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Sample records for random loose packing

  1. Effects of hydrodynamic interaction on random adhesive loose packings of micron-sized particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenwei; Tao, Ran; Chen, Sheng; Zhang, Huang; Li, Shuiqing

    2017-06-01

    Random loose packings of monodisperse spherical micron-sized particles under a uniform flow field are investigated via an adhesive discrete-element method with the two-way coupling between the particles and the fluid. Characterized by a dimensionless adhesion parameter, the packing fraction follows the similar law to that without fluid, but results in larger values due to the hydrodynamic compression. The total pressure drop through the packed bed shows a critical behaviour at the packing fraction of ϕ ≈ 0.22 in the present study. The normalized permeability of the packed bed for different parameters increases with the increase of porosities and is also in consistent with the Kozeny-Carman equation.

  2. Random packing of colloids and granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the random packing of colloids and granular matter. A random packing is a stable disordered collection of touching particles, without long-range positional and orientational order. Experimental random packings of particles with the same shape but made of different materials

  3. Intrinsic Dispersivity of Randomly Packed Monodisperse Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheven, U. M.; Harris, R.; Johns, M. L.

    2007-08-01

    We determine the intrinsic longitudinal dispersivity ld of randomly packed monodisperse spheres by separating the intrinsic stochastic dispersivity ld from dispersion by unavoidable sample dependent flow heterogeneities. The measured ld, scaled by the hydrodynamic radius rh, coincide with theoretical predictions [Saffman, J. Fluid Mech. 7, 194 (1960)JFLSA70022-112010.1017/S0022112060001432] for dispersion in an isotropic random network of identical capillaries of length l and radius a, for l/a=3.82, and with rescaled simulation results [Maier et al., Phys. FluidsPHFLE61070-6631 12, 2065 (2000)10.1063/1.870452].

  4. Analysis of the structure of random packings of powder particles in laser additive technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under consideration are the peculiarities of the computer simulation of random packings of the particles involved in the laser additive technologies of selective laser melting and sintering of powders. The results of definition of random packings of monodisperse solid spheres are presented. Numerical analysis and structural investigations of their morphology are carried out. The peculiar character of the theoretical and computer models used for the analysis of particle packings in real powder media is understood. The technique of ray tracing is proposed for the description of laser radiation absorption and scattering in the layer of the stainless steel powder with the structure of the loose packing of mono-size spherical particles

  5. A Geometric-Structure Theory for Maximally Random Jammed Packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jianxiang; Xu, Yaopengxiao; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2015-11-16

    Maximally random jammed (MRJ) particle packings can be viewed as prototypical glasses in that they are maximally disordered while simultaneously being mechanically rigid. The prediction of the MRJ packing density ϕMRJ, among other packing properties of frictionless particles, still poses many theoretical challenges, even for congruent spheres or disks. Using the geometric-structure approach, we derive for the first time a highly accurate formula for MRJ densities for a very wide class of two-dimensional frictionless packings, namely, binary convex superdisks, with shapes that continuously interpolate between circles and squares. By incorporating specific attributes of MRJ states and a novel organizing principle, our formula yields predictions of ϕMRJ that are in excellent agreement with corresponding computer-simulation estimates in almost the entire α-x plane with semi-axis ratio α and small-particle relative number concentration x. Importantly, in the monodisperse circle limit, the predicted ϕMRJ = 0.834 agrees very well with the very recently numerically discovered MRJ density of 0.827, which distinguishes it from high-density "random-close packing" polycrystalline states and hence provides a stringent test on the theory. Similarly, for non-circular monodisperse superdisks, we predict MRJ states with densities that are appreciably smaller than is conventionally thought to be achievable by standard packing protocols.

  6. A RELATION FOR THE VOID FRACTION OF RANDOMLY PACKED PARTICLE BEDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOFFMANN, AC; FINKERS, HJ

    The void fractions of loosely packed and tapped beds of particles of continuous size distributions are correlated by means of a proposed new semi-empirical relation. In this relation four parameters describing the following particle properties are included: (i) mean particle size, (ii) spread of the

  7. Particle-size distribution and void fraction of geometric random packings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Jos

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the geometric random packing and void fraction of polydisperse particles. It is demonstrated that the bimodal packing can be transformed into a continuous particle-size distribution of the power law type. It follows that a maximum packing fraction of particles is obtained when

  8. Effect of particle shape on the random packing density of amorphous solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyrylyuk, A.V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269067590; Philipse, A.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073532894

    2011-01-01

    The packing density of a particulate solid strongly depends on the shape of the particles that are jammed at random close packing (RCP). To investigate the effect of particle shape on the RCP density of an amorphous solid, we studied jammed packings of binary mixtures of a-thermal or granular

  9. Larger voids in mechanically stable, loose packings of 1.3μm frictional, cohesive particles: Their reconstruction, statistical analysis, and impact on separation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reising, Arved E; Godinho, Justin M; Hormann, Kristof; Jorgenson, James W; Tallarek, Ulrich

    2016-03-04

    Lateral transcolumn heterogeneities and the presence of larger voids in a packing (comparable to the particle size) can limit the preparation of efficient chromatographic columns. Optimizing and understanding the packing process provides keys to better packing structures and column performance. Here, we investigate the slurry-packing process for a set of capillary columns packed with C18-modified, 1.3μm bridged-ethyl hybrid porous silica particles. The slurry concentration used for packing 75μm i.d. fused-silica capillaries was increased gradually from 5 to 50mg/mL. An intermediate concentration (20mg/mL) resulted in the best separation efficiency. Three capillaries from the set representing low, intermediate, and high slurry concentrations were further used for three-dimensional bed reconstruction by confocal laser scanning microscopy and morphological analysis of the bed structure. Previous studies suggest increased slurry concentrations will result in higher column efficiency due to the suppression of transcolumn bed heterogeneities, but only up to a critical concentration. Too concentrated slurries favour the formation of larger packing voids (reaching the size of the average particle diameter). Especially large voids, which can accommodate particles from>90% of the particle size distribution, are responsible for a decrease in column efficiency at high slurry concentrations. Our work illuminates the increasing difficulty of achieving high bed densities with small, frictional, cohesive particles. As particle size decreases interparticle forces become increasingly important and hinder the ease of particle sliding during column packing. While an optimal slurry concentration is identified with respect to bed morphology and separation efficiency under conditions in this work, our results suggest adjustments of this concentration are required with regard to particle size, surface roughness, column dimensions, slurry liquid, and external effects utilized during the

  10. CFD and CHD in random packing columns with seawater desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Mei-Shan [Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China). College of Civil Engineering; Wang, Shi-He; Wang, Xiao-Ming [State Power Environmental Protection Research Institute, Nanjing (China); Guo, Ming-Chun [Shanghai Huolin engineering Plastics Co., Ltd., Shanghai (China)

    2013-07-01

    By the volume average method, gas-liquid two-phase flow CFD and CHT model is established to describe the random packing column in seawater desulfurization. By numerical calculation, the flow velocity, porosity distribution, pressure distribution and temperature distribution of seawater are obtained. Pressure loss and the outlet temperature of seawater are compared with experimental data, the prediction results and experimental results are well consistent, is exactly the same trend. Analyzing the results of calculation, a significant ''wall flow'' phenomena was found, and the reason of its formation is that the porosity of filler near the wall is significantly higher than in the middle region. Analyzing the distribution of seawater temperature, it is found that the distribution of seawater temperature is more uniform on the top of column, the seawater temperature near the wall fluctuated and were gradually more uniform towards the center of the column. Along the direction of the column from top to bottom, the seawater temperature gradually decreased, and the degree of fluctuations gradually reduced and basically does not change at half of the column, which indicated that the heat exchange between the gas and liquid has been basically completed.

  11. Isochoric ideality in jammed random packings of non-spherical granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyrylyuk, A.V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269067590; van der Haar, M.A.; Rossi, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314410376; Wouterse, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841390; Philipse, A.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073532894

    2011-01-01

    Randomly packed particles in granular matter, ubiquitous in nature and industry, usually defy simple predictions for the optimal amorphous packing density because jammed granules are strongly correlated. While mixing different granular shapes seems to be a further complication, we discovered in

  12. A randomized trial of Rapid Rhino Riemann and Telfa nasal packs following endoscopic sinus surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruise, A. S.; Amonoo-Kuofi, K.; Srouji, I.; Kanagalingam, J.; Georgalas, C.; Patel, N. N.; Badia, L.; Lund, V. J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare Telfa with the Rapid Rhino Riemann nasal pack for use following endoscopic sinus surgery. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, paired trial. SETTING: Tertiary otolaryngology hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-five adult patients undergoing bilateral endoscopic sinus

  13. Distribution of breakage events in random packings of rodlike particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grof, Zdeněk; Štěpánek, František

    2013-07-01

    Uniaxial compaction and breakage of rodlike particle packing has been studied using a discrete element method simulation. A scaling relationship between the applied stress, the number of breakage events, and the number-mean particle length has been derived and compared with computational experiments. Based on results for a wide range of intrinsic particle strengths and initial particle lengths, it seems that a single universal relation can be used to describe the incidence of breakage events during compaction of rodlike particle layers.

  14. Looseness in bovine leather: microstructural characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Hannah C; Holmes, Geoff; Haverkamp, Richard G

    2016-06-01

    A substantial proportion of bovine leather production may be of poor quality, with the leather suffering from a characteristic known as looseness. This defect results in a poor visual appearance and greatly reduced value. The structural mechanism of looseness is not well understood. Samples of loose and tight bovine leather are characterized using small-angle X-ray scattering, ultrasonic imaging, and electron microscopy. The density of fibre packing and orientation of the fibrils are analysed. Tensile strength is also measured. Loose leather is characterized by more highly aligned collagen fibrils. This results in a weaker connection between the layers. There is a looser packing of the fibres in loose leather than in tight leather, with more gaps between fibre bundles, particularly in a region in the lower grain. This region is visible with in situ ultrasonic imaging. Loose leather has a higher tensile strength than tight leather. While a high degree of collagen fibril alignment is normally associated with strong leather, it has been shown that too much alignment results in loose leather. Understanding the physical basis of looseness is the first step in identifying looseness in hides and learning how to prevent looseness from developing during leather manufacture. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Merocel versus Nasopore for nasal packing: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhang Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical outcomes, including efficacy and complications, of Merocel versus Nasopore as a nasal packing material after nasal surgery. METHODS: Relevant randomized controlled trials were identified from electronic databases (The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese Biomedical Database. Conference proceedings and references from identified trials and review articles were also searched. Outcome measures were pain during nasal packing, pain and bleeding upon packing removal, pressure sensation, nasal blockage, formation of synechiae, mucosal healing, and patients' general satisfaction. RESULTS: Seven randomized controlled trials met criteria for analysis. Compared with Merocel, Nasopore significantly reduced patients' subjective symptoms including in situ pain (pain experienced while packing is in place, nasal pressure, pain and bleeding during packing removal, and increased patients' general satisfaction with nasal packing. There were no significant differences in nasal obstruction, adhesion and mucosal healing between the Merocel and Nasopore groups. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary evidence suggests that Nasopore may be superior to Merocel as a nasal packing material with regard to in situ pain, pain and bleeding upon removal, pressure, and general satisfaction and does not differ from Merocel in terms of nasal obstruction, tissue adhesion, and long-term mucosal healing.

  16. Non-convex shape effects on the dense random packing properties of assembled rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingyi; Wang, Chao; Yao, Xiaohu

    2018-01-01

    The packing of rod-like particles, which is common in physical and mathematical studies, has arisen in a variety of industrial applications. Elongation effect on the packing properties of rod-like particle has been well investigated. Besides that, rod-like particles can be easily deformed into a large amount of non-convex shapes by simply bending or assembling several particles, in which effects of non-convex deformations should also be concerned. In this work, the packing behaviors of particulate systems composed of various non-convex deformations of rod-like particles are numerically simulated via the analytical model and the relaxation algorithm. The packing configurations are further optimized using the Monte Carlo method to eliminate the local ordered structures. 8 shapes of non-convex particles including 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional particles are employed in the packing systems. Independent of aspect ratio, the dense random packing densities of identical assembled rods are up to 20% higher than those of spherocylinders and are less dependent from the specific particle shape. However, the coordination numbers of various non-convex particle packings are quite different. With a parameter of convex ratio defined, a packing composed of more non-convex particles will have a higher coordination number. This indicates that for more non-convex particle packings, there are more constraints and entanglements among neighboring particles, resulting in a more stable configuration. The nearest-neighbor contact to a centered particle in 3DX-shaped particle packings is quite different from those of other shapes, which can be identified from the location of the first peak in the radial distribution function. It is also the cause to the distinct disparities of estimated excluded volumes of non-convex particles simulated in this work.

  17. Advances in random matrix theory, zeta functions, and sphere packing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, T. C.; Sarnak, P.; Pugh, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    Over four hundred years ago, Sir Walter Raleigh asked his mathematical assistant to find formulas for the number of cannonballs in regularly stacked piles. These investigations aroused the curiosity of the astronomer Johannes Kepler and led to a problem that has gone centuries without a solution: why is the familiar cannonball stack the most efficient arrangement possible? Here we discuss the solution that Hales found in 1998. Almost every part of the 282-page proof relies on long computer verifications. Random matrix theory was developed by physicists to describe the spectra of complex nuclei. In particular, the statistical fluctuations of the eigenvalues (“the energy levels”) follow certain universal laws based on symmetry types. We describe these and then discuss the remarkable appearance of these laws for zeros of the Riemann zeta function (which is the generating function for prime numbers and is the last special function from the last century that is not understood today.) Explaining this phenomenon is a central problem. These topics are distinct, so we present them separately with their own introductory remarks. PMID:11058156

  18. Numerically Exact Computer Simulations of Light Scattering by Densely Packed, Random Particulate Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugach, Janna M.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Liu, Li; Mackowski, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    Direct computer simulations of electromagnetic scattering by discrete random media have become an active area of research. In this progress review, we summarize and analyze our main results obtained by means of numerically exact computer solutions of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. We consider finite scattering volumes with size parameters in the range, composed of varying numbers of randomly distributed particles with different refractive indices. The main objective of our analysis is to examine whether all backscattering effects predicted by the low-density theory of coherent backscattering (CB) also take place in the case of densely packed media. Based on our extensive numerical data we arrive at the following conclusions: (i) all backscattering effects predicted by the asymptotic theory of CB can also take place in the case of densely packed media; (ii) in the case of very large particle packing density, scattering characteristics of discrete random media can exhibit behavior not predicted by the low-density theories of CB and radiative transfer; (iii) increasing the absorptivity of the constituent particles can either enhance or suppress typical manifestations of CB depending on the particle packing density and the real part of the refractive index. Our numerical data strongly suggest that spectacular backscattering effects identified in laboratory experiments and observed for a class of high-albedo Solar System objects are caused by CB.

  19. Lower conjunctival fornix packing for mydriasis in premature infants: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morley MG

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Onsiri Thanathanee1, Tanapat Ratanapakorn1, Michael G Morley2, Yosanan Yospaiboon11Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAObjective: To compare the mydriatic effect of lower conjunctival fornix packing to conventional instillation of eyedrops containing 2.5% phenylephrine and 1% tropicamide in premature infants undergoing examination for retinopathy of prematurity.Methods: The patients were randomized to receive either conventional instillation of mydriatic drops or lower conjunctival fornix packing in one eye and the alternate method in the fellow eye. For the eyes receiving lower conjunctival fornix packing (study group, one small piece of the cotton wool soaked with one drop of 2.5% phenylephrine and one drop of 1% tropicamide was packed in the lower conjunctival fornix for 15 minutes. For the eyes receiving the conventional instillation (control group, 2.5% phenylephrine and 1% tropicamide were alternately instilled every 5 minutes for two doses each. Horizontal pupil diameter was measured with a ruler in millimeters 40 minutes later.Results: The mean dilated pupil diameter in study group and control group were 5.76 ± 1.01 mm and 4.50 ± 1.08 mm, respectively. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05.Conclusion: The dilated pupil diameter after receiving the lower conjunctival fornix packing was larger than conventional instillation with a statistically significant difference. We recommended the packing method to dilate the preterm infant pupil, especially if the pupil is difficult to dilate.Keywords: conjunctival fornix packing, phenylephrine, mydriasis, premature infants

  20. NMR studies of non-freezing water in randomly packed beds of porous particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, B. P.; Le Floc'h, G.

    NMR water proton transverse relaxation time distributions are shown to provide valuable information about the distribution of ice and nonfreezing water in complex heterogeneous systems. In a model system consisting of randomly packed Sephadex beads the NMR data confirm that ice inside the porous Sephadex beads coexists as a two phase system with unfrozen dextran gel. The NMR relaxation technique is shown to provide complementary information to both differential scanning calorimetry and cryomicroscopy.

  1. The statistical mechanics of random set packing and a generalization of the Karp-Sipser algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Lucibello, C.; Ricci-Tersenghi, F.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the asymptotic behaviour of random instances of the Maximum Set Packing (MSP) optimization problem, also known as Maximum Matching or Maximum Strong Independent Set on Hypergraphs. We give an analytical prediction of the MSPs size using the 1RSB cavity method from statistical mechanics of disordered systems. We also propose a heuristic algorithm, a generalization of the celebrated Karp-Sipser one, which allows us to rigorously prove that the replica symmetric cavity method predicti...

  2. Clinical review: Strict or loose glycemic control in critically ill patients - implementing best available evidence from randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, M.J.; Harmsen, R.E.; Spronk, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    Glycemic control aiming at normoglycemia, frequently referred to as 'strict glycemic control' (SGC), decreased mortality and morbidity of adult critically ill patients in two randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Five successive RCTs, however, failed to show benefit of SGC with one trial even

  3. Giant peritoneal loose bodies

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    Chris van Zyl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Giant peritoneal loose bodies are rare lesions, originating from auto-amputated appendices epiploicae. They may cause urinary or gastrointestinal obstruction and, should the radiologist not be familiar with the entity, can potentially be confused with malignant or parasitic lesions.Familiarity with their characteristic computed tomographic features is essential to prevent unnecessary surgery in the asymptomatic patient. We present a case of a 70-year-old man diagnosed with two giant peritoneal loose bodies.

  4. Sensitivity analysis of Immersed Boundary Method simulations of fluid flow in dense polydisperse random grain packings

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    Knight Chris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polydisperse granular materials are ubiquitous in nature and industry. Despite this, knowledge of the momentum coupling between the fluid and solid phases in dense saturated grain packings comes almost exclusively from empirical correlations [2–4, 8] with monosized media. The Immersed Boundary Method (IBM is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD modelling technique capable of resolving pore scale fluid flow and fluid-particle interaction forces in polydisperse media at the grain scale. Validation of the IBM in the low Reynolds number, high concentration limit was performed by comparing simulations of flow through ordered arrays of spheres with the boundary integral results of Zick and Homsy [10]. Random grain packings were studied with linearly graded particle size distributions with a range of coefficient of uniformity values (Cu = 1.01, 1.50, and 2.00 at a range of concentrations (ϕ ∈ [0.396; 0.681] in order to investigate the influence of polydispersity on drag and permeability. The sensitivity of the IBM results to the choice of radius retraction parameter [1] was investigated and a comparison was made between the predicted forces and the widely used Ergun correlation [3].

  5. Modelling heat transfer during flow through a random packed bed of spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burström, Per E. C.; Frishfelds, Vilnis; Ljung, Anna-Lena; Lundström, T. Staffan; Marjavaara, B. Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Heat transfer in a random packed bed of monosized iron ore pellets is modelled with both a discrete three-dimensional system of spheres and a continuous Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. Results show a good agreement between the two models for average values over a cross section of the bed for an even temperature profiles at the inlet. The advantage with the discrete model is that it captures local effects such as decreased heat transfer in sections with low speed. The disadvantage is that it is computationally heavy for larger systems of pellets. If averaged values are sufficient, the CFD model is an attractive alternative that is easy to couple to the physics up- and downstream the packed bed. The good agreement between the discrete and continuous model furthermore indicates that the discrete model may be used also on non-Stokian flow in the transitional region between laminar and turbulent flow, as turbulent effects show little influence of the overall heat transfer rates in the continuous model.

  6. Sensitivity analysis of Immersed Boundary Method simulations of fluid flow in dense polydisperse random grain packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Chris; Abdol Azis, Mohd Hazmil; O'Sullivan, Catherine; van Wachem, Berend; Dini, Daniele

    2017-06-01

    Polydisperse granular materials are ubiquitous in nature and industry. Despite this, knowledge of the momentum coupling between the fluid and solid phases in dense saturated grain packings comes almost exclusively from empirical correlations [2-4, 8] with monosized media. The Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) is a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling technique capable of resolving pore scale fluid flow and fluid-particle interaction forces in polydisperse media at the grain scale. Validation of the IBM in the low Reynolds number, high concentration limit was performed by comparing simulations of flow through ordered arrays of spheres with the boundary integral results of Zick and Homsy [10]. Random grain packings were studied with linearly graded particle size distributions with a range of coefficient of uniformity values (Cu = 1.01, 1.50, and 2.00) at a range of concentrations (ϕ ∈ [0.396; 0.681]) in order to investigate the influence of polydispersity on drag and permeability. The sensitivity of the IBM results to the choice of radius retraction parameter [1] was investigated and a comparison was made between the predicted forces and the widely used Ergun correlation [3].

  7. Application of a model to investigate the effective thermal conductivity of randomly packed fusion pebble beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Zheng, Jie; Chen, Hongli, E-mail: hlchen1@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    In our precious study, a prediction model, which calculates the effective thermal conductivity k{sub eff} of mono-sized pebble beds, has been developed and validated. Based on this model, here the effects of these influencing factors such as pebble size, thermal radiation, contact area, filling gas, gas flow, gas pressure, etc. on the k{sub eff} of randomly packed fusion pebble beds are studied and analyzed. The pebble beds investigated include Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}O, Be and BeO pebble beds. In the current study, many important and meaningful conclusions are derived and some of them are similar to the existing research results. Particularly, some critters that under which conditions the effect of some influencing factors can be neglected or should be considered are also presented.

  8. The Statistical Mechanics of Random Set Packing and a Generalization of the Karp-Sipser Algorithm

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    C. Lucibello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the asymptotic behaviour of random instances of the maximum set packing (MSP optimization problem, also known as maximum matching or maximum strong independent set on hypergraphs. We give an analytic prediction of the MSPs size using the 1RSB cavity method from statistical mechanics of disordered systems. We also propose a heuristic algorithm, a generalization of the celebrated Karp-Sipser one, which allows us to rigorously prove that the replica symmetric cavity method prediction is exact for certain problem ensembles and breaks down when a core survives the leaf removal process. The e-phenomena threshold discovered by Karp and Sipser, marking the onset of core emergence and of replica symmetry breaking, is elegantly generalized to Cs=e/(d-1 for one of the ensembles considered, where d is the size of the sets.

  9. Loose Graph Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansutti, Alessio; Miculan, Marino; Peressotti, Marco

    2017-01-01

    We introduce loose graph simulations (LGS), a new notion about labelled graphs which subsumes in an intuitive and natural way subgraph isomorphism (SGI), regular language pattern matching (RLPM) and graph simulation (GS). Being a unification of all these notions, LGS allows us to express directly...... also problems which are “mixed” instances of previous ones, and hence which would not fit easily in any of them. After the definition and some examples, we show that the problem of finding loose graph simulations is NP-complete, we provide formal translation of SGI, RLPM, and GS into LGSs, and we give...

  10. Giant peritoneal loose bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-27

    Mar 27, 2015 ... Giant peritoneal loose bodies are rare lesions, originating from auto-amputated appendices epiploicae. They may cause urinary or gastrointestinal obstruction and, should the radiologist not be familiar with the entity, can potentially be confused with malignant or parasitic lesions. Familiarity with their ...

  11. Operating Room Time Savings with the Use of Splint Packs: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Tyler Gonzalez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most expensive variable in the operating room (OR is time. Lean Process Management is being used in the medical field to improve efficiency in the OR. Streamlining individual processes within the OR is crucial to a comprehensive time saving and cost-cutting health care strategy. At our institution, one hour of OR time costs approximately $500, exclusive of supply and personnel costs. Commercially prepared splint packs (SP contain all components necessary for plaster-of-Paris short-leg splint application and have the potential to decrease splint application time and overall costs by making it a more lean process. We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing OR time savings between SP use and bulk supply (BS splint application. Methods: Fifty consecutive adult operative patients on whom post-operative short-leg splint immobilization was indicated were randomized to either a control group using BS or an experimental group using SP. One orthopaedic surgeon (EMB prepared and applied all of the splints in a standardized fashion. Retrieval time, preparation time, splint application time, and total splinting time for both groups were measured and statistically analyzed. Results: The retrieval time, preparation time and total splinting time were significantly less (p

  12. Loose Particle Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    PIND, developed by Dunegan/Endevco is an acronym for Particle Impact Noise Detection, a means of finding tiny, loose conductive particles introduced during fabrication of integrated circuits, which sometimes cause system failures. One type of automated system used for PIND testing has undergone a study by Goddard Space Flight Center to determine its effectiveness. Analysis of the test data indicated that an average PIND detection capability of about 45 percent can be expected.

  13. Nature of the spin-glass phase in dense packings of Ising dipoles with random anisotropy axes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Juan J.; Allés, B.

    2017-09-01

    Using tempered Monte Carlo simulations, we study the the spin-glass phase of dense packings of Ising dipoles pointing along random axes. We consider systems of dipoles (i) placed on the sites of a simple cubic lattice with lattice constant d, and (ii) placed at the center of random close packed spheres of diameter d that occupy 64% of the volume. For both cases, we find a spin-glass phase below a certain temperature T sg. By analysing the data obtained for the overlap parameter, the associated correlation length, as well as the statistics of the overlap distributions of individual samples, we find a behavior consistent with quasi-long-range order in the spin-glass phase, similar to the one previously found in strongly diluted dipolar systems.

  14. Nature of the spin-glass phase in dense packings of Ising dipoles with random anisotropy axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Juan J; Allés, B

    2017-09-06

    Using tempered Monte Carlo simulations, we study the the spin-glass phase of dense packings of Ising dipoles pointing along random axes. We consider systems of dipoles (i) placed on the sites of a simple cubic lattice with lattice constant d, and (ii) placed at the center of random close packed spheres of diameter d that occupy 64% of the volume. For both cases, we find a spin-glass phase below a certain temperature T sg. By analysing the data obtained for the overlap parameter, the associated correlation length, as well as the statistics of the overlap distributions of individual samples, we find a behavior consistent with quasi-long-range order in the spin-glass phase, similar to the one previously found in strongly diluted dipolar systems.

  15. A Parallel Biased Random-Key Genetic Algorithm with Multiple Populations Applied to Irregular Strip Packing Problems

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    Bonfim Amaro Júnior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The irregular strip packing problem (ISPP is a class of cutting and packing problem (C&P in which a set of items with arbitrary formats must be placed in a container with a variable length. The aim of this work is to minimize the area needed to accommodate the given demand. ISPP is present in various types of industries from manufacturers to exporters (e.g., shipbuilding, clothes, and glass. In this paper, we propose a parallel Biased Random-Key Genetic Algorithm (µ-BRKGA with multiple populations for the ISPP by applying a collision-free region (CFR concept as the positioning method, in order to obtain an efficient and fast layout solution. The layout problem for the proposed algorithm is represented by the placement order into the container and the corresponding orientation. In order to evaluate the proposed (µ-BRKGA algorithm, computational tests using benchmark problems were applied, analyzed, and compared with different approaches.

  16. Impact of Different Front-of-Pack Nutrition Labels on Consumer Purchasing Intentions: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Pauline; Julia, Chantal; Méjean, Caroline; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Touvier, Mathilde; Fezeu, Léopold K; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2016-05-01

    Despite growing evidence supporting the utility of front-of-pack nutrition labels in enabling consumer evaluation of food product healthiness, research on food choices is scarce. This study aims at comparing the impact of front-of-pack nutrition labels on consumers' purchasing intentions. Five-arm, open-label RCT. The study setting was a virtual web-based supermarket, with participants from the French NutriNet-Santé study. The eligibility requirement was grocery shopping involvement. The intervention was to simulate one shopping situation with front-of-pack nutrition labels affixed on food products (December 2014 to March 2015). Participants were randomly assigned to one of five exposure conditions using a central computer system: Guideline Daily Amounts, Multiple Traffic Lights, Five-Color Nutrition Label, Green Tick, or control (no front-of-pack exposure). Given the nature of the intervention, masking of participants was not performed. The primary outcome was the overall nutritional quality of the contents of the shopping cart, estimated using the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system. Secondary outcomes included energy and nutrient content of the shopping cart. Impact of the front-of-pack labels was also evaluated across sociodemographic subgroups based on age, educational level, income, and nutrition knowledge. A total of 11,981 participants were included in the analyses (April 2015). The Five-Color Nutrition Label significantly led to the highest overall nutritional quality of the shopping cart, as reflected by lower Food Standards Agency scores (M=8.72; SD=2.75), followed by Multiple Traffic Lights (M=8.97; SD=2.68) and Green Tick (M=8.99; SD=2.71), compared with the control (M=9.34; SD=2.57) (pfront-of-pack format that led to a lower content in lipids, saturated fatty acids, and sodium of the shopping cart (all pfront-of-pack labels was similar across sociodemographic subgroups. The Five-Color Nutrition Label based on a color

  17. Infrared thermography of loose hangingwalls

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kononov, VA

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available is that with an exposed hangingwall surface area, loose sections of ventilated rock should have a lower temperature than solid sections of ventilated rock because the former acts like cooling fins. The temperature gradient between loose and solid rock depends...

  18. Methodological analysis of gamma tomography system for large random packed columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, Pablo A.S.; De Mesquita, Carlos H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN/CNEN-SP, Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); LeRoux, Galo A.C. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav. 3, 380-Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hamada, Margarida M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN/CNEN-SP, Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: mmhamada@ipen.br

    2010-04-15

    Gamma ray tomography experiments have been carried out to detect spatial patterns in the porosity in a 0.27 m diameter column packed with steel Rashig rings of different sizes: 12.6, 37.9, and 76 mm. using a first generation CT system. A fast Fourier transform tomographic reconstruction algorithm has been used to calculate the spatial variation over the column cross section. Cross-sectional gas porosity and solid holdup distribution were determinate. The values of cross-sectional average gas porosity were {epsilon}=0.849, 0.938 and 0.966 for the 12.6, 37.9, and 76 mm rings, respectively. Radial holdup variation within the packed bed has been determined. The variation of the circumferentially averaged gas holdup in the radial direction indicates that the porosity in the column wall region is a somewhat higher than that in the bulk region, due to the effect of the column wall.

  19. Aerobic desulfurization of biogas by acidic biotrickling filtration in a randomly packed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montebello, Andrea M; Mora, Mabel; López, Luis R; Bezerra, Tercia; Gamisans, Xavier; Lafuente, Javier; Baeza, Mireia; Gabriel, David

    2014-09-15

    Biotrickling filters for biogas desulfurization still must prove their stability and robustness in the long run under extreme conditions. Long-term desulfurization of high loads of H2S under acidic pH was studied in a lab-scale aerobic biotrickling filter packed with metallic Pall rings. Reference operating conditions at steady-state corresponded to an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 130s, H2S loading rate of 52gS-H2Sm(-3)h(-1) and pH 2.50-2.75. The EBRT reduction showed that the critical EBRT was 75s and the maximum EC 100gS-H2Sm(-3)h(-1). Stepwise increases of the inlet H2S concentration up to 10,000 ppmv lead to a maximum EC of 220gS-H2Sm(-3)h(-1). The H2S removal profile along the filter bed indicated that the first third of the filter bed was responsible for 70-80% of the total H2S removal. The oxidation rate of solid sulfur accumulated inside the bioreactor during periodical H2S starvation episodes was verified under acidic operating conditions. The performance under acidic pH was comparable to that under neutral pH in terms of H2S removal capacity. However, bioleaching of the metallic packing used as support and chemical precipitation of sulfide/sulfur salts occurred. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Aerobic desulfurization of biogas by acidic biotrickling filtration in a randomly packed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montebello, Andrea M.; Mora, Mabel; López, Luis R.; Bezerra, Tercia [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Gamisans, Xavier [Department of Mining Engineering and Natural Resources, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Bases de Manresa 61-73, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Lafuente, Javier [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Baeza, Mireia [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Gabriel, David, E-mail: david.gabriel@uab.cat [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Desulfurization of high loads of H{sub 2}S is feasible by acidic biotrickling filtration. • Robustness of the process is demonstrated in the long-term (550 d). • Biosulfur to sulfate oxidation under H{sub 2}S starvation was successfully performed. • Lower sulfate production found at acidic pH compared to that at neutral pH. • Plastic material is recommended for long-term acidic biotrickling filtration. - Abstract: Biotrickling filters for biogas desulfurization still must prove their stability and robustness in the long run under extreme conditions. Long-term desulfurization of high loads of H{sub 2}S under acidic pH was studied in a lab-scale aerobic biotrickling filter packed with metallic Pall rings. Reference operating conditions at steady-state corresponded to an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 130 s, H{sub 2}S loading rate of 52 g S–H{sub 2}S m{sup −3} h{sup −1} and pH 2.50–2.75. The EBRT reduction showed that the critical EBRT was 75 s and the maximum EC 100 g S–H{sub 2}S m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. Stepwise increases of the inlet H{sub 2}S concentration up to 10,000 ppm{sub v} lead to a maximum EC of 220 g S–H{sub 2}S m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. The H{sub 2}S removal profile along the filter bed indicated that the first third of the filter bed was responsible for 70–80% of the total H{sub 2}S removal. The oxidation rate of solid sulfur accumulated inside the bioreactor during periodical H{sub 2}S starvation episodes was verified under acidic operating conditions. The performance under acidic pH was comparable to that under neutral pH in terms of H{sub 2}S removal capacity. However, bioleaching of the metallic packing used as support and chemical precipitation of sulfide/sulfur salts occurred.

