and 5 kinematic parameters were calculated and compared between bilateral knees and genders. We discovered that knee rotations, as well as motion in proximodistal and mediolateral translations, showed similar patterns in flexion and extension. However, the anteroposterior translations did not show a clear pattern. The results of ROM in 6DOF obtained in this study are comparable with those reported in existing literature. No statistical difference was found between left and right knees either in the ROMs or in the 5 kinematic parameters. However, the ROM in the mediolateral direction during gait was found to be higher in men than women (P=0.014). In addition, the femurs of female subjects rotated more internally than the femurs of male during the stance phase (P=0.011). We concluded that normal Chinese knees exhibited distinct gait patterns, except for anteroposterior motion. Women and men exhibit different axial rotations and mediolateral translation patterns during their treadmill gait. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Review on asymptotic normality of sums of associated random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association between random variables is a generalization of independence of these random variables. This concept is more and more commonly used in current trends in any research elds in Statistics. In this paper, we proceed to a simple, clear and rigorous introduction to it. We will present the fundamental asymptotic ...

  18. Normal functional range of motion of the cervical spine during 15 activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; Biswas, Debdut; Miller, Christopher P; Whang, Peter G; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2010-02-01

    Prospective clinical study. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify normal cervical range of motion (ROM) and compare these results to those used to perform 15 simulated activities of daily living (ADLs) in asymptomatic subjects. Previous studies looking at cervical ROM during ADLs have been limited and used measuring devices that do not record continuous motion. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify normal cervical ROM and compare these results with those used to perform 15 simulated ADLs in asymptomatic subjects. A noninvasive electrogoniometer and torsiometer were used to measure the ROM of the cervical spine. The accuracy and reliability of the devices were confirmed by comparing the ROM values acquired from dynamic flexion/extension and lateral bending radiographs to those provided by the device, which was activated while the radiographs were obtained. Intraobserver reliability was established by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient for repeated measurements on the same subjects by 1 investigator on consecutive days. These tools were employed in a clinical laboratory setting to evaluate the full active ROM of the cervical spines (ie, flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation) of 60 asymptomatic subjects (30 females and 30 males; age, 20 to 75 y) as well as to assess the functional ROM required to complete 15 simulated ADLs. When compared with radiographic measurements, the electrogoniometer was found to be accurate within 2.3+/-2.2 degrees (mean+/-SD) and the intraobserver reliabilities for measuring the full active and functional ROM were both excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.96 and 0.92, respectively). The absolute ROM and percentage of full active cervical spinal ROM used during the 15 ADLs was 13 to 32 degrees and 15% to 32% (median, 20 degrees/19%) for flexion/extension, 9 to 21 degrees and 11% to 27% (14 degrees/18%) for lateral bending, and 13 to 57 degrees and 12% to 92% (18 degrees/19

  19. Assessing randomness and complexity in human motion trajectories through analysis of symbolic sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen ePeng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Complexity is a hallmark of intelligent behavior consisting both of regular patterns and random variation. To quantitatively assess the complexity and randomness of human motion, we designed a motor task in which we translated subjects' motion trajectories into strings of symbol sequences. In the first part of the experiment participants were asked to perform self-paced movements to create repetitive patterns, copy pre-specified letter sequences, and generate random movements. To investigate whether the degree of randomness can be manipulated, in the second part of the experiment participants were asked to perform unpredictable movements in the context of a pursuit game, where they received feedback from an online Bayesian predictor guessing their next move. We analyzed symbol sequences representing subjects' motion trajectories with five common complexity measures: predictability, compressibility, approximate entropy, Lempel-Ziv complexity, as well as effective measure complexity. We found that subjects’ self-created patterns were the most complex, followed by drawing movements of letters and self-paced random motion. We also found that participants could change the randomness of their behavior depending on context and feedback. Our results suggest that humans can adjust both complexity and regularity in different movement types and contexts and that this can be assessed with information-theoretic measures of the symbolic sequences generated from movement trajectories.

  20. Stochastic modeling for starting-time of phase evolution of random seismic ground motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbo Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to the challenge inherent in classical high-dimensional models of random ground motions, a family of simulation methods for non-stationary seismic ground motions was developed previously through employing a wave-group propagation formulation with phase spectrum model built up on the frequency components' starting-time of phase evolution. The present paper aims at extending the formulation to the simulation of non-stationary random seismic ground motions. The ground motion records associated with N—S component of Northridge Earthquake at the type-II site are investigated. The frequency components' starting-time of phase evolution of is identified from the ground motion records, and is proved to admit the Gamma distribution through data fitting. Numerical results indicate that the simulated random ground motion features zero-mean, non-stationary, and non-Gaussian behaviors, and the phase spectrum model with only a few starting-times of phase evolution could come up with a sound contribution to the simulation.

  1. Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Take the mystery out of motion. Our resource gives you everything you need to teach young scientists about motion. Students will learn about linear, accelerating, rotating and oscillating motion, and how these relate to everyday life - and even the solar system. Measuring and graphing motion is easy, and the concepts of speed, velocity and acceleration are clearly explained. Reading passages, comprehension questions, color mini posters and lots of hands-on activities all help teach and reinforce key concepts. Vocabulary and language are simplified in our resource to make them accessible to str

  2. An Interactive Computer Model for Improved Student Understanding of Random Particle Motion and Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottonau, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Effectively teaching the concepts of osmosis to college-level students is a major obstacle in biological education. Therefore, a novel computer model is presented that allows students to observe the random nature of particle motion simultaneously with the seemingly directed net flow of water across a semipermeable membrane during osmotic…

  3. Range of motion, muscle length, and balance performance in older adults with normal, pronated, and supinated feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justine, Maria; Ruzali, Dhiya; Hazidin, Ezzaty; Said, Aisyah; Bukry, Saiful Adli; Manaf, Haidzir

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] To compare the lower limb joint range of motion and muscle length between different types of foot posture, and determine the correlation of range of motion and muscle length with balance performance. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety individuals (age, 65.2±4.6 years) were assessed using the Foot Posture Index to determine their type of foot (Normal [0 to +5], pronated [+6 to +9], and supinated [-1 to -4]; n=30 per group). The range of motion (goniometer), muscle length (goniometer and tape measure), and balance performance (functional reach test and four square step test) were measured for each participant. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman's rank-order correlation. [Results] No significant differences were found in range of motion, muscle length, and balance performance among different types of foot posture, except for right and left ankle dorsiflexion range of motion. Balance performance was significantly correlated with selected muscle length and range of motion, especially in the supinated foot. [Conclusion] Range of motion and muscle length of the lower limb may be associated with balance performance in older adults with foot deformities. These findings may guide physiotherapists in choosing intervention based on specific assessments for older adults with foot deformity.

  4. Random normal matrices, Bergman kernel and projective embeddings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevtsov, Semyon

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the analogy between the large N expansion in normal matrix models and the asymptotic expansion of the determinant of the Hilb map, appearing in the study of critical metrics on complex manifolds via projective embeddings. This analogy helps to understand the geometric meaning of the expansion of matrix model free energy and its relation to gravitational effective actions in two dimensions. We compute the leading terms of the free energy expansion in the pure bulk case, and make some observations on the structure of the expansion to all orders. As an application of these results, we propose an asymptotic formula for the Liouville action, restricted to the space of the Bergman metrics.

  5. Inertial-particle dynamics in turbulent flows: caustics, concentration fluctuations and random uncorrelated motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, K.; Meneguz, E.; Reeks, M.; Mehlig, B.

    2012-11-01

    We have performed numerical simulations of inertial particles in random model flows in the white-noise limit (at zero Kubo number, Ku = 0) and at finite Kubo numbers. Our results for the moments of relative inertial-particle velocities are in good agreement with recent theoretical results (Gustavsson and Mehlig 2011a) based on the formation of phase-space singularities in the inertial-particle dynamics (caustics). We discuss the relation between three recent approaches describing the dynamics and spatial distribution of inertial particles suspended in turbulent flows: caustic formation, real-space singularities of the deformation tensor and random uncorrelated motion. We discuss how the phase- and real-space singularities are related. Their formation is well understood in terms of a local theory. We summarise the implications for random uncorrelated motion.

  6. Random walk study of electron motion in helium in crossed electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    Random walk theory, previously adapted to electron motion in the presence of an electric field, is extended to include a transverse magnetic field. In principle, the random walk approach avoids mathematical complexity and concomitant simplifying assumptions and permits determination of energy distributions and transport coefficients within the accuracy of available collisional cross section data. Application is made to a weakly ionized helium gas. Time of relaxation of electron energy distribution, determined by the random walk, is described by simple expressions based on energy exchange between the electron and an effective electric field. The restrictive effect of the magnetic field on electron motion, which increases the required number of collisions per walk to reach a terminal steady state condition, as well as the effect of the magnetic field on electron transport coefficients and mean energy can be quite adequately described by expressions involving only the Hall parameter.

  7. The limits of passive motion are variable between and unrelated within normal tibiofemoral joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Joshua D; Hull, Maury L; Howell, Stephen M

    2015-11-01

    Patient-to-patient differences should be accounted for in both clinical evaluations and computational models of knee laxity. Accordingly, the objectives were to determine how variable the laxities are between knees by determining the range of the internal-external (I-E), varus-valgus (V-V), anterior-posterior (A-P), and compression-distraction (C-D) limits of passive motion, and how related the laxities are within a knee by determining whether these limits are correlated with one another. The limits in I-E (± 3 Nm), V-V (± 5 Nm), A-P (± 45 N), and C-D (± 100 N) were measured in 10 normal human cadaveric knees at 0° to 120° flexion in 15° increments using a six degree-of-freedom load application system. The ranges from 15° to 120° flexion of the I-E limits were greater than 3.6°, of the A-P limits were greater than 1.8 mm, and of the varus limits were greater than 1.4°. The ranges from 30° to 120° flexion of the distraction limits were greater than 2.0 mm. Twenty-four of the 28 pair-wise comparisons between the limits had a correlation coefficient less than 0.65. These results demonstrate that a patient-specific approach, including all degrees of freedom of interest, is necessary during clinical evaluations of laxity and when creating and validating computational models of the tibiofemoral joint. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. MicroRNA array normalization: an evaluation using a randomized dataset as the benchmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Li-Xuan; Zhou, Qin

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNA arrays possess a number of unique data features that challenge the assumption key to many normalization methods. We assessed the performance of existing normalization methods using two microRNA array datasets derived from the same set of tumor samples: one dataset was generated using a blocked randomization design when assigning arrays to samples and hence was free of confounding array effects; the second dataset was generated without blocking or randomization and exhibited array effects. The randomized dataset was assessed for differential expression between two tumor groups and treated as the benchmark. The non-randomized dataset was assessed for differential expression after normalization and compared against the benchmark. Normalization improved the true positive rate significantly in the non-randomized data but still possessed a false discovery rate as high as 50%. Adding a batch adjustment step before normalization further reduced the number of false positive markers while maintaining a similar number of true positive markers, which resulted in a false discovery rate of 32% to 48%, depending on the specific normalization method. We concluded the paper with some insights on possible causes of false discoveries to shed light on how to improve normalization for microRNA arrays.

  9. Non-stationary random vibration analysis of structures under multiple correlated normal random excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanbin; Mulani, Sameer B.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Fei, Qingguo; Wu, Shaoqing

    2017-07-01

    An algorithm that integrates Karhunen-Loeve expansion (KLE) and the finite element method (FEM) is proposed to perform non-stationary random vibration analysis of structures under excitations, represented by multiple random processes that are correlated in both time and spatial domains. In KLE, the auto-covariance functions of random excitations are discretized using orthogonal basis functions. The KLE for multiple correlated random excitations relies on expansions in terms of correlated sets of random variables reflecting the cross-covariance of the random processes. During the response calculations, the eigenfunctions of KLE used to represent excitations are applied as forcing functions to the structure. The proposed algorithm is applied to a 2DOF system, a 2D cantilever beam and a 3D aircraft wing under both stationary and non-stationary correlated random excitations. Two methods are adopted to obtain the structural responses: a) the modal method and b) the direct method. Both the methods provide the statistics of the dynamic response with sufficient accuracy. The structural responses under the same type of correlated random excitations are bounded by the response obtained by perfectly correlated and uncorrelated random excitations. The structural response increases with a decrease in the correlation length and with an increase in the correlation magnitude. The proposed methodology can be applied for the analysis of any complex structure under any type of random excitation.

  10. Normalizing Social Media Texts by Combining Word Embeddings and Edit Distances in a Random Forest Regressor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goot, Rob

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we adapt the traditional framework for spelling correction to the more novel task of normalization of social media content. To generate possible normalization candidates, we complement the traditional approach with a word embeddings model. To rank the candidates we will use a random

  11. A continuous-time model of centrally coordinated motion with random switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallon, J C; Despain, Lynnae C; Evans, Emily J; Grant, Christopher P; Smith, W V

    2017-02-01

    This paper considers differential problems with random switching, with specific applications to the motion of cells and centrally coordinated motion. Starting with a differential-equation model of cell motion that was proposed previously, we set the relaxation time to zero and consider the simpler model that results. We prove that this model is well-posed, in the sense that it corresponds to a pure jump-type continuous-time Markov process (without explosion). We then describe the model's long-time behavior, first by specifying an attracting steady-state distribution for a projection of the model, then by examining the expected location of the cell center when the initial data is compatible with that steady-state. Under such conditions, we present a formula for the expected velocity and give a rigorous proof of that formula's validity. We conclude the paper with a comparison between these theoretical results and the results of numerical simulations.

  12. Quantum radiation produced by a uniformly accelerating charged particle in thermal random motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Naritaka; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Zhang, Sen

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the properties of quantum radiation produced by a uniformly accelerating charged particle undergoing thermal random motion, which originates from the coupling to the vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. Because the thermal random motion is regarded to result from the Unruh effect, the quantum radiation might give us hints of the Unruh effect. The energy flux of the quantum radiation is negative and smaller than that of Larmor radiation by one order in a /m , where a is the constant acceleration and m is the mass of the particle. Thus, the quantum radiation appears to be a suppression of the classical Larmor radiation. The quantum interference effect plays an important role in this unique signature. The results are consistent with the predictions of a model consisting of a particle coupled to a massless scalar field as well as those of the previous studies on the quantum effect on the Larmor radiation.

  13. Intelligent bidirectional rapidly-exploring random trees for optimal motion planning in complex cluttered environments

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Ahmed Hussain; Ayaz, Yasar

    2017-01-01

    The sampling based motion planning algorithm known as Rapidly-exploring Random Trees (RRT) has gained the attention of many researchers due to their computational efficiency and effectiveness. Recently, a variant of RRT called RRT* has been proposed that ensures asymptotic optimality. Subsequently its bidirectional version has also been introduced in the literature known as Bidirectional-RRT* (B-RRT*). We introduce a new variant called Intelligent Bidirectional-RRT* (IB-RRT*) which is an impr...

  14. Do Motion Controllers Make Action Video Games Less Sedentary? A Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Bowling, J. Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    Sports- and fitness-themed video games using motion controllers have been found to produce physical activity. It is possible that motion controllers may also enhance energy expenditure when applied to more sedentary games such as action games. Young adults (N = 100) were randomized to play three games using either motion-based or traditional controllers. No main effect was found for controller or game pair (P > .12). An interaction was found such that in one pair, motion control (mean [SD] 0.96 [0.20] kcal · kg−1 · hr−1) produced 0.10 kcal · kg−1 · hr−1 (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.17) greater energy expenditure than traditional control (0.86 [0.17] kcal · kg−1 · hr−1, P = .048). All games were sedentary. As currently implemented, motion control is unlikely to produce moderate intensity physical activity in action games. However, some games produce small but significant increases in energy expenditure, which may benefit health by decreasing sedentary behavior. PMID:22028959

  15. Do Motion Controllers Make Action Video Games Less Sedentary? A Randomized Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Lyons

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sports- and fitness-themed video games using motion controllers have been found to produce physical activity. It is possible that motion controllers may also enhance energy expenditure when applied to more sedentary games such as action games. Young adults (N = 100 were randomized to play three games using either motion-based or traditional controllers. No main effect was found for controller or game pair (P > .12. An interaction was found such that in one pair, motion control (mean [SD] 0.96 [0.20] kcal ⋅ kg-1 ⋅ hr-1 produced 0.10 kcal ⋅ kg-1 ⋅ hr-1 (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.17 greater energy expenditure than traditional control (0.86 [0.17] kcal ⋅ kg-1 ⋅ hr-1, P = .048. All games were sedentary. As currently implemented, motion control is unlikely to produce moderate intensity physical activity in action games. However, some games produce small but significant increases in energy expenditure, which may benefit health by decreasing sedentary behavior.

  16. Do motion controllers make action video games less sedentary? A randomized experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Ribisl, Kurt M; Bowling, J Michael; Kalyanaraman, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    Sports- and fitness-themed video games using motion controllers have been found to produce physical activity. It is possible that motion controllers may also enhance energy expenditure when applied to more sedentary games such as action games. Young adults (N = 100) were randomized to play three games using either motion-based or traditional controllers. No main effect was found for controller or game pair (P > .12). An interaction was found such that in one pair, motion control (mean [SD] 0.96 [0.20] kcal · kg(-1) · hr(-1)) produced 0.10 kcal · kg(-1) · hr(-1) (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.17) greater energy expenditure than traditional control (0.86 [0.17] kcal · kg(-1) · hr(-1), P = .048). All games were sedentary. As currently implemented, motion control is unlikely to produce moderate intensity physical activity in action games. However, some games produce small but significant increases in energy expenditure, which may benefit health by decreasing sedentary behavior.

  17. Pros and cons of rotating ground motion records to fault-normal/parallel directions for response history analysis of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Kwong, Neal S.

    2014-01-01

    According to the regulatory building codes in the United States (e.g., 2010 California Building Code), at least two horizontal ground motion components are required for three-dimensional (3D) response history analysis (RHA) of building structures. For sites within 5 km of an active fault, these records should be rotated to fault-normal/fault-parallel (FN/FP) directions, and two RHAs should be performed separately (when FN and then FP are aligned with the transverse direction of the structural axes). It is assumed that this approach will lead to two sets of responses that envelope the range of possible responses over all nonredundant rotation angles. This assumption is examined here, for the first time, using a 3D computer model of a six-story reinforced-concrete instrumented building subjected to an ensemble of bidirectional near-fault ground motions. Peak values of engineering demand parameters (EDPs) were computed for rotation angles ranging from 0 through 180° to quantify the difference between peak values of EDPs over all rotation angles and those due to FN/FP direction rotated motions. It is demonstrated that rotating ground motions to FN/FP directions (1) does not always lead to the maximum responses over all angles, (2) does not always envelope the range of possible responses, and (3) does not provide maximum responses for all EDPs simultaneously even if it provides a maximum response for a specific EDP.

  18. Determining whether observed eukaryotic cell migration indicates chemotactic responsiveness or random chemokinetic motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmary, A C; Nossal, R

    2017-07-21

    Chemotaxis, the motion of cells directed by a gradient of chemoattractant molecules, guides cells in immune response, development, wound healing, and cancer. Unfortunately, this process is difficult to distinguish from chemokinesis, i.e., stimulated random cell motion. Chemotaxis is frequently inferred by determining how many cells cross a boundary in a chemotaxis assay, for example how many cells crawl into a chemoattractant-infused filter, or how many cells enter a defined region in an under-agarose assay or agarose spot assay. To mitigate possible ambiguity in whether motion observed in these assays is directed by the chemoattractant gradient or by chemokinesis, we developed a mathematical model to determine when such methods indeed indicate directed motion of cells. In contrast to previous analyses of chemotaxis assays, we report not just the gradients that arise in the assays but also resulting cell motion. We applied the model to data obtained from rigorous measurements and show, as examples, that MDA-MB-231 breast-cancer cells are at least 20 times less sensitive to gradients of EGF or CXCL12 than neutrophils are to formyl peptides; we then used this information to determine the extent to which gradient sensing increases the rate of boundary crossing relative to a random-motility control. Results show, for example, that in the filter assay, 2-4 times as many neutrophils pass through the filter when exposed to a gradient as when the gradient is absent. However, in the other combinations of cells and assays we considered, only 10-20% more cells are counted as having migrated in a directed, rather than random, motility condition. We also discuss the design of appropriate controls for these assays, which is difficult for the under-agarose and agarose spot assays. Moreover, although straightforward to perform with the filter assay, reliable controls are often not done. Consequently, we infer that chemotaxis is frequently over-reported, especially for cells like

  19. Quasi-Random Algorithms for Real-Time Spacecraft Motion Planning and Formation Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazzoli, E.

    Many applications of current interest, including on-orbit servicing of large space structures, space-based interferometry, and distributed radar systems, involve several spacecraft maneuvering in close proximity of one another. Often, the mission requires that the spacecraft be able to react quickly to changes in the environment, for example to reconfigure the formation to investigate a target of opportunity, or to prevent damage from a failure. In these cases, the spacecraft need to solve in real time complex motion planning problems, minimizing meaningful cost functions, such as time or fuel consumption, and taking into account constraints such as collision and plume impingement avoidance. Such problems are provably hard from a computational point of view, in the sense that any deterministic, complete algorithm will require exponential time to find a feasible solution. Recent advances in the robotics field have provided a new class of algorithms based on randomization, which provides computational tractability, by relaxing the completeness requirement to probabilistic completeness (i.e. the solution will be found by such algorithms with arbitrarily high probability in polynomial time). Randomized algorithms have been developed and successfully applied by the author and other researchers to real-time motion planning problems involving autonomous air vehicles and spacecraft attitude motion. In this paper we present a new class of quasi- random algorithms, which, combining optimal orbital maneuvers and deterministic sampling strategies, are able to provide extremely fast and efficient planners. Moreover, these planners are able to guarantee the safety of the space system, that is the satisfaction of collision and plume impingement avoidance constraints, even in the face of finite computation times (i.e., when the planner has to be pre-empted). Formation reconfiguration examples will illustrate the effectiveness of the methods, and a discussion of the results will

  20. Brownian-motion ensembles of random matrix theory: A classification scheme and an integral transform method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo-Junior, A.F. [Departamento de Fisica, Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica e Computacional, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: ailton@df.ufpe.br; Macedo, A.M.S. [Departamento de Fisica, Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica e Computacional, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2006-09-25

    We study a class of Brownian-motion ensembles obtained from the general theory of Markovian stochastic processes in random-matrix theory. The ensembles admit a complete classification scheme based on a recent multivariable generalization of classical orthogonal polynomials and are closely related to Hamiltonians of Calogero-Sutherland-type quantum systems. An integral transform is proposed to evaluate the n-point correlation function for a large class of initial distribution functions. Applications of the classification scheme and of the integral transform to concrete physical systems are presented in detail.

  1. Sample-to-sample fluctuations of power spectrum of a random motion in a periodic Sinai model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David S.; Iorio, Antonio; Marinari, Enzo; Oshanin, Gleb

    2016-09-01

    The Sinai model of a tracer diffusing in a quenched Brownian potential is a much-studied problem exhibiting a logarithmically slow anomalous diffusion due to the growth of energy barriers with the system size. However, if the potential is random but periodic, the regime of anomalous diffusion crosses over to one of normal diffusion once a tracer has diffused over a few periods of the system. Here we consider a system in which the potential is given by a Brownian bridge on a finite interval (0 ,L ) and then periodically repeated over the whole real line and study the power spectrum S (f ) of the diffusive process x (t ) in such a potential. We show that for most of realizations of x (t ) in a given realization of the potential, the low-frequency behavior is S (f ) ˜A /f2 , i.e., the same as for standard Brownian motion, and the amplitude A is a disorder-dependent random variable with a finite support. Focusing on the statistical properties of this random variable, we determine the moments of A of arbitrary, negative, or positive order k and demonstrate that they exhibit a multifractal dependence on k and a rather unusual dependence on the temperature and on the periodicity L , which are supported by atypical realizations of the periodic disorder. We finally show that the distribution of A has a log-normal left tail and exhibits an essential singularity close to the right edge of the support, which is related to the Lifshitz singularity. Our findings are based both on analytic results and on extensive numerical simulations of the process x (t ) .

  2. An experimental randomized study of six different ventilatory modes in a piglet model with normal lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J B; Sjöstrand, U H; Henneberg, S W

    1991-01-01

    A randomized study of 6 ventilatory modes was made in 7 piglets with normal lungs. Using a Servo HFV 970 (prototype system) and a Servo ventilator 900 C the ventilatory modes examined were as follows: SV-20V, i.e. volume-controlled intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV); SV-20VIosc, i...

  3. Generating log-normally distributed random numbers by using the Ziggurat algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Soo [KINS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Uncertainty analyses are usually based on the Monte Carlo method. Using an efficient random number generator(RNG) is a key element in success of Monte Carlo simulations. Log-normal distributed variates are very typical in NPP PSAs. This paper proposes an approach to generate log normally distributed variates based on the Ziggurat algorithm and evaluates the efficiency of the proposed Ziggurat RNG. The proposed RNG can be helpful to improve the uncertainty analysis of NPP PSAs. This paper focuses on evaluating the efficiency of the Ziggurat algorithm from a NPP PSA point of view. From this study, we can draw the following conclusions. - The Ziggurat algorithm is one of perfect random number generators to product normal distributed variates. - The Ziggurat algorithm is computationally much faster than the most commonly used method, Marsaglia polar method.

  4. Planar undulator motion excited by a fixed traveling wave. Quasiperiodic averaging normal forms and the FEL pendulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James A.; Heinemann, Klaus [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics; Vogt, Mathias [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Gooden, Matthew [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2013-03-15

    We present a mathematical analysis of planar motion of energetic electrons moving through a planar dipole undulator, excited by a fixed planar polarized plane wave Maxwell field in the X-Ray FEL regime. Our starting point is the 6D Lorentz system, which allows planar motions, and we examine this dynamical system as the wave length {lambda} of the traveling wave varies. By scalings and transformations the 6D system is reduced, without approximation, to a 2D system in a form for a rigorous asymptotic analysis using the Method of Averaging (MoA), a long time perturbation theory. The two dependent variables are a scaled energy deviation and a generalization of the so- called ponderomotive phase. As {lambda} varies the system passes through resonant and nonresonant (NR) zones and we develop NR and near-to-resonant (NtoR) MoA normal form approximations. The NtoR normal forms contain a parameter which measures the distance from a resonance. For a special initial condition, for the planar motion and on resonance, the NtoR normal form reduces to the well known FEL pendulum system. We then state and prove NR and NtoR first-order averaging theorems which give explicit error bounds for the normal form approximations. We prove the theorems in great detail, giving the interested reader a tutorial on mathematically rigorous perturbation theory in a context where the proofs are easily understood. The proofs are novel in that they do not use a near identity transformation and they use a system of differential inequalities. The NR case is an example of quasiperiodic averaging where the small divisor problem enters in the simplest possible way. To our knowledge the planar prob- lem has not been analyzed with the generality we aspire to here nor has the standard FEL pendulum system been derived with associated error bounds as we do here. We briefly discuss the low gain theory in light of our NtoR normal form. Our mathematical treatment of the noncollective FEL beam dynamics problem in

  5. Planar undulator motion excited by a fixed traveling wave: Quasiperiodic averaging, normal forms, and the free electron laser pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, James A.; Heinemann, Klaus; Vogt, Mathias; Gooden, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    We present a mathematical analysis of planar motion of energetic electrons moving through a planar dipole undulator, excited by a fixed planar polarized plane wave Maxwell field in the x-ray free electron laser (FEL) regime. Our starting point is the 6D Lorentz system, which allows planar motions, and we examine this dynamical system as the wavelength λ of the traveling wave varies. By scalings and transformations the 6D system is reduced, without approximation, to a 2D system in a form for a rigorous asymptotic analysis using the method of averaging (MoA), a long-time perturbation theory. The two dependent variables are a scaled energy deviation and a generalization of the so-called ponderomotive phase. As λ varies the system passes through resonant and nonresonant (NonR) intervals and we develop NonR and near-to-resonant (NearR) MoA normal form approximations to the exact equations. The NearR normal forms contain a parameter which measures the distance from a resonance. For the planar motion, with the special initial condition that matches into the undulator design trajectory, and on resonance, the NearR normal form reduces to the well-known FEL pendulum system. We then state and prove NonR and NearR first-order averaging theorems which give explicit error bounds for the normal form approximations. We prove the theorems in great detail, giving the interested reader a tutorial on mathematically rigorous perturbation theory in a context where the proofs are easily understood. The proofs are novel in that they do not use a near-identity transformation and they use a system of differential inequalities. The NonR case is an example of quasiperiodic averaging where the small divisor problem enters in the simplest possible way. To our knowledge the planar problem has not been analyzed with the generality we aspire to here nor has the standard FEL pendulum system been derived with associated error bounds as we do here. We briefly discuss the low gain theory in light of

  6. Random walks exhibiting anomalous diffusion: elephants, urns and the limits of normality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Michael J.; Martin, Richard J.

    2018-01-01

    A random walk model is presented which exhibits a transition from standard to anomalous diffusion as a parameter is varied. The model is a variant on the elephant random walk and differs in respect of the treatment of the initial state, which in the present work consists of a given number N of fixed steps. This also links the elephant random walk to other types of history dependent random walk. As well as being amenable to direct analysis, the model is shown to be asymptotically equivalent to a non-linear urn process. This provides fresh insights into the limiting form of the distribution of the walker’s position at large times. Although the distribution is intrinsically non-Gaussian in the anomalous diffusion regime, it gradually reverts to normal form when N is large under quite general conditions.

  7. Bounds on the vibrational energy that can be harvested from random base motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of upper bounds on the energy harvesting performance of a general multi-degree-of-freedom nonlinear electromechanical system that is subjected to random base motion and secondary applied periodic forces. The secondary forces are applied with the aim of enhancing the energy harvested from the base motion, and they may constitute direct excitation, or they may produce parametric terms in the equations of motion. It is shown that when the base motion has white noise acceleration then the power input by the base is always πS0 M / 2 where S0 is the single sided spectral density of the acceleration, and M is the mass of the system. This implies that although the secondary forces may enhance the energy harvested by causing a larger fraction of the power input from the base to be harvested rather than dissipated, there is an upper limit on the power that can be harvested. Attention is then turned to narrow band excitation, and it is found that in the absence of secondary forces a bound can be derived for a single degree of freedom system with linear damping and arbitrary nonlinear stiffness. The upper bound on the power input by the base is πM max [ S (ω) ] / 2, where S (ω) is the single sided base acceleration spectrum. The validity of this result for more general systems is found to be related to the properties of the first Wiener kernel, and this issue is explored analytically and by numerical simulation.

  8. Characterization of Non-Linearized Spacecraft Relative Motion using Nonlinear Normal Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    elliptic Keplerian chief orbit in terms of time periodic Nonlinear Normal Modes using the Liapunov-Floquet transformation. If time permits... trajectories using continuous range-only mea- surements in an EKF, an analytical analysis of ambiguous conditions is presented using relative orbital elements...still in the scale of 500 m, the filter successfully keeps the estimated trajectory from diverging. −2 0 2 x 10 4−4 −2 0 2 4 6 8 x 10 4 −2 0 2 x 10 4

  9. Normal human gait patterns in Peruvian individuals: an exploratory assessment using VICON motion capture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongo, R.; Moscoso, M.; Callupe, R.; Pajaya, J.; Elías, D.

    2017-11-01

    Gait analysis is of clinical relevance for clinicians. However, normal gait patterns used in foreign literature could be different from local individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the normal gait patterns and parameters of Peruvian individuals in order to have a local referent for clinical assessments and making diagnosis and treatment Peruvian people with lower motor neuron injuries. A descriptive study with 34 subjects was conducted to assess their gait cycle. VICON® cameras were used to capture body movements. For the analyses, we calculated spatiotemporal gait parameters and average angles of displacement of the hip, knee, and ankle joints with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The results showed gait speed was 0.58m/s, cadence was 102.1steps/min, and the angular displacement of the hip, knee and ankle joints were all lower than those described in the literature. In the graphs, gait cycles were close to those reported in previous studies, but the parameters of speed, cadence and angles of displacements are lower than the ones shown in the literature. These results could be used as a better reference pattern in the clinical setting.

  10. Masking of random-walk motion by flicker, and its role in the allocation of motion in the on-line jitter illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Adela S Y; Bedggood, Phillip A; Metha, Andrew B; Anderson, Andrew J

    2017-08-01

    Typically, perceptual stabilization mechanisms make us unaware of the retinal image motion produced by the small, involuntary eye movements our eyes constantly make during fixation. The breakdown of perceptual stability is demonstrated by the on-line jitter illusion, in which a circular static pattern appears to jitter coherently when surrounded by a flickering annular pattern. Although both regions of the stimulus are subject to retinal motion from eye movements, the visual system attributes this motion to the central static region in the form of visual jitter, while the surrounding flickering region remains perceptually stable. We investigated factors influencing this allocation of motion and reference frame in the on-line jitter illusion. The flickering of the surround was found to impair the detection of simultaneous random-walk motion in this area, giving a detection reliability of around 80% for motion approximating that from fixational eye movements. Changes to spatial texture and location of flicker (centre vs. surrounding annulus) had little effect on the final percept. However, use of a nonconcentric stimulus resulted in a marked reduction in apparent jitter in all subjects. Our results suggest for the on-line jitter illusion, allocation of motion and reference frame is influenced by the general principle that, if one region surrounds another, the surrounding region tends to be allocated as the frame of reference. When this factor is controlled for, spatial textures, location of flicker, and the masking of motion by flicker have a smaller but measurable influence on the final percept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of speech and tongue motion in normal and post-glossectomy speaker using cine MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhee Ha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Since the tongue is the oral structure responsible for mastication, pronunciation, and swallowing functions, patients who undergo glossectomy can be affected in various aspects of these functions. The vowel /i/ uses the tongue shape, whereas /u/ uses tongue and lip shapes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the morphological changes of the tongue and the adaptation of pronunciation using cine MRI for speech of patients who undergo glossectomy. Material and Methods Twenty-three controls (11 males and 12 females and 13 patients (eight males and five females volunteered to participate in the experiment. The patients underwent glossectomy surgery for T1 or T2 lateral lingual tumors. The speech tasks “a souk” and “a geese” were spoken by all subjects providing data for the vowels /u/ and /i/. Cine MRI and speech acoustics were recorded and measured to compare the changes in the tongue with vowel acoustics after surgery. 2D measurements were made of the interlip distance, tongue-palate distance, tongue position (anterior-posterior and superior-inferior, tongue height on the left and right sides, and pharynx size. Vowel formants Fl, F2, and F3 were measured. Results The patients had significantly lower F2/Fl ratios (F=5.911, p=0.018, and lower F3/F1 ratios that approached significance. This was seen primarily in the /u/ data. Patients had flatter tongue shapes than controls with a greater effect seen in /u/ than /i/. Conclusion The patients showed complex adaptation motion in order to preserve the acoustic integrity of the vowels, and the tongue modified cavity size relationships to maintain the value of the formant frequencies.

  12. Analysis of speech and tongue motion in normal and post-glossectomy speaker using cine MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jinhee; Sung, Iel-Yong; Son, Jang-Ho; Stone, Maureen; Ord, Robert; Cho, Yeong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Since the tongue is the oral structure responsible for mastication, pronunciation, and swallowing functions, patients who undergo glossectomy can be affected in various aspects of these functions. The vowel /i/ uses the tongue shape, whereas /u/ uses tongue and lip shapes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the morphological changes of the tongue and the adaptation of pronunciation using cine MRI for speech of patients who undergo glossectomy. Twenty-three controls (11 males and 12 females) and 13 patients (eight males and five females) volunteered to participate in the experiment. The patients underwent glossectomy surgery for T1 or T2 lateral lingual tumors. The speech tasks "a souk" and "a geese" were spoken by all subjects providing data for the vowels /u/ and /i/. Cine MRI and speech acoustics were recorded and measured to compare the changes in the tongue with vowel acoustics after surgery. 2D measurements were made of the interlip distance, tongue-palate distance, tongue position (anterior-posterior and superior-inferior), tongue height on the left and right sides, and pharynx size. Vowel formants Fl, F2, and F3 were measured. The patients had significantly lower F2/Fl ratios (F=5.911, p=0.018), and lower F3/F1 ratios that approached significance. This was seen primarily in the /u/ data. Patients had flatter tongue shapes than controls with a greater effect seen in /u/ than /i/. The patients showed complex adaptation motion in order to preserve the acoustic integrity of the vowels, and the tongue modified cavity size relationships to maintain the value of the formant frequencies.

  13. Random effects modeling of multiple binomial responses using the multivariate binomial logit-normal distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coull, B A; Agresti, A

    2000-03-01

    The multivariate binomial logit-normal distribution is a mixture distribution for which, (i) conditional on a set of success probabilities and sample size indices, a vector of counts is independent binomial variates, and (ii) the vector of logits of the parameters has a multivariate normal distribution. We use this distribution to model multivariate binomial-type responses using a vector of random effects. The vector of logits of parameters has a mean that is a linear function of explanatory variables and has an unspecified or partly specified covariance matrix. The model generalizes and provides greater flexibility than the univariate model that uses a normal random effect to account for positive correlations in clustered data. The multivariate model is useful when different elements of the response vector refer to different characteristics, each of which may naturally have its own random effect. It is also useful for repeated binary measurement of a single response when there is a nonexchangeable association structure, such as one often expects with longitudinal data or when negative association exists for at least one pair of responses. We apply the model to an influenza study with repeated responses in which some pairs are negatively associated and to a developmental toxicity study with continuation-ratio logits applied to an ordinal response with clustered observations.

  14. Spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory technologies for normally off computing (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, K.; Fujita, S.; Ito, J.; Yuasa, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakatani, Y.; Miyazaki, T.; Yoda, H.

    2014-05-01

    Most parts of present computer systems are made of volatile devices, and the power to supply them to avoid information loss causes huge energy losses. We can eliminate this meaningless energy loss by utilizing the non-volatile function of advanced spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory (STT-MRAM) technology and create a new type of computer, i.e., normally off computers. Critical tasks to achieve normally off computers are implementations of STT-MRAM technologies in the main memory and low-level cache memories. STT-MRAM technology for applications to the main memory has been successfully developed by using perpendicular STT-MRAMs, and faster STT-MRAM technologies for applications to the cache memory are now being developed. The present status of STT-MRAMs and challenges that remain for normally off computers are discussed.

  15. LCoMotion - Learning, Cognition and Motion; a multicomponent cluster randomized school-based intervention aimed at increasing learning and cognition - rationale, design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugge, Anna; Tarp, Jakob; Østergaard, Lars; Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Andersen, Lars Bo; Froberg, Karsten

    2014-09-18

    The aim of the study; LCoMotion - Learning, Cognition and Motion was to develop, document, and evaluate a multi-component physical activity (PA) intervention in public schools in Denmark. The primary outcome was cognitive function. Secondary outcomes were academic skills, body composition, aerobic fitness and PA. The primary aim of the present paper was to describe the rationale, design and methods of the LCoMotion study. LCoMotion was designed as a cluster-randomized controlled study. Fourteen schools from all five regions in Denmark participated. All students from 6th and 7th grades were invited to participate (n = 869) and consent was obtained for 87% (n = 759). Baseline measurements were obtained in November/December 2013 and follow-up measurements in May/June 2014. The intervention lasted five months and consisted of a "package" of three main components: PA during academic lessons, PA during recess and PA homework. Furthermore a cycling campaign was conducted during the intervention period. Intervention schools should endeavor to ensure that students were physically active for at least 60 min every school day. Cognitive function was measured by a modified Eriksen flanker task and academic skills by a custom made mathematics test. PA was objectively measured by accelerometers (ActiGraph, GT3X and GT3X+) and aerobic fitness assessed by an intermittent shuttle-run test (the Andersen intermittent running test). Furthermore, compliance with the intervention was assessed by short message service (SMS)-tracking and questionnaires were delivered to students, parents and teachers. LCoMotion has ability to provide new insights on the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention on cognitive function and academic skills in 6th and 7th grade students. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02012881 (10/10/2013).

  16. The induced motion of a probe coupled to a bath with random resettings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Christian; Thiery, Thimothée

    2017-10-01

    We consider a probe linearly coupled to the center of mass of a nonequilibrium bath. We study the induced motion on the probe for a model where a resetting mechanism is added to an overdamped bath dynamics with quadratic potentials. The fact that each bath particle is at random times reset to a fixed position is known for optimizing diffusive search strategies, but here stands for the nonequilibrium aspect of the bath. In the large bath scaling limit the probe is governed by an effective Langevin equation. Depending on the value of the parameters, there appear three regimes: (i) an equilibrium-like regime but with a reduced friction and an increased effective temperature; (ii) a regime where the noise felt by the probe is continuous but non-Gaussian and exhibits fat-tails; (iii) a regime with a non-Gaussian noise exhibiting power-law distributed jumps. The model thus represents an exactly solvable case for the origin of nonequilibrium probe dynamics.

  17. Heave motion prediction of a large barge in random seas by using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiu Eik; Liew, Mohd Shahir; Zawawi, Noor Amila Wan Abdullah; Toloue, Iraj

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the development of a multi-layer feed forward artificial neural network (ANN) to predict rigid heave body motions of a large catenary moored barge subjected to multi-directional irregular waves. The barge is idealized as a rigid plate of finite draft with planar dimensions 160m (length) and 100m (width) which is held on station using a six point chain catenary mooring in 50m water depth. Hydroelastic effects are neglected from the physical model as the chief intent of this study is focused on large plate rigid body hydrodynamics modelling using ANN. Even with this assumption, the computational requirements for time domain coupled hydrodynamic simulations of a moored floating body is considerably costly, particularly if a large number of simulations are required such as in the case of response based design (RBD) methods. As an alternative to time consuming numerical hydrodynamics, a regression-type ANN model has been developed for efficient prediction of the barge's heave responses to random waves from various directions. It was determined that a network comprising of 3 input features, 2 hidden layers with 5 neurons each and 1 output was sufficient to produce acceptable predictions within 0.02 mean squared error. By benchmarking results from the ANN with those generated by a fully coupled dynamic model in OrcaFlex, it is demonstrated that the ANN is capable of predicting the barge's heave responses with acceptable accuracy.

  18. Phase shifting interferometry from two normalized interferograms with random tilt phase-shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengwei; Wu, Yongqian; Wu, Fan

    2015-07-27

    We propose a novel phase shifting interferometry from two normalized interferograms with random tilt phase-shift. The determination of tilt phase-shift is performed by extracting the tilted phase-shift plane from the phase difference of two normalized interferograms, and with the calculated tilt phase-shift value the phase distribution can be retrieved from the two normalized frames. By analyzing the distribution of phase difference and utilizing special points fitting method, the tilted phase-shift plane is extracted in three different cases, which relate to different magnitudes of tilts. Proposed method has been applied to simulations and experiments successfully and the satisfactory results manifest that proposed method is of high accuracy and high speed compared with the three step iterative method. Additionally, both open and closed fringe can be analyzed with proposed method. What's more, it cannot only eliminate the small tilt-shift error caused by slight vibration in phase-shifting interferometry, but also detect the large tilt phase-shift in phase-tilting interferometry. Thus, it will relaxes the requirements on the accuracy of phase shifter, and the costly phase shifter may even be useless by applying proposed method in high amplitude vibrated circumstance to achieve high-precision analysis.

  19. A Method to Transit the Rotor-to-Stator Rubbing to Normal Motion Using the Phase Characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiong Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A method is proposed to transit the rotor-to-stator rubbing to no-rub motion through active auxiliary bearing. The key point of this technique is to express the attractive domain of no-rub motion based on the phase characteristic and to represent the desired status. The feedback actuation is applied by an active auxiliary bearing to drive the rotor approaching the desired status. After that, the control actuation is turned off. Although the desired status is still in rubbing, it is in the attractive domain of no-rub motion, and the response of the rotor is automatically attracted to no-rub motion.

  20. Lundquist Number Scaling of Solar Coronal Heating Due to Random Photospheric Footpoint Motion in a Three-Dimensional Tectonics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L.; Ng, C. S.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2008-11-01

    We have recently obtained new scaling results in 2D for a ``tectonics model'' of coronal heating which suggest that the heating rate becomes independent of resistivity in a statistical steady state [Ng & Bhattacharjee, Astrophys. J., 675, 899 (2008)]. Here we extend our 2D results to 3D by means of numerical simulations. Random photospheric footpoint motion is applied for a time much longer than the correlation time to obtain converged average coronal heating rates. Simulations are done for different values of the Lundquist number to determine scaling. In the large Lundquist number limit, we recover the case in which the heating rate is independent of the Lundquist number, predicted by previous analysis as well as 2D simulations. In the same limit the average magnetic energy built up by the random footpoint motion saturates at a constant level, apparently limited by nonlinear processes, such as instabilities and/or magnetic reconnection.

  1. Auricular Acupressure for Managing Postoperative Pain and Knee Motion in Patients with Total Knee Replacement: A Randomized Sham Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-hua Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Postoperative pain management remains a significant challenge for all healthcare providers. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the adjuvant effects of auricular acupressure on relieving postoperative pain and improving the passive range of motion in patients with total knee replacement (TKR. Method. Sixty-two patients who had undergone a TKR were randomly assigned to the acupressure group and the sham control group. The intervention was delivered three times a day for 3 days. A visual analog scale (VAS and the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire were used to assess pain intensity. Pain medication consumption was recorded, and the knee motion was measured using a goniometer. Results. The patients experienced a moderately severe level of pain postoperatively (VAS 58.66 ± 20.35 while being on the routine PCA. No differences were found in pain scores between the groups at all points. However, analgesic drug usage in the acupressure group patients was significantly lower than in the sham control group (<0.05, controlling for BMI, age, and pain score. On the 3rd day after surgery, the passive knee motion in the acupressure group patients was significantly better than in the sham control group patients (<0.05, controlling for BMI. Conclusion. The application of auricular acupressure at specific therapeutic points significantly reduces the opioid analgesia requirement and improves the knee motion in patients with TKR.

  2. Analysis of Functional Motions in Brownian Molecular Machines with an Efficient Block Normal Mode Approach: Myosin-II and Ca2+-ATPase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guohui; Cui, Qiang

    2004-01-01

    The structural flexibilities of two molecular machines, myosin and Ca2+-ATPase, have been analyzed with normal mode analysis and discussed in the context of their energy conversion functions. The normal mode analysis with physical intermolecular interactions was made possible by an improved implementation of the block normal mode (BNM) approach. The BNM results clearly illustrated that the large-scale conformational transitions implicated in the functional cycles of the two motor systems can be largely captured with a small number of low-frequency normal modes. Therefore, the results support the idea that structural flexibility is an essential part of the construction principle of molecular motors through evolution. Such a feature is expected to be more prevalent in motor proteins than in simpler systems (e.g., signal transduction proteins) because in the former, large-scale conformational transitions often have to occur before the chemical events (e.g., ATP hydrolysis in myosin and ATP binding/phosphorylation in Ca2+-ATPase). This highlights the importance of Brownian motions associated with the protein domains that are involved in the functional transitions; in this sense, Brownian molecular machines is an appropriate description of molecular motors, although the normal mode results do not address the origin of the ratchet effect. The results also suggest that it might be more appropriate to describe functional transitions in some molecular motors as intrinsic elastic motions modulating local structural changes in the active site, which in turn gets stabilized by the subsequent chemical events, in contrast with the conventional idea of local changes somehow getting amplified into larger-scale motions. In the case of myosin, for example, we favor the idea that Brownian motions associated with the flexible converter propagates to the Switch I/II region, where the salt-bridge formation gets stabilized by ATP hydrolysis, in contrast with the textbook notion that ATP

  3. 3% Hypertonic Saline Versus Normal Saline in Inpatient Bronchiolitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Alyssa H; Esteban-Cruciani, Nora; Azzarone, Gabriella; Douglas, Lindsey C; Lee, Diana S; Liewehr, Sheila; Nazif, Joanne M; Agalliu, Ilir; Villegas, Susan; Rhim, Hai Jung H; Rinke, Michael L; O'Connor, Katherine

    2015-12-01

    Bronchiolitis, the most common reason for hospitalization in children younger than 1 year in the United States, has no proven therapies effective beyond supportive care. We aimed to investigate the effect of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline (HS) compared with nebulized normal saline (NS) on length of stay (LOS) in infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial in an urban tertiary care children's hospital in 227 infants younger than 12 months old admitted with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis (190 completed the study); 113 infants were randomized to HS (93 completed the study), and 114 to NS (97 completed the study). Subjects received 4 mL nebulized 3% HS or 4 mL 0.9% NS every 4 hours from enrollment until hospital discharge. The primary outcome was median LOS. Secondary outcomes were total adverse events, subdivided as clinical worsening and readmissions. Patient characteristics were similar in groups. In intention-to-treat analysis, median LOS (interquartile range) of HS and NS groups was 2.1 (1.2-4.6) vs 2.1 days (1.2-3.8), respectively, P = .73. We confirmed findings with per-protocol analysis, HS and NS groups with 2.0 (1.3-3.3) and 2.0 days (1.2-3.0), respectively, P = .96. Seven-day readmission rate for HS and NS groups were 4.3% and 3.1%, respectively, P = .77. Clinical worsening events were similar between groups (9% vs 8%, P = .97). Among infants admitted to the hospital with bronchiolitis, treatment with nebulized 3% HS compared with NS had no difference in LOS or 7-day readmission rates. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT THERAPUTIC TECHINQUES ON HAMSTRING FLEXBILITY IN NORMAL ADULTS: RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa I. Amin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hamstring muscles involve a rate of intense musculoskeletal injuries. Hamstring flexibility, shorting, and exhaustion are hazard variables connected with hamstring strain. Enhanced flexibility has for quite some time been viewed as an imperative part in anticipation of musculotendinous strain. Expanding hamstring flexibility can assume a vital part in counteracting lower furthest point injuries. In any case, few research has been performed on the best technique. This study was conducted to correlate the effect of different therapeutic techniques (active release, muscle energy and Mulligan on increasing hamstring flexibility. Methods: Fifty seven normal healthy male subjects with hamstring tightness were assigned randomly to one of the four study groups: Group (113subjects received active release technique. Group (215subjects received muscle energy technique. Group (3 12subjects received Mulligan’s technique. Group (417subjects did not get any intercession. Popliteal angle (active knee extension test and sit-reach flexibility test were measured pre and post the intervention period. Results: MANOVA test for active knee extension test and sit-reach test among the four groups for post intervention values there was no significant difference between Group 1 and Group 2 in the post values of AKE with both groups showed significant increases than Group 3. Group 1 versus Group 3: p < 0.0001, CI: 3.5-11.8; Group 2 versus Group 3: p < 0.0001, CI: 4.6-12.8. Conclusion: It can be reasoned that both active release and muscle energy techniques have similar impact in enhancing hamstring flexibility than Mulligan technique in normal male adults.

  5. The effects of solvent on the conformation and the collective motions of protein: Normal mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulations of melittin in water and in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitao, Akio; Hirata, Fumio; Gō, Nobuhiro

    1991-12-01

    The effects of solvent on the conformation and dynamics of protein is studied by computer simulation. The dynamics is studied by focusing mainly on collective motions of the protein molecule. Three types of simulation, normal mode analysis, molecular dynamics in vacuum, and molecular dynamics in water are applied to melittin, the major component of bee venom. To define collective motions principal, component analysis as well as normal mode analysis has been carried out. The principal components with large fluctuation amplitudes have a very good correspondence with the low-frequency normal modes. Trajectories of the molecular dynamics simulation are projected onto the principal axes. From the projected motions time correlation functions are calculated. The results indicate that the very-low-frequency modes, whose frequencies are less than ≈ 50 cm -1, are overdamping in water with relaxation times roushly twice as long as the period of the oscillatory motion. Effective Langevin mode analysis is carried out by using the friction coefficient matrix determined from the velocity correlation function calculated from the molecular dynamics trajectory in water. This analysis reproduces the results of the simulation in water reasonably well. The presence of the solvent water is found also to affect the shape of the potential energy surface in such a way that it produces many local minima with low-energy barriers in between, the envelope of which is given by the surface in vacuum. Inter-minimum transitions endow the conformational dynamics of proteins in water another diffusive character, which already exists in the intra-minimum collective motions.

  6. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on verbal aggressiveness in normal healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Sudheer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of yoga on verbal aggressiveness in normal healthy adults. Methods : Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects of both sexes who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. These 226 subjects were between the ages of 17 and 62 years and 173/226 completed the eight weeks of intervention. The Yoga (Y group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction, and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE. Both groups had supervised practices (by trained experts for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Verbal Aggressiveness was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Verbal Aggressive Scale. Results : The baseline score of the two groups did not differ significantly ( P = 0.66. There was a significant decrease in verbal aggressiveness in the yoga group ( P = 0.01 paired samples t-test with a nonsignificant increase in the PE group. ANCOVA using pre- values as covariates showed a significant difference between the groups ( P = 0.013. RMANOVA for interaction between the sexes or age groups in change scores were not significant. Conclusions : This study has demonstrated that an eight week intervention of an integrated yoga module decreased verbal aggressiveness in the yoga group (in males and those below 25 years of age, with a nonsignificant increase in the PE group.

  7. Brownian Motion in a Weyl Chamber, Non-Colliding Particles, and Random Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Grabiner, David J.

    1997-01-01

    Let $n$ particles move in standard Brownian motion in one dimension, with the process terminating if two particles collide. This is a specific case of Brownian motion constrained to stay inside a Weyl chamber; the Weyl group for this chamber is $A_{n-1}$, the symmetric group. For any starting positions, we compute a determinant formula for the density function for the particles to be at specified positions at time $t$ without having collided by time $t$. We show that the probability that ther...

  8. (Ab)normal saline and physiological Hartmann's solution: a randomized double-blind crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Fiona; Lobo, Dileep N; Williams, Robert N; Rowlands, Brian J; Allison, Simon P

    2003-01-01

    In this double-blind crossover study, the effects of bolus infusions of 0.9% saline (NaCl) and Hartmann's solution on serum albumin, haematocrit and serum and urinary biochemistry were compared in healthy subjects. Nine young adult male volunteers received 2-litre intravenous infusions of 0.9% saline and Hartmann's solution on separate occasions, in random order, each over 1 h. Body weight, haematocrit and serum biochemistry were measured pre-infusion and at 1 h intervals for 6 h. Biochemical analysis was performed on pooled post-infusion urine. Blood and plasma volume expansion, estimated by dilutional effects on haematocrit and serum albumin, were greater and more sustained after saline than after Hartmann's solution (P Hartmann's solution. Subjects voided more urine (median: 1,000 compared with 450 ml) of higher sodium content (median: 122 compared with 73 mmol) after Hartmann's than after saline (both P =0.049), despite the greater sodium content of the latter. The time to first micturition was less after Hartmann's than after saline (median: 70 compared with 185 min; P =0.008). There were no significant differences between the effects of the two solutions on serum sodium, potassium, urea or osmolality. After saline, all subjects developed hyperchloraemia (>105 mmol/l), which was sustained for >6 h, while serum chloride concentrations remained normal after Hartmann's (P Hartmann's solution, due possibly to the more physiological [Na(+)]/[Cl(-)] ratio in Hartmann's solution (1.18:1) than in saline (1:1) and to the hyperchloraemia caused by saline.