  1. Packing in protein cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, J. C.; Clark, A. H.; Regan, L.; O'Hern, C. S.

    2017-07-01

    Proteins are biological polymers that underlie all cellular functions. The first high-resolution protein structures were determined by x-ray crystallography in the 1960s. Since then, there has been continued interest in understanding and predicting protein structure and stability. It is well-established that a large contribution to protein stability originates from the sequestration from solvent of hydrophobic residues in the protein core. How are such hydrophobic residues arranged in the core; how can one best model the packing of these residues, and are residues loosely packed with multiple allowed side chain conformations or densely packed with a single allowed side chain conformation? Here we show that to properly model the packing of residues in protein cores it is essential that amino acids are represented by appropriately calibrated atom sizes, and that hydrogen atoms are explicitly included. We show that protein cores possess a packing fraction of φ ≈ 0.56 , which is significantly less than the typically quoted value of 0.74 obtained using the extended atom representation. We also compare the results for the packing of amino acids in protein cores to results obtained for jammed packings from discrete element simulations of spheres, elongated particles, and composite particles with bumpy surfaces. We show that amino acids in protein cores pack as densely as disordered jammed packings of particles with similar values for the aspect ratio and bumpiness as found for amino acids. Knowing the structural properties of protein cores is of both fundamental and practical importance. Practically, it enables the assessment of changes in the structure and stability of proteins arising from amino acid mutations (such as those identified as a result of the massive human genome sequencing efforts) and the design of new folded, stable proteins and protein-protein interactions with tunable specificity and affinity.

  2. The effect of Neydharting mud-pack therapy on knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, controlled, double-blind follow-up pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefner, Ildikó Katalin; Gaál, Ramóna; Koroknai, András; Ráthonyi, Adél; Gáti, Tamás; Monduk, Péter; Kiss, Edit; Kovács, Csaba; Bálint, Géza; Bender, Tamás

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Neydharting mud-pack therapy on the clinical parameters and quality of life in patients with knee osteoarthritis. In this double-blind, randomized, follow-up study on 53 patients with knee osteoarthritis, one group received hot mud-pack therapy, whereas the other (control) group was treated with hot packs of a substance manufactured on 10 occasions for 2 weeks. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), EuroQoL-5D quality-of-life measure and need for analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were recorded before treatment, at the end of treatment (at Week 2), and at Weeks 6 and 12. The WOMAC and the EQ5D quality-of-life scores improved from the baseline to the end of treatment in both groups, and further improvement was observed during the follow-up period (p mud-treated group (p mud-treated group, and these changes became significant by Visit 4 compared to baseline (p = 0.016). The control group showed only temporary and not significant decrease. The difference was not significant between the groups in any of the outcome parameters at any visits. The Neydharting mud pack has a favorable effect on the clinical parameters, quality of life, and need for medications in patients with knee osteoarthritis. To evaluate the chemical effect, the number of patients should be increased.

  3. Does addition of `mud-pack and hot pool treatment' to patient education make a difference in fibromyalgia patients? A randomized controlled single blind study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağdatlı, Ali Osman; Donmez, Arif; Eröksüz, Rıza; Bahadır, Güler; Turan, Mustafa; Erdoğan, Nergis

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled single-blind study is to explore whether addition of mud-pack and hot pool treatments to patient education make a significant difference in short and mild term outcomes of the patients with fibromyalgia. Seventy women with fibromyalgia syndrome were randomly assigned to either balneotherapy with mud-pack and hot pool treatments (35) or control (35) groups. After randomization, five patients from balneotherapy group and five patients from control group were dropped out from the study with different excuses. All patients had 6-h patient education programme about fibromyalgia syndrome and were given a home exercise programme. The patients in balneotherapy group had heated pool treatment at 38 °C for 20 min a day, and mud-pack treatment afterwards on back region at 45 °C. Balneotherapy was applied on weekdays for 2 weeks. All patients continued to take their medical treatment. An investigator who was blinded to the intervention assessed all the patients before and after the treatment, at the first and the third months of follow-up. Outcome measures were FIQ, BDI and both patient's and physician's global assessments. Balneotherapy group was significantly better than control group at after the treatment and at the end of the first month follow-up assessments in terms of patient's and physician's global assessment, total FIQ score, and pain intensity, fatigue, non-refreshed awaking, stiffness, anxiety and depression subscales of FIQ. No significant difference was found between the groups in terms of BDI scores. It is concluded that patient education combined with 2 weeks balneotherapy application has more beneficial effects in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome as compared to patient education alone.

  4. Does addition of 'mud-pack and hot pool treatment' to patient education make a difference in fibromyalgia patients? A randomized controlled single blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağdatlı, Ali Osman; Donmez, Arif; Eröksüz, Rıza; Bahadır, Güler; Turan, Mustafa; Erdoğan, Nergis

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled single-blind study is to explore whether addition of mud-pack and hot pool treatments to patient education make a significant difference in short and mild term outcomes of the patients with fibromyalgia. Seventy women with fibromyalgia syndrome were randomly assigned to either balneotherapy with mud-pack and hot pool treatments (35) or control (35) groups. After randomization, five patients from balneotherapy group and five patients from control group were dropped out from the study with different excuses. All patients had 6-h patient education programme about fibromyalgia syndrome and were given a home exercise programme. The patients in balneotherapy group had heated pool treatment at 38 °C for 20 min a day, and mud-pack treatment afterwards on back region at 45 °C. Balneotherapy was applied on weekdays for 2 weeks. All patients continued to take their medical treatment. An investigator who was blinded to the intervention assessed all the patients before and after the treatment, at the first and the third months of follow-up. Outcome measures were FIQ, BDI and both patient's and physician's global assessments. Balneotherapy group was significantly better than control group at after the treatment and at the end of the first month follow-up assessments in terms of patient's and physician's global assessment, total FIQ score, and pain intensity, fatigue, non-refreshed awaking, stiffness, anxiety and depression subscales of FIQ. No significant difference was found between the groups in terms of BDI scores. It is concluded that patient education combined with 2 weeks balneotherapy application has more beneficial effects in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome as compared to patient education alone.

  5. The Effect of the Move More Pack on the Physical Activity of Cancer Survivors: Protocol for a Randomized Waiting List Control Trial with Process Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Justin; Fife-Schaw, Chris; Ogden, Jane; Foster, Jo

    2017-11-09

    Physical activity can improve many common side effects of cancer treatment as well as improve physical function and quality of life (QOL). In addition, physical activity can improve survival rate and reduce cancer recurrence. Despite these benefits, only 23% of cancer survivors in England are active to recommended levels. Cancer survivors are interested in lifestyle behavior change. Home-based interventions offer a promising means for changing physical activity behavior. Prediagnosis levels of physical activity and self-efficacy have been reported to be predictors of physical activity behavior change. The Move More Pack, which has undergone revision, is a printed resource with supporting Internet-based tools that aims to increase the physical activity of cancer survivors in the United Kingdom. The revised Move More Pack is underpinned by the theory of planned behavior and the social cognitive theory. The aim of this proposed study was to investigate the effect of the revised Move More Pack, supported by Internet-based tools, on physical activity, self-efficacy, and health-related QOL (HRQOL) of cancer survivors in the United Kingdom. This study is a two-arm waiting list randomized control trial with embedded process evaluation. A sample of 99 participants per arm will be recruited by invitation through an email database of cancer survivors held by UK charity Macmillan Cancer Support and an advert placed on the Macmillan Cancer Support Facebook page. Each participant is randomized to receive brief physical activity information and the UK guidelines for physical activity, or brief physical activity information and the revised Move More Pack with supporting Internet-based tools. The intervention and control arm will be followed up at 12 weeks to identify changes in self-reported physical activity, self-efficacy, and HRQOL based on Web-based questionnaires. The control arm will receive the revised Move More Pack at 12 weeks with follow-up at 24 weeks. The intervention

  6. Safety and effectiveness evaluation of a domestic peritoneal dialysis fluid packed in non-PVC bags: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianhui; Cao, Xueying; Lin, Hongli; Ni, Zhaohui; He, Yani; Chen, Menghua; Zheng, Hongguang; Chen, Xiangmei

    2015-12-29

    Peritoneal dialysis is an important type of renal replacement therapy for uremic patients. In peritoneal dialysis, fluids fill in and flow out of the abdominal cavity three to five times per day. Usually, the fluid is packed in a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bag. Safety concerns have arisen over di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, which is essential in the formation of PVC materials. In 2011, the National Development and Reform Commission of China released a catalog of industrial structural adjustments, mandating the elimination of PVC bags for intravenous infusion and food containers. Although bags for peritoneal dialysis fluid were not included in the elimination list, several manufacturers began to develop new materials for fluid bags. HUAREN peritoneal dialysis fluid consists of the same electrolytes and buffer agent as in Baxter fluid, but is packed in bags that do not contain PVC. This multicenter randomized controlled trial was designed to compare peritoneal dialysis fluid packed in non-PVC-containing and PVC-containing bags. Further, the study sought to determine the proper dose of peritoneal dialysis fluid and the actual survival rates of Chinese patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The study participants are adults undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for 30 days to 6 months. All eligible patients are randomized (1:1) to peritoneal dialysis with Baxter and HUAREN dialysis fluids (initial dose, 6 l/day), with dosages adjusted according to a unified protocol. The primary outcomes are the 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year overall survival rates. Secondary outcome measures include technique survival rates, reductions in estimated glomerular filtration rate, nutritional status, quality of life, cardiovascular events, medical costs and drop-out rates. Safety outcome measures include adverse events, changes in vital signs and laboratory parameters, peritonitis, allergies, and quality of products. This study is the first to evaluate the long-term safety and

  7. Joint Hypermobility: What Causes Loose Joints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... result in a higher incidence of dislocations and sprains. Your doctor might suggest physical therapy to help strengthen the muscles surrounding these joints. See your doctor if your loose joints also cause you pain. Rarely, joint hypermobility is a sign ...

  8. Packing Smart

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-22

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about packing a lunch that's not boring and is full of the power and energy kids need to make it through the day.  Created: 8/22/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/22/2011.

  9. Power Packing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-16

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about how to pack a lunch safely, to help keep you from getting sick.  Created: 8/16/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/16/2011.

  10. HTR-proteus pebble bed experimental program core 4: random packing with a 1:1 moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bess, John D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Montierth, Leland M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sterbentz, James W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Briggs, J. Blair [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gougar, Hans D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Snoj, Luka [Jozef Stefan Inst. (IJS), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lengar, Igor [Jozef Stefan Inst. (IJS), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Koberl, Oliver [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    2014-03-01

    In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters. One benchmark experiment was evaluated in this report: Core 4. Core 4 represents the only configuration with random pebble packing in the HTR-PROTEUS series of experiments, and has a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:1. Three random configurations were performed. The initial configuration, Core 4.1, was rejected because the method for pebble loading, separate delivery tubes for the moderator and fuel pebbles, may not have been completely random; this core loading was rejected by the experimenters. Cores 4.2 and 4.3 were loaded using a single delivery tube, eliminating the possibility for systematic ordering effects. The second and third cores differed slightly in the quantity of pebbles loaded (40 each of moderator and fuel pebbles), stacked height of the pebbles in the core cavity (0.02 m), withdrawn distance of the stainless steel control rods (20 mm), and withdrawn distance of the autorod (30 mm). The 34 coolant channels in the upper axial reflector and the 33 coolant channels in the lower axial reflector were open. Additionally, the axial graphite fillers used in all other HTR-PROTEUS configurations to create a 12-sided core cavity were not used in the randomly packed cores. Instead, graphite fillers were placed on the cavity floor, creating a funnel-like base, to discourage ordering

  11. HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORE 4: RANDOM PACKING WITH A 1:1 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Leland M. Montierth

    2013-03-01

    In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters. One benchmark experiment was evaluated in this report: Core 4. Core 4 represents the only configuration with random pebble packing in the HTR-PROTEUS series of experiments, and has a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:1. Three random configurations were performed. The initial configuration, Core 4.1, was rejected because the method for pebble loading, separate delivery tubes for the moderator and fuel pebbles, may not have been completely random; this core loading was rejected by the experimenters. Cores 4.2 and 4.3 were loaded using a single delivery tube, eliminating the possibility for systematic ordering effects. The second and third cores differed slightly in the quantity of pebbles loaded (40 each of moderator and fuel pebbles), stacked height of the pebbles in the core cavity (0.02 m), withdrawn distance of the stainless steel control rods (20 mm), and withdrawn distance of the autorod (30 mm). The 34 coolant channels in the upper axial reflector and the 33 coolant channels in the lower axial reflector were open. Additionally, the axial graphite fillers used in all other HTR-PROTEUS configurations to create a 12-sided core cavity were not used in the randomly packed cores. Instead, graphite fillers were placed on the cavity floor, creating a funnel-like base, to discourage ordering

  12. Loose bodies of the temporomandibular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Q.N.; Katzberg, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    We report a series of four patients presenting with symptoms of temporomandibular joint pain and dysfunction, and manifesting calcified loose bodies within the temporomandibular joint. Tomographic and arthrotomographic findings are described. Surgical confirmation was obtained in two patients and the histopathology in one demonstrated that the loose body was calcified cartilage surrounded by synovial tissue. The synovial tissue of the joint space was normal in all four cases by arthrotomography and at surgery in two patients. The findings suggest that these cases may be examples of osteochondrosis dissecans.

  13. Creep of granulated loose-fill insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    This report presents a proposal for a standardised method for creep tests and the necessary theoretical framework that can be used to describe creep of a granulated loose-fill material. Furthermore results from a round robin test are shown. The round robin test was carried out in collaboration...... with SP-Building Physics in Sweden and VTT Building Technology in Finland. For the round robin test a cellulosic fibre insulation material was used. The proposed standardised method for creep tests and theories are limited to cases when the granulated loose-fill material is exposed to a constant...

  14. Symptomatic Diverticulosis Is Characterized By Loose Stools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järbrink-Sehgal, M Ellionore; Andreasson, Anna; Talley, Nicholas J; Agréus, Lars; Song, Jeong-Yeop; Schmidt, Peter T

    2016-12-01

    Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease is considered to be a discreet clinical entity distinct from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but population-based data are unavailable. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and location of diverticulosis in the general population, and its association with colonic symptoms and mental health. We propose that individuals with diverticulosis would report more constipation and IBS. We performed a population-based study of randomly selected adults born in Sweden (age, 18-70 y; 57.2% women); 745 received a gastroenterology consultation, completed validated abdominal symptom and mental health questionnaires, and were examined by colonoscopy. Logistic regression was used to calculate the associations between diverticulosis and age, sex, gastrointestinal symptoms, anxiety, depression, and self-rated health. Among the 742 participants (54.6% women), 130 (17.5%) had diverticulosis. Age was the strongest predictor of diverticulosis (P diverticulosis was rare in participants younger than 40 years (0.7%). All participants with diverticulosis had sigmoid involvement. Participants with diverticulosis were more likely to report loose stools (odds ratio [OR], 1.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-2.96), urgency (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.02-2.63), passing mucus (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.08-4.72), and a high stool frequency (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.11-3.65). Diverticulosis was associated with abdominal pain (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.01-4.36; P = .047) and diarrhea-predominant IBS (OR, 9.55; 95% CI, 1.08-84.08; P = .04) in participants older than 60 years. The presence of anxiety and depression and self-rated health were similar in participants with and without diverticulosis. The prevalence of diverticulosis is age-dependent. Diverticulosis is associated with diarrhea in subjects across all age ranges. In subjects older than age 60, diverticulosis is associated with abdominal pain and diarrhea-predominant IBS. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute

  15. Comparing hot pack, short-wave diathermy, ultrasound, and TENS on isokinetic strength, pain, and functional status of women with osteoarthritic knees: a single-blind, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Nuri; Aytar, Aydan; Atalay, Ayce; Akman, Mahmut Nafiz

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effects of physical agents administered before isokinetic exercise in women with knee osteoarthritis. One hundred patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis were randomized into five groups of 20 patients each: group 1 received short-wave diathermy + hot packs and isokinetic exercise; group 2 received transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation + hot packs and isokinetic exercise; group 3 received ultrasound + hot packs and isokinetic exercise; group 4 received hot packs and isokinetic exercise; and group 5 served as controls and received only isokinetic exercise. Pain and disability index scores were significantly reduced in each group. Patients in the study groups had significantly greater reductions in their visual analog scale scores and scores on the Lequesne index than did patients in the control group (group 5). They also showed greater increases than did controls in muscular strength at all angular velocities. In most parameters, improvements were greatest in groups 1 and 2 compared with groups 3 and 4. Using physical agents before isokinetic exercises in women with knee osteoarthritis leads to augmented exercise performance, reduced pain, and improved function. Hot pack with a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator or short-wave diathermy has the best outcome.

  16. Arthroscopic treatment of bony loose bodies in the subacromial space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The mechanism of formation of bony loose bodies is not clear, may be associated with synovial cartilage metaplasia. Arthroscopic removal of loose bodies and bursa debridement is a good option for treatment of the loose body in the subacromial space, which can receive good function.

  17. Differences between tight and loose cultures : A 33-nation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelfand, M.J.; Raver, R.L.; Nishii, L.; Leslie, L.M.; Lun, J.; Lim, B.C.; Van de Vliert, E.

    2011-01-01

    With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated

  18. 29 CFR 1919.31 - Proof tests-loose gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof tests-loose gear. 1919.31 Section 1919.31 Labor... (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels: Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.31 Proof tests—loose gear. (a) Chains, rings, shackles and other loose gear (whether...

  19. More loosely bound hadron molecules at CDF?

    CERN Document Server

    Bignamini, C; Piccinini, F; Polosa, A D; Riquer, V; Sabelli, C

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper we have proposed a method to estimate the prompt production cross section of X(3872) at the Tevatron assuming that this particle is a loosely bound molecule of a D and a D*bar meson. Under this hypothesis we find that it is impossible to explain the high prompt production cross section found by CDF at sigma(X(3872)) \\sim 30-70 nb as our theoretical prediction is about 300 times smaller than the measured one. Following our work, Artoisenet and Braaten, have suggested that final state interactions in the DD*bar system might be so strong to push the result we obtained for the cross section up to the experimental value. Relying on their conclusions we show that the production of another very narrow loosely bound molecule, the X_s=D_s D_s*bar, could be similarly enhanced. X_s should then be detectable at CDF with a mass of 4080 MeV and a prompt production cross section of sigma(X_s) \\sim 1-3 nb.

  20. Researching Lean: Methodological Implications of Loose Definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Brännmark

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Lean Production (Lean has become a prevailing management concept in Sweden. However, previous research seems to show that the Lean concept and the impact of Lean vary considerably between organizations. This paper illustrates some key methodological issues that need to be considered when researching loosely defined management concepts such as Lean. The paper is based on a review of the literature and five comparative Swedish cases studies. Our study indicates that Lean has changed over time and that operationalization and interpretations of the concept vary considerably. This study concludes that future Lean studies should include a thorough assessment of the Lean interventions, study settings, and in particular non-Lean factors mediating the outcomes of Lean-inspired change programs.

  1. Computational investigation of longitudinal diffusion, eddy dispersion, and trans-particle mass transfer in bulk, random packings of core-shell particles with varied shell thickness and shell diffusion coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneyko, Anton; Hlushkou, Dzmitry; Baranau, Vasili; Khirevich, Siarhei; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas; Tallarek, Ulrich

    2015-08-14

    In recent years, chromatographic columns packed with core-shell particles have been widely used for efficient and fast separations at comparatively low operating pressure. However, the influence of the porous shell properties on the mass transfer kinetics in core-shell packings is still not fully understood. We report on results obtained with a modeling approach to simulate three-dimensional advective-diffusive transport in bulk random packings of monosized core-shell particles, covering a range of reduced mobile phase flow velocities from 0.5 up to 1000. The impact of the effective diffusivity of analyte molecules in the porous shell and the shell thickness on the resulting plate height was investigated. An extension of Giddings' theory of coupled eddy dispersion to account for retention of analyte molecules due to stagnant regions in porous shells with zero mobile phase flow velocity is presented. The plate height equation involving a modified eddy dispersion term excellently describes simulated data obtained for particle-packings with varied shell thickness and shell diffusion coefficient. It is confirmed that the model of trans-particle mass transfer resistance of core-shell particles by Kaczmarski and Guiochon [42] is applicable up to a constant factor. We analyze individual contributions to the plate height from different mass transfer mechanisms in dependence of the shell parameters. The simulations demonstrate that a reduction of plate height in packings of core-shell relative to fully porous particles arises mainly due to reduced trans-particle mass transfer resistance and transchannel eddy dispersion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Deterministic indexing for packed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2017-01-01

    Given a string S of length n, the classic string indexing problem is to preprocess S into a compact data structure that supports efficient subsequent pattern queries. In the deterministic variant the goal is to solve the string indexing problem without any randomization (at preprocessing time...... or query time). In the packed variant the strings are stored with several character in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. Our main result is a new string index in the deterministic and packed setting. Given a packed string S of length n over an alphabet σ......, we show how to preprocess S in O(n) (deterministic) time and space O(n) such that given a packed pattern string of length m we can support queries in (deterministic) time O (m/α + log m + log log σ), where α = w/log σ is the number of characters packed in a word of size w = θ(log n). Our query time...

  3. Preparation and microwave absorption properties of loose nanoscale Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia Kun; Zhao Rui; Zhong Jiachun [Research Branch of Advanced Functional Materials, School of Microelectronics and Solid-State Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Liu Xiaobo, E-mail: liuxb@uestc.edu.c [Research Branch of Advanced Functional Materials, School of Microelectronics and Solid-State Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Magnetite nanoparticles are found to assemble into randomly dispersed loose nanoscale spheres with diameters approx300 nm in ethylene glycol in the presence of polyethylene and a small quantity of polyethyleneimine. Modern analysis methods are employed to provide structure information of the magnetic loose spheres. The ferromagnetic saturation magnetization is approx80.0 emu g{sup -1}, and the coercive force is 209 Oe. The microwave electromagnetic parameters are measured by a vector network analyzer. The synthesized loose spheres exhibit novel microwave properties compared with the conventional Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. An additional microwave loss peak appears in the Ku band, which is attributed to the loose structure.

  4. Comparing the efficacy of mature mud pack and hot pack treatments for knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsan, Ayşe; Akkaya, Nuray; Ozgen, Merih; Yildiz, Necmettin; Atalay, Nilgun Simsir; Ardic, Fusun

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of mature mud pack and hot pack therapies on patients with knee osteoarthritis. This study was designed as a prospective, randomized-controlled, and single-blinded clinical trial. Twenty-seven patients with clinical and radiologic evidence of knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned into two groups and were treated with mature mud packs (n 15) or hot packs (n=12). Patients were evaluated for pain [based on the visual analog scale (VAS)], function (WOMAC, 6 min walking distance), quality of life [Short Form-36 (SF-36)], and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) at baseline, post-treatment, and 3 and 6~months after treatment. The mud pack group shows a significant improvement in VAS, pain, stifness, and physical function domains of WOMAC. The difference between groups of pain and physical activity domains is significant at post-treatment in favor of mud pack. For a 6 min walking distance, mud pack shows significant improvement, and the difference is significant between groups in favor of mud pack at post-treatment and 3 and 6 months after treatment. Mud pack shows significant improvement in the pain subscale of SF-36 at the third month continuing until the sixth month after the treatment. Significant improvements are found for the social function, vitality/energy, physical role disability, and general health subscales of SF-36 in favor of the mud pack compared with the hot pack group at post-treatment. A significant increase is detected for IGF-1 in the mud pack group 3 months after treatment compared with the baseline, and the difference is significant between groups 3 months after the treatment. Mud pack is a favorable option compared with hotpack for pain relief and for the improvement of functional conditions in treating patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  5. Multiple loose bodies in the joints: from snowstorm to hailstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorgancigil, Huöseyin; Karahan, Nermin; Baydar, Metin Lötfi

    2004-10-01

    We report the cases of 2 young-adult patients with multiple loose bodies, one in the knee and the other in the elbow joint. Loose bodies were composed of hundreds of brilliant white particles up to 5 mm in the first patient, who had a history of pain and swelling. From the right elbow joint of the second patient, arthroscopic removal of about 25 osteocartilaginous loose bodies, ranging from 5 to 14 mm in diameter, was performed. This patient also had the effects of poliomyelitis, which had required him to use a crutch since childhood for right lower limb length discrepancy. Arthroscopic removal provided elimination of symptoms in both patients. Histopathologic examination of the specimens and clinical evidence supported the previously proposed pathogenic mechanisms on development of loose bodies. Mechanisms that could affect the natural history of loose bodies in these particular patients are discussed and speculated on in this report. We suggest that some of the numerous cartilaginous multiple loose bodies in the joints (snowstorm appearance) are attached and incorporated into synovium and the total number decreases with time, while the remaining grow with nutritional effects of synovial fluid medium, resulting in larger loose bodies with osteocartilaginous characteristics. The term "hailstone" is used to describe the ultimate situation of the previous arthroscopically defined snowstorm loose bodies.

  6. Arthroscopic treatment of bony loose bodies in the subacromial space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Xiao, De-Ming; Jiang, Chang-Qing; Zhang, Wen-Tao; Lei, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Multiple bony loose bodies in the subacromial space caused form cartilage or bone cells and continue to grow. A 58-year-old man with two-year history of swelling and pain of the right shoulder. He had no history of tuberculosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Magnetic resonance (MR) images showed some bony loose bodies in the subacromial space. The removal of loose bodies and bursa debridement were performed arthroscopically. Histological diagnosis of them was synovitis with fibrous bodies. Extra-articular loose bodies is extremely rare, especially in the subacromial space, which maybe originated in the proliferative synovial bursa. Most authors recommend open removal to relive the pain, but there were choice to apply arthroscopy to remove them. The mechanism of formation of bony loose bodies is not clear, may be associated with synovial cartilage metaplasia. Arthroscopic removal of loose bodies and bursa debridement is a good option for treatment of the loose body in the subacromial space, which can receive good function. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. New Structured Packing CUB for Purification of Exhaust Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Novikova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available New structured packing for heat and mass transfer processes named CUB is presented in our article. The packing can be applied in packed towers for exhaust gas cleaning instead random packing, for example, rings type that are the most used in such processes. The advantages of the new packing over random packing are lower pressure drop, capability of purification and as a consequence long-term service of the packing. The researches of intensity of liquid-phase mass-transfer in packed bed depending on liquid spray rate and gas velocity were carried out. Obtained data show that packing CUB is more effective than the most popular type of structured packing under all other conditions being equal. As experimental data shown heat transfer coefficient was up by 17% and mass transfer coefficient was up by 51%. We found out optimal geometry of cross section of the new packing, namely, number of elements and parameters of one element. The new construction of structured packing is applicable for both type of column cross-section round and square.

  8. Temporary confinement of loose-housed hyperprolific sows reduces piglet mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, J; Moustsen, V A; Nielsen, M B F; Hansen, C F

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate piglet mortality in a commercial setting where sows were accommodated in a loose-housed system with an option to confine the sow for a few days around farrowing and during early lactation. The study was conducted in a Danish piggery where records were obtained from 2,139 farrowings. Sows were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatments: loose-loose (LL), loose-confined (LC), and confined-confined (CC). In LL, sows were loose housed from the time they entered the farrowing pens to weaning. In LC, sows were loose housed until farrowing was finished and then confined to d 4 after farrowing. In CC, sows were confined at d 114 of gestation to d 4 after farrowing. All sows were loose housed from d 5 to weaning. Total piglet mortality was analyzed at batch level to include piglets fostered by nurse sows and at sow level to analyze the effects of confinement during different time periods. Total piglet mortality was greater in LL (26.0%) and LC (25.4%) compared with CC (22.1%; piglets was not different between treatments ( = 0.21) but a larger proportion was crushed in LL (10.7%) compared with LC (9.7%; = 0.03), which again was greater than CC (7.8%; Piglet mortality before equalization was lower in CC (3.7%) than in LL (7.5%) and LC (7.0%; weaning, LL had lower mortality (5.6%) than LC (6.9%) and CC (6.6%; = 0.01). A larger proportion of sows in CC were classified as "low mortality" compared with LL and LC both before ( piglet to litter equalization is important in relation to piglet mortality. The results also suggest that confinement for 4 d after farrowing can reduce mortality in this specific period, but only confinement from d 114 of gestation to d 4 after farrowing reduced total piglet mortality.

  9. Genetic analysis of loose cluster architecture in grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Loose cluster architecture is a well known trait supporting Botrytis resilience by permitting a faster drying of bunches. Furthermore, a loose bunch enables a better application of fungicides into the cluster. The analysis of 150 F1 plants of the superior breeding line GF.GA-47-42 (‘Bacchus' x ‘Seyval blanc' crossed with ‘Villard blanc' segregating for compactness of the cluster was used for QTL analysis. Plenty of QTL were identified reproducibly for two years, QTLs stable over three growing seasons were identified for rachis length, peduncle length, and pedicel length. In a second approach ‘Pinot noir' clones showing variation for cluster architecture were analyzed for differential gene expression. Grown in three different German viticultural areas, loose versus compact clustered ‘Pinot noir' clones showed in gene expression experiments a candidate gene expressed fivefold higher in loosely clustered clones between stages BBCH57 and BBCH71.

  10. TLC Pack Unpacked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, Margret; Colpaert, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    TLC Pack stands for Teaching Languages to Caregivers and is a course designed to support migrants working or hoping to work in the caregiving sector. The TLC Pack resources range from A2 to B2 level of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), and will be made available online in the six project languages: Dutch, English,…

  11. Packing degenerate graphs greedily

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Allen, P.; Böttcher, J.; Hladký, J.; Piguet, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, August (2017), s. 45-51 ISSN 1571-0653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ16-07822Y Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : tree packing conjecture * graph packing * graph processes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics

  12. Factors Associated with Prosthetic Looseness in Lower Limb Amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phonghanyudh, Thong; Sutpasanon, Taweesak; Hathaiareerug, Chanasak; Devakula, M L Buddhibongsa; Kumnerddee, Wipoo

    2015-12-01

    To determine the factors associated with prosthetic looseness in lower limb amputees in Sisaket province. The present was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Subjects were lower limb amputees who previously obtained prostheses and required prosthetic replacements at the mobile prosthetic laboratory unit under the Prostheses Foundation of H.R.H. the Princess Mother at Khun Han Hospital, Sisaket province, in February 2013. Data including participant characteristics, prosthetic looseness data, and various variables were collected by direct semi-structured interview. Energy expenditures in physical activities were measured using the Thai version of the short format international physical activity questionnaire. Data between participants with and without prosthetic looseness were compared to determine prosthetic loosening associated factors. Among 101 participants enrolled, 33 (32.7%) had prosthetic looseness with average onset of 1.76 ± 1.67 years. Diabetes mellitus was the only significant factor associated with prosthetic looseness from both univariate and multivariate analyses (HR = 7.05, p = 0.002 and HR = 5.93, p = 0.007 respectively). Among the lower limb amputees in Sisaket province, diabetes mellitus was the only factor associated with prosthetic looseness. Therefore, diabetic screening should be supplemented in lower limb amputee assessment protocol. In addition, we recommend that amputees with diabetes mellitus should receive prosthesis check out at approximately

  13. Efficacy of the Lunch is in the Bag intervention to increase parents' packing of healthy bag lunches for young children: a cluster-randomized trial in early care and education centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Briley, Margaret E; Ranjit, Nalini; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Sweitzer, Sara J; Sharma, Shreela V; Palafox, Maria Romo; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2016-01-08

    Lunches that parents pack for their young children to eat at school or the Early Care and Education (ECE) center fall short of recommended standards. Lunch is in the Bag is a multi-level behavioral nutrition intervention to increase parents' packing of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains in their children's lunches. Designed for implementation in ECE centers, the five-week long intervention is followed three months later with a one-week booster. Efficacy of Lunch is in the Bag was tested in cluster randomized trial. Participants were 633 families from 30 ECE centers (15 intervention, 15 control) across Austin, San Antonio, and Houston, Texas, USA. Primary outcomes were servings of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains observed in the children's parent-packed bag lunches. Servings of refined grains, meats/beans/eggs/nuts, dairy, chips, and sweets also were observed. Data were collected at baseline, post-intervention (6-week follow-up), pre-booster (22-weeks follow-up), and post-booster (28-week follow-up). Time-by-treatment interactions were analyzed separately for each of the food groups using multi-level models to compare changes from baseline. Analyses were adjusted for relevant demographic variables and clustering within centers and parents. The intervention effected increases from baseline to 6-week follow-up in vegetables (0.17 servings, SE = 0.04, P intervention prevented increase in sweets (-0.43 servings, SE = 0.11, P Parents persisted, however, in packing small amounts of vegetables (averages of 0.41 to 0.52 servings) and large amounts of sweets and chips (averages of 1.75 to 1.99 servings). The need for and positive effects of the Lunch is in the Bag intervention at ECE centers where parents send bag lunch for their preschool-aged children was confirmed. An important direction for future research is discovery of more options for leveraging the partnership of ECE centers and families to help young children learn to eat and enjoy vegetables and

  14. Optimized packings with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pintér, János

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents a selection of case studies that address a substantial range of optimized object packings (OOP) and their applications. The contributing authors are well-recognized researchers and practitioners. The mathematical modelling and numerical solution aspects of each application case study are presented in sufficient detail. A broad range of OOP problems are discussed: these include various specific and non-standard container loading and object packing problems, as well as the stowing of hazardous and other materials on container ships, data centre resource management, automotive engineering design, space station logistic support, cutting and packing problems with placement constraints, the optimal design of LED street lighting, robust sensor deployment strategies, spatial scheduling problems, and graph coloring models and metaheuristics for packing applications. Novel points of view related to model development and to computational nonlinear, global, mixed integer optimization and heuristic st...

  15. Layered circle packings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a bounded sequence of integers {d0,d1,d2,…}, 6≤dn≤M, there is an associated abstract triangulation created by building up layers of vertices so that vertices on the nth layer have degree dn. This triangulation can be realized via a circle packing which fills either the Euclidean or the hyperbolic plane. We give necessary and sufficient conditions to determine the type of the packing given the defining sequence {dn}.

  16. Spontaneous crystallization in athermal polymer packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayiannis, Nikos Ch; Foteinopoulou, Katerina; Laso, Manuel

    2012-12-24

    We review recent results from extensive simulations of the crystallization of athermal polymer packings. It is shown that above a certain packing density, and for sufficiently long simulations, all random assemblies of freely-jointed chains of tangent hard spheres of uniform size show a spontaneous transition into a crystalline phase. These polymer crystals adopt predominantly random hexagonal close packed morphologies. An analysis of the local environment around monomers based on the shape and size of the Voronoi polyhedra clearly shows that Voronoi cells become more spherical and more symmetric as the system transits to the ordered state. The change in the local environment leads to an increase in the monomer translational contribution to the entropy of the system, which acts as the driving force for the phase transition. A comparison of the crystallization of hard-sphere polymers and monomers highlights similarities and differences resulting from the constraints imposed by chain connectivity.

  17. Spontaneous Crystallization in Athermal Polymer Packings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Ch. Karayiannis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We review recent results from extensive simulations of the crystallization of athermal polymer packings. It is shown that above a certain packing density, and for sufficiently long simulations, all random assemblies of freely-jointed chains of tangent hard spheres of uniform size show a spontaneous transition into a crystalline phase. These polymer crystals adopt predominantly random hexagonal close packed morphologies. An analysis of the local environment around monomers based on the shape and size of the Voronoi polyhedra clearly shows that Voronoi cells become more spherical and more symmetric as the system transits to the ordered state. The change in the local environment leads to an increase in the monomer translational contribution to the entropy of the system, which acts as the driving force for the phase transition. A comparison of the crystallization of hard-sphere polymers and monomers highlights similarities and differences resulting from the constraints imposed by chain connectivity.

  18. Loose Cigarette Purchasing and Nondaily Smoking Among Young Adult Bar Patrons in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Jamie; Johns, Michael; Farley, Shannon M; Ling, Pamela M

    2015-08-01

    We examined loose cigarette (loosie) purchasing behavior among young adult (aged 18-26 years) smokers at bars in New York City and factors associated with purchase and use. Between June and December 2013, we conducted cross-sectional surveys (n = 1916) in randomly selected bars and nightclubs. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we examined associations of loose cigarette purchasing and use with smoking frequency, price, social norms, cessation behaviors, and demographics. Forty-five percent (n = 621) of nondaily smokers and 57% (n = 133) of daily smokers had ever purchased a loosie; 15% of nondaily smokers and 4% of daily smokers reported that their last cigarette was a loosie. Nondaily smokers who never smoked daily were more likely than were daily smokers to have last smoked a loosie (odds ratio = 7.27; 95% confidence interval = 2.35, 22.48). Quitting behaviors and perceived approval of smoking were associated with ever purchasing and recently smoking loosies. Loosie purchase and use is common among young adults, especially nondaily smokers. Smoking patterns and attitudes should be considered to reduce loose cigarette purchasing among young adults in New York City.

  19. Distributed Interior-point Method for Loosely Coupled Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakazad, Sina Khoshfetrat; Hansson, Anders; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we put forth distributed algorithms for solving loosely coupled unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. Such problems are usually solved using algorithms that are based on a combination of decomposition and first order methods. These algorithms are commonly very slow...... and require many iterations to converge. In order to alleviate this issue, we propose algorithms that combine the Newton and interior-point methods with proximal splitting methods for solving such problems. Particularly, the algorithm for solving unconstrained loosely coupled problems, is based on Newton......’s method and utilizes proximal splitting to distribute the computations for calculating the Newton step at each iteration. A combination of this algorithm and the interior-point method is then used to introduce a distributed algorithm for solving constrained loosely coupled problems. We also provide...

  20. Differences between tight and loose cultures: a 33-nation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Michele J; Raver, Jana L; Nishii, Lisa; Leslie, Lisa M; Lun, Janetta; Lim, Beng Chong; Duan, Lili; Almaliach, Assaf; Ang, Soon; Arnadottir, Jakobina; Aycan, Zeynep; Boehnke, Klaus; Boski, Pawel; Cabecinhas, Rosa; Chan, Darius; Chhokar, Jagdeep; D'Amato, Alessia; Ferrer, Montse; Fischlmayr, Iris C; Fischer, Ronald; Fülöp, Marta; Georgas, James; Kashima, Emiko S; Kashima, Yoshishima; Kim, Kibum; Lempereur, Alain; Marquez, Patricia; Othman, Rozhan; Overlaet, Bert; Panagiotopoulou, Penny; Peltzer, Karl; Perez-Florizno, Lorena R; Ponomarenko, Larisa; Realo, Anu; Schei, Vidar; Schmitt, Manfred; Smith, Peter B; Soomro, Nazar; Szabo, Erna; Taveesin, Nalinee; Toyama, Midori; Van de Vliert, Evert; Vohra, Naharika; Ward, Colleen; Yamaguchi, Susumu

    2011-05-27

    With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated multilevel system that comprises distal ecological and historical threats (e.g., high population density, resource scarcity, a history of territorial conflict, and disease and environmental threats), broad versus narrow socialization in societal institutions (e.g., autocracy, media regulations), the strength of everyday recurring situations, and micro-level psychological affordances (e.g., prevention self-guides, high regulatory strength, need for structure). This research advances knowledge that can foster cross-cultural understanding in a world of increasing global interdependence and has implications for modeling cultural change.

  1. The aetiology of multiple loose bodies. Snow storm knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, P R; Freemont, A J; Davies, D R

    1989-05-01

    We report four patients who showed hundreds of brilliant white loose bodies at arthroscopy of the knee after a short history of pain and crepitus. Histological, historical and clinical evidence is presented which indicates that the aetiology of this condition is the culture of chondrocytes in synovial fluid. It is suggested that reversal of the usually accepted order of events in synovial osteochondromatosis could provide a better and unified explanation for both that condition and multiple loose bodies. The term 'snow storm knee' is proposed to describe the dramatic picture seen at arthroscopy.

  2. Evaluation of the shelf life of sterile instrument packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, W E; Bradley, D V; Mayhew, R B; Schwartz, R S

    1991-12-01

    No published studies have specifically addressed the shelf life of sterile packaging materials commonly used in dentistry. This study examined the effect of time on the sterile integrity: paper envelopes, peel pouches, and nylon sleeves. Seven thousand two hundred sample packs, each containing three glass rods, were prepared and steam sterilized. After sterilization, half the packs (control packs) were immediately opened and the contents were analyzed for bacterial contamination. The other half (test packs) were randomly sorted and stored in dental treatment operatories. At monthly intervals for 12 months, 100 packs of each type were similarly opened and analyzed. The contamination rates between the control packs were not significantly different from one another. Differences in contamination rates between control packs and test packs for both the paper envelopes (0.4% and 0.7%) and the peel pouches (0.2% and 0.2%) were also insignificant. However, a significant difference (p less than 0.01) between control and test packs (0.3% and 1.5%) was found for the nylon sleeves. This increase was not time related and was attributed to difficulty in removing the glass rods from the nylon packs in a sterile manner. The most important finding was the absence of a trend toward an increased rate of contamination over time for any pack type. This indicates that when these materials are placed in covered storage in dental operatories, a 12-month storage period is not detrimental to their sterile integrity.

  3. Pharyngeal Packing during Rhinoplasty: Advantages and Disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Majid; Taghavi Gilani, Mehryar; Bameshki, Ali Reza; Behdani, Reza; Khadivi, Ehsan; Bakhshaee, Mahdi

    2015-11-01

    Controversy remains as to the advantages and disadvantages of pharyngeal packing during septorhinoplasty. Our study investigated the effect of pharyngeal packing on postoperative nausea and vomiting and sore throat following this type of surgery or septorhinoplasty. This clinical trial was performed on 90 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I or II patients who were candidates for septorhinoplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the study group had received pharyngeal packing while those in the control group had not. The incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat based on the visual analog scale (VAS) was evaluated postoperatively in the recovery room as well as at 2, 6 and 24 hours. The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was 12.3%, with no significant difference between the study and control groups. Sore throat was reported in 50.5% of cases overall (56.8% on pack group and 44.4% on control). Although the severity of pain was higher in the study group at all times, the incidence in the two groups did not differ significantly. The use of pharyngeal packing has no effect in reducing the incidence of nausea and vomiting and sore throat after surgery. Given that induced hypotension is used as the routine method of anesthesia in septorhinoplasty surgery, with a low incidence of hemorrhage and a high risk of unintended retention of pharyngeal packing, its routine use is not recommended for this procedure.

  4. Structural looseness investigation in slow rotating permanent magnet generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Mijatovic, Nenad; Sweeney, Christian Walsted

    2016-01-01

    Structural looseness in electric machines is a condition influencing the alignment of the machine and thus the overall bearing health. In this work, assessment of the above mentioned failure mode is tested on a slow rotating (running speed equal to 0.7Hz) permanent magnet generator (PMG), while...

  5. Loose anagen hair syndrome associated with colobomas and dysmorphic features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kjaersgård; Brandrup, Flemming; Clemmensen, Ole

    2004-01-01

    Loose anagen hair syndrome is an uncommon congenital disorder. It may occur in association with other syndromes and dysmorphic features. We report a girl who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for this syndrome as proposed by Tosti (Arch Dermatol 2002, 138: 521-522). She also had several other ano...

  6. Tightening up Loose Coupling in Organizations of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Frank W.

    1982-01-01

    Part of a special issue on organizational research utilization, this article discusses loose coupling and "garbage can" theories of higher education administration, applies a political anthropological model of "anarchy without chaos" to three episodes in university administration, and concludes that universities are tightly…

  7. Pilot studies on discolouration loose deposits' build-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poças, Ana; Rebola, Nazaré; Rodrigues, Sérgio; Benoliel, Maria João; Rietveld, Luuk; Vreeburg, Jan; Menaia, José

    2015-01-01

    Tap water discolouration occurs due to resuspension of loose deposits (LD) that accumulate in drinking water distribution systems. Strategies for discolouration control involve network pipe cleaning and replacement of cast-iron pipes. However, the sole application of such measures is not

  8. Giant Peritoneal Loose Bodies | van Zyl | SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant peritoneal loose bodies are rare lesions, originating from auto-amputated appendices epiploicae. They may cause urinary or gastrointestinal obstruction and, should the radiologist not be familiar with the entity, can potentially be confused with malignant or parasitic lesions. Familiarity with their characteristic computed ...

  9. Multiple Osseous Loose Bodies Associated with Lumbar Isthmic Spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Hanakita, Junya; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2016-11-01

    Multiple osseous loose bodies in the lumbar spine have never been reported. We describe a rare surgical case of multiple osseous loose bodies associated with lumbar isthmic spondylolisthesis. A 74-year-old man who experienced left foot numbness and bilateral gluteal pain was diagnosed with lumbar spondylolisthesis 7 years previously and managed conservatively. He reported recurrence of the left foot numbness 6 months previously, at which time aggressive (rather than conservative) therapy became a consideration. Radiographs of the lumbar spine revealed L5 isthmic spondylolisthesis with dynamic instability at L5/S1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine revealed multiple mass lesions dorsally located in the lumbar canal. Computed tomography myelography demonstrated multiple osseous materials near the isthmic portion at the L5 level where compression of the dural sac by the lesions induced lumbar canal stenosis. The patient underwent posterior decompression surgery that enabled total removal of the osseous lesions. Intraoperative findings revealed osseous lesions located in the fibrocartilage material and no connection of the lytic portion at the L5 level or ligamentum flavum. Postoperative course of the patient was uneventful as his neurological symptoms improved. We described the first instance of multiple loose bodies in the spinal canal with lumbar canal stenosis. It is presumed that long standing minor trauma due to dynamic instability with a trend of hyperossification induced secondary synovial osteochondromatosis forming multiple loose bodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reflection of plane micropolar viscoelastic waves at a loosely ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. A solution of the field equations governing small motions of a micropolar viscoelastic solid half-space is employed to study the reflection and transmission of plane waves at a loosely bonded interface between two dissimilar micropolar viscoelastic solid half-spaces. The amplitude ratios for various reflected.

  11. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  12. The Six Pack Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik; Ritter, Thomas

    Ever seen a growth strategies fail because it was not connect ed to the firm’s customer base? Or a customer relationship strategy falters just because it was the wrong thing to do with that given customer? This article presents the six pack model, a tool that makes growth profitable and predictable...

  13. Loose Groups of Galaxies in the Perseus-Pisces Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Trasarti-Battistoni, Roberto

    1997-01-01

    We present a large catalog of loose groups of galaxies in the Southern Galactic Hemisphere, selected from the Perseus-Pisces redshift Survey (PPS). Particular care is taken in order to obtain group samples as homogeneous as possible to previously published catalogs. All our catalogs contain about 200 groups, significantly more than in most previous studies where group samples were obtained from galaxy data sets of comparable quality to (but smaller extent than) PPS. Groups are identified with...

  14. Simulating Hair with the Loosely-Connected Particles Method

    OpenAIRE

    Soták, Šimon

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents an implementation of the Loosely Connected Particles (LCP) method of hair animation proposed by Bando et al. We updated the method with several modern approaches. Firstly, we implemented two variations of parallel processing for the simulation which di er in work distribution among threads. The results indicate that work is distributed evenly, and thus dynamic distribution is not needed. Secondly, we applied the Deep Opacity Maps method of hair shadowing on the LCP and in...

  15. Modeling loosely annotated images using both given and imagined annotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hong; Boujemaa, Nozha; Chen, Yunhao; Deng, Lei

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to learn latent semantic analysis models from loosely annotated images for automatic image annotation and indexing. The given annotation in training images is loose due to: 1. ambiguous correspondences between visual features and annotated keywords; 2. incomplete lists of annotated keywords. The second reason motivates us to enrich the incomplete annotation in a simple way before learning a topic model. In particular, some ``imagined'' keywords are poured into the incomplete annotation through measuring similarity between keywords in terms of their co-occurrence. Then, both given and imagined annotations are employed to learn probabilistic topic models for automatically annotating new images. We conduct experiments on two image databases (i.e., Corel and ESP) coupled with their loose annotations, and compare the proposed method with state-of-the-art discrete annotation methods. The proposed method improves word-driven probability latent semantic analysis (PLSA-words) up to a comparable performance with the best discrete annotation method, while a merit of PLSA-words is still kept, i.e., a wider semantic range.

  16. The media of sociology: tight or loose translations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Sociologists have increasingly come to recognize that the discipline has unduly privileged textual representations, but efforts to incorporate visual and other media are still only in their beginning. This paper develops an analysis of the ways objects of knowledge are translated into other media, in order to understand the visual practices of sociology and to point out unused possibilities. I argue that the discourse on visual sociology, by assuming that photographs are less objective than text, is based on an asymmetric media-determinism and on a misleading notion of objectivity. Instead, I suggest to analyse media with the concept of translations. I introduce several kinds of translations, most centrally the distinction between tight and loose ones. I show that many sciences, such as biology, focus on tight translations, using a variety of media and manipulating both research objects and representations. Sociology, in contrast, uses both tight and loose translations, but uses the latter only for texts. For visuals, sociology restricts itself to what I call 'the documentary': focusing on mechanical recording technologies without manipulating either the object of research or the representation. I conclude by discussing three rare examples of what is largely excluded in sociology: visual loose translations, visual tight translations based on non-mechanical recording technologies, and visual tight translations based on mechanical recording technologies that include the manipulation of both object and representation. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  17. Neuroblastoma cells injected into experimental mature teratoma reveal a tropism for embryonic loose mesenchyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, S; Cedervall, J; Hultman, I; Ali, R; Margaryan, N V; Rasmuson, A; Johnsen, J I; Sveinbjörnsson, B; Dalianis, T; Kanter, L; Orrego, A; Strizzi, L; Hendrix, M J C; Sandstedt, B; Kogner, P; Ahrlund-Richter, L

    2013-09-01

    Embryonic neural tumors are responsible for a disproportionate number of cancer deaths in children. Although dramatic improvements in survival for pediatric malignancy has been achieved in previous years advancements seem to be slowing down. For the development of new enhanced therapy and an increased understanding of the disease, pre-clinical models better capturing the neoplastic niche are essential. Tumors of early childhood present in this respect a particular challenge. Here, we explore how components of the embryonic process in stem‑cell induced mature teratoma can function as an experimental in vivo microenvironment instigating the growth of injected childhood neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines. Three human NB cell lines, IMR-32, Kelly and SK-N-BE(2), were injected into mature pluripotent stem cell‑induced teratoma (PSCT) and compared to xenografts of the same cell lines. Proliferative NB cells from all lines were readily detected in both models with a typical histology of a poorly differentiated NB tumor with a variable amount of fibrovascular stroma. Uniquely in the PSCT microenvironment, NB cells were found integrated in a non‑random fashion. Neuroblastoma cells were never observed in areas with well-differentiated somatic tissue i.e. bone, muscle, gut or areas of other easily identifiable tissue types. Instead, the three cell lines all showed initial growth exclusively occurring in the embryonic loose mesenchymal stroma, resulting in a histology recapitulating NB native presentation in vivo. Whether this reflects the 'open' nature of loose mesenchyme more easily giving space to new cells compared to other more dense tissues, the rigidity of matrix providing physical cues modulating NB characteristics, or if embryonic loose mesenchyme may supply developmental cues that attracted or promoted the integration of NB, remains to be tested. We tentatively hypothesize that mature PSCT provide an embryonic niche well suited for in vivo studies on NB.

  18. Box jellyfish (Carybdea alata) in Waikiki: their influx cycle plus the analgesic effect of hot and cold packs on their stings to swimmers at the beach: a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C S; Scott, S A; Galanis, D J; Goto, R S

    2001-04-01

    The study measured the analgesic effect of hot and cold packs on box jellyfish (Carybdea alata) stings to Waikiki swimmers at the beach. Analysis of data showed a minimal trend toward pain relief 10 minutes after the application of hot packs, particularly when the initial pain was mild to moderate. Cold packs showed no clinically significant relief of pain, compared to the control. Data tracking shows that most box jellyfish appear in Waikiki waters on the 9th or 10th day after the full moon.

  19. Effect of vacuum packing and temperature on survival and hatching of strongyle eggs in faecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengupta, Mita Eva; Thapa, Sundar; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2016-01-01

    , and horses infected with Strongylus vulgaris and cyathostomins. The samples were allocated into four treatments: vacuum packing and storage at 5 °C or 20 °C (5 V and 20 V); normal packing in plastic gloves closed with a loose knot and storage at 5 °C or 20 °C (5 N and 20 N). The number of eggs per gram...... to normal storage, regardless of temperature. However, O. dentatum EPG was significantly higher in samples kept at 5 °C as compared to 20 °C, irrespective of packing. For the horse strongyles, vacuum packed samples at 5 °C had a significantly higher EPG compared to the other treatments after 28 days...

  20. First IDA Submittal for Transducer Element Design for Loosely Packed Planar Array Common Problem 1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-05-11

    driving current (cavitation limited ) is determined such that cavitation occurs on that element in the array with maximum surface pressure. For each...steering, the properties presented in the graphs are computed with the element under consideration being driven with the cavitation limited current. The...E±5G r 15z 3 L -- d h- 74 N 1" C- lMX P L R t::5 do -A, ,i ’AALF-0 NO K+L. FRFER 4 CE LIUM lit [.P[] CYp 1 INLH CTPDJ1PAR HERO HiGH BFIN[ ] EN

  1. ExactPack Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Robert Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Israel, Daniel M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Doebling, Scott William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Woods, Charles Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kaul, Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Walter, John William Jr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rogers, Michael Lloyd [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-05-09

    For code verification, one compares the code output against known exact solutions. There are many standard test problems used in this capacity, such as the Noh and Sedov problems. ExactPack is a utility that integrates many of these exact solution codes into a common API (application program interface), and can be used as a stand-alone code or as a python package. ExactPack consists of python driver scripts that access a library of exact solutions written in Fortran or Python. The spatial profiles of the relevant physical quantities, such as the density, fluid velocity, sound speed, or internal energy, are returned at a time specified by the user. The solution profiles can be viewed and examined by a command line interface or a graphical user interface, and a number of analysis tools and unit tests are also provided. We have documented the physics of each problem in the solution library, and provided complete documentation on how to extend the library to include additional exact solutions. ExactPack’s code architecture makes it easy to extend the solution-code library to include additional exact solutions in a robust, reliable, and maintainable manner.

  2. Cell packing structures

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2015-03-03

    This paper is an overview of architectural structures which are either composed of polyhedral cells or closely related to them. We introduce the concept of a support structure of such a polyhedral cell packing. It is formed by planar quads and obtained by connecting corresponding vertices in two combinatorially equivalent meshes whose corresponding edges are coplanar and thus determine planar quads. Since corresponding triangle meshes only yield trivial structures, we focus on support structures associated with quad meshes or hex-dominant meshes. For the quadrilateral case, we provide a short survey of recent research which reveals beautiful relations to discrete differential geometry. Those are essential for successfully initializing numerical optimization schemes for the computation of quad-based support structures. Hex-dominant structures may be designed via Voronoi tessellations, power diagrams, sphere packings and various extensions of these concepts. Apart from the obvious application as load-bearing structures, we illustrate here a new application to shading and indirect lighting. On a higher level, our work emphasizes the interplay between geometry, optimization, statics, and manufacturing, with the overall aim of combining form, function and fabrication into novel integrated design tools.

  3. Shrinkage/swelling of compacted clayey loose and dense soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowamooz, Hossein; Masrouri, Farimah

    2009-11-01

    This Note presents an experimental study performed on expansive compacted loose and dense samples using osmotic oedometers. Several successive wetting and drying cycles were applied in a suction range between 0 and 8 MPa under different values of constant net vertical stress (15, 30, and 60 kPa). During the suction cycles, the dense samples showed cumulative swelling strains, while the loose samples showed volumetric shrinkage accumulation. At the end of the suction cycles, the volumetric strains converged to an equilibrium stage that indicated elastic behavior of the swelling soil for any further hydraulic variations. At this stage, the compression curves for the studied soil at the different imposed suctions (0, 2, and 8 MPa) converged towards the saturated state curve for the high applied vertical stresses. We defined this pressure as the saturation stress(P). The compression curves provided sufficient data to examine the soil mechanical behavior at the equilibrium stage. To cite this article: H. Nowamooz, F. Masrouri, C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  4. Thermal transmittance of a cellulose loose-fill insulation material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolajsen, A. [Danish Building and Urban Research, Hoersholm (Denmark). Department of Building Technology and Productivity

    2005-07-15

    The thermal performance of cellulose insulation material was investigated and compared with the thermal performance of stone wool batts. The moisture content in selected facade elements insulated with cellulose loose-fill insulation material and stone wool, was investigated as well as the influence of the moisture content on thermal transmittance. The investigation was carried out as a full-scale test under normal climate conditions in a moisture test house facility. Facade elements were built as timber frame constructions. Heat flow through the facade elements was measured with built-in heat flowmeters and the moisture content in the thermal insulation behind the wind barrier was measured with moisture measuring dowels. The test showed that the thermal performance of the tested type of cellulose loose-fill insulation material was significantly lower than the thermal performance of stone wool batts. The maximum moisture content of the insulation material was below, what in Denmark is considered critical for the onset of rot and growth of wood decaying fungi. The thermal transmittance did not change with changes in the moisture content within the investigated hygroscopic range. (author)

  5. Random sequential adsorption of cubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Michał; Kubala, Piotr

    2018-01-14

    Random packings built of cubes are studied numerically using a random sequential adsorption algorithm. To compare the obtained results with previous reports, three different models of cube orientation sampling were used. Also, three different cube-cube intersection algorithms were tested to find the most efficient one. The study focuses on the mean saturated packing fraction as well as kinetics of packing growth. Microstructural properties of packings were analyzed using density autocorrelation function.

  6. Packing of nonoverlapping cubic particles: Computational algorithms and microstructural characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmir, Hessam; Sahimi, Muhammad; Tabar, M. Reza Rahimi

    2016-12-01

    Packing of cubic particles arises in a variety of problems, ranging from biological materials to colloids and the fabrication of new types of porous materials with controlled morphology. The properties of such packings may also be relevant to problems involving suspensions of cubic zeolites, precipitation of salt crystals during CO2 sequestration in rock, and intrusion of fresh water in aquifers by saline water. Not much is known, however, about the structure and statistical descriptors of such packings. We present a detailed simulation and microstructural characterization of packings of nonoverlapping monodisperse cubic particles, following up on our preliminary results [H. Malmir et al., Sci. Rep. 6, 35024 (2016), 10.1038/srep35024]. A modification of the random sequential addition (RSA) algorithm has been developed to generate such packings, and a variety of microstructural descriptors, including the radial distribution function, the face-normal correlation function, two-point probability and cluster functions, the lineal-path function, the pore-size distribution function, and surface-surface and surface-void correlation functions, have been computed, along with the specific surface and mean chord length of the packings. The results indicate the existence of both spatial and orientational long-range order as the the packing density increases. The maximum packing fraction achievable with the RSA method is about 0.57, which represents the limit for a structure similar to liquid crystals.

  7. Polarizable protein packing

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Albert H.

    2011-01-24

    To incorporate protein polarization effects within a protein combinatorial optimization framework, we decompose the polarizable force field AMOEBA into low order terms. Including terms up to the third-order provides a fair approximation to the full energy while maintaining tractability. We represent the polarizable packing problem for protein G as a hypergraph and solve for optimal rotamers with the FASTER combinatorial optimization algorithm. These approximate energy models can be improved to high accuracy [root mean square deviation (rmsd) < 1 kJ mol -1] via ridge regression. The resulting trained approximations are used to efficiently identify new, low-energy solutions. The approach is general and should allow combinatorial optimization of other many-body problems. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem, 2011 Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Discrete element modelling of pebble packing in pebble bed reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suikkanen, Heikki, E-mail: heikki.suikkanen@lut.fi; Ritvanen, Jouni, E-mail: jouni.ritvanen@lut.fi; Jalali, Payman, E-mail: payman.jalali@lut.fi; Kyrki-Rajamäki, Riitta, E-mail: riitta.kyrki-rajamaki@lut.fi

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • A discrete element method code is developed for pebble bed reactor analyses. • Methods are established to extract packing information at various spatial scales. • Packing simulations inside annular core geometry are done varying input parameters. • The restitution coefficient has the strongest effect on the resulting packing density. • Detailed analyses reveal local densification especially near the walls. - Abstract: It is important to understand the packing characteristics and behaviour of the randomly packed pebble bed to further analyse the reactor physical and thermal-hydraulic behaviour and to design a safe and economically feasible pebble bed reactor. The objective of this work was to establish methods to model and analyse the pebble packing in detail to provide useful tools and data for further analyses. Discrete element method (DEM) is a well acknowledged method for analysing granular materials, such as the fuel pebbles in a pebble bed reactor. In this work, a DEM computer code was written specifically for pebble bed analyses. Analysis methods were established to extract data at various spatial scales from the pebble beds resulting from the DEM simulations. A comparison with available experimental data was performed to validate the DEM implementation. To test the code implementation in full-scale reactor calculations, DEM packing simulations were done in annular geometry with 450,000 pebbles. Effects of the initial packing configuration, friction and restitution coefficients and pebble size distribution to the resulting pebble bed were investigated. The packing simulations revealed that from the investigated parameters the restitution coefficient had the largest effect on the resulting average packing density while other parameters had smaller effects. Detailed local packing density analysis of pebble beds with different average densities revealed local variations especially strong in the regions near the walls. The implemented DEM

  9. FROM THE PACKED TOWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi D. Leite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available About 245 thousand tones of municipal solid w aste are collected daily in Brazil. Nearly 32 thousand tones of the collected amount are treated in sanitary landfill, which generates biogas and leachate as byproduct. The leachate resulting from sanitary landfill contains high concentration of carbonaceous and nitrogenized material. The crucial question is that the biodegradation of the carbonaceous material is difficult as long as the nitrogenized material is presen t in the form of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH 4 + , which compromises performance of biological tr eatment process. Therefore, a physical and chemical treatment of the leachate should be done before its biological treatment, especially for reduction of ammoniacal nitr ogen concentration and for propitiating the realization of application of biological treatment. The treatment of leachate requires specific consideration, which is not needed fo r other types of waste. In the specific case in this study, where ammoniacal nitrogen concentration was about 2,200 mgN L -1 and the BOD 5 /COD ratio was 0.3, the study of ammonia stripping process was performed. Ammonia stripping process was studied in pack ed towers of 35 L capacity each and the parameters investigated were pH, ratio of contact area/leach volume and the aeration time. One of the parameters that influenced most in efficiency of ammonia stripping process was pH of the leachate since it contributes in conversion of ammoniacal nitrogen from NH 4 + to NH 3 .

  10. Loose groups of galaxies in the Perseus-Pisces survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasarti-Battistoni, R.

    1998-06-01

    We present a large catalog of loose groups of galaxies in the Southern Galactic Hemisphere, selected from the Perseus-Pisces redshift Survey (PPS). Particular care is taken in order to obtain group samples as homogeneous as possible to previously published catalogs. All our catalogs contain about 200 groups, significantly more than in most previous studies where group samples were obtained from galaxy data sets of comparable quality to (but smaller extent than) PPS. Groups are identified with the adaptive Friends-Of-Friends (FOF) algorithm of \\cite[Huchra & Geller (1982),]{HG82} with suitable normalizations D_0=0.231 \\ h(-1) Mpc and V_0=350 \\ km \\ s(-1) at cz_0=1000 \\ km \\ s(-1) . The luminosity function (LF) normalization phi_ *=0.02 \\ h(3) \\ Mpc(-3) appropriate for PPS yields a number density threshold delta n/n ~ 180 for the adopted D_0, instead of delta n/n ~ 80 used in previous studies of other samples. However, the customary choice of D_0 obtained (through the LF) from a fixed mass overdensity delta rho / rho =80, well motivated in theory, suffers from important observational uncertainties and sample-to-sample variations of the LF normalization, and from major uncertainties in the relation between galaxy density n and mass density rho . We discuss how to self-consistently match FOF parameters among different galaxy samples. We then separately vary several FOF and sample parameters, and discuss their effect on group properties. Loose groups in PPS nicely trace the large scale structure (LSS) in the parent galaxy sample. The group properties vary little with different redshift corrections, redshift cut-off, and galaxy LF, but are rather sensitive to the adopted links D_0 and V_0. More precisely, the typical group size (velocity dispersion) is linearly related to the adopted distance (velocity) link, while it is rather insensitive to the adopted velocity (distance) link. Physical properties of groups in PPS and in directly comparable samples show good

  11. Domain Discretization and Circle Packings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    , and the edges are geodesic segments (Euclidean, hyperbolic, or spherical) connecting centers of circles that are tangent to each other. Three circles that are mutually tangent form a face of the triangulation. Since circle packing is closely related to triangulation, circle packing methods can be applied...... to domain discretization problems such as triangulation and unstructured mesh generation techniques. We wish to ask ourselves the question: given a cloud of points in the plane (we restrict ourselves to planar domains), is it possible to construct a circle packing preserving the positions of the vertices...