  9. Effect of Continuous Motion Parameter Feedback on Laparoscopic Simulation Training: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial on Skill Acquisition and Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buescher, Julian Frederik; Mehdorn, Anne-Sophie; Neumann, Philipp-Alexander; Becker, Felix; Eichelmann, Ann-Kathrin; Pankratius, Ulrich; Bahde, Ralf; Foell, Daniel; Senninger, Norbert; Rijcken, Emile

    2017-08-29

    To investigate the effect of motion parameter feedback on laparoscopic basic skill acquisition and retention during a standardized box training curriculum. A Lap-X Hybrid laparoscopic simulator was designed to provide individual and continuous motion parameter feedback in a dry box trainer setting. In a prospective controlled trial, surgical novices were randomized into 2 groups (regular box group, n = 18, and Hybrid group, n = 18) to undergo an identical 5-day training program. In each group, 7 standardized tasks on laparoscopic basic skills were completed twice a day on 4 consecutive days in fixed pairs. Additionally, each participant performed a simulated standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy before (day 1) and after training (day 5) on a LAP Mentor II virtual reality (VR) trainer, allowing an independent control of skill progress in both groups. A follow-up assessment of skill retention was performed after 6 weeks with repetition of both the box tasks and VR cholecystectomy. Muenster University Hospital Training Center, Muenster, Germany. Medical students without previous surgical experience. Laparoscopic skills in both groups improved significantly during the training period, measured by the overall task performance time. The 6 week follow-up showed comparable skill retention in both groups. Evaluation of the VR cholecystectomies demonstrated significant decrease of operation time (p skill retention. Simulation training on both trainers enables reliable acquisition of laparoscopic basic skills. Furthermore, individual and continuous motion feedback improves laparoscopic skill enhancement significantly in several aspects. Thus, training systems with feedback of motion parameters should be considered to achieve long-term improvement of motion economy among surgical trainees. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Should ground-motion records be rotated to fault-normal/parallel or maximum direction for response history analysis of buildings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Juan C.; Kalkan, Erol

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, regulatory seismic codes (for example, California Building Code) require at least two sets of horizontal ground-motion components for three-dimensional (3D) response history analysis (RHA) of building structures. For sites within 5 kilometers (3.1 miles) of an active fault, these records should be rotated to fault-normal and fault-parallel (FN/FP) directions, and two RHAs should be performed separately—when FN and then FP direction are aligned with transverse direction of the building axes. This approach is assumed to lead to two sets of responses that envelope the range of possible responses over all nonredundant rotation angles. The validity of this assumption is examined here using 3D computer models of single-story structures having symmetric (torsionally stiff) and asymmetric (torsionally flexible) layouts subjected to an ensemble of near-fault ground motions with and without apparent velocity pulses. In this parametric study, the elastic vibration period is varied from 0.2 to 5 seconds, and yield-strength reduction factors, R, are varied from a value that leads to linear-elastic design to 3 and 5. Further validations are performed using 3D computer models of 9-story structures having symmetric and asymmetric layouts subjected to the same ground-motion set. The influence of the ground-motion rotation angle on several engineering demand parameters (EDPs) is examined in both linear-elastic and nonlinear-inelastic domains to form benchmarks for evaluating the use of the FN/FP directions and also the maximum direction (MD). The MD ground motion is a new definition for horizontal ground motions for use in site-specific ground-motion procedures for seismic design according to provisions of the American Society of Civil Engineers/Seismic Engineering Institute (ASCE/SEI) 7-10. The results of this study have important implications for current practice, suggesting that ground motions rotated to MD or FN/FP directions do not necessarily provide

  11. Adjacent segment motion after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion versus Prodisc-c cervical total disk arthroplasty: analysis from a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P; Mok, James M; Frisch, Richard F; Tay, Bobby K

    2011-07-01

    Post hoc analysis of data acquired in a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. To compare adjacent segment motion after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) versus cervical total disc arthroplasty (TDA). TDA has been designed to be a motion-preserving device, thus theoretically normalizing adjacent segment kinematics. Clinical studies with short-term follow-up have yet to demonstrate a consistent significant difference in the incidence of adjacent segment disease. Two hundred nine patients at 13 sites were treated in a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of ACDF versus TDA for single-level symptomatic cervical degenerative disc disease (SCDD). Flexion and extension radiographs were obtained at all follow-up visits. Changes in ROM were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Predictors of postoperative ROM were determined by multivariate analysis using mixed effects linear regression. Data for 199 patients were available with 24-month follow-up. The groups were similar with respect to baseline demographics. A significant increase in motion at the cranial and caudal adjacent segments after surgery was observed in the ACDF group only (cranial: ACDF: +1.4° (0.4, 2.4), P = 0.01; TDA: +0.8°, (-0.1, +1.7), P = 0.166; caudal: ACDF: +2.6° (1.3, 3.9), P TDA: +1.3, (-0.2, +2.8), P = 0.359). No significant difference in adjacent segment ROM was observed between ACDF and TDA. Only time was a significant predictor of postoperative ROM at both the cranial and caudal adjacent segments. Adjacent segment kinematics may be altered after ACDF and TDA. Multivariate analysis showed time to be a significant predictor of changes in adjacent segment ROM. No association between the treatment chosen (ACDF vs. TDA) and ROM was observed. Furthermore clinical follow-up is needed to determine whether possible differences in adjacent segment motion affect the prevalence of adjacent segment disease in the two groups.

  12. Hip range-of-motion (ROM) is less than normal after rotational acetabular osteotomy for developmental dysplasia of the hip: A simulated ROM analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Hidetoshi; Takao, Masaki; Nakahara, Ichiro; Sakai, Takashi; Nishii, Takashi; Sugano, Nobuhiko

    2016-02-01

    The optimal reorientation of the acetabulum for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is unknown in terms of hip range-of-motion (ROM). The simulated ROMs of 52 DDHs after rotational acetabular osteotomy (RAO) with several patterns of femoral head coverage and those of 73 normal hips were analyzed using computer models reconstructed from CT images. After RAO with a lateral center edge angle (LCEA) of 30° and an anterior center edge angle (ACEA) of 55° producing coverage similar to that of normal hips, the maximal flexion and maximal internal rotation at 110° flexion with 20° adduction were significantly smaller than those of the normal group. To achieve ROMs after RAO similar to those of the normal group, an LCEA of 30° with an ACEA of 45°, an LCEA of 25° with an ACEA of 45° to 50°, and an LCEA of 20° with an ACEA of 50° could be preferred angles to target, even though they provided smaller coverage than that of normal hips. After RAO producing femoral head coverage similar to that of normal hips, the maximal flexion and the maximal internal rotation at 110° flexion with 20° adduction were significantly smaller than those of the normal group. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Rehabilitation following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a prospective randomized trial of immobilization compared with early motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, Jay D; Galatz, Leesa M; Stobbs-Cucchi, Georgia; Patton, Rebecca; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The influence of rehabilitation on the outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical results and tendon healing rates following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair utilizing two distinct rehabilitation protocols. Over a thirty-month period, 124 patients under the age of sixty-five years underwent arthroscopic repair of a full-thickness rotator cuff tear measuring rehabilitation program with early range of motion or to an immobilization group with delayed range of motion for six weeks. Clinical outcomes assessment included visual analog pain scale score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Simple Shoulder Test (SST), relative Constant score, and strength measurements at six, twelve, and twenty-four months. Tendon integrity was assessed with ultrasonography at a minimum of twelve months postoperatively. There were no significant differences in patient age, tear size, or measures of preoperative function between groups at baseline. Final clinical follow-up was available for 114 subjects (92%). Active elevation and external rotation were better in the traditional rehabilitation group at three months. No significant differences were seen in functional scores, active motion, and shoulder strength between rehabilitation groups at later time points. Functional outcomes plateaued at six or twelve months except for the relative Constant score, which improved up to twenty-four months following surgery. Ninety-two percent of the tears were healed, with no difference between rehabilitation protocols (p = 0.46). Arthroscopic repair of small and medium full-thickness rotator cuff tears results in reliable improvements in clinical outcomes and a high rate of tendon integrity using a double-row repair technique in patients under the age of sixty-five years. There is no apparent advantage or disadvantage of early passive range of motion compared with immobilization with regard to healing or functional

  14. Acute changes of hip joint range of motion using selected clinical stretching procedures: A randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Adam M; Hammer, Roger L; Lomond, Karen V; O'Connor, Paul

    2017-09-01

    Hip adductor flexibility and strength is an important component of athletic performance and many activities of daily living. Little research has been done on the acute effects of a single session of stretching on hip abduction range of motion (ROM). The aim of this study was to compare 3 clinical stretching procedures against passive static stretching and control on ROM and peak isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Using a randomized crossover study design, a total of 40 participants (20 male and 20 female) who had reduced hip adductor muscle length attended a familiarization session and 5 testing sessions on non-consecutive days. Following the warm-up and pre-intervention measures of ROM and MVC, participants were randomly assigned 1 of 3 clinical stretching procedures (modified lunge, multidirectional, and joint mobilization) or a static stretch or control condition. Post-intervention measures of ROM and MVC were taken immediately following completion of the assigned condition. An ANOVA using a repeated measure design with the change score was conducted. All interventions resulted in small but statistically significant (p stretching was greater than control (p = 0.031). These data suggest that a single session of stretching has only a minimal effect on acute changes of hip abduction ROM. Although hip abduction is a frontal plane motion, to effectively increase the extensibility of the structures that limit abduction, integrating multi-planar stretches may be indicated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Marginal Distributions of Random Vectors Generated by Affine Transformations of Independent Two-Piece Normal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiano Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marginal probability density and cumulative distribution functions are presented for multidimensional variables defined by nonsingular affine transformations of vectors of independent two-piece normal variables, the most important subclass of Ferreira and Steel's general multivariate skewed distributions. The marginal functions are obtained by first expressing the joint density as a mixture of Arellano-Valle and Azzalini's unified skew-normal densities and then using the property of closure under marginalization of the latter class.

  16. Marginal Distributions of Random Vectors Generated by Affine Transformations of Independent Two-Piece Normal Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Maximiano Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    Marginal probability density and cumulative distribution functions are presented for multidimensional variables defined by nonsingular affine transformations of vectors of independent two-piece normal variables, the most important subclass of Ferreira and Steel's general multivariate skewed distributions. The marginal functions are obtained by first expressing the joint density as a mixture of Arellano-Valle and Azzalini's unified skew-normal densities and then using the property of closure u...

  17. Evaluation of fault-normal/fault-parallel directions rotated ground motions for response history analysis of an instrumented six-story building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Kwong, Neal S.

    2012-01-01

    According to regulatory building codes in United States (for example, 2010 California Building Code), at least two horizontal ground-motion components are required for three-dimensional (3D) response history analysis (RHA) of buildings. For sites within 5 km of an active fault, these records should be rotated to fault-normal/fault-parallel (FN/FP) directions, and two RHA analyses should be performed separately (when FN and then FP are aligned with the transverse direction of the structural axes). It is assumed that this approach will lead to two sets of responses that envelope the range of possible responses over all nonredundant rotation angles. This assumption is examined here using a 3D computer model of a six-story reinforced-concrete instrumented building subjected to an ensemble of bidirectional near-fault ground motions. Peak responses of engineering demand parameters (EDPs) were obtained for rotation angles ranging from 0° through 180° for evaluating the FN/FP directions. It is demonstrated that rotating ground motions to FN/FP directions (1) does not always lead to the maximum responses over all angles, (2) does not always envelope the range of possible responses, and (3) does not provide maximum responses for all EDPs simultaneously even if it provides a maximum response for a specific EDP.

  18. Randomized Clinical Trial with e-MotionalTraining® 1.0 for Social Cognition Rehabilitation in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Maroño Souto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSchizophrenia patients present deficits in social cognition (SC, emotion and social perception, theory of mind (ToM, and attributional style. This study tested the efficacy, in real clinical conditions, of a online self-training program in SC, e-Motional Training®, in comparison with treatment as usual.MethodA randomized single-blinded multicenter clinical trial was conducted with 60 schizophrenia stable outpatients. All patients (control and intervention were treated with drug therapy, case management, and individual and group psychotherapy (not focused on SC. Intervention group was treated with e-Motional Training®, an online program devised for SC rehabilitation.Statistical analysisA descriptive analysis and parametric/non-parametric tests were used to compare both groups at baseline. Analysis of covariance was used to compared post–pre changes in SC between the two interventions. If the group effect was significant, follow-up univariate test (t-test for dependent samples was carried out in each group to verify whether the effect was due to improvement in the intervention group or deterioration in the control group. We considered statistically significant differences with P < 0.05.ResultsSignificant improvements were obtained in the intervention group in emotion recognition and most ToM variables in comparison with the control group.Discussione-Motional Training® seems to be a promising online training tool for SC deficits in schizophrenia, covering the lack of similar intervention instruments in our community.

  19. Radio Frequency Signal Reception Via Distributed Wirelessly Networked Sensors Under Random Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    array with % a desired aim point, then modifies element location in one dimension % while holding alpha (weight factor) constant. % % Array makeup ...1); beta=(1-average)*((average*(1-average)/variance)-1); fx =(gamma(alpha+beta)/(gamma(alpha)*gamma(beta)))*... (bins.^(alpha-1)).*((1-bins...beta-1)); stem(bins,histogram/max(histogram)) hold on plot(bins, fx /max( fx ),’r’) hold off xlabel(’Transmission Factor Bins’) ylabel(’Normalized

  20. The Stochastic Galerkin Method for Darcy Flow Problem with Log-Normal Random

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beres, Michal; Domesová, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2017), s. 267-279 ISSN 1336-1376 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LQ1602 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Darcy flow * Gaussian random field * Karhunen-Loeve decomposition * polynomial chaos * Stochastic Galerkin method Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://advances.utc.sk/index.php/AEEE/article/view/2280

  1. On the Distribution of Norm of Vector Projection and Rejection of Two Complex Normal Random Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Maleki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vector projection and vector rejection are highly common and useful operations in mathematics, information theory, and signal processing. In this paper, we find the distribution of the norm of projection and rejection vectors when the original vectors are standard complex normally distributed.

  2. Process convergence of self-normalized sums of i.i.d. random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which is in the spirit of [9]. For an alternate proof, see Appendix 2. Lemma 1. If X ∈ DA(α), then Y = sgn(X)|X|α/2 ∈ DAN. We also quote a theorem due to [4] that will be used later. Theorem 1. The following statements are equivalent: (1) EX = 0 and X is in the domain of attraction of the normal law. (2) S[nt0]/Vn,2 → N(0, t0) for ...

  3. Diversity and survival of artificial lifeforms under sedimentation and random motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glade, Nicolas; Bastien, Olivier; Ballet, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    Cellular automata are often used to explore the numerous possible scenarios of what could have occurred at the origins of life and before, during the prebiotic ages, when very simple molecules started to assemble and organise into larger catalytic or informative structures, or to simulate ecosystems. Artificial self-maintained spatial structures emerge in cellular automata and are often used to represent molecules or living organisms. They converge generally towards homogeneous stationary soups of still-life creatures. It is hard for an observer to believe they are similar to living systems, in particular because nothing is moving anymore within such simulated environments after few computation steps, because they present isotropic spatial organisation, because the diversity of self-maintained morphologies is poor, and because when stationary states are reached the creatures are immortal. Natural living systems, on the contrary, are composed of a high diversity of creatures in interaction having limited lifetimes and generally present a certain anisotropy of their spatial organisation, in particular frontiers and interfaces. In the present work, we propose that the presence of directional weak fields such as gravity may counter-balance the excess of mixing and disorder caused by Brownian motion and favour the appearance of specific regions, i.e. different strata or environmental layers, in which physical-chemical conditions favour the emergence and the survival of self-maintained spatial structures including living systems. We test this hypothesis by way of numerical simulations of a very simplified ecosystem model. We use the well-known Game of Life to which we add rules simulating both sedimentation forces and thermal agitation. We show that this leads to more active (vitality and biodiversity) and robust (survival) dynamics. This effectively suggests that coupling such physical processes to reactive systems allows the separation of environments into different

  4. A computer graphic-based angiographic model for normal left ventricular contraction in man and its application to the detection of abnormalities in regional wall motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepertycki, T H; Morton, B C

    1983-12-01

    Analyzing the digitized left ventricular cineangiograms of 70 patients with no demonstrable heart disease (NDHD), we derived an angiographic model for normal contraction in the intact heart as viewed in the 30 degree right anterior oblique projection. This model was verified statistically by comparing the predicted regional stroke volumes with the measured volumes for the NDHD group. A wall motion system based on this model was compared with four other systems by examining the ventriculograms of 141 patients, all suffering from coronary artery disease but with normal volumes and ejection fractions (greater than 0.61). Of these, 60 had normally contracting ventricles and 81 exhibited mild regional abnormalities according to two experienced angiographers. Using Cochrane's Q test, we found significant differences among the five methods (Q = 29.5;p less than .001). The new approach showed significantly better agreement with the subjective assessment than the next best method (Q = 5.3;p less than .05). On a regional basis, overall sensitivity was 87.5% and specificity was 97.9%.

  5. Multivariate non-normally distributed random variables in climate research – introduction to the copula approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Friederichs

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Probability distributions of multivariate random variables are generally more complex compared to their univariate counterparts which is due to a possible nonlinear dependence between the random variables. One approach to this problem is the use of copulas, which have become popular over recent years, especially in fields like econometrics, finance, risk management, or insurance. Since this newly emerging field includes various practices, a controversial discussion, and vast field of literature, it is difficult to get an overview. The aim of this paper is therefore to provide an brief overview of copulas for application in meteorology and climate research. We examine the advantages and disadvantages compared to alternative approaches like e.g. mixture models, summarize the current problem of goodness-of-fit (GOF tests for copulas, and discuss the connection with multivariate extremes. An application to station data shows the simplicity and the capabilities as well as the limitations of this approach. Observations of daily precipitation and temperature are fitted to a bivariate model and demonstrate, that copulas are valuable complement to the commonly used methods.

  6. MissMech: An R Package for Testing Homoscedasticity, Multivariate Normality, and Missing Completely at Random (MCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortaza Jamshidian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are often faced with analyzing data sets that are not complete. To prop- erly analyze such data sets requires the knowledge of the missing data mechanism. If data are missing completely at random (MCAR, then many missing data analysis techniques lead to valid inference. Thus, tests of MCAR are desirable. The package MissMech implements two tests developed by Jamshidian and Jalal (2010 for this purpose. These tests can be run using a function called TestMCARNormality. One of the tests is valid if data are normally distributed, and another test does not require any distributional assumptions for the data. In addition to testing MCAR, in some special cases, the function TestMCARNormality is also able to test whether data have a multivariate normal distribution. As a bonus, the functions in MissMech can also be used for the following additional tasks: (i test of homoscedasticity for several groups when data are completely observed, (ii perform the k-sample test of Anderson-Darling to determine whether k groups of univariate data come from the same distribution, (iii impute incomplete data sets using two methods, one where normality is assumed and one where no specific distributional assumptions are made, (iv obtain normal-theory maximum likelihood estimates for mean and covariance matrix when data are incomplete, along with their standard errors, and finally (v perform the Neymans test of uniformity. All of these features are explained in the paper, including examples.

  7. Reversibility of stress-echo induced ST-segment depression by long-term oral n-3 PUFA supplementation in subjects with chest pain syndrome, normal wall motion at stress-echo and normal coronary angiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziacchi Vigilio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normal coronary arteries may coexist with abnormal coronary and systemic endothelial function in patients with chest pain. Recent work by the renowned Pisa echo-group elegantly suggests that isolated ST-segment depression during stress-echo (SE can be used as a marker of coronary endothelial dysfunction, in the absence of stress-inducible wall motion abnormalities and in the absence of angiographically-significant coronary artery disease (CAD. The long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been reported to possess several properties that may positively influence vascular function. The present study's hypothesis is that a 4 month-course of oral supplementation with n-3 PUFAs can reverse endothelial dysfunction. Methods Subjects were selected on the basis of the following criteria: 1 reported chest pain syndrome, 2 significant ST-segment depression during an otherwise normal SE, 3 absence of angiographically-significant CAD. Subjects underwent a 4-month course of oral supplementation with commercially available n-3 PUFA, 1 g once a day. Normalization of endothelial dysfunction was defined, at the end of the supplementation period, by the absence of significant ST-segment depression during repeat SE. We tested the aforementioned hypothesis in a very small series of consecutive subjects, with the intent to produce a hypothesis-generating study. Results Seven out of the total nine subjects enrolled (77.8% had normal ST-segment during repeat SE performed after the 4 month course of therapy. Conclusions A striking rate of reversion of SE-induced ST-segment depression after oral n-3 PUFAs suggests reversion of coronary endothelial dysfunction; nonetheless these data need to be validated in larger, placebo-controlled studies.

  8. Whole-body strength training with Huber Motion Lab and traditional strength training in cardiac rehabilitation: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraud, Thibaut; Labrunée, Marc; Besnier, Florent; Sénard, Jean-Michel; Pillard, Fabien; Rivière, Daniel; Richard, Lisa; Laroche, Davy; Sanguignol, Frédéric; Pathak, Atul; Gayda, Mathieu; Gremeaux, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Isometric strengthening has been rarely studied in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), mainly because of possible potential side effects and lack of appropriate and reliable devices. We aimed to compare 2 different modes of resistance training, an isometric mode with the Huber Motion Lab (HML) and traditional strength training (TST), in CHD patients undergoing a cardiac rehabilitation program. We randomly assigned 50 patients to HML or TST. Patients underwent complete blinded evaluation before and after the rehabilitation program, including testing for cardiopulmonary exercise, maximal isometric voluntary contraction, endothelial function and body composition. After 4 weeks of training (16 sessions), the groups did not differ in body composition, anthropometric characteristics, or endothelial function. With HML, peak power output (P=0.035), maximal heart rate (P<0.01) and gain of force measured in the chest press position (P<0.02) were greater after versus before training. Both protocols appeared to be well tolerated, safe and feasible for these CHD patients. A training protocol involving 6s phases of isometric contractions with 10s of passive recovery on an HML device could be safely implemented in rehabilitation programs for patients with CHD and improve functional outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Disentangling random thermal motion of particles and collective expansion of source from transverse momentum spectra in high energy collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hua-Rong; Liu, Fu-Hu; Lacey, Roy A.

    2016-12-01

    In the framework of a multisource thermal model, we describe experimental results of the transverse momentum spectra of final-state light flavor particles produced in gold-gold (Au-Au), copper-copper (Cu-Cu), lead-lead (Pb-Pb), proton-lead (p-Pb), and proton-proton (p -p) collisions at various energies, measured by the PHENIX, STAR, ALICE, and CMS Collaborations, by using the Tsallis-standard (Tsallis form of Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein), Tsallis, and two- or three-component standard distributions which can be in fact regarded as different types of ‘thermometers’ or ‘thermometric scales’ and ‘speedometers’. A central parameter in the three distributions is the effective temperature which contains information on the kinetic freeze-out temperature of the emitting source and reflects the effects of random thermal motion of particles as well as collective expansion of the source. To disentangle both effects, we extract the kinetic freeze-out temperature from the intercept of the effective temperature (T) curve as a function of particle’s rest mass (m 0) when plotting T versus m 0, and the mean transverse flow velocity from the slope of the mean transverse momentum ( ) curve as a function of mean moving mass (\\overline{m}) when plotting versus \\overline{m}.

  10. A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial With Magnesium Oxide to Reduce Intrafraction Prostate Motion for Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lips, Irene M., E-mail: i.m.lips@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gils, Carla H. van [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kotte, Alexis N.T.J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Leerdam, Monique E. van [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Franken, Stefan P.G.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Vulpen, Marco van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether magnesium oxide during external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer reduces intrafraction prostate motion in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Methods and Materials: At the Department of Radiotherapy, prostate cancer patients scheduled for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (77 Gy in 35 fractions) using fiducial marker-based position verification were randomly assigned to receive magnesium oxide (500 mg twice a day) or placebo during radiotherapy. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with clinically relevant intrafraction prostate motion, defined as the proportion of patients who demonstrated in {>=}50% of the fractions an intrafraction motion outside a range of 2 mm. Secondary outcome measures included quality of life and acute toxicity. Results: In total, 46 patients per treatment arm were enrolled. The primary endpoint did not show a statistically significant difference between the treatment arms with a percentage of patients with clinically relevant intrafraction motion of 83% in the magnesium oxide arm as compared with 80% in the placebo arm (p = 1.00). Concerning the secondary endpoints, exploratory analyses demonstrated a trend towards worsened quality of life and slightly more toxicity in the magnesium oxide arm than in the placebo arm; however, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Magnesium oxide is not effective in reducing the intrafraction prostate motion during external-beam radiotherapy, and therefore there is no indication to use it in clinical practice for this purpose.

  11. LCoMotion - Learning, Cognition and Motion; a multicomponent cluster randomized school-based intervention aimed at increasing learning and cognition - rationale, design and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; Tarp, Jakob; Ostergaard, Lars

    2014-01-01

    with the intervention was assessed by short message service (SMS)-tracking and questionnaires were delivered to students, parents and teachers. DISCUSSION: LCoMotion has ability to provide new insights on the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention on cognitive function and academic skills in 6th and 7th grade...

  12. Multi-scaled normal mode analysis method for dynamics simulation of protein-membrane complexes: A case study of potassium channel gating motion correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaokun; Han, Min; Ming, Dengming, E-mail: dming@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-10-07

    Membrane proteins play critically important roles in many cellular activities such as ions and small molecule transportation, signal recognition, and transduction. In order to fulfill their functions, these proteins must be placed in different membrane environments and a variety of protein-lipid interactions may affect the behavior of these proteins. One of the key effects of protein-lipid interactions is their ability to change the dynamics status of membrane proteins, thus adjusting their functions. Here, we present a multi-scaled normal mode analysis (mNMA) method to study the dynamics perturbation to the membrane proteins imposed by lipid bi-layer membrane fluctuations. In mNMA, channel proteins are simulated at all-atom level while the membrane is described with a coarse-grained model. mNMA calculations clearly show that channel gating motion can tightly couple with a variety of membrane deformations, including bending and twisting. We then examined bi-channel systems where two channels were separated with different distances. From mNMA calculations, we observed both positive and negative gating correlations between two neighboring channels, and the correlation has a maximum as the channel center-to-center distance is close to 2.5 times of their diameter. This distance is larger than recently found maximum attraction distance between two proteins embedded in membrane which is 1.5 times of the protein size, indicating that membrane fluctuation might impose collective motions among proteins within a larger area. The hybrid resolution feature in mNMA provides atomic dynamics information for key components in the system without costing much computer resource. We expect it to be a conventional simulation tool for ordinary laboratories to study the dynamics of very complicated biological assemblies. The source code is available upon request to the authors.

  13. A Comparison of Random Normal Scores Test under the F and Chi-Square Distributions to the 2x2x2 ANOVA Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawilowsky, Shlomo

    1985-01-01

    The Random Normal Scores Test (RNST) has been suggested as a powerful alternative to the use of the parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) test when the underlying population is non-normally distributed. The major support for this suggestion rests on asymptotic theory. An empirical analysis of the RNST performed under the F and Chi-square…

  14. Comparision Of The Efficacy Of Nebulized L-Epinephrine, Salbutamoland Normal Saline In Acute Bronchiolitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mussavi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:Acute bronchiolitis is the most common form of lower respiratory tract infection in infancy.There are numerous contradictory reports regarding the efficacy of nebulized bronchodilators in the management of infants with acute bronchiolitis. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine with salbutamol for treatment of the disease.Methods:In a randomized clinical trial, 72 infants with moderately severe bronchiolitis were enrolled in three equal groups. Three doses of epinephrine, salbutamol, and normal saline as a placebo nebulized with oxygen were given at 20 minute intervals. Oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and distress were recorded before intervention and I0 minutes after each dose of the drugs. Results: At the end of the study, pre- and post-treatment mean oxygen saturation values, clinical scores and respiratory rates showed significant differences between the epinephrine and salbutamol groups in comparison with the placebo group. The results were more significant in the epinephrine group than other groups. After the treatment course 66%, 50%, and 25% of patients in epinephrine, salbutamol, and placebo groups respectively showed significant improvement at a degree that they could be sent home. No serious side effects were observed.Conclusion: Both nebulized epinephrine and salbutamol improved oxygenation and decreased respiratory distress better than normal saline. L-epinephrim was more effective in relieving respiratory distress and improving oxygen saturation as well as the need for hospitalization than nebulized salbutamol.

  15. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality and Self esteem in normal healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Sudheer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To study the efficacy of yoga on Gunas (personality and self esteem in normal adults through a randomized comparative study. Materials and Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended motivational lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga (Y group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction, and devotional sessions. The comparison group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE. Both groups had supervised practices for one hour daily, six days a week, for eight weeks. Guna (personality was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered "The ′Gita" Inventory of Personality" (GIN to assess Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas . Self esteem in terms of competency (COM, global self esteem (GSE, moral and self esteem (MSE, social esteem (SET, family self esteem (FSE, body and physical appearance (BPA, and the lie scale (LIS were assessed using the self esteem questionnaire (SEQ. Results: The baseline scores for all domains for both the groups did not differ significantly ( P > 0.05 independent samples t-test. There were significant pre-post improvements in all domains in both groups ( P < 0.001 paired t-test. The number of persons who showed improvement in Sattva and decrease in Tamas was significant in the Y but not in the PE group (McNemar test. The effect size for self esteem in the Y group is greater than for the PE group in three out of seven domains. Conclusions: This randomized controlled study has shown the influence of Yoga on Gunas and self esteem in comparison to physical exercise.

  16. Pulsed shortwave diathermy and joint mobilizations for achieving normal elbow range of motion after injury or surgery with implanted metal: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, David O

    2014-01-01

    Regaining full, active range of motion (ROM) after trauma to the elbow is difficult. To report the cases of 6 patients who lacked full ROM in the elbow because of trauma. The treatment regimen was thermal pulsed shortwave diathermy and joint mobilizations. Case series. University therapeutic modalities laboratory. Six patients (5 women [83%], 1 man [17%]) lacked a mean active ROM of 24.5° of extension approximately 4.8 years after trauma or surgery. Treatment consisted of 20 minutes of pulsed shortwave diathermy at 800 pulses per second for 400 microseconds (40-48 W average power, 150 W peak power) applied to the cubital fossa, immediately followed by 7 to 8 minutes of joint mobilizations. After posttreatment ROM was recorded, ice was applied to the area for about 30 minutes. Changes in extension active ROM were assessed before and after each treatment. Once the patient achieved full, active ROM or failed to improve on 2 consecutive visits, he or she was discharged from the study. By the fifth treatment, 4 participants (67%) achieved normal extension active ROM, and 2 of the 4 (50%) exceeded the norm. Five participants (83%) returned to normal activities and full use of their elbows. One month later, the 5 participants had maintained, on average, (mean ± SD) 92% ± 6% of their final measurements. A combination of thermal pulsed shortwave diathermy and joint mobilizations was effective in restoring active ROM of elbow extension in 5 of the 6 patients (83%) who lacked full ROM after injury or surgery.

  17. Kinesio taping improves pain, range of motion, and proprioception in older patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hwi-young; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Junesun; Yoon, Young Wook

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the short-term effects of Kinesio taping (KT) on various types of pain, active range of motion (AROM), and proprioception in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Forty-six older participants (mean [SD], 57.9 [4.4] yrs) with osteoarthritis were randomly allocated to two groups: the KT group or the placebo-KT group. Taping with tension (KT application) or without tension (placebo-KT application) was applied to the quadriceps of the participants in both groups. Before and after intervention, pain intensity was measured using a visual analog scale at rest and during walking, and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed using an algometer in the quadriceps and the tibialis anterior. In addition, pain-free AROM and proprioception were measured. The KT group showed attenuation of pain during walking (effect size [ES], 1.97), PPT in the quadriceps (ES, 2.58), and PPT in the tibialis anterior (ES, 2.45). This group also showed significantly improved AROM (ES, 2.01) and proprioception (ES, 1.73-1.89; P proprioception. There were significant differences between the two groups in pain during walking and PPT. In addition, pain during walking showed a significant correlation with AROM and proprioception, and a significant correlation was found between PPT and AROM. These results demonstrated that KT application with proper tension to the quadriceps effectively attenuates various types of pain and improves AROM and proprioception in osteoarthritis patients. Thus, KT may be a suitable intervention to improve pain, AROM, and proprioception in patients with osteoarthritis in clinics.

  18. Effects of Global Postural Reeducation on gait kinematics in parkinsonian patients: a pilot randomized three-dimensional motion analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosti, Valeria; Vitale, Carmine; Avella, Dario; Rucco, Rosaria; Santangelo, Gabriella; Sorrentino, Pierpaolo; Varriale, Pasquale; Sorrentino, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The Global Postural Reeducation (GPR) method is a physical therapy based on the stretching of antigravity muscle chains with the parallel enhancement of the basal tone of antagonistic muscles addressed to improve static and dynamic stability. Through a three-dimensional motion analysis (3DMA) system, our study aims to investigate whether in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients a GPR program results in a more physiological gait pattern. The kinematic parameters of gait of twenty subjects with clinically diagnosed PD were calculated. The patients were randomly assigned to a study (10 or control (10) group. All subjects underwent neurological and 3DMA assessments at entry time (t 0), at 4 weeks (t 1, end of GPR program), and at 8 and 12 weeks (t 2 and t 3, follow-up evaluation). The study group underwent a four-week GPR program, three times a week, for 40 min individual sessions. Kinematic gait parameters of thigh (T), knee (K) and ankle (A) and UPDRS-III scores were evaluated. At the end of the GPR program, we observed an improvement of the kinematic gait pattern, documented by the increase in KΔc and TΔc values that respectively express the flexion amplitude of knee and thigh. The amelioration was persistent at follow-up assessments, with a parallel enhancement in clinical parameters. GPR intervention shows a long-term efficacy on gait pattern in PD patients. Furthermore, we validated 3DMA as a valuable tool to study the kinematics of gait thus refining the understanding of the effects of specific rehabilitation programs.

  19. A Comparison of the Effects of Different Types of Laryngoscope on the Cervical Motions: Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Alkin; Çopuroğlu, Elif; Yılmaz, Ali; Şahin, Sevtap Hekimoğlu; Turan, Nesrin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The rate of cervical injury among all trauma patients is 3.1%. The most important point during intubation of those patients is not to increase the cervical injury. Aims: In this study, we hypothesize that there will be a minimal cervical extension during a laryngoscopy with the use of optical view laryngoscopes. Study Design: Prospective, randomized clinical trial. Methods: One hundred and fifty adult patients with ASA physical status I to III were enrolled in our study. After routine anesthesia induction, we randomly assigned the patients into three groups according to the type of laryngoscope. Macintosh type, Truview EVO2® type and Airtraq® type laryngoscopes were used in Group DL (n=50), Group TW (n=50) and Group ATQ (n=50), respectively. After applying general anesthesia induction and mask ventilation, all of the patients were positioned in the neutral position. An inclinometer was placed on the forehead of the patients. Then, the extension angle during intubation and the Cormack-Lehane Score were measured and the time to intubation was recorded. Results: One of the 50 patients in the DL Group, 2 of the 50 patients in the TW Group, and 4 of the 50 patients in the ATQ Group were excluded from the study because of the failure of intubation at defined times. The angle of cervical extension during laryngoscopy was found to be 27.24±6.71, 18.08±7.53, and 14.54±4.09 degrees in the Groups DL, TV and ATQ, respectively; these differences also had statistical significance (p=0.000). The duration of intubation was found to be 13.59±5.49, 23.60±15.23, and 29.80±13.82 seconds in Groups DL, TV and ATQ, respectively (p=0.000). Conclusion: A minimal cervical motion was obtained during tracheal intubation with the use of Truview EVO2® and Airtraq® types of laryngoscope compared with the Macintosh laryngoscope. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02191904). PMID:26167342

  20. A Comparison of the Effects of Different Types of Laryngoscope on the Cervical Motions: Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkin Çolak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rate of cervical injury among all trauma patients is 3.1%. The most important point during intubation of those patients is not to increase the cervical injury. Aims: In this study, we hypothesize that there will be a minimal cervical extension during a laryngoscopy with the use of optical view laryngoscopes. Study Design: Prospective, randomized clinical trial. Methods: One hundred and fifty adult patients with ASA physical status I to III were enrolled in our study. After routine anesthesia induction, we randomly assigned the patients into three groups according to the type of laryngoscope. Macintosh type, Truview EVO2® type and Airtraq® type laryngoscopes were used in Group DL (n=50, Group TW (n=50 and Group ATQ (n=50, respectively. After applying general anesthesia induction and mask ventilation, all of the patients were positioned in the neutral position. An inclinometer was placed on the forehead of the patients. Then, the extension angle during intubation and the Cormack-Lehane Score were measured and the time to intubation was recorded. Results: One of the 50 patients in the DL Group, 2 of the 50 patients in the TW Group, and 4 of the 50 patients in the ATQ Group were excluded from the study because of the failure of intubation at defined times. The angle of cervical extension during laryngoscopy was found to be 27.24±6.71, 18.08±7.53, and 14.54±4.09 degrees in the Groups DL, TV and ATQ, respectively; these differences also had statistical significance (p=0.000. The duration of intubation was found to be 13.59±5.49, 23.60±15.23, and 29.80±13.82 seconds in Groups DL, TV and ATQ, respectively (p=0.000. Conclusion: A minimal cervical motion was obtained during tracheal intubation with the use of Truview EVO2® and Airtraq® types of laryngoscope compared with the Macintosh laryngoscope.

  1. Hyperdynamic CSF motion profiles found in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer's disease assessed by fluid mechanics derived from magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Ken; Matsumae, Mitsunori; Hayashi, Naokazu; Hirayama, Akihiro; Yatsushiro, Satoshi; Kuroda, Kagayaki

    2017-10-18

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) does not only ascertain morphological features, but also measures physiological properties such as fluid velocity or pressure gradient. The purpose of this study was to investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in patients with morphological abnormalities such as enlarged brain ventricles and subarachnoid spaces. We used a time-resolved three dimensional phase contrast (3D-PC) MRI technique to quantitatively evaluate CSF dynamics in the Sylvian aqueduct of healthy elderly individuals and patients with either idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) or Alzheimer's disease (AD) presenting with ventricular enlargement. Nineteen healthy elderly individuals, ten iNPH patients, and seven AD patients (all subjects ≥ 60 years old) were retrospectively evaluated 3D-PC MRI. The CSF velocity, pressure gradient, and rotation in the Sylvian aqueduct were quantified and compared between the three groups using Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Mann-Whitney U tests. There was no statistically significant difference in velocity among the three groups. The pressure gradient was not significantly different between the iNPH and AD groups, but was significantly different between the iNPH group and the healthy controls (p < 0.001), and similarly, between the AD group and the healthy controls (p < 0.001). Rotation was not significantly different between the iNPH and AD groups, but was significantly different between the iNPH group and healthy controls (p < 0.001), and similarly, between the AD group and the healthy controls (p < 0.001). Quantitative analysis of CSF dynamics with time resolved 3D-PC MRI revealed differences and similarities in the Sylvian aqueduct between healthy elderly individuals, iNPH patients, and AD patients. The results showed that CSF motion is in a hyperdynamic state in both iNPH and AD patient groups compared to healthy elderly individuals, and that iNPH patients and AD patients display similar CSF motion profiles.

  2. A double-blind randomized trial on the clinical effect of different shunt valve settings in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Dan; Sæhle, Terje; Eide, Per Kristian; Tisell, Magnus; Hellström, Per; Wikkelsö, Carsten

    2016-02-01

    The study aim was to examine the effect of gradually reducing the opening pressure on symptoms and signs in the shunt treatment of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). In this prospective double-blinded, randomized, controlled, double-center study on patients with iNPH, a ventriculoperitoneal shunt with an adjustable Codman Medos Valve was implanted in 68 patients randomized into 2 groups. In 1 group (the 20-4 group) the valve setting was initially set to 20 cm H2O and gradually reduced to 4 cm H2O over the course of the 6-month study period. In the other group (the 12 group), the valve was kept at a medium level of 12 cm H2O during the whole study period. All patients were clinically evaluated using 4 tests preoperatively as well as postoperatively at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 months. The test scores between the 2 groups (20-4 and 12) were compared for each clinical evaluation. Fifty-five patients (81%) were able to complete the study. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups (20-4 and 12) preoperatively or at any time postoperatively. Both groups exhibited significant clinical improvement after shunt insertion at all valve settings compared with the preoperative score, with the greatest improvement observed at the first postoperative evaluation. The clinical improvement was significant within the first 3 months, and thereafter no significant improvement was seen in either group. Gradual reduction of the valve setting from 20 to 4 cm H2O did not improve outcome compared with a fixed valve setting of 12 cm H2O. Improvement after shunt surgery in iNPH patients was evident within 3 months, irrespective of valve setting.

  3. Diffusion of a particle in the spatially correlated exponential random energy landscape: Transition from normal to anomalous diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, S V

    2018-01-14

    Diffusive transport of a particle in a spatially correlated random energy landscape having exponential density of states has been considered. We exactly calculate the diffusivity in the nondispersive quasi-equilibrium transport regime for the 1D transport model and found that for slow decaying correlation functions the diffusivity becomes singular at some particular temperature higher than the temperature of the transition to the true non-equilibrium dispersive transport regime. It means that the diffusion becomes anomalous and does not follow the usual ∝ t1/2 law. In such situation, the fully developed non-equilibrium regime emerges in two stages: first, at some temperature there is the transition from the normal to anomalous diffusion, and then at lower temperature the average velocity for the infinite medium goes to zero, thus indicating the development of the true dispersive regime. Validity of the Einstein relation is discussed for the situation where the diffusivity does exist. We provide also some arguments in favor of conservation of the major features of the new transition scenario in higher dimensions.

  4. Effects of Rigid and Kinesio Taping on Shoulder Rotation Motions, Posterior Shoulder Tightness, and Posture in Asymptomatic Overhead Athletes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulpinar, Damla; Ozer, Sibel Tekeli; Yesilyaprak, Sevgi S

    2017-07-17

    Alterations in posture and motion patterns are thought to play a role in developing shoulder injuries in overhead athletes. Taping is widely used in the sporting population, but there are limited empirical data regarding its effectiveness. To determine and compare the effects of rigid and kinesio taping on shoulder rotation motions, posterior shoulder tightness (PST) and posture in overhead athletes. Randomized controlled trial. Athletic training rooms. Eighty-six asymptomatic elite overhead athletes. Participants were randomly divided into four groups: rigid taping group (RTG) which underwent therapeutic rigid taping, kinesio taping group (KTG) which underwent therapeutic kinesio taping, placebo group which underwent placebo kinesio taping (shoulder&scapular region taping for taping groups), and control group (no taping). Shoulder rotation motions, PST, and head and shoulder posture were evaluated at baseline, immediately after application and 60-72 hours after application for all groups. Glenohumeral internal rotation (GIR) increased immediately (p .05). Kinesio taping may improve and rigid taping may worsen GIR and PST in overhead athletes. For increasing TROM, kinesio taping is superior to rigid taping. Taping did not affect posture. Short-term kinesio taping in overhead athletes may be useful to improve GIR, TROM, and PST.

  5. Influence of vestibular rehabilitation on neck pain and cervical range of motion among patients with whiplash-associated disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Eva Ekvall; Persson, Liselott; Malmström, Eva Maj

    2013-09-01

    To describe how vestibular rehabilitation influences pain and range of motion among patients with whiplash-associated disorder and dizziness, and to describe whether pain or range of motion correlated with balance performance or self-perceived dizziness handicap. A total of 29 patients, 20 women and 9 men, age range 22-76 years. Patients with whiplash-associated disorder and dizziness were randomized to either intervention (vestibular rehabilitation) or control. Neck pain intensity, cervical range of motion (CROM), balance and self-perceived dizziness handicap were measured at baseline, 6 weeks and 3 months. There were no differences in neck pain intensity or CROM between the 2 groups either at baseline, 6 weeks or 3 months (p = 0.10-0.89). At baseline, neck pain intensity correlated with CROM (-0.406) and self-perceived dizziness handicap (0.492). CROM correlated with self-perceived dizziness handicap and with 1 balance measure (-0.432). Neck pain intensity did not correlate with balance performance (-0.188-0.049). Neck pain intensity and CROM was not influenced by vestibular rehabilitation. Importantly, the programme did not appear to increase pain or decrease neck motion, as initially thought. Neck pain intensity and CROM correlated with self-perceived dizziness handicap. CROM also correlated with 1 balance measure.

  6. Lagrangian modelling of plankton motion: From deceptively simple random walks to Fokker-Planck and back again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre

    2008-01-01

    The movement of plankton, either by turbulent mixing or their own inherent motility, can be simulated in a Lagrangian framework as a random walk. Validation of random walk simulations is essential. There is a continuum of mathematically valid stochastic integration schemes upon which random walk ...

  7. Effectiveness of zinc supplementation to full term normal infants: a community based double blind, randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Radhakrishna

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: The study was aimed to test whether zinc supplementation, if initiated early, can prevent stunting and promote optimum body composition in full term infants. For this, full term pregnant women from low income urban community were enrolled and were followed-up for 24 months postpartum. Body mass index (BMI was calculated from maternal weight and height that were collected one month after delivery. Infants' weight, and length, head, chest and mid upper arm circumferences and skin fold thicknesses at triceps, biceps and subscapular area were collected at baseline (before randomization and once in three months up till 24 months. Three hundred and twenty four infants were randomized and allocated to zinc (163 or placebo (161 groups respectively. Supplementation of zinc was initiated from 4 months of age and continued till children attained 18 months. The control (placebo group of children received riboflavin 0.5 mg/day, whereas the intervention (zinc group received 5 mg zinc plus riboflavin 0.5 mg/day. When infants were 18 months old, dietary intakes (in 78 children were calculated by 24 hour diet recall method and hemoglobin, zinc, copper and vitamin A were quantified in blood samples collected from 70 children. The results showed prevalence of undernutrition (body mass index <18.5 in 37% of the mothers. Mean±SD calorie consumption and zinc intakes from diets in infants were 590±282.8 Kcal/day and 0.97±0.608 mg/day respectively. Multiple linear regression models demonstrated maternal weight as a strong predictor of infants' weight and length at 18 months of age. As expected, diarrhea duration impacted infants' linear growth and weight gain adversely. Zinc supplementation for a mean period of 190 days, starting from 4 months up to 18 months of age, in full term normal infants, consuming an average energy of 590 Kcal/day, had significant effect on the skin fold thicknesses, but not on their linear growth. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical

  8. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Health in normal healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sudheer; Nagendra, H R; Raghuram, Nagarathna

    2008-01-01

    To study the efficacy of yoga on Guna (yogic personality measure) and general health in normal adults. Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga(Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE). Both groups had supervised practice sessions (by trained experts) for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Guna (yogic personality) was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI) which assesses Sattva (gentle and controlled), Rajas (violent and uncontrolled) and Tamas (dull and uncontrolled). The general health status (total health), which includes four domains namely somatic symptoms (SS), anxiety and insomnia (AI), social dysfunction (SF) and severe depression (SP), was assessed using a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Baseline scores for all the domains for both the groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05, independent samples t test). Sattva showed a significant difference within the groups and the effect size was more in the Y than in the PE group. Rajas showed a significant decrease within and between the groups with a higher effect size in the PE group. Tamas showed significant reduction within the PE group only. The GHQ revealed that there was significant decrease in SS, AI, SF and SP in both Y and PE groups (Wilcoxcon Singed Rank t test). SS showed a significant difference between the groups (Mann Whitney U Test). There was an improvement in Sattva in both the Yoga and control groups with a trend of higher effect size in Yoga; Rajas reduced in both but significantly better in PE than in Yoga and Tamas reduced in PE. The general health

  9. A randomized, double-blind, crossover comparison of novel continuous bed motion versus traditional bed position whole-body PET/CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatka, Imke [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Charite, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Weiberg, Desiree; Reichelt, Stephanie; Owsianski-Hille, Nicole; Derlin, Thorsten; Berding, Georg; Bengel, Frank M. [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Continuous bed motion has recently been introduced for whole-body PET/CT, and represents a paradigm shift towards individualized and flexible acquisition without the limitations of bed position-based planning. Increased patient comfort due to lack of abrupt table position changes may be another albeit still unproven advantage. For robust clinical implementation, image quality and quantitative accuracy should at least be equal to the prior standard of bed position-based step-and-shoot imaging. The study included 68 consecutive patients referred for whole-body PET/CT for various malignancies. The patients underwent traditional step-and-shoot and novel continuous bed motion acquisition in the same session in a randomized crossover design. The patients and two independent observers were blinded to the sequence of scan techniques. Patient comfort/satisfaction was examined using a standardized questionnaire. SUVs were compared for reference tissue (liver, muscle) and tumour lesions. PET image quality and misalignment with CT images were evaluated on a scale of 1 - 4. Patients preferred continuous bed motion over step-and-shoot (P = 0.0001). It was considered to be more relaxing (38 % vs. 8 %), quieter (34 % vs. 8 %), and more fluid (64 % vs. 8 %). Image quality, SUV and CT misalignment did not differ between the techniques. Continuous bed motion resulted in better end-plane image quality (P < 0.0001). Regardless of the technique, second examinations had significantly higher tumour lesion SUVmax values (P = 0.0002), and a higher CT misalignment score (P = 0.0017). Oncological PET/CT with continuous bed motion enhances patient comfort and is associated with image quality at least comparable to that with traditional bed position-based step-and-shoot acquisition. (orig.)

  10. Effectiveness of a School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Cognitive Performance in Danish Adolescents: LCoMotion-Learning, Cognition and Motion - A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Tarp

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated not only with health-related parameters, but also with cognitive and academic performance. However, no large scale school-based physical activity interventions have investigated effects on cognitive performance in adolescents. The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of a school-based physical activity intervention in enhancing cognitive performance in 12-14 years old adolescents.A 20 week cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted including seven intervention and seven control schools. A total of 632 students (mean (SD age: 12.9 (0.6 years completed the trial with baseline and follow-up data on primary or secondary outcomes (74% of randomized subjects. The intervention targeted physical activity during academic subjects, recess, school transportation and leisure-time. Cognitive performance was assessed using an executive functions test of inhibition (flanker task with the primary outcomes being accuracy and reaction time on congruent and incongruent trials. Secondary outcomes included mathematics performance, physical activity levels, body-mass index, waist-circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness.No significant difference in change, comparing the intervention group to the control group, was observed on the primary outcomes (p's>0.05 or mathematics skills (p>0.05. An intervention effect was found for cardiorespiratory fitness in girls (21 meters (95% CI: 4.4-38.6 and body-mass index in boys (-0.22 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.39-0.05. Contrary to our predictions, a significantly larger change in interference control for reaction time was found in favor of the control group (5.0 milliseconds (95% CI: 0-9. Baseline to mid-intervention changes in physical activity levels did not differ significantly between groups (all p's>0.05.No evidence was found for effectiveness of a 20-week multi-faceted school-based physical activity intervention for enhancing executive functioning or mathematics skills compared

  11. Effectiveness of a School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Cognitive Performance in Danish Adolescents: LCoMotion-Learning, Cognition and Motion - A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarp, Jakob; Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Froberg, Karsten; Hillman, Charles H; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bugge, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is associated not only with health-related parameters, but also with cognitive and academic performance. However, no large scale school-based physical activity interventions have investigated effects on cognitive performance in adolescents. The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of a school-based physical activity intervention in enhancing cognitive performance in 12-14 years old adolescents. A 20 week cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted including seven intervention and seven control schools. A total of 632 students (mean (SD) age: 12.9 (0.6) years) completed the trial with baseline and follow-up data on primary or secondary outcomes (74% of randomized subjects). The intervention targeted physical activity during academic subjects, recess, school transportation and leisure-time. Cognitive performance was assessed using an executive functions test of inhibition (flanker task) with the primary outcomes being accuracy and reaction time on congruent and incongruent trials. Secondary outcomes included mathematics performance, physical activity levels, body-mass index, waist-circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness. No significant difference in change, comparing the intervention group to the control group, was observed on the primary outcomes (p's>0.05) or mathematics skills (p>0.05). An intervention effect was found for cardiorespiratory fitness in girls (21 meters (95% CI: 4.4-38.6) and body-mass index in boys (-0.22 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.39-0.05). Contrary to our predictions, a significantly larger change in interference control for reaction time was found in favor of the control group (5.0 milliseconds (95% CI: 0-9). Baseline to mid-intervention changes in physical activity levels did not differ significantly between groups (all p's>0.05). No evidence was found for effectiveness of a 20-week multi-faceted school-based physical activity intervention for enhancing executive functioning or mathematics skills compared to a

  12. Timing of renal replacement therapy and patient outcomes in the randomized evaluation of normal versus augmented level of replacement therapy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Min; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Cass, Alan; Gallagher, Martin; Lo, Serigne; Lee, Joanne

    2014-08-01

    To explore the relationship between timing of continuous renal replacement therapy commencement and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality at 28 and 90 days. Nested observational cohort study using data from the Randomized Evaluation of Normal Versus Augmented Level Replacement Therapy Study. Twenty-three ICUs in Australia and New Zealand. Four hundred thirty-nine critically ill patients with acute kidney injury Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage kidney disease-injury (RIFLE-I) criteria. None. The time between RIFLE-I acute kidney injury and randomization in the Randomized Evaluation of Normal Versus Augmented Level Replacement Therapy Study (proxy for continuous renal replacement therapy commencement) was the variable of interest. All baseline variables in the Randomized Evaluation of Normal Versus Augmented Level Replacement Therapy Study were assessed. Multivariable Cox, logistic, and linear regression models were used to assess the independent relationship of time of onset of RIFLE-I acute kidney injury and randomization and patient outcomes. The median time between RIFLE-I acute kidney injury and continuous renal replacement therapy commencement was 17.6 hours (interquartile range, 7.1-46 hr). Based on four groups of continuous renal replacement therapy commencement ([group 1; reference]: Study, earlier commencement of continuous renal replacement therapy relative to RIFLE-I acute kidney injury was not significantly associated with improved survival. Additional studies with larger sample sizes and broader commencement times are warranted.

  13. Comparison of effects of static, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and Mulligan stretching on hip flexion range of motion: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    MS Yıldırım; S Ozyurek; OÇ Tosun; Uzer, S; Gelecek, N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static stretching, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching and Mulligan technique on hip flexion range of motion (ROM) in subjects with bilateral hamstring tightness. A total of 40 students (mean age: 21.5±1.3 years, mean body height: 172.8±8.2 cm, mean body mass index: 21.9±3.0 kg • m-2) with bilateral hamstring tightness were enrolled in this randomized trial, of whom 26 completed the study. Subjects were divided into 4 ...

  14. The effect of kinesio taping with exercise compared with exercise alone on pain, range of motion, and disability of the shoulder in postmastectomy females: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawy, Sayed A; Kamel, Dalia M

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of kinesio tape on pain, range of motion, and disability of the shoulder. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-four female patients who underwent modified radical mastectomy participated in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups, an experimental group that received kinesio tape for the shoulder joint in addition to a conventional physiotherapy program and a control group that received the physiotherapy program only. Outcome measures included the Visual Analogue Scale, shoulder range of motion, and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index. [Results] The experimental group showed significant differences in all outcome measures both within and between groups. The control group only showed a significant within group difference in shoulder flexion. [Conclusion] Clinicians should be able to recognize the benefits achieved through the use of adjunct treatment options such as kinesio tape in comparison with benefits that can be obtained through the use of individual modalities in physical therapy. Kinesio tape can be suggested and recommended for postmastectomy patients, especially for shoulder pain, range of motion, and disability.

  15. Efficacy of manual and manipulative therapy in the perception of pain and cervical motion in patients with tension-type headache: a randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espí-López, Gemma V; Gómez-Conesa, Antonia

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of manipulative and manual therapy treatments with regard to pain perception and neck mobility in patients with tension-type headache. A randomized clinical trial was conducted on 84 adults diagnosed with tension-type headache. Eighty-four subjects were enrolled in this study: 68 women and 16 men. Mean age was 39.76 years, ranging from 18 to 65 years. A total of 57.1% were diagnosed with chronic tension-type headache and 42.9% with tension-type headache. Participants were divided into 3 treatment groups (manual therapy, manipulative therapy, a combination of manual and manipulative therapy) and a control group. Four treatment sessions were administered during 4 weeks, with posttreatment assessment and follow-up at 1 month. Cervical ranges of motion pain perception, and frequency and intensity of headaches were assessed. All 3 treatment groups showed significant improvements in the different dimensions of pain perception. Manual therapy and manipulative treatment improved some cervical ranges of motion. Headache frequency was reduced with manipulative treatment (P therapy (P efficacy for patients with tension-type headache with regard to pain perception. As for cervical ranges of motion, treatments produced greater effect when separately administered.