  12. The benefits of hypopharyngeal packing in nasal surgery: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fennessy, B G

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypopharyngeal packs are used in nasal surgery to reduce the risk of aspiration and postoperative nausea and vomiting. Side effects associated with their use range from throat pain to retained packs postoperatively. AIM: To evaluate, as a pilot study, postoperative nausea\\/vomiting and throat pain scores for patients undergoing nasal surgery in whom a wet or dry hypopharyngeal pack was placed compared with patients who received no packing. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind prospective trial in a general ENT unit. RESULTS: The study failed to show a statistically significant difference between the three groups in terms of their postoperative nausea\\/vomiting and throat pain scores at 2 and 6 h postoperatively. This is the first study in which dry packs have been compared with wet and absent packs. CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, the authors recommend against placing hypopharyngeal packs for the purpose of preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting.

  13. Refractive effects in the scattering of loosely bound nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carstoiu, F.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R.E.; Gagliardi, C.A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Cyclotron Inst; Carstoiu, F. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, IN2P3-CNRS, ISMRA, Universite de Caen, 14 - Caen (France); Carstoiu, F. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Horia Hulubei, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2004-07-01

    A study of the interaction of the loosely bound nuclei {sup 6,7}Li at 9 and 19 MeV/nucleon with light targets has been undertaken. With the determination of unambiguous optical potentials in mind, elastic data for four projectile-target combinations and one neutron transfer reaction {sup 13}C({sup 7}Li,{sup 8}Li){sup 12}C have been measured over a large angular range. The kinematical regime encompasses a region where the mean field (optical potential) has a marked variation with mass and energy, but turns out to be sufficiently surface transparent to allow strong refractive effects to be manifested in elastic scattering data at intermediate angles. The identified exotic feature, a 'plateau' in the angular distributions at intermediate angles, is fully confirmed in four reaction channels and is interpreted as a pre-rainbow oscillation resulting from the interference of the barrier and internal barrier far-side scattering sub-amplitudes. (authors)

  14. The pursuit of perfect packing

    CERN Document Server

    Weaire, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Coauthored by one of the creators of the most efficient space packing solution, the Weaire-Phelan structure, The Pursuit of Perfect Packing, Second Edition explores a problem of importance in physics, mathematics, chemistry, biology, and engineering: the packing of structures. Maintaining its mathematical core, this edition continues and revises some of the stories from its predecessor while adding several new examples and applications. The book focuses on both scientific and everyday problems ranging from atoms to honeycombs. It describes packing models, such as the Kepler conjecture, Voronoï decomposition, and Delaunay decomposition, as well as actual structure models, such as the Kelvin cell and the Weaire-Phelan structure. The authors discuss numerous historical aspects and provide biographical details on influential contributors to the field, including emails from Thomas Hales and Ken Brakke. With examples from physics, crystallography, engineering, and biology, this accessible and whimsical bo...

  15. Effective Treatment of Acute Otitis Externa: a Comparison of Steroid Antibiotic Versus 10% Ichthammol Glycerine Pack

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, B. L.; I. Shrestha; Amatya, R. C. M.; Dhakal, A

    2010-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of treatment between steroid–antibiotic and 10% Ichthammol glycerine packs (IG packs) in acute otitis externa. A prospective, randomized clinical trial between steroid–antibiotic and 10% IG pack which was performed in department of ENT-HNS, Kathmandu University Hospital, Dhulikhel from July 2009 to December 2009 on 82 patients. Pain was assessed by Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and edema was assessed by dividing the external auditory canal in four quadrant giving score ...

  16. Effects of kinesio taping and hot packs on premenstrual syndrome in females

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jung-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the effects of taping and hot packs on premenstrual syndrome, in an attempt to generate basic data for physical therapy intervention for premenstrual syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two females in their 20s with premenstrual syndrome were randomly assigned to a taping group (n=10), hot pack group (n=11), and taping with hot pack group (n=11). Premenstrual syndrome was assessed using the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire in each participant prior t...

  17. Density of loose-fill insulation material exposed to cyclic humidity conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    the granulated loose-fill material is exposed to a climate that is characterised as cyclic humidity conditions (a constant temperature and a relative humidity alternating between two predetermined constant relative humidity levels). A better understanding of the behaviour of granulated loose-fill material...

  18. Large-scale simulation of flow and transport in reconstructed HPLC-microchip packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khirevich, Siarhei; Höltzel, Alexandra; Ehlert, Steffen; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas; Tallarek, Ulrich

    2009-06-15

    Flow and transport in a particle-packed microchip separation channel were investigated with quantitative numerical analysis methods, comprising the generation of confined, polydisperse sphere packings by a modified Jodrey-Tory algorithm, 3D velocity field calculations by the lattice-Boltzmann method, and modeling of convective-diffusive mass transport with a random-walk particle-tracking approach. For the simulations, the exact conduit cross section, the particle-size distribution of the packing material, and the respective average interparticle porosity (packing density) of the HPLC-microchip packings was reconstructed. Large-scale simulation of flow and transport at Peclet numbers of up to Pe = 140 in the reconstructed microchip packings (containing more than 3 x 10(5) spheres) was facilitated by the efficient use of supercomputer power. Porosity distributions and fluid flow velocity profiles for the reconstructed microchip packings are presented and analyzed. Aberrations from regular geometrical conduit shape are shown to influence packing structure and, thus, porosity and velocity distributions. Simulated axial dispersion coefficients are discussed with respect to their dependence on flow velocity and bed porosity. It is shown by comparison to experimental separation efficiencies that the simulated data genuinely reflect the general dispersion behavior of the real-life HPLC-microchip packings. Differences between experiment and simulation are explained by differing morphologies of real and simulated packings (intraparticle porosity, packing structure in the corner regions).

  19. Packing fraction of crystalline structures of binary hard spheres: a general equation and application to amorphization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Jos

    2008-01-01

    In a previous paper analytical equations were derived for the packing fraction of crystalline structures consisting of bimodal randomly placed hard spheres H. J. H. Brouwers, Phys. Rev. E 76, 041304 2007. The bimodal packing fraction was derived for the three crystalline cubic systems: viz.,

  20. Sleeping distance in wild wolf packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knick, S.T.; Mech, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Sleeping distances were observed among members of 13 wild wolf (Canis lupus) packs and 11 pairs in northeastern Minnesota to determine if the distances correlated with pack size and composition. The study utilized aerial radio-tracking and observation during winter. Pack size and number of adults per pack were inversely related to pack average sleeping distance and variability. No correlation between sleeping distance and microclimate was observed. Possible relationships between social bonding and our results are discussed.

  1. The pursuit of perfect packing

    CERN Document Server

    Weaire, Denis

    2000-01-01

    In 1998 Thomas Hales dramatically announced the solution of a problem that has long teased eminent mathematicians: what is the densest possible arrangement of identical spheres? The Pursuit of Perfect Packing recounts the story of this problem and many others that have to do with packing things together. The examples are taken from mathematics, physics, biology, and engineering, including the arrangement of soap bubbles in foam, atoms in a crystal, the architecture of the bee''s honeycomb, and the structure of the Giant''s Causeway. Using an informal style and with key references, the book also includes brief accounts of the lives of many of the scientists who devoted themselves to problems of packing over many centuries, together with wry comments on their efforts. It is an entertaining introduction to the field for both specialists and the more general public.

  2. Certain Type Turbofan Engine Whole Vibration Model with Support Looseness Fault and Casing Response Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Support looseness fault is a type of common fault in aeroengine. Serious looseness fault would emerge under larger unbalanced force, which would cause excessive vibration and even lead to rubbing fault, so it is important to analyze and recognize looseness fault effectively. In this paper, based on certain type turbofan engine structural features, a rotor-support-casing whole model for certain type turbofan aeroengine is established. The rotor and casing systems are modeled by means of the finite element beam method; the support systems are modeled by lumped-mass model; the support looseness fault model is also introduced. The coupled system response is obtained by numerical integral method. In this paper, based on the casing acceleration signals, the impact characteristics of symmetrical stiffness and asymmetric stiffness models are analyzed, finding that the looseness fault would lead to the longitudinal asymmetrical characteristics of acceleration time domain wave and the multiple frequency characteristics, which is consistent with the real trial running vibration signals. Asymmetric stiffness looseness model is verified to be fit for aeroengine looseness fault model.

  3. The Influence on Modal Parameters of Thin Cylindrical Shell under Bolt Looseness Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence on modal parameters of thin cylindrical shell (TCS under bolt looseness boundary is investigated. Firstly, bolt looseness boundary of the shell is divided into two types, that is, different bolt looseness numbers and different bolt looseness levels, and natural frequencies and mode shapes are calculated by finite element method to roughly master vibration characteristics of TCS under these conditions. Then, the following measurements and identification techniques are used to get precise frequency, damping, and shape results; for example, noncontact laser Doppler vibrometer and vibration shaker with excitation level being precisely controlled are used in the test system; “preexperiment” is adopted to determine the required tightening torque and verify fixed constraint boundary; the small-segment FFT processing technique is employed to accurately measure nature frequency and laser rotating scanning technique is used to get shape results with high efficiency. Finally, based on the measured results obtained by the above techniques, the influence on modal parameters of TCS under two types of bolt looseness boundaries is analyzed and discussed. It can be found that bolt looseness boundary can significantly affect frequency and damping results which might be caused by changes of nonlinear stiffness and damping and in bolt looseness positions.

  4. Loose-fit polypseudorotaxanes constructed from γ-CDs and PHEMA-PPG-PEG-PPG-PHEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Kong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A pentablock copolymer was prepared via the atom transfer radical polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA initiated by 2-bromoisobutyryl end-capped PPO-PEO-PPO as a macroinitiator in DMF. Attaching PHEMA blocks altered the self-assembly process of the pentablock copolymer with γ-CDs in aqueous solution. Before attaching the PHEMA, the macroinitiator was preferentially bent to pass through the inner cavity of γ-CDs to give rise to tight-fit double-chain stranded polypseudorotaxanes (PPRs. After attaching the PHEMA, the resulting pentablock copolymer was single-chain stranded into the interior of γ-CDs to form more stable, loose-fit PPRs. The results of 1H NMR, WXRD, DSC, TGA, 13C CP/MAS NMR and FTIR analyses indicated that γ-CDs can accommodate and slip over PHEMA blocks to randomly distribute along the entire pentablock copolymer chain. This results in unique, single-chain stranded PPRs showing no characteristic channel-type crystal structure.

  5. Method for immobilizing particulate materials in a packed bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Jr., William R.; Guthrie, Stephen E.; Raber, Thomas N.; Wally, Karl; Whinnery, LeRoy L.; Zifer, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The present invention pertains generally to immobilizing particulate matter contained in a "packed" bed reactor so as to prevent powder migration, compaction, coalescence, or the like. More specifically, this invention relates to a technique for immobilizing particulate materials using a microporous foam-like polymer such that a) the particulate retains its essential chemical nature, b) the local movement of the particulate particles is not unduly restricted, c) bulk powder migration and is prevented, d) physical and chemical access to the particulate is unchanged over time, and e) very high particulate densities are achieved. The immobilized bed of the present invention comprises a vessel for holding particulate matter, inlet and an outlet ports or fittings, a loosely packed bed of particulate material contained within the vessel, and a three dimensional porous matrix for surrounding and confining the particles thereby fixing the movement of individual particle to a limited local position. The established matrix is composed of a series of cells or chambers comprising walls surrounding void space, each wall forming the wall of an adjacent cell; each wall containing many holes penetrating through the wall yielding an overall porous structure and allowing useful levels of gas transport.

  6. Packing element of a packer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safin, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    The packing element of a packer is proposed which consists of an elastic core and outer layer made of plastic sealing material. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to facilitate removal of the packing element from the site of installation, the outer layer has a sublayer made of polymer material which is chemically inactive in relationship to the material of the core, for example polytetrafluoroethylene. The element is also distinguished by the fact that the outer layer together with the sublayer is attached to the core through a nonhardening and nondrying glue composition, for example, based on rubber, rosin, lanolin, vaseline oil and zinc oxide.

  7. Cylinder valve packing nut studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, S.C. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The design, manufacture, and use of cylinder valve packing nuts have been studied to improve their resistance to failure from stress corrosion cracking. Stress frozen photoelastic models have been analyzed to measure the stress concentrations at observed points of failure. The load effects induced by assembly torque and thermal expansion of stem packing were observed by strain gaging nuts. The effects of finishing operations and heat treatment were studied by the strain gage hole boring and X-ray methods. Modifications of manufacturing and operation practices are reducing the frequency of stress corrosion failures.

  8. Towards optimal packed string matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2014-01-01

    -size string-matching instruction wssm is available in contemporary commodity processors. The other word-size maximum-suffix instruction wslm is only required during the pattern pre-processing. Benchmarks show that our solution can be efficiently implemented, unlike some prior theoretical packed string...

  9. Heuristics for Multidimensional Packing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Jens

    for a three-dimensional knapsack packing problem involving furniture is presented in the fourth paper. The heuristic is based on a variety of techniques including tree-search, wall-building, and sequential placement. The solution process includes considerations regarding stability and load bearing strength...

  10. Pack cementation coatings for alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yi-Rong; Zheng, Minhui; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating on a Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb alloy in a single processing step. The morphology and composition of the coating depended both on the composition of the pack and on the composition and microstructure of the substrate. Higher Ge content in the pack suppressed the formation of CrSi{sub 2} and reduced the growth kinetics of the coating. Ge was not homogeneously distributed in the coatings. In cyclic and isothermal oxidation in air at 700 and 1050{degrees}C, the Ge-doped silicide coating protected the Cr-Nb alloys from significant oxidation by the formation of a Ge-doped silica film. The codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium into low alloy steel have been achieved using elemental Al and Cr powders and a two-step pack cementation process. Sequential process treatments at 925{degrees}C and 1150{degrees}C yield dense and uniform ferrite coatings, whose compositions are close to either Fe{sub 3}Al or else FeAl plus a lower Cr content, when processed under different conditions. The higher content of Al in the coatings was predicted by thermodynamic calculations of equilibrium in the gas phase. The effect of the particle size of the metal powders on the surface composition of the coating has been studied for various combinations of Al and Cr powders.

  11. Modular and architectural innovation in loosely coupled networks : matching customer requirements, product architecture, and supplier networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative innovation projects that involve suppliers, customers, and sometimes even competitors can be a challenging undertaking. Nonetheless, specialization and organizational loose coupling makes companies increasingly dependent upon resources that are only externally available. This study

  12. Sound absorption properties of unbleached cellulose loose-fill insulation material

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas, Jorge P.; Rebolledo, Juan; Rey Tormos, Romina María del; Alba Fernández, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Recyclable cellulose loose-fill insulation has been commonly used in heavy timber construction for treating attic areas, under floors, and wall cavities. Through the kraft process, the unbleached cellulose adopts a texture characterized by small crumbs, forming a porous medium. In this work, different samples of a single layer of loose-fill cellulose insulation with different thicknesses were tested to measure their sound absorption properties, the airflow resistivity, and porosity for both d...

  13. Statistical characteristics of excess fiber length in loose tubes of optical cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Vladimir A.; Gavryushin, Sergey A.; Popov, Boris V.; Popov, Victor B.; Vazhdaev, Michael A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the data measurements of excess fiber length in the loose tubes of optical cable during the post-process quality control of ready-made products. At determining estimates of numerical characteristics of excess fiber length method of results processing of direct multiple equally accurate measurements has been used. The results of experimental research of the excess length value at the manufacturing technology of loose tube remains constant.

  14. Localization Features of Loose Bodies in Secondary Synovial Chondromatosis of the Knee Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Özkara Bilgili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the relationship of cartilage loss in tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints with the number, size and location of loose bodies in secondary synovial chondromatosis (SC. Methods: Eighty-eight patients with secondary SC were evaluated retrospectively. The size and location of loose bodies were evaluated by both X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between cartilage lesions and the number, location and size of loose bodies were assessed by Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test. Results: When the relationship between the presence of loose body and cartilage damage was evaluated, it was observed that 83% of subjects (n=74 had cartilage loss at the tibiofemoral joint, 75% (n=66 on the medial and 9% (n=8 of patients had on the lateral side. It was determined that when the number of loose bodies was ≤5, the mean diameter was 7.3 mm (2-21 mm. It was 12.7 mm (2-30 mm when the number was >5. The most frequently affected locations were the posterior compartment of the posterior cruciate ligament and the superior compartment of the popliteal fossa, regardless of the degree of cartilage loss. Conclusion: We concluded that the higher the cartilage damage, the higher the number and size of loose bodies. We assume that our study provides insight into further investigations to study new classification system for secondary SC in the knee joint.

  15. Analysis of Dynamic Characteristics for a Rotor System with Pedestal Looseness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a finite element model of a rotor system with pedestal looseness stemming from a loosened bolt and analyzes the effects of the looseness parameters on its dynamic characteristics. When the displacement of the pedestal is less than or equal to the looseness clearance, the motion of the rotor varies from period-one through period-two and period-three to period-five with the decreasing of stiffness of the non-loosened bolts. The similar bifurcation phenomenon can be also observed during the increasing process of the rotational speed. But the rotor motion is from period-six through period-three to period-four with the decreasing of the foundation stiffness. When the stiffness of the foundation is small and the displacement of pedestal is greater than the looseness clearance, the response of the rotor exhibits period-one and high order harmonic components with the decreasing of looseness clearance, such as 2X, 3X etc. However, when the stiffness of the foundation is great, the spectrum of the response of the rotor will be from combined frequency components to the continuous spectrum with the decreasing of the looseness clearance.

  16. Molecular Dynamics Simulations Reveal the Conformational Flexibility of Lipid II and Its Loose Association with the Defensin Plectasin in the Staphylococcus aureus Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witzke, Sarah; Petersen, Michael; Carpenter, Timothy S.

    2016-01-01

    the biosynthesis of the cell wall. Given the urgent need for development of novel antibiotics to counter the growing threat of bacterial infection resistance, it is imperative that a thorough molecular-level characterization of the molecules targeted by antibiotics be achieved. To this end, we present a molecular...... dynamics simulation study of the conformational dynamics of Lipid II within a detailed model of the Staphylococcus aureus cell membrane. We show that Lipid II is able to adopt a range of conformations, even within the packed lipidic environment of the membrane. Our simulations also reveal dimerization...... of Lipid II mediated by cations. In the presence of the defensin peptide plectasin, the conformational lability of Lipid II allows it to form loose complexes with the protein, via a number of different binding modes....

  17. Two-Dimensional Bin Packing Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodi, Andrea; Martello, Silvano; Monaci, Michele; Vigo, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    An important variant of two-dimensional bin packing problem (2BP), which is also used in some approximation algorithms for its solution, is the strip packing problem (2SP), in which the items have to be packed in a strip of width W and infinite height, so as to minimize the height at which the strip

  18. Significance and technology of coal mine packing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunliang

    2017-08-01

    Packing is a kind of mining method which is used to fill the goaf with filling material to control the movement of overlying strata and reduce the deformation of the surface. This paper mainly discusses the significance of coal mine packing, and introduces the current method of filling and mining. Finally, the future of coal mine packing is forecasted.

  19. Reorganisatie van ondernemingen en pre-pack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstijlen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Het preadvies behandelt de opmars en wenselijkheid van de pre-pack, het verloop van de pre-pack en de positie van de onderscheidene betrokkenen bij de pre-pack, naar geldend recht en volgens (het voorontwerp voor) de Wet Continuïteit Ondernemingen I.

  20. Complications of balloon packing in epistaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeeren, Lenka; Derks, Wynia; Fokkens, Wytske; Menger, Dirk Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/396566170

    2015-01-01

    Although balloon packing appears to be efficient to control epistaxis, severe local complications can occur. We describe four patients with local lesions after balloon packing. Prolonged balloon packing can cause damage to nasal mucosa, septum and alar skin (nasal mucosa, the cartilaginous skeleton

  1. A novel method to precisely assemble loose nanofiber structures for regenerative medicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachley, Vince; Katsanevakis, Eleni; Zhang, Ning; Wen, Xuejun

    2013-02-01

    Polymer nanofibers are favorable for tissue engineering scaffolds because of their high surface-to-volume ratio and biomimicry of the extracellular matrix. Random and uniaxially oriented polymer nanofibers are easily fabricated by conventional electrospinning techniques; however, control over fiber organization within nanofiber structures is limited when they are collected directly from an electrospinning jet. The regenerative medicine applications of electrospun scaffolds could be expanded by developing assembly methods that allow better control of fiber organization. Here, a novel technique is presented that utilizes parallel automated tracks to orient and collect nanofibers from an electrospinning jet. The stabilized fibers are then subsequently assembled into desirable structures. It is difficult to assemble complex structures directly from an electrospinning jet because of high electrical charge and velocities, so this technology adds an intermediate step where nanofibers are immobilized on automated tracks. The result is a continuous steady-state delivery of static stabilized nanofibers that provides a unique and promising platform for automated post processing into useful nanofiber structures. This technique also allows for an indefinite amount of time, as determined by design parameters, for fibers to dry or cool before they contact other nanofibers in the collection site, thus eliminating potential for fiber-to-fiber adhesions even with slow evaporating solvents or high-temperature melts. To demonstrate potential in regenerative medicine applications, several nanofiber structures were fabricated, including: 2D structures with well-controlled fiber density; 3D loosely assembled aligned nanofiber structures with good cell penetration properties; and, complex layer-by-layer 3D aligned fiber structures assembled by integration with post-processing techniques. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Use of Ground Penetrating Radar in tunnel maintenance: detection of loose rocks on top of the concrete inner lining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalagüe, A.; Hoff, I.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to find a fast method for increasing the safety against collapse and rockfall in tunnels using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). Rockfall or collapse of the roof in tunnels may occur both during construction and operation of the completed tunnel, as evidenced by major accidents in recent years. The Norwegian expertise is not spared and experienced a serious setback a couple of years ago when a part of a tunnel roof collapsed due to insufficient rock support. It is therefore important to carry out regular inspections and risk management activities to ensure an adequate level of safety. The access to the rock surface is often difficult due to the precast concrete lining placed to preserve the road lanes from frost and water leakages. Traditional inspection methods usually consist in drilling randomly in the concrete elements, which is both time consuming and hazardous for the personnel involved. To remedy this, the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique has been introduced to best locate drilling sites. GPR is a nondestructive method generally used to image the subsurface. It has now proved its usefulness in tunnel investigations. Used as a distance measuring tool, it determines the thickness of the precast concrete lining; it detects with success the cavities behind the concrete lining and measures the distance to the rock surface. Such scanning technology provides very satisfactory data; it is time-saving and safer to use than random manual inspections. New GPR surveys also revealed the applicability of GPR in detecting loose rocks of different sizes on top of the concrete lining. Presence of loose rock indicates instabilities that should be further investigated; the results presented in this paper are of a great interest for tunnel engineers and it is likely that GPR measurements could become a routine activity in tunnel maintenance.

  3. A small angle X-ray scattering study of the structure and development of looseness in bovine hides and leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Hannah C; Holmes, Geoff; Jeng, U-Ser; Wu, Wei-Ru; Kirby, Nigel; Hawley, Adrian; Mudie, Stephen; Haverkamp, Richard G

    2017-03-01

    Some bovine hides produce poor quality leather, termed loose leather. The structural characteristics of hides and the intermediate processed stages that lead to loose leather are not well understood. In the present study, synchrotron-based small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is used to investigate collagen fibril orientation at the different stages of processing (i.e. from hide through to leather) that result in both tight and loose leathers. Tight leather of a relatively isotropic texture has a lower orientation index (OI) than loose leather of a more pronounced stratified texture; conversely, tight pickled hide and wet blue have a higher OI than loose pickled hide and wet blue. There is a greater increase in OI on processing from pickled hide to dry crust (leather) for loose material. This is largely the result of a greater increase in hide thickness prior to pickling for loose hide than tight hide, followed by a greater decrease at the dry crust stage. The collagen fibrils in loose leather and wet blue more readily orient under stress than do those in tight leather. Loose leather has a more pronounced layered structure than tight leather, although this difference is not apparent from SAXS measurements of hide prior to the dry crust stage; it develops during processing. The greater swelling of the loose hide during processing disrupts the structure and leads to a more layered collagen arrangement on shrinking at the final dry crust stage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Novel plan of triethylene glycol regeneration packed tower for energy and cost saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahmand, Sara [Shiraz University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reza Jafari Nasr, Mohammad [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farahbod, Farshad [Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    This paper analyzes the effect of structured packing internals on several important parameters such as lean triethylene glycol (TEG) concentration and benzene-toluene-xylene (BTEX) emission rates. A related mathematical model is presented which consists of non-linear differential equations of conservation of mass and energy. The role of structured packing is confirmed by the study. The injection of stripping gas improves the performance of the TEG regeneration. Using the structured packing internals could help with reaching the correct TEG concentration at lower reboiler temperature. This means that the engineers could tune the reboiler temperature to meet performance, the reboiler temperature being the main cause of TEG degradation. The results are compared with an existing regenerator filled with random packing. Temperature can also determine the effective mass and heat transfer equation under non-isothermal conditions. In this article hydrodynamic approach is used to model structured packing tower.

  5. Experimental analysis and simulation calculation of the inductances of loosely coupled transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerui, Chen; Yang, Han; Yan, Zhang; Nannan, Gao; Ying, Pei; Hongbo, Li; Pei, Li; Liangfeng, Guo

    2017-11-01

    The experimental design of iron-core wireless power transmission system is designed, and an experimental model of loosely coupled transformer is built. Measuring the air gap on both sides of the transformer 15mm inductor under the parameters. The feasibility and feasibility of using the finite element method to calculate the coil inductance parameters of the loosely coupled transformer are analyzed. The system was modeled by ANSYS, and the magnetic field was calculated by finite element method, and the inductance parameters were calculated. The finite element method is used to calculate the inductive parameters of the loosely coupled transformer, and the basis for the accurate compensation of the capacitance of the wireless power transmission system is established.

  6. The milk quality and feasebility analysis of loose housing dairy cows - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Janžekovič

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was technological and economical analysis of free range cow breeding. The case study analyzed two different systems of holstein-friesian dairy cows breeding. The model total costs enterprise budget was developed for evaluation of economic feasibility of loose housing dairy cows in comparison with tied cow breeding system. Computer supported calculation enabled estimation of the most important economical parameters (net return, total cost, and coefficient of economics. Results obtained show that (at observed input parameters loose housing system is economically feasible, if there is a minimum of 41 dairy cows with an average milk production of 8610 kg per cow. It was also established that cows need approximately 6 months to fully adapt to the loose housing system.

  7. Quantitative Study of the Elastic Modulus of Loosely Attached Cells in AFM Indentation Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Dokukin, Maxim E.; Guz, Nataliia V.; Sokolov, Igor

    2013-01-01

    When measuring the elastic (Young’s) modulus of cells using AFM, good attachment of cells to a substrate is paramount. However, many cells cannot be firmly attached to many substrates. A loosely attached cell is more compliant under indenting. It may result in artificially low elastic modulus when analyzed with the elasticity models assuming firm attachment. Here we suggest an AFM-based method/model that can be applied to extract the correct Young’s modulus of cells loosely attached to a subs...

  8. The “Theoreticals” Pack

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The Particle Zoo is a colourful set of hand-made soft toys representing the particles in the Standard Model and beyond. It includes a “theoreticals” pack where you can find yet undiscovered particles: the best-selling Higgs boson, the graviton, the tachyon, and dark matter. Supersymmetric particle soft toys are also available on demand. But what would happen to the zoo if Nature had prepared some unexpected surprises? Julie Peasley, the zookeeper, is ready to sew new smiling faces…   The "Theoreticals" pack in the Particle Zoo. There is only one place in the world where you can buy a smiling Higgs boson and it’s not at CERN, although this is where scientists hope to observe it. The blue star-shaped particle is the best seller of Julie Peasley’s Particle Zoo – a collection of tens of soft toys representing all sorts of particles, including composite and decaying particles.  Over the years Julie’s zoo ...

  9. Inhibiting the Progression of Arterial Calcification with Vitamin K in HemoDialysis Patients (iPACK-HD Trial: Rationale and Study Design for a Randomized Trial of Vitamin K in Patients with End Stage Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Holden

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease, which is due in part to progressive vascular calcification, is the leading cause of death among patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD on dialysis. A role for vitamin K in the prevention of vascular calcification is plausible based on the presence of vitamin K dependent proteins in vascular tissue, including matrix gla protein (MGP. Evidence from animal models and observational studies support a role for vitamin K in the prevention of vascular calcification. A large-scale study is needed to investigate the effect of vitamin K supplementation on the progression of vascular calcification in patients with ESKD, a group at risk for sub-clinical vitamin K deficiency. Methods/Design: We plan a prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter controlled trial of incident ESKD patients on hemodialysis in centers within North America. Eligible subjects with a baseline coronary artery calcium score of greater than or equal to 30 Agatston Units, will be randomly assigned to either the treatment group (10 mg of phylloquinone three times per week or to the control group (placebo administration three times per week. The primary endpoint is the progression of coronary artery calcification defined as a greater than 15% increase in CAC score over baseline after 12 months. Discussion: Vitamin K supplementation is a simple, safe and cost-effective nutritional strategy that can easily be integrated into patient care. If vitamin K reduces the progression of coronary artery calcification it may lead to decreased morbidity and mortality in men and women with ESKD. Trial registration: NCT 01528800.

  10. Upper packing dimension of a measure and the limit distribution of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Packing dimension; stochastic matrices; Erdös sum; products of random matrices; continuous singularity of the limit distribution. ... conditions for the limit distribution of products of i.i.d. 2 × 2 stochastic matrices to be continuous singular, when the support of the distribution of the individual random matrices is countably infinite.

  11. Nutritional Contents of Lunch Packs of Primary School Children in Nnewi, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ugochukwu, EF; Onubogu, CU; Edokwe, ES; Okeke, KN

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lunch packs play a significant role in the nutritional status and academic performance of school children. Available data show a high prevalence of malnutrition among school-age children. Aims: The aim of this study is to document the nutritional contents of lunch packs of primary school children in Nnewi, Anambra state, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1018 primary 1-6 pupils selected by stratified systematic random sampling from six prim...

  12. Subsidence estimation of breakwater built on loosely deposited sandy seabed foundation: Elastic model or elasto-plastic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Shen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In offshore area, newly deposited Quaternary loose seabed soils are widely distributed. There are a great number of offshore structures has been built on them in the past, or will be built on them in the future due to the fact that there would be no very dense seabed soil foundation could be chosen at planed sites sometimes. However, loosely deposited seabed foundation would bring great risk to the service ability of offshore structures after construction. Currently, the understanding on wave-induced liquefaction mechanism in loose seabed foundation has been greatly improved; however, the recognition on the consolidation characteristics and settlement estimation of loose seabed foundation under offshore structures is still limited. In this study, taking a semi-coupled numerical model FSSI-CAS 2D as the tool, the consolidation and settlement of loosely deposited sandy seabed foundation under an offshore breakwater is investigated. The advanced soil constitutive model Pastor-Zienkiewics Mark III (PZIII is used to describe the quasi-static behavior of loose sandy seabed soil. The computational results show that PZIII model is capable of being used for settlement estimation problem of loosely deposited sandy seabed foundation. For loose sandy seabed foundation, elastic deformation is the dominant component in consolidation process. It is suggested that general elastic model is acceptable for subsidence estimation of offshore structures on loose seabed foundation; however, Young's modulus E must be dependent on the confining effective stress, rather than a constant in computation.

  13. Pebble bed packing in prismatic containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, Joerg, E-mail: reimann-langhans@web.de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Abou-Sena, Ali [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Nippen, Rainer [KBHF GmbH, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Tafforeau, Paul [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The essential part of ceramic breeder blankets is pebble beds. • The packing factor for blanket relevant cavities must be known. • Tomography experiments revealed details of packing arrangements. • Packing experiments confirm that reference packing factors will be achieved. -- Abstract: New analyses of previous tomography investigations show in detail void fraction fluctuations close to walls generated by regular pebble arrangements. Local packing factors within the pebble bed were determined for characteristic zones. These results are very helpful for the interpretation of the packing experiments performed with spherical pebbles in different kinds of Plexiglas containers dominated by flat walls. The packing factors for single-size pebbles in the containers with a piston on top are fairly independent of bed height unless the height to diameter ratio becomes less than 10. For the closed rectangular containers, the development of structured packings is rendered more difficult. However, for blanket relevant bed heights, both for orthosilicate and beryllium pebbles, the packing factors obtained which agree well with previously obtained reference values.