  16. Korean hand acupressure for motion sickness in prehospital trauma care: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded trial in a geriatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertalanffy, Petra; Hoerauf, Klaus; Fleischhackl, Roman; Strasser, Helmut; Wicke, Franziska; Greher, Manfred; Gustorff, Burkhard; Kober, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Patients with trauma or medical illnesses transported to the hospital by ambulance have a frequent incidence of motion sickness. Because the administration of drugs in the ambulance is prohibited by law in Austria, the noninvasive Korean hand acupressure point at K-K9 may be an alternative against nausea and vomiting. We enrolled 100 geriatric patients with minor trauma, randomizing them into a K-K9 group and a sham acupressure group. We recorded visual analog scores (VAS) for nausea and for the patient's overall satisfaction with the treatment, hemodynamic variables, and peripheral vasoconstriction. In the K-K9 group, a significant (P patients had been vasoconstricted at the emergency site before treatment, there was a significant difference (P patients at the hospital (4 and 46 constricted and dilated, respectively, in the K-K9 group versus 48 and 2 constricted and dilated, respectively, in the sham group). On arrival in the hospital, a significant difference (P patients' overall satisfaction with the provided care was significantly higher (P patient satisfaction. Korean hand acupressure at the K-K9 point was effective in reducing nausea and subjective symptoms of motion sickness in emergency trauma transport of patients at high risk of motion sickness.

  17. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality and Health in normal healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Sudheer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To study the efficacy of yoga on Guna (yogic personality measure and general health in normal adults. Methods : Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga(Y group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas , pranayama , meditation, notional correction and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE. Both groups had supervised practice sessions (by trained experts for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Guna (yogic personality was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI which assesses Sattva (gentle and controlled, Rajas (violent and uncontrolled and Tamas (dull and uncontrolled. The general health status (total health, which includes four domains namely somatic symptoms (SS, anxiety and insomnia (AI, social dysfunction (SF and severe depression (SP, was assessed using a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Results : Baseline scores for all the domains for both the groups did not differ significantly ( P > 0.05, independent samples t test. Sattva showed a significant difference within the groups and the effect size was more in the Y than in the PE group. Rajas showed a significant decrease within and between the groups with a higher effect size in the PE group. Tamas showed significant reduction within the PE group only. The GHQ revealed that there was significant decrease in SS, AI, SF and SP in both Y and PE groups (Wilcoxcon Singed Rank t test. SS showed a significant difference between the groups (Mann Whitney U Test. Conclusions : There was an improvement in Sattva in both the Yoga and control groups with a trend of higher effect size in Yoga; Rajas reduced in both but significantly better in PE than

  18. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality and Health in normal healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Sudheer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the efficacy of yoga on Guna (yogic personality measure and general health in normal adults. Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga(Y group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas , pranayama , meditation, notional correction and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE. Both groups had supervised practice sessions (by trained experts for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Guna (yogic personality was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Vedic Personality Inventory (VPI which assesses Sattva (gentle and controlled, Rajas (violent and uncontrolled and Tamas (dull and uncontrolled. The general health status (total health, which includes four domains namely somatic symptoms (SS, anxiety and insomnia (AI, social dysfunction (SF and severe depression (SP, was assessed using a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Results: Baseline scores for all the domains for both the groups did not differ significantly ( P > 0.05, independent samples t test. Sattva showed a significant difference within the groups and the effect size was more in the Y than in the PE group. Rajas showed a significant decrease within and between the groups with a higher effect size in the PE group. Tamas showed significant reduction within the PE group only. The GHQ revealed that there was significant decrease in SS, AI, SF and SP in both Y and PE groups (Wilcoxcon Singed Rank t test. SS showed a significant difference between the groups (Mann Whitney U Test. Conclusions: There was an improvement in Sattva in both the Yoga and control groups with a trend of higher effect size in Yoga; Rajas reduced in both but significantly better in PE than in

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF EARLY STRETCHING EXERCISES FOR RANGE OF MOTION IN THE SHOULDER JOINT AND QUALITY OF FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY IN PATIENTS WITH BURNS - A RANDOMIZED CONTROL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara D. Perer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated the effects of an early stretching exercises programme on the range of motion of the shoulder joint and functional recovery in patients with burns. Methods: A randomized controlled study was conducted. Patients from 15 to 55 years of age with a total burn injury surface area (TBSA of 10% to 45% involving the shoulder joint including axilla were eligible. Participants were randomized into two groups; intervention and a usual care control group, with 110 patients in each group. A standardized protocol was used in the management of intervention group for 14 days. The control group was subjected to usual protocol currently used. The range of Motion (ROM was measured, and Functional recovery (FR was assessed with the Quick DASH questionnaire and the Abduction Ladder. Data were obtained before and after the intervention phase and at 3, 6 and 12 months of post-burn period. Results: The mean (SD age of intervention group and control group were 29.76 [9.81] and 30.31 [9.45] respectively. The mean (SD TBSA% of intervention group and control group was 26.15[9.45] and 24.60[9.56] respectively. There is a significant beneficial difference (p=<0.0001 in ROM and FR between the intervention group and the control group. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that an early sustained stretching exercise regime significantly improved the ROM and functional recovery of the shoulder joint after a severe burn involving the axilla.

  20. Effects of mobilization with movement on pain and range of motion in patients with unilateral shoulder impingement syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Gil, José A; Prado-Robles, Eva; Rodrigues-de-Souza, Daiana P; Cleland, Joshua A; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effects of mobilization with movement (MWM) to a sham technique in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. A randomized controlled trial was performed. Forty-two patients (mean ± SD age, 55 ± 9 years; 81% female) satisfied eligibility criteria, agreed to participate, and were randomized into an MWM group (n = 21) or sham manual contact (n = 21). The primary outcome measures including pain intensity, pain during active range of motion, and maximal active range of motion were assessed by a clinician blinded to group allocation. Outcomes were captured at baseline and after 2 weeks of MWM treatment or sham intervention. The primary analysis was the group × time interaction. The 2×2 analysis of variance revealed a significant group × time interaction for pain intensity during shoulder flexion (F = 7.054; P = .011), pain-free shoulder flexion (F = 32.853; P < .001), maximum shoulder flexion (F = 18.791; P < .01), and shoulder external rotation (F = 7.950; P < .01) in favor of the MWM group. No other significant differences were found. Patients with shoulder impingement syndrome who received 4 sessions of MWM exhibited significantly better outcomes for pain during shoulder flexion, pain-free range of shoulder flexion, maximal shoulder flexion, and maximal external rotation than those patients who were in the sham group. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. iPhone 4s photoplethysmography: which light color yields the most accurate heart rate and normalized pulse volume using the iPhysioMeter Application in the presence of motion artifact?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Matsumura

    Full Text Available Recent progress in information and communication technologies has made it possible to measure heart rate (HR and normalized pulse volume (NPV, which are important physiological indices, using only a smartphone. This has been achieved with reflection mode photoplethysmography (PPG, by using a smartphone's embedded flash as a light source and the camera as a light sensor. Despite its widespread use, the method of PPG is susceptible to motion artifacts as physical displacements influence photon propagation phenomena and, thereby, the effective optical path length. Further, it is known that the wavelength of light used for PPG influences the photon penetration depth and we therefore hypothesized that influences of motion artifact could be wavelength-dependant. To test this hypothesis, we made measurements in 12 healthy volunteers of HR and NPV derived from reflection mode plethysmograms recorded simultaneously at three different spectral regions (red, green and blue at the same physical location with a smartphone. We then assessed the accuracy of the HR and NPV measurements under the influence of motion artifacts. The analyses revealed that the accuracy of HR was acceptably high with all three wavelengths (all rs > 0.996, fixed biases: -0.12 to 0.10 beats per minute, proportional biases: r =  -0.29 to 0.03, but that of NPV was the best with green light (r = 0.791, fixed biases: -0.01 arbitrary units, proportional bias: r = 0.11. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio obtained with green and blue light PPG was higher than that of red light PPG. These findings suggest that green is the most suitable color for measuring HR and NPV from the reflection mode photoplethysmogram under motion artifact conditions. We conclude that the use of green light PPG could be of particular benefit in ambulatory monitoring where motion artifacts are a significant issue.

  2. The efficacy of interactive, motion capture-based rehabilitation on functional outcomes in an inpatient stroke population: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannell, John; Jovic, Emelyn; Rathjen, Amy; Lane, Kylie; Tyson, Anna M; Callisaya, Michele L; Smith, Stuart T; Ahuja, Kiran Dk; Bird, Marie-Louise

    2018-02-01

    To compare the efficacy of novel interactive, motion capture-rehabilitation software to usual care stroke rehabilitation on physical function. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Two subacute hospital rehabilitation units in Australia. In all, 73 people less than six months after stroke with reduced mobility and clinician determined capacity to improve. Both groups received functional retraining and individualized programs for up to an hour, on weekdays for 8-40 sessions (dose matched). For the intervention group, this individualized program used motivating virtual reality rehabilitation and novel gesture controlled interactive motion capture software. For usual care, the individualized program was delivered in a group class on one unit and by rehabilitation assistant 1:1 on the other. Primary outcome was standing balance (functional reach). Secondary outcomes were lateral reach, step test, sitting balance, arm function, and walking. Participants (mean 22 days post-stroke) attended mean 14 sessions. Both groups improved (mean (95% confidence interval)) on primary outcome functional reach (usual care 3.3 (0.6 to 5.9), intervention 4.1 (-3.0 to 5.0) cm) with no difference between groups ( P = 0.69) on this or any secondary measures. No differences between the rehabilitation units were seen except in lateral reach (less affected side) ( P = 0.04). No adverse events were recorded during therapy. Interactive, motion capture rehabilitation for inpatients post stroke produced functional improvements that were similar to those achieved by usual care stroke rehabilitation, safely delivered by either a physical therapist or a rehabilitation assistant.

  3. Effect of global posture reeducation and of static stretching on pain, range of motion, and quality of life in women with chronic neck pain: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Violino Cunha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Compare the effect of conventional static stretching and muscle chain stretching, as proposed by the global posture reeducation method, in the manual therapy of patients with chronic neck pain. METHODS: Thirty-three female patients aged 35 to 60 years old, 31 of whom completed the program, were randomly divided into two groups: The global posture reeducation group (n=15 performed muscle chain stretching, while the conventional stretching group (n=16 performed conventional static muscle stretching. Both groups also underwent manual therapy. Patients were evaluated before and after treatment and at a six-week follow-up appointment and tested for pain intensity (by means of visual analog scale, range of motion (by goniometry, and health-related quality of life (by the SF-36 questionnaire. The treatment program consisted of two 1-hour individual sessions per week for six weeks. Data were statistically analyzed at a significance level of p<0.05. RESULTS: Significant pain relief and range of motion improvement were observed after treatment in both groups, with a slight reduction at follow-up time. Quality of life also improved after treatment, except for the global posture reeducation group in one domain; at follow-up, there was improvement in all domains, except that both groups reported increased pain. There were no significant differences between groups CONCLUSION: Conventional stretching and muscle chain stretching in association with manual therapy were equally effective in reducing pain and improving the range of motion and quality of life of female patients with chronic neck pain, both immediately after treatment and at a six-week follow-up, suggesting that stretching exercises should be prescribed to chronic neck pain patients.

  4. Effect of Global Posture Reeducation and of Static Stretching on Pain, Range of Motion, and Quality of Life in Women with Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Ana Cláudia Violino; Burke, Thomaz Nogueira; França, Fábio Jorge Renovato; Marques, Amélia Pasqual

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE Compare the effect of conventional static stretching and muscle chain stretching, as proposed by the global posture reeducation method, in the manual therapy of patients with chronic neck pain. METHODS Thirty-three female patients aged 35 to 60 years old, 31 of whom completed the program, were randomly divided into two groups: The global posture reeducation group (n=15) performed muscle chain stretching, while the conventional stretching group (n=16) performed conventional static muscle stretching. Both groups also underwent manual therapy. Patients were evaluated before and after treatment and at a six-week follow-up appointment and tested for pain intensity (by means of visual analog scale), range of motion (by goniometry), and health-related quality of life (by the SF-36 questionnaire). The treatment program consisted of two 1-hour individual sessions per week for six weeks. Data were statistically analyzed at a significance level of pglobal posture reeducation group in one domain; at follow-up, there was improvement in all domains, except that both groups reported increased pain. There were no significant differences between groups CONCLUSION Conventional stretching and muscle chain stretching in association with manual therapy were equally effective in reducing pain and improving the range of motion and quality of life of female patients with chronic neck pain, both immediately after treatment and at a six-week follow-up, suggesting that stretching exercises should be prescribed to chronic neck pain patients. PMID:19060998

  5. Effectiveness of the Gaze Direction Recognition Task for Chronic Neck Pain and Cervical Range of Motion: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nobusako

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a mental task with gaze direction recognition (GDR by which subjects observed neck rotation of another individual from behind and attempted to recognize the direction of gaze. A randomized controlled trial was performed in test (=9 and control (=8 groups of subjects with chronic neck pain undergoing physical therapy either with or without the GDR task carried out over 12 sessions during a three-week period. Primary outcome measures were defined as the active range of motion and pain on rotation of the neck. Secondary outcome measures were reaction time (RT and response accuracy in the GDR task group. ANOVA indicated a main effect for task session and group, and interaction of session. Post hoc testing showed that the GDR task group exhibited a significant simple main effect upon session, and significant sequential improvement of neck motion and relief of neck pain. Rapid effectiveness was significant in both groups. The GDR task group had a significant session-to-session reduction of RTs in correct responses. In conclusion, the GDR task we developed provides a promising rehabilitation measure for chronic neck pain.

  6. Effectiveness of a night positioning programme on ankle range of motion in patients after hemiparesis: a prospective randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMeyer, Lauren; Brown, Marcie; Adams, Ashley

    2015-10-05

    To investigate the effect of night positioning on ankle motion in patients after stroke or brain injury. Prospective randomized controlled pilot study with 3 groups: bivalve cast; pressure-relieving ankle-foot orthosis; and control. Adults (n = 46) in inpatient rehabilitation with lower extremity paresis following stroke or brain injury. Intervention group participants wore a custom bivalve cast or pre-fabricated orthosis 8-12 h/night. The primary outcome variable was passive ankle dorsiflexion. Muscle spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale) and functional mobility (Functional Independence Measure) were also assessed. No significant differences were found between groups for all outcome measures at the pilot sample size (p > 0.05). Control and pressure-relieving ankle-foot orthosis groups showed improvement in ankle dorsiflexion, and the bivalve cast group demonstrated a trend toward decreased spasticity. Positioning interventions were tolerated for approximately 11 h/night. Baseline range of motion was measured and a retrospective power analysis determined that a sample size of 234 is needed for 80% power to establish significance. Future research with a larger sample size is re-commended to determine significance and whether a more specific subset of patients would benefit from night positioning to maximize treatment time during daytime therapy sessions.

  7. Directed motion emerging from two coupled random processes: translocation of a chain through a membrane nanopore driven by binding proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambjoernsson, Tobias; Lomholt, Michael A; Metzler, Ralf [NORDITA-Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)

    2005-11-30

    We investigate the translocation of a stiff polymer consisting of M monomers through a nanopore in a membrane, in the presence of binding particles (chaperones) that bind onto the polymer, and partially prevent backsliding of the polymer through the pore. The process is characterized by the rates: k for the polymer to make a diffusive jump through the pore, q for unbinding of a chaperone, and the rate q{kappa} for binding (with a binding strength {kappa}); except for the case of no binding {kappa} = 0 the presence of the chaperones gives rise to an effective force that drives the translocation process. In more detail, we develop a dynamical description of the process in terms of a (2+1)-variable master equation for the probability of having m monomers on the target side of the membrane with n bound chaperones at time t. Emphasis is put on the calculation of the mean first passage time T as a function of total chain length M. The transfer coefficients in the master equation are determined through detailed balance, and depend on the relative chaperone size {lambda} and binding strength {kappa}, as well as the two rate constants k and q. The ratio {gamma} = q/k between the two rates determines, together with {kappa} and {lambda}, three limiting cases, for which analytic results are derived: (i) for the case of slow binding ({gamma}{kappa} {yields} 0), the motion is purely diffusive, and T{approx} M{sup 2} for large M; (ii) for fast binding ({gamma}{kappa} {yields} {infinity}) but slow unbinding ({gamma} {yields} 0), the motion is, for small chaperones {lambda} = 1, ratchet-like, and T{approx} M; (iii) for the case of fast binding and unbinding dynamics ({gamma} {yields} {infinity} and {gamma}{kappa} {yields} {infinity}), we perform the adiabatic elimination of the fast variable n, and find that for a very long polymer T{approx} M, but with a smaller prefactor than for ratchet-like dynamics. We solve the general case numerically as a function of the dimensionless

  8. Motion sickness: more than nausea and vomiting

    OpenAIRE

    Lackner, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Motion sickness is a complex syndrome that includes many features besides nausea and vomiting. This review describes some of these factors and points out that under normal circumstances, many cases of motion sickness go unrecognized. Motion sickness can occur during exposure to physical motion, visual motion, and virtual motion, and only those without a functioning vestibular system are fully immune. The range of vulnerability in the normal population varies about 10,000 to 1. Sleep deprivati...

  9. The Normal Distribution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Normal Distribution. 2. Some Roles of Normality. S Ramasubramanian. The computational aid of part 1 of this series turns out to be a basic feature of nature, thanks to the central limit theorem. The role of normal distribu- tion in statistics, velocity distribution of an ideal gas, and the phenomenon of Brownian motion is ...

  10. Short-term effects of cervical kinesio taping on pain and cervical range of motion in patients with acute whiplash injury: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Iglesias, Javier; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cleland, Joshua A; Huijbregts, Peter; Del Rosario Gutiérrez-Vega, Maria

    2009-07-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To determine the short-term effects of Kinesio Taping, applied to the cervical spine, on neck pain and cervical range of motion in individuals with acute whiplash-associated disorders (WADs). Researchers have begun to investigate the effects of Kinesio Taping on different musculoskeletal conditions (eg, shoulder and trunk pain). Considering the demonstrated short-term effectiveness of Kinesio Tape for the management of shoulder pain, it is suggested that Kinesio Tape may also be beneficial in reducing pain associated with WAD. Forty-one patients (21 females) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: the experimental group received Kinesio Taping to the cervical spine (applied with tension) and the placebo group received a sham Kinesio Taping application (applied without tension). Both neck pain (11-point numerical pain rating scale) and cervical range-of-motion data were collected at baseline, immediately after the Kinesio Tape application, and at a 24-hour follow-up by an assessor blinded to the treatment allocation of the patients. Mixed-model analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to examine the effects of the treatment on each outcome variable, with group as the between-subjects variable and time as the within-subjects variable. The primary analysis was the group-by-time interaction. The group-by-time interaction for the 2-by-3 mixed-model ANOVA was statistically significant for pain as the dependent variable (F = 64.8; PKinesio Taping experienced a greater decrease in pain immediately postapplication and at the 24-hour follow-up (both, PKinesio Taping, applied with proper tension, exhibited statistically significant improvements immediately following application of the Kinesio Tape and at a 24-hour follow-up. However, the improvements in pain and cervical range of motion were small and may not be clinically meaningful. Future studies should investigate if Kinesio Taping provides enhanced outcomes when added to physical therapy

  11. Effect of magnesium oxide on interfraction prostate motion and rectal filling in prostate cancer radiotherapy. Analysis of a randomized clinical trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Annemarie M. den; Kotte, Alexis N.T.J.; Vulpen, Marco van; Lips, Irene M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiation Oncology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gils, Carla H. van [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-08-15

    To investigate whether magnesium oxide reduces the interfraction motion of the prostate and the amount of rectal filling and rectal gas, which influences prostate position during radiotherapy for prostate cancer. From December 2008 to February 2010, 92 prostate cancer patients scheduled for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (77 Gy in 35 fractions) using fiducial marker-based position verification were randomly assigned to receive magnesium oxide (500 mg twice a day) or placebo during radiotherapy. In a previous study, we investigated the effect on intrafraction motion and did not find a difference between the treatment arms. Here, we compared the interfraction prostate motion between the two treatment arms as well as the amount of rectal filling and rectal air pockets using pretreatment planning computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans. There was no statistically significant difference between the treatment arms in translation and rotation of the prostate between treatment fractions, except for the rotation around the cranial caudal axis. However, the difference was less than 1 and therefore considered not clinically relevant. There was no significant difference in the amount of rectal filling and rectal air pockets between the treatment arms. Magnesium oxide is not effective in reducing the interfraction prostate motion or the amount of rectal filling and rectal gas during external-beam radiotherapy. Therefore, magnesium oxide is not recommended in clinical practice for these purposes. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Studie war es, zu untersuchen, ob Magnesiumoxid die interfraktionaere Bewegung und die rektale Fuellung sowie rektales Gas reduziert, was die Position der Prostata waehrend der Strahlentherapie bei Prostatakrebs beeinflusst. Von Dezember 2008 bis Februar 2010 haben 92 Prostatakrebspatienten die intensitaetsmodulierte Strahlentherapie (IMRT) mit bezugsmarkenbasierter Positionsverifikation erhalten (77 Gy in 35 Fraktionen). Sie wurden waehrend

  12. Comparision Of The Efficacy Of Nebulized L-Epinephrine, Salbutamoland Normal Saline In Acute Bronchiolitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    H. Mussavi; M. Karamiyar; S. Salari Lak; J. Khashabi

    2005-01-01

    Background:Acute bronchiolitis is the most common form of lower respiratory tract infection in infancy.There are numerous contradictory reports regarding the efficacy of nebulized bronchodilators in the management of infants with acute bronchiolitis. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine with salbutamol for treatment of the disease.Methods:In a randomized clinical trial, 72 infants with moderately severe bronchiolitis were enrolled in three equal groups. Thr...

  13. Lumbar lordosis rehabilitation for pain and lumbar segmental motion in chronic mechanical low back pain: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Aliaa A; Moustafa, Ibrahim M

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of lumbar extension traction with stretching and infrared radiation compared with stretching and infrared radiation alone on the lumbar curve, pain, and intervertebral movements of patients with chronic mechanical low back pain (CMLBP). This randomized clinical study with 3-month follow-up was completed at the Cairo University research laboratory. Eighty patients (age ranged from 40 to 50 years) with CMLBP and a hypolordotic lumbar spine were randomly assigned to traction or a comparison group. The comparison group (n = 40) received stretching exercises and infrared radiation, whereas the traction group (n = 40) received lumbar extension traction in addition to stretching exercises and infrared radiation. The absolute rotatory angle, intervertebral movements, and visual analog scale were measured for all patients at 3 intervals. The results revealed a statistically significant difference between the groups at 2 follow-up time points compared with the baseline values for the translational and sagittal rotational movements of L3-L4, L4-L5, L5-S1, and L2-L3 (posttreatment) and absolute rotatory angle (P .01). Lumbar extension traction with stretching exercises and infrared radiation was superior to stretching exercises and infrared radiation alone for improving the sagittal lumbar curve, pain, and intervertebral movement in CMLBP. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Relationship Between Engagement and Neurophysiological Measures of Attention in Motion-Controlled Video Games: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiker, Amber M; Miller, Matthew; Brewer, Lauren; Nelson, Monica; Siow, Maria; Lohse, Keith

    2016-04-21

    Video games and virtual environments continue to be the subject of research in health sciences for their capacity to augment practice through user engagement. Creating game mechanics that increase user engagement may have indirect benefits on learning (ie, engaged learners are likely to practice more) and may also have direct benefits on learning (ie, for a fixed amount of practice, engaged learners show superior retention of information or skills). To manipulate engagement through the aesthetic features of a motion-controlled video game and measure engagement's influence on learning. A group of 40 right-handed participants played the game under two different conditions (game condition or sterile condition). The mechanics of the game and the amount of practice were constant. During practice, event-related potentials (ERPs) to task-irrelevant probe tones were recorded during practice as an index of participants' attentional reserve. Participants returned for retention and transfer testing one week later. Although both groups improved in the task, there was no difference in the amount of learning between the game and sterile groups, countering previous research. A new finding was a statistically significant relationship between self-reported engagement and the amplitude of the early-P3a (eP3a) component of the ERP waveform, such that participants who reported higher levels of engagement showed a smaller eP3a (beta=-.08, P=.02). This finding provides physiological data showing that engagement elicits increased information processing (reducing attentional reserve), which yields new insight into engagement and its underlying neurophysiological properties. Future studies may objectively index engagement by quantifying ERPs (specifically the eP3a) to task-irrelevant probes.

  15. Effects of cervical spine manual therapy on range of motion, head repositioning, and balance in participants with cervicogenic dizziness: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Susan A; Callister, Robin; Katekar, Michael G; Rivett, Darren A

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the effects of 2 manual therapy interventions on cervical spine range of motion (ROM), head repositioning accuracy, and balance in patients with chronic cervicogenic dizziness. Randomized controlled trial with 12-week follow-up using blinded outcome assessment. University School of Health Sciences. Participants (N=86; mean age ± SD, 62.0 ± 12.7 y; 50% women) with chronic cervicogenic dizziness. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: sustained natural apophyseal glides (SNAGs) with self-SNAG exercises, passive joint mobilization (PJM) with ROM exercises, or a placebo. Participants each received 2 to 6 treatments over 6 weeks. Cervical ROM, head repositioning accuracy, and balance. SNAG therapy resulted in improved (P ≤.05) cervical spine ROM in all 6 physiological cervical spine movement directions immediately posttreatment and at 12 weeks. Treatment with PJM resulted in improvement in 1 of the 6 cervical movement directions posttreatment and 1 movement direction at 12 weeks. There was a greater improvement (PManual therapy had no effect on balance or head repositioning accuracy. SNAG treatment improved cervical ROM, and the effects were maintained for 12 weeks after treatment. PJM had very limited impact on cervical ROM. There was no conclusive effect of SNAGs or PJMs on joint repositioning accuracy or balance in people with cervicogenic dizziness. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Ginkgo biloba on visual field and contrast sensitivity in Chinese patients with normal tension glaucoma: a randomized, crossover clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinxing; Kong, Xiangbin; Huang, Rui; Jin, Ling; Ding, Xiaohu; He, Mingguang; Liu, Xing; Patel, Mehul Chimanlal; Congdon, Nathan G

    2014-01-07

    We evaluated the effect of ginkgo biloba extract on visual field defect and contrast sensitivity in a Chinese cohort with normal tension glaucoma. In this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study, patients newly diagnosed with normal tension glaucoma, either in a tertiary glaucoma clinic (n = 5) or in a cohort undergoing routine general physical examinations in a primary care clinic (n = 30), underwent two 4-week phases of treatment, separated by a washout period of 8 weeks. Randomization determined whether ginkgo biloba extract (40 mg, 3 times per day) or placebo (identical-appearing tablets) was received first. Primary outcomes were change in contrast sensitivity and mean deviation on 24-2 SITA standard visual field testing, while secondary outcomes included IOP and self-reported adverse events. A total of 35 patients with mean age 63.7 (6.5) years were randomized to the ginkgo biloba extract-placebo (n = 18) or the placebo-ginkgo biloba extract (n = 17) sequence. A total of 28 patients (80.0%, 14 in each group) who completed testing did not differ at baseline in age, sex, visual field mean deviation, contrast sensitivity, IOP, or blood pressure. Changes in visual field and contrast sensitivity did not differ by treatment received or sequence (P > 0.2 for all). Power to have detected a difference in mean defect as large as previously reported was 80%. In contrast to some previous reports, ginkgo biloba extract treatment had no effect on mean defect or contrast sensitivity in this group of normal tension glaucoma patients. (http://www.chictr.org number, ChiCTR-TRC-08000724).

  17. Postoperative leg position following total knee arthroplasty influences blood loss and range of motion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xin; Tian, Peng; Li, Zhi-jun; Sun, Xiao-lei; Ma, Xin-long

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative leg position has been reported as an efficient and convenient technique to minimize blood loss and improve early recovery following total knee arthroplasty (TKA); however, no single study was large enough to definitively determine optimal leg position. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis pooling the results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effect of postoperative leg position on blood loss and range of motion (ROM) in TKA. Potential academic articles were identified from the Cochrane Library, Medline (1966-October 2015), PubMed (1966-October 2015), Embase (1980-October 2015), ScienceDirect (1985-October 2015) and other databases. Gray studies were identified from the references of included literature reports. The pooling of data was analyzed by RevMan 5.1. Ten RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. There were significant differences in the total blood loss (mean difference [MD] = -130.66, 95% CI: -198.74 to -62.57, P = 0.0002), hidden blood loss (MD = -73.27, 95% CI: -117.57 to -28.96, P = 0.001), blood transfusion requirement (risk difference [RD] = -0.10, 95% CI: -0.19 to -0.22, P = 0.02), postoperative hemoglobin level (MD = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.42 to 1.04, P extension group. No significant differences were found regarding length of hospital stay, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and wound infection between the two groups. This meta-analysis indicated that the postoperative flexion position of the leg in TKA was effective and safe, significantly decreasing total blood loss, hidden blood loss and blood transfusion requirement. In addition, the postoperative range of motion is significantly improved by the flexion position of the leg.

  18. Pain intensity and cervical range of motion in women with myofascial pain treated with acupuncture and electroacupuncture: a double-blinded, randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranha, Maria F. M.; Müller, Cristina E. E.; Gavião, Maria B. D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acupuncture stimulates points on the body, influencing the perception of myofascial pain or altering physiologic functions. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the effect of electroacupuncture (EAC) and acupuncture (AC) for myofascial pain of the upper trapezius and cervical range of motion, using SHAM acupuncture as control. METHOD: Sixty women presenting at least one trigger point at the upper trapezius and local or referred pain for more than six months were randomized into EAC, AC, and SHAM groups. Eight sessions were scheduled and a follow-up was conducted after 28 days. The Visual Analog Scale assessed the intensity of local and general pain. A fleximeter assessed cervical movements. Data were analyzed using paired t or Wilcoxon's tests, ANOVA or Friedman or Kruskal-Wallis tests and Pearson's correlation (α=0.05). RESULTS: There was reduction in general pain in the EAC and AC groups after eight sessions (P<0.001). A significant decrease in pain intensity occurred for the right trapezius in all groups and for the left trapezius in the EAC and AC groups. Intergroup comparisons showed improvement in general pain in the EAC and AC groups and in local pain intensity in the EAC group (P<0.05), which showed an increase in left rotation (P=0.049). The AC group showed increases in inclination (P=0.005) sustained until follow-up and rotation to the right (P=0.032). CONCLUSION : EAC and AC were effective in reducing the pain intensity compared with SHAM. EAC was better than AC for local pain relief. These treatments can assist in increasing cervical range of motion, albeit subtly. PMID:25714602

  19. Intra-articular morphine versus bupivacaine for knee motion among patients with osteoarthritis: randomized double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Bellini Gazi

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis causes pain and disability in a high percentage of elderly people. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of intra-articular morphine and bupivacaine on the joint flexion and extension angles of patients with knee osteoarthritis. DESIGN AND SETTING: A randomized double-blind study was performed at a pain clinic of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with pain for more than three months, of intensity greater than three on a numerical scale (zero to 10, were included. G1 patients received 1 mg (1 ml of morphine diluted in 9 ml of saline, intra-articularly, and G2 patients received 25 mg (10 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine without epinephrine. Pain was assessed on a numerical scale and knee flexion and extension angles were measured after administration of the drugs at rest and during movement. The total amount of analgesic supplementation using 500 mg doses of paracetamol was also determined. RESULTS: No significant difference in pain intensity was observed between G1 and G2. Significant decreases in pain at rest and during movement and significant increases in mean flexion and extension angles were observed in both groups, with no significant difference between the two groups. The mean total amount of paracetamol used over a seven-day period was 3578 mg in G1 and 5333 mg in G2 (P = 0.2355; Mann-Whitney test. CONCLUSION: The analgesic effects of 1 mg of morphine and 25 mg of 0.25% bupivacaine were similar among patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

  20. Influence of vestibular rehabilitation on neck pain and cervical range of motion among patients with whiplash-associated disorder: a randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hansson, Eva Ekvall; Persson, Liselott; Malmström, Eva Maj

    2013-01-01

    To describe how vestibular rehabilitation influences pain and range of motion among patients with whiplash-associated disorder and dizziness, and to describe whether pain or range of motion correlated...

  1. NIMROD: a program for inference via a normal approximation of the posterior in models with random effects based on ordinary differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prague, Mélanie; Commenges, Daniel; Guedj, Jérémie; Drylewicz, Julia; Thiébaut, Rodolphe

    2013-08-01

    Models based on ordinary differential equations (ODE) are widespread tools for describing dynamical systems. In biomedical sciences, data from each subject can be sparse making difficult to precisely estimate individual parameters by standard non-linear regression but information can often be gained from between-subjects variability. This makes natural the use of mixed-effects models to estimate population parameters. Although the maximum likelihood approach is a valuable option, identifiability issues favour Bayesian approaches which can incorporate prior knowledge in a flexible way. However, the combination of difficulties coming from the ODE system and from the presence of random effects raises a major numerical challenge. Computations can be simplified by making a normal approximation of the posterior to find the maximum of the posterior distribution (MAP). Here we present the NIMROD program (normal approximation inference in models with random effects based on ordinary differential equations) devoted to the MAP estimation in ODE models. We describe the specific implemented features such as convergence criteria and an approximation of the leave-one-out cross-validation to assess the model quality of fit. In pharmacokinetics models, first, we evaluate the properties of this algorithm and compare it with FOCE and MCMC algorithms in simulations. Then, we illustrate NIMROD use on Amprenavir pharmacokinetics data from the PUZZLE clinical trial in HIV infected patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Black tea consumption improves postprandial glycemic control in normal and pre-diabetic subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butacnum, Arisa; Chongsuwat, Rewadee; Bumrungpert, Akkarach

    2017-01-01

    Postprandial glycemic control is important for prevention of diabetes. Black tea consumption may improve postprandial glycemic control. The major bioactive compounds are polyphenols, black tea polymerized polyphenol (BTPP).This study examined the effect of black tea consumption on postprandial blood glucose and insulin response following sucrose loading in normal and pre-diabetes subjects. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Twenty-four subjects, male and female aged 20-60 years, normal and pre-diabetic, randomly ingested a sucrose solution with a low dose (110 mg BTPP), a high dose (220 mg BTPP) of black tea drink or a placebo drink (0 mg BTPP). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min from commencement of drink ingestion to measure blood glucose and insulin levels. The drink containing low dose and high dose BTPP significantly decreased incremental blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) after sucrose intake compared with placebo in the normal (T0-60 min 3,232±356 vs 3,295±312 vs 3,652±454 mg.min/dL; p=0.016) and pre-diabetic subjects (T0-60 min 2,554±395 vs 2,472±280 vs 2,888±502 mg.min/dL; p=0.048). There was no statistically significant difference of changes in insulin levels between the placebo and black tea groups (p>0.05). No significant differences in adverse effects were observed with the placebo, low dose and high dose of BTPP groups. Black tea consumption can decrease postprandial blood glucose after sucrose intake.

  3. Why do adults with dyslexia have poor global motion sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Elizabeth G; Lilleskaret, Gry; Wright, Craig M; Stuksrud, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments aimed to determine why adults with dyslexia have higher global motion thresholds than typically reading controls. In Experiment 1, the dot density and number of animation frames presented in the dot stimulus were manipulated because of findings that use of a high dot density can normalize coherence thresholds in individuals with dyslexia. Dot densities were 14.15 and 3.54 dots/deg(2). These were presented for five (84 ms) or eight (134 ms) frames. The dyslexia group had higher coherence thresholds in all conditions than controls. However, in the high dot density, long duration condition, both reader groups had the lowest thresholds indicating normal temporal recruitment. These results indicated that the dyslexia group could sample the additional signals dots over space and then integrate these with the same efficiency as controls. In Experiment 2, we determined whether briefly presenting a fully coherent prime moving in either the same or opposite direction of motion to a partially coherent test stimulus would systematically increase and decrease global motion thresholds in the reader groups. When the direction of motion in the prime and test was the same, global motion thresholds increased for both reader groups. The increase in coherence thresholds was significantly greater for the dyslexia group. When the motion of the prime and test were presented in opposite directions, coherence thresholds were reduced in both groups. No group threshold differences were found. We concluded that the global motion processing deficit found in adults with dyslexia can be explained by undersampling of the target motion signals. This might occur because of difficulties directing attention to the relevant motion signals in the random dot pattern, and not a specific difficulty integrating global motion signals. These effects are most likely to occur in the group with dyslexia when more complex computational processes are required to process global motion.

  4. Effects of massage therapy and occlusal splint therapy on mandibular range of motion in individuals with temporomandibular disorder: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Cid André Fidelis de Paula; Politti, Fabiano; Andrade, Daniel Ventura; de Sousa, Dowglas Fernando Magalhães; Herpich, Carolina Marciela; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; Gonzalez, Tabajara de Oliveira; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of massage therapy compared with occlusal splint therapy on mandibular range of motion (ROM) in individuals with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and compare the results with ROM obtained in a group of individuals without this disorder. A blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted. Twenty-eight volunteers with TMD were randomly distributed into either a massage therapy group or an occlusal splint group. Both treatments were provided for 4 weeks. Fourteen individuals without TMD were consecutively allocated to a comparison group. Fonseca anamnestic index was used to characterize TMD and allocate the volunteers to either of the intervention groups or asymptomatic comparison group. Mandibular ROM was evaluated before and after treatment using a digital caliper. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance with a post hoc Bonferroni testing was used for intergroup and intragroup comparisons (level of significance was set to 5%). Cohen d was used to calculate the effect size. In the intragroup analysis, significant increases in ROM were found for all measures in both the massage and occlusal splint groups (P < .05). A small to moderate clinical effect of treatment with the occlusal splint was found regarding right and left lateral excursion in comparison with the massage therapy and asymptomatic comparison groups (0.2

  5. Immediate Effects of Mobilization With Movement vs Sham Technique on Range of Motion, Strength, and Function in Patients With Shoulder Impingement Syndrome: Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, João Flávio; Salvini, Tania Fátima; Siqueira, Aristides Leite; Ribeiro, Ivana Leão; Camargo, Paula Rezende; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco

    The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effects of mobilization with movement (MWM) with sham technique on range of motion (ROM), muscle strength, and function in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. A randomized clinical study was performed. Participants (mean age ± standard deviation, 31 ± 8 years; 56% women) were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (n = 14), which received the MWM technique in the first 4 sessions and the sham technique in the last 4 sessions; and group 2 (n = 13), which was treated with the opposite order of treatment conditions described for group 1. Shoulder ROM, isometric peak force assessed with a handheld dynamometer, and function as determined through the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) questionnaires were collected at preintervention, interchange, and postintervention moments. Two-way analysis of variance revealed no significant group-by-time interaction for any outcome but did reveal a main time effect for shoulder external rotation (P = .04) and abduction (P = .01) ROM, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (P shoulder ROM during external rotation and abduction, pain, and function in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Effects of therapeutic exercise and hydrotherapy on pain severity and knee range of motion in patients with hemophilia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloum, Vahid; Rahnama, Nader; Khayambashi, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Pain and limited range of motion (ROM) are the crucial subsequent results of joint hemorrhages in individuals with bleeding disorders and hemophilia. Exercise interventions are particularly recommended in treatment of such patients. The purpose of this study was to detect the influences of conventional exercise therapy and hydrotherapy on the knee joint complications in patients with hemophilia. A total of 40 patients engaging hemophilia A were randomized into one of three groups: Therapeutic exercise (N = 13), hydrotherapy (N = 14) or control (N = 13). While the first two groups followed their specific programs for 4 weeks, routine life-style was maintained by subjects in the control group in this period. To evaluate the pain level and knee ROM the visual analog scale and standard goniometer were utilized, respectively. The outcome was measured at baseline and after completing the prescribed protocols. Data analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe statistical tests (P hydrotherapy in comparison to exercise therapy, the difference in ROM improvement was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Using hydrotherapy in addition to usual rehabilitation training can result in beneficial effect in terms of pain and knee joint ROM. However, it appears that hydrotherapy is more effective in reducing pain.

  7. Comparison of effects of static, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and Mulligan stretching on hip flexion range of motion: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, M S; Ozyurek, S; Tosun, Oç; Uzer, S; Gelecek, N

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static stretching, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching and Mulligan technique on hip flexion range of motion (ROM) in subjects with bilateral hamstring tightness. A total of 40 students (mean age: 21.5±1.3 years, mean body height: 172.8±8.2 cm, mean body mass index: 21.9±3.0 kg · m(-2)) with bilateral hamstring tightness were enrolled in this randomized trial, of whom 26 completed the study. Subjects were divided into 4 groups performing (I) typical static stretching, (II) PNF stretching, (III) Mulligan traction straight leg raise (TSLR) technique, (IV) no intervention. Hip flexion ROM was measured using a digital goniometer with the passive straight leg raise test before and after 4 weeks by two physiotherapists blinded to the groups. 52 extremities of 26 subjects were analyzed. Hip flexion ROM increased in all three intervention groups (pstatic stretching (p=0.016 and p=0.02, respectively). No significant difference was found between Mulligan TSLR technique and PNF stretching (p=0.920). The initial-final assessment difference of hip flexion ROM was similar in typical static stretching and no intervention (p=0.491). A 4-week stretching intervention is beneficial for increasing hip flexion ROM in bilateral hamstring tightness. However, PNF stretching and Mulligan TSLR technique are superior to typical static stretching. These two interventions can be alternatively used for stretching in hamstring tightness.

  8. Global form and motion processing in healthy ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Hannah C; Phillips, Louise H; Pilz, Karin S

    2016-05-01

    The ability to perceive biological motion has been shown to deteriorate with age, and it is assumed that older adults rely more on the global form than local motion information when processing point-light walkers. Further, it has been suggested that biological motion processing in ageing is related to a form-based global processing bias. Here, we investigated the relationship between older adults' preference for form information when processing point-light actions and an age-related form-based global processing bias. In a first task, we asked older (>60years) and younger adults (19-23years) to sequentially match three different point-light actions; normal actions that contained local motion and global form information, scrambled actions that contained primarily local motion information, and random-position actions that contained primarily global form information. Both age groups overall performed above chance in all three conditions, and were more accurate for actions that contained global form information. For random-position actions, older adults were less accurate than younger adults but there was no age-difference for normal or scrambled actions. These results indicate that both age groups rely more on global form than local motion to match point-light actions, but can use local motion on its own to match point-light actions. In a second task, we investigated form-based global processing biases using the Navon task. In general, participants were better at discriminating the local letters but faster at discriminating global letters. Correlations showed that there was no significant linear relationship between performance in the Navon task and biological motion processing, which suggests that processing biases in form- and motion-based tasks are unrelated. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Role of soap and water in the treatment of wound dehiscence compared to normal saline plus povidone-iodine: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafian, Aida; Fallahi, Soghra; Khorgoei, Tahereh; Ghahiri, Ataollah; Alavi, Azin; Rajaei, Minoo; Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eqbal

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section is increased. About 3-30% of the women who undergo cesarean experience surgical site infections (SSIs). Many methods, have been used to decrease the incidence of SSIs, but despite much effort, no definite efficacious method has been suggested. In this parallel, single-blinded, randomized control trial, 56 women with post-surgical superficial wound dehiscence were divided into two groups in a 1:1 ratio. One group was irrigated with normal saline for irrigation and Firooz® baby soapand the other with normal saline for irrigation and povidone-iodine. Formation of granulation tissue was monitored in both groups. Also, the reason for surgery, length of wound dehiscence, and duration of hospitalization and wound union after were compared in both group's. The soap group patients were irrigated for 4.18 ± 1.96 days compared to 5.36 ± 2.83 days for the patients in povidone-iodine group (P = 0.414). The granulation tissue was formed after 3.88 ± 1.94 days in the soap group compared to 4.48 ± 2.92 days in the other group (P = 0.391), and the duration of hospitalization was 5.48 ± 2.04 days in the soap group compared to 6.3 ± 2.95 days in the other group (P = 0.423). So, no differences were observed between the two groups. It can be concluded since there is no difference between the results of two groups, irrigation with normal saline and soap is safe, easy and causes no harm or allergy compared with povidone iodine and normal saline.

  10. An observational study fluid balance and patient outcomes in the Randomized Evaluation of Normal vs. Augmented Level of Replacement Therapy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Rinaldo; Cass, Alan; Cole, Louise; Finfer, Simon; Gallagher, Martin; Lee, Joanne; Lo, Serigne; McArthur, Colin; McGuiness, Shay; Norton, Robyn; Myburgh, John; Scheinkestel, Carlos; Su, Steve

    2012-06-01

    To examine associations between mean daily fluid balance during intensive care unit study enrollment and clinical outcomes in patients enrolled in the Randomized Evaluation of Normal vs. Augmented Level (RENAL) replacement therapy study. Statistical analysis of data from multicenter, randomized, controlled trials. Thirty-five intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand. Cohort of 1453 patients enrolled in the RENAL study. We analyzed the association between daily fluid balance on clinical outcomes using multivariable logistic regression, Cox proportional hazards, time-dependent analysis, and repeated measure analysis models. During intensive care unit stay, mean daily fluid balance among survivors was -234 mL/day compared with +560 mL/day among nonsurvivors (p study treatment was independently associated with a decreased risk of death at 90 days (odds ratio 0.318; 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.43; p study, a negative mean daily fluid balance was consistently associated with improved clinical outcomes. Fluid balance may be a target for specific manipulation in future interventional trials of critically ill patients receiving renal replacement therapy.

  11. Effect of Training Preparation for Childbirth on Fear of Normal Vaginal Delivery and Choosing the Type of Delivery Among Pregnant Women in Hamadan, Iran: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine effect of an educational program on pregnant women’s fear of normal vaginal delivery. Fear of natural childbirth during pregnancy may increase the risk of caesarean section. Educational programs may be effective in reducing women fear of natural childbirth.Materials and methods: This randomized controlled trial conducted from September 2012 to January 2013 in Hamadan, Iran. One hundred fifty eligible women were randomly assigned to group "A" (Intervention group, n = 75 or group "B" (Control group, n = 75. Women in group A, participated in an antenatal educations program for physiologic childbirth in 8 two-hour sessions. A self-designed questionnaire was used to examine women's fear of natural childbirth. Data were analyzed with SPSS.16 software.Results: Baseline characteristics of women were similar in both groups. After intervention the mean fear score in group A compared to group B was significantly reduced (51.7 ± 22.4 vs. 58.7 ± 21.7 (p = 0.007. Physiologic delivery was the first choice of type of child birth after training in pregnant women in group A (58.7%. But delivery in physiologic form had lowest rate in group A (8%.Conclusion: Results of present study showed that educational program could be serving as an important tool in reducing women fear from natural childbirth and in choosing of physiologic birth. And for delivery as a physiological, education and counseling of pregnant women, doctors and midwives are required.

  12. Effect of Training Preparation for Childbirth on Fear of Normal Vaginal Delivery and Choosing the Type of Delivery Among Pregnant Women in Hamadan, Iran: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra; Kazemi, Farideh; Oshvandi, Khodayar; Jalali, Mozhgan; Esmaeili-Vardanjani, Ali; Rafiei, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Objective: To examine effect of an educational program on pregnant women's fear of normal vaginal delivery. Fear of natural childbirth during pregnancy may increase the risk of caesarean section. Educational programs may be effective in reducing women fear of natural childbirth. Materials and methods: This randomized controlled trial conducted from September 2012 to January 2013 in Hamadan, Iran. One hundred fifty eligible women were randomly assigned to group "A" (Intervention group, n = 75) or group "B" (Control group, n = 75). Women in group A, participated in an antenatal educations program for physiologic childbirth in 8 two-hour sessions. A self-designed questionnaire was used to examine women's fear of natural childbirth. Data were analyzed with SPSS.16 software. Results: Baseline characteristics of women were similar in both groups. After intervention the mean fear score in group A compared to group B was significantly reduced (51.7 ± 22.4 vs. 58.7 ± 21.7) (p = 0.007). Physiologic delivery was the first choice of type of child birth after training in pregnant women in group A (58.7%). But delivery in physiologic form had lowest rate in group A (8%). Conclusion: Results of present study showed that educational program could be serving as an important tool in reducing women fear from natural childbirth and in choosing of physiologic birth. And for delivery as a physiological, education and counseling of pregnant women, doctors and midwives are required.

  13. Effects of two stretching methods on shoulder range of motion and muscle stiffness in baseball players with posterior shoulder tightness: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Taishi; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Nishishita, Satoru; Yanase, Ko; Fujita, Kosuke; Umehara, Jun; Ji, Xiang; Ibuki, Satoko; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2016-09-01

    The cross-body stretch and sleeper stretch are widely used for improving flexibility of the posterior shoulder. These stretching methods were modified by Wilk. However, few quantitative data are available on the new, modified stretching methods. A recent study reported the immediate effects of stretching and soft tissue mobilization on the shoulder range of motion (ROM) and muscle stiffness in subjects with posterior shoulder tightness. However, the long-term effect of stretching for muscle stiffness is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 2 stretching methods, the modified cross-body stretch (MCS) and the modified sleeper stretch (MSS), on shoulder ROM and muscle stiffness in baseball players with posterior shoulder tightness. Twenty-four college baseball players with ROM limitations in shoulder internal rotation were randomly assigned to the MCS or MSS group. We measured shoulder internal rotation and horizontal adduction ROM and assessed posterior shoulder muscle stiffness with ultrasonic shear wave elastography before and after a 4-week intervention. Subjects were asked to perform 3 repetitions of the stretching exercises every day, for 30 seconds, with their dominant shoulder. In both groups, shoulder internal rotation and horizontal adduction ROM were significantly increased after the 4-week intervention. Muscle stiffness of the teres minor decreased in the MCS group, and that of the infraspinatus decreased in the MSS group. The MCS and MSS are effective for increasing shoulder internal rotation and horizontal adduction ROM and decreasing muscle stiffness of the infraspinatus or teres minor. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The immediate effects of two manual therapy techniques on ankle musculoarticular stiffness and dorsiflexion range of motion in people with chronic ankle rigidity: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Benjamin; Hall, Toby; Berwart, Mathilde; Biernaux, Elinor; Detrembleur, Christine

    2017-12-29

    Ankle rigidity is a common musculoskeletal disorder affecting the talocrural joint, which can impair weight-bearing ankle dorsiflexion (WBADF) and daily-life in people with or without history of ankle injuries. Our objective was to compare the immediate effects of efficacy of Mulligan Mobilization with Movement (MWM) and Osteopathic Mobilization (OM) for improving ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) and musculoarticular stiffness (MAS) in people with chronic ankle dorsiflexion rigidity. A randomized clinical trial with two arms. Patients were recruited by word of mouth and via social network as well as posters, and analyzed in the neuro musculoskeletal laboratory of the "Université Catholique de Louvain-la-Neuve", Brussels, Belgium. 67 men (aged 18-40 years) presenting with potential chronic non-specific and unilateral ankle mobility deficit during WBDF were assessed for eligibility and finally 40 men were included and randomly allocated to single session of either MWM or OM. Two modalities of manual therapy indicated for hypothetic immediate effects in chronic ankle dorsiflexion stiffness, i.e. MWM and OM, were applied during a single session on included patients. Comprised blinding measures of MAS with a specific electromechanical device (namely: Lehmann's device) producing passive oscillatory ankle joint dorsiflexion and with clinical measures of WBADF-ROM as well. A two-way ANOVA revealed a non-significant interaction between both techniques and time for all outcome measures. For measures of MAS: elastic-stiffness (p= 0.37), viscous-stiffness (p= 0.83), total-stiffness (p= 0.58). For WBADF-ROM: toe-wall distance (p= 0.58) and angular ROM (p= 0.68). Small effect sizes between groups were determined with Cohen's d ranging from 0.05 to 0.29. One-way ANOVA demonstrated non-significant difference and small to moderate effects sizes (d= 0.003-0.58) on all outcome measures before and after interventions within both groups. A second two-way ANOVA analyzed the

  15. The Healthy Start project: a randomized, controlled intervention to prevent overweight among normal weight, preschool children at high risk of future overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Nanna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research shows that obesity prevention has to start early. Targeting interventions towards subgroups of individuals who are predisposed, but yet normal weight, may prove more effective in preventing overweight than interventions towards unselected normal weight subsets. Finally, interventions focused on other factors than diet and activity are lacking. The objectives were to perform a randomized, controlled intervention aiming at preventing overweight in children aged 2–6 years, who are yet normal weight, but have high predisposition for future overweight, and to intervene not only by improving diet and physical activity, but also reduce stress and improve sleep quality and quantity. Methods/Design Based on information from the Danish National Birth Registry and administrative birth forms, children were selected based on having either a high birth weight, a mother who was overweight prior to pregnancy, or a familial low socioeconomic status. Selected children (n = 5,902 were randomized into three groups; an intervention group, a shadow control group followed in registers exclusively, and a control group examined at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Approximately 21% agreed to participate. Children who presented as overweight prior to the intervention were excluded from this study (n = 92. In the intervention group, 271 children were included, and in the control group 272 were included. Information obtained from the shadow control group is on-going, but it is estimated that 394 children will be included. The intervention took place over on average 1½ year between 2009 and 2011, and consisted of optional individual guidance in optimizing diet and physical activity habits, reducing chronic stress and stressful events and improving sleep quality and quantity. The intervention also included participation in cooking classes and play arrangements. Information on dietary intake, meal habits, physical

  16. Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motion sickness is a common problem in people traveling by car, train, airplanes, and especially boats. Anyone ... children, pregnant women, and people taking certain medicines. Motion sickness can start suddenly, with a queasy feeling ...

  17. Dose/volume-response relations for rectal morbidity using planned and simulated motion-inclusive dose distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thor, Maria; Apte, Aditya; Deasy, Joseph O; Karlsdóttir, Àsa; Moiseenko, Vitali; Liu, Mitchell; Muren, Ludvig Paul

    2013-12-01

    Many dose-limiting normal tissues in radiotherapy (RT) display considerable internal motion between fractions over a course of treatment, potentially reducing the appropriateness of using planned dose distributions to predict morbidity. Accounting explicitly for rectal motion could improve the predictive power of modelling rectal morbidity. To test this, we simulated the effect of motion in two cohorts. The included patients (232 and 159 cases) received RT for prostate cancer to 70 and 74 Gy. Motion-inclusive dose distributions were introduced as simulations of random or systematic motion to the planned dose distributions. Six rectal morbidity endpoints were analysed. A probit model using the QUANTEC recommended parameters was also applied to the cohorts. The differences in associations using the planned over the motion-inclusive dose distributions were modest. Statistically significant associations were obtained with four of the endpoints, mainly at high doses (55-70 Gy), using both the planned and the motion-inclusive dose distributions, primarily when simulating random motion. The strongest associations were observed for GI toxicity and rectal bleeding (Rs=0.12-0.21; Rs=0.11-0.20). Applying the probit model, significant associations were found for tenesmus and rectal bleeding (Rs=0.13, p=0.02). Equally strong associations with rectal morbidity were observed at high doses (>55 Gy), for the planned and the simulated dose distributions including in particular random rectal motion. Future studies should explore patient-specific descriptions of rectal motion to achieve improved predictive power. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Short- and medium-term effects of manual therapy on cervical active range of motion and pressure pain sensitivity in latent myofascial pain of the upper trapezius muscle: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Campelo, Natália; Melo, Cristina Argel de; Albuquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Machado, Jorge P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of different manual techniques on cervical ranges of 17 motion and pressure pain sensitivity in subjects with latent trigger point of the upper trapezius muscle. 18 Methods: One hundred seventeen volunteers, with a unilateral latent trigger point on upper trapezius due to computer 19 work, were randomly divided into 5 groups: ischemic compression (IC) group (n = 24); passive stretching group (n = 20 23); muscle energy...