  14. Low affinity of heterotrophic bacteria to loose deposits in drinking water distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poças, A.; Napier, V.; Neto, C.; Ferreira, E.; Benoliel, M.J.; Rietveld, L.C.; Vreeburg, J.; Menaia, J.

    2015-01-01

    Loose deposits (LD) accumulate in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) and may lead to tap water discoloration incidents upon resuspension. While inconvenient for the consumers and the water companies, discoloration may be accompanied by degradation of the microbiological quality of the

  15. FRAP analysis of chromatin looseness in mouse zygotes that allows full-term development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Ooga

    Full Text Available Chromatin looseness, which can be analyzed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP using eGFP-tagged core histone proteins, is an important index of the differentiation potential of blastomere cells and embryonic stem cells. Whether chromatin looseness is a reliable index of the developmental potential of embryos during ontogenesis is not known. As a necessary first step toward answering this question, we investigated whether FRAP-analyzed embryos are capable of normal preimplantation and full-term development. All tested concentrations (50, 100, and 250 ng/μL of microinjected eGFP-H2B mRNA were sufficient for detecting differences in chromatin looseness between male and female pronuclei. After FRAP analysis, most of the zygotes developed into blastocysts. Importantly, a considerable number of offspring developed from the FRAP analyzed zygotes (32/78; 41.0% and grew into healthy adults. The offspring of zygotes injected with 250 ng/μL of eGFP-H2B mRNA and bleached using 110 μW laser power for 5 s were not genetically modified. Interestingly, bleaching using a 3-fold stronger laser intensity for a 6-fold longer time did not cause toxicity during preimplantation development, indicating that bleaching did not critically affect preimplantation development. Finally, we confirmed that similar results were obtained using two different types of confocal laser-scanning microscopes. This FRAP protocol would be useful for investigating the association between chromatin looseness and development.

  16. PIM Pedagogy: Toward a Loosely Unified Model for Teaching and Studying Comics and Graphic Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, James B.

    2015-01-01

    The article debuts and explains "PIM" pedagogy, a construct for teaching comics at the secondary- and post-secondary levels and for deep reading/studying comics. The PIM model for considering comics is actually based in major precepts of education studies, namely constructivist foundations of learning, and loosely unifies constructs…

  17. High-speed X-ray imaging of a ball impacting on loose sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, T.A.M.; Mudde, R.F.; Lohse, Detlef; van der Meer, Roger M.

    2015-01-01

    When a ball is dropped in fine very loose sand, a splash and subsequently a jet are observed above the bed, followed by a granular eruption. To directly and quantitatively determine what happens inside the sand bed, high-speed X-ray tomography measurements are carried out in a custom-made set-up

  18. Internationale verkenning van ervaringen met vrijloopstallen = International experiences with alternative loose housing systems for dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooren, van H.J.C.; Galama, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a research project on feasibility of loose housing systems in The Netherlands, financed by the Dutch Dairy Board (PZ) and Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality (LNV), an international inventory on experiences with this kind of housing system for dairy cows took place. Data and

  19. Surface Damage on Dental Implants with Release of Loose Particles after Insertion into Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, Plinio; Antoninha Del Bel Cury, Altair; Kates, Stephen; Meirelles, Luiz

    2015-08-01

    Modern dental implants present surface features of distinct dimensions that can be damaged during the insertion procedure into bone. The aims of this study were (1) to quantify by means of roughness parameters the surface damage caused by the insertion procedure of dental implants and (2) to investigate the presence of loose particles at the interface. Three groups of dental implants representing different surface topographies were inserted in fresh cow rib bone blocks. The surface roughness was characterized by interferometry on the same area before and after the insertion. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-back-scattered electron detector (BSD) analysis was used to identify loose particles at the interface. The amplitude and hybrid roughness parameters of all three groups were lower after insertion. The surface presenting predominance of peaks (Ssk [skewness] > 0) associated to higher structures (height parameters) presented higher damage associated to more pronounced reduction of material volume. SEM-BSD images revealed loose titanium and aluminum particles at the interface mainly at the crestal cortical bone level. Shearing forces during the insertion procedure alters the surface of dental implants. Loose metal particles can be generated at bone-implant interface especially around surfaces composed mainly by peaks and with increased height parameters. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Packing defects into ordered structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechstein, R.; Kristoffersen, Henrik Høgh; Vilhelmsen, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied vicinal TiO2(110) surfaces by high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations. On TiO2 surfaces characterized by a high density of ⟨11̅ 1⟩ steps, scanning tunneling microscopy reveals a high density of oxygen-deficient strandlike adstructures....... With the help of density functional theory calculations we develop a complete structural model for the entire strand and demonstrate these adstructures to be more stable than an equivalent amount of bulk defects such as Ti interstitials. We argue that strands can form particularly easy on stepped surfaces...... because building material is available at step sites. The strands on TiO2(110) represent point defects that are densely packed into ordered adstructures....

  1. Investigation of bioequivalence of a new fixed-dose combination of nifedipine and candesartan with the corresponding loose combination as well as the drug-drug interaction potential between both drugs under fasting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Erich; Weimann, Boris; Dietrich, Hartmut; Froede, Christoph; Thomas, Dirk

    2013-09-01

    To determine the bioequivalence of a nifedipine and candesartan fixed-dose combination (FDC) with the corresponding loose combination, and to investigate the pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction potential between both drugs. 49 healthy, white, male subjects received: 60 mg nifedipine and 32 mg candesartan FDC, the loose combination of 60 mg nifedipine GITS and 32 mg candesartan, 60 mg nifedipine GITS alone, or 32 mg candesartan alone in a randomized, non-blinded, 4-period, 4-way crossover design with each dosing following overnight fasting. Treatment periods were separated by washout periods of ≥ 5 days. Plasma samples were collected for 48 hours after dosing and assayed using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Bioequivalence between the FDC and the loose combination as well as the impact of combined treatment with both drugs on candesartan pharmacokinetics was evaluated in 47 subjects, while the corresponding impact of treatment with both drugs on nifedipine pharmacokinetics was assessed in 46 patients. For AUC(0-tlast) and Cmax the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the ratios of the FDC vs. the corresponding loose combination were within the acceptance range for bioequivalence of 80 - 125%. When comparing AUC(0-tlast) and Cmax of nifedipine and candesartan after dosing with the loose combination vs. each drug alone, the 90% CIs remained within the range of 80 - 125% indicating the absence of a clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction. Nifedipine and candesartan as well as the combinations were well tolerated. The FDC containing 60 mg nifedipine and 32 mg candesartan was bioequivalent to the corresponding loose combination following single oral doses under fasting conditions. No clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction between nifedipine and candesartan was observed.

  2. Plantar pressure distribution of ostrich during locomotion on loose sand and solid ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The ostrich is a cursorial bird with extraordinary speed and endurance, especially in the desert, and thus is an ideal large-scale animal model for mechanic study of locomotion on granular substrate. Methods The plantar pressure distributions of ostriches walking/running on loose sand/solid ground were recorded using a dynamic pressure plate. Results The center of pressure (COP on loose sand mostly originated from the middle of the 3rd toe, which differed from the J-shaped COP trajectory on solid ground. At mid-stance, a high-pressure region was observed in the middle of the 3rd toe on loose sand, but three high-pressure regions were found on solid ground. The gait mode significantly affected the peak pressures of the 3rd and 4th toes (p = 1.5 × 10−6 and 2.39 × 10−8, respectively, but not that of the claw (p = 0.041. The effects of substrate were similar to those of the gait mode. Discussion Ground reaction force trials of each functional part showed the 3rd toe bore more body loads and the 4th toe undertook less loads. The pressure distributions suggest balance maintenance on loose sand was provided by the 3rd and 4th toes and the angle between their length axes. On loose sand, the middle of the 3rd toe was the first to touch the sand with a smaller attack angle to maximize the ground reaction force, but on solid ground, the lateral part was the first to touch the ground to minimize the transient loading. At push-off, the ostrich used solidification properties of granular sand under the compression of the 3rd toe to generate sufficient traction.

  3. Geometrical properties of rigid frictionless granular packings as a function of particle size and shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenen, Jean-François; Descantes, Yannick

    2017-07-01

    Three-dimensional discrete numerical simulation is used to investigate the properties of close-packed frictionless granular assemblies as a function of particle polydispersity and shape. Unlike some experimental results, simulations show that disordered packings of pinacoids (eight-face convex polyhedra) achieve higher solid fraction values than amorphous packings of spherical or rounded particles, thus fulfilling the analog of Ulam's conjecture stated by Jiao and co-workers for random packings [Y. Jiao and S. Torquato, Phys. Rev. E 84, 041309 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.041309]. This seeming discrepancy between experimental and numerical results is believed to result from difficulties in overcoming inter particle friction through experimental densification processes. Moreover, solid fraction is shown to increase further with bidispersity and peak when the volume proportion of small particles reaches 30 % . Contrarily, substituting up to 50 % of flat pinacoids for isometric ones yields solid fraction decrease, especially when flat particles are also elongated. Nevertheless, particle shape seems to play a minor role in packing solid fraction compared to polydispersity. Additional investigations focused on the packing microstructure confirm that pinacoid packings fulfill the isostatic conjecture and that they are free of order except beyond 30% to 50 % of flat or flat-elongated polyhedra in the packing. This order increase progressively takes the form of a nematic phase caused by the reorientation of flat or flat-elongated particles to minimize the packing potential energy. Simultaneously, this reorientation seems to increase the solid fraction value slightly above the maximum achieved by monodisperse isometric pinacoids, as well as the coordination number. Finally, partial substitution of elongated pinacoids for isometric ones has limited effect on packing solid fraction or order.

  4. Geometrical properties of rigid frictionless granular packings as a function of particle size and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenen, Jean-François; Descantes, Yannick

    2017-07-01

    Three-dimensional discrete numerical simulation is used to investigate the properties of close-packed frictionless granular assemblies as a function of particle polydispersity and shape. Unlike some experimental results, simulations show that disordered packings of pinacoids (eight-face convex polyhedra) achieve higher solid fraction values than amorphous packings of spherical or rounded particles, thus fulfilling the analog of Ulam's conjecture stated by Jiao and co-workers for random packings [Y. Jiao and S. Torquato, Phys. Rev. E 84, 041309 (2011)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.84.041309]. This seeming discrepancy between experimental and numerical results is believed to result from difficulties in overcoming inter particle friction through experimental densification processes. Moreover, solid fraction is shown to increase further with bidispersity and peak when the volume proportion of small particles reaches 30%. Contrarily, substituting up to 50% of flat pinacoids for isometric ones yields solid fraction decrease, especially when flat particles are also elongated. Nevertheless, particle shape seems to play a minor role in packing solid fraction compared to polydispersity. Additional investigations focused on the packing microstructure confirm that pinacoid packings fulfill the isostatic conjecture and that they are free of order except beyond 30% to 50% of flat or flat-elongated polyhedra in the packing. This order increase progressively takes the form of a nematic phase caused by the reorientation of flat or flat-elongated particles to minimize the packing potential energy. Simultaneously, this reorientation seems to increase the solid fraction value slightly above the maximum achieved by monodisperse isometric pinacoids, as well as the coordination number. Finally, partial substitution of elongated pinacoids for isometric ones has limited effect on packing solid fraction or order.

  5. Nutritional contents of lunch packs of primary school children in nnewi, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Ef; Onubogu, Cu; Edokwe, Es; Okeke, Kn

    2014-07-01

    Lunch packs play a significant role in the nutritional status and academic performance of school children. Available data show a high prevalence of malnutrition among school-age children. The aim of this study is to document the nutritional contents of lunch packs of primary school children in Nnewi, Anambra state, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1018 primary 1-6 pupils selected by stratified systematic random sampling from six primary schools, two each of private, - mission, - and government (public) - owned schools in Nnewi metropolis with the aid of the semi-structured questionnaire. Lunch packs of the pupils were examined. Majority of the pupils (77.8% [792/1018]) had lunch packs although about half of pupils in public schools had no lunch pack. Only 12.4% (98/792) and 19.2% (152/792) of pupils with lunch packs had balanced meals and fruits/vegetables in their lunch packs, respectively. The odds of not coming to school with packed lunch was about 13 and 12 times higher for mothers with no formal education or only primary education, respectively, compared with those with tertiary education. Type of school had a strong influence on possession and contents of lunch pack (χ(2) = 2.88, P schools were more likely to have a lunch pack compared with public schools (51.0% [206/404]). However, pupils in private schools were most likely to have a balanced meal (32.5% [66/203] vs. 5.8% [24/411] in mission and 2.0% [8/404] in public schools) and fruits/vegetables (48.3% [98/203] vs. 10.2% [42/411] in mission and 3.0% [12/404] in public schools) in their lunch packs. Mothers' educational status and parents' occupation were significantly associated with lunch pack contents. Majority of the lunch packs of primary school pupils contain poor quality food especially in public schools. Mother's educational status and parent's occupation are important determinants of the nutritional contents of lunch packs.

  6. Nutritional Contents of Lunch Packs of Primary School Children in Nnewi, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, EF; Onubogu, CU; Edokwe, ES; Okeke, KN

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lunch packs play a significant role in the nutritional status and academic performance of school children. Available data show a high prevalence of malnutrition among school-age children. Aims: The aim of this study is to document the nutritional contents of lunch packs of primary school children in Nnewi, Anambra state, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1018 primary 1-6 pupils selected by stratified systematic random sampling from six primary schools, two each of private, – mission, – and government (public) – owned schools in Nnewi metropolis with the aid of the semi-structured questionnaire. Lunch packs of the pupils were examined. Results: Majority of the pupils (77.8% [792/1018]) had lunch packs although about half of pupils in public schools had no lunch pack. Only 12.4% (98/792) and 19.2% (152/792) of pupils with lunch packs had balanced meals and fruits/vegetables in their lunch packs, respectively. The odds of not coming to school with packed lunch was about 13 and 12 times higher for mothers with no formal education or only primary education, respectively, compared with those with tertiary education. Type of school had a strong influence on possession and contents of lunch pack (χ2 = 2.88, P schools were more likely to have a lunch pack compared with public schools (51.0% [206/404]). However, pupils in private schools were most likely to have a balanced meal (32.5% [66/203] vs. 5.8% [24/411] in mission and 2.0% [8/404] in public schools) and fruits/vegetables (48.3% [98/203] vs. 10.2% [42/411] in mission and 3.0% [12/404] in public schools) in their lunch packs. Mothers’ educational status and parents’ occupation were significantly associated with lunch pack contents. Conclusion: Majority of the lunch packs of primary school pupils contain poor quality food especially in public schools. Mother's educational status and parent's occupation are important determinants of the nutritional contents

  7. Does Post Septoplasty Nasal Packing Reduce Complications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Naghibzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issues in nasal surgery are to stabilize the nose in the good position after surgery and preserve the cartilages and bones in the favorable situation and reduce the risk of deviation recurrence. Also it is necessary to avoid the synechia formation, nasal valve narrowing, hematoma and bleeding. Due to the above mentioned problems and in order to solve and minimize them nasal packing, nasal splint and nasal mold have been advised. Patients for whom the nasal packing used may faced to some problems like naso-pulmonary reflex, intractable pain, sleep disorder, post operation infection and very dangerous complication like toxic shock syndrome. We have two groups of patients and three surgeons (one of the surgeons used post operative nasal packing in his patients and the two others surgeons did not.Complications and morbidities were compared in these two groups. Comparing the two groups showed that the rate of complication and morbidities between these two groups were same and the differences were not valuable, except the pain and discomfort post operatively and at the time of its removal. Nasal packing has several risks for the patients while its effects are not studied. Septoplasty can be safely performed without postoperative nasal packing. Nasal packing had no main findings that compensated its usage. Septal suture is one of the procedures that can be used as alternative method to nasal packing. Therefore the nasal packing after septoplasty should be reserved for the patients with increased risk of bleeding.

  8. 21 CFR 890.5700 - Cold pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5700 Cold pack. (a) Identification. A cold pack is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a compact fabric envelope...

  9. Development of an effective valve packing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, K.A.

    1996-12-01

    Current data now shows that graphite valve packing installed within the guidance of a controlled program produces not only reliable stem sealing but predictable running loads. By utilizing recent technological developments in valve performance monitoring for both MOV`s and AOV`s, valve packing performance can be enhanced while reducing maintenance costs. Once known, values are established for acceptable valve packing loads, the measurement of actual valve running loads via the current MOV/AOV diagnostic techniques can provide indication of future valve stem sealing problems, improper valve packing installation or identify the opportunity for valve packing program improvements. At times the full benefit of these advances in material and predictive technology remain under utilized due to simple past misconceptions associated with valve packing. This paper will explore the basis for these misconceptions, provide general insight into the current understanding of valve packing and demonstrate how with this new understanding and current valve diagnostic equipment the key aspects required to develop an effective, quality valve packing program fit together. The cost and operational benefits provided by this approach can be significant impact by the: elimination of periodic valve repacking, reduction of maintenance costs, benefits of leak-free valve operation, justification for reduced Post Maintenance Test Requirements, reduced radiation exposure, improved plant appearance.

  10. Hardness of approximation for strip packing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamaszek, Anna Maria; Kociumaka, Tomasz; Pilipczuk, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    -dimensional knapsack. In this article, we answer this question in negative by proving that it is NP-hard to approximate strip packing within a factor better than 12/11, even when restricted to polynomially bounded input data. In particular, this shows that the strip packing problem admits no quasi-polynomial time...

  11. Protein packing quality using Delaunay complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Winter, Pawel; Karplus, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    A new method for estimating the packing quality of protein structures is presented. Atoms in high quality protein crystal structures are very uniformly distributed which is difficult to reproduce using structure prediction methods. Packing quality measures can therefore be used to assess structur...

  12. Pre-feasibility investigation of infrared thermography for the identification of loose hanging wall and impending falls of ground.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kononov, VA

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This report presents the results of a pre-feasibility study of Infrared (IR) Thermography/Radiometry for detection of loose rock in hard rock mines. The method is based on the temperature difference (gradient) between solid rock and the tip of loose...

  13. Effects of kinesio taping and hot packs on premenstrual syndrome in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Hyun

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the effects of taping and hot packs on premenstrual syndrome, in an attempt to generate basic data for physical therapy intervention for premenstrual syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two females in their 20s with premenstrual syndrome were randomly assigned to a taping group (n=10), hot pack group (n=11), and taping with hot pack group (n=11). Premenstrual syndrome was assessed using the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire in each participant prior to intervention and was re-assessed after applying kinesio taping and/or hot pack from 10 days before the estimated date of menstruation until the first day of menstruation. [Results] Data revealed that the taping and taping with hot pack groups showed significantly reduced premenstrual syndrome following intervention. In terms of the differences in the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire total score among the groups, the taping with hot pack and hot pack groups showed a significant difference. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that kinesio taping is an easy, non-drug intervention for female college students with premenstrual syndrome.

  14. Condensation in Nanoporous Packed Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Javed; Molla, Shahnawaz; Mostowfi, Farshid

    2016-05-10

    In materials with tiny, nanometer-scale pores, liquid condensation is shifted from the bulk saturation pressure observed at larger scales. This effect is called capillary condensation and can block pores, which has major consequences in hydrocarbon production, as well as in fuel cells, catalysis, and powder adhesion. In this study, high pressure nanofluidic condensation studies are performed using propane and carbon dioxide in a colloidal crystal packed bed. Direct visualization allows the extent of condensation to be observed, as well as inference of the pore geometry from Bragg diffraction. We show experimentally that capillary condensation depends on pore geometry and wettability because these factors determine the shape of the menisci that coalesce when pore filling occurs, contrary to the typical assumption that all pore structures can be modeled as cylindrical and perfectly wetting. We also observe capillary condensation at higher pressures than has been done previously, which is important because many applications involving this phenomenon occur well above atmospheric pressure, and there is little, if any, experimental validation of capillary condensation at such pressures, particularly with direct visualization.

  15. Hawking Colloquium Packed CERN Auditoriums

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Stephen Hawking's week long visit to CERN included an 'exceptional CERN colloquium' which filled six auditoriums. Stephen Hawking during his visit to the ATLAS experiment. Stephen Hawking, Lucasian Professor of Cambridge University, visited the Theory Unit of the Physics Department from 24 September to 1 October 2006. As part of his visit, he gave two lectures in the main auditorium - a theoretical seminar on 'The Semi-Classical Birth of The Universe', attended by about 120 specialists; and a colloquium titled 'The Origin of The Universe'. As a key public figure in theoretical physics, his presence was eagerly awaited on both occasions. Those who wanted to attend the colloquium had to arrive early and be equipped with plenty of patience. An hour before it was due to begin, the 400 capacity of the main auditorium was already full. The lecture, simultaneously broadcast to five other fully packed CERN auditoriums, was attended by an estimated total of 850. Stephen Hawking attracted a large CERN crowd, filling ...

  16. Composite bulk Heat Insulation Made of loose Mineral and Organic Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namsone Eva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The task of building energy-efficiency is getting more important. Every house owner wishes to save up exploitation costs of heating, cooling, hot water production, ventilation, etc. and find cost-effective investments. One of the ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE is to minimize the heat transfer through the building by insulating it. Loose heat insulation is a good alternative to traditional board insulation, it is simple in use and cost-effective. Main drawback of this insulation is tendency to compact during exploitation. In the frame of this research composite loose heat insulation is elaborated, consisting on porous mineral foamed glass aggregate and local organic fiber materials (hemp and flaxen shives. Composite bulk insulation is an alternative solution which combines heat insulating properties and mechanical stability.

  17. Export Control Guide: Loose Parts Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenberg, Donald W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This report describes a typical LPMS, emphasizing its application to the RCS of a modern NPP. The report also examines the versatility of AE monitoring technology by describing several nuclear applications other than loose parts monitoring, as well as some non-nuclear applications. In addition, LPMS implementation requirements are outlined, and LPMS suppliers are identified. Finally, U.S. export controls applicable to LPMSs are discussed.

  18. A Newton-Krylov solver with a loosely-coupled turbulence model for aerodynamic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Max

    Computational solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations have proven to be a useful tool in the design of aircraft. A Newton-Krylov flow solver for unstructured grids is developed in order to demonstrate that a formulation in which the mean-flow and turbulence mechanism equations are loosely coupled can be more economical than a similar fully-coupled formulation. The Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are derived for steady two-dimensional flows, and the turbulence mechanism is described. These equations constitute a model of the physics of aerodynamic flows. The model is validated against experimental data. The objective of this thesis is to examine a means to improve the iterative process by which the solutions are generated. The Newton-Krylov iteration is selected in order to refine the solution, and its features examined. The authors of current Newton-Krylov techniques have fully coupled the turbulence mechanism to the Navier-Stokes equations. A contrast and comparison study made here between the fully-coupled formulation and a loosely-coupled alternative favours the latter. An 'equivalent function evaluation' metric is selected for comparison purposes, and is assessed by means of diverse computers. Published results which use the metric are located, and the present loosely-coupled formulation for unstructured grids is found to be significantly faster in this metric than similar fully-coupled formulations. The advantages of the loosely-coupled formulation with respect to the fully-coupled formulation are stated and future avenues for exploitation of the proposed technology are examined. Appendices consist of: a formalism for the Favre average and consequences of its derivation; a short tract on Taylor series; and an essay on the Frechet differential.

  19. Quantitative study of the elastic modulus of loosely attached cells in AFM indentation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokukin, Maxim E; Guz, Nataliia V; Sokolov, Igor

    2013-05-21

    When measuring the elastic (Young's) modulus of cells using AFM, good attachment of cells to a substrate is paramount. However, many cells cannot be firmly attached to many substrates. A loosely attached cell is more compliant under indenting. It may result in artificially low elastic modulus when analyzed with the elasticity models assuming firm attachment. Here we suggest an AFM-based method/model that can be applied to extract the correct Young's modulus of cells loosely attached to a substrate. The method is verified by using primary breast epithelial cancer cells (MCF-7) at passage 4. At this passage, approximately one-half of cells develop enough adhesion with the substrate to be firmly attached to the substrate. These cells look well spread. The other one-half of cells do not develop sufficient adhesion, and are loosely attached to the substrate. These cells look spherical. When processing the AFM indentation data, a straightforward use of the Hertz model results in a substantial difference of the Young's modulus between these two types of cells. If we use the model presented here, we see no statistical difference between the values of the Young's modulus of both poorly attached (round) and firmly attached (close to flat) cells. In addition, the presented model allows obtaining parameters of the brush surrounding the cells. The cellular brush observed is also statistically identical for both types of cells. The method described here can be applied to study mechanics of many other types of cells loosely attached to substrates, e.g., blood cells, some stem cells, cancerous cells, etc. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The cultural dimension of tightness-looseness: An analysis of situational constraint in Estonia and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realo, Anu; Linnamägi, Karmen; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-06-01

    The importance of tightness-looseness as a dimension that explains a considerable amount of variance between cultures was demonstrated by Gelfand et al. (2011). Tight nations have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behaviour, whereas loose nations have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behaviour. The main aim of the current studies was to examine situational constraint in Estonia and Greece: that is, how the cultural dimension of tightness-looseness is manifested in everyday situations in those two countries. The findings of a questionnaire study (Study 1) suggested that, in general, there is higher constraint across everyday situations in Greece than in Estonia, but situational constraint in Greece is especially strong in school and organisational settings where people have hierarchically structured roles. The results of an observational study (Study 2) revealed a relatively high agreement between appropriateness of certain behaviours as judged by the respondents in Study 1 and the frequencies of observed behaviours in the two countries. Our findings suggest that the strength of situations may substantially vary both within and across cultures, and that the attitudes of the members about situational strength in their respective cultures are in concordance with observations of situations by neutral observers in how people in general behave in their culture. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  1. Loose Coupling of Wearable-Based INSs with Automatic Heading Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Diaz, Estefania

    2017-01-01

    Position tracking of pedestrians by means of inertial sensors is a highly explored field of research. In fact, there are already many approaches to implement inertial navigation systems (INSs). However, most of them use a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) attached to the pedestrian’s body. Since wearable-devices will be given items in the future, this work explores the implementation of an INS using two wearable-based IMUs. A loosely coupled approach is proposed to combine the outputs of wearable-based INSs. The latter are based on a pocket-mounted IMU and a foot-mounted IMU. The loosely coupled fusion combines the output of the two INSs not only when these outputs are least erroneous, but also automatically favoring the best output. This approach is named smart update. The main challenge is determining the quality of the heading estimation of each INS, which changes every time. In order to address this, a novel concept to determine the quality of the heading estimation is presented. This concept is subject to a patent application. The results show that the position error rate of the loosely coupled fusion is 10 cm/s better than either the foot INS’s or pocket INS’s error rate in 95% of the cases. PMID:29099807

  2. Design of a Loose Part Monitoring System Test-bed using CompactRIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-seok; Lee, Kwang-Dae; Lee, Eui-Jong [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A loose part monitoring system (LPMS) is included in the NSSS integrity monitoring system (NIMS), which serves to detect loose parts in reactor coolant systems (RCS). LPMSs at Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) in Korea follow the ASME OM standard and acquire data from 18 sensors simultaneously. Data acquisition requires a sampling rate of more than 50KHz along with a 12bit A/D converter. Existing LPMS equipment is composed of several different platforms, such as a digital signal processor (DSP), a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), a micro control unit (MCU), and electric circuit cards. These systems have vulnerabilities, such as discontinuance due to aging and incompatibility issues between different pieces of equipment. This paper suggests CompactRIO as a new platform. We devised a Test-bed using CompactRIO and demonstrate that the proposed method meets the criteria required by the standard. The LPMS provides an alert when an impact event occurs and provides information with which to analyze the location, energy, and mass of the loose parts. LPMSs in NPPs in Korea operate on a variety of platforms. Thus, these systems are vulnerable to discontinuances due to aging and incompatibilities arising from the use of different type of equipment. In order to solve these problems, this paper suggests CompactRIO as a new platform. It is a rugged, reconfigurable, high-performance industrial embedded system. The results of performance tests meet the criteria set by the current standard.

  3. Modular vaccine packaging increases packing efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Bryan A; Rajgopal, Jayant; Lim, Jung; Gorham, Katrin; Haidari, Leila; Brown, Shawn T; Lee, Bruce Y

    2015-06-17

    Within a typical vaccine supply chain, vaccines are packaged into individual cylindrical vials (each containing one or more doses) that are bundled together in rectangular "inner packs" for transport via even larger groupings such as cold boxes and vaccine carriers. The variability of vaccine inner pack and vial size may hinder efficient vaccine distribution because it constrains packing of cold boxes and vaccine carriers to quantities that are often inappropriate or suboptimal in the context of country-specific vaccination guidelines. We developed in Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) a spreadsheet model that evaluated the impact of different packing schemes for the Benin routine regimen plus the introduction of the Rotarix vaccine. Specifically, we used the model to compare the current packing scheme to that of a proposed modular packing scheme. Conventional packing of a Dometic RCW25 that aims to maximize fully-immunized children (FICs) results in 123 FICs and a packing efficiency of 81.93% compared to a maximum of 155 FICs and 94.1% efficiency for an alternative modular packaging system. Our analysis suggests that modular packaging systems could offer significant advantages over conventional vaccine packaging systems with respect to space efficiency and potential FICs, when they are stored in standard vaccine carrying devices. This allows for more vaccines to be stored within the same volume while also simplifying the procedures used by field workers to pack storage devices. Ultimately, modular packaging systems could be a simple way to help increase vaccine coverage worldwide. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Packing Structures of Soft Particles by Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangwoo; Chen, Liwen

    Recent discovery of Frank-Kasper phases in self-assembling materials stimulates exploration of new crystal structure to understand the origin of the complex packing structures nature selects. We investigated packing structures by block copolymer micelles in an aqueous/organic solvent mixture. The micellar solution showed two phase states of globular polymer phase and liquid phase containing homogeneously dispersed polymeric micelles. The micelles developed a close-packed order which transforms into a Frank-Kasper C14 phase as the concentration of block copolymer surfactant increases. This transition aligns with the sphericity criteria.

  5. Hashish Body Packing: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jesus Soriano-Perez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old African male was brought by the police to the emergency department under suspicion of drug smuggling by body-packing. Plain abdominal radiograph showed multiple foreign bodies within the gastrointestinal tract. Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT confirmed the findings, and the patient admitted to have swallowed “balls” of hashish. Body-packing is a recognized method of smuggling drugs across international borders. Body packers may present to the emergency department because of drug toxicity, intestinal obstruction, or more commonly, requested by law-enforcement officers for medical confirmation or exclusion of suspected body packing.

  6. Enhanced Raman spectroscopic discrimination of the geographical origins of rice samples via transmission spectral collection through packed grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jinyoung; Kang, Sukwon; Lee, Kangjin; Chung, Hoeil

    2012-11-15

    Transmission Raman spectroscopy has been effectively utilized for the discrimination of rice samples according to geographical origin. Since the constituents of rice are heterogeneously distributed and/or localized in a grain, the collection of Raman spectra providing a better compositional representation of packed rice grains is an essential requirement for accurate analysis. The optimal packing thickness yielding the most reproducible transmission spectra was initially determined. Internal propagation of radiation was more sensitively influenced by random packing when a packing was thinner; while, a thicker packing largely attenuated transmitting Raman signal and eventually degraded the signal-to-noise ratio of collected spectra. At the determined packing thickness, transmission spectra of all rice samples were collected, and discrimination into two different geographical origins was performed using principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA). For comparison, back-scattering Raman spectra of the same samples were also collected. The discrimination accuracy was improved when Raman spectra collected directly through the packed rice grains were used. Since the constituents of rice were not homogeneously distributed in a grain as confirmed using Raman microscopy, the transmission measurement enabling transversal sampling across a packing of rice grains was better for compositional representation of individual grains in the packing and able to recognize minute spectral differences between two groups, ultimately leading to more accurate discrimination of geographical origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 'Loose' cigarettes association with intensity of smoking: A secondary data analysis from Global Adult Tobacco Survey, India, 2009-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitasha Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Raising tax on tobacco products is one of the key tobacco control strategies. Globally, it has led to decrease in overall cigarette consumption but on the other hand contributed to increased sale and purchase of loose cigarettes. These loose cigarettes have many important public health implications. Aim: To assess the association between practice of buying loose cigarettes and intensity of smoking. Materials and Methods: A secondary analysis of Global Adult Tobacco Survey, India 2009–2010 data was performed in May 2014, on adult population age 15 years and above. The key outcome variable was “intensity of smoking” defined as average number of cigarettes smoked per day, whereas the key exposure variable was “practice of purchasing loose cigarettes.” Descriptive statistical analysis was performed using EpiData software (version 2.2.2.182 and STATA version 12.1. Results: Nearly, 57% of current cigarette smokers (approximately 3.46 million bought loose cigarettes. The proportion of buying loose cigarettes decreased with increasing level of education and wealth index as well as least among government employees. The intensity of smoking was 70% less among loose cigarette buyers than nonbuyers (odds ratio [OR]: 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.24–0.34. It was found to be significantly lower in rural areas (OR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.68–0.97 and among homemakers and those who had formal schooling. Conclusion: This study showed that loose cigarette buying is associated with decreased in smoking intensity. This may be due to increased taxes leading to increased buying of single cigarettes. These findings, therefore, highlight a need for a comprehensive policy and further studies on loose cigarette selling.

  8. Investigation of dose homogeneity for loose helical tomotherapy delivery in the context of breath-hold radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bryan; Kron, Tomas; Battista, Jerry; Van Dyk, Jake

    2005-05-01

    Loose helical delivery is a potential solution to account for respiration-driven tumour motion in helical tomotherapy (HT). In this approach, a treatment is divided into a set of interlaced 'loose' helices commencing at different gantry angles. Each loose helix covers the entire target length in one gantry rotation during a single breath-hold. The dosimetric characteristics of loose helical delivery were investigated by delivering a 6 MV photon beam in a HT-like manner. Multiple scenarios of conventional 'tight' HT and loose helical deliveries were modelled in treatment planning software, and carried out experimentally with Kodak EDR2 film. The advantage of loose helical delivery lies in its ability to produce a more homogeneous dose distribution by eliminating the 'thread' effect—an inherent characteristic of HT, which results in dose modulations away from the axis of gantry rotation. However, loose helical delivery was also subjected to undesirable dose modulations in the direction of couch motion (termed 'beating' effect), when the ratio between the number of beam projections per gantry rotation (n) and pitch factor (p) was a non-integer. The magnitude of dose modulations decreased with an increasing n/p ratio. The results suggest that for the current HT unit (n = 51), dose modulations could be kept under 5% by selecting a pitch factor smaller than 7. A pitch factor of this magnitude should be able to treat a target up to 30 cm in length. Loose helical delivery should increase the total session time only by a factor of 2, while the planning time should stay the same since the total number of beam projections remains unchanged. Considering its dosimetric advantage and clinical practicality, loose helical delivery is a promising solution for the future HT treatments of respiration-driven targets.

  9. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry. © 2009 ACM.

  10. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander

    2009-12-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry.

  11. Modular vaccine packaging increases packing efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Bryan A.; Rajgopal, Jayant; Lim, Jung; Gorham, Katrin; Haidari, Leila; Brown, Shawn T.; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background Within a typical vaccine supply chain, vaccines are packaged into individual cylindrical vials (each containing one or more doses) that are bundled together in rectangular “inner packs” for transport via even larger groupings such as cold boxes and vaccine carriers. The variability of vaccine inner pack and vial size may hinder efficient vaccine distribution because it constrains packing of cold boxes and vaccine carriers to quantities that are often inappropriate or suboptimal in the context of country-specific vaccination guidelines. Methods We developed in Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) a spreadsheet model that evaluated the impact of different packing schemes for the Benin routine regimen plus the introduction of the Rotarix vaccine. Specifically, we used the model to compare the current packing scheme to that of a proposed modular packing scheme. Results Conventional packing of a Dometic RCW25 that aims to maximize fully-immunized children (FICs) results in 123 FICs and a packing efficiency of 81.93% compared to a maximum of 155 FICs and 94.1% efficiency for an alternative modular packaging system. Conclusions Our analysis suggests that modular packaging systems could offer significant advantages over conventional vaccine packaging systems with respect to space efficiency and potential FICs, when they are stored in standard vaccine carrying devices. This allows for more vaccines to be stored within the same volume while also simplifying the procedures used by field workers to pack storage devices. Ultimately, modular packaging systems could be a simple way to help increase vaccine coverage worldwide. PMID:25957666

  12. The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... or minimize the number or total size of accepted items. We consider off-line and on-line variants of the problems. For the off-line variant, we require that there be an ordering of the bins, so that no item in a later bin fits in an earlier bin. We find the approximation ratios of two natural approximation...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...

  13. Packing and size determination of colloidal nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Leonard F; Tsai, De-Hao; Hertz, Joshua L; Zangmeister, Rebecca A; Zachariah, Michael R; Tarlov, Michael J

    2010-07-06

    Here we demonstrate a rapid and quantitative means to characterize the size and packing structure of small clusters of nanoparticles in colloidal suspension. Clustering and aggregation play important roles in a wide variety of phenomena of both scientific and technical importance, yet characterizing the packing of nanoparticles within small clusters and predicting their aerodynamic size remains challenging because available techniques can lack adequate resolution and sensitivity for clusters smaller than 100 nm (optical techniques), perturb the packing arrangement (electron microscopies), or provide only an ensemble average (light scattering techniques). In this article, we use electrospray-differential mobility analysis (ES-DMA), a technique that exerts electrical and drag forces on the clusters, to determine the size and packing of small clusters. We provide an analytical model to determine the mobility size of various packing geometries based on the projected area of the clusters. Data for clusters aggregated from nominally 10 nm gold particles and nonenveloped viruses of various sizes show good agreement between measured and predicted cluster sizes for close-packed spheres.

  14. Decontamination of pesticide packing using ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, C.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Lineu Prestes 2.242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br; Mori, M.N.; Kodama, Yasko; Oikawa, H.; Sampa, M.H.O. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Lineu Prestes 2.242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    The Brazilian agriculture activities have consumed about 288,000 tons of pesticides per year conditioned in about 107,000,000 packing with weight of approximately 23,000 tons. The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals, and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. The objective of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effect in the main pesticides used in Brazil for plastic packing decontamination. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The radiation-induced degradation of chlorpyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma radiolysis. Packing of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) three layer coextruded, named COEX, contaminated with chlorpyrifos, were irradiated using both a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5000 Ci total activity Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos was made using a gas chromatography associated to the Mass Spectrometry-GCMS from Shimadzu Model QP 5000. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chlorpyrifos from the plastic packing, in all studied cases.

  15. Insight into the roles of tightly and loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances on a granular sludge in ammonium nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lilong; Zhang, Xiaolei; Hao, Guoxin; Guo, Yihan; Ren, Yuan; Yu, Liangbin; Bao, Xuefei; Zhang, Ying

    2016-12-01

    To explicitly understand the function of extracellular polymeric substances in the treatment of ammonium-nitrogen-rich wastewater using aerobic granular sludge, the three forms of nitrogen (ammonium, nitrite and nitrate nitrogen) contained in tightly and loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances were analyzed. The three forms of nitrogen were monitored in the tightly and loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances in aerobic granular sludge after adsorption. The ammonium nitrogen contained in the extracellular polymeric substances was distributed in both the tightly and loosely bound forms and decreased gradually as the aeration time increased. Ammonium nitrogen remained in the tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances even after aeration was complete. The nitrite and nitrate nitrogen species in the extracellular polymeric substances were mainly present in the loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances. The sources of the three nitrogen forms detected in the extracellular polymeric substances differed relative to the different nitrogen forms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chicken Meat Submitted to Gamma Radiation and Packed with or without Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pelicia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects on gamma radiation levels on the physical and microbiological characteristics of chicken breast meat. A completely randomized experimental design in a 4x2x3 factorial arrangement was adopted. Treatments consisted of four radiation concentrations (0, 2, 4, or 8kGy, two package sealing methods (with or without vacuum, and three storage times (01, 07, or 14 days, with ten replicates each, totaling 240 chicken breast fillets. Packaging and radiation had no influence (p>0.05 on chicken breast meat pH, water retention capacity, or presence of Salmonella spp. Breast fillets not submitted to radiation and vacuum packed presented higher water retention capacity (p<0.05 than those radiated at 4kGy and vacuum packed. Drip loss in fillets radiated at 8kGy and not vacuum packed was higher (p<0.05 than in non-radiated and non-vacuum packed fillets; however, both were not different from the other treatments. Coliform presence increased with storage time in non-radiated samples; however, when these were vacuum-packed, their development was slower. The results of the present experiment suggest that the use of a low radiation dose (2kGy, combined with vacuum packing, may minimize the harmful effects of storage on chicken breast fillets.

  17. Smart washer—a piezoceramic-based transducer to monitor looseness of bolted connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Linsheng; Chen, Dongdong; Kong, Qingzhao; Li, Hongnan; Song, Gangbing

    2017-02-01

    The safety of a bolted connection, as one of the most common ways of making two or more parts/components work together in engineering structures, is very important in order to ensure the health of the whole structure. However, bolt loosening or pre-load degradation may induce the failure of the bolt connection, threatening the normal operation of the system’s structure. As a result, it would be beneficial if the health condition of the bolt connection could be monitored in real time. In this paper, a ‘smart washer’, fabricated by embedding a piezoceramic patch into two pre-machined flat metal rings, was invented and then introduced as a transducer to detect the looseness of a bolted connection. A simple specimen, which consists of two steel plates connected by a nut, a bolt and two smart washers, was fabricated as the test object to study the performance of the ‘smart washers’ (SWs). For the specimen, a smart washer was used as an actuator to generate a stress wave, and the other one was used as a sensor to detect the propagated wave that traveled through the interface of the bolted connection. A time reversal method was employed to quantify the energy of the stress wave propagating between the two washers, and thus it was possible to build a relationship between the extent of any pre-loaded degradation of the bolt connection and the response signal of the stress wave traveling between the two washers. In addition, a normalized bolt looseness index was proposed for evaluating the looseness of a bolt connection based on wavelet energy analysis.

  18. Experimental investigation into a packed bed thermal storage solution for solar gas turbine systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klein, P

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High temperature thermal storage in randomly packed beds of ceramic particles is proposed as an effective storage solution for Solar Gas Turbine (SGT) cycles in the near term. Numerical modelling of these systems allows for optimised thermal storage...

  19. Upper packing dimension of a measure and the limit distribution of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Packing dimension; stochastic matrices; Erdös sum; products of random matrices; continuous singularity of the limit distribution. 1. Introduction. In Theorem 3.1, page 20 of [6] the following theorem was proven: Theorem 1.1. Let μ be a probability measure on d ×d stochastic matrices such that S(μ) consists of only invertible ...

  20. Protein Loosing Enteropathy Secondary to Strongyloidiasis: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weam El Hajj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloidiasis is a helminthic disease which affects millions around the world resulting in a significant burden in certain high risk groups. It is rarely reported in the Lebanese population probably due to the low index of suspicion in common practice. We are reporting a case of strongyloidiasis that was found in an elderly patient presenting initially with dyspnea followed by skin rash, protein loosing enteropathy, diarrhea, and abdominal pain while on corticosteroid therapy. The diagnosis was suspected based on clinical presentation in addition to peripheral eosinophilia. We will also describe the upper and lower endoscopic aspects of the disease, as well as histologic findings on duodenal and colonic biopsies.

  1. PENCITRAAN AMERICAN NIGHTMARE MELALUI PENGGUNAAN ARCHETYPEDAN LOOSE SENTENCE STRUCTUREDALAM “THE GREAT GATSBY” KARYA F. SCOTT. FIZGERALD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintin Susilowati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini adalah penelitian stilistika yang mengkaji tentang penggunaan archetype dan loose sentence structure dalam membangun kesan mental pembaca tentang American Nightmare. Melalui penelitian ini, peneliti peneliti menggali pola-pola penggunaan archetype, loose sentence structure, serta konsep mental pembaca dalam memahami bacaan.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui efektifitas gaya penulisan Fizgerald dengan menggunakan ornamen berupa archetype, loose sentence structure guna membangun kesan mental pembaca tentang America Nightmare. Pendekatan penelitian ini adalah deskriptive kualitatif sedangkan desainnya adalah library research. Data yang digunakan adalah data primer berupa kutipankutipan yang dicari dari novel, selain itu juga data sekunder berupa referensireferensi pendukung. Peneliti juga menggunakan coding dalam proses koleksi data. Teknik ini digunakan untuk membantu peneliti dalam mengklasifikasikan data. Lebih lanjut, penelitian ini merupakan penelitian dokumentasi maka dalam analisis peneliti menggunakan pendekatan content analysis selain itu interactive analysis juga digunakan peneliti dalam tahap analisis data. Dalam penelitian ini diperoleh data sebagai berikut, 1.ditemukan data tentang penggunaan archetype sejumlah 851 data/ 70.79%; 2. ditemukan data tentang penggunaan loose sentence structure sejumlah 351 data/ 29.20 %; 3. ditemukan data tentang penggunaan archetype dan loose sentence structure secara bersamaan sejumlah 1202 data/ 100%. Sedangkan kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah:penggunaan kedua ornamen khususnya berupa archetype didukung juga oleh penggunaan loose sentence structure membuat kontek dari sebuah teks mudah dipahami, Kedua ornamen tersebut meminimalis kesulitan pembaca dalam berinteraksi dengan teks.

  2. Detailed characterization of rattlers in exactly isostatic, strictly jammed sphere packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Steven; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-12-01

    We generate jammed disordered packings of 100≤N≤2000 monodisperse hard spheres in three dimensions whose strictly jammed backbones are demonstrated to be exactly isostatic with unprecedented numerical accuracy. This is accomplished by using the Torquato-Jiao (TJ) packing algorithm as a means of studying the maximally random jammed (MRJ) state. The rattler fraction of these packings converges towards 0.015 in the infinite-system limit, which is markedly lower than previous estimates for the MRJ state using the Lubachevsky-Stillinger protocol. This is because the packings that the TJ algorithm creates are closer to the true MRJ state, as shown using bond-orientational and translational order metrics. The rattler pair correlation statistics exhibit strongly correlated behavior contrary to the conventional understanding that they be randomly (Poisson) distributed. Dynamically interacting "polyrattlers" may be found imprisoned in shared cages as well as interacting through "bottlenecks" in the backbone and these clusters are mainly responsible for the sharp increase in the rattler pair correlation function near contact. We discover the surprising existence of polyrattlers with cluster sizes of up to five rattlers (which is expected to increase with system size) and present a distribution of polyrattler occurrence as a function of cluster size and system size. We also enumerate all of the rattler interaction topologies we observe and present images of several examples, showing that MRJ packings of monodisperse spheres can contain large rattler cages while still obeying the strict jamming criterion. The backbone spheres that encage the rattlers are significantly hypostatic, implying that correspondingly hyperstatic regions must exist elsewhere in these isostatic packings. We also observe that rattlers in hard-sphere packings share an apparent connection with the low-temperature two-level system anomalies that appear in real amorphous insulators and semiconductors.

  3. Comparison of three different polyvinyl alcohol packs following functional endoscopic Nasal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Andrea; Karligkiotis, Apostolos; Bozzo, Corrado; Machouchas, Nikolaos; Volpi, Luca; Castiglia, Paolo; Castelnuovo, Paolo; Meloni, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    To compare the extent of bleeding and patient discomfort during packing removal of three different polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) packs: 1) a standard PVA sponge (s-PVA) (Mondocel Standard 10 cm; Mondomed NV, Hamont-Achel, Belgium); 2) a PVA sponge with oxidized cellulose (oc-PVA) (Merocel Hemox 10 cm; Medtronic Xomed Surgical Products, Jacksonville, FL); and 3) a PVA sponge with polyethylene film (pf-PVA) (Merocel 2000 8 cm; Medtronic Xomed Surgical Products, Jacksonville, FL), after functional endoscopic sinus surgery and inferior turbinoplasty. A prospective, randomized, blinded, controlled trial. Ninety consecutive patients were enrolled and randomized to receive in each side one pack in the middle meatus and another pack of the same material in the nasal fossa. The patients were equally divided in three groups of 30 patients each. Group A received the pf-PVA; group B received oc-PVA; and group C received s-PVA. Postoperatively, bleeding after removal of the entire nasal packing was evaluated by an observer, whereas the severity of pain was rated by patients with visual analog scales. Our study evaluated three nasal packing materials, demonstrating that the pf-PVA is less painful than the others but with intermediate bleeding ratio. However, the oc-PVA has an intermediate pain score but minimum bleeding. The s-PVA showed the worst pain and bleeding results. Considering that removal of the second pack (middle meatus) is more painful than the first (nasal fossa), our results suggest that a pf-PVA can be placed in the middle meatus and a oc-PVA in the nasal fossa in order to reduce patient's discomfort in terms of pain and bleeding. 1b. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. 48 CFR 452.247-72 - Packing for Domestic Shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packing for Domestic... Packing for Domestic Shipment. As prescribed in 447.305-10(b), insert the following clause: Packing for Domestic Shipment (FEB 1988) Material shall be packed for shipment in such a manner that will insure...

  5. An efficient block-discriminant identification of packed malware

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modern malware hide their malicious payload by applying packing mechanism. Packing tools ... Despite being just a variant of known malware, the packed malware invalidates the traditional signature based malware detection as packing tools create an envelope of packer code around the original base malware. Therefore ...

  6. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond shall...

  7. Airflow Resistance of Loose-Fill Mineral Fiber Insulations in Retrofit Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, C. J. [Building Science Laboratories, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Fox, M. J. [Building Science Laboratories, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report expands on Building America Report 1109 by applying the experimental apparatus and test method to dense-pack retrofit applications using mineral fiber insulation materials. Three fiber glass insulation materials and one stone wool insulation material were tested, and the results compared to the cellulose results from the previous study.

  8. Airflow Resistance of Loose-Fill Mineral Fiber Insulations in Retrofit Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, C. J. [Building Science Labs., Waterloo, ON (Canada); Fox, M. J. [Building Science Labs., Waterloo, ON (Canada); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report expands on Building America Report 1109 by applying the experimental apparatus and test method to dense-pack retrofit applications using mineral fiber insulation materials. Three (3) fiber glass insulation materials and one (1) stone wool insulation material were tested, and the results compared to the cellulose results from the previous study.

  9. Direct contact condensation in packed beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Klausner, James F.; Mei, Renwei; Knight, Jessica [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    A diffusion driven desalination process was recently described where a very effective direct contact condenser with a packed bed is used to condense water vapor out of an air/vapor mixture. A laboratory scale direct contact condenser has been fabricated as a twin tower structure with two stages, co-current and countercurrent. Experiments have been operated in each stage with respective saturated air inlet temperatures of 36, 40 and 43{sup o}C. The temperature and humidity data have been collected at the inlet and exit of the packed bed for different water to air mass flow ratios that vary between 0 and 2.5. A one-dimensional model based on conservation principles has been developed, which predicts the variation of temperature, humidity, and condensation rate through the condenser stages. Agreement between the model and experiments is very good. It is observed that the countercurrent flow stage condensation effectiveness is significantly higher than that for the co-current stage. The condensation heat and mass transfer rates were found to decrease when water blockages occur within the packed bed. Using high-speed digital cinematography, it was observed that this problem can occur at any operating condition, and is dependent on the packing surface wetting characteristics. This observation is used to explain the requirement for two different empirical constants, depending on packing diameter, suggested by Onda for the air side mass transfer coefficient correlation. (author)

  10. Distributed Solutions for Loosely Coupled Feasibility Problems Using Proximal Splitting Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakazad, Sina Khoshfetrat; Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Hansson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,we consider convex feasibility problems (CFPs) where the underlying sets are loosely coupled, and we propose several algorithms to solve such problems in a distributed manner. These algorithms are obtained by applying proximal splitting methods to convex minimization reformulations ...... in terms of the distance of the iterates to the feasible set, which are similar to those of classical projection methods. In case the feasibility problem is infeasible, we provide convergence rate results that concern the convergence of certain error bounds.......In this paper,we consider convex feasibility problems (CFPs) where the underlying sets are loosely coupled, and we propose several algorithms to solve such problems in a distributed manner. These algorithms are obtained by applying proximal splitting methods to convex minimization reformulations...... of CFPs. We also put forth distributed convergence tests which enable us to establish feasibility or infeasibility of the problem distributedly, and we provide convergence rate results. Under the assumption that the problem is feasible and boundedly linearly regular, these convergence results are given...

  11. Energy intake and growth of weanling horses in a cold loose housing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. AUTIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for information relating to the nutrition of horses in a cold environment is increasing with the popularity of loose housing of horses. This study examined the energy intake and growth of 10 weanling horses from November to March (22 weeks in a loose housing system (paddock and insulated sleeping hall with deep-litter bed. The horses were measured weekly for body condition and body weight, and the feeding was adjusted according to a horse’s body condition. Metabolizable energy (ME intake was compared to Finnish (MTT 2006 and Swedish (SLU 2004 nutrient requirements for 6–12-month-old horses. ME intake (75.5 ± 11.8 MJ d-1, mean ± SD was on average 24.6% above the requirements. The intake varied in a non-linear fashion in the course of the winter: y = 0.086x2 – 0.902x + 71.5, where x is weeks from November to March (p

  12. The influence of salinity of fly ash mixtures on energy looses during flow in pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И. Собота

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Polish mining for backfilling the fly ash mixtures are used. Last time for fly ash mixtures preparation the saline water from mine have been used, to thanks to that the saline water missing the surface waters. Usage of saline water for fly ash mixture preparation causes the changes in energy looses during the flow in pipelines. The paper presents the results of energy looses measurement іn laboratory pipeline installation with diameter D =50 mm. The measurements have been performed for different fly ash – saline water proportions. Tested fly-ash from Siersza power plant has typical properties (grain size distribution curve, density for ashes used for backfilling mixtures preparation. Increase of fluid (water salinity modifies fluid viscosity. Brine in comparison with pure water retains as liquid with increased viscosity. Increased viscosity can influence on the mixture ash-brine properties for example causing flocculation effect. Also changeable salinity has an influence on proper determination of resistance (frictional coefficient λ during mixtures flow in pipelines because it depends on Reynolds number which depends on liquid viscosity. Increase of fly-ash concentrations in fly-ash – brine mixtures cause increase of energy losses.

  13. COMPUTER-AIDED FLOW METER APPLICABLE TO LOOSE MATERIALS IN THE COURSE OF PNEUMATIC TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulyaev Valeriy Genrihovich

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the issues of development and the results of the pilot testing of the contact-free meter of the two-phase flow of loose construction materials in the course of their pneumatic transportation. The flow meter designed by the author is based on the method of registration of polarization currents caused by the motion of the dielectric material within the electric field of a measurement unit integrated into the pneumatic transportation line. The registration unit is the implementation of the original technology. Its functional concept is based on the Pockels transverse effect inside the lithium niobate crystal. This electro-optical effect is characterized by minimal persistence, as the phase of the optical wave varies within the time period of 10 second, and this effect makes it possible to improve the accuracy of measurements. The flow rates is identified on the basis of one variable integral parameter, the intensity of an optical wave passing through the Pockels cell simulated by the currents of polarization of the material. The paper contains the structural pattern of the computer-aided meter of loose dielectric materials in the course of their pneumatic transportation, the system of visualization of the mass flow, and the results of the pilot testing of the proposed meter. The proposed system may represent an unbiased system of management of construction materials, consumption procedures, and warehouse processing of materials.

  14. A fractal contact theory based model for bolted connection looseness monitoring using piezoceramic transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Linsheng; Wang, Furui; Li, Hongnan; Song, Gangbing

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, based on the fractal contact theory, a new analytical model for bolted joints is proposed to monitor bolt looseness by using a pair of piezoceramic transducers for ultrasonic wave generation and detection. The time reversal method is used to obtain the focused signal peak amplitude during ultrasonic wave propagation through bolt connection surface. The influence of bolt load on the actual contact area of the bolted joint surface is determined by the fractal contact theory, and the finite element method is applied to obtain the relationship between the actual contact area and the focused signal peak amplitude. The focused signal peak obtained through the time reversal method increases with the increase of applied axial load before saturation. The investigation proposed in this paper is based on the inherent contact mechanism between the two contact surfaces, and achieves more accurate quantitative monitoring of bolt looseness. Finally, a comparison of the predicted and experimental results shown validates the proposed model in this paper.

  15. Generalized network improvement and packing problems

    CERN Document Server

    Holzhauser, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Michael Holzhauser discusses generalizations of well-known network flow and packing problems by additional or modified side constraints. By exploiting the inherent connection between the two problem classes, the author investigates the complexity and approximability of several novel network flow and packing problems and presents combinatorial solution and approximation algorithms. Contents Fractional Packing and Parametric Search Frameworks Budget-Constrained Minimum Cost Flows: The Continuous Case Budget-Constrained Minimum Cost Flows: The Discrete Case Generalized Processing Networks Convex Generalized Flows Target Groups Researchers and students in the fields of mathematics, computer science, and economics Practitioners in operations research and logistics The Author Dr. Michael Holzhauser studied computer science at the University of Kaiserslautern and is now a research fellow in the Optimization Research Group at the Department of Mathematics of the University of Kaiserslautern.

  16. Wolf Pack Algorithm for Unconstrained Global Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu-Sheng Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The wolf pack unites and cooperates closely to hunt for the prey in the Tibetan Plateau, which shows wonderful skills and amazing strategies. Inspired by their prey hunting behaviors and distribution mode, we abstracted three intelligent behaviors, scouting, calling, and besieging, and two intelligent rules, winner-take-all generation rule of lead wolf and stronger-survive renewing rule of wolf pack. Then we proposed a new heuristic swarm intelligent method, named wolf pack algorithm (WPA. Experiments are conducted on a suit of benchmark functions with different characteristics, unimodal/multimodal, separable/nonseparable, and the impact of several distance measurements and parameters on WPA is discussed. What is more, the compared simulation experiments with other five typical intelligent algorithms, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization algorithm, artificial fish swarm algorithm, artificial bee colony algorithm, and firefly algorithm, show that WPA has better convergence and robustness, especially for high-dimensional functions.

  17. Quantification of loosely associated and tightly associated bacteria on broiler carcass skin using swabbing, stomaching, and grinding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P; Lee, H C; Chin, K B; Ha, S D; Kang, I

    2015-12-01

    This research was conducted to quantify bacterial populations after swabbing or stomaching, followed by grinding the swabbed or stomached broiler skins. For each of 3 replications, 3 eviscerated broilers were randomly taken from a processing line in a local broiler processing plant. Ten swabs and 10 stomachs per bird were conducted on the left- and the right-side skins (10×7 cm), respectively, which were then finally ground. Results indicated that mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB) in the first swabbed sample were significantly lower than those in the first stomached sample (P0.05). During 10 swabbings followed by final grinding, 8, 9, and 83% of MAB were detected after the first swabbing, after the second through 10th swabbings, and after final grinding of the skin, respectively. During 10 stomachings followed by the final grinding, 17, 18, and 65% of MAB were detected after the first stomaching, after the second through 10th stomachings, and after final grinding of the skin, respectively. Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coliforms were significantly higher in the first stomaching than those in the first swabbing (P0.05). Populations of E. coli and coliforms decreased step-wisely from the highest after grinding to the intermediate after first and second sampling, and to the least after 10th sampling (P<0.05), regardless of swabbing or grinding. In this study, less than 35% of MAB seemed loosely associated in the skin of eviscerated broiler, whereas more than 65% of MAB looked tightly associated, which were not recovered by stomaching or swabbing even 10 times but were recovered by grinding the skin. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Computational Modelling of Particle Packing in Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, H.

    2010-01-01

    Physical particle packing is becoming a hot topic in concrete technology as more and more types of granular materials are used in concrete either for ecological or for engineering purposes. Although various analytical methods have been developed for optimum mixture design, comprehensive information

  19. 5 Reasons to Pack Your Lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... school! Here are the top 5 reasons to pack your lunch — and snacks — at least twice a week: 1. Control. Do you ever wait in the lunch line only to find when you get to the front that you don't like what they're ...

  20. Wrap-Attack Pack: Product Packaging Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Hoffman, K. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Although many marketing courses discuss traditional concepts pertaining to product strategy, concepts specifically relating to packaging are often glossed over. This exercise, "Wrap-Attack Pack," teaches students about the utilitarian and hedonic design elements of packaging. More specifically, the primary objective is to creatively…

  1. Relationship between Malaria Parasitaemia and Packed Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria parasitic infection is a disease causing high morbidity and mortality in most tropical parts of the world, where climatic conditions and sanitation practices favour their prevalence. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and its influence on pack cell volume among Primary School ...

  2. Origami, Modular Packing and the Soma Puzzle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 11. Origami, Modular Packing and the Soma Puzzle. Subramania Ranganathan. General Article Volume 8 Issue 11 November 2003 pp 71-77. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. On the fractal beauty of bin packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Epstein (Lea); S. Seiden; R. van Stee (Rob)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn the variable-sized online bin packing problem, one has to assign items to bins one by one. The bins are drawn from some fixed set of sizes, and the goal is to minimize the sum of the sizes of the bins used. We present the first unbounded space algorithms for this problem. We also show

  4. Routing trains through railway junctions: A new set-packing approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ryan, David

    2011-01-01

    The problem of routing trains through railway junctions is an integral part of railway operations. Large junctions are highly interconnected networks of track where multiple railway lines merge, intersect, and split. The number of possible routings makes this a very complicated problem. We show how...... the problem can be formulated as a set-packing model with a resource-based constraint system. We prove that this formulation is tighter than the conventional node-packing model, and develop a branch-and-price algorithm that exploits the structure of the set-packing model. A discussion of the variable...... generation phase, as well as a pricing routine in which these variables are represented by tree structures, is also described. Computational experiments on 25 random timetables show this to be an efficient approach. © 2011 INFORMS....

  5. Dead Sea mud packs for chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shakra, Mahmoud; Mayer, Amit; Friger, Michael; Harari, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is chronic disease without a curative therapy. Alternative and complementary therapies are widely used in the management of this condition. To evaluate the efficacy of home application of Dead Sea mud compresses to the back of patients with chronic LBP. Forty-six consecutive patients suffering from chronic LBP were recruited. All patients were followed at the Soroka University Rheumatic Diseases Unit. The patients were randomized into two groups: one group was treated with mineral-rich mud compresses, and the other with mineral-depleted compresses. Mud compresses were applied five times a week for 3 consecutive weeks. The primary outcome was the patient's assessment of the overall back pain severity. The score of the Ronald & Morris questionnaire served as a secondary outcome. Forty-four patients completed the therapy and the follow-up assessments: 32 were treated with real mud packs and 12 used the mineral-depleted packs. A significant decrease in intensity of pain, as described by the patients, was observed only in the treatment group. In this group, clinical improvement was clearly seen at completion of therapy and was sustained a month later. Significant improvement in the scores of the Roland & Morris questionnaire was observed in both groups. The data suggest that pain severity was reduced in patients treated with mineral-rich mud compresses compared with those treated with mineral-depleted compresses. Whether this modest effect is the result of a "true" mud effect or other causes can not be determined in this study.

  6. Impact of Australia's introduction of tobacco plain packs on adult smokers’ pack-related perceptions and responses: results from a continuous tracking survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Sally M; Dobbins, Timothy; Young, Jane M; Perez, Donna; Currow, David C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the impact of Australia's plain tobacco packaging policy on two stated purposes of the legislation—increasing the impact of health warnings and decreasing the promotional appeal of packaging—among adult smokers. Design Serial cross-sectional study with weekly telephone surveys (April 2006–May 2013). Interrupted time-series analyses using ARIMA modelling and linear regression models were used to investigate intervention effects. Participants 15 745 adult smokers (aged 18 years and above) in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Random selection of participants involved recruiting households using random digit dialling and selecting the nth oldest smoker for interview. Intervention The introduction of the legislation on 1 October 2012. Outcomes Salience of tobacco pack health warnings, cognitive and emotional responses to warnings, avoidance of warnings, perceptions regarding one's cigarette pack. Results Adjusting for background trends, seasonality, antismoking advertising activity and cigarette costliness, results from ARIMA modelling showed that, 2–3 months after the introduction of the new packs, there was a significant increase in the absolute proportion of smokers having strong cognitive (9.8% increase, p=0.005), emotional (8.6% increase, p=0.01) and avoidant (9.8% increase, p=0.0005) responses to on-pack health warnings. Similarly, there was a significant increase in the proportion of smokers strongly disagreeing that the look of their cigarette pack is attractive (57.5% increase, padult smokers are consistent with the specific objectives of the legislation in regard to reducing promotional appeal and increasing effectiveness of health warnings. PMID:25524542

  7. The effect of vibrations on the density of loose-fill insulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, D. W.; Wright, J. H.

    1981-05-01

    The three major loose-fill insulation products marketed in this country were subjected to a variety of vibrations and impacts in a laboratory setting to determine the magnitude of the resultant density increases. Repeated drops of 19 mm (.75 inch) and 152 mm (6 inch) produced density increases of up to 75% for fiberglass, 45% for rock wool, and 27% for cellulosic materials. The three insulation products were also subjected to vibrations ranging from 0.1 mm (.004 inch) to 6.35 mm (.25 inch) to obtain ratios of final density over initial density. Under the test conditions studied it was observed that the lighter materials settled more percentagewise than the dense materials.