  19. Motion sickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bles, W.; Bos, J.E.; Kruit, H.

    2000-01-01

    The number of recently published papers on motion sickness may convey the impression that motion sickness is far from being understood. The current review focusses on a concept which tends to unify the different manifestations and theories of motion sickness. The paper highlights the relations

  20. Male Spine Motion During Coitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorkewicz, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. Repeated measures design. Objective. To describe male spine movement and posture characteristics during coitus and compare these characteristics across 5 common coital positions. Summary of Background Data. Exacerbation of pain during coitus due to coital movements and positions is a prevalent issue reported by low back pain patients. A biomechanical analysis of spine movements and postures during coitus has never been conducted. Methods. Ten healthy males and females engaged in coitus in the following preselected positions and variations: QUADRUPED, MISSIONARY, and SIDELYING. An optoelectronic motion capture system was used to measure 3-dimensional lumbar spine angles that were normalized to upright standing. To determine whether each coital position had distinct spine kinematic profiles, separate univariate general linear models, followed by Tukey's honestly significant difference post hoc analysis were used. The presentation of coital positions was randomized. Results. Both variations of QUADRUPED, mQUAD1 and mQUAD2, were found to have a significantly higher cycle speed than mSIDE (P = 0.043 and P = 0.034, respectively), mMISS1 (P = 0.003 and P = 0.002, respectively), and mMISS2 (P = 0.001 and P spine movement varied depending on the coital position; however, across all positions, the majority of the range of motion used was in flexion. Based on range of motion, the least-to-most recommended positions for a male flexion-intolerant patient are mSIDE, mMISS2, mQUAD2, mMISS1, and mQUAD1. Conclusion. Initial recommendations—which include specific coital positions to avoid, movement strategies, and role of the partner—were developed for male patients whose low back pain is exacerbated by specific motions and postures. Level of Evidence: N/A PMID:25208042

  1. Comparison of the Airtraq laryngoscope and the GlideScope for double-lumen tube intubation in patients with predicted normal airways: a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jie; Gong, Yahong; Quan, Xiang; Huang, Yuguang

    2015-04-28

    The Airtraq laryngoscope and the GlideScope are commonly used in many airway scenarios. However, their features have not been fully described for double-lumen tube intubation. A prospective randomized study was designed to compare their intubation performances in thoracic surgery patients. Seventy ASA physical status I and II patients with predicted normal airway were scheduled for thoracic surgeries with double-lumen tube intubation. They were randomly assigned to one of two groups and intubated with either the Airtraq laryngoscope (group A, n = 35) or the GlideScope (group G, n = 35). Airway assessments were performed prior to anesthesia, and all patients were induced with a standard anesthetic regimen. The Cormack-Lehane grades were initially evaluated with a Macintosh laryngoscope and subsequently with the group-specific laryngoscope before intubation. Intubation time was recorded as the primary outcome. The Cormack-Lehane grade, the success of the first intubation attempt, the intubation difficulty scales and ease of tube advancement were noted. Hemodynamic variables during intubation and incidence of post-operative sore throat were documented as well. The intubation time of group A was shorter than that of group G (36.6 ± 20.2 s vs. 54.6 ± 25.7 s, p = 0.002). The Cormack-Lehane grade (I/II/III/IV) was significantly better in group A (33/2/0/0 vs. 28/7/0/0, p = 0.042). The mean arterial pressure and heart rate rose to higher levels during intubation with the GlideScope than with the Airtraq laryngoscope. The success of the first intubation attempt and the intubation difficulty scales were comparable between the two groups. The numbers of patients who experienced postoperative sore throat were similar (6 vs. 8) in the two groups. Compared with the GlideScope, the specially designed Airtraq laryngoscope might be more suitable for double-lumen tube intubations in patients with predicted normal airway. www.chictr.org Identifier: Chi

  2. Short-term changes in neck pain, widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and cervical range of motion after the application of trigger point dry needling in patients with acute mechanical neck pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejuto-Vázquez, María J; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Truyols-Domínguez, Sebastián; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2014-04-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To determine the effects of trigger point dry needling (TrPDN) on neck pain, widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and cervical range of motion in patients with acute mechanical neck pain and active trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. TrPDN seems to be effective for decreasing pain in individuals with upper-quadrant pain syndromes. Potential effects of TrPDN for decreasing pain and sensitization in individuals with acute mechanical neck pain are needed. Methods Seventeen patients (53% female) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: a single session of TrPDN or no intervention (waiting list). Pressure pain thresholds over the C5-6 zygapophyseal joint, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior muscle; neck pain intensity; and cervical spine range-of-motion data were collected at baseline (pretreatment) and 10 minutes and 1 week after the intervention by an assessor blinded to the treatment allocation of the patient. Mixed-model analyses of variance were used to examine the effects of treatment on each outcome variable. Patients treated with 1 session of TrPDN experienced greater decreases in neck pain, greater increases in pressure pain threshold, and higher increases in cervical range of motion than those who did not receive an intervention at both 10 minutes and 1 week after the intervention (Pneck pain intensity and widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and also increase active cervical range of motion, in patients with acute mechanical neck pain. Changes in pain, pressure pain threshold, and cervical range of motion surpassed their respective minimal detectable change values, supporting clinically relevant treatment effects. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1b-.

  3. Comparison of a Vibrating Foam Roller and a Non-vibrating Foam Roller Intervention on Knee Range of Motion and Pressure Pain Threshold: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Scott W; Stull, Kyle R; Kolber, Morey J

    2017-08-08

    The use of foam rollers to provide soft-tissue massage has become a common intervention among health and fitness professionals. Recently, manufacturers have merged the science of vibration therapy and foam rolling with the development of vibrating foam rollers. To date, no peer reviewed investigations have been published on this technology. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a vibrating roller and non-vibrating roller intervention on prone knee flexion passive range of motion (ROM) and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) of the quadriceps musculature. Forty-five recreationally active adults were randomly allocated to one of three groups: vibrating roller, non-vibrating roller, and control. Each roll intervention lasted a total of 2 minutes. The control group did not roll. Dependent variables included prone knee flexion ROM and PPT measures. Statistical analysis included parametric and non-parametric tests to measure changes among groups. The vibrating roller demonstrated the greatest increase in PPT (180kPa, p< 0.001), followed by the non-vibrating roller (112kPa, p< 0.001), and control (61kPa, p<0.001). For knee ROM, the vibrating roller demonstrated the greatest increase in ROM (7 degrees, p< 0.001), followed by the non-vibrating roller (5 degrees, p< 0.001), and control (2 degrees, p<0.001). Between groups, there was significant difference in PPT between the vibrating and non-vibrating roller (p=.03) and vibrating roller and control (p<.001). There was also a significant difference between the non-vibrating roller and control (p<.001). For knee ROM, there was no significant difference between the vibrating and non-vibrating roller (p=.31). A significant difference was found between the vibrating roller and control group (p<.001) and non-vibrating roller and control (p<.001). The results suggest that a vibrating roller may increase an individual's tolerance to pain greater than a non-vibrating roller. This investigation should be considered

  4. Acute effects of violent video-game playing on blood pressure and appetite perception in normal-weight young men: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, M; Sabatini, S; Fewtrell, M S; Wells, J C K

    2013-12-01

    Watching television and playing video game being seated represent sedentary behaviours and increase the risk of weight gain and hypertension. We investigated the acute effects of violent and non-violent video-game playing on blood pressure (BP), appetite perception and food preferences. Forty-eight young, normal-weight men (age: 23.1±1.9 years; body mass index: 22.5±1.9 kg/m(2)) participated in a three-arm, randomized trial. Subjects played a violent video game, a competitive, non-violent video game or watched TV for 1 h. Measurements of BP, stress and appetite perception were recorded before a standardized meal (∼300 kcal) and then repeated every 15 min throughout the intervention. Violent video-game playing was associated with a significant increase in diastolic BP (Δ±s.d.=+7.5±5.8 mm Hg; P=0.04) compared with the other two groups. Subjects playing violent video games felt less full (P=0.02) and reported a tendency towards sweet food consumption. Video games involving violence appear to be associated with significant effects on BP and appetite perceptions compared with non-violent gaming or watching TV.

  5. Motion Alters Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sang-Wook; Kang, Min-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Chromatic induction compellingly demonstrates that chromatic context as well as spectral lights reflected from an object determines its color appearance. Here, we show that when one colored object moves around an identical stationary object, the perceived saturation of the stationary object decreases dramatically whereas the saturation of the moving object increases. These color appearance shifts in the opposite directions suggest that normalization induced by the object’s motion may mediate the shift in color appearance. We ruled out other plausible alternatives such as local adaptation, attention, and transient neural responses that could explain the color shift without assuming interaction between color and motion processing. These results demonstrate that the motion of an object affects both its own color appearance and the color appearance of a nearby object, suggesting a tight coupling between color and motion processing. PMID:27824098

  6. Exercise during pregnancy in normal-weight women and risk of preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mascio, Daniele; Magro-Malosso, Elena Rita; Saccone, Gabriele; Marhefka, Gregary D; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    Preterm birth is the major cause of perinatal mortality in the United States. In the past, pregnant women have been recommended to not exercise because of presumed risks of preterm birth. Physical activity has been theoretically related to preterm birth because it increases the release of catecholamines, especially norepinephrine, which might stimulate myometrial activity. Conversely, exercise may reduce the risk of preterm birth by other mechanisms such as decreased oxidative stress or improved placenta vascularization. Therefore, the safety of exercise regarding preterm birth and its effects on gestational age at delivery remain controversial. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of exercise during pregnancy on the risk of preterm birth. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Sciences, Scopus, ClinicalTrial.gov, OVID, and Cochrane Library were searched from the inception of each database to April 2016. Selection criteria included only randomized clinical trials of pregnant women randomized before 23 weeks to an aerobic exercise regimen or not. Types of participants included women of normal weight with uncomplicated, singleton pregnancies without any obstetric contraindication to physical activity. The summary measures were reported as relative risk or as mean difference with 95% confidence intervals. The primary outcome was the incidence of preterm birth exercise group and 1037 (50.4%) to the control group. Aerobic exercise lasted about 35-90 minutes 3-4 times per week. Women who were randomized to aerobic exercise had a similar incidence of preterm birth of exercise group had a significantly higher incidence of vaginal delivery (73.6% vs 67.5%; relative risk, 1.09, 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.15) and a significantly lower incidence of cesarean delivery (17.9% vs 22%; relative risk, 0.82, 95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.97) compared with controls. The incidence of operative vaginal delivery (12.9% vs 16.5%; relative risk, 0.78, 95% confidence interval, 0

  7. Predictions to motion stimuli in human early visual cortex : Effects of motion displacement on motion predictability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413971309; Ramsey, N. F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07313774X; Raemaekers, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31370709X

    2015-01-01

    Recently, several studies showed that fMRI BOLD responses to moving random dot stimuli are enhanced at the location of dot appearance, i.e., the motion trailing edge. Possibly, BOLD activity in human visual cortex reflects predictability of visual motion input. In the current study, we investigate

  8. Heuristic Relative Entropy Principles with Complex Measures: Large-Degree Asymptotics of a Family of Multi-variate Normal Random Polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Michael Karl-Heinz

    2017-10-01

    Let z\\in C, let σ ^2>0 be a variance, and for N\\in N define the integrals E_N^{}(z;σ ) := {1/σ } \\int _R\\ (x^2+z^2) e^{-{1/2σ^2 x^2}}{√{2π }}/dx \\quad if N=1, {1/σ } \\int _{R^N} \\prod \\prod \\limits _{1≤ k1. These are expected values of the polynomials P_N^{}(z)=\\prod _{1≤ n≤ N}(X_n^2+z^2) whose 2 N zeros ± i X_k^{}_{k=1,\\ldots ,N} are generated by N identically distributed multi-variate mean-zero normal random variables {X_k}N_{k=1} with co-variance {Cov}_N^{}(X_k,X_l)=(1+σ ^2-1/N)δ _{k,l}+σ ^2-1/N(1-δ _{k,l}). The E_N^{}(z;σ ) are polynomials in z^2, explicitly computable for arbitrary N, yet a list of the first three E_N^{}(z;σ ) shows that the expressions become unwieldy already for moderate N—unless σ = 1, in which case E_N^{}(z;1) = (1+z^2)^N for all z\\in C and N\\in N. (Incidentally, commonly available computer algebra evaluates the integrals E_N^{}(z;σ ) only for N up to a dozen, due to memory constraints). Asymptotic evaluations are needed for the large- N regime. For general complex z these have traditionally been limited to analytic expansion techniques; several rigorous results are proved for complex z near 0. Yet if z\\in R one can also compute this "infinite-degree" limit with the help of the familiar relative entropy principle for probability measures; a rigorous proof of this fact is supplied. Computer algebra-generated evidence is presented in support of a conjecture that a generalization of the relative entropy principle to signed or complex measures governs the N→ ∞ asymptotics of the regime iz\\in R. Potential generalizations, in particular to point vortex ensembles and the prescribed Gauss curvature problem, and to random matrix ensembles, are emphasized.

  9. Comparing the Effects of Therapeutic Exercise and Hydrotherapy on Pain Severity and Knee Range of Motion in Patients with Hemophilia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Mazloum

    2013-10-01

    . Results: Both experimental groups exhibited significant reduction of pain along with improved knee flexion and extension compared with the control group (P<0.001. Pain reduction in subjects treated in water treatment was significantly higher than exercise group in drought (P0.05. Conclusion: The use of therapeutic exercise in water with regular exercise rehabilitation for patients with hemophilia can be helpful to reduce pain and improve range of motion in hemophilia patients. The effect of exercise therapy on pain reduction is more effective compared to traditional pain therapy. Key words: Hydrotherapy, Exercise Therapy, Hemophilia, Knee Range of Motion

  10. Effectiveness of a fine motor skills rehabilitation program on upper limb disability, manual dexterity, pinch strength, range of fingers motion, performance in activities of daily living, functional independency, and general self-efficacy in hand osteoarthritis: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Mármol, Jose Manuel; García-Ríos, Ma Carmen; Ortega-Valdivieso, María Azucena; Cano-Deltell, Enrique Elías; Peralta-Ramírez, María Isabel; Ickmans, Kelly; Aguilar-Ferrándiz, María Encarnación

    A randomized clinical trial. Rehabilitation treatments for improving fine motor skills (FMS) in hand osteoarthritis (HOA) have not been well explored yet. To assess the effectiveness of a rehabilitation program on upper limb disability, independence of activities of daily living (ADLs), fine motor abilities, functional independency, and general self-efficacy in older adults with HOA. About 45 adults (74-86 years) with HOA were assigned to an experimental group for completing an FMS intervention or a control group receiving conventional occupational therapy. Both interventions were performed 3 times/wk, 45 minutes each session, during 8 weeks. Upper limb disability, performance in ADLs, pinch strength, manual dexterity, range of fingers motion, functional independency, and general self-efficacy were assessed at baseline, immediately after treatment, and after 2 months of follow-up. FMS group showed significant improvements with a small effect size on manual dexterity (P ≤ .034; d ≥ 0.48) and a moderate-high effect on range of index (P ≤ .018; d ≥ 0.58) and thumb (P ≤ .027; d ≥ 0.39) motion. The control group showed a significant worse range of motion over time in some joints at the index (P ≤ .037; d ≥ 0.36) finger and thumb (P ≤ .017; d ≥ 0.55). A rehabilitation intervention for FMS may improve manual dexterity and range of fingers motion in HOA, but its effects on upper limb disability, performance in ADLs, pinch strength, functionality, and self-efficacy remain uncertain. Specific interventions of the hand are needed to prevent a worsening in range of finger motion. 1b. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Motion discrimination in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Kelly M; Salmon, David P; Galasko, Douglas; Filoteo, J Vincent; Festa, Elena K; Heindel, William C; Hansen, Lawrence A; Hamilton, Joanne M

    2015-10-20

    Visual processing abilities of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) or Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia were assessed psychophysically using a simple horizontal motion discrimination task that engages the dorsal visual processing stream. Participants included patients with mild dementia with DLB, AD dementia or Parkinson disease (PD) with dementia (PDD), without dementia with PD, and normal controls. Participants indicated the left or right direction of coherently moving dots that were embedded within dynamic visual noise provided by randomly moving dots. The proportion of coherently moving dots was increased or decreased across trials to determine a threshold at which participants could correctly indicate their direction with greater than 80% accuracy. Motion discrimination thresholds of patients with DLB and PDD were comparable and significantly higher (i.e., worse) than those of patients with AD dementia. The thresholds of patients with AD dementia and patients with PD were normal. These results were confirmed in subgroups of patients with DLB/PDD and AD dementia with autopsy-confirmed disease. A motion discrimination threshold greater than 0.23 distinguished between DLB/PDD and AD dementia with 67% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Differential deficits in detecting direction of simple horizontal motion suggest that dorsal processing stream dysfunction is greater in DLB and PDD than in AD dementia. Therefore, impaired performance on simple visual motion discrimination tasks that specifically engage occipitoparietal brain regions suggests the presence of Lewy body pathology. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Comparing motion induction in lateral motion and motion in depth

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Julie; German, KJ

    2008-01-01

    Induced motion, the apparent motion of an object when a nearby object moves, has been shown to occur in a variety of different conditions, including motion in depth. Here we explore whether similar patterns of induced motion result from induction in a lateral direction (frontoparallel motion) or induction in depth. We measured the magnitude of induced motion in a stationary target for: (a) binocularly viewed lateral motion of a pair of inducers, where the angular motion is in the same directi...

  13. The effect of normalizing the sagittal cervical configuration on dizziness, neck pain, and cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility: a 1-year randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ibrahim M; Diab, Aliaa A; Harrison, Deed E

    2017-02-01

    Cervicogenic dizziness is a disabling condition commonly associated with cervical dysfunction. Although the growing interest with the importance of normal sagittal configuration of cervical spine, the missing component in the management of cervicogenic dizziness might be altered structural alignment of the cervical spinal region itself. To investigate the immediate and long-term effects of a 1-year multimodal program, with the addition of cervical lordosis restoration and anterior head translation (AHT) correction, on the severity of dizziness, disability, cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility, and cervical pain in patients with cervicogenic dizziness. A randomized controlled study with a 1 year and 10 weeks' follow-up. University research laboratory. Seventy-two patients (25 female) between 40 and 55 years with cervicogenic dizziness, a definite hypolordotic cervical spine and AHT posture were randomly assigned to the control or an experimental group. Both groups received the multimodal program; additionally, the experimental group received the Denneroll™ cervical traction. Outcome measures included AHT distance, cervical lordosis, dizziness handicap inventory (DHI), severity of dizziness, dizziness frequency, head repositioning accuracy (HRA) and cervical pain. Measures were assessed at three time intervals: baseline, 10 weeks, and follow-up at 1 year and 10 weeks. Significant group × time effects at both the 10 week post treatment and the 1-year follow-up were identified favoring the experimental group for measures of cervical lordosis (P<0.0005) and anterior head translation (P<0.0005). At 10 weeks, the between group analysis showed equal improvements in dizziness outcome measures, pain intensity, and HRA; DHI scale (P=0.5), severity of dizziness (P=0.2), dizziness frequency (P=0.09), HRA (P=0.1) and neck pain (P=0.3). At 1-year follow-up, the between-group analysis identified statistically significant differences for all of the measured variables

  14. Impact of physical activity on energy balance, food intake and choice in normal weight and obese children in the setting of acute social stress: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsch, Antje; Wobmann, Marion; Kriemler, Susi; Munsch, Simone; Borloz, Sylvie; Balz, Alexandra; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Borghini, Ayala; Puder, Jardena J

    2015-02-19

    Psychological stress negatively influences food intake and food choices, thereby contributing to the development of childhood obesity. Physical activity can also moderate eating behavior and influence calorie intake. However, it is unknown if acute physical activity influences food intake and overall energy balance after acute stress exposure in children. We therefore investigated the impact of acute physical activity on overall energy balance (food intake minus energy expenditure), food intake, and choice in the setting of acute social stress in normal weight (NW) and overweight/obese (OW/OB) children as well as the impact of psychological risk factors. After receiving written consent from their parents, 26 NW (BMI children were randomly allocated using computer-generated numbers (1:1, after stratification for weight status) to acute moderate physical or to sedentary activity for 30 min. Afterwards, all children were exposed to an acute social stressor. Children and their parents completed self-report questionnaires. At the end of the stressor, children were allowed to eat freely from a range of 12 different foods (6 sweet/6 salty; each of low/high caloric density). Energy balance, food intake/choice and obesity-related psychological risk factors were assessed. Lower overall energy balance (p = 0.019) and a decreased choice of low density salty foods (p children compared with OW/OB children was found after acute moderate physical activity but not sedentary activity. Independent of their allocation, OW/OB children ate more high density salty foods (104 kcal (34 to 173), p = 0.004) following stress. They scored higher on impulsive behavior (p = 0.005), restrained eating (p parental corporal punishment (p = 0.03), but these psychological factors were not related to stress-induced food intake/choice. Positive parenting tended to be related to lower intake of sweet high density food (-132 kcal, -277 to 2, p = 0.054). In the setting of stress, acute moderate physical

  15. Insulin therapy and dietary adjustments to normalize glycemia and prevent nocturnal hypoglycemia after evening exercise in type 1 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew D; Walker, Mark; Bracken, Richard M; Turner, Daniel; Stevenson, Emma J; Gonzalez, Javier T; Shaw, James A; West, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Evening-time exercise is a frequent cause of severe hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes, fear of which deters participation in regular exercise. Recommendations for normalizing glycemia around exercise consist of prandial adjustments to bolus insulin therapy and food composition, but this carries only short-lasting protection from hypoglycemia. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the impact of a combined basal-bolus insulin dose reduction and carbohydrate feeding strategy on glycemia and metabolic parameters following evening exercise in type 1 diabetes. Ten male participants (glycated hemoglobin: 52.4±2.2 mmol/mol), treated with multiple daily injections, completed two randomized study-days, whereby administration of total daily basal insulin dose was unchanged (100%), or reduced by 20% (80%). Participants attended the laboratory at ∼08:00 h for a fasted blood sample, before returning in the evening. On arrival (∼17:00 h), participants consumed a carbohydrate meal and administered a 75% reduced rapid-acting insulin dose and 60 min later performed 45 min of treadmill running. At 60 min postexercise, participants consumed a low glycemic index (LGI) meal and administered a 50% reduced rapid-acting insulin dose, before returning home. At ∼23:00 h, participants consumed a LGI bedtime snack and returned to the laboratory the following morning (∼08:00 h) for a fasted blood sample. Venous blood samples were analyzed for glucose, glucoregulatory hormones, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor α. Interstitial glucose was monitored for 24 h pre-exercise and postexercise. Glycemia was similar until 6 h postexercise, with no hypoglycemic episodes. Beyond 6 h glucose levels fell during 100%, and nine participants experienced nocturnal hypoglycemia. Conversely, all participants during 80% were protected from nocturnal hypoglycemia, and remained protected for 24 h postexercise. All metabolic

  16. Efficacy and safety of Gegen Qinlian decoction for normalizing hyperglycemia in diabetic patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryuk, Jin Ah; Lixia, Mu; Cao, Shihua; Ko, Byoung-Seob; Park, Sunmin

    2017-08-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Gegen Qinlian decoction (GQD) for normalizing hyperglycemia in T2DM patients by pooling all available RCTs. All relevant RCTs were searched using the keywords: "GQD", "T2DM", "hyperglycemia" and "insulin" from the electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Korean databases, Chinese medical databases, and Indian scientific database. Each RCT included the control (metformin) and experimental (GQD+metformin) groups. The outcome measures were the assessments of changes in the severity of diabetic symptoms such as "markedly effective" and "effective" (fasting plasma glucose levels: <7 and 7-9, respectively; 2h postprandial glucose levels: <8.3 and 8.3-10.5mmol/L, respectively) after 8 weeks of treatment in each RCT. There were 186 articles selected from the initial searches and 181 irrelevant and duplicate articles were removed. Finally, 5 relevant RCTs involving 499 patients were included in this review. The meta-analysis showed the odds ratio of favorable GQD effect on the marked effectiveness of glycemia (n=499, OR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.63-3.37, P<0. In a subgroup analysis by GQD composition, 4 RCTs with original GQD composition also showed the odds ratio of the original GQD effect on the marked effectiveness of glycemia (n=339, OR: 2.58; 95% CI=1.65-4.02, P<0.0001) in comparison to the control group. All five studies used an appropriate method for randomization of the subjects but some of them included allocation concealment and blinding of patients and practitioners. There was no significant publication bias in the meta-analysis. The GQD and metformin had a synergistic effect on glycemic control in comparison to metformin alone as a T2DM therapy. More rigorous and larger studies are needed to confirm the therapeutic efficacy of GQD for hyperglycemia due to the moderate to high risk of bias in the 5 RCTs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Short- and medium-term effects of manual therapy on cervical active range of motion and pressure pain sensitivity in latent myofascial pain of the upper trapezius muscle: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Campelo, Natália M; de Melo, Cristina A; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Machado, Jorge P

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of different manual techniques on cervical ranges of motion and pressure pain sensitivity in subjects with latent trigger point of the upper trapezius muscle. One hundred seventeen volunteers, with a unilateral latent trigger point on upper trapezius due to computer work, were randomly divided into 5 groups: ischemic compression (IC) group (n=24); passive stretching group (n=23); muscle energy technique group (n=23); and 2 control groups, wait-and-see group (n=25) and placebo group (n=22). Cervical spine range of movement was measured using a cervical range of motion instrument as well as pressure pain sensitivity by means of an algometer and a visual analog scale. Outcomes were assessed pretreatment, immediately, and 24 hours after the intervention and 1 week later by a blind researcher. A 4×5 mixed repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine the effects of the intervention and Cohen d coefficient was used. A group-by-time interaction was detected in all variables (Pupper trapezius with latent trigger point seemed to improve the cervical range of motion and the pressure pain sensitivity. These effects persist after 1 week in the IC group. Copyright © 2013 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of an inverse dynamics method to compare the three-dimensional motion of the pelvic limb among clinically normal dogs and dogs with cranial cruciate ligament-deficient stifle joints following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy or lateral fabellar-tibial suture stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headrick, Jason F; Zhang, Songning; Millard, Ralph P; Rohrbach, Barton W; Weigel, Joseph P; Millis, Darryl L

    2014-06-01

    To compare the 3-D motion of the pelvic limb among clinically normal dogs and dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)-deficient stifle joints following tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) or lateral fabellar-tibial suture (LFS) stabilization by use of an inverse dynamics method. 6 clinically normal dogs and 19 dogs with CCL-deficient stifle joints that had undergone TPLO (n = 13) or LFS (6) stabilization at a mean of 4 and 8 years, respectively, prior to evaluation. For all dogs, an inverse dynamics method was used to describe the motion of the pelvic limbs in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes. Motion and energy patterns for the hip, stifle, and tibiotarsal (hock) joints in all 3 planes were compared among the 3 groups. Compared with corresponding variables for clinically normal dogs, the hip joint was more extended at the beginning of the stance phase in the sagittal plane for dogs that had a TPLO performed and the maximum power across the stifle joint in the frontal plane was greater for dogs that had an LFS procedure performed. Otherwise, variables in all planes were similar among the 3 groups. Gait characteristics of the pelvic limb did not differ between dogs that underwent TPLO and dogs that underwent an LFS procedure for CCL repair and were similar to those of clinically normal dogs. Both TPLO and LFS successfully provided long-term stabilization of CCL-deficient stifle joints of dogs with minimal alterations in gait.

  19. The effects of the CORE programme on pain at rest, movement-induced and secondary pain, active range of motion, and proprioception in female office workers with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Eun-Hye; Cho, Hwi-young

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the effects of the CORE programme on pain at rest, movement-induced pain, secondary pain, active range of motion, and proprioception deficits in female office workers with chronic low back pain. Randomized controlled trial. Rehabilitation clinics. A total of 53 participants with chronic low back pain were randomized into the CORE group and the control group. CORE group participants underwent the 30-minute CORE programme, five times per week, for eight weeks, with additional use of hot-packs and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, while the control group used only hot-packs and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Participants were evaluated pretest, posttest, and two months after the intervention period to measure resting and movement-induced pain, pressure pain as secondary pain, active range of pain-free motion, and trunk proprioception. Pain intensity at rest (35.6 ±5.9 mm) and during movement (39.4 ±9.1 mm) was significantly decreased in the CORE group following intervention compared with the control group. There were significant improvements in pressure pain thresholds (quadratus lumborum: 2.2 ±0.7 kg/cm(2); sacroiliac joint: 2.0 ±0.7 kg/cm(2)), active range of motion (flexion: 30.8 ±14.3°; extension: 6.6 ±2.5°), and proprioception (20° flexion: 4.3 ±2.4°; 10° extension: 3.1 ±2.0°) in the CORE group following intervention (all p proprioception in female office workers with chronic low back pain. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Random walks on three-strand braids and on related hyperbolic groups 05.40.-a Fluctuation phenomena, random processes, noise, and Brownian motion; 02.50.-r Probability theory, stochastic processes, and statistics; 02.40.Ky Riemannian geometries;

    CERN Document Server

    Nechaev, S

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of random walks on the simplest nontrivial braid group B sub 3 , and on related hyperbolic groups. We provide a method using Cayley graphs of groups allowing us to compute explicitly the probability distribution of the basic statistical characteristics of random trajectories - the drift and the return probability. The action of the groups under consideration in the hyperbolic plane is investigated, and the distribution of a geometric invariant - the hyperbolic distance - is analysed. It is shown that a random walk on B sub 3 can be viewed as a 'magnetic random walk' on the group PSL(2, Z).

  1. Random walks on three-strand braids and on related hyperbolic groups[05.40.-a Fluctuation phenomena, random processes, noise, and Brownian motion; 02.50.-r Probability theory, stochastic processes, and statistics; 02.40.Ky Riemannian geometries;

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nechaev, Sergei [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, Universite Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Voituriez, Raphael [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, Universite Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2003-01-10

    We investigate the statistical properties of random walks on the simplest nontrivial braid group B{sub 3}, and on related hyperbolic groups. We provide a method using Cayley graphs of groups allowing us to compute explicitly the probability distribution of the basic statistical characteristics of random trajectories - the drift and the return probability. The action of the groups under consideration in the hyperbolic plane is investigated, and the distribution of a geometric invariant - the hyperbolic distance - is analysed. It is shown that a random walk on B{sub 3} can be viewed as a 'magnetic random walk' on the group PSL(2, Z)

  2. Integration of Motion Responses Underlying Directional Motion Anisotropy in Human Early Visual Cortical Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Wouter; Van Wezel, Richard J. A.; Petridou, Natalia; Ramsey, Nick F.; Raemaekers, Mathijs

    2013-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have reported directional motion biases in human visual cortex when perceiving moving random dot patterns. It has been hypothesized that these biases occur as a result of the integration of motion detector activation along the path of motion in visual cortex. In this study we investigate the nature of such motion integration with functional MRI (fMRI) using different motion stimuli. Three types of moving random dot stimuli were presented, showing either coherent motion, motion with spatial decorrelations or motion with temporal decorrelations. The results from the coherent motion stimulus reproduced the centripetal and centrifugal directional motion biases in V1, V2 and V3 as previously reported. The temporally decorrelated motion stimulus resulted in both centripetal and centrifugal biases similar to coherent motion. In contrast, the spatially decorrelated motion stimulus resulted in small directional motion biases that were only present in parts of visual cortex coding for higher eccentricities of the visual field. In combination with previous results, these findings indicate that biased motion responses in early visual cortical areas most likely depend on the spatial integration of a simultaneously activated motion detector chain. PMID:23840711

  3. Motion noise changes directional interaction between transparently moving stimuli from repulsion to attraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Gaudio

    Full Text Available To interpret visual scenes, visual systems need to segment or integrate multiple moving features into distinct objects or surfaces. Previous studies have found that the perceived direction separation between two transparently moving random-dot stimuli is wider than the actual direction separation. This perceptual "direction repulsion" is useful for segmenting overlapping motion vectors. Here we investigate the effects of motion noise on the directional interaction between overlapping moving stimuli. Human subjects viewed two overlapping random-dot patches moving in different directions and judged the direction separation between the two motion vectors. We found that the perceived direction separation progressively changed from wide to narrow as the level of motion noise in the stimuli was increased, showing a switch from direction repulsion to attraction (i.e. smaller than the veridical direction separation. We also found that direction attraction occurred at a wider range of direction separations than direction repulsion. The normalized effects of both direction repulsion and attraction were the strongest near the direction separation of ∼25° and declined as the direction separation further increased. These results support the idea that motion noise prompts motion integration to overcome stimulus ambiguity. Our findings provide new constraints on neural models of motion transparency and segmentation.

  4. Randomized controlled clinical trial on two perineal trauma suture techniques in normal delivery Ensayo aleatorio clínico controlado para dos técnicas de sutura perineal en parto normal Ensaio clínico controlado aleatório sobre duas técnicas de sutura do trauma perineal no parto normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ferreira Silva de Almeida

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to compare healing and perineal pain with the use of continuous and interrupted suture techniques in women after normal delivery. A randomized controlled trial was carried out at a hospital birth center in Itapecirica da Serra, Sao Paulo, Brazil. A total of 61 women participated with episiotomy or second degree perineal tear, allocated in two groups according to the continuous (n=31 or interrupted (n=30 suture techniques. The main outcomes evaluated were edema, ecchymosis, hyperemia, secretion, dehiscence, fibrosis, frequency and degree of pain (evaluated by numerical scale from 1 to 10. Data were collected during hospitalization and after discharge (four and 41 days after birth. Healing occurred by first intention in 100% of cases in both suture techniques. There were no statistically significant differences for the occurrence of morbidities, except for perineal pain due to palpation at four days after delivery, which was more frequent among women with interrupted suture.El objetivo fue comparar la cicatrización y el dolor perineal utilizando técnicas de sutura continua y separada, en mujeres que realizaron parto normal. El estudio fue controlado aleatorio, realizado en un centro para parto normal en Itapecerica de la Sierra, Sao Paulo. Participaron 61 mujeres con episiotomía o desgarro perineal de segundo grado, distribuidas en dos grupos (sutura continua n=31 y sutura separada n=30. Las principales medidas evaluadas fueron edema, equimosis, hiperemia, secreción, dehiscencia de herida, fibrosis, frecuencia y magnitud del dolor (evaluada por escala numérica de 1 a 10. Los datos fueron recolectados durante la hospitalización y después del alta (de 4 a 41 días post-parto. La cicatrización fue por primera intención en 100% de los casos, para las dos técnicas de sutura. No se encontró diferencia estadísticamente significativa en los casos de morbilidad, con excepción del dolor perineal a la palpación al cuarto día post

  5. Hair removal in hirsute women with normal testosterone levels: a randomized controlled trial of long-pulsed diode laser vs. intense pulsed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haak, C S; Jensen, Pernille Nymann; Pedersen, A T

    2010-01-01

    Hirsutism is a common disorder in women of reproductive age, and androgen disturbances may aggravate the condition. Limited evidence exists regarding efficacy of hair removal in this specific population and no data are available for patients with verified normal testosterone levels.......Hirsutism is a common disorder in women of reproductive age, and androgen disturbances may aggravate the condition. Limited evidence exists regarding efficacy of hair removal in this specific population and no data are available for patients with verified normal testosterone levels....

  6. Time series analysis of collective motions in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakent, Burak; Doruker, Pemra; Camurdan, Mehmet C

    2004-01-08

    The dynamics of alpha-amylase inhibitor tendamistat around its native state is investigated using time series analysis of the principal components of the C(alpha) atomic displacements obtained from molecular dynamics trajectories. Collective motion along a principal component is modeled as a homogeneous nonstationary process, which is the result of the damped oscillations in local minima superimposed on a random walk. The motion in local minima is described by a stationary autoregressive moving average model, consisting of the frequency, damping factor, moving average parameters and random shock terms. Frequencies for the first 50 principal components are found to be in the 3-25 cm(-1) range, which are well correlated with the principal component indices and also with atomistic normal mode analysis results. Damping factors, though their correlation is less pronounced, decrease as principal component indices increase, indicating that low frequency motions are less affected by friction. The existence of a positive moving average parameter indicates that the stochastic force term is likely to disturb the mode in opposite directions for two successive sampling times, showing the modes tendency to stay close to minimum. All these four parameters affect the mean square fluctuations of a principal mode within a single minimum. The inter-minima transitions are described by a random walk model, which is driven by a random shock term considerably smaller than that for the intra-minimum motion. The principal modes are classified into three subspaces based on their dynamics: essential, semiconstrained, and constrained, at least in partial consistency with previous studies. The Gaussian-type distributions of the intermediate modes, called "semiconstrained" modes, are explained by asserting that this random walk behavior is not completely free but between energy barriers. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics

  7. P3-18: Examining Neural Representation of Bi-Directional Motions with Directional Performance in Transparency Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Watanabe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available When we look at two overlapping random-dot patterns moving toward different directions, we perceive two global motions simultaneously in the same region of a visual field; this perception is known as motion transparency. After Braddick and his colleagues' work on comparing perceptual performances in transparent and single motion stimuli (2002 Vision Research 42 1237–1248, it has been considered as one of the promising cues for revealing how superimposed motions are represented in the brain. The perceptual performance would reflect encoding property of overlapping motions, and it enables us to examine the encoding models quantitatively. In the present study, we carried out psychophysical experiments to measure the directional performances in motion transparency and examined if established models of MT responses, a simple weighted sum and a normalization model, were consistent with the performances obtained experimentally. In psychophysical experiments, we measured precisions, or standard deviations, of perceived angles between two overlapping motion directions. The result showed that the perceptual performance was getting worse as a directional difference between two motions increased, while the precision was improved when dot densities of two motions differed considerably. In computational analyses, we compared the experimental results with the encoding properties of MT population models by using Fisher information that told us the lower bounds of the variances of decoded directions. The analyses showed that there was a qualitative difference between the model properties and experimentally obtained performances. Our results suggest that conventional models of MT responses cannot interpret perceptual property of motion transparency.

  8. Integration of motion responses underlying directional motion anisotropy in human early visual cortical areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, W.; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton; Petridou, N.; Ramsey, N.F.; Raemaekers, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent imaging studies have reported directional motion biases in human visual cortex when perceiving moving random dot patterns. It has been hypothesized that these biases occur as a result of the integration of motion detector activation along the path of motion in visual cortex. In this study we

  9. Clarifying Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Confusion exists among database textbooks as to the goal of normalization as well as to which normal form a designer should aspire. This article discusses such discrepancies with the intention of simplifying normalization for both teacher and student. This author's industry and classroom experiences indicate such simplification yields quicker…

  10. Psilocybin impairs high-level but not low-level motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Olivia L; Pettigrew, John D; Burr, David C; Alais, David; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2004-08-26

    The hallucinogenic serotonin(1A&2A) agonist psilocybin is known for its ability to induce illusions of motion in otherwise stationary objects or textured surfaces. This study investigated the effect of psilocybin on local and global motion processing in nine human volunteers. Using a forced choice direction of motion discrimination task we show that psilocybin selectively impairs coherence sensitivity for random dot patterns, likely mediated by high-level global motion detectors, but not contrast sensitivity for drifting gratings, believed to be mediated by low-level detectors. These results are in line with those observed within schizophrenic populations and are discussed in respect to the proposition that psilocybin may provide a model to investigate clinical psychosis and the pharmacological underpinnings of visual perception in normal populations.

  11. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention trial on physical activity among normal weight preschool children predisposed to overweight and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Händel, Mina Nicole; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Rohde, Jeanett Friis

    2017-01-01

    was to evaluate the effect on PA outcomes of the 15 month Healthy Start intervention that focused on changing diet, PA, sleep and stress management among normal weight but obesity-prone preschool children. Children were defined as obesity-prone if they had a birth weight > 4,000 g, mothers with a pre...... of the subcategories, e.g. sports participation, outdoor activities, screen time, or commuting frequency. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the overall time spent on sports and outdoor activities combined was increased at follow-up among normal weight obesity-prone children, as a result of the Healthy Start...

  12. Two different doses of supplemental vitamin A did not affect mortality of normal-birth-weight neonates in Guinea-Bissau in a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Diness, Birgitte R; Balde, Ibraima

    2014-01-01

    Whether neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) should be policy in areas with vitamin A deficiency is debated. We observed that a smaller dose of vitamin A may decrease mortality more than a larger dose and conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Guinea-Bissau with th...

  13. Smooth Pursuit of Flicker-Defined Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Stevenson, Scott B.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the pursuit response to stimuli defined by space-variant flicker of a dense random dot carrier pattern. On each frame, every element of the pattern could change polarity, with a probability given by a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution. A normal distribution produces a circular region of twinkle, while inverting the distribution results in a spot of static texture in a twinkling surround. In this latter case, the carrier texture could be stationary, or could move with the twinkle modulator, thereby producing first-order motion in the region of the spot. While the twinkle-defined spot produces a strong sensation of motion, the complementary stimulus defined by the absence of twinkle does not, when viewed peripherally, it appears to move in steps even when the generating distribution moves smoothly. We examined pursuit responses to these stimuli using two techniques: 1) the eye movement correlogram, obtained by cross-correlating eye velocity with the velocity of a randomly-moving stimulus; and 2) delayed visual feedback, where transient stabilization of a target can produce spontaneous oscillations of the eye, with a period empirically observed to vary linearly with the applied delay. Both techniques provide an estimate of the internal processing time, which can be as short as 100 milliseconds for a first-order target. Assessed by the correlogram method, the response to flicker-defined motion is delayed by more than 100 milliseconds, and significantly weaker (especially in the vertical dimension). When initially presented in the delayed feedback condition, purely saccadic oscillation is observed. One subject eventually developed smooth oscillations (albeit with significant saccadic intrusions), showing a period-versus-delay slope similar to that observed for first-order targets. This result is somewhat surprising, given that we interpret the slope of the period-versus-delay-function as reflecting the balance between position- and velocity

  14. Motion management in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert, Christoph [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Abteilung Biophysik, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Radiotherapy of tumors that move during irradiation requires dedicated means to ensure target coverage despite the motion influence. Motion can occur inter-fractionally (e.g. position of the prostate) or intra-fractionally; the most dominant reason for intra-fractional motion is respiration. The standard procedure to reduce the influence of target motion is the use of margins encompassing the clinical target volume (CTV) to form a planning target volume (PTV) that covers all uncertainties. This approach ensures CTV coverage for most treatment modalities but results in therapeutic dose to normal tissue. With the opportunities given by improved imaging techniques such as time-resolved computed tomography (CT) or (cone-beam) CT in treatment position as well as motion mitigation techniques such as gating or tracking the dosimetric influence of target motion could be reduced. Especially for conformal techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or particle therapy only advanced motion mitigation techniques and/or adaptive therapy concepts lead to preservation of the target conformation established for stationary targets in treatments of moving targets. In the scope of the talk an introduction to motion management is given with an emphasis on application in scanned particle beam therapy.

  15. Role of soap and water in the treatment of wound dehiscence compared to normal saline plus povidone-iodine: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Najafian, Aida; Fallahi, Soghra; Khorgoei, Tahereh; Ghahiri, Ataollah; Alavi, Azin; Rajaei, Minoo; Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eqbal

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of cesarean section is increased. About 3?30% of the women who undergo cesarean experience surgical site infections (SSIs). Many methods, have been used to decrease the incidence of SSIs, but despite much effort, no definite efficacious method has been suggested. Materials and Methods: In this parallel, single-blinded, randomized control trial, 56 women with post-surgical superficial wound dehiscence were divided into two groups in a 1:1 ratio. One group was irrigate...

  16. Changes in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in response to dietary salt intake in normal and hypertensive pregnancy. A randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lise Hald; Ovesen, Per; Hansen, Mie R

    2016-01-01

    It was hypothesized that primary renal sodium retention blunted the reactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to changes in salt intake in preeclampsia (PE). A randomized, cross-over, double-blinded, dietary intervention design was used to measure the effects of salt tablets or place...... of plasma renin and angiotensin II in response to changes in dietary salt intake compatible with a primary increase in renal sodium reabsorption in hypertensive pregnancies....

  17. Insulin therapy and dietary adjustments to normalize glycemia and prevent nocturnal hypoglycemia after evening exercise in type 1 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, MD; Walker, M; Bracken, RM; Turner, D; Stevenson, EJ; Gonzalez, JT; Shaw, JA; West, DJ

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evening-time exercise is a frequent cause of severe hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes, fear of which deters participation in regular exercise. Recommendations for normalizing glycemia around exercise consist of prandial adjustments to bolus insulin therapy and food composition, but this carries only short-lasting protection from hypoglycemia. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the impact of a combined basal-bolus insulin dose reduction and carbohydrate feeding strategy on glyc...

  18. Insulin therapy and dietary adjustments to normalize glycaemia and prevent nocturnal hypoglycaemia after evening exercise in type 1 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, MD; Walker, M; Trenell, MI; Stevenson, EJ; Turner, D; Bracken, RM; Shaw, JA; West, DJ

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Evening-time exercise is a frequent cause of severe hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes, fear of which deters participation in regular exercise. Recommendations for normalizing glycemia around exercise consist of prandial adjustments to bolus insulin therapy and food composition, but this carries only short-lasting protection from hypoglycemia. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the impact of a combined basal-bolus insulin dose reduction and carbohydrate feeding strategy on glyce...

  19. Hair removal in hirsute women with normal testosterone levels: a randomized controlled trial of long-pulsed diode laser vs. intense pulsed light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, C S; Nymann, P; Pedersen, A T; Clausen, H V; Feldt Rasmussen, U; Rasmussen, A K; Main, K; Haedersdal, M

    2010-11-01

    Hirsutism is a common disorder in women of reproductive age, and androgen disturbances may aggravate the condition. Limited evidence exists regarding efficacy of hair removal in this specific population and no data are available for patients with verified normal testosterone levels. To compare efficacy and safety of intense pulsed light (IPL) vs. long-pulsed diode laser (LPDL) in a well-defined group of hirsute women with normal testosterone levels. Thirty-one hirsute women received six allocated split-face treatments with IPL (525-1200 nm; Palomar Starlux IPL system) and LPDL (810 nm; Asclepion MeDioStar XT diode laser). Testosterone levels were measured three times during the study period. Patients with intrinsically normal or medically normalized testosterone levels throughout the study were included in efficacy assessments (n = 23). Endpoints were reduction in hair counts assessed by blinded photoevaluations at baseline and 1, 3 and 6 months after final treatment, patient-evaluated reduction in hairiness, patient satisfaction, treatment-related pain and adverse effects. IPL and LPDL reduced hair counts significantly, with median reductions from baseline of 77%, 53% and 40% for IPL and 68%, 60% and 34% for LDPL at 1, 3 and 6 months, respectively. At 6 months follow-up, there was no significant difference between treatments in terms of hair reduction (P = 0·427), patient assessment of hairiness (P = 0·250) and patient satisfaction (P = 0·125). Pain scores were consistently higher for IPL [median 6, interquartile range (IQR) 4-7] than LPDL (median 3, IQR 2-5) (P IPL and LPDL treatments of facial hairiness, but the efficacy declined over 6 months. © 2010 The Authors. BJD © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Rapid sampling of molecular motions with prior information constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barak Raveh

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are active, flexible machines that perform a range of different functions. Innovative experimental approaches may now provide limited partial information about conformational changes along motion pathways of proteins. There is therefore a need for computational approaches that can efficiently incorporate prior information into motion prediction schemes. In this paper, we present PathRover, a general setup designed for the integration of prior information into the motion planning algorithm of rapidly exploring random trees (RRT. Each suggested motion pathway comprises a sequence of low-energy clash-free conformations that satisfy an arbitrary number of prior information constraints. These constraints can be derived from experimental data or from expert intuition about the motion. The incorporation of prior information is very straightforward and significantly narrows down the vast search in the typically high-dimensional conformational space, leading to dramatic reduction in running time. To allow the use of state-of-the-art energy functions and conformational sampling, we have integrated this framework into Rosetta, an accurate protocol for diverse types of structural modeling. The suggested framework can serve as an effective complementary tool for molecular dynamics, Normal Mode Analysis, and other prevalent techniques for predicting motion in proteins. We applied our framework to three different model systems. We show that a limited set of experimentally motivated constraints may effectively bias the simulations toward diverse predicates in an outright fashion, from distance constraints to enforcement of loop closure. In particular, our analysis sheds light on mechanisms of protein domain swapping and on the role of different residues in the motion.

  1. Conserved linear dynamics of single-molecule Brownian motion

    KAUST Repository

    Serag, Maged F.

    2017-06-06

    Macromolecular diffusion in homogeneous fluid at length scales greater than the size of the molecule is regarded as a random process. The mean-squared displacement (MSD) of molecules in this regime increases linearly with time. Here we show that non-random motion of DNA molecules in this regime that is undetectable by the MSD analysis can be quantified by characterizing the molecular motion relative to a latticed frame of reference. Our lattice occupancy analysis reveals unexpected sub-modes of motion of DNA that deviate from expected random motion in the linear, diffusive regime. We demonstrate that a subtle interplay between these sub-modes causes the overall diffusive motion of DNA to appear to conform to the linear regime. Our results show that apparently random motion of macromolecules could be governed by non-random dynamics that are detectable only by their relative motion. Our analytical approach should advance broad understanding of diffusion processes of fundamental relevance.

  2. No-Onset Looming Motion Guides Spatial Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Muhlenen, Adrian; Lleras, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    These 6 experiments explored the ability of moving random dot patterns to attract attention, as measured by a simple probe-detection task. Each trial began with random motion (i.e., dots linearly moved in random directions). After 1 s motion in 1 hemifield became gradually coherent (i.e., all dots moved up-, down-, left-, or rightwards, or either…

  3. Birkhoff normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Birkhoff normal form procedure is a widely used tool for approximating a Hamiltonian systems by a simpler one. This chapter starts out with an introduction to Hamiltonian mechanics, followed by an explanation of the Birkhoff normal form procedure. Finally we discuss several algorithms for

  4. Motion words selectively modulate direction discrimination sensitivity for threshold motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Andrea; Skujevskis, Māris; Baggio, Giosuè

    2013-01-01

    Can speech selectively modulate the sensitivity of a sensory system so that, in the presence of a suitable linguistic context, the discrimination of certain perceptual features becomes more or less likely? In this study, participants heard upward or downward motion words followed by a single visual field of random dots moving upwards or downwards. The time interval between the onsets of the auditory and the visual stimuli was varied parametrically. Motion direction could be either discriminable (suprathreshold motion) or non-discriminable (threshold motion). Participants had to judge whether the dots were moving upward or downward. Results show a double dissociation between discrimination sensitivity (d′) and reaction times depending on whether vertical motion was above or at threshold. With suprathreshold motion, responses were faster for congruent directions of words and dots, but sensitivity was equal across conditions. With threshold motion, sensitivity was higher for congruent directions of words and dots, but responses were equally fast across conditions. The observed differences in sensitivity and response times were largest when the dots appeared 450 ms after word onset, that is, consistently with electrophysiology, at the time the up/down semantics of the word had become available. These data suggest that word meanings can alter the balance between signal and noise within the visual system and affect the perception of low-level sensory features. PMID:23596407

  5. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention trial on physical activity among normal weight preschool children predisposed to overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Mina Nicole; Larsen, Sofus Christian; Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Stougaard, Maria; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2017-01-01

    There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of primary interventions aiming to prevent excess weight gain among young children. Evaluating behavioral changes, such as physical activity (PA), may add to future development of efficient interventions. The objective was to evaluate the effect on PA outcomes of the 15 month Healthy Start intervention that focused on changing diet, PA, sleep and stress management among normal weight but obesity-prone preschool children. Children were defined as obesity-prone if they had a birth weight > 4,000 g, mothers with a pre-pregnancy body mass index of > 28 kg/m2, or mothers with ≤ 10 years of schooling. From a baseline study population of 635 normal weight 2-6 year old preschool children from the greater Copenhagen area, parents of 307 children had given information on PA at both the baseline and follow-up examinations. PA was obtained from a 7 days recording in the Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire. Time used for sport activities were combined with outdoor playing time to achieve a proxy of total PA level of moderate to vigorous intensity. Linear regression analyses revealed that at follow-up the intervention group spent more time on sports and outdoor activities combined per week than the control group (ITT analyses: intervention: 400 min/week; 95% confidence interval (CI): 341, 459 versus control: 321 min/week; 95% CI: 277, 366; p = 0.02), although no significant intervention effects were seen for each of the subcategories, e.g. sports participation, outdoor activities, screen time, or commuting frequency. Our results suggest that the overall time spent on sports and outdoor activities combined was increased at follow-up among normal weight obesity-prone children, as a result of the Healthy Start intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01583335.

  6. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention trial on physical activity among normal weight preschool children predisposed to overweight and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Nicole Händel

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of primary interventions aiming to prevent excess weight gain among young children. Evaluating behavioral changes, such as physical activity (PA, may add to future development of efficient interventions. The objective was to evaluate the effect on PA outcomes of the 15 month Healthy Start intervention that focused on changing diet, PA, sleep and stress management among normal weight but obesity-prone preschool children. Children were defined as obesity-prone if they had a birth weight > 4,000 g, mothers with a pre-pregnancy body mass index of > 28 kg/m2, or mothers with ≤ 10 years of schooling.From a baseline study population of 635 normal weight 2-6 year old preschool children from the greater Copenhagen area, parents of 307 children had given information on PA at both the baseline and follow-up examinations. PA was obtained from a 7 days recording in the Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire. Time used for sport activities were combined with outdoor playing time to achieve a proxy of total PA level of moderate to vigorous intensity.Linear regression analyses revealed that at follow-up the intervention group spent more time on sports and outdoor activities combined per week than the control group (ITT analyses: intervention: 400 min/week; 95% confidence interval (CI: 341, 459 versus control: 321 min/week; 95% CI: 277, 366; p = 0.02, although no significant intervention effects were seen for each of the subcategories, e.g. sports participation, outdoor activities, screen time, or commuting frequency.Our results suggest that the overall time spent on sports and outdoor activities combined was increased at follow-up among normal weight obesity-prone children, as a result of the Healthy Start intervention.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01583335.

  7. Estimation of Motion Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the estimation of 2-D motion vector fields from time varying image sequences. We use a piecewise smooth model based on coupled vector/binary Markov random fields. We find the maximum a posteriori solution by simulated annealing. The algorithm generate sample...

  8. Effectiveness of a School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Cognitive Performance in Danish Adolescents: LCoMotion—Learning, Cognition and Motion – A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Froberg, Karsten; Hillman, Charles H.; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bugge, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity is associated not only with health-related parameters, but also with cognitive and academic performance. However, no large scale school-based physical activity interventions have investigated effects on cognitive performance in adolescents. The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of a school-based physical activity intervention in enhancing cognitive performance in 12–14 years old adolescents. Methods A 20 week cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted including seven intervention and seven control schools. A total of 632 students (mean (SD) age: 12.9 (0.6) years) completed the trial with baseline and follow-up data on primary or secondary outcomes (74% of randomized subjects). The intervention targeted physical activity during academic subjects, recess, school transportation and leisure-time. Cognitive performance was assessed using an executive functions test of inhibition (flanker task) with the primary outcomes being accuracy and reaction time on congruent and incongruent trials. Secondary outcomes included mathematics performance, physical activity levels, body-mass index, waist-circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness. Results No significant difference in change, comparing the intervention group to the control group, was observed on the primary outcomes (p’s>0.05) or mathematics skills (p>0.05). An intervention effect was found for cardiorespiratory fitness in girls (21 meters (95% CI: 4.4–38.6) and body-mass index in boys (-0.22 kg/m2 (95% CI: -0.39–0.05). Contrary to our predictions, a significantly larger change in interference control for reaction time was found in favor of the control group (5.0 milliseconds (95% CI: 0–9). Baseline to mid-intervention changes in physical activity levels did not differ significantly between groups (all p’s>0.05). Conclusions No evidence was found for effectiveness of a 20-week multi-faceted school-based physical activity intervention for enhancing

  9. Motion sickness: more than nausea and vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, James R

    2014-08-01

    Motion sickness is a complex syndrome that includes many features besides nausea and vomiting. This review describes some of these factors and points out that under normal circumstances, many cases of motion sickness go unrecognized. Motion sickness can occur during exposure to physical motion, visual motion, and virtual motion, and only those without a functioning vestibular system are fully immune. The range of vulnerability in the normal population varies about 10,000 to 1. Sleep deprivation can also enhance susceptibility. Systematic studies conducted in parabolic flight have identified velocity storage of semicircular canal signals-velocity integration-as being a key factor in both space motion sickness and terrestrial motion sickness. Adaptation procedures that have been developed to increase resistance to motion sickness reduce this time constant. A fully adequate theory of motion sickness is not presently available. Limitations of two popular theories, the evolutionary and the ecological, are described. A sensory conflict theory can explain many but not all aspects of motion sickness elicitation. However, extending the theory to include conflicts related to visceral afferent feedback elicited by voluntary and passive body motion greatly expands its explanatory range. Future goals should include determining why some conflicts are provocative and others are not but instead lead to perceptual reinterpretations of ongoing body motion. The contribution of visceral afferents in relation to vestibular and cerebellar signals in evoking sickness also deserves further exploration. Substantial progress is being made in identifying the physiological mechanisms underlying the evocation of nausea, vomiting, and anxiety, and a comprehensive understanding of motion sickness may soon be attainable. Adequate anti-motion sickness drugs without adverse side effects are not yet available.

  10. Evaluation of efficacy of arthrocentesis (with normal saline) with or without sodium hyaluronate in treatment of internal derangement of TMJ – A prospective randomized study in 20 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aditi; Rana, Amar Singh; Jain, Gaurav; Kalra, Puneet; Gupta, Deepak; Sharma, Siddharth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the outcome of arthrocentesis alone and arthrocentesis with sodium hyaluronate in internal derangement of TMJ. Materials and methods 20 patients of disc displacement with reduction of TMJ were randomized into 2 experimental groups. Control group of patients received arthrocentesis alone and study group of patients received arthrocentesis with sodium hyaluronate. Patients TMJ status and clinical symptoms were evaluated for 6 months follow up. The clinical parameter recorded were maximal mouth opening (MMO), lateral excursions (right and left side), protrusive movement, joint noises, and pain (at rest, at function). Results When 2 groups are compared there was no statistically significant difference in terms of inter-incisal opening, lateral excursion, protrusive movement, joint noises and pain however the group with sodium hyaluronidase has shown better results than the control group. Conclusion Both study and control group found to be statistically insignificant but patient who were in the group of arthrocentesis with admission of sodium hyaluronidase had better results. PMID:25737898

  11. Can psychobiotics intake modulate psychological profile and body composition of women affected by normal weight obese syndrome and obesity? A double blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Antonino; Costacurta, Micaela; Merra, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Paola; Cioccoloni, Giorgia; Marchetti, Massimiliano; Varvaras, Dimitrios; Docimo, Raffaella; Di Renzo, Laura

    2017-06-10

    Evidence of probiotics effects on gut function, brain activity and emotional behaviour were provided. Probiotics can have dramatic effects on behaviour through the microbiome-gut-brain axis, through vagus nerve. We investigated whether chronic probiotic intake could modulate psychological state, eating behaviour and body composition of normal weight obese (NWO) and preobese-obese (PreOB/OB) compared to normal weight lean women (NWL). 60 women were enrolled. At baseline and after a 3-week probiotic oral suspension (POS) intake, all subjects underwent evaluation of body composition by anthropometry and dual X-ray absorptiometry, and psychological profile assessment by self-report questionnaires (i.e. EDI-2, SCL90R and BUT). Statistical analysis was carried out using paired t test or a non-parametric Wilcoxon test to evaluate differences between baseline and after POS intake, one-way ANOVA to compare all three groups and, where applicable, Chi square or t test were used to assess symptoms. Of the 48 women that concluded the study, 24% were NWO, 26% were NWL and 50% were PreOB/OB. Significant differences in body composition were highlighted among groups both at baseline and after a POS (p meteorism (p < 0.05) and defecation frequency (p < 0.05). A 3-week intake of selected psychobiotics modulated body composition, bacterial contamination, psychopathological scores of NWO and PreOB/OB women. Further research is needed on a larger population and for a longer period of treatment before definitive conclusions can be made. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Id: NCT01890070.

  12. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen eAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  13. Signal intensity of normal breast tissue at MR mammography on midfield: Applying a random coefficient model evaluating the effect of doubling the contrast dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marklund, Mette [Parker Institute: Imaging Unit, Frederiksberg Hospital (Denmark)], E-mail: mm@frh.regionh.dk; Christensen, Robin [Parker Institute: Musculoskeletal Statistics Unit, Frederiksberg Hospital (Denmark)], E-mail: robin.christensen@frh.regionh.dk; Torp-Pedersen, Soren [Parker Institute: Imaging Unit, Frederiksberg Hospital (Denmark)], E-mail: stp@frh.regionh.dk; Thomsen, Carsten [Department of Radiology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: carsten.thomsen@rh.regionh.dk; Nolsoe, Christian P. [Department of Radiology, Koge Hospital (Denmark)], E-mail: cnolsoe@dadlnet.dk

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: To prospectively investigate the effect on signal intensity (SI) of healthy breast parenchyma on magnetic resonance mammography (MRM) when doubling the contrast dose from 0.1 to 0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight. Materials and methods: Informed consent and institutional review board approval were obtained. Twenty-five healthy female volunteers (median age: 24 years (range: 21-37 years) and median bodyweight: 65 kg (51-80 kg)) completed two dynamic MRM examinations on a 0.6 T open scanner. The inter-examination time was 24 h (23.5-25 h). The following sequences were applied: axial T2W TSE and an axial dynamic T1W FFED, with a total of seven frames. At day 1, an i.v. gadolinium (Gd) bolus injection of 0.1 mmol/kg bodyweight (Omniscan) (low) was administered. On day 2, the contrast dose was increased to 0.2 mmol/kg (high). Injection rate was 2 mL/s (day 1) and 4 mL/s (day 2). Any use of estrogen containing oral contraceptives (ECOC) was recorded. Post-processing with automated subtraction, manually traced ROI (region of interest) and recording of the SI was performed. A random coefficient model was applied. Results: We found an SI increase of 24.2% and 40% following the low and high dose, respectively (P < 0.0001); corresponding to a 65% (95% CI: 37-99%) SI increase, indicating a moderate saturation. Although not statistically significant (P = 0.06), the results indicated a tendency, towards lower maximal SI in the breast parenchyma of ECOC users compared to non-ECOC users. Conclusion: We conclude that the contrast dose can be increased from 0.1 to 0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight, if a better contrast/noise relation is desired but increasing the contrast dose above 0.2 mmol/kg bodyweight is not likely to improve the enhancement substantially due to the moderate saturation observed. Further research is needed to determine the impact of ECOC on the relative enhancement ratio, and further studies are needed to determine if a possible use of ECOC should be considered a compromising

  14. Infinitary normalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Klop (Jan Willem); R. de Vrijer

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn infinitary orthogonal first-order term rewriting the properties confluence (CR), Uniqueness of Normal forms (UN), Parallel Moves Lemma (PML) have been generalized to their infinitary versions CR-inf, UN-inf, PML-inf, and so on. Several relations between these properties have been

  15. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  16. Malware Normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Christodorescu, Mihai; Kinder, Johannes; Jha, Somesh; Katzenbeisser, Stefan; Veith, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Malware is code designed for a malicious purpose, such as obtaining root privilege on a host. A malware detector identifies malware and thus prevents it from adversely affecting a host. In order to evade detection by malware detectors, malware writers use various obfuscation techniques to transform their malware. There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a malware normalizer ...

  17. Dizziness and Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Dizziness and Motion Sickness Dizziness and Motion Sickness Patient Health Information ... other respiratory infections If you are subject to motion sickness: •Do not read while traveling •Avoid sitting ...

  18. Perception of biological motion in visual agnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eHuberle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty-five years, visual processing has been discussed in the context of the dual stream hypothesis consisting of a ventral (‘what' and a dorsal ('where' visual information processing pathway. Patients with brain damage of the ventral pathway typically present with signs of visual agnosia, the inability to identify and discriminate objects by visual exploration, but show normal perception of motion perception. A dissociation between the perception of biological motion and non-biological motion has been suggested: Perception of biological motion might be impaired when 'non-biological' motion perception is intact and vice versa. The impact of object recognition on the perception of biological motion remains unclear. We thus investigated this question in a patient with severe visual agnosia, who showed normal perception of non-biological motion. The data suggested that the patient's perception of biological motion remained largely intact. However, when tested with objects constructed of coherently moving dots (‘Shape-from-Motion’, recognition was severely impaired. The results are discussed in the context of possible mechanisms of biological motion perception.

  19. Efficacy of a family practice-based lifestyle intervention program to increase physical activity and reduce clinical and physiological markers of vascular health in patients with high normal blood pressure and/or high normal blood glucose (SNAC: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overend Tom

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous interventions to increase physical activity and reduce cardiovascular risk factors have been targeted at individuals with established disease; less attention has been given to intervention among individuals with high risk for disease nor has there been determination of the influence of setting in which the intervention is provided. In particular, family practice represents an ideal setting for the provision and long-term maintenance of lifestyle interventions for patients at risk (ie high-normal blood pressure or impaired glucose tolerance. Methods/design The Staged Nutrition and Activity Counseling (SNAC study is a randomized clustered design clinical trial that will investigate the effectiveness and efficacy of a multi-component lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular disease risk factors and vascular function in patients at risk in primary care. Patients will be randomized by practice to either a standard of care lifestyle intervention or a behaviourally-based, matched prescriptive physical activity and diet change program. The primary goal is to increase physical activity and improve dietary intake according to Canada's Guides to Physical Activity Healthy Eating over 24 months. The primary intention to treat analysis will compare behavioral, physiological and metabolic outcomes at 6, 12 and 24 months post-randomization including estimation of incident hypertension and/or diabetes. Discussion The design features of our trial, and the practical problems (and solutions associated with implementing these design features, particularly those that result in potential delay between recruitment, baseline data collection, randomization, intervention, and assessment will be discussed. Results of the SNAC trial will provide scientific rationale for the implementation of this lifestyle intervention in primary care. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN:42921300

  20. Normalizing Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Vicki S; Zerwic, Julie; Jefferson, Urmeka; Anderson, Cindy M; Killion, Cheryl M; Smith, Carol E; Cohen, Marlene Z; Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Herrick, Linda; Topp, Robert; Benefield, Lazelle E; Loya, Julio

    2016-02-01

    Getting turned down for grant funding or having a manuscript rejected is an uncomfortable but not unusual occurrence during the course of a nurse researcher's professional life. Rejection can evoke an emotional response akin to the grieving process that can slow or even undermine productivity. Only by "normalizing" rejection, that is, by accepting it as an integral part of the scientific process, can researchers more quickly overcome negative emotions and instead use rejection to refine and advance their scientific programs. This article provides practical advice for coming to emotional terms with rejection and delineates methods for working constructively to address reviewer comments. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. CLINICAL EFFECTIVENESS OF KINESIOLOGICAL TAPING ON PAIN AND PAIN‐FREE SHOULDER RANGE OF MOTION IN PATIENTS WITH SHOULDER IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME: A RANDOMIZED, DOUBLE BLINDED, PLACEBO‐CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Hassan; Keshavarz, Roshanak; Ebrahimi, Ismaeil

    2013-01-01

    Background: Kinesiological taping (KT) is commonly used to improve symptoms associated with musculoskeletal disorders. However, review of the literature revealed minimal evidence to support the use of KT in treatment of shoulder disorders and controversy exists regarding the effect of KT in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS). Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of KT on pain intensity during movement, pain experienced during the night (nocturnal pain), and pain‐free shoulder range of motion (ROM) immediately after taping, after three days and after one week, in patients with SIS. Design: Randomized, Double blinded, Placebo‐controlled design. Participants: A total of 30 patients with SIS participated in this study. Patients were assigned randomly to a control (N = 15) and an experimental group (N = 15). Methods: The patients in the experimental group received a standardized therapeutic KT. The standardized, placebo neutral KT was applied for control group. KT was applied two times with a three day interval, remaining on during the 3 day interval. Both groups followed the same procedures. Pain‐free active ROM during shoulder abduction, flexion, and elevation in the scapular plane was measured. Visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain intensity during movement or nocturnal pain and was assessed at baseline, immediately after KT, after three days, and one week after KT. Results: The result of repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant change in pain level during movement, nocturnal pain, and pain‐free ROM (p = 0.000) after KT in the experimental group. In the ANCOVA, controlling for pre‐test scores, change in pain level at movement (p = 0.009) and nocturnal pain (p = 0.04) immediately after KT was significantly greater in the experimental group than in control group. There was no significant difference in ROM measures (p > 0.05) between groups immediately after KT. No significant differences were found between the

  2. Clinical effectiveness of kinesiological taping on pain and pain-free shoulder range of motion in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome: a randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Hassan; Keshavarz, Roshanak; Arab, Amir Massoud; Ebrahimi, Ismaeil

    2013-12-01

    Kinesiological taping (KT) is commonly used to improve symptoms associated with musculoskeletal disorders. However, review of the literature revealed minimal evidence to support the use of KT in treatment of shoulder disorders and controversy exists regarding the effect of KT in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of KT on pain intensity during movement, pain experienced during the night (nocturnal pain), and pain-free shoulder range of motion (ROM) immediately after taping, after three days and after one week, in patients with SIS. Randomized, Double blinded, Placebo-controlled design. A total of 30 patients with SIS participated in this study. Patients were assigned randomly to a control (N = 15) and an experimental group (N = 15). The patients in the experimental group received a standardized therapeutic KT. The standardized, placebo neutral KT was applied for control group. KT was applied two times with a three day interval, remaining on during the 3 day interval. Both groups followed the same procedures. Pain-free active ROM during shoulder abduction, flexion, and elevation in the scapular plane was measured. Visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain intensity during movement or nocturnal pain and was assessed at baseline, immediately after KT, after three days, and one week after KT. The result of repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant change in pain level during movement, nocturnal pain, and pain-free ROM (p = 0.000) after KT in the experimental group. In the ANCOVA, controlling for pre-test scores, change in pain level at movement (p = 0.009) and nocturnal pain (p = 0.04) immediately after KT was significantly greater in the experimental group than in control group. There was no significant difference in ROM measures (p > 0.05) between groups immediately after KT. No significant differences were found between the two groups in the after one week measurements of pain intensity and

  3. Pursuing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise Sofia; Handberg, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    semistructured interviews with 9 lymphoma survivors. Interpretive description methodology and social practice theory guided the analytical framework. RESULTS: "Pursuing normality" was an overall finding and was comprised of 2 overarching patterns, "future prospects" and "survivorship care perceptions," both......BACKGROUND: The present study explored the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors in active treatment. Lymphoma survivors have survivorship care needs, yet their participation in cancer survivorship care programs is still reported as low. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...... was to understand the reflections on cancer survivorship care of lymphoma survivors to aid the future planning of cancer survivorship care and overcome barriers to participation. METHODS: Data were generated in a hematological ward during 4 months of ethnographic fieldwork, including participant observation and 46...

  4. Reconstructing Normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Fristed, Peter Billeskov

    2012-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an area of priority for the Danish Government. As the field expands, this calls for increased knowledge about mental health nursing practice, as this is part of the forensic psychiatry treatment offered. However, only sparse research exists in this area. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the characteristics of forensic mental health nursing staff interaction with forensic mental health inpatients and to explore how staff give meaning to these interactions. The project included 32 forensic mental health staff members, with over 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal...... interviews, and seven semistructured interviews. The findings show that staff interaction is typified by the use of trust and relationship-enabling care, which is characterized by the establishment and maintenance of an informal, trusting relationship through a repeated reconstruction of normality...

  5. Motion in radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia

    2012-01-01

    This review considers the management of motion in photon radiation therapy. An overview is given of magnitudes and variability of motion of various structures and organs, and how the motion affects images by producing artifacts and blurring. Imaging of motion is described, including 4DCT and 4DPE...

  6. Stable Lévy motion with inverse Gaussian subordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Wyłomańska, A.; Gajda, J.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we study the stable Lévy motion subordinated by the so-called inverse Gaussian process. This process extends the well known normal inverse Gaussian (NIG) process introduced by Barndorff-Nielsen, which arises by subordinating ordinary Brownian motion (with drift) with inverse Gaussian process. The NIG process found many interesting applications, especially in financial data description. We discuss here the main features of the introduced subordinated process, such as distributional properties, existence of fractional order moments and asymptotic tail behavior. We show the connection of the process with continuous time random walk. Further, the governing fractional partial differential equations for the probability density function is also obtained. Moreover, we discuss the asymptotic distribution of sample mean square displacement, the main tool in detection of anomalous diffusion phenomena (Metzler et al., 2014). In order to apply the stable Lévy motion time-changed by inverse Gaussian subordinator we propose a step-by-step procedure of parameters estimation. At the end, we show how the examined process can be useful to model financial time series.

  7. Motion Transplantation Techniques: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Basten, Ben|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30484800X; Egges, Arjan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822779

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, researchers have developed several techniques for transplanting motions. These techniques transplant a partial auxiliary motion, possibly defined for a small set of degrees of freedom, on a base motion. Motion transplantation improves motion databases' expressiveness and

  8. Local Nanomechanical Motion In Single Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelling, Andrew; Gimzewski, James

    2004-03-01

    We present new evidence that the nanoscale motion of the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits local bionanomechanical motion at characteristic frequencies and which is not caused by random or Brownian processes. This motion is measured with the AFM tip which acts as a nanomechanical sensor, permitting the motion of the cell wall to be recorded as a function of time, applied force, etc. We present persuasive evidence which shows that the local nanomechanical motion is characteristic of metabolic processes taking place inside the cell. This is demonstrated by clear differences between living cells and living cells treated with a metabolic inhibitor. This inhibitor specifically targets cytochrome oxidase inside the mitochondria and inhibits ATP production. The cells observed in this study display characteristic local cell wall motion with amplitudes between 1 and 3 nm and frequencies between 500 and 1700 Hz. The motion is temperature dependant which also suggests the mechanism for the observed motion has biological origins. In addition to a stringent series of control experiments we also discuss local measurements of the cell's mechanical properties and their influence on the observed bionanomechanical motion.

  9. Effects of Ginger Supplementation on Cell Cycle Biomarkers in the Normal-Appearing Colonic Mucosa of Patients at Increased Risk for Colorectal Cancer: Results from a Pilot, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citronberg, Jessica; Bostick, Roberd; Ahearn, Thomas; Turgeon, D. Kim; Ruffin, Mack T.; Djuric, Zora; Sen, Ananda; Brenner, Dean E.; Zick, Suzanna M.

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the effects of ginger on apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation in the normal-appearing colonic mucosa, we randomized 20 people at increased risk for colorectal cancer to 2.0 g of ginger or placebo daily for 28 days in a pilot trial. Overall expression and distributions of Bax, Bcl-2, p21, hTERT and MIB-1 (Ki-67) in colorectal crypts in rectal mucosa biopsies were measured using automated immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis. Relative to placebo, Bax expression in the ginger group decreased 15.6% (p = 0.78) in the whole crypts, 6.6% (p = 0.95) in the upper 40% (differentiation zone) of crypts, and 21.7% (p = 0.67) in the lower 60% (proliferative zone) of crypts; however, there was a 19% increase (p = 0.14) in Bax expression in the upper 40% relative to the whole crypt. While p21 and Bcl-2 expression remained relatively unchanged, hTERT expression in the whole crypts decreased by 41.2% (p = 0.05); the estimated treatment effect on hTERT expression was larger in the upper 40% of crypts (−47.9%; p = 0.04). In the ginger group, MIB-1 expression decreased in the whole crypts, upper 40% of crypts, and lower 60% of crypts by 16.9% (p = 0.39), 46.8% (p = 0.39), and 15.3% (p = 0.41), respectively. These pilot study results suggest that ginger may reduce proliferation in the normal-appearing colorectal epithelium and increase apoptosis and differentiation relative to proliferation—especially in the differentiation zone of the crypts, and support a larger study to further investigate these results. PMID:23303903

  10. Effects of polydextrose with breakfast or with a midmorning preload on food intake and other appetite-related parameters in healthy normal-weight and overweight females: An acute, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Alvin; Olli, Kaisa; Pasman, Wilrike; Hendriks, Henk; Alhoniemi, Esa; Raza, Ghulam Shere; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Tiihonen, Kirsti

    2017-03-01

    Polydextrose (PDX) reduces subsequent energy intake (EI) when administered at midmorning in single-blind trials of primarily normal-weight men. However, it is unclear if this effect also occurs when PDX is given at breakfast time. Furthermore, for ecological validity, it is desirable to study a female population, including those at risk for obesity. We studied the effects of PDX, served as part of a breakfast or midmorning preload, on subsequent EI and other appetite-related parameters in healthy normal-weight and overweight females. Per earlier studies, the primary outcome was defined as the difference in subsequent EI when PDX was consumed at midmorning versus placebo. Thirty-two volunteers were enrolled in this acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, and crossover trial to examine the effects of 12.5 g of PDX, administered as part of a breakfast or midmorning preload, on subsequent EI, subjective feelings of appetite, well-being, and mood. Gastric emptying rates and the blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, cholecystokinin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine were measured in the group that received PDX as part of their breakfast. There were no differences in EI between volunteers who were fed PDX and placebo. PDX intake with breakfast tended to elevate blood glucose (P = 0.06) during the postabsorptive phase, significantly lowered insulin by 15.7% (P = 0.04), and increased GLP-1 by 39.9% (P = 0.02); no other effects on blood parameters or gastric emptying rates were observed. PDX intake at midmorning reduced hunger by 31.4% during the satiation period (P = 0.02); all other subjective feelings of appetite were unaffected. Volunteers had a uniform mood profile during the study. PDX was well tolerated, causing one mild adverse event throughout the trial. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Short-term effects of a low glycemic index carob-containing snack on energy intake, satiety, and glycemic response in normal-weight, healthy adults: Results from two randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Emilia; Orfanakos, Nickolaos; Farajian, Paul; Kapetanakou, Anastasia E; Makariti, Ifigenia P; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos; Ha, Marie-Ann; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2017-10-01

    The potential positive health effects of carob-containing snacks are largely unknown. Therefore, the aims of these studies were to determine the glycemic index (GI) of a carob snack compared with chocolate cookie containing equal amounts of available carbohydrates and to compare the effects of a carob versus chocolate cookie preload consumed as snack before a meal on (a) short-term satiety response measured by subsequent ad libitum meal intake, (b) subjective satiety as assessed by visual analog scales and (c) postprandial glycemic response. Ten healthy, normal-weight volunteers participated in GI investigation. Then, 50 healthy, normal-weight individuals consumed, crossover, in random order, the preloads as snack, with 1-wk washout period. Ad libitum meal (lunch and dessert) was offered. Capillary blood glucose samples were collected at baseline, 2 h after breakfast, just before preload consumption, 2 h after preload, 3 h after preload, just before meal (lunch and dessert), 1 h after meal, and 2 h after meal consumption. The carob snack was a low GI food, whereas the chocolate cookie was a high GI food (40 versus 78, respectively, on glucose scale). Consumption of the carob preload decreased the glycemic response to a following meal and to the individual's feelings of hunger, desire to eat, preoccupation with food, and thirst between snack and meal, as assessed with the use of visual analog scales. Subsequently, participants consumed less amounts of food (g) and had lower total energy intake at mealtimes. The carob snack led to increased satiety, lower energy intake at meal, and decreased postmeal glycemic response possibly due to its low GI value. Identifying foods that promote satiety and decrease glycemic response without increasing the overall energy intake may offer advantages to body weight and glycemic control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A soy-based phosphatidylserine/ phosphatidic acid complex (PAS) normalizes the stress reactivity of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis in chronically stressed male subjects: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellhammer, Juliane; Vogt, Dominic; Franz, Nadin; Freitas, Ulla; Rutenberg, David

    2014-07-31

    Supplementation with a phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylserine/ phosphatidic acid complex (PAS) has been observed to normalize stress induced dysregulations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). Prolonged stress first induces a hyper-activation of the HPAA, which then can be followed by a state of hypo-activation.The aim of this study was to examine effects of an oral supplementation with 400 mg PS & 400 mg PA (PAS 400) per day on the endocrine stress response (ACTH, saliva and serum cortisol) to a psychosocial stressor. A special focus was to analyze subgroups of low versus high chronically stressed subjects as well as to test efficacy of 200 mg PS & 200 mg PA (PAS 200). 75 healthy male volunteers were enrolled for this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, stratified by chronic stress level, and randomly allocated to one of three study arms (placebo, PAS 200 and PAS 400 per day, respectively). Study supplementation was administered for 42 days for each participant. Chronic stress was measured with the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress (TICS), and subgroups of high and low chronic stress were differentiated by median values as provided by the TICS authors. A six week period of supplementation was followed by an acute stress test (Trier Social Stress Test - TSST). Chronic stress levels and other baseline measures did not differ between treatment groups (all p>0.05). Acute stress was successfully induced by the TSST and resulted in a hyper-responsivity of the HPAA in chronically stressed subjects. Compared to placebo, a supplementation with a daily dose of PAS 400 was effective in normalizing the ACTH (p=0.010), salivary (p=0.043) and serum cortisol responses (p=0.035) to the TSST in chronically high but not in low stressed subjects (all p>0.05). Compared to placebo, supplementation with PAS 200 did not result in any significant differences in these variables (all p>0.05). There were no significant effects of supplementation with PAS on heart rate

  13. Macro motion vector quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Y.; Woods, John W.

    1995-04-01

    A new algorithm is developed for reducing the bit rate required for motion vectors. This algorithm is a generalization of block matching motion estimation in which the search region is represented as a codebook of motion vectors. The new algorithm, called macro motion vector quantization (MMVQ), generalized our earlier MVQ by coding a group of motion vectors. The codebook is a set of macro motion vectors which represent the block locations of the small neighboring blocks in the previous frame. We develop an interative design algorithm for the codebook. Our experiments show that the variances of displaced frame differences (DFDs) are reduced significantly compared to block matching algorithm (BMA) with the macroblock size.

  14. Continuous passive motion and physical therapy (CPM) versus physical therapy (PT) versus delayed physical therapy (DPT) after surgical release for elbow contractures; a study protocol for a prospective randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveen, Jetske; Doornberg, Job N.; Kodde, Izaak F.; Goossens, Pjotr; Koenraadt, Koen L. M.; The, Bertram; Eygendaal, Denise

    2017-01-01

    The elbow is prone to stiffness after trauma. To regain functional elbow motion several conservative- and surgical treatment options are available. Conservative treatment includes physical therapy, intra-articular injections with corticosteroids and a static progressive or dynamic splinting program.

  15. Psychophysical correlates of global motion processing in the aging visual system: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Claire V; Arena, Amanda; Allen, Harriet A; Ledgeway, Tim

    2012-04-01

    The consequences of visual decline in aging have a fundamental and wide-reaching impact on age-related quality of life. It is of concern therefore that evidence suggests that normal aging is accompanied by impairments in the ability to effectively encode global motion. Global motion perception is a fundamentally important process. It enables us to determine the overall velocity of spatially extensive objects in the world and provides us with information about our own body movements. Here, we review what is currently known about the effects of age on performance for encoding the global motion information available in random dot kinematograms (RDKs), a class of stimuli widely used to probe the mechanisms underlying motion perception. We conclude that age-related deficits in global motion perception are not all encompassing. Rather, they appear to be specific to certain stimulus conditions. We also examine evidence for an interaction between age and gender and consider the efficacy of techniques such as visual perceptual learning that may attenuate some of the visual deficits in the older adult population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sound-contingent visual motion aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Maori

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a prolonged exposure to a paired presentation of different types of signals (e.g., color and motion, one of the signals (color becomes a driver for the other signal (motion. This phenomenon, which is known as contingent motion aftereffect, indicates that the brain can establish new neural representations even in the adult's brain. However, contingent motion aftereffect has been reported only in visual or auditory domain. Here, we demonstrate that a visual motion aftereffect can be contingent on a specific sound. Results Dynamic random dots moving in an alternating right or left direction were presented to the participants. Each direction of motion was accompanied by an auditory tone of a unique and specific frequency. After a 3-minutes exposure, the tones began to exert marked influence on the visual motion perception, and the percentage of dots required to trigger motion perception systematically changed depending on the tones. Furthermore, this effect lasted for at least 2 days. Conclusions These results indicate that a new neural representation can be rapidly established between auditory and visual modalities.

  17. Interpreting parameters in the logistic regression model with random effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2000-01-01

    interpretation, interval odds ratio, logistic regression, median odds ratio, normally distributed random effects......interpretation, interval odds ratio, logistic regression, median odds ratio, normally distributed random effects...

  18. Mechanically induced grain boundary motion in Al-bicrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorkaya, Tatiana; Molodov, Dmitri A.; Gottstein, Guenter [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik der RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The mechanically induced migration of planar grain boundaries in Al-bicrystals was experimentally measured. The novel tensile/compression module for scanning electron microscope was utilized for in-situ measurements of grain boundary motion at elevated temperatures. From the measured temperature dependence of boundary mobility the migration activation parameters for investigated boundaries were determined. Normal boundary motion was observed to be coupled to a shear of the crystal in the region traversed by the grain boundary during its motion. The measured ratios of the normal grain boundary motion to the lateral translation of grains were compared with geometrical models of stress induced boundary migration.

  19. Brownian motion with adhesion: harmonic oscillator with fluctuating mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, M; Klyatskin, V I

    2010-05-01

    In contrast to the cases usually studied of a harmonic oscillator subject to a random force (Brownian motion) or having random frequency or random damping, we consider a random mass which corresponds to an oscillator for which the particles of the surrounding medium adhere to it for some (random) time after the collision, thereby changing the oscillator mass. This model, which describes Brownian motion with adhesion, can be useful for the analysis of chemical and biological solutions as well as nanotechnological devices. We consider dichotomous noise and its limiting case, white noise.

  20. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  1. Process of random distributions : classification and prediction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dirichlet random distribution. The parameter of this process can be the distribution of any usual such as the (multifractional) Brownian motion. We also extend Kraft random distribution to the continuous time case. We give an application in ...

  2. Tacrolimus decreases albuminuria in patients with IgA nephropathy and normal blood pressure: a double-blind randomized controlled trial of efficacy of tacrolimus on IgA nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Chul Kim

    Full Text Available Treatment remains uncertain for IgA nephropathy patients with mild to moderate proteinuria, for whom anti-hypertensive medication or the RAS blocker is not applicable due to low blood pressure.A double blinded randomized trial.The anti-proteinuric effect of tacrolimus was explored for 40 biopsy-proven mild IgA nephropathies for 16 weeks. We randomly assigned patients either to receive tacrolimus or placebo with stratification by using a renin angiotensin system blocker. The primary outcome was the percentage change of final UACR compared to the baseline value (pcUACR.The mean value of pcUACR at 12-week and 16-week visits (primary outcome was decreased more in the Tac group compared to the control group (-52.0±26.4 vs -17.3±29.3%, p = 0.001. At each visit, pcUACR was also decreased more in the Tac group compared to the control group. In the Tac group, the pcUACRs were -60.2±28.2%, -62.2±33.9%, -48.5±29.8%, and -55.5±24.0%, and, in the control group, -6.8±32.2%, -2.5±35.9%, -12.7±34.2%, and -21.9±30.6%, at 4-week, 8-week, 12-week, and 16-week visits, respectively. The pre-defined secondary outcomes were better in the Tac group compared to the control group. The frequency of decrease in pcUACR and percentage change of UPCR (pcUPCR ≥50% at 16 weeks were 65.0% (13/20 and 55.0% (11/20in the Tac group, and 25.0% (5/20 and 15.0% (3/20, in the control group, respectively (p = 0.025 for pcUACR and p = 0.019 for pcUPCR. However, tacrolimus wasn't effective with a dose of 0.05 mg/kg/day in patients taking ARB. The adverse events were tolerable.Tacrolimus effectively reduced proteinuria in IgA nephropathy with normal blood pressure. This suggested that tacrolimus could be an alternative to corticosteroid and RAS blocker for IgA nephropathy patients who cannot endure anti-hypertensive medication.Clinicaltrial.gov NCT1224028.

  3. No differential effect of beverages sweetened with fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, or glucose on systemic or adipose tissue inflammation in normal-weight to obese adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Cromer, Gail; Hagman, Derek K; Breymeyer, Kara L; Roth, Christian L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Holte, Sarah E; Weigle, David S; Kratz, Mario

    2016-08-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and low-grade chronic inflammation are both independently associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Fructose, a major component of SSBs, may acutely trigger inflammation, which may be one link between SSB consumption and cardiometabolic disease. We sought to determine whether beverages sweetened with fructose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and glucose differentially influence systemic inflammation [fasting plasma C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as primary endpoints] acutely and before major changes in body weight. Secondary endpoints included adipose tissue inflammation, intestinal permeability, and plasma fetuin-A as potential mechanistic links between fructose intake and low-grade inflammation. We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover design dietary intervention (the Diet and Systemic Inflammation Study) in 24 normal-weight to obese adults without fructose malabsorption. Participants drank 4 servings/d of fructose-, glucose-, or HFCS-sweetened beverages accounting for 25% of estimated calorie requirements while consuming a standardized diet ad libitum for three 8-d periods. Subjects consumed 116% of their estimated calorie requirement while drinking the beverages with no difference in total energy intake or body weight between groups as reported previously. Fasting plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein and IL-6 did not differ significantly at the end of the 3 diet periods. We did not detect a consistent differential effect of the diets on measures of adipose tissue inflammation except for adiponectin gene expression in adipose tissue (P = 0.005), which was lowest after the glucose phase. We also did not detect consistent evidence of a differential impact of these sugars on measures of intestinal permeability (lactulose:mannitol test, plasma zonulin, and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein). Excessive amounts of fructose, HFCS, and glucose from SSBs

  4. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2015-06-07

    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algorithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  5. Smoothing Motion Estimates for Radar Motion Compensation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Simple motion models for complex motion environments are often not adequate for keeping radar data coherent. Eve n perfect motion samples appli ed to imperfect models may lead to interim calculations e xhibiting errors that lead to degraded processing results. Herein we discuss a specific i ssue involving calculating motion for groups of pulses, with measurements only available at pulse-group boundaries. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report was funded by General A tomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Mission Systems under Cooperative Re search and Development Agre ement (CRADA) SC08/01749 between Sandia National Laboratories and GA-ASI. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI), an affilia te of privately-held General Atomics, is a leading manufacturer of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) systems, radars, and electro-optic and rel ated mission systems, includin g the Predator(r)/Gray Eagle(r)-series and Lynx(r) Multi-mode Radar.

  6. Parsing anomalous versus normal diffusive behavior of bedload sediment particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathel, Siobhan; Furbish, David; Schmeeckle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Bedload sediment transport is the basic physical ingredient of river evolution. Formulae exist for estimating transport rates, but the diffusive contribution to the sediment flux, and the associated spreading rate of tracer particles, are not clearly understood. The start-and-stop motions of sediment particles transported as bedload on a streambed mimic aspects of the Einstein–Smoluchowski description of the random-walk motions of Brownian particles. Using this touchstone description, recent work suggests the presence of anomalous diffusion, where the particle spreading rate differs from the linear dependence with time of Brownian behavior. We demonstrate that conventional measures of particle spreading reveal different attributes of bedload particle behavior depending on details of the calculation. When we view particle motions over start-and-stop timescales obtained from high-speed (250 Hz) imaging of coarse-sand particles, high-resolution measurements reveal ballistic-like behavior at the shortest (10−2 s) timescale, followed by apparent anomalous behavior due to correlated random walks in transition to normal diffusion (>10−1 s) – similar to Brownian particle behavior but involving distinctly different physics. However, when treated as a ‘virtual plume’ over this timescale range, particles exhibit inhomogeneous diffusive behavior because both the mean and the variance of particle travel distances increase nonlinearly with increasing travel times, a behavior that is unrelated to anomalous diffusion or to Brownian-like behavior. Our results indicate that care is needed in suggesting anomalous behavior when appealing to conventional measures of diffusion formulated for ideal particle systems.

  7. Asymptotics of weighted random sums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corcuera, José Manuel; Nualart, David; Podolskij, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the asymptotic behaviour of weighted random sums when the sum process converges stably in law to a Brownian motion and the weight process has continuous trajectories, more regular than that of a Brownian motion. We show that these sums converge in law to the integral...

  8. Structural motion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This innovative volume provides a systematic treatment of the basic concepts and computational procedures for structural motion design and engineering for civil installations. The authors illustrate the application of motion control to a wide spectrum of buildings through many examples. Topics covered include optimal stiffness distributions for building-type structures, the role of damping in controlling motion, tuned mass dampers, base isolation systems, linear control, and nonlinear control. The book's primary objective is the satisfaction of motion-related design requirements, such as restrictions on displacement and acceleration. The book is ideal for practicing engineers and graduate students. This book also: ·         Broadens practitioners' understanding of structural motion control, the enabling technology for motion-based design ·         Provides readers the tools to satisfy requirements of modern, ultra-high strength materials that lack corresponding stiffness, where the motion re...

  9. Effect of normalization of fasting glucose by intensified insulin therapy and influence of eNOS polymorphisms on the incidence of restenosis after peripheral angioplasty in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, open-label clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Pier Marco; Marone, Enrico; Mantero, Manuela; Setola, Emanuela; Galluccio, Elena; Lucotti, Pietro; Shehaj, Ermal; Villa, Valentina; Perticone, Francesca; Venturini, Massimo; Palini, Alessio; Airoldi, Flavio; Faglia, Ezio; Del Maschio, Alessandro; Colombo, Antonio; Chiesa, Roberto; Bosi, Emanuele; Monti, Lucilla D

    2013-06-01

    Primary objective was to evaluate whether an intensified insulin therapy (IIT) incorporating the target of normal fasting glucose and HbA1c levels could halve the incidence of restenosis/amputation/SCA/death at 6 months after peripheral angioplasty compared with standard care (SC) in patients with type 2 diabetes (DMT2) affected by critical limb ischemia (CLI). Forty-six consecutive patients with DMT2 and CLI were randomly assigned to a parallel, open-label study with IIT (basal-bolus glulisine + glargine administrations) or SC (glargine administration + oral antidiabetic drugs). A SNP of eNOS (rs753482-A>C) and circulating CD34(+) and CD34(+)KDR(+) progenitor cells were determined. At the end of the study, although HbA1c levels were lower in IIT than in SC (6.9 ± 1.3 % vs. 7.6 ± 1.2 %, p incidence of restenosis/amputation/SCA/death (52 and 65 %, respectively, odd ratio 0.59; CI 95 %: 0.21-1.62, p = 0.59). rs753482AC+CC as compared with rs753482AA increased the cumulative incidence of restenosis/amputation/SCA/death (79 and 42 %; odd ratio 5.3; CI 95 %: 1.41-19.5, p incidence of restenosis/amputation/SCA/death in DMT2 and CLI patients. These patients correspond to a class of fragile subjects at high risk of cardiovascular events, and new predictors of restenosis should be contemplated, such as of eNOS polymorphism, (rs753482-A>C SNP) and circulating endothelial progenitor cells.

  10. Testing bivariate independence and normality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Ledwina, Teresa; Rafajlowicz, Ewaryst

    1997-01-01

    In many statistical studies the relationship between two random variables X and Y is investigated and in particular the question whether X and Y are independent and normally distributed is of interest. Smooth tests may be used for testing this. They consist of several components, the first measuring

  11. The role of human ventral visual cortex in motion perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Ayse P.; Lorenzi, Lauren J.; Egan, Ryan; Rees, Geraint; Behrmann, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Visual motion perception is fundamental to many aspects of visual perception. Visual motion perception has long been associated with the dorsal (parietal) pathway and the involvement of the ventral ‘form’ (temporal) visual pathway has not been considered critical for normal motion perception. Here, we evaluated this view by examining whether circumscribed damage to ventral visual cortex impaired motion perception. The perception of motion in basic, non-form tasks (motion coherence and motion detection) and complex structure-from-motion, for a wide range of motion speeds, all centrally displayed, was assessed in five patients with a circumscribed lesion to either the right or left ventral visual pathway. Patients with a right, but not with a left, ventral visual lesion displayed widespread impairments in central motion perception even for non-form motion, for both slow and for fast speeds, and this held true independent of the integrity of areas MT/V5, V3A or parietal regions. In contrast with the traditional view in which only the dorsal visual stream is critical for motion perception, these novel findings implicate a more distributed circuit in which the integrity of the right ventral visual pathway is also necessary even for the perception of non-form motion. PMID:23983030

  12. Nonlinear random responses of a structure parametrically coupled with liquid sloshing in a cylindrical tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Ibrahim, R. A.

    2005-06-01

    The nonlinear random interaction of an elastic structure with liquid sloshing dynamics in a cylindrical tank is investigated in the neighborhood of 2:1 internal resonance. Such internal resonance takes place when the natural frequency of the elastic structure is close to twice the natural frequency of the anti-symmetric sloshing mode (1,1). The excitation is generated from the response of a linear shaping filter subjected to a Gaussian white noise. The analytical model involves three sloshing modes (1,1), (0,1) and (2,1). The system response statistics and stability boundaries are numerically estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. The influence of the excitation center frequency, its bandwidth, and the liquid level on the system responses is studied. It is found that there is an irregular energy exchange between the structure and the liquid free surface motion when the center frequency is close to the structure natural frequency. Depending on the excitation power spectral density, the liquid free surface experiences zero motion, uncertain motion (intermittency), partially developed motion, and fully developed random motion. The structure response probability density function is almost Gaussian, while the liquid elevation deviates from normality. The unstable region, where the liquid motion occurs, becomes wider as the excitation intensity increases or as the bandwidth decreases. As the liquid depth or the structure spring stiffness decreases, the region of nonlinear interaction shrinks and is associated with a shift of the peak of the structure mean square response toward the left side of the frequency axis.

  13. Changes in active ankle dorsiflexion range of motion after acute inversion ankle sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdas, James W; McLean, Timothy J; Krause, David A; Hollman, John H

    2009-08-01

    Posterior calf stretching is believed to improve active ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (AADFROM) after acute ankle-inversion sprain. To describe AADFROM at baseline (postinjury) and at 2-wk time periods for 6 wk after acute inversion sprain. Randomized trial. Sports clinic. 11 men and 11 women (age range 11-54 y) with acute inversion sprain. Standardized home exercise program for acute inversion sprain. AADFROM with the knee extended. Time main effect on AADFROM was significant (F3,57 = 108, P motion of the ankle was 6 degrees of plantar flexion, whereas at 2, 4, and 6 wk AADFROM was 7 degrees, 11 degrees, and 11 degrees, respectively. AADFROM increased significantly from baseline to week 2 and from week 2 to week 4. Normal AADFROM was restored within 4 wk after acute inversion sprain.

  14. Normal mode analysis and applications in biological physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykeman, Eric C; Sankey, Otto F

    2010-10-27

    Normal mode analysis has become a popular and often used theoretical tool in the study of functional motions in enzymes, viruses, and large protein assemblies. The use of normal modes in the study of these motions is often extremely fruitful since many of the functional motions of large proteins can be described using just a few normal modes which are intimately related to the overall structure of the protein. In this review, we present a broad overview of several popular methods used in the study of normal modes in biological physics including continuum elastic theory, the elastic network model, and a new all-atom method, recently developed, which is capable of computing a subset of the low frequency vibrational modes exactly. After a review of the various methods, we present several examples of applications of normal modes in the study of functional motions, with an emphasis on viral capsids.

  15. People can understand descriptions of motion without activating visual motion brain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swethasri eDravida

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available What is the relationship between our perceptual and linguistic representations of the same event? We approached this question by asking to whether visual perception of motion and understanding linguistic depictions of motion rely on the same neural architecture. The same group of participants took part in two language tasks and one visual task. In task 1, participants made semantic similarity judgments with high (e.g. to bounce and low motion (e.g. to look words. In task 2, participants made plausibility judgments for passages describing movement (A centaur hurled a spear… or cognitive events (A gentleman loved cheese…. Task 3 was a visual motion localizer in which participants viewed animations of point-light walkers, randomly moving dots, and stationary dots changing in luminance. Based on the visual motion localizer we identified classic visual motion areas of the temporal (MT/MST and STS and parietal cortex (inferior and superior parietal lobules. We find that linguistic depictions of motion and seeing motion activate largely distinct cortical areas. Motion words did not activate any part of the visual motion system. Motion passages produced a small response in the right superior parietal lobule, but none of the temporal motion regions. These results suggest 1 as compared to words, rich language stimuli such as passages are more likely to evoke mental imagery and more likely to affect perceptual circuits and 2 effects of language on the visual system are more likely in secondary perceptual areas as compared to early sensory areas. We conclude that language and visual perception constitute distinct but interacting systems.

  16. The NTS Ground Motion Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    App, F.N.

    1994-04-01

    The NTS (Nevada Test Site) Ground Motion Data Base is composed of strong motion data recorded during the normal execution of the US underground test program. It contains surface, subsurface, and structure motion data as digitized waveforms. Currently the data base contains information from 148 underground explosions This represents about 4200 measurements and nearly 12,000 individual digitized waveforms. Most of the data was acquired by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in connection with LANL sponsored underground tests. Some was acquired by Los Alamos on tests conducted by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and there are some measurements which were acquired by the other test sponsors on their events and provided to us for inclusion in this data base. Included in the data set is the Los Alamos motion data from the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE).

  17. Geometric simulation of flexible motion in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of physically simplified analysis and simulation methods-pebble-game rigidity analysis, coarse-grained elastic network modeling, and template-based geometric simulation-to explore flexible motion in protein structures. Substantial amplitudes of flexible motion can be explored rapidly in an all-atom model, retaining realistic covalent bonding, steric exclusion, and a user-defined network of noncovalent polar and hydrophobic interactions, using desktop computing resources. Detailed instructions are given for simulations using FIRST/FRODA software installed on a UNIX/Linux workstation. Other implementations of similar methods exist, particularly NMSim and FRODAN, and are available online. Topics covered include rigidity analysis and constraints, geometric simulation of flexible motion, targeting between known structures, and exploration of motion along normal mode eigenvectors.

  18. Accurate and Robust Ego-Motion Estimation using Expectation Maximization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbelman, G.; Mark, W. van der; Groen, F.C.A.

    2008-01-01

    A novel robust visual-odometry technique, called EM-SE(3) is presented and compared against using the random sample consensus (RANSAC) for ego-motion estimation. In this contribution, stereo-vision is used to generate a number of minimal-set motion hypothesis. By using EM-SE(3), which involves

  19. Tested Demonstrations. Brownian Motion: A Classroom Demonstration and Student Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirksey, H. Graden; Jones, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    Shows how video recordings of the Brownian motion of tiny particles may be made. Describes a classroom demonstration and cites a reported experiment designed to show the random nature of Brownian motion. Suggests a student experiment to discover the distance a tiny particle travels as a function of time. (MVL)

  20. Motion and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Infeld, Leopold

    1960-01-01

    Motion and Relativity focuses on the methodologies, solutions, and approaches involved in the study of motion and relativity, including the general relativity theory, gravitation, and approximation.The publication first offers information on notation and gravitational interaction and the general theory of motion. Discussions focus on the notation of the general relativity theory, field values on the world-lines, general statement of the physical problem, Newton's theory of gravitation, and forms for the equation of motion of the second kind. The text then takes a look at the approximation meth

  1. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  2. Measurement of visual motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildreth, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the measurement of visual motion and the use of relative movement to locate the boundaries of physical objects in the environment. It investigates the nature of the computations that are necessary to perform this analysis by any vision system, biological or artificial. Contents: Introduction. Background. Computation of the Velocity Field. An Algorithm to Compute the Velocity Field. The Computation of Motion Discontinuities. Perceptual Studies of Motion Measurement. The Psychophysics of Discontinuity Detection. Neurophysiological Studies of Motion. Summary and Conclusions. References. Author and Subject Indexes.

  3. Multicenter, Randomized, Investigator-Masked Study Comparing Brimonidine Tartrate 0.1% and Timolol Maleate 0.5% as Adjunctive Therapies to Prostaglandin Analogues in Normal-Tension Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoue, Shiro; Nitta, Koji; Shirakashi, Motohiro; Nitta, Akiyoshi; Yamabayashi, Shigeki; Kimura, Tairo; Ueda, Toshihiko; Takeda, Ryuji; Matsumoto, Shun; Yoshikawa, Keiji

    2017-06-01

    This study compared the efficacy and safety of adjunctive brimonidine tartrate 0.1% ophthalmic solution (brimonidine) and timolol maleate 0.5% ophthalmic solution (timolol) in prostaglandin analogue (PGA)-treated normal-tension glaucoma (NTG), assessing the non-inferiority of brimonidine in terms of intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction. In this multicenter, randomized, investigator-masked, parallel-group, clinical study, adjunctive brimonidine or timolol was administered twice daily for 12 weeks in eyes with NTG that had been treated with PGA for at least 90 days and required additional treatment despite an IOP of 16 mmHg or less. IOP was measured on at least three visits before add-on therapy (mean baseline IOP), and at weeks 4, 8, and 12 after adjunctive administration. Systolic/diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, and adverse events (AEs) were recorded at each visit. A total of 152 individuals were enrolled and 128 (84.2%) were eligible for efficacy analyses. IOP in both groups at each visit decreased significantly from baseline (P brimonidine (-1.05 ± 1.81 mmHg) and timolol (-1.41 ± 1.40 mmHg) groups was 0.36 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI] [-0.21, 0.92]), which exceeded the value of the non-inferiority margin (0.75 mmHg). Baseline systolic/diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups at certain visits (P brimonidine group. AE-related treatment discontinuation occurred in 2/71 (2.8%) and 2/75 (2.7%) patients in the brimonidine and timolol groups, respectively. This study demonstrated an add-on effect of brimonidine to PGAs, although non-inferiority of brimonidine to timolol as adjunctive therapy in PGA-treated NTG in terms of IOP reduction was not observed. Brimonidine was associated with no adverse effects on pulse rate. Senju Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry identifier, UMIN000014810.

  4. Smoothing of respiratory motion traces for motion-compensated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Floris; Schlaefer, Alexander; Schweikard, Achim

    2010-01-01

    Aurora systems. The authors also showed that the proposed smoothing method can indeed be used to filter noise. The signal's jitter dropped by as much as 95% depending on the tracking system employed. Subsequently, the 3D prediction error (rms) for a prediction horizon of 150 ms on a synthetic signal dropped by up to 37% when using a normalized LMS prediction algorithm (nLMS2) and hardly changed when using a MULIN algorithm. When smoothing a real signal obtained in our laboratory, the improvement of prediction was similar: Up to 30% for both the nLMS2 and the best MULIN algorithm. The authors also found a noticeable increase in smoothness of the predicted signal, the relative jitter dropped by up to 95% on the real signal, and on the simulated signal. In conclusion, the authors can say that preprocessing of marker data is very useful in motion-compensated radiotherapy since the quality of prediction increases. This will result in better performance of the correlation model. As a side effect, since the prediction of a preprocessed signal is also less noisy, the authors expect less robot vibration resulting in better targeting accuracy and less strain on the robot gears.

  5. Human motion correction and representation method from motion camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Bo Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Motion estimation is a basic issue for many computer vision tasks, such as human–computer interaction, motion objection detection and intelligent robot. In many practical scenes, the object movement goes with camera motion. Generally, motion descriptors directly based on optical flow are inaccurate and have low discrimination power. To this end, a novel motion correction method is proposed and a novel motion feature descriptor called the motion difference histogram (MDH for recognising human action is proposed in this study. Motion estimation results are corrected by background motion estimation and MDH encodes the motion difference between the background and the objects. Experimental results on video shot with camera motion show that the proposed motion correction method is effective and the recognition accuracy of MDH is better than that of the state-of-the-art motion descriptor.

  6. Teaching Projectile Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    Described is a novel approach to the teaching of projectile motion of sixth form level. Students are asked to use an analogue circuit to observe projectile motion and to graph the experimental results. Using knowledge of basic dynamics, students are asked to explain the shape of the curves theoretically. (Author/MA)

  7. Motion control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sabanovic, Asif

    2011-01-01

    "Presents a unified approach to the fundamental issues in motion control, starting from the basics and moving through single degree of freedom and multi-degree of freedom systems In Motion Control Systems, Šabanovic and Ohnishi present a unified approach to very diverse issues covered in motion control systems, offering know-how accumulated through work on very diverse problems into a comprehensive, integrated approach suitable for application in high demanding high-tech products. It covers material from single degree of freedom systems to complex multi-body non-redundant and redundant systems. The discussion of the main subject is based on original research results and will give treatment of the issues in motion control in the framework of the acceleration control method with disturbance rejection technique. This allows consistent unification of different issues in motion control ranging from simple trajectory tracking to topics related to haptics and bilateral control without and with delay in the measure...

  8. Motion planning for gantry mounted manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Lau; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2007-01-01

    We present a roadmap based planner for finding robot motions for gantry mounted manipulators for a line welding application at Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). The robot motions are planned subject to constraints on when the gantry may be moved. We show that random sampling of gantry configurations...... is a viable technique for positioning the manipulator and present a pruning technique for managing the growth of the roadmap. We discuss results from simulations and from applications at the shipyard, where a similar planner has now been implemented for production....

  9. The ups and downs of global motion perception: a paradoxical advantage for smaller stimuli in the aging visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Claire V; Ledgeway, Tim; Allen, Harriet A

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that normal aging is typically accompanied by impairment in the ability to perceive the global (overall) motion of visual objects in the world. The purpose of this study was to examine the interplay between age-related changes in the ability to perceive translational global motion (up vs. down) and important factors such as the spatial extent (size) over which movement occurs and how cluttered the moving elements are (density). We used random dot kinematograms (RDKs) and measured motion coherence thresholds (% signal elements required to reliably discriminate global direction) for young and older adults. We did so as a function of the number and density of local signal elements, and the aperture area in which they were displayed. We found that older adults' performance was relatively unaffected by changes in aperture size, the number and density of local elements in the display. In young adults, performance was also insensitive to element number and density but was modulated markedly by display size, such that motion coherence thresholds decreased as aperture area increased (participants required fewer local elements to move coherently to determine the overall image direction). With the smallest apertures tested, young participants' motion coherence thresholds were considerably higher (~1.5 times worse) than those of their older counterparts. Therefore, when RDK size is relatively small, older participants were actually better than young participants at processing global motion. These findings suggest that the normal (disease-free) aging process does not lead to a general decline in perceptual ability and in some cases may be visually advantageous. The results have important implications for the understanding of the consequences of aging on visual function and a number of potential explanations are explored. These include age-related changes in spatial summation, reduced cortical inhibition, neural blur and attentional resource allocation.

  10. Unusual motions of a vibrating string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Roger J.

    2003-10-01

    The actual motions of a sinusoidally driven vibrating string can be very complex due to nonlinear effects resulting from varying tension and longitudinal motion not included in simple linear theory. Commonly observed effects are: generation of motion perpendicular to the driving force, sudden jumps in amplitude, hysteresis, and generation of higher harmonics. In addition, these effects are profoundly influenced by wire asymmetries which in a brass harpsichord wire can cause a small splitting of each natural frequency of free vibration into two closely spaced frequencies (relative separation ~0.2% to 2%), each associated with transverse motion along two orthogonal characteristic wire axes. Some unusual resulting patterns of complex motions of a point on the wire are exhibited on videotape. Examples include: sudden changes of harmonic content, generation of subharmonics, and motion which appears nearly chaotic but which has a pattern period of over 10 s. Another unusual phenomenon due to entirely different causes can occur when a violin string is bowed with a higher than normal force resulting in sounds ranging from about a musical third to a twelfth lower than the sound produced when the string is plucked.

  11. Superluminal motion in astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falla, D.F.; Floyd, M.J. [Department of Physics, University of Wales, Aberystwyth (United Kingdom)

    2002-01-01

    Several examples of 'intrinsic-type' superluminal motion in astronomy are taken. A simple signal-delay transformation is devised and shown to be sufficient to explain the superluminal effect as resulting from differential signal delay across an expanding source. The distinction between relativistic motion and relativistic kinematics is made. The key kinematical equation used to describe superluminal motion is an alternative statement of the Doppler effect. Relativistic transformations, which are relevant when intervals in different reference frames are compared, then lead to the relativistic Doppler factor ({delta}), which is applicable to measurements on a photographic image, for example that of a relativistic quasar jet with superluminal components. (author)

  12. Method through motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary scenography often consists of video-projected motion graphics. The field is lacking in academic methods and rigour: descriptions and models relevant for the creation as well as in the analysis of existing works. In order to understand the phenomenon of motion graphics in a scenographic...... context, I have been conducting a practice-led research project. Central to the project is construction of a design model describing sets of procedures, concepts and terminology relevant for design and studies of motion graphics in spatial contexts. The focus of this paper is the role of model...