  8. Loose associations: straight and crooked thinking and the group of schizophrenias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, W R

    1978-12-01

    In this paper I hope to provide the basis for a discussion on logic, logical thinking and creativity in medicine, particularly in psychiatry. By way of illustration we will examine schizophrenia with particular reference to biochemistry, but the discussion will focus on semantic issues and philosophical concepts. These issues are of fundamental importance in the development of psychiatry both as art and craft. Thus the paper deals both with the study of madness and madness itself. The title of the address illustrates some forms of communication which occur in the schizophrenias. It includes references to other ideas, to formal thought disorder and illogical thinking, private puns, vague links, and pointers to other sources and authors, namely, Bleuler (1950), Ernest Jones (1959) and Thouless (1974). These are all contained in a loose framework, wherein reference is made to a key anomaly always found in, but by no means unique to schizophrenia.

  9. Loose and Tight GNSS/INS Integrations: Comparison of Performance Assessed in Real Urban Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Gianluca; Pini, Marco; Marucco, Gianluca

    2017-01-29

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) remain the principal mean of positioning in many applications and systems, but in several types of environment, the performance of standalone receivers is degraded. Although many works show the benefits of the integration between GNSS and Inertial Navigation Systems (INSs), tightly-coupled architectures are mainly implemented in professional devices and are based on high-grade Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). This paper investigates the performance improvements enabled by the tight integration, using low-cost sensors and a mass-market GNSS receiver. Performance is assessed through a series of tests carried out in real urban scenarios and is compared against commercial modules, operating in standalone mode or featuring loosely-coupled integrations. The paper describes the developed tight-integration algorithms with a terse mathematical model and assesses their efficacy from a practical perspective.

  10. Off-resonance frequency operation for power transfer in a loosely coupled air core transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudiere, Matthew B

    2012-11-13

    A power transmission system includes a loosely coupled air core transformer having a resonance frequency determined by a product of inductance and capacitance of a primary circuit including a primary coil. A secondary circuit is configured to have a substantially same product of inductance and capacitance. A back EMF generating device (e.g., a battery), which generates a back EMF with power transfer, is attached to the secondary circuit. Once the load power of the back EMF generating device exceeds a certain threshold level, which depends on the system parameters, the power transfer can be achieved at higher transfer efficiency if performed at an operating frequency less than the resonance frequency, which can be from 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency.

  11. An RFID-Based Manufacturing Control Framework for Loosely Coupled Distributed Manufacturing System Supporting Mass Customization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruey-Shun; Tsai, Yung-Shun; Tu, Arthur

    In this study we propose a manufacturing control framework based on radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology and a distributed information system to construct a mass-customization production process in a loosely coupled shop-floor control environment. On the basis of this framework, we developed RFID middleware and an integrated information system for tracking and controlling the manufacturing process flow. A bicycle manufacturer was used to demonstrate the prototype system. The findings of this study were that the proposed framework can improve the visibility and traceability of the manufacturing process as well as enhance process quality control and real-time production pedigree access. Using this framework, an enterprise can easily integrate an RFID-based system into its manufacturing environment to facilitate mass customization and a just-in-time production model.

  12. Measurement of the specific surface area of loose copper deposit by electrochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Dolmatova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the work the surface area of the electrode with dispersed copper deposit obtained within 30 seconds was evaluated by techniques of chronopotentiometry (CPM and impedance spectroscopy. In method CPM the electrode surface available for measurement depends on the value of the polarizing current. At high currents during the transition time there is a change of surface relief that can not determine the full surface of loose deposit. The electrochemical impedance method is devoid of this shortcoming since the measurements are carried out in indifferent electrolyte in the absence of current. The area measured by the impedance is tens of times higher than the value obtained by chronopotentiometry. It is found that from a solution containing sulfuric acid the deposits form with a high specific surface area. Based on these data it was concluded that the method of impedance spectroscopy can be used to measure in situ the surface area of the dispersed copper deposits.

  13. Mechanical Control of ATP Synthase Function: Activation Energy Difference between Tight and Loose Binding Sites

    KAUST Repository

    Beke-Somfai, Tamás

    2010-01-26

    Despite exhaustive chemical and crystal structure studies, the mechanistic details of how FoF1-ATP synthase can convert mechanical energy to chemical, producing ATP, are still not fully understood. On the basis of quantum mechanical calculations using a recent highresolution X-ray structure, we conclude that formation of the P-O bond may be achieved through a transition state (TS) with a planar PO3 - ion. Surprisingly, there is a more than 40 kJ/mol difference between barrier heights of the loose and tight binding sites of the enzyme. This indicates that even a relatively small change in active site conformation, induced by the γ-subunit rotation, may effectively block the back reaction in βTP and, thus, promote ATP. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  14. Conventional Versus Automated Implantation of Loose Seeds in Prostate Brachytherapy: Analysis of Dosimetric and Clinical Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genebes, Caroline, E-mail: genebes.caroline@claudiusregaud.fr [Radiation Oncology Department, Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Filleron, Thomas; Graff, Pierre [Radiation Oncology Department, Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Jonca, Frédéric [Department of Urology, Clinique Ambroise Paré, Toulouse (France); Huyghe, Eric; Thoulouzan, Matthieu; Soulie, Michel; Malavaud, Bernard [Department of Urology and Andrology, CHU Rangueil, Toulouse (France); Aziza, Richard; Brun, Thomas; Delannes, Martine; Bachaud, Jean-Marc [Radiation Oncology Department, Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To review the clinical outcome of I-125 permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) for low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer and to compare 2 techniques of loose-seed implantation. Methods and Materials: 574 consecutive patients underwent I-125 PPB for low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer between 2000 and 2008. Two successive techniques were used: conventional implantation from 2000 to 2004 and automated implantation (Nucletron, FIRST system) from 2004 to 2008. Dosimetric and biochemical recurrence-free (bNED) survival results were reported and compared for the 2 techniques. Univariate and multivariate analysis researched independent predictors for bNED survival. Results: 419 (73%) and 155 (27%) patients with low-risk and intermediate-risk disease, respectively, were treated (median follow-up time, 69.3 months). The 60-month bNED survival rates were 95.2% and 85.7%, respectively, for patients with low-risk and intermediate-risk disease (P=.04). In univariate analysis, patients treated with automated implantation had worse bNED survival rates than did those treated with conventional implantation (P<.0001). By day 30, patients treated with automated implantation showed lower values of dose delivered to 90% of prostate volume (D90) and volume of prostate receiving 100% of prescribed dose (V100). In multivariate analysis, implantation technique, Gleason score, and V100 on day 30 were independent predictors of recurrence-free status. Grade 3 urethritis and urinary incontinence were observed in 2.6% and 1.6% of the cohort, respectively, with no significant differences between the 2 techniques. No grade 3 proctitis was observed. Conclusion: Satisfactory 60-month bNED survival rates (93.1%) and acceptable toxicity (grade 3 urethritis <3%) were achieved by loose-seed implantation. Automated implantation was associated with worse dosimetric and bNED survival outcomes.

  15. Methodological quality of front-of-pack labeling studies: a review plus identification of research challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyth, Ellis L; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Brandt, Hella E; Roodenburg, Annet J C; Brug, Johannes; Seidell, Jacob C

    2012-12-01

    This review evaluates the methodological quality of current front-of-pack labeling research and discusses future research challenges. Peer-reviewed articles were identified using a computerized search of the databases PubMed and Web of Science (ISI) from 1990 to February 2011; reference lists from key published articles were used as well. The quality of the 31 included studies was assessed. The results showed that the methodological quality of published front-of-pack labeling research is generally low to mediocre; objective observational data-based consumer studies were of higher quality than consumer studies relying on self-reports. Experimental studies that included a control group were lacking. The review further revealed a lack of a validated methodology to measure the use of front-of-pack labels and the effects of these labels in real-life settings. In conclusion, few methodologically sound front-of-pack labeling studies are presently available. The highest methodological quality and the greatest public health relevance are achieved by measuring the health effects of front-of-pack labels using biomarkers in a longitudinal, randomized, controlled design in a real-life setting. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  16. Modified strip packing heuristics for the rectangular variable-sized bin packing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG Ortmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two packing problems are considered in this paper, namely the well-known strip packing problem (SPP and the variable-sized bin packing problem (VSBPP. A total of 252 strip packing heuristics (and variations thereof from the literature, as well as novel heuristics proposed by the authors, are compared statistically by means of 1170 SPP benchmark instances in order to identify the best heuristics in various classes. A combination of new heuristics with a new sorting method yields the best results. These heuristics are combined with a previous heuristic for the VSBPP by the authors to find good feasible solutions to 1357 VSBPP benchmark instances. This is the largest statistical comparison of algorithms for the SPP and the VSBPP to the best knowledge of the authors.

  17. Method for evaluating the system instrumentation for loose part detection in the primary cooling circuit of French PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardin, J.P.; Donnette, J.E

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of the loose part detection system is to trigger an alarm whenever it is warranted, to localize, and to provide information on the type of loose part involved and the damages it may provoke. It is therefore indispensable to have efficient instrumentation, beginning with the sensors which must provide us with a response to all mechanical impacts in natural trapping areas (reactor vessel and steam generator water box). A series of mass- and energy-calibrated impacts have been generated on 45 points in the primary cooling system of a nuclear plant unit in the startup phase. This test provided insights into the relationship between sensor signals and various impact parameters such as velocity of impact or loose part mass. Once these parameters were known, it was possible to define a method for evaluating the detection threshold of sensors depending on the way they are mounted. (author)

  18. Column-to-column packing variation of disposable pre-packed columns for protein chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Susanne; Hinterberger, Stephan; Jungbauer, Alois

    2017-12-08

    In the biopharmaceutical industry, pre-packed columns are the standard for process development, but they must be qualified before use in experimental studies to confirm the required performance of the packed bed. Column qualification is commonly done by pulse response experiments and depends highly on the experimental testing conditions. Additionally, the peak analysis method, the variation in the 3D packing structure of the bed, and the measurement precision of the workstation influence the outcome of qualification runs. While a full body of literature on these factors is available for HPLC columns, no comparable studies exist for preparative columns for protein chromatography. We quantified the influence of these parameters for commercially available pre-packed and self-packed columns of disposable and non-disposable design. Pulse response experiments were performed on 105 preparative chromatography columns with volumes of 0.2-20ml. The analyte acetone was studied at six different superficial velocities (30, 60, 100, 150, 250 and 500cm/h). The column-to-column packing variation between disposable pre-packed columns of different diameter-length combinations varied by 10-15%, which was acceptable for the intended use. The column-to-column variation cannot be explained by the packing density, but is interpreted as a difference in particle arrangement in the column. Since it was possible to determine differences in the column-to-column performance, we concluded that the columns were well-packed. The measurement precision of the chromatography workstation was independent of the column volume and was in a range of±0.01ml for the first peak moment and±0.007 ml 2 for the second moment. The measurement precision must be considered for small columns in the range of 2ml or less. The efficiency of disposable pre-packed columns was equal or better than that of self-packed columns. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Transmission Raman measurement directly through packed corn kernels to improve sample representation and accuracy of compositional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kayeong; Chung, Hoeil; Kwak, Chul-won

    2012-08-21

    The potential of transmission Raman spectroscopy for direct analysis of packed granular samples, one of the most frequently encountered sample types in the field of non-destructive spectroscopic analysis, has been evaluated. For this purpose, transmission Raman spectra were collected by laser illumination through packed corn kernels to determine their protein concentration. Back-scattering Raman spectra of the same samples were also collected for comparison. Raman spectral features of the major kernel constituents were initially characterized, and Raman mapping over the whole kernel face was performed to investigate the inhomogeneous distribution of constituents in a kernel. Possible variations of transmission spectral features depending on the laser illumination on different locations of a kernel were investigated, since the orientation of kernels in the packing was essentially random. Rotation of kernel packing during spectral collection was helpful in improving the compositional representation of packed kernels. With partial least squares (PLS) regression, the protein concentrations were determined using both spectral collection methods and the resulting accuracies were compared. As a result, the transmission measurement provided a more accurate determination of protein concentration since it enabled deeper sampling across the packed kernels, leading to a better compositional representation of them. By contrast, in the back-scattering measurement, kernels on the top of the packing were mainly sampled for the spectral acquisition. Moreover, the back-scattering spectral feature, more weighted to constituents localized at the outer portion of a kernel, was short of representing the overall composition of a kernel.

  20. Arthroscopic Finding of an Extra-Articular Loose Body in the Subacromial Space: Case Report Presentation and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartelius, Carl; Apostolopoulos, Alexandros P; Zaman, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Loose bodies are pieces of soft tissue that run free within a body cavity, typically in the synovium; loose bodies outside of synovial cavities are very rare. This case study demonstrates such an instance occurring in the subacromial space, which is especially unusual. We report on it coupled with an analysis of the literature of known cases that have occurred previously. A 55-year old right-hand-dominant female patient presented with left shoulder pain. She had injured her left shoulder 7 yr previously and had achieved adequate pain and symptomatic control with physiotherapy. A magnetic resonance imaging scan demonstrated subacromial subdeltoid bursitis with a large subacromial spur, a bulky acromioclavicular (AC) joint, and a partial tear of the supraspinatous tendon. The patient subsequently underwent shoulder arthroscopy for subacromial decompression and AC joint excision. Arthroscopy demonstrated a suspected impingement of the rotator cuff in the subacromial space, bursitis, and a prominent acromion that limited the subacromial space (bigliani, type III), but during the procedure a detached white mass was discovered in the subacromial bursa. After histological analysis, the mass showed osteocartilagenous tissue, consistent with a loose body. Following the procedure, there were no complications, and the patient's symptoms gradually resolved. Extraarticular loose bodies are extremely rare, especially in the subacromial bursa. Reported cases have all been associated with either traumatic or degenerative shoulder pathology, and the diagnosis was commonly established incidentally on arthroscopy. Cases were managed with removal during the same procedure. Arthroscopic removal of loose bodies and bursa debridement, good options for treatment of loose bodies in the subacromial space, can result in good function.

  1. High-resolution of particle contacts via fluorophore exclusion in deep-imaging of jammed colloidal packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyeyune-Nyombi, Eru; Morone, Flaviano; Liu, Wenwei; Li, Shuiqing; Gilchrist, M. Lane; Makse, Hernán A.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the structural properties of random packings of jammed colloids requires an unprecedented high-resolution determination of the contact network providing mechanical stability to the packing. Here, we address the determination of the contact network by a novel strategy based on fluorophore signal exclusion of quantum dot nanoparticles from the contact points. We use fluorescence labeling schemes on particles inspired by biology and biointerface science in conjunction with fluorophore exclusion at the contact region. The method provides high-resolution contact network data that allows us to measure structural properties of the colloidal packing near marginal stability. We determine scaling laws of force distributions, soft modes, correlation functions, coordination number and free volume that define the universality class of jammed colloidal packings and can be compared with theoretical predictions. The contact detection method opens up further experimental testing at the interface of jamming and glass physics.

  2. Is incest common in gray wolf packs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Deborah E; Meier, Thomas J.; Geffen, Eli; Mech, L. David; Burch, John W.; Adams, Layne G.; Wayne, Robert K.

    1997-01-01

    Wolf packs generally consist of a breeding pair and their maturing offspring that help provision and protect pack young. Because the reproductive tenure in wolves is often short, reproductively mature offspring might replace their parents, resulting in sibling or parent-offspring matings. To determine the extent of incestuous pairings, we measured relatedness based on variability in 20 microsatellite loci of mated pairs, parent-offspring pairs, and siblings in two populations of gray wolves. Our 16 sampled mated pairs had values of relatedness not overlapping those of known parent-offspring or sibling dyads, which is consistent with their being unrelated or distantly related. These results suggest that full siblings or a parent and its offspring rarely mate and that incest avoidance is an important constraint on gray wolf behavioral ecology.

  3. Packing and Disorder in Substituted Fullerenes

    KAUST Repository

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh

    2016-07-15

    Fullerenes are ubiquitous as electron-acceptor and electron-transport materials in organic solar cells. Recent synthetic strategies to improve the solubility and electronic characteristics of these molecules have translated into a tremendous increase in the variety of derivatives employed in these applications. Here, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the impact of going from mono-adducts to bis- and tris-adducts on the structural, cohesive, and packing characteristics of [6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and indene-C60. The packing configurations obtained at the MD level then serve as input for density functional theory calculations that examine the solid-state energetic disorder (distribution of site energies) as a function of chemical substitution. The variations in structural and site-energy disorders reflect the fundamental materials differences among the derivatives and impact the performance of these materials in thin-film electronic devices.

  4. Imaging of drug smuggling by body packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Giacomo; Guida, Franco; Bocchini, Giorgio; Iaselli, Francesco; Iadevito, Isabella; Scaglione, Mariano

    2015-02-01

    Body packing, pushing, and stuffing are hazardous practices with complex medicolegal and social implications. A radiologist plays both a social and a medicolegal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location so as to prevent any package remains in the body packer. Radiologists must also be able to recognize the complications associated with these risky practices. Imaging assessment of body packing is performed essentially through plain abdominal X-ray and computed tomography scans. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, although with some advantages, actually have a limited use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Body Packing: From Seizures to Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M. Janczak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Body packing is a common method for illegal drug trafficking. Complications associated with body packing can be severe and even lead to rapid death. Thus, a timely diagnosis is warranted. As most body packers initially do not show any symptoms, making a correct diagnosis can be rather challenging. We describe a case of a 41-year-old male, who was admitted with an epileptic seizure and who turned out to be a cocaine intoxicated body packer. Due to neurological and cardiovascular deterioration an emergency surgery was performed. Four bags of cocaine could be removed. We discuss the current management regimen in symptomatic and asymptomatic body packers and highlight pearls and pitfalls with diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Pyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Communities in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System: An Integral Study of Bulk Water, Suspended Solids, Loose Deposits, and Pipe Wall Biofilm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, G.

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  7. Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial communities in unchlorinated drinking water distribution system: an integral study of bulk water, suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Bakker, G L; Li, S; Vreeburg, J H G; Verberk, J Q J C; Medema, G J; Liu, W T; Van Dijk, J C

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  8. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting equipment. (b) The use of...

  9. 36 CFR 34.10 - Saddle and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Saddle and pack animals. 34... INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.10 Saddle and pack animals. The use of saddle and pack animals is prohibited without a permit from the Superintendent. ...

  10. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting...

  11. Pack nitriding of aluminium using cassava waste | Shitta | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pack Nitriding is a process analogous to pack carbonizing. In this work, cassava leaves were employed as a source of nitrogen. Upon heating, slow decomposition of the compound provides Nitrogen, the Nitrogen was allowed to interact with aluminium metal surfaces, which were packed nitrided at temperature of 350°c.

  12. Modified strip packing heuristics for the rectangular variable-sized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frank G Ortmann

    Key words: Packing problems, heuristics. 1 Introduction. While cutting and packing (C&P) problems have been studied for many years, e.g. the packing of animals, seafaring vessel, trains and vehicles, these problems have only become an active field of mathematical study since the 1939 landmark paper by Kantorovich [47].

  13. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.255 Bottling or packing wine. (a) General. Proprietors of a bonded wine premises and...

  14. Spatial distribution and packing of xylem conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Alvarez, Xavier; Camacho, Juan; Loepfe, Lasse; Piñol, Josep

    2012-07-01

    The hydraulic properties of the xylem determine the ability of plants to transport water from the soil to the leaves and to cope with important stress factors such as frost and drought. Hydraulic properties have usually been studied as a function of the anatomy of xylem conduits and their pits, but recent studies have proposed that system-level properties, related to the topology of the xylem network, may also play a role. Here we study how the spatial arrangement of conduits in xylem cross sections affects the relationship between mean conduit lumen area and conduit density (packing function) across species. Point pattern analysis was used to describe the spatial distribution of xylem conduits in 97 woody species. The effect of conduit aggregation on the packing function was tested using phylogenetic generalized least squares. A hydraulic model with an explicit description of the topology of the xylem network was used to interpret the functional significance of our findings. The spatial arrangement of conduits affected the packing function across species, so that species with aggregated distributions tended to have lower conduit densities for a given conduit size and lower conduit lumen fractions. According to our modeling results, the higher conduit-to-conduit connectivity of species with aggregated distributions allows them to achieve higher hydraulic conductivity. Species with aggregated conduits, however, pay a cost in terms of increased vulnerability to embolism. The spatial arrangement of conduits affects the fundamental structural and functional attributes of the xylem.

  15. Improved Helicopter Rotor Performance Prediction through Loose and Tight CFD/CSD Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Jacob C.

    Helicopters and other Vertical Take-Off or Landing (VTOL) vehicles exhibit an interesting combination of structural dynamic and aerodynamic phenomena which together drive the rotor performance. The combination of factors involved make simulating the rotor a challenging and multidisciplinary effort, and one which is still an active area of interest in the industry because of the money and time it could save during design. Modern tools allow the prediction of rotorcraft physics from first principles. Analysis of the rotor system with this level of accuracy provides the understanding necessary to improve its performance. There has historically been a divide between the comprehensive codes which perform aeroelastic rotor simulations using simplified aerodynamic models, and the very computationally intensive Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solvers. As computer resources become more available, efforts have been made to replace the simplified aerodynamics of the comprehensive codes with the more accurate results from a CFD code. The objective of this work is to perform aeroelastic rotorcraft analysis using first-principles simulations for both fluids and structural predictions using tools available at the University of Toledo. Two separate codes are coupled together in both loose coupling (data exchange on a periodic interval) and tight coupling (data exchange each time step) schemes. To allow the coupling to be carried out in a reliable and efficient way, a Fluid-Structure Interaction code was developed which automatically performs primary functions of loose and tight coupling procedures. Flow phenomena such as transonics, dynamic stall, locally reversed flow on a blade, and Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) were simulated in this work. Results of the analysis show aerodynamic load improvement due to the inclusion of the CFD-based airloads in the structural dynamics analysis of the Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD) code. Improvements came in the form

  16. The mechanical behaviour of packed particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, R

    1998-01-01

    Within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program, the central concept is to package used fuel in containers that would be deposited in an underground vault in a plutonic rock formation. To provide internal mechanical support for the container, the reference design specifies it to be filled with a matrix of compacted particulate material (called 'packed particulate'), such as quartz sand granules. The focus of this report is on the mechanical properties of the packed-particulate material, based on information drawn from the extant literature. We first consider the packing density of particulate matrices to minimize the remnant porosity and maximize mechanical stability under conditions of external pressure. Practical methods, involving vibratory packing, are reviewed and recommendations made to select techniques to achieve optimum packing density. The behaviour of particulates under compressive loading has been of interest to the powder metallurgy industry (i.e., the manufacture of products from pressed/sintered metal and ceramic powders) since the early decades of this century. We review the evidence showing that in short timescales, stress induced compaction occurs by particle shuffling and rearrangement, elastic distortion, plastic yielding and microfracturing. Analytical expressions are available to describe these processes in a semiquantitative fashion. Time-dependent compaction, mainly via creep mechanisms, is more complex. Much of the theoretical and experimental information is confined to higher temperatures (> 500 degrees C), where deformation rates are more rapid. Thus, for the relatively low ambient temperatures of the waste container ({approx}100 degrees C), we require analytical techniques to extrapolate the collective particulate creep behaviour. This is largely accomplished by employing current theories of creep deformation, particularly in the form of Deformation Mechanism Maps, which allow estimation of creep rates over a wide

  17. HETP evaluation of structured packing distillation column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Orlando Jr.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Several tests with a hydrocarbon mixture of known composition (C8-C14, obtained from DETEN Chemistry S.A., have been performed in a laboratory distillation column, having 40mm of nominal diameter and 2.2m high, with internals of Sulzer DX gauze stainless steel structured packing. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate HETP of a structured packing laboratory scale distillation column, operating continuously. Six HETP correlations available in the literature were compared in order to find out which is the most appropriate for structured packing columns working with medium distillates. Prior to the experimental tests, simulation studies using commercial software PRO/II® were performed in order to establish the optimum operational conditions for the distillation, especially concerning operating pressure, top and bottom temperatures, feed location and reflux ratio. The results of PRO/II® were very similar to the analysis of the products obtained during continuous operation, therefore permitting the use of the properties calculated by that software on the theoretical models investigated. The theoretical models chosen for HETP evaluation were: Bravo, Rocha and Fair (1985; Rocha, Bravo and Fair (1993, 1996; Brunazzi and Pagliant (1997; Carlo, Olujić and Pagliant (2006; Olujić et al., (2004. Modifications concerning calculation of specific areas were performed on the correlations in order to fit them for gauze packing HETP evaluation. As the laboratory distillation column was operated continuously, different HETP values were found by the models investigated for each section of the column. The low liquid flow rates in the top section of the column are a source of error for HETP evaluation by the models; therefore, more reliable HETP values were found in the bottom section, in which liquid flow rates were much greater. Among the theoretical models, Olujić et al. (2004 has shown good results relative to the experimental tests. In addition, the

  18. The Physics of Protoplanetesimal Dust Agglomerates. VIII. Microgravity Collisions between Porous SiO_2 Aggregates and Loosely Bound Agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whizin, Akbar D.; Blum, Jürgen; Colwell, Joshua E.

    2017-02-01

    We performed laboratory experiments colliding 0.8-1.0 mm and 1.0-1.6 mm SiO2 dust aggregates with loosely bound centimeter-sized agglomerates of those aggregates in microgravity. This work builds on previous microgravity laboratory experiments examining the collisional properties of porous loosely bound dust aggregates. In centimeter-sized aggregates, surface forces dominate self-gravity and may play a large role in aggregate growth beyond this size range. We characterize the properties of protoplanetary aggregate analogs to help place constraints on initial formation mechanisms and environments. We determined several important physical characteristics of these aggregates in a large number of low-velocity collisions. We observed low coefficients of restitution and fragmentation thresholds near 1 m s-1 for 1-2 cm agglomerates, which are in good agreement with previous findings in the literature. We find the accretion efficiency for agglomerates of loosely bound aggregates to be higher than that for just aggregates themselves. We find sticking thresholds of 6.6 ± 2 cm s-1, somewhat higher than those in similar studies, which have observed few aggregates stick at speeds of under 3 cm s-1. Even with highly dissipative collisions, loosely bound agglomerates have difficulty accreting beyond centimeter-sized bodies at typical collision speeds in the disk. Our results indicate agglomerates of porous aggregates have slightly higher sticking thresholds than previously thought, allowing possible growth to decimeter-sized bodies if velocities are low enough.

  19. Solution Coating of Superior Large-Area Flexible Perovskite Thin Films with Controlled Crystal Packing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jianbo

    2017-05-08

    Solution coating of organohalide lead perovskites offers great potential for achieving low-cost manufacturing of large-area flexible optoelectronics. However, the rapid coating speed needed for industrial-scale production poses challenges to the control of crystal packing. Herein, this study reports using solution shearing to confine crystal nucleation and growth in large-area printed MAPbI3 thin films. Near single-crystalline perovskite microarrays are demonstrated with a high degree of controlled macroscopic alignment and crystal orientation, which exhibit significant improvements in optical and optoelectronic properties comparing with their random counterparts, spherulitic, and nanograined films. In particular, photodetectors based on the confined films showing intense anisotropy in charge transport are fabricated, and the device exhibits significantly improved performance in all aspects by one more orders of magnitude relative to their random counterparts. It is anticipated that perovskite films with controlled crystal packing may find applications in high-performance, large-area printed optoelectronics, and solar cells.

  20. Effects of Different Packing Materials on Cotton Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanzhao; Liu, Wanfu; Ni, Zhaopeng; Wang, Lu; Gao, Bo

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different packing materials on cotton fires. After the cotton bale is ignited, the caving area, the mass loss rate and the temperature variation of cotton bales were measured. Through the experiment, it was found that Cotton bale packed with Plastic belt has the phenomenon of collapse, but the cotton bale packed with Steel ribbon does not happen to collapse. The mass loss rate of the Cotton bale packed with Plastic belt is faster than that of the cotton bale packed with Steel ribbon, and the temperature is higher.

  1. PIE on Safety-Tested Loose Particles from Irradiated Compact 4-4-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gerczak, Tyler J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Morris, Robert Noel [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baldwin, Charles A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Fred C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Post-irradiation examination (PIE) is being performed in support of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel development and qualification for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). This work is sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) through the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Office under the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program. The AGR-1 experiment was the first in a series of TRISO fuel irradiation tests initiated in 2006. The AGR-1 TRISO particles and fuel compacts were fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2006 using laboratory-scale equipment and irradiated for 3 years in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to demonstrate and evaluate fuel performance under HTGR irradiation conditions. Post-irradiation examination was performed at INL and ORNL to study how the fuel behaved during irradiation, and to test fuel performance during exposure to elevated temperatures at or above temperatures that could occur during a depressurized conduction cooldown event. This report summarizes safety testing and post-safety testing PIE conducted at ORNL on loose particles extracted from irradiated AGR-1 Compact 4-4-2.

  2. Biodegradation characteristics of starch-polystyrene loose-fill foams in a composting medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpadass, Heartwin A; Weber, Robert W; Dumais, Joseph J; Hanna, Milford A

    2010-10-01

    The structures and biodegradabilities of loose-fill foams, containing starch and polystyrene at ratios of 70:30 and 80:20, were evaluated using a laboratory composting system. Each formulation was foamed (extrusion expanded) using either 0.2% azodicarbonamide or 0.25% citric acid as the chemical blowing agent. Biodegradability, a measure of the quantity of material mineralized, was expressed as the percentage of CO(2) in the exhaust gas eluted from the individual chambers. The CO(2) generation peaked after about 15 days of composting, and then decreased. The rate and amount of CO(2) eluted depended on the starch content in the foams. Similarly, there were significant differences in the rates and quantities of CO(2) emissions for the foams blown with azodicarbonamide versus citric acid. At the end of the composting tests, the remaining foam material had fibrous and crumbly textures, presumably consisting primarily of polystyrene. FTIR and NMR spectra of the foams, taken after 39days of composting, did not reveal the spectral features of starch, thereby confirming the decomposition of the starch. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optical levitation of a non-spherical particle in a loosely focused Gaussian beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheong Bong; Huang, Wei-Xi; Lee, Kyung Heon; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2012-10-08

    The optical force on a non-spherical particle subjected to a loosely focused laser beam was calculated using the dynamic ray tracing method. Ellipsoidal particles with different aspect ratios, inclination angles, and positions were modeled, and the effects of these parameters on the optical force were examined. The vertical component of the optical force parallel to the laser beam axis decreased as the aspect ratio decreased, whereas the ellipsoid with a small aspect ratio and a large inclination angle experienced a large vertical optical force. The ellipsoids were pulled toward or repelled away from the laser beam axis, depending on the inclination angle, and they experienced a torque near the focal point. The behavior of the ellipsoids in a viscous fluid was examined by analyzing a dynamic simulation based on the penalty immersed boundary method. As the ellipsoids levitated along the direction of the laser beam propagation, they moved horizontally with rotation. Except for the ellipsoid with a small aspect ratio and a zero inclination angle near the focal point, the ellipsoids rotated until the major axis aligned with the laser beam axis.

  4. Trichoscopy findings in loose anagen hair syndrome: rectangular granular structures and solitary yellow dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Adriana; Zadurska, Malgorzata; Czuwara, Joanna; Warszawik-Hendzel, Olga; Kurzeja, Marta; Maj, Malgorzata; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2015-03-31

    Loose anagen hair syndrome (LAHS) is typically diagnosed in girls older than 2 years who present with hair that "will not grow". Hair microscopic examination shows absent inner and outer root sheaths, ruffling of the cuticle on the proximal hair shaft and deformed pigmented anagen bulbs. The aim of the study was to assess whether there are characteristic trichoscopic features favoring the diagnosis of LAHS. Eighty nine children patients were included into the study (24 girls with LAHS, 25 with alopecia areata, 20 with telogen effluvium and 20 healthy children). In all groups trichoscopy was performed. Trichoscopy images were analyzed for abnormalities in the hairs shafts, the hair follicle openings and the interfollicular area. Dirty dots were present in all groups. A unique feature of LAHS was the presence of rectangular black granular structures which differs from dense black dots seen in patients with alopecia areata. This feature was observed in 71% of patients with LAHS. Follicular units with single hairs constituted 92,9% of hair units in these patients (65,5% in telogen effluvium and 53% in the control group). Solitary yellow dots were found in 50% of patient with LAHS and in 24% of patients with alopecia areata, but was not found in control group or in patients with telogen effluvium. The trichoscopy features favoring the diagnosis of LAHS are: rectangular black granular structures, solitary yellow dots and major predominance of follicular units with single hairs.