  13. The notion of the motion: the neurocognition of motion lines in visual narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Neil; Maher, Stephen

    2015-03-19

    Motion lines appear ubiquitously in graphic representation to depict the path of a moving object, most popularly in comics. Some researchers have argued that these graphic signs directly tie to the "streaks" appearing in the visual system when a viewer tracks an object (Burr, 2000), despite the fact that previous studies have been limited to offline measurements. Here, we directly examine the cognition of motion lines by comparing images in comic strips that depicted normal motion lines with those that either had no lines or anomalous, reversed lines. In Experiment 1, shorter viewing times appeared to images with normal lines than those with no lines, which were shorter than those with anomalous lines. In Experiment 2, measurements of event-related potentials (ERPs) showed that, compared to normal lines, panels with no lines elicited a posterior positivity that was distinct from the frontal positivity evoked by anomalous lines. These results suggested that motion lines aid in the comprehension of depicted events. LORETA source localization implicated greater activation of visual and language areas when understanding was made more difficult by anomalous lines. Furthermore, in both experiments, participants' experience reading comics modulated these effects, suggesting motion lines are not tied to aspects of the visual system, but rather are conventionalized parts of the "vocabulary" of the visual language of comics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Using a registration-based motion correction algorithm to correct for respiratory motion during myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redgate, Shelley; Barber, David C; Al-Mohammad, Abdallah; Tindale, Wendy B

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate a registration-based motion correction algorithm as a method of reducing respiratory motion artefacts in myocardial perfusion imaging. The NCAT software was used to build nine male and nine female computer simulations of myocardial perfusion imaging data, with different respiratory motions and left ventricular ejection fractions. Imaging data were generated at various time points throughout each cardiac cycle. The data were summed over each cardiac cycle, forward projected, normalized, noise added and reconstructed with and without motion correction. Motion correction was performed using an algorithm that aligns images within a projection using nonlinear registrations. A standard simulation with no respiratory motion was also generated for comparison. The algorithm was applied to the standard to determine its effect on images with no respiratory motion. The median difference in mean segmental counts compared with the standard was calculated for each simulation. The mean (range) of these values was 3% (1-6%), 14% (12-16%) and 28% (28-29%) for displacements of 1, 2 and 3 cm, respectively. The largest changes occurred inferiorly and anteriorly. Motion correction reduced these differences to 2% (0-4%), 5% (2-7%) and 7% (7-7%), respectively. The process of correcting for motion reduced the mean counts in all segments by 3% (1-5%). Artefacts resulting from respiratory motion are improved using our algorithm when motion is 2 cm or greater.

  15. The development of depth perception from motion parallax in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrot, Elizabeth; Mayo, Sherryse L; Nawrot, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about infants' perception of depth from motion parallax, even though it is known that infants are sensitive both to motion and to depth-from-motion cues at an early age. The present experiment assesses whether infants are sensitive to the unambiguous depth specified by motion parallax and, if so, when this sensitivity first develops. Eleven infants were followed longitudinally from 8 to 29 weeks. Infants monocularly viewed a translating Rogers and Graham (1979) random-dot stimulus, which appears as a corrugated surface to adult observers. Using the infant-control habituation paradigm, looking time was recorded for each 10-sec trial until habituation, followed by two test trials: one using a depth-reversed and one using a flat stimulus. Dishabituation results indicate that infants may be sensitive to unambiguous depth from motion parallax by 16 weeks of age. Implications for the developmental sequence of depth from motion, stereopsis, and eye movements are discussed.

  16. Testing for normality

    CERN Document Server

    Thode, Henry C

    2002-01-01

    Describes the selection, design, theory, and application of tests for normality. Covers robust estimation, test power, and univariate and multivariate normality. Contains tests ofr multivariate normality and coordinate-dependent and invariant approaches.

  17. Projectile Motion with Mathematica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alwis, Tilak

    2000-01-01

    Describes how to use the computer algebra system (CAS) Mathematica to analyze projectile motion with and without air resistance. These experiments result in several conjectures leading to theorems. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/ASK)

  18. Projectile Motion Details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnick, Jeffrey W.

    1994-01-01

    Presents an exercise that attempts to correct for the common discrepancies between theoretical and experimental predictions concerning projectile motion using a spring-loaded projectile ball launcher. Includes common correction factors for student use. (MVL)

  19. A Projectile Motion Bullseye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, William G.

    1985-01-01

    Explains a projectile motion experiment involving a bow and arrow. Procedures to measure "muzzle" velocity, bow elastic potential energy, range, flight time, wind resistance, and masses are considered. (DH)

  20. Molecular Motion Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shourd, Melvin L.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the construction of an inexpensive apparatus which utilizes the oscillatory motion of 60 cycle AC current in conjunction with an electromagnetic to illustrate various principles and processes in geology. (SL)

  1. Toying with Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a variety of activities that support the development of an understanding of Newton's laws of motion. Activities use toy cars, mobile roads, and a seat-of-nails. Includes a scoring rubric. (DDR)

  2. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... motion by sea, car, train, air, and virtual reality immersion. Given sufficient stimulus all people with functional ... retching Sweating Cold sweats Excessive salivation Apathy Hyperventilation Increased sensitivity to odors Loss of appetite Headache Drowsiness ...

  3. Reducing motion artifacts in photoplethysmograms by using relative sensor motion: phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijshoff, Ralph W. C. G. R.; Mischi, Massimo; Veen, Jeroen; van der Lee, Alexander M.; Aarts, Ronald M.

    2012-11-01

    Currently, photoplethysmograms (PPGs) are mostly used to determine a patient's blood oxygenation and pulse rate. However, PPG morphology conveys more information about the patient's cardiovascular status. Extracting this information requires measuring clean PPG waveforms that are free of artifacts. PPGs are highly susceptible to motion, which can distort the PPG-derived data. Part of the motion artifacts are considered to result from sensor-tissue motion and sensor deformation. It is hypothesized that these motion artifacts correlate with movement of the sensor with respect to the skin. This hypothesis has been proven true in a laboratory setup. In vitro PPGs have been measured in a skin perfusion phantom that is illuminated by a laser diode. Optical motion artifacts are generated in the PPG by translating the laser diode with respect to the PPG photodiode. The optical motion artifacts have been reduced significantly in vitro, by using a normalized least-mean-square algorithm with only a single coefficient that uses the laser's displacement as a reference for the motion artifacts. Laser displacement has been measured accurately via self-mixing interferometry by a compact laser diode with a ball lens integrated into the package, which can be easily integrated into a commercial sensor.

  4. Motion of a Pendulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Wynn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to derive and solve the equation of motion for a pendulum swinging at small angles in one dimension. The pendulum may be either a simple pendulum like a ball hanging from a string or a physical pendulum like a pendulum on a clock. For simplicity, we only considered small rotational angles so that the equation of motion becomes a harmonic oscillator.

  5. Perpetual Motion Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tsaousis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the first century A.D. there have been relative descriptions of known devices as well as manufactures for the creation of perpetual motion machines. Although physics has led, with two thermodynamic laws, to the opinion that a perpetual motion machine is impossible to be manufactured, inventors of every age and educational level appear to claim that they have invented something «entirely new» or they have improved somebody else’s invention, which «will function henceforth perpetually»! However the fact of the failure in manufacturing a perpetual motion machine till now, it does not mean that countless historical elements for these fictional machines become indifferent. The discussion on every version of a perpetual motion machine on the one hand gives the chance to comprehend the inventor’s of each period level of knowledge and his way of thinking, and on the other hand, to locate the points where this «perpetual motion machine» clashes with the laws of nature and that’s why it is impossible to have been manufactured or have functioned. The presentation of a new «perpetual motion machine» has excited our interest to locate its weak points. According to the designer of it the machine functions with the work produced by the buoyant force

  6. Orientation-independent measures of ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, D.M.; Watson-Lamprey, Jennie; Abrahamson, N.A.

    2006-01-01

    The geometric mean of the response spectra for two orthogonal horizontal components of motion, commonly used as the response variable in predictions of strong ground motion, depends on the orientation of the sensors as installed in the field. This means that the measure of ground-motion intensity could differ for the same actual ground motion. This dependence on sensor orientation is most pronounced for strongly correlated motion (the extreme example being linearly polarized motion), such as often occurs at periods of 1 sec or longer. We propose two new measures of the geometric mean, GMRotDpp, and GMRotIpp, that are independent of the sensor orientations. Both are based on a set of geometric means computed from the as-recorded orthogonal horizontal motions rotated through all possible non-redundant rotation angles. GMRotDpp is determined as the ppth percentile of the set of geometric means for a given oscillator period. For example, GMRotDOO, GMRotD50, and GMRotD100 correspond to the minimum, median, and maximum values, respectively. The rotations that lead to GMRotDpp depend on period, whereas a single-period-independent rotation is used for GMRotIpp, the angle being chosen to minimize the spread of the rotation-dependent geometric mean (normalized by GMRotDpp) over the usable range of oscillator periods. GMRotI50 is the ground-motion intensity measure being used in the development of new ground-motion prediction equations by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Center Next Generation Attenuation project. Comparisons with as-recorded geometric means for a large dataset show that the new measures are systematically larger than the geometric-mean response spectra using the as-recorded values of ground acceleration, but only by a small amount (less than 3%). The theoretical advantage of the new measures is that they remove sensor orientation as a contributor to aleatory uncertainty. Whether the reduction is of practical significance awaits detailed studies of large

  7. A Simplified Treatment of Brownian Motion and Stochastic Differential Equations Arising in Financial Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlar, Mahmut

    2004-01-01

    Brownian motion is an important stochastic process used in modelling the random evolution of stock prices. In their 1973 seminal paper--which led to the awarding of the 1997 Nobel prize in Economic Sciences--Fischer Black and Myron Scholes assumed that the random stock price process is described (i.e., generated) by Brownian motion. Despite its…

  8. Hip strength and range of motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosler, Andrea B.; Crossley, Kay M.; Thorborg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the normal profiles for hip strength and range of motion (ROM) in a professional football league in Qatar, and examine the effect of leg dominance, age, past history of injury, and ethnicity on these profiles. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Methods Participants...... values are documented for hip strength and range of motion that can be used as reference profiles in the clinical assessment, screening, and management of professional football players. Leg dominance, recent past injury history and ethnicity do not need to be accounted for when using these profiles...... included 394 asymptomatic, male professional football players, aged 18–40 years. Strength was measured using a hand held dynamometer with an eccentric test in side-lying for hip adduction and abduction, and the squeeze test in supine with 45° hip flexion. Range of motion measures included: hip internal...

  9. The Normal Distribution Some Roles of Normality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 7. The Normal Distribution Some Roles of Normality. S Ramasubramanian. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 7 July 1997 pp 27-37. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/07/0027-0037 ...

  10. The Normal Distribution From Binomial to Normal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. The Normal Distribution From Binomial to Normal. S Ramasubramanian. Series Article Volume 2 Issue ... Author Affiliations. S Ramasubramanian1. Statistics & Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, RVCE Post, Bangalore 560 059, India.

  11. Protrusion Fluctuations Direct Cell Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, David; Voituriez, Raphaël; Riveline, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Many physiological phenomena involve directional cell migration. It is usually attributed to chemical gradients in vivo. Recently, other cues have been shown to guide cells in vitro, including stiffness/adhesion gradients or micropatterned adhesive motifs. However, the cellular mechanism leading to these biased migrations remains unknown, and, often, even the direction of motion is unpredictable. In this study, we show the key role of fluctuating protrusions on ratchet-like structures in driving NIH3T3 cell migration. We identified the concept of efficient protrusion and an associated direction index. Our analysis of the protrusion statistics facilitated the quantitative prediction of cell trajectories in all investigated conditions. We varied the external cues by changing the adhesive patterns. We also modified the internal cues using drug treatments, which modified the protrusion activity. Stochasticity affects the short- and long-term steps. We developed a theoretical model showing that an asymmetry in the protrusion fluctuations is sufficient for predicting all measures associated with the long-term motion, which can be described as a biased persistent random walk. PMID:24988339

  12. Wave propagation and scattering in random media

    CERN Document Server

    Ishimaru, Akira

    1978-01-01

    Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, Volume 2, presents the fundamental formulations of wave propagation and scattering in random media in a unified and systematic manner. The topics covered in this book may be grouped into three categories: waves in random scatterers, waves in random continua, and rough surface scattering. Random scatterers are random distributions of many particles. Examples are rain, fog, smog, hail, ocean particles, red blood cells, polymers, and other particles in a state of Brownian motion. Random continua are the media whose characteristics vary randomly an

  13. Contrasting accounts of direction and shape perception in short-range motion: Counterchange compared with motion energy detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Joseph; Hock, Howard; Schöner, Gregor

    2014-07-01

    It has long been thought (e.g., Cavanagh & Mather, 1989) that first-order motion-energy extraction via space-time comparator-type models (e.g., the elaborated Reichardt detector) is sufficient to account for human performance in the short-range motion paradigm (Braddick, 1974), including the perception of reverse-phi motion when the luminance polarity of the visual elements is inverted during successive frames. Human observers' ability to discriminate motion direction and use coherent motion information to segregate a region of a random cinematogram and determine its shape was tested; they performed better in the same-, as compared with the inverted-, polarity condition. Computational analyses of short-range motion perception based on the elaborated Reichardt motion energy detector (van Santen & Sperling, 1985) predict, incorrectly, that symmetrical results will be obtained for the same- and inverted-polarity conditions. In contrast, the counterchange detector (Hock, Schöner, & Gilroy, 2009) predicts an asymmetry quite similar to that of human observers in both motion direction and shape discrimination. The further advantage of counterchange, as compared with motion energy, detection for the perception of spatial shape- and depth-from-motion is discussed.

  14. Correlated thermal motion of two liquid Pb inclusions attached to a fixed dislocation in an Al matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokofjev, Sergei I.; Johnson, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Thermal motion of two liquid lead inclusions attached to the same fixed dislocation in an Al-0.65 at% Pb alloy is studied in situ at 447 °C using transmission electron microscopy. Observations of their motion is recorded on video and analyzed frame by frame. Random oscillatory motion of the inclu......Thermal motion of two liquid lead inclusions attached to the same fixed dislocation in an Al-0.65 at% Pb alloy is studied in situ at 447 °C using transmission electron microscopy. Observations of their motion is recorded on video and analyzed frame by frame. Random oscillatory motion...

  15. PROMOTIONS: PROper MOTION Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleb Wherry, John; Sahai, R.

    2009-05-01

    We report on the development of a software tool (PROMOTIONS) to streamline the process of measuring proper motions of material in expanding nebulae. Our tool makes use of IDL's widget programming capabilities to design a unique GUI that is used to compare images of the objects from two epochs. The software allows us to first orient and register the images to a common frame of reference and pixel scale, using field stars in each of the images. We then cross-correlate specific morphological features in order to determine their proper motions, which consist of the proper motion of the nebula as a whole (PM-neb), and expansion motions of the features relative to the center. If the central star is not visible (quite common in bipolar nebulae with dense dusty waists), point-symmetric expansion is assumed and we use the average motion of high-quality symmetric pairs of features on opposite sides of the nebular center to compute PM-neb. This is then subtracted out to determine the individual movements of these and additional features relative to the nebular center. PROMOTIONS should find wide applicability in measuring proper motions in astrophysical objects such as the expanding outflows/jets commonly seen around young and dying stars. We present first results from using PROMOTIONS to successfully measure proper motions in several pre-planetary nebulae (transition objects between the red giant and planetary nebula phases), using images taken 7-10 years apart with the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on board HST. The authors are grateful to NASA's Undergradute Scholars Research Program (USRP) for supporting this research.

  16. Active Brownian motion tunable by light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttinoni, Ivo; Volpe, Giovanni; Kümmel, Felix; Volpe, Giorgio; Bechinger, Clemens

    2012-07-18

    Active Brownian particles are capable of taking up energy from their environment and converting it into directed motion; examples range from chemotactic cells and bacteria to artificial micro-swimmers. We have recently demonstrated that Janus particles, i.e. gold-capped colloidal spheres, suspended in a critical binary liquid mixture perform active Brownian motion when illuminated by light. In this paper, we investigate in more detail their swimming mechanism, leading to active Brownian motion. We show that the illumination-borne heating induces a local asymmetric demixing of the binary mixture, generating a spatial chemical concentration gradient which is responsible for the particle's self-diffusiophoretic motion. We study this effect as a function of the functionalization of the gold cap, the particle size and the illumination intensity: the functionalization determines what component of the binary mixture is preferentially adsorbed at the cap and the swimming direction (towards or away from the cap); the particle size determines the rotational diffusion and, therefore, the random reorientation of the particle; and the intensity tunes the strength of the heating and, therefore, of the motion. Finally, we harness this dependence of the swimming strength on the illumination intensity to investigate the behavior of a micro-swimmer in a spatial light gradient, where its swimming properties are space-dependent.

  17. Effects of polydextrose with breakfast or with a midmorning preload on food intake and other appetite-related parameters in healthy normal-weight and overweight females: An acute, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and crossover study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibarra, A.; Olli, K.; Pasman, W.; Hendriks, H.; Alhoniemi, E.; Raza, G.S.; Herzig, K.H.; Tiihonen, K.

    2017-01-01

    Polydextrose (PDX) reduces subsequent energy intake (EI) when administered at midmorning in single-blind trials of primarily normal-weight men. However, it is unclear if this effect also occurs when PDX is given at breakfast time. Furthermore, for ecological validity, it is desirable to study a

  18. Random walks, random fields, and disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Černý, Jiří; Kotecký, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the mathematics that lies at the intersection of probability theory, statistical physics, combinatorics and computer science, this volume collects together lecture notes on recent developments in the area. The common ground of these subjects is perhaps best described by the three terms in the title: Random Walks, Random Fields and Disordered Systems. The specific topics covered include a study of Branching Brownian Motion from the perspective of disordered (spin-glass) systems, a detailed analysis of weakly self-avoiding random walks in four spatial dimensions via methods of field theory and the renormalization group, a study of phase transitions in disordered discrete structures using a rigorous version of the cavity method, a survey of recent work on interacting polymers in the ballisticity regime and, finally, a treatise on two-dimensional loop-soup models and their connection to conformally invariant systems and the Gaussian Free Field. The notes are aimed at early graduate students with a mod...

  19. Measuring Behavior using Motion Capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.; van der Kooij, Herman; Ruttkay, Z.M.; van Welbergen, H.; Spink, A.J.; Ballintijn, M.R.; Bogers, N.D.; Grieco, F; Loijens, L.W.S.; Noldus, L.P.J.J.; Smit, G; Zimmerman, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    Motion capture systems, using optical, magnetic or mechanical sensors are now widely used to record human motion. Motion capture provides us with precise measurements of human motion at a very high recording frequency and accuracy, resulting in a massive amount of movement data on several joints of

  20. Geologically current plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMets, Charles; Gordon, Richard G.; Argus, Donald F.

    2010-04-01

    We describe best-fitting angular velocities and MORVEL, a new closure-enforced set of angular velocities for the geologically current motions of 25 tectonic plates that collectively occupy 97 per cent of Earth's surface. Seafloor spreading rates and fault azimuths are used to determine the motions of 19 plates bordered by mid-ocean ridges, including all the major plates. Six smaller plates with little or no connection to the mid-ocean ridges are linked to MORVEL with GPS station velocities and azimuthal data. By design, almost no kinematic information is exchanged between the geologically determined and geodetically constrained subsets of the global circuit-MORVEL thus averages motion over geological intervals for all the major plates. Plate geometry changes relative to NUVEL-1A include the incorporation of Nubia, Lwandle and Somalia plates for the former Africa plate, Capricorn, Australia and Macquarie plates for the former Australia plate, and Sur and South America plates for the former South America plate. MORVEL also includes Amur, Philippine Sea, Sundaland and Yangtze plates, making it more useful than NUVEL-1A for studies of deformation in Asia and the western Pacific. Seafloor spreading rates are estimated over the past 0.78 Myr for intermediate and fast spreading centres and since 3.16 Ma for slow and ultraslow spreading centres. Rates are adjusted downward by 0.6-2.6mmyr-1 to compensate for the several kilometre width of magnetic reversal zones. Nearly all the NUVEL-1A angular velocities differ significantly from the MORVEL angular velocities. The many new data, revised plate geometries, and correction for outward displacement thus significantly modify our knowledge of geologically current plate motions. MORVEL indicates significantly slower 0.78-Myr-average motion across the Nazca-Antarctic and Nazca-Pacific boundaries than does NUVEL-1A, consistent with a progressive slowdown in the eastward component of Nazca plate motion since 3.16 Ma. It also

  1. Normal probability plots with confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarangsi, Wanpen; Liu, Wei; Bretz, Frank; Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J; Wan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Normal probability plots are widely used as a statistical tool for assessing whether an observed simple random sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. The users, however, have to judge subjectively, if no objective rule is provided, whether the plotted points fall close to a straight line. In this paper, we focus on how a normal probability plot can be augmented by intervals for all the points so that, if the population distribution is normal, then all the points should fall into the corresponding intervals simultaneously with probability 1-α. These simultaneous 1-α probability intervals provide therefore an objective mean to judge whether the plotted points fall close to the straight line: the plotted points fall close to the straight line if and only if all the points fall into the corresponding intervals. The powers of several normal probability plot based (graphical) tests and the most popular nongraphical Anderson-Darling and Shapiro-Wilk tests are compared by simulation. Based on this comparison, recommendations are given in Section 3 on which graphical tests should be used in what circumstances. An example is provided to illustrate the methods. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The moving minimum audible angle is smaller during self motion than during source motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Owen eBrimijoin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We are rarely perfectly still: our heads rotate in three axes and move in three dimensions, constantly varying the spectral and binaural cues at the ear drums. In spite of this motion, static sound sources in the world are typically perceived as stable objects. This argues that the auditory system – in a manner not unlike the vestibulo-ocular reflex – works to compensate for self motion and stabilize our sensory representation of the world. We tested a prediction arising from this postulate: that self motion should be processed more accurately than source motion.We used an infrared motion tracking system to measure head angle, and real-time interpolation of head related impulse responses to create head-stabilized signals that appeared to remain fixed in space as the head turned. After being presented with pairs of simultaneous signals consisting of a man and a woman speaking a snippet of speech, normal and hearing impaired listeners were asked to report whether the female voice was to the left or the right of the male voice. In this way we measured the moving minimum audible angle (MMAA. This measurement was made while listeners were asked to turn their heads back and forth between ± 15° and the signals were stabilized in space. After this self-motion condition we measured MMAA in a second source-motion condition when listeners remained still and the virtual locations of the signals were moved using the trajectories from the first condition.For both normal and hearing impaired listeners, we found that the MMAA for signals moving relative to the head was ~1-2° smaller when the movement was the result of self motion than when it was the result of source motion, even though the motion with respect to the head was identical. These results as well as the results of past experiments suggest that spatial processing involves an ongoing and highly accurate comparison of spatial acoustic cues with self-motion cues.

  3. MACHINE MOTION EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the dynamic, original, machine motion equations. The equation of motion of the machine that generates angular speed of the shaft (which varies with position and rotation speed is deduced by conservation kinetic energy of the machine. An additional variation of angular speed is added by multiplying by the coefficient dynamic D (generated by the forces out of mechanism and or by the forces generated by the elasticity of the system. Kinetic energy conservation shows angular speed variation (from the shaft with inertial masses, while the dynamic coefficient introduces the variation of w with forces acting in the mechanism. Deriving the first equation of motion of the machine one can obtain the second equation of motion dynamic. From the second equation of motion of the machine it determines the angular acceleration of the shaft. It shows the distribution of the forces on the mechanism to the internal combustion heat engines. Dynamic, the velocities can be distributed in the same way as forces. Practically, in the dynamic regimes, the velocities have the same timing as the forces. Calculations should be made for an engine with a single cylinder. Originally exemplification is done for a classic distribution mechanism, and then even the module B distribution mechanism of an Otto engine type.

  4. Effects of polydextrose with breakfast or with a midmorning preload on food intake and other appetite-related parameters in healthy normal-weight and overweight females: An acute, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and crossover study

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra, Alvin; Olli, Kaisa; Pasman, Wilrike; Hendriks, Henk; Alhoniemi, Esa; Raza, Ghulam Shere; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Tiihonen, Kirsti

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Polydextrose (PDX) reduces subsequent energy intake (EI) when administered at midmorning in single-blind trials of primarily normal-weight men. However, it is unclear if this effect also occurs when PDX is given at breakfast time. Furthermore, for ecological validity, it is desirable to study a female population, including those at risk for obesity. We studied the effects of PDX, served as part of a breakfast or midmorning preload, on subsequent EI and other appetite-related param...

  5. Perpetual Motion Machine

    OpenAIRE

    D. Tsaousis

    2008-01-01

    Ever since the first century A.D. there have been relative descriptions of known devices as well as manufactures for the creation of perpetual motion machines. Although physics has led, with two thermodynamic laws, to the opinion that a perpetual motion machine is impossible to be manufactured, inventors of every age and educational level appear to claim that they have invented something «entirely new» or they have improved somebody else’s invention, which «will function henceforth perpetuall...

  6. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    The technical feasibility of roll motion control devices has been amply demonstrated for over 100 years. Performance, however, can still fall short of expectations because of deciencies in control system designs, which have proven to be far from trivial due to fundamental performance limitations....... This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  7. Elements of spin motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Toshio; Ishizaki, Hideharu

    1994-06-01

    For use in numerical studies of rotational motion, a set of elements is introduced for the torque-free rotational motion of a rigid body around its barycenter. The elements are defined as the initial values of a modification of the Andoyer canonical variables. A computational procedure is obtained for determining these elements from the combination of the spin angular momentum vector and a triad defining the orientation of the rigid body. A numerical experiment shows that the errors of transformation between the elements and variables are sufficiently small. The errors increase linearly with time for some elements and quadratically for some others.

  8. Leap Motion development essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Spiegelmock, Mischa

    2013-01-01

    This book is a fast-paced guide with practical examples that aims to help you understand and master the Leap Motion SDK.This book is for developers who are either involved in game development or who are looking to utilize Leap Motion technology in order to create brand new user interaction experiences to distinguish their products from the mass market. You should be comfortable with high-level languages and object-oriented development concepts in order to get the most out of this book.

  9. Current plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demets, C.; Gordon, R. G.; Argus, D. F.; Stein, S.

    1990-05-01

    A global plate motion model, named NUVEL-1, which describes current plate motions between 12 rigid plates is described, with special attention given to the method, data, and assumptions used. Tectonic implications of the patterns that emerged from the results are discussed. It is shown that wide plate boundary zones can form not only within the continental lithosphere but also within the oceanic lithosphere; e.g., between the Indian and Australian plates and between the North American and South American plates. Results of the model also suggest small but significant diffuse deformation of the oceanic lithosphere, which may be confined to small awkwardly shaped salients of major plates.

  10. Hand in motion reveals mind in motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eFreeman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have measured hand movements en route to choices on a screen to understand the dynamics of a broad range of psychological processes. We review this growing body of research and explain how manual action exposes the real-time unfolding of underlying cognitive processing. We describe how simple hand motions may be used to continuously index participants’ tentative commitments to different choice alternatives during the evolution of a behavioral response. As such, hand-tracking can provide unusually high-fidelity, real-time motor traces of the mind. These motor traces cast novel theoretical and empirical light onto a wide range of phenomena and serve as a potential bridge between far-reaching areas of psychological science—from language, to high-level cognition and learning, to social cognitive processes.

  11. Automated identification of abnormal respiratory ciliary motion in nasal biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Shannon P; Zahid, Maliha J; Durkin, John R; Francis, Richard J; Lo, Cecilia W; Chennubhotla, S Chakra

    2015-08-05

    Motile cilia lining the nasal and bronchial passages beat synchronously to clear mucus and foreign matter from the respiratory tract. This mucociliary defense mechanism is essential for pulmonary health, because respiratory ciliary motion defects, such as those in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) or congenital heart disease, can cause severe sinopulmonary disease necessitating organ transplant. The visual examination of nasal or bronchial biopsies is critical for the diagnosis of ciliary motion defects, but these analyses are highly subjective and error-prone. Although ciliary beat frequency can be computed, this metric cannot sensitively characterize ciliary motion defects. Furthermore, PCD can present without any ultrastructural defects, limiting the use of other detection methods, such as electron microscopy. Therefore, an unbiased, computational method for analyzing ciliary motion is clinically compelling. We present a computational pipeline using algorithms from computer vision and machine learning to decompose ciliary motion into quantitative elemental components. Using this framework, we constructed digital signatures for ciliary motion recognition and quantified specific properties of the ciliary motion that allowed high-throughput classification of ciliary motion as normal or abnormal. We achieved >90% classification accuracy in two independent data cohorts composed of patients with congenital heart disease, PCD, or heterotaxy, as well as healthy controls. Clinicians without specialized knowledge in machine learning or computer vision can operate this pipeline as a "black box" toolkit to evaluate ciliary motion. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Pollen Grains, Random Walks and Einstein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    wnian motion show us how the most profound physics and mathematics can emerge from simple, direct obser- vation of natural phenomena. Ideas related to Brownian motion and random walks appear today in mathematics, all the natural sciences, engineering, linguistics, finance, economics, and even the social sciences.

  13. First metatarsocuneiform motion: a radiographic and statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, G R; Prieskorn, D

    1995-03-01

    Fifty volunteers with 100 asymptomatic feet were evaluated by physical examination, radiographic analysis, and questionnaire. This investigation was used to evaluate first metatarsocuneiform motion and establish normal values at this joint. Normal first ray sagittal range of motion was 4.37 degrees (SD, +/- 3.4 degrees). The shape of the distal cuneiform was then categorized by three classification methods. Multiple independent variables were cross-referenced to determine their relationship with motion and shape at the distal cuneiform. Hyperflexibility of the thumb correlated with first ray hypermobility. No correlation was found between first ray motion and sex, age, intermetatarsal angle, side, skin stretch, hyperextension of the knee, hyperextension of the elbow, or shape of the distal cuneiform.

  14. Lumbar motion changes in chronic low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Rune M; Hartvigsen, Jan; Boyle, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Several therapies have been used in the treatment of chronic low back pain, including various exercise strategies and spinal manipulative therapy. A common belief is that spinal motion changes in particular ways in direct response to specific interventions, such as exercise....../SETTING: Secondary analysis of a subset of participants from a randomized clinical trial. PATIENT SAMPLE: 199 study participants with low back pain of more than six weeks' duration who had spinal motion measures obtained before and after the period of intervention. OUTCOME MEASURES: Lumbar region spinal kinematics......, the motion parameters included in the analysis. The spinal manipulation group changed to a smoother motion pattern (reduced jerk index) while the exercise groups did not. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that spinal motion changes can occur in chronic low back pain patients over a 12-week period...

  15. Chemistry in motion: tiny synthetic motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colberg, Peter H; Reigh, Shang Yik; Robertson, Bryan; Kapral, Raymond

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Diffusion is the principal transport mechanism that controls the motion of solute molecules and other species in solution; however, the random walk process that underlies diffusion is slow and often nonspecific. Although diffusion is an essential mechanism for transport in the biological realm, biological systems have devised more efficient transport mechanisms using molecular motors. Most biological motors utilize some form of chemical energy derived from their surroundings to induce conformational changes in order to carry out specific functions. These small molecular motors operate in the presence of strong thermal fluctuations and in the regime of low Reynolds numbers, where viscous forces dominate inertial forces. Thus, their dynamical behavior is fundamentally different from that of macroscopic motors, and different mechanisms are responsible for the production of useful mechanical motion. There is no reason why our interest should be confined to the small motors that occur naturally in biological systems. Recently, micron and nanoscale motors that use chemical energy to produce directed motion by a number of different mechanisms have been made in the laboratory. These small synthetic motors also experience strong thermal fluctuations and operate in regimes where viscous forces dominate. Potentially, these motors could be directed to perform different transport tasks, analogous to those of biological motors, for both in vivo and in vitro applications. Although some synthetic motors execute conformational changes to effect motion, the majority do not, and, instead, they use other mechanisms to convert chemical energy into directed motion. In this Account, we describe how synthetic motors that operate by self-diffusiophoresis make use of a self-generated concentration gradient to drive motor motion. A description of propulsion by self-diffusiophoresis is presented for Janus particle motors comprising catalytic and noncatalytic faces. The properties

  16. Rehabilitation protocol after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: early versus delayed motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Peng, Kun; Zhang, Dagang; Peng, Jing; Xing, Fei; Xiang, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of early and delayed motion in rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair using a meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials. Electronic searches of the CENTRAL, PUBMED, and EMBASE were used to identify randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effectiveness and safety of early and delayed motion for rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed by the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias. Four randomized controlled trials involving a total of 348 shoulders were included. Of these, two were rated as high quality and two were rated as moderate quality. No significant publication bias was detected by Egger's test and sensitivity analysis demonstrates a statistically robust result. Our meta-analysis indicated that early motion after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair resulted in a significantly greater recovery of external rotation from pre-operation to 3, 6, and 12 months post-operation (P 0.05) in the rate of recurrence, compared to delayed motion. In addition, there were statistically higher rating scale of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores at 12 months post-operation (P rotator cuff repair, compared with early motion. Our meta-analysis included data from randomized controlled trials and demonstrated that delayed motion after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair resulted in higher healing rates and ASES scores than early motion. Alternatively, early motion increased range of motion (ROM) recovery, but also increased the rate of recurrence compared to delayed motion.

  17. Smooth pursuit eye movements and motion perception share motion signals in slow and fast motion mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2015-08-01

    Pursuit eye movements correlate with perceived motion in both velocity and direction, even without retinal motion. Cortical cells in the monkey medial temporal region generate signals for initiating pursuit eye movements and respond to retinal motion for perception. However, recent studies suggest multiple motion processes, fast and slow, even for low-level motion. Here we investigated whether the relationship with pursuit eye movements is different for fast and slow motion processes, using a motion aftereffect technique with superimposed low- and high-spatial-frequency gratings. A previous study showed that the low- and high-spatial-frequency gratings adapt the fast and slow motion processes, respectively, and that a static test probes the slow motion process and a flicker test probes the fast motion process (Shioiri & Matsumiya, 2009). In the present study, an adaptation stimulus was composed of two gratings with different spatial frequencies and orientations but the same temporal frequency, moving in the orthogonal direction of ±45° from the vertical. We measured the directions of perceived motion and pursuit eye movements to a test stimulus presented after motion adaptation with changing relative contrasts of the two adapting gratings. Pursuit eye movements were observed in the same direction as that of the motion aftereffects, independent of the relative contrasts of the two adapting gratings, for both the static and flicker tests. These results suggest that pursuit eye movements and perception share motion signals in both slow and fast motion processes.

  18. Motion Control with Vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ir Dick van Schenk Brill; Ir Peter Boots

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the work that is done by a group of I3 students at Philips CFT in Eindhoven, Netherlands. I3 is an initiative of Fontys University of Professional Education also located in Eindhoven. The work focuses on the use of computer vision in motion control. Experiments are done with

  19. Seeing Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, D. C.; Ross, J.; Morrone, M. C.

    1986-03-01

    This paper reports estimates of the conjoint spatiotemporal tuning functions of the neural mechanisms of the human vision system which detect image motion. The functions were derived from measurements of the minimum contrast necessary to detect the direction of drift of a sinusoidal grating, in the presence of phase-reversed masking gratings of various spatial and temporal frequencies. A mask of similar spatial and temporal frequencies to the test grating reduces sensitivity considerably, whereas one differing greatly in spatial or temporal frequency has little or no effect. The results show that for test gratings drifting at 8 Hz, the tuning function is bandpass in both space and time, peaked at the temporal and spatial frequency (SF) of the test (SFS were 0.1, 1 or 5 c deg-1; c represents cycles throughout). For a grating of 5 c deg-1 drifting at 0.3 Hz, the function is bandpass in space but lowpass in time. Fourier transform of the frequency results yields a function in space-time which we term the `spatiotemporal receptive field'. For movement detectors (bandpass in space and time) the fields comprise alternating ridges of opposing polarity, elongated in space-time along the preferred velocity axis of the detector. We suggest that this organization explains how detectors analyse form and motion concurrently and accounts, at least in part, for a variety of perceptual phenomena, including summation, reduction of motion smear, metacontrast, stroboscopic motion and spatiotemporal interpolation.

  20. Superluminal motion (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykin, G. B.; Romanets, E. A.

    2012-06-01

    Prior to the development of Special Relativity, no restrictions were imposed on the velocity of the motion of particles and material bodies, as well as on energy transfer and signal propagation. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, it was shown that a charge that moves at a velocity faster than the speed of light in an optical medium, in particular, in vacuum, gives rise to impact radiation, which later was termed the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation. Shortly after the development of Special Relativity, some researchers considered the possibility of superluminal motion. In 1923, the Soviet physicist L.Ya. Strum suggested the existence of tachyons, which, however, have not been discovered yet. Superluminal motions can occur only for images, e.g., for so-called "light spots," which were considered in 1972 by V.L. Ginzburg and B.M. Bolotovskii. These spots can move with a superluminal phase velocity but are incapable of transferring energy and information. Nevertheless, these light spots may induce quite real generation of microwave radiation in closed waveguides and create the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation in vacuum. In this work, we consider various paradoxes, illusions, and artifacts associated with superluminal motion.

  1. Projectile Motion Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucie, Pierre

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes projectile motion using symmetry and simple geometry. Deduces the direction of velocity at any point, range, time of flight, maximum height, safety parabola, and maximum range for a projectile launched upon a plane inclined at any angle with respect to the horizontal. (Author/GA)

  2. Choosing a Motion Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of three types of motion detectors: Doppler radar, infrared, and ultrasonic wave, and how they are used on school buses to prevent students from being killed by their own school bus. Other safety devices cited are bus crossing arms and a camera monitor system. (MLF)

  3. Markerless Motion Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis; Czarowicz, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the Associated Technologies aspect of the ICDVRAT event. Two industry leading markerless motion capture systems are examined that offer advancement in the field of rehabilitation. Residing at each end of the cost continuum, technical differences such as 3D versus 360...

  4. Fly motion vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Alexander; Haag, Juergen; Reiff, Dierk F

    2010-01-01

    Fly motion vision and resultant compensatory optomotor responses are a classic example for neural computation. Here we review our current understanding of processing of optic flow as generated by an animal's self-motion. Optic flow processing is accomplished in a series of steps: First, the time-varying photoreceptor signals are fed into a two-dimensional array of Reichardt-type elementary motion detectors (EMDs). EMDs compute, in parallel, local motion vectors at each sampling point in space. Second, the output signals of many EMDs are spatially integrated on the dendrites of large-field tangential cells in the lobula plate. In the third step, tangential cells form extensive interactions with each other, giving rise to their large and complex receptive fields. Thus, tangential cells can act as matched filters tuned to optic flow during particular flight maneuvers. They finally distribute their information onto postsynaptic descending neurons, which either instruct the motor centers of the thoracic ganglion for flight and locomotion control or act themselves as motor neurons that control neck muscles for head movements.

  5. Structure from Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-17

    differential motion Pouu:v tangential to the edge orientation. -iows one irame from a sentience in which tile T is moving b ehind IC uci daes signal...occiuded sides. :esvr. sinme templiate matching may not he etfective fo, recogni- .!on. Viumvre .I shows contrast edges in tileT sentience . lie edges

  6. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…

  7. S4-3: Spatial Processing of Visual Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin'ya Nishida

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Local motion signals are extracted in parallel by a bank of motion detectors, and their spatiotemporal interactions are processed in subsequent stages. In this talk, I will review our recent studies on spatial interactions in visual motion processing. First, we found two types of spatial pooling of local motion signals. Directionally ambiguous 1D local motion signals are pooled across orientation and space for solution of the aperture problem, while 2D local motion signals are pooled for estimation of global vector average (e.g., Amano et al., 2009 Journal of Vision 9(3:4 1–25. Second, when stimulus presentation is brief, coherent motion detection of dynamic random-dot kinematogram is not efficient. Nevertheless, it is significantly improved by transient and synchronous presentation of a stationary surround pattern. This suggests that centre-surround spatial interaction may help rapid perception of motion (Linares et al., submitted. Third, to know how the visual system encodes pairwise relationships between remote motion signals, we measured the temporal rate limit for perceiving the relationship of two motion directions presented at the same time at different spatial locations. Compared with similar tasks with luminance or orientation signals, motion comparison was more rapid and hence efficient. This high performance was affected little by inter-element separation even when it was increased up to 100 deg. These findings indicate the existence of specialized processes to encode long-range relationships between motion signals for quick appreciation of global dynamic scene structure (Maruya et al., in preparation.

  8. Atypical integration of motion signals in Autism Spectrum Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline E Robertson

    Full Text Available Vision in Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC is characterized by enhanced perception of local elements, but impaired perception of global percepts. Deficits in coherent motion perception seem to support this characterization, but the roots and robustness of such deficits remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the dynamics of the perceptual decision-making network known to support coherent motion perception. In a series of forced-choice coherent motion perception tests, we parametrically varied a single stimulus dimension, viewing duration, to test whether the rate at which evidence is accumulated towards a global decision is atypical in ASC. 40 adult participants (20 ASC performed a classic motion discrimination task, manually indicating the global direction of motion in a random-dot kinematogram across a range of coherence levels (2-75% and stimulus-viewing durations (200-1500 ms. We report a deficit in global motion perception at short viewing durations in ASC. Critically, however, we found that increasing the amount of time over which motion signals could be integrated reduced the magnitude of the deficit, such that at the longest duration there was no difference between the ASC and control groups. Further, the deficit in motion integration at the shortest duration was significantly associated with the severity of autistic symptoms in our clinical population, and was independent from measures of intelligence. These results point to atypical integration of motion signals during the construction of a global percept in ASC. Based on the neural correlates of decision-making in global motion perception our findings suggest the global motion deficit observed in ASC could reflect a slower or more variable response from the primary motion area of the brain or longer accumulation of evidence towards a decision-bound in parietal areas.

  9. Design of the muscles in motion study: a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of an individually tailored home-based exercise training program for children and adolescents with juvenile dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habers Esther A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM is a rare, often chronic, systemic autoimmune disease of childhood, characterized by inflammation of the microvasculature of the skeletal muscle and skin. Prominent clinical features include significant exercise intolerance, muscle weakness, and fatigue. Despite pharmacological improvements, these clinical features continue to affect patients with JDM, even when the disease is in remission. Exercise training is increasingly utilized as a non-pharmacological intervention in the clinical management of (adult patients with chronic inflammatory conditions; however no randomized controlled trials (RCT have been performed in JDM. In the current study, the efficacy and feasibility of an exercise training program in patients with JDM will be examined. Methods/design Subjects (n = 30 will include 8–18 year olds diagnosed with JDM. The intervention consists of an individually tailored 12-weeks home-based exercise training program in which interval training on a treadmill is alternated with strength training during each session. The program is based on previous literature and designed with a defined frequency, intensity, time, and type of exercise (FITT principles. Primary outcome measures include aerobic exercise capacity, isometric muscle strength, and perception of fatigue. The study methodology has been conceived according to the standards of the CONSORT guidelines. The current study will be a multi-center (4 Dutch University Medical Centers RCT, with the control group also entering the training arm directly after completion of the initial protocol. Randomization is stratified according to age and gender. Discussion The current study will provide evidence on the efficacy and feasibility of an individually tailored 12-week home-based exercise training program in youth with JDM. Trial registration Medical Ethics Committee of the University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands: 11–336

  10. Effect of motion on speech recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy J; Grantham, D Wesley; Gifford, René H

    2016-07-01

    The benefit of spatial separation for talkers in a multi-talker environment is well documented. However, few studies have examined the effect of talker motion on speech recognition. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of (1) motion of the target or distracters, (2) a priori information about the target and distracter spatial configurations, and (3) target and distracter location. In total, seventeen young adults with normal hearing were tested in a large anechoic chamber in two experiments. In Experiment 1, seven stimulus conditions were tested using the Coordinate Response Measure (Bolia et al., 2000) speech corpus, in which subjects were required to report the key words in a target sentence presented simultaneously with two distracter sentences. As in previous studies, there was a significant improvement in key word identification for conditions in which the target and distracters were spatially separated as compared to the co-located conditions. In addition, 1) motion of either talker or distracter resulted in improved performance compared to stationary presentation (talker motion yielded significantly better performance than distracter motion) 2) a priori information regarding stimulus configuration was not beneficial, and 3) performance was significantly better with key words at 0° azimuth as compared to -60° (on the listener's left). Experiment 2 included two additional conditions designed to assess whether the benefit of motion observed in Experiment 1 was due to the motion itself or to the fact that the motion conditions introduced small spatial separations in the target and distracter key words. Results showed that small spatial separations (on the order of 5-8°) resulted in improved performance (relative to co-located key words) whether the sentences were moving or stationary. These results suggest that in the presence of distracting messages, motion of either target or distracters and/or small spatial separation of the key words may be

  11. Pursuit eye movements to second-order motion targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, M J; Gegenfurtner, K R

    2001-09-01

    We studied smooth-pursuit eye movements elicited by first- and second-order motion stimuli. Stimuli were random dot fields whose contrast was modulated by a Gaussian window with a space constant of 0.5 degrees. For the first-order stimuli, the random dots simply moved across the screen at the same speed as the window; for the second-order stimuli the window moved across stationary or randomly flickering dots. Additional stimuli which combined first- and second-order motion cues were used to determine the degree and type of interaction found between the two types of motion stimuli. Measurements were made at slow (1 degrees/s) and moderate (6 degrees/s) target speeds. At a velocity of 1 degrees/s the initiation, transition, and steady-state phases of smooth pursuit in response to second-order motion targets are severely affected when compared with the smooth pursuit of first-order motion targets. At a velocity of 6 degrees/s there is a small but significant deficit in steady-state pursuit of second-order motion targets but not much effect on pursuit initiation.

  12. Diffusion in a weakly random Hamiltonian flow

    OpenAIRE

    Komorowski, T.; Ryzhik, L.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the motion of a particle governed by a weakly random Hamiltonian flow. We identify temporal and spatial scales on which the particle trajectory converges to a spatial Brownian motion. The main technical issue in the proof is to obtain error estimates for the convergence of the solution of the stochastic acceleration problem to a momentum diffusion. We also apply our results to the system of random geometric acoustics equations and show that the energy density of the acoustic waves...

  13. The role of the harmonic vector average in motion integration

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Alan; Scarfe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The local speeds of object contours vary systematically with the cosine of the angle between the normal component of the local velocity and the global object motion direction. An array of Gabor elements whose speed changes with local spatial orientation in accordance with this pattern can appear to move as a single surface. The apparent direction of motion of plaids and Gabor arrays has variously been proposed to result from feature tracking, vector addition and vector averaging in addition t...

  14. The role of the harmonic vector average in motion integration.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, A.; Scarfe, P.

    2013-01-01

    The local speeds of object contours vary systematically with the cosine of the angle between the normal component of the local velocity and the global object motion direction. An array of Gabor elements whose speed changes with local spatial orientation in accordance with this pattern can appear to move as a single surface. The apparent direction of motion of plaids and Gabor arrays has variously been proposed to result from feature tracking, vector addition and vector averaging in addition t...

  15. What is normal binocular vision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, R A; Hardjowijoto, S

    1979-09-17

    The vergence position of the eyes is determined by the near fixation-accommodation-miosis synkinesis and the fusion mechanism. The contribution of both systems was analysed in 30 normal subjects and 16 subjects with abnormal binocular vision. Prism fixation disparity curves were determined in three different experimental situations: the routine method according to Ogle, a method to stimulate the synkinetic convergence (Experiment I, with one fixation point as sole binocular stimulus) and a method to stimulate the fusion mechanism (Experiment II, with random dot stereograms). Experiment I produced flat curves and Experiment II steep curves. The mean diameter of the horizontal Panum area was 5 minutes of arc in Experiment I and 2 degrees in Experiment II. On the basis of these findings, it was postulated that the synkinetic system operates in the absence of fixation disparity and the fusion system in the presence of fixation disparity. In Experiment II, esodisparities of 100 minutes of arc occur in a number of normal subjects. The dividing line between normal and abnormal binocular vision therefore is blurred. Normal persons can display disparities, the order of magnitude of which is equal to that of the angle of squint in micro-strabismus.

  16. Speed and accuracy of visual motion discrimination by rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Reinagel

    Full Text Available Animals must continuously evaluate sensory information to select the preferable among possible actions in a given context, including the option to wait for more information before committing to another course of action. In experimental sensory decision tasks that replicate these features, reaction time distributions can be informative about the implicit rules by which animals determine when to commit and what to do. We measured reaction times of Long-Evans rats discriminating the direction of motion in a coherent random dot motion stimulus, using a self-paced two-alternative forced-choice (2-AFC reaction time task. Our main findings are: (1 When motion strength was constant across trials, the error trials had shorter reaction times than correct trials; in other words, accuracy increased with response latency. (2 When motion strength was varied in randomly interleaved trials, accuracy increased with motion strength, whereas reaction time decreased. (3 Accuracy increased with reaction time for each motion strength considered separately, and in the interleaved motion strength experiment overall. (4 When stimulus duration was limited, accuracy improved with stimulus duration, whereas reaction time decreased. (5 Accuracy decreased with response latency after stimulus offset. This was the case for each stimulus duration considered separately, and in the interleaved duration experiment overall. We conclude that rats integrate visual evidence over time, but in this task the time of their response is governed more by elapsed time than by a criterion for sufficient evidence.

  17. 2-tier in-plane motion correction and out-of-plane motion filtering for contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Casey N; Eghtedari, Mohammad; Mattrey, Robert F; Kono, Yuko; Kummel, Andrew C

    2014-11-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) cines of focal liver lesions (FLLs) can be quantitatively analyzed to measure tumor perfusion on a pixel-by-pixel basis for diagnostic indication. However, CEUS cines acquired freehand and during free breathing cause nonuniform in-plane and out-of-plane motion from frame to frame. These motions create fluctuations in the time-intensity curves (TICs), reducing the accuracy of quantitative measurements. Out-of-plane motion cannot be corrected by image registration in 2-dimensional CEUS and degrades the quality of in-plane motion correction (IPMC). A 2-tier IPMC strategy and adaptive out-of-plane motion filter (OPMF) are proposed to provide a stable correction of nonuniform motion to reduce the impact of motion on quantitative analyses. A total of 22 cines of FLLs were imaged with dual B-mode and contrast specific imaging to acquire a 3-minute TIC. B-mode images were analyzed for motion, and the motion correction was applied to both B-mode and contrast images. For IPMC, the main reference frame was automatically selected for each cine, and subreference frames were selected in each respiratory cycle and sequentially registered toward the main reference frame. All other frames were sequentially registered toward the local subreference frame. Four OPMFs were developed and tested: subsample normalized correlation (NC), subsample sum of absolute differences, mean frame NC, and histogram. The frames that were most dissimilar to the OPMF reference frame using 1 of the 4 above criteria in each respiratory cycle were adaptively removed by thresholding against the low-pass filter of the similarity curve. Out-of-plane motion filter was quantitatively evaluated by an out-of-plane motion metric (OPMM) that measured normalized variance in the high-pass filtered TIC within the tumor region-of-interest with low OPMM being the goal. Results for IPMC and OPMF were qualitatively evaluated by 2 blinded observers who ranked the motion in the cines

  18. Animating with Stop Motion Pro

    CERN Document Server

    Sawicki, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Animating with Stop Motion Pro is comprehensive, hands-on guide to achieving professional results with Stop Motion Pro 7.0 software. Gone are the days of stop motion guesswork and waiting to see the finalized result of your meticulous, labor intensive animations. With the push of a mouse button and the Stop Motion Pro software, animators have ten times the capability of simple camera stop motion capture. Re-visualize stop motion character movements, graph these movements and composite characters into a flawless animations with the techniques and step by step tutorials featured in Animating wit

  19. Global Motion Model for Stereovision-Based Motion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zhencheng

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An advantage of stereovision-based motion analysis is that the depth information is available, thus motion can be estimated more precisely in D stereo coordinate system (SCS constructed by the depth and the image coordinates. In this paper, stereo global motion in SCS, which is induced by 3D camera motion in real-world coordinate system (WCS, is parameterized by a five-parameter global motion model (GMM. Based on such model, global motion can be estimated and identified directly in SCS without knowing the physical parameters about camera motion and camera setup in WCS. The reconstructed global motion field accords with the spatial structure of the scene much better. Experiments on both synthetic data and real-world images illustrate its promising performance.

  20. New Ground motions relations for Portugal Mainland using a stochastic finite fault modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Alexandra; Campos Costa, Alfredo

    2010-05-01

    . Following Atkinson & Boore (2006), we consider the effects of aleatory uncertainty, expressing random variability in the parameter from one ground motion realization to another. Each key parameter (length, width and dip of the fault, stress, kappa and geometric-spreading coefficient) was treated as a probability distribution (truncated normal or uniform distributions, depending on the parameter which is being modeled).

  1. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  2. Left ventricular wall motion in patients with Chagas's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammermeister, K E; Caeiro, T; Crespo, E; Palmero, H; Gibson, D G

    1984-01-01

    The effect of early chronic Chagas's disease on the timing and extent of regional left ventricular wall motion was studied with a frame by frame analysis of left ventriculograms in nine patients and compared with those in 19 normal subjects. In all the patients there was hypokinesis or akinesis in the anteroapical region together with delay in the onset of inward movement. Hypokinesis of the proximal inferior segment was also present, but the time of onset of inward motion here was normal. These differences can be explained on the basis of regional asynchrony within the normal left ventricle, where anteroapical wall motion is delayed with respect to that elsewhere. Thus contraction of the diseased anteroapical segment starts against an appreciable pressure and so may be isometric, whereas the affected proximal inferior segment starts contracting earlier against a lower pressure and so is able to shorten. No abnormalities of wall motion were seen during isovolumic relaxation despite segmental involvement, which is a distinctly different finding from that in patients with coronary artery disease. This may be due partly to the absence of incoordinate relaxation in Chagas's disease and partly to myocardial involvement by Chagas's disease in the mid-anterior segment. This is the site of rapid early diastolic wall thinning, which has been put forward as a major mechanism of normal rapid ventricular filling and whose premature activity causes disturbances in regional wall motion before mitral valve opening when relaxation is incoordinate. Thus quantitative analysis of both the timing and amplitude of wall motion indicates fundamental differences between Chagas's disease and coronary artery disease, when a less complex analysis would have shown a similar pattern of segmental dysfunction in both. Since the effect of the same pathological process on wall motion varies with the site of ventricular involvement, the importance of the disturbances seen in Chagas's disease

  3. PET motion correction using PRESTO with ITK motion estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Melissa [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Science Faculty of University of Lisbon (Portugal); Caldeira, Liliana; Scheins, Juergen [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany); Matela, Nuno [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Science Faculty of University of Lisbon (Portugal); Kops, Elena Rota; Shah, N Jon [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    The Siemens BrainPET scanner is a hybrid MRI/PET system. PET images are prone to motion artefacts which degrade the image quality. Therefore, motion correction is essential. The library PRESTO converts motion-corrected LORs into highly accurate generic projection data [1], providing high-resolution PET images. ITK is an open-source software used for registering multidimensional data []. ITK provides motion estimation necessary to PRESTO.

  4. Design of the Quality of Life in Motion (QLIM study: a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a combined physical exercise and psychosocial training program to improve physical fitness in children with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Tim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood cancer and its treatment have considerable impact on a child's physical and mental wellbeing. Especially long-term administration of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy impairs physical fitness both during and after therapy, when children often present with muscle weakness and/or low cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical exercise can improve these two elements of physical fitness, but the positive effects of physical exercise might be further increased when a child's wellbeing is simultaneously enhanced by psychosocial training. Feeling better may increase the willingness and motivation to engage in sports activities. Therefore, this multi-centre study evaluates the short and long-term changes in physical fitness of a child with a childhood malignancy, using a combined physical exercise and psychosocial intervention program, implemented during or shortly after treatment. Also examined is whether positive effects on physical fitness reduce inactivity-related adverse health problems, improve quality of life, and are cost-effective. Methods This multi-centre randomized controlled trial compares a combined physical and psychosocial intervention program for children with cancer, with care as usual (controls. Children with cancer (aged 8-18 years treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, and who are no longer than 1 year post-treatment, are eligible for participation. A total of 100 children are being recruited from the paediatric oncology/haematology departments of three Dutch university medical centres. Patients are stratified according to pubertal stage (girls: age ≤10 or >10 years; boys: ≤11 or >11 years, type of malignancy (haematological or solid tumour, and moment of inclusion into the study (during or after treatment, and are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Discussion Childhood cancer patients undergoing long-term cancer therapy may benefit from a combined physical exercise and

  5. Negotiation in Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2010-01-01

    related to interaction, mobility, and transit that focus on notions of the “mobile with,” “negotiation in motion,” “mobile sense making,” and “temporary congregations.” The theoretical approach aims at seeing public transit spaces as sites where cars, pedestrians, mopeds, and bikes on a regular basis...... “negotiate” not only routes in and across the space but also express dynamic flows of interaction in motion. The claim is that what seems like ordinary urban movement patterns are more than this. By moving in the city among buildings, objects, and people, one interacts with the “environment,” making sense...

  6. Visible Motion Blur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor); Ahumada, Albert J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of measuring motion blur is disclosed comprising obtaining a moving edge temporal profile r(sub 1)(k) of an image of a high-contrast moving edge, calculating the masked local contrast m(sub1)(k) for r(sub 1)(k) and the masked local contrast m(sub 2)(k) for an ideal step edge waveform r(sub 2)(k) with the same amplitude as r(sub 1)(k), and calculating the measure or motion blur Psi as a difference function, The masked local contrasts are calculated using a set of convolution kernels scaled to simulate the performance of the human visual system, and Psi is measured in units of just-noticeable differences.

  7. Motion Representation with Acceleration Images

    OpenAIRE

    Kataoka, Hirokatsu; He, Yun; Shirakabe, Soma; Satoh, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Information of time differentiation is extremely important cue for a motion representation. We have applied first-order differential velocity from a positional information, moreover we believe that second-order differential acceleration is also a significant feature in a motion representation. However, an acceleration image based on a typical optical flow includes motion noises. We have not employed the acceleration image because the noises are too strong to catch an effective motion feature ...

  8. Force and motion

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Intimidated by inertia? Frightened by forces? Mystified by Newton s law of motion? You re not alone and help is at hand. The stop Faking It! Series is perfect for science teachers, home-schoolers, parents wanting to help with homework all of you who need a jargon-free way to learn the background for teaching middle school physical science with confidence. With Bill Roberton as your friendly, able but somewhat irreverent guide, you will discover you CAN come to grips with the basics of force and motion. Combining easy-to-understand explanations with activities using commonly found equipment, this book will lead you through Newton s laws to the physics of space travel. The book is as entertaining as it is informative. Best of all, the author understands the needs of adults who want concrete examples, hands-on activities, clear language, diagrams and yes, a certain amount of empathy. Ideas For Use Newton's laws, and all of the other motion principles presented in this book, do a good job of helping us to underst...

  9. Phase Diagram of Collective Motion of Bacterial Cells in a Shallow Circular Pool

    OpenAIRE

    Wakita, Jun-ichi; Tsukamoto, Shota; Yamamoto, Ken; Katori, Makoto; Yamada, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The collective motion of bacterial cells in a shallow circular pool is systematically studied using the bacterial species $Bacillus$ $subtilis$. The ratio of cell length to pool diameter (i.e., the reduced cell length) ranges from 0.06 to 0.43 in our experiments. Bacterial cells in a circular pool show various types of collective motion depending on the cell density in the pool and the reduced cell length. The motion is classified into six types, which we call random motion, turbulent motion,...

  10. Relative motion of orbiting bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butikov, Eugene I.

    2001-01-01

    A problem of relative motion of orbiting bodies is investigated on the example of the free motion of any body ejected from the orbital station that stays in a circular orbit around the earth. An elementary approach is illustrated by a simulation computer program and supported by a mathematical treatment based on approximate differential equations of the relative orbital motion.

  11. Statistics of bicycle rider motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, J.K.; Hubbard, M.; Schwab, A.L.; Kooijman, J.D.G.; Peterson, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of bicycle and rider kinematic motions from a series of experimental treadmill tests is presented. The full kinematics of bicycles and riders were measured with an active motion capture system. Motion across speeds are compared graphically with box and whiskers plots. Trends and ranges

  12. MotionCast for mobile wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xinbing

    2013-01-01

    MotionCast for Mobile Wireless Networks provides an overview on the research for mobile ad-hoc networks regarding capacity and connectivity. Wireless ad-hoc networks are useful when there is a lack of infrastructure for communication. The proposed notion “MotionCast” is for the capacity analysis of multicast in MANET. A new kind of connectivity (k;m)-connectivity, is also defined, and its critical transmission range for i.i.d. (independently and identically distributed) and random walk mobility models are derived respectively. This book also investigates the related issues of connectivity in mobile and static circumstances. In addition, it provides a survey of the capacity scaling research, which gives a good summary of this field.

  13. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of multifractional Brownian motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setty, Venkat; Sharma, Surjalal

    2013-03-01

    Multifractional Brownian Motion (mBm) is a generalization of Fractional Brownian motion (fBm) with a time varying Hurst exponent, H (t) . Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) is a technique used to study the scaling behavior representing long term correlations in various dynamical systems. In our work, we apply DFA to calculate a time averaged Hurst exponent, in mBm data. The accuracy of estimation of was shown to depend on the range and variability of H (t) . Furthermore, the effect of uniform random noise in H (t) on the nature of scaling observed in DFA is studied. Our research focusses on the robustness and applicability of the DFA technique for studying long term correlations in systems with time varying Hurst exponents akin to mBm .

  14. Male spine motion during coitus: implications for the low back pain patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorkewicz, Natalie; McGill, Stuart M

    2014-09-15

    Repeated measures design. To describe male spine movement and posture characteristics during coitus and compare these characteristics across 5 common coital positions. Exacerbation of pain during coitus due to coital movements and positions is a prevalent issue reported by low back pain patients. A biomechanical analysis of spine movements and postures during coitus has never been conducted. Ten healthy males and females engaged in coitus in the following preselected positions and variations: QUADRUPED, MISSIONARY, and SIDELYING. An optoelectronic motion capture system was used to measure 3-dimensional lumbar spine angles that were normalized to upright standing. To determine whether each coital position had distinct spine kinematic profiles, separate univariate general linear models, followed by Tukey's honestly significant difference post hoc analysis were used. The presentation of coital positions was randomized. Both variations of QUADRUPED, mQUAD1 and mQUAD2, were found to have a significantly higher cycle speed than mSIDE (P = 0.043 and P = 0.034, respectively), mMISS1 (P = 0.003 and P = 0.002, respectively), and mMISS2 (P = 0.001 and P spine movement varied depending on the coital position; however, across all positions, the majority of the range of motion used was in flexion. Based on range of motion, the least-to-most recommended positions for a male flexion-intolerant patient are mSIDE, mMISS2, mQUAD2, mMISS1, and mQUAD1. Initial recommendations-which include specific coital positions to avoid, movement strategies, and role of the partner-were developed for male patients whose low back pain is exacerbated by specific motions and postures. N/A.

  15. 2-tier in-plane motion correction and out-of-plane motion filtering for contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Casey N.; Eghtedari, Mohammad; Mattrey, Robert F.; Kono, Yuko; Kummel, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) cines of focal liver lesions (FLL) can be quantitatively analyzed to measure tumor perfusion on a pixel-by-pixel basis for diagnostic indication. However, CEUS cines acquired freehand and during free breathing cause non-uniform in-plane and out-of-plane motion from frame to frame. These motions create fluctuations in the time-intensity curves (TIC), reducing accuracy of quantitative measurements. Out-of-plane motion cannot be corrected by image registration in 2D CEUS and degrades the quality of in-plane motion correction (IPMC). A 2-tier IPMC strategy and adaptive out-of-plane motion filter (OPMF) are proposed to provide a stable correction of non-uniform motion to reduce the impact of motion on quantitative analyses. Materials and Methods 22 cines of FLLs were imaged with dual B-mode and contrast specific imaging to acquire a 3-minute TIC. B-mode images were analyzed for motion, and the motion correction was applied to both B-mode and contrast images. For IPMC, the main reference frame was automatically selected for each cine, and subreference frames were selected in each respiratory cycle and sequentially registered toward the main reference frame. All other frames were sequentially registered toward the local subreference frame. Four OPMFs were developed and tested: subsample Normalized Correlation (NC), subsample Sum of Absolute Differences (SAD), mean frame NC, and histogram. The frames that were most dissimilar to the OPMF reference frame using one of the four above criteria in each respiratory cycle were adaptively removed by thresholding against the low-pass filter of the similarity curve. OPMF was quantitatively evaluated by an out-of-plane motion metric (OPMM) that measured normalized variance in the high-pass filtered time-intensity curve within the tumor region-of-interest with low OPMM being the goal. IPMC and OPMF results were qualitatively evaluated by two blinded observers who ranked the motion in the

  16. Supersymmetry in Random Matrix Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Guhr, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Supersymmetry is nowadays indispensable for many problems in Random Matrix Theory. It is presented here with an emphasis on conceptual and structural issues. An introduction to supermathematics is given. The Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation as well as its generalization and superbosonization are explained. The supersymmetric non-linear sigma model, Brownian motion in superspace and the color-flavor transformation are discussed.

  17. Motion Parallax is Asymptotic to Binocular Disparity

    CERN Document Server

    Stroyan, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Researchers especially beginning with (Rogers & Graham, 1982) have noticed important psychophysical and experimental similarities between the neurologically different motion parallax and stereopsis cues. Their quantitative analysis relied primarily on the "disparity equivalence" approximation. In this article we show that retinal motion from lateral translation satisfies a strong ("asymptotic") approximation to binocular disparity. This precise mathematical similarity is also practical in the sense that it applies at normal viewing distances. The approximation is an extension to peripheral vision of (Cormac & Fox's 1985) well-known non-trig central vision approximation for binocular disparity. We hope our simple algebraic formula will be useful in analyzing experiments outside central vision where less precise approximations have led to a number of quantitative errors in the vision literature.

  18. Space-dependent effects of motion on the standard deviation of fMRI signals : a simulation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renken, R; Muresan, L; Duifhuis, H; Roerdink, JBTM; Yaffe, MK; Antonuk, LE

    2003-01-01

    In fMRI, any fluctuation of signal intensity, not recognized as a result of a specific task, is treated as noise. One source for "noise" is subject motion. Normally, motion effects are reduced by applying realignment. We investigate how apt a realignment procedure is in removing motion-related

  19. The effective density of randomly moving electrons and related characteristics of materials with degenerate electron gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Palenskis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of the conductivity of metals, of superconductors in the normal state and of semiconductors with highly degenerate electron gas remains a significant issue if consideration is based on the classical statistics. This study is addressed to the characterization of the effective density of randomly moving electrons and to the evaluation of carrier diffusion coefficient, mobility, and other parameters by generalization of the widely published experimental results. The generalized expressions have been derived for various kinetic parameters attributed to the non-degenerate and degenerate electron gas, by analyzing a random motion of the single type carriers in homogeneous materials. The values of the most important kinetic parameters for different metals are also systematized and discussed. It has been proved that Einstein's relation between the diffusion coefficient and the drift mobility of electrons is held for any level of degeneracy if the effective density of randomly moving carriers is properly taken into account.

  20. The influence of sleep deprivation and oscillating motion on sleepiness, motion sickness, and cognitive and motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Janna; Ventura, Joel; Bakshi, Avijit; Pierobon, Alberto; Lackner, James R; DiZio, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Our goal was to determine how sleep deprivation, nauseogenic motion, and a combination of motion and sleep deprivation affect cognitive vigilance, visual-spatial perception, motor learning and retention, and balance. We exposed four groups of subjects to different combinations of normal 8h sleep or 4h sleep for two nights combined with testing under stationary conditions or during 0.28Hz horizontal linear oscillation. On the two days following controlled sleep, all subjects underwent four test sessions per day that included evaluations of fatigue, motion sickness, vigilance, perceptual discrimination, perceptual learning, motor performance and learning, and balance. Sleep loss and exposure to linear oscillation had additive or multiplicative relationships to sleepiness, motion sickness severity, decreases in vigilance and in perceptual discrimination and learning. Sleep loss also decelerated the rate of adaptation to motion sickness over repeated sessions. Sleep loss degraded the capacity to compensate for novel robotically induced perturbations of reaching movements but did not adversely affect adaptive recovery of accurate reaching. Overall, tasks requiring substantial attention to cognitive and motor demands were degraded more than tasks that were more automatic. Our findings indicate that predicting performance needs to take into account in addition to sleep loss, the attentional demands and novelty of tasks, the motion environment in which individuals will be performing and their prior susceptibility to motion sickness during exposure to provocative motion stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Frequency Analysis of Normal ABR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Amirfatahi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Introducing an approach for diagnosing the normal ABR independently or supplementary used to confirm the results of the other approaches. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in a descriptive manner on 31 male students of audiology in the Rehabilitation Faculty which were not chosen randomly. All of the samples aged between 18 to 25 years old with normal hearing and with no history of hearing disorder. They were tested in the winter of 1377 by ABR. The resulted of their ABR tests (62 curves were in accordance with the convenient latency norms. After the preparation stage, the frequency analysis of the curves was considered through the Fast Fourier Transform function. Results: considering the power and phase spectrum, three components are recognized, and phase for their frequency, amplitude and phase are determined. The normative values of the obtained amounts of the frequency, amplitude and phase for the frequency analysis results of the normal ABR curves are as follows: First Component: Frequency: 340-530 Hz, Amplitude: 23-31 dB, Phase: 0-3 radian Second Component: Frequency: 540-370 Hz, Amplitude: 20-30 dB, Phase: 0.3-2.7 radian Third Component: Frequency: 750-1024 Hz, Amplitude: 19-30dB, Phase: 0-3.3 radian Conclusion: The results of the present study are exclusively valid for the society being considered, and their generalization requires more researches.

  2. Elevated visual motion detection thresholds in adults with acquired ophthalmoplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, J; Cassidy, L; Grunfeld, E; Shallo-Hoffman, J; Bronstein, A

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To test the hypothesis that in patients with acquired chronic bilateral ophthalmoplegia, abnormal retinal image slippage during head movements would result in abnormal thresholds for visual perception of motion.
METHODS—Five patients (two males and three females) with ophthalmoplegia were included in the study. The average age was 44 years (range 30-69 years). The aetiology of ophthalmoplegia was myasthenia gravis (MG; n=2), chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO; n=2), and chronic idiopathic orbital inflammation. Visual motion detection thresholds were assessed using horizontal and vertical gratings (spatial frequency) set at thresholds for visibility. The grating was then accelerated at 0.09 deg/s2. The subject's task was to detect the drift direction of the stimulus.
RESULTS—Visual motion detection thresholds were raised to a mean of 0.434 deg/s (SD 0.09) (mean normal value 0.287 deg/s (SD 0.08)) for horizontal motion; and to a mean of 0.425 deg/s (SD 0.1) (mean normal value 0.252 deg/s (SD 0.08)) for vertical motion. The difference in values for both horizontal and vertical motion detection were statistically significant when compared with age matched controls; p <0.023 for horizontal motion and p<0.07 for vertical motion (two tailed t test).
CONCLUSION—Abnormally raised visual motion thresholds were found in patients with ophthalmoplegia. This may represent a centrally mediated adaptive mechanism to ignore excessive retinal slip and thus avoid oscillopsia during head movements.

 PMID:11734519

  3. Normalized medical information visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Ricardo; Muñoz, Adolfo; Somolinos, Roberto; Castro, Antonio; Velázquez, Iker; Moreno, Oscar; García-Pacheco, José L; Pascual, Mario; Salvador, Carlos H

    2015-01-01

    A new mark-up programming language is introduced in order to facilitate and improve the visualization of ISO/EN 13606 dual model-based normalized medical information. This is the first time that visualization of normalized medical information is addressed and the programming language is intended to be used by medical non-IT professionals.

  4. Human motion analysis and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prussing, Keith; Cathcart, J. Michael; Kocher, Brian

    2011-06-01

    Georgia Tech has investigated methods for the detection and tracking of personnel in a variety of acquisition environments. This research effort focused on a detailed phenomenological analysis of human physiology and signatures with the subsequent identification and characterization of potential observables. As a fundamental part of this research effort, Georgia Tech collected motion capture data on an individual for a variety of walking speeds, carrying loads, and load distributions. These data formed the basis for deriving fundamental properties of the individual's motion and supported the development of a physiologically-based human motion model. Subsequently this model aided the derivation and analysis of motion-based observables, particularly changes in the motion of various body components resulting from load variations. This paper will describe the data acquisition process, development of the human motion model, and use of the model in the observable analysis. Video sequences illustrating the motion data and modeling results will also be presented.

  5. Human motion simulation predictive dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Malek, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Simulate realistic human motion in a virtual world with an optimization-based approach to motion prediction. With this approach, motion is governed by human performance measures, such as speed and energy, which act as objective functions to be optimized. Constraints on joint torques and angles are imposed quite easily. Predicting motion in this way allows one to use avatars to study how and why humans move the way they do, given specific scenarios. It also enables avatars to react to infinitely many scenarios with substantial autonomy. With this approach it is possible to predict dynamic motion without having to integrate equations of motion -- rather than solving equations of motion, this approach solves for a continuous time-dependent curve characterizing joint variables (also called joint profiles) for every degree of freedom. Introduces rigorous mathematical methods for digital human modelling and simulation Focuses on understanding and representing spatial relationships (3D) of biomechanics Develops an i...

  6. Measuring response saturation in human MT and MST as a function of motion density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Szonya; Furlan, Michele

    2014-07-24

    The human brain areas MT and MST have been studied in great detail using fMRI with regards to their motion processing properties; however, to what extent this corresponds with single cell recordings remains to be fully described. Average response over human MT+ has been shown to increase linearly with motion coherence, similar to single cell responses. In response to motion density some single cell data however suggest a rapid saturation. We ask how the combination of these responses is reflected in the population response. We measured the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response function of MT and MST using a motion density signal, comparing with area V1. We used spatially fixed apertures containing motion stimuli to manipulate the area covered by motion. We found that MT and MST responded above baseline to a very minimal amount of motion and showed a rather flat response to motion density, indicative of saturation. We discuss how this may be related to the size of the receptive fields and inhibitory interactions, although necessarily residual attention effects also need to be considered. We then compared different types of motion and found no difference between coherent and random motion at any motion density, suggesting that when combining response over several motion stimuli covering the visual field, a linear relationship of MT and MST population response as a function of motion coherence might not hold. © 2014 ARVO.

  7. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in motion Nanotechnology in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-02-01

    , Toshio Ando from the University of Kanazawa provides an overview of developments that have allowed atomic force microscopy to move from rates of the order of one frame a minute to over a thousand frames per second in constant height mode, as reported by Mervyn Miles and colleagues at Bristol University and University College London [8]. Among the pioneers in the field, Ando's group demonstrated the ability to record the Brownian motion of myosin V molecules on mica with image capture rates of 100 x 100 pixels in 80 ms over a decade ago [9]. The developments unleash the potential of atomic force microscopy to observe the dynamics of biological and materials systems. If seeing is believing, the ability to present real motion pictures of the nanoworld cannot fail to capture the public imagination and stimulate burgeoning new avenues of scientific endeavour. Nearly 350 years on from the publication Micrographia, images in microscopy have moved from the page to the movies. References [1] Binnig G, Quate C F, and Gerber Ch 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 930-3 [2] Ando T 2012 Nanotechnology 23 062001 [3] J G 1934 Nature 134 635-6 [4] Bharadwaj P, Anger P and Novotny L 2007 Nanotechnology 18 044017 [5] The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986 Nobelprize.org [6] Kim K K, Reina A, Shi Y, Park H, Li L-J, Lee Y H and Kong J 2010 Nanotechnology 21 285205 [7] Phillips D B, Grieve J A, Olof S N, Kocher S J, Bowman R, Padgett M J, Miles M J and Carberry D M 2011 Nanotechnology 22 285503 [8] Picco L M, Bozec L, Ulcinas A, Engledew D J, Antognozzi M, Horton M A and Miles M J 2007 Nanotechnology 18 044030 [9] Ando T, Kodera N, Takai E, Maruyama D, Saito K and Toda A 2001 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98 12468

  8. SOFIA image motion compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Edward; Collins, Peter; Reinacher, Andreas; Lampater, Ulrich

    2010-07-01

    We describe a laboratory simulation of an image motion compensation system for SOFIA that uses high-speed image acquisition from the science instrument HIPO as the sensing element of the system and a Newport voice-coil actuated fast steering mirror as the correcting actuator. Performance of the system when coupled to the SOFIA secondary mirror is estimated based on the known current performance of the secondary mirror controller. The system is described and the observed performance is presented together with expectations for applicability in flight with SOFIA.

  9. Electromechanical motion devices

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Paul C; Pekarek, Steven D

    2012-01-01

    This text provides a basic treatment of modern electric machine analysis that gives readers the necessary background for comprehending the traditional applications and operating characteristics of electric machines-as well as their emerging applications in modern power systems and electric drives, such as those used in hybrid and electric vehicles. Through the appropriate use of reference frame theory, Electromagnetic Motion Devices, Second Edition introduces readers to field-oriented control of induction machines, constant-torque, and constant-power control of dc, permanent-magnet ac

  10. Action Video Games Improve Direction Discrimination of Parafoveal Translational Global Motion but Not Reaction Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Andrea; Boyce, Matthew; Ghin, Filippo

    2016-10-01

    Playing action video games enhances visual motion perception. However, there is psychophysical evidence that action video games do not improve motion sensitivity for translational global moving patterns presented in fovea. This study investigates global motion perception in action video game players and compares their performance to that of non-action video game players and non-video game players. Stimuli were random dot kinematograms presented in the parafovea. Observers discriminated the motion direction of a target random dot kinematogram presented in one of the four visual quadrants. Action video game players showed lower motion coherence thresholds than the other groups. However, when the task was performed at threshold, we did not find differences between groups in terms of distributions of reaction times. These results suggest that action video games improve visual motion sensitivity in the near periphery of the visual field, rather than speed response. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Impact of uncertain reference-frame motions in plate kinematic reconstructions: A theoretical appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Stein, Seth

    2017-01-01

    Geoscientists infer past plate motions, which serve as fundamental constraints for a range of studies, from observations of magnetic isochrons as well as hotspots tracks on the ocean floor and, for stages older than the Cretaceous, from paleomagnetic data. These observations effectively represent time-integrals of past plate motions but, because they are made at present, yield plate kinematics naturally tied to a present-day reference-frame, which may be another plate or a hotspots system. These kinematics are therefore different than those occurred at the time when the rocks acquired their magnetisation or when hotspot-related marine volcanism took place, and are normally corrected for the reference-frame absolute motion (RFAM) that occurred since then. The impact of true-polar-wander events on paleomagnetic data and the challenge of inferring hotspot drifts result in RFAMs being less resolved - in a temporal sense - and prone to noise. This limitation is commonly perceived to hamper the correction of plate kinematic reconstructions for RFAMs, but the extent to which this may be the case has not been explored. Here we assess the impact of uncertain RFAMs on kinematic reconstructions using synthetic models of plate motions over 100 million years. We use randomly-drawn models for the kinematics of two plates separated by a spreading ridge to generate a synthetic magnetisation pattern of the ocean floor. The kinematics we infer from such a pattern are outputs that we correct for synthetic RFAMs using two equivalent methods (a classical one as well as another that we propose and test here) and then compare to the 'true' motions input. We assess the misfits between true and inferred kinematics by exploring a statistically-significant number of models where we systematically downgrade the temporal resolution of RFAM synthetic data and add noise to them. We show that even poorly-resolved, noisy RFAMs are sufficient to retrieve reliable plate kinematic reconstructions

  12. Vesicle Motion during Sustained Exocytosis in Chromaffin Cells: Numerical Model Based on Amperometric Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daungruthai Jarukanont

    Full Text Available Chromaffin cells release catecholamines by exocytosis, a process that includes vesicle docking, priming and fusion. Although all these steps have been intensively studied, some aspects of their mechanisms, particularly those regarding vesicle transport to the active sites situated at the membrane, are still unclear. In this work, we show that it is possible to extract information on vesicle motion in Chromaffin cells from the combination of Langevin simulations and amperometric measurements. We developed a numerical model based on Langevin simulations of vesicle motion towards the cell membrane and on the statistical analysis of vesicle arrival times. We also performed amperometric experiments in bovine-adrenal Chromaffin cells under Ba2+ stimulation to capture neurotransmitter releases during sustained exocytosis. In the sustained phase, each amperometric peak can be related to a single release from a new vesicle arriving at the active site. The amperometric signal can then be mapped into a spike-series of release events. We normalized the spike-series resulting from the current peaks using a time-rescaling transformation, thus making signals coming from different cells comparable. We discuss why the obtained spike-series may contain information about the motion of all vesicles leading to release of catecholamines. We show that the release statistics in our experiments considerably deviate from Poisson processes. Moreover, the interspike-time probability is reasonably well described by two-parameter gamma distributions. In order to interpret this result we computed the vesicles' arrival statistics from our Langevin simulations. As expected, assuming purely diffusive vesicle motion we obtain Poisson statistics. However, if we assume that all vesicles are guided toward the membrane by an attractive harmonic potential, simulations also lead to gamma distributions of the interspike-time probability, in remarkably good agreement with experiment. We

  13. Regional lumbar motion and patient-rated outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Rune M; Bronfort, Gert; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship in change scores between regional lumbar motion and patient-rated pain of the previous week and back-related function in chronic low back pain patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial and treated with either exercise...

  14. Empirical ground motion prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Archuleta

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available New methods of site-specific ground motion prediction in the time and frequency domains are presented. A large earthquake is simulated as a composite (linear combination of observed small earthquakes (subevents assuming Aki-Brune functional models of the source time functions (spectra. Source models incorporate basic scaling relations between source and spectral parameters. Ground motion predictions are consistent with the entire observed seismic spectrum from the lowest to the highest frequencies. These methods are designed to use all the available empirical Green’s functions (or any subset of observations at a site. Thus a prediction is not biased by a single record, and different possible source-receiver paths are taken into account. Directivity is accounted for by adjusting the apparent source duration at each site. Our time-series prediction algorithm is based on determination of a non-uniform distribution of rupture times of subevents. By introducing a specific rupture velocity we avoid the major problem of deficiency of predictions around the main event's corner frequency. A novel notion of partial coherence allows us to sum subevents' amplitude spectra directly without using any information on their rupture times and phase histories. Predictions by this spectral method are not Jependent on details of rupture nucleation and propagation, location of asperities and other predominantly phase-affecting factors, responsible for uncertainties in time-domain simulations.

  15. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2015-05-13

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  16. Waves in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGourty, L.; Rideout, K.

    2005-12-01

    "Waves in Motion" This teaching unit was created by Leslie McGourty and Ken Rideout under the Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program at MIT Haystack Observatory during the summer of 2005. The RET program is funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. The goals of this teaching unit are to deepen students' understanding about waves, wave motion, and the electromagnetic spectrum as a whole. Specifically students will comprehend the role radio waves play in our daily lives and in the investigation of the universe. The lessons can be used in a high school physics, earth science or astronomy curriculum. The unit consists of a series of interlocking lectures, activities, and investigations that can be used as stand alone units to supplement a teacher's existing curriculum, as an independent investigation for a student, or as a long exploration into radio astronomy with a theme of waves in space: how and where they carry their information. Special emphasis is given to the Relativity theories in honor of the "World Year of Physics" to celebrate Einstein's 1905 contributions. The lessons are currently being implemented at the high school level, the preliminary results of which will be presented. At the end of the academic year, the units will be evaluated and updated, reflecting student input and peer review after which they will be posted on the internet for teachers to use in their classrooms.

  17. Perceptually Uniform Motion Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Asmund; Turkay, Cagatay; Viola, Ivan

    2014-11-01

    Flow data is often visualized by animated particles inserted into a flow field. The velocity of a particle on the screen is typically linearly scaled by the velocities in the data. However, the perception of velocity magnitude in animated particles is not necessarily linear. We present a study on how different parameters affect relative motion perception. We have investigated the impact of four parameters. The parameters consist of speed multiplier, direction, contrast type and the global velocity scale. In addition, we investigated if multiple motion cues, and point distribution, affect the speed estimation. Several studies were executed to investigate the impact of each parameter. In the initial results, we noticed trends in scale and multiplier. Using the trends for the significant parameters, we designed a compensation model, which adjusts the particle speed to compensate for the effect of the parameters. We then performed a second study to investigate the performance of the compensation model. From the second study we detected a constant estimation error, which we adjusted for in the last study. In addition, we connect our work to established theories in psychophysics by comparing our model to a model based on Stevens' Power Law.

  18. Intubation biomechanics: laryngoscope force and cervical spine motion during intubation in cadavers-effect of severe distractive-flexion injury on C3-4 motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Bradley J; Fontes, Ricardo B; From, Robert P; Traynelis, Vincent C; Todd, Michael M; Puttlitz, Christian M; Santoni, Brandon G

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE With application of the forces of intubation, injured (unstable) cervical segments may move more than they normally do, which can result in spinal cord injury. The authors tested whether, during endotracheal intubation, intervertebral motion of an injured C3-4 cervical segment 1) is greater than that in the intact (stable) state and 2) differs when a high- or low-force laryngoscope is used. METHODS Fourteen cadavers underwent 3 intubations using force-sensing laryngoscopes while simultaneous cervical spine motion was recorded with lateral fluoroscopy. The first intubation was performed with an intact cervical spine and a conventional high-force line-of-sight Macintosh laryngoscope. After creation of a severe C3-4 distractive-flexion injury, 2 additional intubations were performed, one with the Macintosh laryngoscope and the other with a low-force indirect video laryngoscope (Airtraq), used in random order. RESULTS During Macintosh intubations, between the intact and the injured conditions, C3-4 extension (0.3° ± 3.0° vs 0.4° ± 2.7°, respectively; p = 0.9515) and anterior-posterior subluxation (-0.1 ± 0.4 mm vs -0.3 ± 0.6 mm, respectively; p = 0.2754) did not differ. During Macintosh and Airtraq intubations with an injured C3-4 segment, despite a large difference in applied force between the 2 laryngoscopes, segmental extension (0.4° ± 2.7° vs 0.3° ± 3.3°, respectively; p = 0.8077) and anterior-posterior subluxation (0.3 ± 0.6 mm vs 0.0 ± 0.7 mm, respectively; p = 0.3203) did not differ. CONCLUSIONS The authors' hypotheses regarding the relationship between laryngoscope force and the motion of an injured cervical segment were not confirmed. Motion-force relationships (biomechanics) of injured cervical intervertebral segments during endotracheal intubation in cadavers are not predicted by the in vitro biomechanical behavior of isolated cervical segments. With the limitations inherent to cadaveric studies, the results of this study suggest

  19. PET motion correction using MR-derived motion parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickell, Matthew [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven (Belgium); Koesters, Thomas; Boada, Fernando [Center for Advanced Imaging Innovation and Research, New York University (United States); Department of Radiology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, Bernard & Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York (United States); Nuyts, Johan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-07-29

    With the improving resolution of modern PET scanners, any slight motion during the scan can cause significant blurring and loss of resolution. MRI scanners have the capacity to perform quick successive scans and thus provide a means to track motion during a scan. Hence, with the advent of simultaneous PET-MR scanners, it has become possible to use the MR scanner to track the motion and thereby provide the necessary motion parameters to correct the PET data. Using a suitable segmentation approach a separate MR scan can provide the attenuation map to produce quantitative PET images.

  20. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  1. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : An extensive body of literature is concerned with obese people, risk, and weight management. However, little is known about weight management among people not belonging to the extreme BMI categories. Management of weight among normal-weight and moderately overweight individuals...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  2. Normal growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002456.htm Normal growth and development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A child's growth and development can be divided into four periods: Infancy Preschool ...

  3. Tangle-Free Finite Element Mesh Motion for Ablation Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droba, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Mesh motion is the process by which a computational domain is updated in time to reflect physical changes in the material the domain represents. Such a technique is needed in the study of the thermal response of ablative materials, which erode when strong heating is applied to the boundary. Traditionally, the thermal solver is coupled with a linear elastic or biharmonic system whose sole purpose is to update mesh node locations in response to altering boundary heating. Simple mesh motion algorithms rely on boundary surface normals. In such schemes, evolution in time will eventually cause the mesh to intersect and "tangle" with itself, causing failure. Furthermore, such schemes are greatly limited in the problems geometries on which they will be successful. This paper presents a comprehensive and sophisticated scheme that tailors the directions of motion based on context. By choosing directions for each node smartly, the inevitable tangle can be completely avoided and mesh motion on complex geometries can be modeled accurately.

  4. The amazing normal forces

    OpenAIRE

    Petrache, Horia I.

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript is written for students in introductory physics classes to address some of the common difficulties and misconceptions of the normal force, especially the relationship between normal and friction forces. Accordingly, it is intentionally informal and conversational in tone to teach students how to build an intuition to complement mathematical formalism. This is accomplished by beginning with common and everyday experience and then guiding students toward two realizations: (i) Th...

  5. Normalization Theory for XML

    OpenAIRE

    Libkin, Leonid

    2007-01-01

    Specifications of XML documents typically consist of typing information (e.g., a DTD), and integrity constraints. Just like relational schema specifications, not all are good – some are prone to redundancies and update anomalies. In the relational world we have a well-developed theory of data design (also known as normalization). A few definitions of XML normal forms have been proposed, but the main question is why a particular design is good. In the XML world, we still lack universally accep...

  6. Adaptive multispectral normalization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler-Covell, Mary R.; West, Karen F.; Kiefer, Michael W.; Officer, Sarah M.; Price, Michael J.

    1996-06-01

    A multispectral normalization processing system has been developed to produce percent reflectance maps from multispectral imagery (MSI) in the .4 to 2.5 micron wavelength range. It is adaptive to multiple spatial resolutions, supporting resolutions in the .25 meter to 30 meter range. The normalization process takes advantage of known naturally occurring and man-made materials in the image to remove the effects of atmospheric haze and sensor gain contributions for each multispectral band. The output product is a percent reflectance map for each multispectral band. Although the normalization technique is well known, the MSI normalization system (MSINS) provides a simple, adaptive, robust graphical user interface for normalizing multispectral imagery from various sensor platforms. Over 130 different surface material spectra have been collected from reputable sources in literature and other spectral material libraries and installed in the MSINS Materials Spectral Information Database (MSID). The MSID has been designed to allow the addition of new material spectra into the system via a menu interface. A neural-net-based region grower has been developed to minimize user interaction and increase the robustness and repeatability of the normalization. New multispectral sensor platforms can be introduced into the system quickly via a menu interface. The current system was developed and tested using Landsat Thematic Mapper, Erim M7 Mapper, Positive Systems ADAR 5500, and ITRES casi multispectral imagery.

  7. Attenuation correction of PET activation studies in the presence of task-related motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Odile A.; Boellaard, Ronald; Veltman, Dick J.; Mesina, Catalina; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.

    2003-01-01

    Motion-induced misalignment between transmission and emission scans can result in erroneous estimation of regional tissue activity concentrations. If this motion is of a random nature, mismatch between transmission and emission scans is likely to result in diminished signal-to-noise ratios. In the

  8. Independent motion detection with a rival penalized adaptive particle filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stefan; Hübner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Aggregation of pixel based motion detection into regions of interest, which include views of single moving objects in a scene is an essential pre-processing step in many vision systems. Motion events of this type provide significant information about the object type or build the basis for action recognition. Further, motion is an essential saliency measure, which is able to effectively support high level image analysis. When applied to static cameras, background subtraction methods achieve good results. On the other hand, motion aggregation on freely moving cameras is still a widely unsolved problem. The image flow, measured on a freely moving camera is the result from two major motion types. First the ego-motion of the camera and second object motion, that is independent from the camera motion. When capturing a scene with a camera these two motion types are adverse blended together. In this paper, we propose an approach to detect multiple moving objects from a mobile monocular camera system in an outdoor environment. The overall processing pipeline consists of a fast ego-motion compensation algorithm in the preprocessing stage. Real-time performance is achieved by using a sparse optical flow algorithm as an initial processing stage and a densely applied probabilistic filter in the post-processing stage. Thereby, we follow the idea proposed by Jung and Sukhatme. Normalized intensity differences originating from a sequence of ego-motion compensated difference images represent the probability of moving objects. Noise and registration artefacts are filtered out, using a Bayesian formulation. The resulting a posteriori distribution is located on image regions, showing strong amplitudes in the difference image which are in accordance with the motion prediction. In order to effectively estimate the a posteriori distribution, a particle filter is used. In addition to the fast ego-motion compensation, the main contribution of this paper is the design of the probabilistic

  9. Impaired Velocity Processing Reveals an Agnosia for Motion in Depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, Martijn; Dumoulin, Serge O.; Rokers, Bas

    2016-01-01

    Many individuals with normal visual acuity are unable to discriminate the direction of 3-D motion in a portion of their visual field, a deficit previously referred to as a stereomotion scotoma. The origin of this visual deficit has remained unclear. We hypothesized that the impairment is due to a

  10. Reliability of provocative tests of motion sickness susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, D. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Kennedy, R. S.; Dunlop, W. P.

    1987-01-01

    Test-retest reliability values were derived from motion sickness susceptibility scores obtained from two successive exposures to each of three tests: (1) Coriolis sickness sensitivity test; (2) staircase velocity movement test; and (3) parabolic flight static chair test. The reliability of the three tests ranged from 0.70 to 0.88. Normalizing values from predictors with skewed distributions improved the reliability.

  11. Earthquake ground motion: Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luco, Nicolas; Kircher, Charles A.; Crouse, C. B.; Charney, Finley; Haselton, Curt B.; Baker, Jack W.; Zimmerman, Reid; Hooper, John D.; McVitty, William; Taylor, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Most of the effort in seismic design of buildings and other structures is focused on structural design. This chapter addresses another key aspect of the design process—characterization of earthquake ground motion into parameters for use in design. Section 3.1 describes the basis of the earthquake ground motion maps in the Provisions and in ASCE 7 (the Standard). Section 3.2 has examples for the determination of ground motion parameters and spectra for use in design. Section 3.3 describes site-specific ground motion requirements and provides example site-specific design and MCER response spectra and example values of site-specific ground motion parameters. Section 3.4 discusses and provides an example for the selection and scaling of ground motion records for use in various types of response history analysis permitted in the Standard.

  12. A new method to reconstruct intra-fractional prostate motion in volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Y.; Rezaeian, N. H.; Shen, C.; Zhou, Y.; Lu, W.; Yang, M.; Hannan, R.; Jia, X.

    2017-07-01

    Intra-fractional motion is a concern during prostate radiation therapy, as it may cause deviations between planned and delivered radiation doses. Because accurate motion information during treatment delivery is critical to address dose deviation, we developed the projection marker matching method (PM3), a novel method for prostate motion reconstruction in volumetric modulated arc therapy. The purpose of this method is to reconstruct in-treatment prostate motion trajectory using projected positions of implanted fiducial markers measured in kV x-ray projection images acquired during treatment delivery. We formulated this task as a quadratic optimization problem. The objective function penalized the distance from the reconstructed 3D position of each fiducial marker to the corresponding straight line, defined by the x-ray projection of the marker. Rigid translational motion of the prostate and motion smoothness along the temporal dimension were assumed and incorporated into the optimization model. We tested the motion reconstruction method in both simulation and phantom experimental studies. We quantified the accuracy using 3D normalized root-mean-square (RMS) error defined as the norm of a vector containing ratios between the absolute RMS errors and corresponding motion ranges in three dimensions. In the simulation study with realistic prostate motion trajectories, the 3D normalized RMS error was on average ~0.164 (range from 0.097 to 0.333 ). In an experimental study, a prostate phantom was driven to move along a realistic prostate motion trajectory. The 3D normalized RMS error was ~0.172 . We also examined the impact of the model parameters on reconstruction accuracy, and found that a single set of parameters can be used for all the tested cases to accurately reconstruct the motion trajectories. The motion trajectory derived by PM3 may be incorporated into novel strategies, including 4D dose reconstruction and adaptive treatment replanning to address motion

  13. Weigh - in - motion (WIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Neven B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biggest wealth of every country lies in its transportation infrastructure so the protection of negative impacts on infrastructure must be provided. The progress of sensor technology proposes today several types of weigh-in-motion systems, which have been tested for their efficiency, accuracy and cost-effectiveness. Technologies of piezoelectric sensors, bending plates and load cells are used for a number of applications comprising weigh enforcement, traffic data collection, bridge and toll control systems and so on. Advantages of using WIM technology are various and its benefits affects all road users (transport companies, public, public transport authorities. Potential of WIM application has been recognized in the leading EU countries, so the existence of the numerous WIM projects.

  14. Clinical applications of a quantitative analysis of regional lift ventricular wall motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, R. F.; Rich, J. M.; Pollack, M. E.; Altieri, P. I.

    1975-01-01

    Observations were summarized which may have clinical application. These were obtained from a quantitative analysis of wall motion that was used to detect both hypokinesis and tardokinesis in left ventricular cineangiograms. The method was based on statistical comparisons with normal values for regional wall motion derived from the cineangiograms of patients who were found not to have heart disease.

  15. Visual motion influences the contingent auditory motion aftereffect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroomen, J.; de Gelder, B.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we show that the contingent auditory motion aftereffect is strongly influenced by visual motion information. During an induction phase, participants listened to rightward-moving sounds with falling pitch alternated with leftward-moving sounds with rising pitch (or vice versa).

  16. Motion-Matching: A Challenge Game to Generate Motion Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, David; Adams, Betty; Brookes, David; Milner-Bolotin, Marina; Undreiu, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    Motion is a topic that is taught from elementary grades through to university at various levels of sophistication. It is an area that can be challenging for learning in a conceptually meaningful way, and formal kinematics instruction can sometimes seem dry and boring. Thus, the nature of students' initial introduction to motion is important in…

  17. Directed motion emerging from two coupled random processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjörnsson, T.; Lomholt, Michael Andersen; Metzler, R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the translocation of a stiff polymer consisting of M monomers through a nanopore in a membrane, in the presence of binding particles (chaperones) that bind onto the polymer, and partially prevent backsliding of the polymer through the pore. The process is characterized by the rates......: k for the polymer to make a diffusive jump through the pore, q for unbinding of a chaperone, and the rate qκ for binding (with a binding strength κ); except for the case of no binding κ ≤ 0 the presence of the chaperones gives rise to an effective force that drives the translocation process. In more...... detail, we develop a dynamical description of the process in terms of a (2+1)-variable master equation for the probability of having m monomers on the target side of the membrane with n bound chaperones at time t. Emphasis is put on the calculation of the mean first passage time as a function of total...

  18. Brownian Motion Problem: Random Walk and Beyond -RE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    University, Chandigarh and his present research activities are in non eqUilibrium statistical mechanics. He has written articles on teaching of physics, history and .... 2 Review article entitled 'Brown- ian Movement and Molecular. Reality' based on his work. has been translated into English by. F Soddy and published by Tay-.

  19. Cell motility as persistent random motion: Theories from experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmeczi, D.; Mosler, S.; Hagedorn, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental time series for trajectories of motile cells may contain so much information that a systematic analysis will yield cell-type- specific motility models. Here we demonstrate how, using human keratinocytes and fibroblasts as examples. The two resulting models reflect the cells' different...

  20. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...... Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process...

  1. Medically-enhanced normality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Claus; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To consider public perspectives on the use of medicines for non-medical purposes, a usage called medically-enhanced normality (MEN). Method: Examples from the literature were combined with empirical data derived from two Danish research projects: a Delphi internet study and a Telebus......, to optimise economic, working and family conditions. The term "doping" does not cover or explain the use of medicines as enhancement among healthy non-athletes. Conclusion: We recommend wider use of the term medically-enhanced normality as a conceptual framework for understanding and analysing perceptions...

  2. Predicting Vertical Motion within Convective Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heever, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    Convective storms are both beneficial in the fresh water they supply and destructive in the life-threatening extreme weather they produce. They are found throughout the tropics and midlatitudes, vary in structure from isolated to highly organized systems, and are the sole source of precipitation in many regions of Earth. Convective updrafts and downdrafts plays a crucial role in cloud and precipitation formation, latent heating, water vapor transport, storm organization, and large-scale atmospheric circulations such as the Hadley and Walker cells. These processes, in turn, impact the strength and longevity of updrafts and downdrafts through complex, non-linear feedbacks. In spite of the significant influence of convective updrafts and downdrafts on the weather and climate system, accurately predicting vertical motion using numerical models remains challenging. In high-resolution cloud-resolving models where vertical motion is normally resolved, significant biases exist in the predicted profiles of updraft and downdraft velocities, at least for the limited cases where observational data have been available for model evaluation. It has been suggested that feedbacks between the vertical motion and microphysical processes may be one cause of these discrepancies, however, our understanding of these feedbacks remains limited. In this talk, the results of a small field campaign conducted over northeastern Colorado designed to observe storm vertical motion and cold pool characteristics within isolated and organized deep convective storms will be described. High frequency radiosonde, radar and drone measurements of a developing through mature supercell storm updraft and cold pool will be presented and compared with RAMS simulations of the same supercell storm. An analysis of the feedbacks between the storm dynamical and microphysical processes will be presented, and implications for regional and global modeling of severe storms will be discussed.

  3. Algorithmic Issues in Modeling Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, P. K; Guibas, L. J; Edelsbrunner, H.

    2003-01-01

    This article is a survey of research areas in which motion plays a pivotal role. The aim of the article is to review current approaches to modeling motion together with related data structures and algorithms, and to summarize the challenges that lie ahead in producing a more unified theory...

  4. Rolling motion in moving droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-19

    Feb 19, 2015 ... Drops moving on a substrate under the action of gravity display both rolling and sliding motions. The two limits of a thin sheet-like drop in sliding motion on a surface, and a spherical drop in roll, have been extensively studied. We are interested in intermediate shapes. We quantify the contribution of rolling ...

  5. Rigid Motion and Adapted Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Stephen N.

    The aim here is to describe the rigid motion of a continuous medium in special and general relativity. Section 7.1 defines a rigid rod in special relativity, and Sect. 7.2 shows the link with the space coordinates of a certain kind of accelerating frame in flat spacetimes. Section 7.3 then sets up a notation for describing the arbitrary smooth motion of a continuous medium in general curved spacetimes, defining the proper metric of such a medium. Section 7.4 singles out rigid motions and shows that the rod in Sect. 7.1 undergoes rigid motion in the more generally defined sense. Section 7.5 defines a rate of strain tensor for a continuous medium in general relativity and reformulates the rigidity criterion. Section 7.6 aims to classify all possible rigid motions in special relativity, reemphasizing the link with semi-Euclidean frames adapted to accelerating observers in special relativity. Then, Sects. 7.7 and 7.8 describe rigid motion without rotation and rigid rotation, respectively. Along the way we introduce the notion of Fermi-Walker transport and discuss its relevance for rigid motions. Section 7.9 brings together all the above themes in an account of a recent generalization of the notion of uniform acceleration, thereby characterizing a wide class of rigid motions.

  6. Recent developments in motion planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmars, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Motion planning is becoming an important topic in many application areas, ranging from robotics to virtual environments and games. In this paper I review some recent results in motion planning, concentrating on the probabilistic roadmap approach that has proven to be very successful for many

  7. Motion Predicts Clinical Callus Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Jacob; Marsh, J. Lawrence; Lujan, Trevor; Peindl, Richard; Kellam, James; Anderson, Donald D.; Lack, William

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mechanotransduction is theorized to influence fracture-healing, but optimal fracture-site motion is poorly defined. We hypothesized that three-dimensional (3-D) fracture-site motion as estimated by finite element (FE) analysis would influence callus formation for a clinical series of supracondylar femoral fractures treated with locking-plate fixation. Methods: Construct-specific FE modeling simulated 3-D fracture-site motion for sixty-six supracondylar femoral fractures (OTA/AO classification of 33A or 33C) treated at a single institution. Construct stiffness and directional motion through the fracture were investigated to assess the validity of construct stiffness as a surrogate measure of 3-D motion at the fracture site. Callus formation was assessed radiographically for all patients at six, twelve, and twenty-four weeks postoperatively. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses examined the effects of longitudinal motion, shear (transverse motion), open fracture, smoking, and diabetes on callus formation. Construct types were compared to determine whether their 3-D motion profile was associated with callus formation. Results: Shear disproportionately increased relative to longitudinal motion with increasing bridge span, which was not predicted by our assessment of construct stiffness alone. Callus formation was not associated with open fracture, smoking, or diabetes at six, twelve, or twenty-four weeks. However, callus formation was associated with 3-D fracture-site motion at twelve and twenty-four weeks. Longitudinal motion promoted callus formation at twelve and twenty-four weeks (p = 0.017 for both). Shear inhibited callus formation at twelve and twenty-four weeks (p = 0.017 and p = 0.022, respectively). Titanium constructs with a short bridge span demonstrated greater longitudinal motion with less shear than did the other constructs, and this was associated with greater callus formation (p callus formation, while shear inhibited

  8. Topographic Structure from Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonstad, M. A.; Dietrich, J. T.; Courville, B. C.; Jensen, J.; Carbonneau, P.

    2011-12-01

    The production of high-resolution topographic datasets is of increasing concern and application throughout the geomorphic sciences, and river science is no exception. Consequently, a wide range of topographic measurement methods have evolved. Despite the range of available methods, the production of high resolution, high quality digital elevation models (DEMs) generally requires a significant investment in personnel time, hardware and/or software. However, image-based methods such as digital photogrammetry have steadily been decreasing in costs. Initially developed for the purpose of rapid, inexpensive and easy three dimensional surveys of buildings or small objects, the "structure from motion" photogrammetric approach (SfM) is a purely image based method which could deliver a step-change if transferred to river remote sensing, and requires very little training and is extremely inexpensive. Using the online SfM program Microsoft Photosynth, we have created high-resolution digital elevation models (DEM) of rivers from ordinary photographs produced from a multi-step workflow that takes advantage of free and open source software. This process reconstructs real world scenes from SfM algorithms based on the derived positions of the photographs in three-dimensional space. One of the products of the SfM process is a three-dimensional point cloud of features present in the input photographs. This point cloud can be georeferenced from a small number of ground control points collected via GPS in the field. The georeferenced point cloud can then be used to create a variety of digital elevation model products. Among several study sites, we examine the applicability of SfM in the Pedernales River in Texas (USA), where several hundred images taken from a hand-held helikite are used to produce DEMs of the fluvial topographic environment. This test shows that SfM and low-altitude platforms can produce point clouds with point densities considerably better than airborne LiDAR, with

  9. Normal Psychosexual Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Michael

    1971-01-01

    Normal sexual development is reviewed with respect to physical maturation, sexual interests, sex drive", psychosexual competence and maturity, gender role, object choice, children's concepts of sexual differences, sex role preference and standards, and psychosexual stages. Biologic, psychoanalytic and psychosocial theories are briefly considered.…

  10. Normalized information distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitányi, P.M.B.; Balbach, F.J.; Cilibrasi, R.L.; Li, M.

    2008-01-01

    The normalized information distance is a universal distance measure for objects of all kinds. It is based on Kolmogorov complexity and thus uncomputable, but there are ways to utilize it. First, compression algorithms can be used to approximate the Kolmogorov complexity if the objects have a string

  11. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  12. Normalized information distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitányi, P.M.B.; Balbach, F.J.; Cilibrasi, R.L.; Li, M.; Emmert-Streib, F.; Dehmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The normalized information distance is a universal distance measure for objects of all kinds. It is based on Kolmogorov complexity and thus uncomputable, but there are ways to utilize it. First, compression algorithms can be used to approximate the Kolmogorov complexity if the objects have a string

  13. The Perception of Auditory Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Johahn

    2016-01-01

    The growing availability of efficient and relatively inexpensive virtual auditory display technology has provided new research platforms to explore the perception of auditory motion. At the same time, deployment of these technologies in command and control as well as in entertainment roles is generating an increasing need to better understand the complex processes underlying auditory motion perception. This is a particularly challenging processing feat because it involves the rapid deconvolution of the relative change in the locations of sound sources produced by rotational and translations of the head in space (self-motion) to enable the perception of actual source motion. The fact that we perceive our auditory world to be stable despite almost continual movement of the head demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of this process. This review examines the acoustical basis of auditory motion perception and a wide range of psychophysical, electrophysiological, and cortical imaging studies that have probed the limits and possible mechanisms underlying this perception. PMID:27094029

  14. Process convergence of self-normalized sums of iid random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2. The case for 2>> and ≤ < 2 is systematically eliminated by showing that either of tightness or finite dimensional convergence to a non-degenerate limiting distribution does not hold. This work is an extension of the work by Csörgő et ...

  15. Enhancing ejection fraction measurement through 4D respiratory motion compensation in cardiac PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Wang, Xinhui; Gao, Xiangzhen; Segars, W. Paul; Lodge, Martin A.; Rahmim, Arman

    2017-06-01

    ECG gated cardiac PET imaging measures functional parameters such as left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction (EF), providing diagnostic and prognostic information for management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Respiratory motion degrades spatial resolution and affects the accuracy in measuring the LV volumes for EF calculation. The goal of this study is to systematically investigate the effect of respiratory motion correction on the estimation of end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), and EF, especially on the separation of normal and abnormal EFs. We developed a respiratory motion incorporated 4D PET image reconstruction technique which uses all gated-frame data to acquire a motion-suppressed image. Using the standard XCAT phantom and two individual-specific volunteer XCAT phantoms, we simulated dual-gated myocardial perfusion imaging data for normally and abnormally beating hearts. With and without respiratory motion correction, we measured the EDV, ESV, and EF from the cardiac-gated reconstructed images. For all the phantoms, the estimated volumes increased and the biases significantly reduced with motion correction compared with those without. Furthermore, the improvement of ESV measurement in the abnormally beating heart led to better separation of normal and abnormal EFs. The simulation study demonstrated the significant effect of respiratory motion correction on cardiac imaging data with motion amplitude as small as 0.7 cm. The larger the motion amplitude the more improvement respiratory motion correction brought about on the EF measurement. Using data-driven respiratory gating, we also demonstrated the effect of respiratory motion correction on estimating the above functional parameters from list mode patient data. Respiratory motion correction has been shown to improve the accuracy of EF measurement in clinical cardiac PET imaging.

  16. Enhancing ejection fraction measurement through 4D respiratory motion compensation in cardiac PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Wang, Xinhui; Gao, Xiangzhen; Paul Segars, W; Lodge, Martin A; Rahmim, Arman

    2017-06-07

    ECG gated cardiac PET imaging measures functional parameters such as left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction (EF), providing diagnostic and prognostic information for management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Respiratory motion degrades spatial resolution and affects the accuracy in measuring the LV volumes for EF calculation. The goal of this study is to systematically investigate the effect of respiratory motion correction on the estimation of end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), and EF, especially on the separation of normal and abnormal EFs. We developed a respiratory motion incorporated 4D PET image reconstruction technique which uses all gated-frame data to acquire a motion-suppressed image. Using the standard XCAT phantom and two individual-specific volunteer XCAT phantoms, we simulated dual-gated myocardial perfusion imaging data for normally and abnormally beating hearts. With and without respiratory motion correction, we measured the EDV, ESV, and EF from the cardiac-gated reconstructed images. For all the phantoms, the estimated volumes increased and the biases significantly reduced with motion correction compared with those without. Furthermore, the improvement of ESV measurement in the abnormally beating heart led to better separation of normal and abnormal EFs. The simulation study demonstrated the significant effect of respiratory motion correction on cardiac imaging data with motion amplitude as small as 0.7 cm. The larger the motion amplitude the more improvement respiratory motion correction brought about on the EF measurement. Using data-driven respiratory gating, we also demonstrated the effect of respiratory motion correction on estimating the above functional parameters from list mode patient data. Respiratory motion correction has been shown to improve the accuracy of EF measurement in clinical cardiac PET imaging.

  17. Yawning as a behavioral marker of mild motion sickness and sopite syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsangas, Panagiotis; McCauley, Michael E

    2014-06-01

    Severe motion sickness is easily identifiable with sufferers showing obvious behavioral signs, including emesis (vomiting). Mild motion sickness and sopite syndrome lack such clear and objective behavioral markers. We postulate that yawning may have the potential to be used in operational settings as such a marker. This study assesses the utility of yawning as a behavioral marker for the identification of soporific effects by investigating the association between yawning and mild motion sickness/sopite syndrome in a controlled environment. Using a randomized motion-counterbalanced design, we collected yawning and motion sickness data from 39 healthy individuals (34 men and 5 women, ages 27-59 yr) in static and motion conditions. Each individual participated in two 1-h sessions. Each session consisted of six 10-min blocks. Subjects performed a multitasking battery on a head mounted display while seated on the moving platform. The occurrence and severity of symptoms were assessed with the Motion Sickness Assessment Questionnaire (MSAQ). Yawning occurred predominantly in the motion condition. All yawners in motion (N = 5) were symptomatic. Compared to nonyawners (MSAQ indices: Total = 14.0, Sopite = 15.0), subjects who yawned in motion demonstrated increased severity of motion sickness and soporific symptoms (MSAQ indices: Total = 17.2, Sopite = 22.4), and reduced multitasking cognitive performance (Composite score: nonyawners = 1348; yawners = 1145). These results provide evidence that yawning may be a viable behavioral marker to recognize the onset of soporific effects and their concomitant reduction in cognitive performance.

  18. 49 CFR 230.105 - Lateral motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lateral motion. 230.105 Section 230.105... Tenders Running Gear § 230.105 Lateral motion. (a) Condemning limits. The total lateral motion or play... require additional lateral motion. (c) Non-interference with other parts. The lateral motion shall in all...

  19. Quincke random walkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradillo, Gerardo; Heintz, Aneesh; Vlahovska, Petia

    2017-11-01

    The spontaneous rotation of a sphere in an applied uniform DC electric field (Quincke effect) has been utilized to engineer self-propelled particles: if the sphere is initially resting on a surface, it rolls. The Quincke rollers have been widely used as a model system to study collective behavior in ``active'' suspensions. If the applied field is DC, an isolated Quincke roller follows a straight line trajectory. In this talk, we discuss the design of a Quincke roller that executes a random-walk-like behavior. We utilize AC field - upon reversal of the field direction a fluctuation in the axis of rotation (which is degenerate in the plane perpendicular to the field and parallel to the surface) introduces randomness in the direction of motion. The MSD of an isolated Quincke walker depends on frequency, amplitude, and waveform of the electric field. Experiment and theory are compared. We also investigate the collective behavior of Quincke walkers,the transport of inert particles in a bath of Quincke walkers, and the spontaneous motion of a drop containing Quincke active particle. supported by NSF Grant CBET 1437545.

  20. Motion perception in motion : how we perceive object motion during smooth pursuit eye movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souman, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Eye movements change the retinal image motion of objects in the visual field. When we make an eye movement, the image of a stationary object will move across the retinae, while the retinal image of an object that we follow with the eyes is approximately stationary. To enable us to perceive motion in

  1. Fractional random walk lattice dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelitsch, T. M.; Collet, B. A.; Riascos, A. P.; Nowakowski, A. F.; Nicolleau, F. C. G. A.

    2017-02-01

    We analyze time-discrete and time-continuous ‘fractional’ random walks on undirected regular networks with special focus on cubic periodic lattices in n  =  1, 2, 3,.. dimensions. The fractional random walk dynamics is governed by a master equation involving fractional powers of Laplacian matrices {{L}\\fracα{2}}} where α =2 recovers the normal walk. First we demonstrate that the interval 0<α ≤slant 2 is admissible for the fractional random walk. We derive analytical expressions for the transition matrix of the fractional random walk and closely related the average return probabilities. We further obtain the fundamental matrix {{Z}(α )} , and the mean relaxation time (Kemeny constant) for the fractional random walk. The representation for the fundamental matrix {{Z}(α )} relates fractional random walks with normal random walks. We show that the matrix elements of the transition matrix of the fractional random walk exihibit for large cubic n-dimensional lattices a power law decay of an n-dimensional infinite space Riesz fractional derivative type indicating emergence of Lévy flights. As a further footprint of Lévy flights in the n-dimensional space, the transition matrix and return probabilities of the fractional random walk are dominated for large times t by slowly relaxing long-wave modes leading to a characteristic {{t}-\\frac{n{α}} -decay. It can be concluded that, due to long range moves of fractional random walk, a small world property is emerging increasing the efficiency to explore the lattice when instead of a normal random walk a fractional random walk is chosen.

  2. The first step towards a respiratory motion prediction for natural-breathing by using a motion generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moo-Sub; Jung, Joo-Young; Yoon, Do-Kun; Shin, Han-Back; Suh, Tae Suk; Jung, Jae-Hong

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory gated radiation therapy (RGRT) gives accurate results when a patient's breathing is stable and regular. Thus, the patient should be acutely aware during respiratory pattern training before undergoing the RGRT treatment. To bypass the process of respiratory pattern training, we propose a tumor location prediction system for RGRT that uses only the natural respiratory volume, and we confirm its application. In order to verify the proposed tumor location prediction system, we used an in-house phantom set. The set involved a chest phantom with target, external markers and a motion generator. Natural respiratory volume signals were generated using the random function in the MATLAB code. In the chest phantom, the target undergoes linear motion based on the respiratory signal. After a four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scan of the in-house phantom, the motion trajectory was derived as a linear equation. The accuracy of the linear equation was compared with that of the motion algorithm used by the operating motion generator. In addition, we attempted to predict the tumor's location by using the random respiratory volume values. The correspondence rate of the linear equation derived from the 4DCT images with the motion algorithm of the motion generator was 99.41% ( p > 0.05). Also, the average error rate of the tumor-location prediction was 1.23% for 26 cases. We confirmed the applicability of our proposed tumor location prediction system using the natural respiratory volume for RGRT. If additional clinical studies can be conducted, a more accurate prediction that would not require respiratory pattern training can be realized.

  3. A Motion Detection Algorithm Using Local Phase Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Aurel A; Ukani, Nikul H; Zhou, Yiyin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research demonstrated that global phase alone can be used to faithfully represent visual scenes. Here we provide a reconstruction algorithm by using only local phase information. We also demonstrate that local phase alone can be effectively used to detect local motion. The local phase-based motion detector is akin to models employed to detect motion in biological vision, for example, the Reichardt detector. The local phase-based motion detection algorithm introduced here consists of two building blocks. The first building block measures/evaluates the temporal change of the local phase. The temporal derivative of the local phase is shown to exhibit the structure of a second order Volterra kernel with two normalized inputs. We provide an efficient, FFT-based algorithm for implementing the change of the local phase. The second processing building block implements the detector; it compares the maximum of the Radon transform of the local phase derivative with a chosen threshold. We demonstrate examples of applying the local phase-based motion detection algorithm on several video sequences. We also show how the locally detected motion can be used for segmenting moving objects in video scenes and compare our local phase-based algorithm to segmentation achieved with a widely used optic flow algorithm.

  4. Development of a standardized method for motion testing in pulse oximeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Allan B; Kozikowski, Raymond T; Winslow, Andrew W; Weininger, Sandy

    2007-12-01

    Pulse oximeter performance in the presence of motion varies among devices and manufacturers because of variations in hardware, software, testing, and calibration. Compounding these differences is a lack of uniform characterization of motion, and the consequential effects of motion upon the wide range of normal and abnormal human physiology. Traditional motion testing attempts to standardize motion into a reproducible form by using a mechanical jig to produce passive motion of a known amplitude and frequency. This type of motion challenge fails to account for the physiologic changes induced by active movement. We postulate that a more appropriate method for testing the performance of pulse oximeters in the presence of motion is to create a feedback control loop between the device and the test subject, providing a reproducible, actively created, and controlled motion test suitable for standardized testing among manufacturers. It is hoped that relying on a signal as seen from the oximeter's perspective will enable the creation of a sensitive and reproducible test method capable of separating those oximeters that can reject motion artifact from those that cannot. Preliminary results have concentrated on building the tools and clinical protocols needed to evaluate this method. Some basic observations are reported, but insufficient numbers of experienced subjects precludes rigorous conclusions. We have set the stage for a feasibility demonstration using a novel form of testing. With sufficient subjects and proper statistical evaluation, a robust test method for assessing the performance of pulse oximeters in the presence of motion may be at hand.

  5. The equations of relative motion in the orbital reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casotto, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    The analysis of relative motion of two spacecraft in Earth-bound orbits is usually carried out on the basis of simplifying assumptions. In particular, the reference spacecraft is assumed to follow a circular orbit, in which case the equations of relative motion are governed by the well-known Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations. Circular motion is not, however, a solution when the Earth's flattening is accounted for, except for equatorial orbits, where in any case the acceleration term is not Newtonian. Several attempts have been made to account for the J_2 effects, either by ingeniously taking advantage of their differential effects, or by cleverly introducing ad-hoc terms in the equations of motion on the basis of geometrical analysis of the J_2 perturbing effects. Analysis of relative motion about an unperturbed elliptical orbit is the next step in complexity. Relative motion about a J_2-perturbed elliptic reference trajectory is clearly a challenging problem, which has received little attention. All these problems are based on either the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire equations for circular reference motion, or the de Vries/Tschauner-Hempel equations for elliptical reference motion, which are both approximate versions of the exact equations of relative motion. The main difference between the exact and approximate forms of these equations consists in the expression for the angular velocity and the angular acceleration of the rotating reference frame with respect to an inertial reference frame. The rotating reference frame is invariably taken as the local orbital frame, i.e., the RTN frame generated by the radial, the transverse, and the normal directions along the primary spacecraft orbit. Some authors have tried to account for the non-constant nature of the angular velocity vector, but have limited their correction to a mean motion value consistent with the J_2 perturbation terms. However, the angular velocity vector is also affected in direction, which causes precession

  6. Normal Weight Dyslipidemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Hojland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The liver coordinates lipid metabolism and may play a vital role in the development of dyslipidemia, even in the absence of obesity. Normal weight dyslipidemia (NWD) and patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) who do not have obesity constitute a unique subset...... of individuals characterized by dyslipidemia and metabolic deterioration. This review examined the available literature on the role of the liver in dyslipidemia and the metabolic characteristics of patients with NAFLD who do not have obesity. Methods: PubMed was searched using the following keywords: nonobese......, dyslipidemia, NAFLD, NWD, liver, and metabolically obese/unhealthy normal weight. Additionally, article bibliographies were screened, and relevant citations were retrieved. Studies were excluded if they had not measured relevant biomarkers of dyslipidemia. Results: NWD and NAFLD without obesity share a similar...

  7. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant R. Nassar BS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH.

  8. Human motion analysis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, J. Michael; Prussing, Keith; Kocher, Brian

    2011-06-01

    Georgia Tech has investigated methods for the detection and tracking of personnel in a variety of acquisition environments. This research effort focused on a detailed phenomenological analysis of human physiology and signatures with the subsequent identification and characterization of potential observables. Both aspects are needed to support the development of personnel detection and tracking algorithms. As a fundamental part of this research effort, Georgia Tech collected motion capture data on an individual for a variety of walking speeds, carrying loads, and load distributions. These data formed the basis for deriving fundamental properties of the individual's motion and the derivation of motionbased observables, and changes in these fundamental properties arising from load variations. Analyses were conducted to characterize the motion properties of various body components such as leg swing, arm swing, head motion, and full body motion. This paper will describe the data acquisition process, extraction of motion characteristics, and analysis of these data. Video sequences illustrating the motion data and analysis results will also be presented.

  9. Open architecture CMM motion controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, David; Spence, Allan D.; Bigg, Steve; Heslip, Joe; Peterson, John

    2001-12-01

    Although initially the only Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) sensor available was a touch trigger probe, technological advances in sensors and computing have greatly increased the variety of available inspection sensors. Non-contact laser digitizers and analog scanning touch probes require very well tuned CMM motion control, as well as an extensible, open architecture interface. This paper describes the implementation of a retrofit CMM motion controller designed for open architecture interface to a variety of sensors. The controller is based on an Intel Pentium microcomputer and a Servo To Go motion interface electronics card. Motor amplifiers, safety, and additional interface electronics are housed in a separate enclosure. Host Signal Processing (HSP) is used for the motion control algorithm. Compared to the usual host plus DSP architecture, single CPU HSP simplifies integration with the various sensors, and implementation of software geometric error compensation. Motion control tuning is accomplished using a remote computer via 100BaseTX Ethernet. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is used to enter geometric error compensation data, and to optimize the motion control tuning parameters. It is shown that this architecture achieves the required real time motion control response, yet is much easier to extend to additional sensors.

  10. Visual motion responses in the posterior cingulate sulcus: a comparison to V5/MT and MST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Elvira; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Logothetis, Nikos K; Bartels, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Motion processing regions apart from V5+/MT+ are still relatively poorly understood. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to perform a detailed functional analysis of the recently described cingulate sulcus visual area (CSv) in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex. We used distinct types of visual motion stimuli to compare CSv with V5/MT and MST, including a visual pursuit paradigm. Both V5/MT and MST preferred 3D flow over 2D planar motion, responded less yet substantially to random motion, had a strong preference for contralateral versus ipsilateral stimulation, and responded nearly equally to contralateral and to full-field stimuli. In contrast, CSv had a pronounced preference to 2D planar motion over 3D flow, did not respond to random motion, had a weak and nonsignificant lateralization that was significantly smaller than that of MST, and strongly preferred full-field over contralateral stimuli. In addition, CSv had a better capability to integrate eye movements with retinal motion compared with V5/MT and MST. CSv thus differs from V5+/MT+ by its unique preference to full-field, coherent, and planar motion cues. These results place CSv in a good position to process visual cues related to self-induced motion, in particular those associated to eye or lateral head movements.

  11. From fractional Brownian motion to multifractional and multistable motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Kenneth

    2015-03-01

    Fractional Brownian motion, introduced by Benoit Mandelbrot and John Van Ness in 1968, has had a major impact on stochastic processes and their applications. We survey a few of the many developments that have stemmed from their ideas. In particular we discuss the local structure of fractional and multifractional Brownian, stable and multistable processes, emphasising the `diagonal' construction of such processes. In all this, the ubiquity and centrality of fractional Brownian motion is striking.

  12. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution--adapting delivery to natural movement--a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and pati

  13. Cache-Aware Asymptotically-Optimal Sampling-Based Motion Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichnowski, Jeffrey; Prins, Jan F; Alterovitz, Ron

    2014-05-01

    We present CARRT* (Cache-Aware Rapidly Exploring Random Tree*), an asymptotically optimal sampling-based motion planner that significantly reduces motion planning computation time by effectively utilizing the cache memory hierarchy of modern central processing units (CPUs). CARRT* can account for the CPU's cache size in a manner that keeps its working dataset in the cache. The motion planner progressively subdivides the robot's configuration space into smaller regions as the number of configuration samples rises. By focusing configuration exploration in a region for periods of time, nearest neighbor searching is accelerated since the working dataset is small enough to fit in the cache. CARRT* also rewires the motion planning graph in a manner that complements the cache-aware subdivision strategy to more quickly refine the motion planning graph toward optimality. We demonstrate the performance benefit of our cache-aware motion planning approach for scenarios involving a point robot as well as the Rethink Robotics Baxter robot.

  14. Bidirectional RRT Algorithm for Collision Avoidance Motion Planning of FFSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huazhong Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The nonholonomic kinematics characteristic of free-floating space robot (FFSR in a microgravity environment is a special difficulty in its motion planning. First, kinematics model for FFSR system and state transition equation have been established by applying linear momentum and angular momentum conservation laws followed by FFSR in a microgravity environment. Second, aiming at the nonholonomic characteristic of FFSR, a collision avoidance motion planning algorithm based on bidirectional rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT has been proposed. This paper focuses on explaining the basic theory of FFSR motion planning, the basic principle for such core algorithms as EXTEND, CONECT and RRT-Connect and the realization of such algorithms. Finally, the correctness of the algorithms proposed has been verified via computer simulation.

  15. Dance notations and robot motion

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    How and why to write a movement? Who is the writer? Who is the reader? They may be choreographers working with dancers. They may be roboticists programming robots. They may be artists designing cartoons in computer animation. In all such fields the purpose is to express an intention about a dance, a specific motion or an action to perform, in terms of intelligible sequences of elementary movements, as a music score that would be devoted to motion representation. Unfortunately there is no universal language to write a motion. Motion languages live together in a Babel tower populated by biomechanists, dance notators, neuroscientists, computer scientists, choreographers, roboticists. Each community handles its own concepts and speaks its own language. The book accounts for this diversity. Its origin is a unique workshop held at LAAS-CNRS in Toulouse in 2014. Worldwide representatives of various communities met there. Their challenge was to reach a mutual understanding allowing a choreographer to access robotics ...

  16. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  17. Organized motion in turbulent flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, B. J.

    A review of organized motion in turbulent flow indicates that the transport properties of most shear flows are dominated by large-scale vortex nonrandom motions. The mean velocity profile of a turbulent boundary layer consists of a viscous sublayer, buffer layer, and a logarithmic outer layer; an empirical formula of Coles (1956) applies to various pressure gradients. The boundary layer coherent structure was isolated by the correlation methods of Townsend (1956) and flow visualization by direct observations of complex unsteady turbulent motions. The near-wall studies of Willmart and Wooldridge (1962) used the space-time correlation for pressure fluctuations at the wall under a thick turbulent boundary layer; finally, organized motion in free shear flows and transition-control of mixing demonstrated that the Reynolds number invariance of turbulence shows wide scatter.

  18. Corners of normal matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    λj (BB∗) = λj (I − AA∗) = 1 − λj (AA∗). = 1 − λj (A∗A) = λj (I − A∗A) = λj (C∗C). Thus B and C have the same singular values, and again |||B||| = |||C||| for all unitarily invariant norms. This equality of norms does not persist when we go to arbitrary normal matrices, as we will soon see. From (2) and (4) we get a simple inequality.

  19. q-deformed Brownian motion

    CERN Document Server

    Man'ko, V I

    1993-01-01

    Brownian motion may be embedded in the Fock space of bosonic free field in one dimension.Extending this correspondence to a family of creation and annihilation operators satisfying a q-deformed algebra, the notion of q-deformation is carried from the algebra to the domain of stochastic processes.The properties of q-deformed Brownian motion, in particular its non-Gaussian nature and cumulant structure,are established.

  20. Turbulent Motions in Molecular Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegatti Franco, G. A.; Tarsia, R. D.; Quiroga, R. J.

    1986-02-01

    We have studied the behavior of the inner motions of OH, H2CO and CO molecular clouds. This study shows the existence of two main components of these clouds: the narrow one, associated to dense small clouds and a wide one "representing" the large diffuse clouds seen in neutral hidrogen.The large clouds are the "vortex" and intermediate state between turbulent and hydrodynamic motions in the alaxy.

  1. Storyboard dalam Pembuatan Motion Graphic

    OpenAIRE

    Satrya Mahardhika; Ahmad Faisal Choiril Anam Fathoni

    2013-01-01

    Motion graphics is one category in the animation that makes animation with lots of design elements in each component. Motion graphics needs long process including preproduction, production, and postproduction. Preproduction has an important role so that the next stage may provide guidance or instructions for the production process or the animation process. Preproduction includes research, making the story, script, screenplay, character, environment design and storyboards. The storyboard will ...

  2. Probing nanoscale oxygen ion motion in memristive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuchao; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Qin, Liang; Zeng, Qibin; Qiu, Xiaohui; Huang, Ru

    2017-05-01

    Ion transport is an essential process for various applications including energy storage, sensing, display, memory and so on, however direct visualization of oxygen ion motion has been a challenging task, which lies in the fact that the normally used electron microscopy imaging mainly focuses on the mass attribute of ions. The lack of appropriate understandings and analytic approaches on oxygen ion motion has caused significant difficulties in disclosing the mechanism of oxides-based memristors. Here we show evidence of oxygen ion migration and accumulation in HfO2 by in situ measurements of electrostatic force gradient between the probe and the sample, as systematically verified by the charge duration, oxygen gas eruption and controlled studies utilizing different electrolytes, field directions and environments. At higher voltages, oxygen-deficient nano-filaments are formed, as directly identified employing a CS-corrected transmission electron microscope. This study could provide a generalized approach for probing ion motions at the nanoscale.

  3. AMAB: automated measurement and analysis of body motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Ronald; Van Der Zee, Sophie; Heylen, Dirk K J; Taylor, Paul J

    2014-09-01

    Technologies that measure human nonverbal behavior have existed for some time, and their use in the analysis of social behavior has become more popular following the development of sensor technologies that record full-body movement. However, a standardized methodology to efficiently represent and analyze full-body motion is absent. In this article, we present automated measurement and analysis of body motion (AMAB), a methodology for examining individual and interpersonal nonverbal behavior from the output of full-body motion tracking systems. We address the recording, screening, and normalization of the data, providing methods for standardizing the data across recording condition and across subject body sizes. We then propose a series of dependent measures to operationalize common research questions in psychological research. We present practical examples from several application areas to demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed method for full-body measurements and comparisons across time, space, body parts, and subjects.

  4. Optimised motion tracking for positron emission tomography studies of brain function in awake rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Z Kyme

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET is a non-invasive molecular imaging technique using positron-emitting radioisotopes to study functional processes within the body. High resolution PET scanners designed for imaging rodents and non-human primates are now commonplace in preclinical research. Brain imaging in this context, with motion compensation, can potentially enhance the usefulness of PET by avoiding confounds due to anaesthetic drugs and enabling freely moving animals to be imaged during normal and evoked behaviours. Due to the frequent and rapid motion exhibited by alert, awake animals, optimal motion correction requires frequently sampled pose information and precise synchronisation of these data with events in the PET coincidence data stream. Motion measurements should also be as accurate as possible to avoid degrading the excellent spatial resolution provided by state-of-the-art scanners. Here we describe and validate methods for optimised motion tracking suited to the correction of motion in awake rats. A hardware based synchronisation approach is used to achieve temporal alignment of tracker and scanner data to within 10 ms. We explored the impact of motion tracker synchronisation error, pose sampling rate, rate of motion, and marker size on motion correction accuracy. With accurate synchronisation (20 Hz, and a small head marker suitable for awake animal studies, excellent motion correction results were obtained in phantom studies with a variety of continuous motion patterns, including realistic rat motion (<5% bias in mean concentration. Feasibility of the approach was also demonstrated in an awake rat study. We conclude that motion tracking parameters needed for effective motion correction in preclinical brain imaging of awake rats are achievable in the laboratory setting. This could broaden the scope of animal experiments currently possible with PET.

  5. Audiovisual associations alter the perception of low-level visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulusi eKafaligonul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Motion perception is a pervasive nature of vision and is affected by both immediate pattern of sensory inputs and prior experiences acquired through associations. Recently, several studies reported that an association can be established quickly between directions of visual motion and static sounds of distinct frequencies. After the association is formed, sounds are able to change the perceived direction of visual motion. To determine whether such rapidly acquired audiovisual associations and their subsequent influences on visual motion perception are dependent on the involvement of higher-order attentive tracking mechanisms, we designed psychophysical experiments using regular and reverse-phi random dot motions isolating low-level pre-attentive motion processing. Our results show that an association between the directions of low-level visual motion and static sounds can be formed and this audiovisual association alters the subsequent perception of low-level visual motion. These findings support the view that audiovisual associations are not restricted to high-level attention based motion system and early-level visual motion processing has some potential role.

  6. Automated Detection of Motion Artefacts in MR Imaging Using Decision Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Lorch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of a Magnetic Resonance (MR scan usually takes longer than subjects can remain still. Movement of the subject such as bulk patient motion or respiratory motion degrades the image quality and its diagnostic value by producing image artefacts like ghosting, blurring, and smearing. This work focuses on the effect of motion on the reconstructed slices and the detection of motion artefacts in the reconstruction by using a supervised learning approach based on random decision forests. Both the effects of bulk patient motion occurring at various time points in the acquisition on head scans and the effects of respiratory motion on cardiac scans are studied. Evaluation is performed on synthetic images where motion artefacts have been introduced by altering the k-space data according to a motion trajectory, using the three common k-space sampling patterns: Cartesian, radial, and spiral. The results suggest that a machine learning approach is well capable of learning the characteristics of motion artefacts and subsequently detecting motion artefacts with a confidence that depends on the sampling pattern.

  7. A scalable distributed RRT for motion planning

    KAUST Repository

    Jacobs, Sam Ade

    2013-05-01

    Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT), like other sampling-based motion planning methods, has been very successful in solving motion planning problems. Even so, sampling-based planners cannot solve all problems of interest efficiently, so attention is increasingly turning to parallelizing them. However, one challenge in parallelizing RRT is the global computation and communication overhead of nearest neighbor search, a key operation in RRTs. This is a critical issue as it limits the scalability of previous algorithms. We present two parallel algorithms to address this problem. The first algorithm extends existing work by introducing a parameter that adjusts how much local computation is done before a global update. The second algorithm radially subdivides the configuration space into regions, constructs a portion of the tree in each region in parallel, and connects the subtrees,i removing cycles if they exist. By subdividing the space, we increase computation locality enabling a scalable result. We show that our approaches are scalable. We present results demonstrating almost linear scaling to hundreds of processors on a Linux cluster and a Cray XE6 machine. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Normalization of emotion control scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatoolah Tahmasebian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotion control skill teaches the individuals how to identify their emotions and how to express and control them in various situations. The aim of this study was to normalize and measure the internal and external validity and reliability of emotion control test. Methods: This standardization study was carried out on a statistical society, including all pupils, students, teachers, nurses and university professors in Kermanshah in 2012, using Williams’ emotion control scale. The subjects included 1,500 (810 females and 690 males people who were selected by stratified random sampling. Williams (1997 emotion control scale, was used to collect the required data. Emotional Control Scale is a tool for measuring the degree of control people have over their emotions. This scale has four subscales, including anger, depressed mood, anxiety and positive affect. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software using correlation and Cronbach's alpha tests. Results: The results of internal consistency of the questionnaire reported by Cronbach's alpha indicated an acceptable internal consistency for emotional control scale, and the correlation between the subscales of the test and between the items of the questionnaire was significant at 0.01 confidence level. Conclusion: The validity of emotion control scale among the pupils, students, teachers, nurses and teachers in Iran has an acceptable range, and the test itemswere correlated with each other, thereby making them appropriate for measuring emotion control.

  9. MRI-assisted dual motion correction for myocardial perfusion defect detection in PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhui; Rahmim, Arman; Tang, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Myocardial perfusion (MP) PET imaging is a powerful tool in risk assessment and stratification of patients with coronary artery disease. Involuntary organ motion degrades cardiac PET image resolution, while respiratory and/or cardiac gating to freeze the motion leads to noisier reconstructed images due to reduced counts in the gated frames. In this work, we propose an MRI-assisted dual motion correction method to compensate for respiratory and cardiac motion in MP PET data and study the impact of dual motion correction on MP defect detection using systematically designed experiments. The proposed dual motion correction method addresses the respiratory motion before correcting the cardiac motion among the respiratory motion corrected cardiac gates. The respiratory motion is estimated from the respiratory-gated only PET images and compensated within a 4D motion-incorporated image reconstruction algorithm. The cardiac motion is then corrected using the motion vector fields estimated from the corresponding cardiac-gated MR images. To evaluate the proposed method, we performed experiments using the standard XCAT phantom and two individual-specific volunteer XCAT phantoms. For each of the three phantoms, we simulated four dual-gated Rb-82 MP PET imaging datasets, one with normal perfusion and the other three with 50% nontransmural, 75% nontransmural, and transmural regionally reduced perfusion. The corresponding cardiac-gated MR images were simulated by the SIMRI simulator, with the sequence specified to be 3D T1-weighted as used in a protocol of a clinical PET/MRI scanner. We quantitatively evaluated the reconstructed images with no motion correction, only respiratory motion correction and dual motion correction, in terms of the myocardium to blood pool contrast and the trade-off between the noise and the normal to defect contrast. Using the channelized Hotelling observer, we performed receiver operating characteristic analysis for the task of detecting perfusion

  10. Mars Polar Motion at Short Time-Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehant, V. M.; de Viron, O.; Karatekin, O.; van Hoolst, T.

    2005-12-01

    The rotation of Mars is not constant in time and presents irregularities that are mostly associated with the seasonal CO2 mass exchange between Mars' atmosphere and polar caps. This large mass redistribution (about a third of the total atmospheric mass is considered to be exchanged) induces variations in Mars' rotation speed as well as in polar motion. The effects of the atmosphere on the rotation can be estimated by using the angular momentum approach: because of conservation of angular momentum of Mars (solid body and atmosphere), considered as isolated, any change in the angular momentum of the atmosphere is associated with an opposite change in the angular momentum of the solid body of the planet. Mars' polar motion is computed for Mars models with three homogeneous layers (solid inner core, fluid outer core, and mantle) for different excitation causes (atmosphere, ice caps, and quakes). We estimate the amplitude of the polar motion resulting from atmospheric excitation, for a reasonable interval of damping factor values, for the two polar motion normal modes, i.e. the Chandler wobble and the Inner Core wobble. We show how the amplitude of the CW excited by the atmospheric noise can be interpreted in terms of anelasticity of the Martian mantle, through the CW damping factor. The damping is estimated from the observation of the mode itself under hypotheses on the type of forcing noise. We show that the signature of the inner core in the polar motion is very small, and is unlikely to be detected with the present observational precision. We further investigate the possibility to excite these normal modes through Marsquakes, and show that the predicted quake moments are not large enough to excite polar motion to an observable level. The analysis of polar motion, and in particular the determination of its normal mode components, is promising because normal mode periods and amplitudes are directly related to the properties of the deep interior. The precision needed

  11. Mechanical properties of normal versus cancerous breast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelser, Amanda M; Macosko, Jed C; O'Dell, Adam P; Smyre, Scott; Bonin, Keith; Holzwarth, George

    2015-11-01

    A cell's mechanical properties are important in determining its adhesion, migration, and response to the mechanical properties of its microenvironment and may help explain behavioral differences between normal and cancerous cells. Using fluorescently labeled peroxisomes as microrheological probes, the interior mechanical properties of normal breast cells were compared to a metastatic breast cell line, MDA-MB-231. To estimate the mechanical properties of cell cytoplasms from the motions of their peroxisomes, it was necessary to reduce the contribution of active cytoskeletal motions to peroxisome motion. This was done by treating the cells with blebbistatin, to inhibit myosin II, or with sodium azide and 2-deoxy-D-glucose, to reduce intracellular ATP. Using either treatment, the peroxisomes exhibited normal diffusion or subdiffusion, and their mean squared displacements (MSDs) showed that the MDA-MB-231 cells were significantly softer than normal cells. For these two cell types, peroxisome MSDs in treated and untreated cells converged at high frequencies, indicating that cytoskeletal structure was not altered by the drug treatment. The MSDs from ATP-depleted cells were analyzed by the generalized Stokes-Einstein relation to estimate the interior viscoelastic modulus G* and its components, the elastic shear modulus G' and viscous shear modulus G", at angular frequencies between 0.126 and 628 rad/s. These moduli are the material coefficients that enter into stress-strain relations and relaxation times in quantitative mechanical models such as the poroelastic model of the interior regions of cancerous and non-cancerous cells.

  12. Efficacy of early controlled motion of the ankle compared with no motion after non-operative treatment of an acute Achilles tendon rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Hansen, Maria Swennergren; Hølmich, Per

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early controlled ankle motion is widely used in the non-operative treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture, though its safety and efficacy have never been investigated in a randomized setup. The objectives of this study are to investigate if early controlled motion of the ankle...... controlled motion of the ankle in weeks 3-8 after rupture. The control group is immobilized. In total, 130 patients will be included from one big orthopedic center over a period of 2½ years. The primary outcome is the patient-reported Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score evaluated at 12 months post...

  13. Regional heart motion abnormality detection: an information theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punithakumar, Kumaradevan; Ben Ayed, Ismail; Islam, Ali; Goela, Aashish; Ross, Ian G; Chong, Jaron; Li, Shuo

    2013-04-01

    Tracking regional heart motion and detecting the corresponding abnormalities play an essential role in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. Based on functional images, which are subject to noise and segmentation/registration inaccuracies, regional heart motion analysis is acknowledged as a difficult problem and, therefore, incorporation of prior knowledge is desirable to enhance accuracy. Given noisy data and a nonlinear dynamic model to describe myocardial motion, an unscented Kalman smoother is proposed in this study to estimate the myocardial points. Due to the similarity between the statistical information of normal and abnormal heart motions, detecting and classifying abnormality is a challenging problem. We use the Shannon's differential entropy of the distributions of potential classifier features to detect and locate regional heart motion abnormality. A naive Bayes classifier algorithm is constructed from the Shannon's differential entropy of different features to automatically detect abnormal functional regions of the myocardium. Using 174 segmented short-axis magnetic resonance cines obtained from 58 subjects (21 normal and 37 abnormal), the proposed method is quantitatively evaluated by comparison with ground truth classifications by radiologists over 928 myocardial segments. The proposed method performed significantly better than other recent methods, and yielded an accuracy of 86.5% (base), 89.4% (mid-cavity) and 84.5% (apex). The overall classification accuracy was 87.1%. Furthermore, standard kappa statistic comparisons between the proposed method and visual wall motion scoring by radiologists showed that the proposed algorithm can yield a kappa measure of 0.73. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Martian Landscapes in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Sarah; McEwen, Alfred; Kirk, Randolph; Howington-Kraus, Elpitha; Chojnacki, Matthew; Runyon, Kirby; Cremonese, Gabriele; Re, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    RISE orthorectified image sequences makes it possible to conduct accurate change detection studies of active processes on Mars. Some examples of studies of active landscapes on Mars using HiRISE DTMs and orthoimage sequences include: dune and ripple motion (Bridges et al., 2012, Nature), recurring slope lineae (RSL) (McEwen et al., 2011, Science; McEwen et al., 2013, Nature Geoscience), gully activity (Dundas et al., 2012, Icarus), and polar processes (Hansen et al., 2011, Science; Portyankina et al. 2013, Icarus,). These studies encompass images from multiple Mars years and seasons. Sequences of orthoimages make it possible to generate animated gifs or movies to visualize temporal changes (http://www.uahirise.org/sim/). They can also be brought into geospatial software to quantitatively map and record changes. The ability to monitor the surface of Mars at high spatial resolution with frequent repeat images has opened up our insight into seasonal and interannual changes, further increasing our understanding of Mars as an active planet.

  15. The "motion silencing" illusion results from global motion and crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, Marco; Burr, David

    2013-04-18

    Suchow and Alvarez (2011) recently devised a striking illusion, where objects changing in color, luminance, size, or shape appear to stop changing when they move. They refer to the illusion as "motion silencing of awareness to visual change." Here we present evidence that the illusion results from two perceptual processes: global motion and crowding. We adapted Suchow and Alvarez's stimulus to three concentric rings of dots, a central ring of "target dots" flanked on either side by similarly moving flanker dots. Subjects had to identify in which of two presentations the target dots were continuously changing (sinusoidally) in size, as distinct from the other interval in which size was constant. The results show: (a) Motion silencing depends on target speed, with a threshold around 0.2 rotations per second (corresponding to about 10°/s linear motion). (b) Silencing depends on both target-flanker spacing and eccentricity, with critical spacing about half eccentricity, consistent with Bouma's law. (c) The critical spacing was independent of stimulus size, again consistent with Bouma's law. (d) Critical spacing depended strongly on contrast polarity. All results imply that the "motion silencing" illusion may result from crowding.

  16. Dynamic visual attention: motion direction versus motion magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bur, A.; Wurtz, P.; Müri, R. M.; Hügli, H.

    2008-02-01

    Defined as an attentive process in the context of visual sequences, dynamic visual attention refers to the selection of the most informative parts of video sequence. This paper investigates the contribution of motion in dynamic visual attention, and specifically compares computer models designed with the motion component expressed either as the speed magnitude or as the speed vector. Several computer models, including static features (color, intensity and orientation) and motion features (magnitude and vector) are considered. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations are performed by comparing the computer model output with human saliency maps obtained experimentally from eye movement recordings. The model suitability is evaluated in various situations (synthetic and real sequences, acquired with fixed and moving camera perspective), showing advantages and inconveniences of each method as well as preferred domain of application.

  17. Sensory conflict in motion sickness: An observer theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Charles M.

    1989-01-01

    Motion sickness is the general term describing a group of common nausea syndromes originally attributed to motion-induced cerebral ischemia, stimulation of abdominal organ afferent, or overstimulation of the vestibular organs of the inner ear. Sea-, car-, and airsicknesses are the most commonly experienced examples. However, the discovery of other variants such as Cinerama-, flight simulator-, spectacle-, and space sickness in which the physical motion of the head and body is normal or absent has led to a succession of sensory conflict theories which offer a more comprehensive etiologic perspective. Implicit in the conflict theory is the hypothesis that neutral and/or humoral signals originate in regions of the brain subversing spatial orientation, and that these signals somehow traverse to other centers mediating sickness symptoms. Unfortunately, the present understanding of the neurophysiological basis of motion sickness is far from complete. No sensory conflict neuron or process has yet been physiologically identified. To what extent can the existing theory be reconciled with current knowledge of the physiology and pharmacology of nausea and vomiting. The stimuli which causes sickness, synthesizes a contemporary Observer Theory view of the Sensory Conflict hypothesis are reviewed, and a revised model for the dynamic coupling between the putative conflict signals and nausea magnitude estimates is presented. The use of quantitative models for sensory conflict offers a possible new approach to improving the design of visual and motion systems for flight simulators and other virtual environment display systems.

  18. 49 CFR 229.63 - Lateral motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lateral motion. 229.63 Section 229.63....63 Lateral motion. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), the total uncontrolled lateral motion... powered axles. (b) The total uncontrolled lateral motion may not exceed 11/4 inches on the center axle of...

  19. Is whole-culture synchronization biology's 'perpetual-motion machine'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Stephen

    2004-06-01

    Whole-culture or batch synchronization cannot, in theory, produce a synchronized culture because it violates a fundamental law that proposes that no batch treatment can alter the cell-age order of a culture. In analogy with the history of perpetual-motion machines, it is suggested that the study of these whole-culture 'synchronization' methods might lead to an understanding of general biological principles even though these methods cannot be used to study the normal cell cycle.

  20. Learning Projectile Motion with the Computer Game ``Scorched 3D``

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcevic, John S.

    2008-01-01

    For most of our students, video games are a normal part of their lives. We should take advantage of this medium to teach physics in a manner that is engrossing for our students. In particular, modern video games incorporate accurate physics in their game engines, and they allow us to visualize the physics through flashy and captivating graphics. I recently used the game "Scorched 3D" to help my students understand projectile motion.

  1. A reduced-dimensionality approach to uncovering dyadic modes of body motion in conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Lior; Liron, Yuvalal; Alon, Uri

    2017-01-01

    Face-to-face conversations are central to human communication and a fascinating example of joint action. Beyond verbal content, one of the primary ways in which information is conveyed in conversations is body language. Body motion in natural conversations has been difficult to study precisely due to the large number of coordinates at play. There is need for fresh approaches to analyze and understand the data, in order to ask whether dyads show basic building blocks of coupled motion. Here we present a method for analyzing body motion during joint action using depth-sensing cameras, and use it to analyze a sample of scientific conversations. Our method consists of three steps: defining modes of body motion of individual participants, defining dyadic modes made of combinations of these individual modes, and lastly defining motion motifs as dyadic modes that occur significantly more often than expected given the single-person motion statistics. As a proof-of-concept, we analyze the motion of 12 dyads of scientists measured using two Microsoft Kinect cameras. In our sample, we find that out of many possible modes, only two were motion motifs: synchronized parallel torso motion in which the participants swayed from side to side in sync, and still segments where neither person moved. We find evidence of dyad individuality in the use of motion modes. For a randomly selected subset of 5 dyads, this individuality was maintained for at least 6 months. The present approach to simplify complex motion data and to define motion motifs may be used to understand other joint tasks and interactions. The analysis tools developed here and the motion dataset are publicly available. PMID:28141861

  2. A reduced-dimensionality approach to uncovering dyadic modes of body motion in conversations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Gaziv

    Full Text Available Face-to-face conversations are central to human communication and a fascinating example of joint action. Beyond verbal content, one of the primary ways in which information is conveyed in conversations is body language. Body motion in natural conversations has been difficult to study precisely due to the large number of coordinates at play. There is need for fresh approaches to analyze and understand the data, in order to ask whether dyads show basic building blocks of coupled motion. Here we present a method for analyzing body motion during joint action using depth-sensing cameras, and use it to analyze a sample of scientific conversations. Our method consists of three steps: defining modes of body motion of individual participants, defining dyadic modes made of combinations of these individual modes, and lastly defining motion motifs as dyadic modes that occur significantly more often than expected given the single-person motion statistics. As a proof-of-concept, we analyze the motion of 12 dyads of scientists measured using two Microsoft Kinect cameras. In our sample, we find that out of many possible modes, only two were motion motifs: synchronized parallel torso motion in which the participants swayed from side to side in sync, and still segments where neither person moved. We find evidence of dyad individuality in the use of motion modes. For a randomly selected subset of 5 dyads, this individuality was maintained for at least 6 months. The present approach to simplify complex motion data and to define motion motifs may be used to understand other joint tasks and interactions. The analysis tools developed here and the motion dataset are publicly available.

  3. Tracking using motion estimation with physically motivated inter-region constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Arif, Omar

    2014-09-01

    We propose a method for tracking structures (e.g., ventricles and myocardium) in cardiac images (e.g., magnetic resonance) by propagating forward in time a previous estimate of the structures using a new physically motivated motion estimation scheme. Our method estimates motion by regularizing only within structures so that differing motions among different structures are not mixed. It simultaneously satisfies the physical constraints at the interface between a fluid and a medium that the normal component of the fluid\\'s motion must match the normal component of the medium\\'s motion and the No-Slip condition, which states that the tangential velocity approaches zero near the interface. We show that these conditions lead to partial differential equations with Robin boundary conditions at the interface, which couple the motion between structures. We show that propagating a segmentation across frames using our motion estimation scheme leads to more accurate segmentation than traditional motion estimation that does not use physical constraints. Our method is suited to interactive segmentation, prominently used in commercial applications for cardiac analysis, where segmentation propagation is used to predict a segmentation in the next frame. We show that our method leads to more accurate predictions than a popular and recent interactive method used in cardiac segmentation. © 2014 IEEE.

  4. Random thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ajansen; kwhitefoot; panteltje1; edprochak; sudhakar, the

    2014-07-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “How to make a quantum random-number generator from a mobile phone” (16 May, http://ow.ly/xFiYc, see also p5), which describes a way of delivering random numbers by counting the number of photons that impinge on each of the individual pixels in the camera of a Nokia N9 smartphone.

  5. A rotary electromagnetic microgenerator for energy harvesting from human motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Niroomand

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a rotary electromagnetic microgenerator is analyzed, designed and built. This microgenerator can convert human motions to electrical energy. The small size and use of a pendulum mechanism without gear are two main characteristics of the designed microgenerator. The generator can detect small vibrations and produce electrical energy. The performance of this microgenerator is evaluated by being installed peak-to-peak during normal walking. Also, the maximum harvested electrical energy during normal walking is around 416.6 μW. This power is sufficient for many applications.

  6. The reliability of echocardiographic left ventricular wall motion index to identify high-risk patients for multicenter studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Gunnar H; Gadsbøll, Niels; Quinones, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study whether the use of echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) wall motion index (WMI) is a dependable parameter for identifying patients with LV dysfunction to be enrolled in multicenter trials. METHODS: Videotaped echocardiographic examinations from 200 randomly selected patient...

  7. Quantification of renal and diaphragmatic interfractional motion in pediatric image-guided radiation therapy: A multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijskens, S.C.; Dijk, I.W. van; Jong, R. de; Visser, J.; Fajardo, R.D.; Ronckers, C.M.; Janssens, G.O.R.J.; Maduro, J.H.; Rasch, C.R.; Alderliesten, T.; Bel, A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To quantify renal and diaphragmatic interfractional motion in order to estimate systematic and random errors, and to investigate the correlation between interfractional motion and patient-specific factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used 527 retrospective abdominal-thoracic

  8. Quantification of renal and diaphragmatic interfractional motion in pediatric image-guided radiation therapy: A multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijskens, Sophie C.; van Dijk, Irma W. E. M.; de Jong, Rianne; Visser, Jorrit; Fajardo, Raquel Dávila; Ronckers, Cécile M.; Janssens, Geert O. R. J.; Maduro, John H.; Rasch, Coen R. N.; Alderliesten, Tanja; Bel, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    To quantify renal and diaphragmatic interfractional motion in order to estimate systematic and random errors, and to investigate the correlation between interfractional motion and patient-specific factors. We used 527 retrospective abdominal-thoracic cone beam CT scans of 39 childhood cancer

  9. Assessment of dyssynchronous wall motion during acute myocardial ischemia using velocity vector imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Kasumi; Asanuma, Toshihiko; Taniguchi, Asuka; Uranishi, Ayumi; Ishikura, Fuminobu; Beppu, Shintaro

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of velocity vector imaging (VVI) for detecting acute myocardial ischemia and whether VVI can accurately demonstrate the spatial extent of ischemic risk area. Using a tracking algorithm, VVI can display velocity vectors of regional wall motion overlaid onto the B-mode image and allows the quantitative assessment of myocardial mechanics. However, its efficacy for diagnosing myocardial ischemia has not been evaluated. In 18 dogs with flow-limiting stenosis and/or total occlusion of the coronary artery, peak systolic radial velocity (V(SYS)), radial velocity at mitral valve opening (V(MVO)), peak systolic radial strain, and the percent change in wall thickening (%WT) were measured in the normal and risk areas and compared to those at baseline. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting the stenosis and occlusion were analyzed in each parameter. The area of inward velocity vectors at mitral valve opening (MVO) detected by VVI was compared to the risk area derived from real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE). Twelve image clips were randomly selected from the baseline, stenosis, and occlusions to determine the intra- and inter-observer agreement for the VVI parameters. The left circumflex coronary flow was reduced by 44.3 +/- 9.0% during stenosis and completely interrupted during occlusion. During coronary artery occlusion, inward motion at MVO was observed in the risk area. Percent WT, peak systolic radial strain, V(SYS), and V(MVO) changed significantly from values at baseline. During stenosis, %WT, peak systolic radial strain, and V(SYS) did not differ from those at baseline; however, V(MVO) was significantly increased (-0.12 +/- 0.60 cm/s vs. -0.96 +/- 0.55 cm/s, p = 0.015). Sensitivity and specificity of V(MVO) for detecting ischemia were superior to those of other parameters. The spatial extent of inward velocity vectors at MVO correlated well with that of the risk area derived from MCE

  10. Robot Motion and Control 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Robot Motion Control 2011 presents very recent results in robot motion and control. Forty short papers have been chosen from those presented at the sixth International Workshop on Robot Motion and Control held in Poland in June 2011. The authors of these papers have been carefully selected and represent leading institutions in this field. The following recent developments are discussed: • Design of trajectory planning schemes for holonomic and nonholonomic systems with optimization of energy, torque limitations and other factors. • New control algorithms for industrial robots, nonholonomic systems and legged robots. • Different applications of robotic systems in industry and everyday life, like medicine, education, entertainment and others. • Multiagent systems consisting of mobile and flying robots with their applications The book is suitable for graduate students of automation and robotics, informatics and management, mechatronics, electronics and production engineering systems as well as scientists...

  11. Methods for Structure from Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Structure from motion, the problem of estimating 3D structure from 2D images hereof, is one of the most popular and well studied problems within computer vision. In part because it is academically interesting, but also because it holds a wealth of commercially very interesting prospects, e.......g. within entertainment, reverse engineering and architecture. This thesis is a study within this area of structure from motion. The result of the work, which this thesis represents is the development of new methods for addressing some of the problems within the field. Mainly in robustifying...... the factorization approach, relaxing the rigidity constrains, and in considering alternative ways of solving the surface estimation problem. In Danish: Structure from motion problematikken beskæftiger sig med at estimere 3D struktur fra 2D afbildninger heraf. Denne problemstilling er en af de mest populære og...

  12. Alpha motion based on a motion detector, but not on the Müller-Lyer illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masahiro

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the mechanism of alpha motion, the apparent motion of the Müller-Lyer figure's shaft that occurs when the arrowheads and arrow tails are alternately presented. The following facts were found: (a) reduced exposure duration decreased the amount of alpha motion, and this phenomenon was not explainable by the amount of the Müller-Lyer illusion; (b) the motion aftereffect occurred after adaptation to alpha motion; (c) occurrence of alpha motion became difficult when the temporal frequency increased, and this characteristic of alpha motion was similar to the characteristic of a motion detector that motion detection became difficult when the temporal frequency increased from the optimal frequency. These findings indicated that alpha motion occurs on the basis of a motion detector but not on the Müller-Lyer illusion, and that the mechanism of alpha motion is the same as that of general motion perception.

  13. [Normal aging and cognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2006-03-01

    It is now well documented that normal aging modifies the cognitive functioning and most observations suggest that cognition evolves in the direction of deterioration. The more frequently impaired functions are memory, attention and visual-spatial abilities. On the other hand, some abilities seem to increase, such as vocabulary. Considering the aging effect on cognition, questions remain regarding directionality, universality and reversibility. A great variability in aged related impacts is observed among subjects and among cognitive domains. Some individuals evolved more rapidly than others. Some cognitive functions are more affected by aging than others. General and specific factors are hypothesized to explain the aged related cognitive decline. Among them, educational level, health, cognitive style, life style, personality, are likely to modulate the aged related cognitive evolution by influencing attentional resources and cerebral plasticity. Cognitive resources are essential to develop adaptative strategies. During the life span, resources are activated and increased by learning and training. Considering the role of cognitive resources, successful aging is dependent on several conditions : absence of disease leading to a loss of autonomy, maintenance of cognitive and physical activities, and active and social engaged lifestyle.

  14. Motion Verbs in Learner Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pınar BABANOĞLU

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Motions verbs differ across languages in respect of spatial relations and syntactic/semantic conceptualization. Languages have two typological groups for motion events: (a verb-framed languages in which the main verb expresses the core information of the path of movement, and the manner information is expressed in a subordinate structure (e.g. a gerundive and (b satellite-framed languages where the main verb expresses information about manner of movement and a subordinate satellite element (e.g., a verb particle to the verb conveys the path of movement (Talmy, 1985; Chen & Guo, 2009. In this corpus-based study, two learner corpora from two different native languages as Turkish as a verb-framed language and German as satellite-framed language are investigated in terms of motion verbs in English like move, fly, walk, go via frequency and statistical analysis for corpora comparison. The purpose of the study is to find out whether there is a statistical difference in the use of motion verbs by Turkish (as a verb-framed L1 and German (as a satellite-framed L1 learners in due of cross-linguistic difference between Turkish and German which may be a factor that influence learners essay writing in English (as a satellite-framed L2 in the use of motion verbs. Results indicated that German learners of English use especially manner of motion verbs in English statistically more frequent and lexically more diverse in their essays than Turkish learners of English.

  15. Avaliação da dor na histeroscopia diagnóstica por vaginoscopia utilizando-se, como meio de distensão, solução salina à temperatura corporal: Ensaio clínico randomizado Evaluation of pain in diagnostic hysteroscopy by vaginoscopy using normal saline at body temperature as distension medium: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zares Maria Melo Cavalcanti de Almeida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar a histeroscopia diagnóstica por vaginoscopia com soro fisiológico na temperatura corporal com a técnica tradicional, em relação à dor, satisfação da paciente e exeqüibilidade do procedimento. MÉTODOS: ensaio clínico randomizado, envolvendo 184 mulheres, encaminhadas entre maio e dezembro de 2006, para serem submetidas à histeroscopia diagnóstica. As participantes foram randomizadas para realizar o procedimento pela técnica proposta, com acesso por vaginoscopia, sem espéculo ou pinçamento do colo e utilizando soro fisiológico a 36ºC como meio distensor, ou pela técnica tradicional, utilizando CO2.Em ambas as técnicas, foi utilizada óptica de 2,7 mm. A dor foi avaliada pela escala visual analógica (EVA, durante e a cada cinco minutos após o procedimento. RESULTADOS: a dor, na técnica proposta, teve pontuação média de 1,60 e, na técnica tradicional, de 3,39 (pPURPOSE: to compare diagnostic hysteroscopy through vaginoscopy, using warm saline solution, with traditional technique, regarding to pain, patient satisfaction and feasibility of the procedure. METHODS: randomized clinical trial, involving 184 women, referred for diagnostic hysteroscopy, between May and December of 2006. Participants were randomized to be submitted to hysteroscopy by the proposed technique, which consisted of access through vaginoscopy using normal saline at 36ºC as distension medium, no speculum or cervical grasping, or by the traditional technique with CO2. In both techniques, a 2.7 mm hysteroscope was used. Pain was assessed by the analogical visual scale, during the procedure and every five minutes after it. RESULTS: the mean pain score was 1.60 in the proposed technique and 3.39 in the traditional technique (p<0.01. Lower pain scores were also observed after 5, 10 and 15 minutes (p<0,01 as well as after 20 minutes (p=0.056. In the proposed technique, 82.4% of the procedures were feasible, while, in the traditional technique

  16. Experimental challenges to reproduce seismic fault motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, T.

    2011-12-01

    difficulty was how to absorb hydrodynamic shock due to abrupt fault motion in the vessel, and this was overcome by pressurizing water in the vessel, acting as pore fluid, using pressurized gas (in other words using gas as a cushion). I will report preliminary experimental results on high-velocity rock-on-rock friction under pore-water pressure. Other technical challenges are (i) how to produce step-change in velocity to see if the framework of rate-and-state friction law holds in high-velocity regime, (ii) how to conduct high-velocity friction experiments in hydrothermal conditions to study frictional properties relevant to slow slip and low-frequency tremors, and (iii) how to conduct high-velocity friction experiments at high normal stresses. The first task became possible with a low to high-velocity apparatus in Beijing and a few other machines, and I will show some preliminary results. There is no fundamental difficulty in (ii) since O-ring is enough to seal piston rotating at a high speed. However, (iii) will be the hardest because of severe thermal fracturing of host rocks that limits the axial stress. Use of aluminum sleeve made it possible to apply the normal stress to about 30 MPa, but new device and a high motor power is needed to go higher normal stress.

  17. Quantitative assessment of human motion using video motion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probe, John D.

    1993-01-01

    In the study of the dynamics and kinematics of the human body a wide variety of technologies has been developed. Photogrammetric techniques are well documented and are known to provide reliable positional data from recorded images. Often these techniques are used in conjunction with cinematography and videography for analysis of planar motion, and to a lesser degree three-dimensional motion. Cinematography has been the most widely used medium for movement analysis. Excessive operating costs and the lag time required for film development, coupled with recent advances in video technology, have allowed video based motion analysis systems to emerge as a cost effective method of collecting and analyzing human movement. The Anthropometric and Biomechanics Lab at Johnson Space Center utilizes the video based Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS) to develop data on shirtsleeved and space-suited human performance in order to plan efficient on-orbit intravehicular and extravehicular activities. APAS is a fully integrated system of hardware and software for biomechanics and the analysis of human performance and generalized motion measurement. Major components of the complete system include the video system, the AT compatible computer, and the proprietary software.

  18. Roll motion stimuli : sensory conflict, perceptual weighting and motion sickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, B. de; Bles, W.; Bos, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    In an experiment with seventeen subjects interactions of visual roll motion stimuli and vestibular body tilt stimuli were examined in determining the subjective vertical. Interindi-vidual differences in weighting the visual information were observed, but in general visual and vestibular responses

  19. A Motion Aftereffect from Visual Imagery of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winawer, Jonathan; Huk, Alexander C.; Boroditsky, Lera

    2010-01-01

    Mental imagery is thought to share properties with perception. To what extent does the process of imagining a scene share neural circuits and computational mechanisms with actually perceiving the same scene? Here, we investigated whether mental imagery of motion in a particular direction recruits neural circuits tuned to the same direction of…

  20. Contribution of Visuospatial and motion-tracking to invisible motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Battaglini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available People experience an object’s motion even when it is occluded. We investigate the processing of invisible motion in three experiments. Observers saw a moving circle passing behind an invisible, irregular hendecagonal polygon and had to respond as quickly as possible when the target had just reappeared from behind the occluder. Without explicit cues allowing the end of each of the eight hidden trajectories to be predicted (length ranging between 4.7 and 5 deg, we found as expected, if visuospatial attention was involved, anticipation errors, providing that information on pre-occluder motion was available. This indicates that the observers, rather than simply responding when they saw the target, tended to anticipate its reappearance (Experiment 1. The new finding is that, with a fixation mark indicating the centre of the invisible trajectory, a linear relationship between the physical and judged occlusion duration is found, but not without it (Experiment 2 or with a fixation mark varying in position from trial to trial (Experiment 3. We interpret the role of central fixation in the differences in distinguishing trajectories smaller than 0.3 deg, by suggesting that it reflects spatiotemporal computation and motion-tracking. These two mechanisms allow visual imagery to form of the point symmetrical to that of the disappearance, with respect to fixation, and then for the occluded moving target to be tracked up to this point.