  5. Expanding clinical laboratory tobacco product evaluation methods to loose-leaf tobacco vaporizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Alexa A; Hiler, Marzena; Maloney, Sarah; Eissenberg, Thomas; Breland, Alison B

    2016-12-01

    Novel tobacco products entering the US market include electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) and products advertised to "heat, not burn" tobacco. There is a growing literature regarding the acute effects of ECIGs. Less is known about "heat, not burn" products. This study's purpose was to expand existing clinical laboratory methods to examine, in cigarette smokers, the acute effects of a "heat, not burn" "loose-leaf tobacco vaporizer" (LLTV). Plasma nicotine and breath carbon monoxide (CO) concentration and tobacco abstinence symptom severity were measured before and after two 10-puff (30-s interpuff interval) product use bouts separated by 60min. LLTV effects were compared to participants' own brand (OB) cigarettes and an ECIG (3.3V; 1.5ohm; 18mg/ml nicotine). Relative to OB, LLTV increased plasma nicotine concentration to a lesser degree, did not increase CO, and did not appear to reduce abstinence symptoms as effectively. Relative to ECIG, LLTV nicotine and CO delivery and abstinence symptom suppression did not differ. Participants reported that both the LLTV and ECIG were significantly less satisfying than OB. Results demonstrate that LLTVs are capable of delivering nicotine and suppressing tobacco abstinence symptoms partially; acute effects of these products can be evaluated using existing clinical laboratory methods. Results can inform tobacco product regulation and may be predictive of the extent that these products have the potential to benefit or harm overall public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Loose powder detection and surface characterization in selective laser sintering via optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guangying; Hirsch, Matthias; Syam, Wahyudin P.; Leach, Richard K.; Huang, Zhihong; Clare, Adam T.

    2016-07-01

    Defects produced during selective laser sintering (SLS) are difficult to non-destructively detect after build completion without the use of X-ray-based methods. Overcoming this issue by assessing integrity on a layer-by-layer basis has become an area of significant interest for users of SLS apparatus. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used in this study to detect surface texture and sub-surface powder, which is un-melted/insufficiently sintered, is known to be a common cause of poor part integrity and would prevent the use of SLS where applications dictate assurance of defect-free parts. To demonstrate the capability of the instrument and associated data-processing algorithms, samples were built with graduated porosities which were embedded in fully dense regions in order to simulate defective regions. Simulated in situ measurements were then correlated with the process parameters used to generate variable density regions. Using this method, it is possible to detect loose powder and differentiate between densities of ±5% at a sub-surface depth of approximately 300 μm. In order to demonstrate the value of OCT as a surface-profiling technique, surface texture datasets are compared with focus variation microscopy. Comparable results are achieved after a spatial bandwidth- matching procedure.

  7. Loose powder detection and surface characterization in selective laser sintering via optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guangying; Hirsch, Matthias; Syam, Wahyudin P; Leach, Richard K; Huang, Zhihong; Clare, Adam T

    2016-07-01

    Defects produced during selective laser sintering (SLS) are difficult to non-destructively detect after build completion without the use of X-ray-based methods. Overcoming this issue by assessing integrity on a layer-by-layer basis has become an area of significant interest for users of SLS apparatus. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used in this study to detect surface texture and sub-surface powder, which is un-melted/insufficiently sintered, is known to be a common cause of poor part integrity and would prevent the use of SLS where applications dictate assurance of defect-free parts. To demonstrate the capability of the instrument and associated data-processing algorithms, samples were built with graduated porosities which were embedded in fully dense regions in order to simulate defective regions. Simulated in situ measurements were then correlated with the process parameters used to generate variable density regions. Using this method, it is possible to detect loose powder and differentiate between densities of ±5% at a sub-surface depth of approximately 300 μm. In order to demonstrate the value of OCT as a surface-profiling technique, surface texture datasets are compared with focus variation microscopy. Comparable results are achieved after a spatial bandwidth- matching procedure.

  8. Original Article. Effects of loose kernel smut caused by Sporisorium cruentum onrhizomes of Sorghum halepense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gassó Marta Monica Astiz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of loose kernel smut fungus Sporisorium cruentum on Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass was investigated in vitro and in greenhouse experiments. Smut infection induced a decrease in the dry matter of rhizomes and aerial vegetative parts of the plants evaluated. Moreover, the diseased plants showed a lower height than controls. The infection resulted in multiple smutted buds that caused small panicles infected with the fungus. In addition, changes were observed in the structural morphology of the host. Leaf tissue sections showed hyphae degrading chloroplasts and vascular bundles colonized by the fungus. Subsequently, cells collapsed and widespread necrosis was observed as a symptom of the disease. The pathogen did not colonize the gynoecium of Sorghum plants until the tassel was fully developed. The sporulation process of the fungus led to a total disintegration of anthers and tissues. When panicles were inspected before emergence, fungal hyphae were observed on floral primord. Histological sections of panicles showed fungal hyphae located in the parenchyma tissue and the nodal area. Infection occurred in the floral primordium before the tassel had fully developed and emerged from the flag leaf. Grains were replaced by sori surrounded by a thin membrane that usually was broken before or after the emergence of the panicle. The results, together with the significant decrease of the dry matter of rhizomes and seeds of S. halepense, suggest that S. cruentum could be considered as a potential biocontrol agent in the integrated management of this weed.

  9. Regulatory heterochronies and loose temporal scaling between sea star and sea urchin regulatory circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildor, Tsvia; Hinman, Veronica; Ben-Tabou-De-Leon, Smadar

    2017-01-01

    It has long been argued that heterochrony, a change in relative timing of a developmental process, is a major source of evolutionary innovation. Heterochronic changes of regulatory gene activation could be the underlying molecular mechanism driving heterochronic changes through evolution. Here, we compare the temporal expression profiles of key regulatory circuits between sea urchin and sea star, representative of two classes of Echinoderms that shared a common ancestor about 500 million years ago. The morphologies of the sea urchin and sea star embryos are largely comparable, yet, differences in certain mesodermal cell types and ectodermal patterning result in distinct larval body plans. We generated high resolution temporal profiles of 17 mesodermally-, endodermally- and ectodermally-expressed regulatory genes in the sea star, Patiria miniata, and compared these to their orthologs in the Mediterranean sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus. We found that the maternal to zygotic transition is delayed in the sea star compared to the sea urchin, in agreement with the longer cleavage stage in the sea star. Interestingly, the order of gene activation shows the highest variation in the relatively diverged mesodermal circuit, while the correlations of expression dynamics are the highest in the strongly conserved endodermal circuit. We detected loose scaling of the developmental rates of these species and observed interspecies heterochronies within all studied regulatory circuits. Thus, after 500 million years of parallel evolution, mild heterochronies between the species are frequently observed and the tight temporal scaling observed for closely related species no longer holds.

  10. Multiple and dependent scattering by densely packed discrete spheres: Comparison of radiative transfer and Maxwell theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L. X.; Tan, J. Y.; Zhao, J. M.; Wang, F. Q.; Wang, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    The radiative transfer equation (RTE) has been widely used to deal with multiple scattering of light by sparsely and randomly distributed discrete particles. However, for densely packed particles, the RTE becomes questionable due to strong dependent scattering effects. This paper examines the accuracy of RTE by comparing with the exact electromagnetic theory. For an imaginary spherical volume filled with randomly distributed, densely packed spheres, the RTE is solved by the Monte Carlo method combined with the Percus-Yevick hard model to consider the dependent scattering effect, while the electromagnetic calculation is based on the multi-sphere superposition T-matrix method. The Mueller matrix elements of the system with different size parameters and volume fractions of spheres are obtained using both methods. The results verify that the RTE fails to deal with the systems with a high-volume fraction due to the dependent scattering effects. Apart from the effects of forward interference scattering and coherent backscattering, the Percus-Yevick hard sphere model shows good accuracy in accounting for the far-field interference effects for medium or smaller size parameters (up to 6.964 in this study). For densely packed discrete spheres with large size parameters (equals 13.928 in this study), the improvement of dependent scattering correction tends to deteriorate. The observations indicate that caution must be taken when using RTE in dealing with the radiative transfer in dense discrete random media even though the dependent scattering correction is applied.

  11. The electrical conductance growth of a metallic granular packing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakšić, Zorica M.; Cvetković, Milica; Šćepanović, Julija R.; Lončarević, Ivana; Budinski-Petković, Ljuba; Vrhovac, Slobodan B.

    2017-06-01

    We report on measurements of the electrical conductivity on a two-dimensional packing of metallic disks when a stable current of 1 mA flows through the system. At low applied currents, the conductance σ is found to increase by a pattern σ( t) = σ ∞ - Δσ E α [ - ( t/ τ) α ], where E α denotes the Mittag-Leffler function of order α ∈ (0,1). By changing the inclination angle θ of the granular bed from horizontal, we have studied the impact of the effective gravitational acceleration g e ff = gsin θ on the relaxation features of the conductance σ( t). The characteristic timescale τ is found to grow when effective gravity g e ff decreases. By changing both the distance between the electrodes and the number of grains in the packing, we have shown that the long term resistance decay observed in the experiment is related to local micro-contacts rearrangements at each disk. By focusing on the electro-mechanical processes that allow both creation and breakdown of micro-contacts between two disks, we present an approach to granular conduction based on subordination of stochastic processes. In order to imitate, in a very simplified way, the conduction dynamics of granular material at low currents, we impose that the micro-contacts at the interface switch stochastically between two possible states, "on" and "off", characterizing the conductivity of the micro-contact. We assume that the time intervals between the consecutive changes of state are governed by a certain waiting-time distribution. It is demonstrated how the microscopic random dynamics regarding the micro-contacts leads to the macroscopic observation of slow conductance growth, described by an exact fractional kinetic equations.

  12. Meal Module, Tray Pack 36-Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-27

    17.50 7.8 0.19 20 Potatoes in 8940-01-152-6821 5.50 7.6 0.19 18 Butter Sauce Green Beans 8915-01-150-2861 7.99 5.0 0.19 25 Apple Dessert 8940-01-147-7855...CUSHIONED HOT SAUCE 8. BOXES OF PEANUT BUTTER PACKETS 9. BOX OF COFFEE PACKETS 10. BOX OF CREAMER PACKETS Figure 10. Meal Module, Tray Pack, 36...listed Condiments (Table A-3) as listed Breakfast 2 Fruit Cocktail w/Syrup 8915-00-286-5482 S Beef Stew 8940-01-009-7993 Mixed Vegetables 8915-01-173-2858

  13. Ideal Clutters That Do Not Pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-18

    class of objects, called marginal cuboids, that naturally give rise to ideal non-packing clutters with covering number two. We present an explicit...class of marginal cuboids, and show that the corresponding clutters have one of Q6, Q2,1, Q10 as a minor, where Q6, Q2,1 are known ideal mnp clutters...clutter C0 where τ(C0) = 2, and (iv) C0 is a marginal cuboid. This result is proved in §5. We will define marginal cuboids shortly. Statement (iv

  14. Psychosocial Outcomes of "Lunch Is in the Bag", a Parent Program for Packing Healthful Lunches for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweitzer, Sara J.; Briley, Margaret E.; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Harrist, Ronald B.; Staskel, Deanna M.; Almansour, Fawaz D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study evaluated effects of "Lunch is in the Bag" on behavioral constructs and their predictive relationship to lunch-packing behaviors of parents of young children. Methods: Six child care centers were pair-matched and randomly assigned to intervention (n = 3) and comparison (n = 3) groups. Parent/child dyads participated.…

  15. Application of cabbage leaves compared to gel packs for mothers with breast engorgement: Randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Boh Boi; Chan, Yiong Huak; Leow, Mabel Qi He; Lu, Yi; Chong, Yap Seng; Koh, Serena Siew Lin; He, Hong-Gu

    2017-11-01

    The effects of cold cabbage leaves and cold gel packs on breast engorgement management have been inconclusive. No studies have compared the effects of these methods on breast engorgement using a rigorous design. To examine the effectiveness of cold cabbage leaves and cold gel packs application on pain, hardness, and temperature due to breast engorgement, the duration of breastfeeding and satisfaction. A randomised controlled three-group pre-test and repeated post-test study. A private maternal and children's hospital in Singapore. Mothers (n=227) with breast engorgement within 14days after delivery. The mothers were randomly assigned into either cold cabbage leaves, cold gel packs, or the control group. Pain, hardness of breasts, and body temperature were measured before treatment. Two sets of post-test assessments were conducted at 30min, 1h, and 2h after the first and second application. The duration of breastfeeding was measured up to 6 months. IBM SPSS 23.0 was used to analyse the data. Mothers in the cabbage leaves and gel packs groups had significant reductions in pain at all post-intervention time points compared to the control group, starting from 30min after the first application of cabbage leaves (mean difference=-0.38, p=0.016) or gel packs (mean difference=-0.39, p=0.013). When compared to the control group, mothers in the cabbage leaves group had significant reductions in the hardness of breasts at all post-intervention time points, and mothers in the gel packs group had significant reductions in the hardness of breasts at two time points (1h and 2h after the first and second application, respectively). Mothers in the cabbage leaves group had significant reductions in pain (mean difference=-0.53, p=0.005) and hardness of breasts (mean difference=-0.35, p=0.003) at 2h after the second application compared to those in the gel packs group. Both interventions had no impact on body temperature. There was no significant difference in the durations of

  16. Do Titan's river channels carve into ice bedrock or loose regolith?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, G. C.; Sklar, L. S.; Litwin, K. L.; Polito, P. J.

    2012-04-01

    Final results from our experiments investigating the abrasion resistance and strength of polycrystalline ice and ice/contaminant mixtures at Titan temperatures allow us to update the calculations of Collins (2005), which examined the ease of fluvial incision into ice bedrock on Titan. If Titan’s stream channels run over exposed bedrock, the rate of channel downcutting is limited by the supply of sediment particles to abrade the bedrock surface, or by the production of pluckable blocks from joints in the bedrock. By adapting the equations of Sklar and Dietrich (2004) to Titan, we estimate the relative rate of bedrock incision caused by abrasion of sediment particles, and find that bedrock on Titan responds like a welded tuff or a quartzite on Earth, rather than the weak sandstone-like response found initially by Collins (2005). Using the range of values for the HLS drainage basins used by Perron et al. (2006) and the sediment sizes observed by Keller et al. (2008), we adjust the unknown sediment supply rate into the channels to find the upper limit of the bedrock incision rate during rainstorm-runoff events. Maximum incision rates are about 1 micron per hour. If typical peak runoff events only last for a few hours, it would take on the order of 105 to 106 rainstorms for a channel to incise one meter into the solid bedrock. However, the mass flux of sediment from farther upstream required to erode this much bedrock implies that transportation of loose sediment would lower the entire catchment area 100 times faster than the bedrock in the channel is lowered. This is logically unsustainable, and leaves us with two options for erosion of the stream channels. One option is that the stream channels are even more supply limited than they are in our maximization calculation, and channel incision on Titan is an even slower process than outlined above. A more likely explanation is that Titan’s streams are instead primarily cutting into bedrock that is pre-fractured into

  17. Fitness of ALS-Inhibitors Herbicide Resistant Population of Loose Silky Bentgrass (Apera spica-venti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielle Babineau

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbicide resistance is an example of plant evolution caused by an increased reliance on herbicides with few sites of action to manage weed populations. This micro-evolutionary process depends on fitness, therefore the assessment of fitness differences between susceptible and resistant populations are pivotal to establish management strategies. Loose silky bentgrass (Apera spica-venti is a serious weed in Eastern, Northern, and Central Europe with an increasing number of herbicide resistant populations. This study examined the fitness and growth characteristics of an ALS resistant biotype. Fitness and growth characteristics were estimated by comparing seed germination, biomass, seed yield and time to key growth stages at four crop densities of winter wheat (0, 48, 96, and 192 plants m-2 in a target-neighborhood design. The resistant population germinated 9–20 growing degree days (GDD earlier than the susceptible population at 10, 16, and 22°C. No differences were observed between resistant and susceptible populations in tiller number, biomass, time to stem elongation, time to first visible inflorescence and seed production. The resistant population reached the inflorescence emergence and flowering stages in less time by 383 and 196 GDD, respectively, at a crop density of 96 winter wheat plants m-2 with no differences registered at other densities. This study did not observe a fitness cost to herbicide resistance, as often hypothesized. Inversely, a correlation between non-target site resistance (NTSR, earlier germination and earlier flowering time which could be interpreted as fitness benefits as these plant characteristics could be exploited by modifying the timing and site of action of herbicide application to better control ALS NTSR populations of A. spica-venti.

  18. Bacterial cell surface properties: role of loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenqiang; Yang, Shanshan; Huang, Qiaoyun; Cai, Peng

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS) on the comprehensive surface properties of four bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus suis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida). The removal of LB-EPS from bacterial surfaces by high-speed centrifugation (12,000×g) was confirmed by SEM images. Viability tests showed that the percentages of viable cells ranged from 95.9% to 98.0%, and no significant difference was found after treatment (P>0.05). FTIR spectra revealed the presence of phosphodiester, carboxylic, phosphate, and amino functional groups on bacteria surfaces, and the removal of LB-EPS did not alter the types of cell surface functional groups. Potentiometric titration results suggested the total site concentrations on the intact bacteria were higher than those on LB-EPS free bacteria. Most of the acidity constants (pKa) were almost identical, except the increased pKa values of phosphodiester groups on LB-EPS free S. suis and E. coli surfaces. The electrophoretic mobilities and hydrodynamic diameters of the intact and LB-EPS free bacteria were statistically unchanged (P>0.05), indicating LB-EPS had no influence on the net surface charges and size distribution of bacteria. However, LB-ESP could enhance cell aggregation processes. The four LB-EPS free bacteria all exhibited fewer hydrophobicity values (26.1-65.0%) as compared to the intact cells (47.4-69.3%), suggesting the removal of uncharged nonpolar compounds (e.g., carbohydrates) in LB-EPS. These findings improve our understanding of the changes in cell surface characterizations induced by LB-EPS, and have important implications for assessing the role of LB-EPS in bacterial adhesion and transport behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Smart Washer for Bolt Looseness Monitoring Based on Piezoelectric Active Sensing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyue Yin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Piezoceramic based active sensing methods have been researched to monitor preload on bolt connections. However, there is a saturation problem involved with this type of method. The transmitted energy is sometimes saturated before the maximum preload which is due to it coming into contact with flat surfaces. When it comes to flat contact surfaces, the true contact area will easily saturate with the preload. The design of a new type of bolt looseness monitoring sensor, a smart washer, is to mitigate the saturation problem. The smart washer is composed of two annular disks with contact surfaces that are machined into convex and concave respectively, to eliminate the complete flat contact surfaces and to reduce the saturation effect. One piezoelectric patch is bonded on the non-contact surface of each annular disk. These two mating annular disks form a smart washer. One of the two piezoelectric patches serves as an actuator to generate an ultrasonic wave that propagates through the contact surface; the other one serves as a sensor to detect the propagated waves. The wave energy propagated through the contact surface is proportional to the true contact area which is determined by the bolt preload. The time reversal method is used to extract the peak of the focused signal as the index of the transmission wave energy; then, the relationship between the signal peak and bolt preload is obtained. Experimental results show that the focused signal peak value changes with the bolt preload and presents an approximate linear relationship when the saturation problem is experienced. The proposed smart washer can monitor the full range of the rated preload.

  20. Acute effects of cold therapy on knee skin surface temperature: gel pack versus ice bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Matthew; Lam, Patrick; Murrell, George A C

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge there has been no research that has compared the effectiveness of two popular cold therapy modalities applied to healthy human knees, with a surgical dressing, over a 4 h period. To determine whether gel packs are more effective than ice bags at reducing skin surface temperature in humans. This was a randomised, repeated measures crossover study, which included nine healthy participants. Level 2. Two cold therapy modalities-a gel pack (DonJoy-Orthopaedic Pty Ltd, Normanhurst, New South Wales, Australia) and an ice bag (ICE'N'EASY, Bokarina, Queensland, Australia)-were applied on top of a surgical dressing, covering the knee. Each participant randomly received two cold therapy treatments, in separate sessions, at least 4 days apart. Each session utilised the time protocol of 20 min application on the hour, for 4 h. Skin surface temperature was recorded throughout the session at 1 min intervals. In the first application, the ice bag (5°C±1.7°C) was more effective at reducing skin surface temperature (pice bag initially was more effective than the gel pack at reducing skin surface temperature of healthy knees, with a surgical dressing. Over a 4 h period both gel packs and ice bags were just as effective at reducing skin surface temperature and at maintaining these lower temperatures.

  1. Investigation of bioequivalence of a new fixed-dose combination of acarbose and metformin with the corresponding loose combination as well as the drug-drug interaction potential between both drugs in healthy adult male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; Jang, I-J; Shin, D; Shin, D S; Yoon, S; Lim, K S; Yu, K-S; Li, J; Zhang, H; Liu, Y; Brendel, E; Blode, H; Wang, Y

    2014-08-01

    Both metformin and acarbose are recommended monotherapy and add-on therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A fixed-dose combination (FDC) of acarbose and metformin has been developed to reduce pill burden and potentially improve compliance. The current study investigated the bioequivalence of the acarbose/metformin FDC compared with the individual agents administered simultaneously (loose combination). Secondary endpoints were the safety and tolerability of the FDC and the potential for drug-drug interactions between acarbose and metformin. A single-centre, randomized, open-label, four-period crossover study was conducted in healthy male Korean subjects aged 18-45 years. Following one-period balanced Williams design, participants were randomized to receive four single oral treatments on different study days separated by ≥7 days' washout. Treatments were as follows: (i) acarbose/metformin 50/500 mg FDC (test); (ii) acarbose 50 mg and metformin 500 mg as loose combination (reference); (iii) acarbose 50 mg; and (iv) metformin 500 mg. Serial blood samples were taken for glucose and insulin levels for 4 h after a sucrose load on the day before and day of study drug administration. Additionally, serial blood samples were taken for analysis of metformin levels for 24 h after each drug containing metformin. The area under the curve for 4 h post-test (AUC0-4 h ) and the maximal serum concentration (Cmax ) of plasma glucose and serum insulin were primary pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters, and Cmax , AUC0-last and AUC for metformin levels were primary pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. The bioequivalence of the FDC to the loose combination was considered established if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the baseline-adjusted PD parameter ratios (test vs. reference) for plasma glucose and the PK parameter ratios for metformin fell completely within current acceptance limits (0·8-1·25). Thirty-three of 40 randomized subjects completed the study; five withdrew

  2. The impact of cigarette pack design, descriptors, and warning labels on risk perception in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hammond, David; Smith, Philip; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-06-01

    In the U.S., limited evidence exists on the impact of colors and brand imagery used in cigarette pack design. This study examined the impact of pack design, product descriptors, and health warnings on risk perception and brand appeal. A cross-sectional mall-intercept study was conducted with 197 adult smokers and 200 nonsmokers in Buffalo NY from June to July 2009 (data analysis from July 2009 to December 2010). Participants were shown 12 sets of packs randomly; each set varied by a particular design feature (color, descriptor) or warning label style (text versus graphic, size, attribution, message framing). Packs were rated on criteria including risk perceptions, quit motivation, and purchase interest. Participants selected larger, pictorial, and loss-framed warning labels as more likely to attract attention, encourage thoughts about health risks, motivate quitting, and be most effective. Participants were more likely to select packs with lighter color shading and descriptors such as light, silver, and smooth as delivering less tar, smoother taste, and lower health risk, compared to darker-shaded or full-flavor packs. Additionally, participants were more likely to select the branded compared to plain white pack when asked which delivered the most tar, smoothest taste, was more attractive, appealed to youth aged graphic health warnings that convey loss-framed messages as most effective in communicating health risks to U.S. adults. The results also indicate that color and product descriptors are associated with false beliefs about risks. Plain packaging may reduce many of the erroneous misperceptions of risk communicated through pack design features. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Contaminant bacteria in traditional-packed honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hening Tjaturina Pramesti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Honey may be contaminated by microorganisms during its harvesting, processing, and packaging. Honey selected for clinical purposes must safe, sterile, and contain antimicrobial activity, so it must be evaluated using laboratory testing. The aim of this descriptive laboratory study was to isolate and identify the bacterial contaminant in the traditional-packed honey dealing with the use of honey for medical purposes. the colony forming units of honey sample cultured on blood agar were counted using Stuart bacterial colony counter. The suspected bacterial colonies were isolated and identified based on cultural morphology characteristics. The isolates of suspected bacterial colonies were stained according to Gram and Klein method and then were examined by the biochemical reaction. The results showed that there were two contaminant bacteria. Gram-positive cocci which were presumptively identified as coagulase-negative Staphylococci and gram-positive rods which were presumptively identified as Bacillus subtilis. In conclusion, the contaminant bacteria were regarded as low pathogen bacteria. The subtilin enzyme of B subtilis may cause an allergic reaction and coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Staphylococcus epidermidis is also an opportunist pathogen. Inevitably, for medical purposes, traditional-packed honey must be well filtered, water content above 18%, and standardized sterilization without loss of an antibacterial activity or change in properties.

  4. Packing material formulation for odorous emission biofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, François; Andres, Yves; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    In biological gas treatment, like biofiltration of volatile organic compounds or odorous substances, the microbial nutritional needs could be a key factor of the process. The aim of this work is to propose a new packing material able to provide the lacking nutrients. In the first part of this study, two kinds of material composed of calcium carbonate, an organic binder and two different nitrogen sources, ammonium phosphate and urea phosphate (UP), were compared. The new supports present bulk densities between 0.88 and 1.15g cm(-3), moisture retention capacities close to 50% and 70%, and water cohesion capacities greater than six months for the material with 20% binder. In the second part, oxygen consumption measurements in liquid experiments show that these packing materials could enhance bacterial growth compared to pine bark or pozzolan and have no inhibitory effect. The biodegradation of different substrates (sodium sulfide and ammonia) and the support colonization by the biomass were evaluated. Finally, UP 20 was chosen and tested in a hydrogen sulfide or ammoniac biofiltration process. This showed that, for H2S concentrations greater than 100mg m(-3), UP 20 has a real advantage over pine bark or pozzolan.

  5. Protein packing defects "heat up" interfacial water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, María Belén; Accordino, Sebastián R; Rodriguez-Fris, J Ariel; Morini, Marcela A; Appignanesi, Gustavo A; Fernández Stigliano, Ariel

    2013-06-01

    Ligands must displace water molecules from their corresponding protein surface binding site during association. Thus, protein binding sites are expected to be surrounded by non-tightly-bound, easily removable water molecules. In turn, the existence of packing defects at protein binding sites has been also established. At such structural motifs, named dehydrons, the protein backbone is exposed to the solvent since the intramolecular interactions are incompletely wrapped by non-polar groups. Hence, dehydrons are sticky since they depend on additional intermolecular wrapping in order to properly protect the structure from water attack. Thus, a picture of protein binding is emerging wherein binding sites should be both dehydrons rich and surrounded by easily removable water. In this work we shall indeed confirm such a link between structure and dynamics by showing the existence of a firm correlation between the degree of underwrapping of the protein chain and the mobility of the corresponding hydration water molecules. In other words, we shall show that protein packing defects promote their local dehydration, thus producing a region of "hot" interfacial water which might be easily removed by a ligand upon association.

  6. Comparing Electrolytes in Prestorage Leukocyte-Reduced Packed Cell versus Unfiltered Packed Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, L; Ghiliyan, R; Hashemi, A; Fatemi, A; Saeedi, M

    2013-01-01

    Blood transfusion is associated with side effects caused by residual leukocytes in blood and blood components. Using leukodepleted blood components can decrease some of these adverse effects. Among the various methods to remove leukocytes in blood components, prestorage leukoreduction has been most efficient, but the evidence of clinical side effects awaits further studies. We evaluated changes of electrolytes in prestorage leukocyte-reduced red blood cells. In this case-control study, one hundred twenty eight packed cells were studied: 64 unfiltered packed cells and 64 prestorage filtered packed cell. Two groups were matched as sex and age. Electrolytes such as Calcium, Sodium, and Potassium of two groups were measured, and compared during preparation. In this study, mean of Calcium in unfiltered and filtered group were 6.16±1.09 mg/dl and 5.57±2.21 mg/dl, respectively (P-valueunfiltered group also was 155.91+/-9.51meq/l and in filtered group, 153.05+/-13.21meq/l (P-valueunfiltered group was 5.01+/-1.72 meq/l and in filtered group, 7.42+/-2.45meq/l (P-value<0.001). Releasing of Potassium during preparation of prestorage leukoreduction can cause increased Potassium level and hemoglobin concentration changes in prestorage filtered packed cell.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF THE THERMAL BALANCE OF LOOSE DISPERSE MATERIALS EXEMPLIFIED BY MILLED PEAT EXPOSED TO INFRARED HEATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Mikhail Vasil'evich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Good knowledge of thermal balance is a prerequisite of successful mastering of the processes of heat and water transfer within a body. Given the reflective power of the substance surface under consideration, the analysis of the thermal balance of a loose disperse material was performed. A sample of milled peat served as the loose disperse material exposed to infrared heating. The practical results were compared to those available in the literature. One of the key results of the experiment represents identification of the radiation balance of the substance. Further research of the heat accumulation capacity rad will make it possible to identify the boundary conditions (energy and mass at the body boundary required to formulate and solve the boundary problem of thermal and moisture transfer. The latter will make it possible to project and to manage the thermal and moisture mode of materials in terms of timing and depth subject to thermal processes underway on their surface

  8. Low density gravel substitute gravel pack in Marlim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albino, E.

    1996-12-31

    Successful gravel pack completion means optimization of production. This has been PETROBRAS` task regarding completion of the giant Marlim field. Significant improvement have been noticed recently with the introduction of techniques such as horizontal drilling, frac pack and low density gravel substitute gravel pack. This paper discusses the introduction and results of the system, its advantages and trends since this technique can become an excellent alternative when a more aggressive technique is no economical. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Field sampling of loose erodible material: A new system to consider the full particle-size spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Martina; Gill, Thomas E.; Webb, Nicholas P.; Van Zee, Justin W.

    2017-10-01

    A new system is presented to sample and enable the characterization of loose erodible material (LEM) present on a soil surface, which may be susceptible for entrainment by wind. The system uses a modified MWAC (Modified Wilson and Cooke) sediment sampler connected to a corded hand-held vacuum cleaner. Performance and accuracy of the system was tested in the laboratory using five reference soil samples with different textures. Sampling was most effective for sandy soils, while effectiveness decreases were found for soils with high silt and clay contents in dry dispersion. This effectiveness decrease can be attributed to loose silt and clay-sized particles and particle aggregates adhering to and clogging a filter attached to the MWAC outlet. Overall, the system was found to be effective in collecting sediment for most soil textures and theoretical interpretation of the measured flow speeds suggests that LEM can be sampled for a wide range of particle sizes, including dust particles. Particle-size analysis revealed that the new system is able to accurately capture the particle-size distribution (PSD) of a given sample. Only small discrepancies (maximum cumulative difference vacuuming for all test soils. Despite limitations of the system, it is an advance toward sampling the full particle-size spectrum of loose sediment available for entrainment with the overall goal to better understand the mechanisms of dust emission and their variability.

  10. Packed bed carburization of tantalum and tantalum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, P.C.; Rodriguez, P.J.; Pereyra, R.A.

    1999-06-29

    Packed bed carburization of a tantalum or tantalum alloy object is disclosed. A method for producing corrosion-resistant tantalum or tantalum alloy objects is described. The method includes the steps of placing the object in contact with a carburizing pack, heating the packed object in vacuum furnace to a temperature whereby carbon from the pack diffuses into the object forming grains with tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries, and etching the surface of the carburized object. This latter step removes tantalum carbides from the surface of the carburized tantalum object while leaving the tantalum carbide along the grain boundaries. 4 figs.

  11. Strategies to analyse data obtained from liquid intrusion experiments of loose porous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Geoffrey; Mortona, David A V; Larson, Ian

    2017-10-25

    Liquid intrusion remains one of the most common methods to measure the contact angle of liquids to powders. However, as there are two unknown variables in the Washburn equation: the material constant (that is, the pore structure of the powder bed) and the contact angle of the liquid to the powder, this method requires the use of two liquids-a liquid of interest (the probe liquid) and a reference liquid. The reference liquid should, ideally, make a contact angle of 0° to the sample. However, in practice a low surface tension liquid is normally selected. This paper proposes a more standardised approach for the selection of the reference liquid based on experimental data. Additionally, a major assumption of the liquid intrusion method is that the pore structure, as measured by the material constant, C, is identical for all powder beds (provided that the same packing procedure is used for the same samples). In real systems, however, this is an approximation, and not likely to hold strictly true. Therefore, difficulties may arise with data analysis as there is a potential uncertainty in the most appropriate order to divide the gradient of the probe liquid by the gradient of the reference liquid. This paper proposes three specific methods of analysing such data, each with their own advantages and limitations. Hence, the selection of which method should be used is criteria-based, assessed on the basis of the obtained data. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reactions to FDA-Proposed Graphic Warning Labels Affixed to U.S. Smokers’ Cigarette Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, Matthew W.; Boyum, Sonia; Thompson, Vetta S.; Caburnay, Charlene A.; Waters, Erika A.; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Rath, Suchitra; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Graphic warning labels have been shown to be more effective than text-only labels in increasing attention and perceived health risks, but most U.S. studies have involved single exposures in laboratory or Internet settings. Methods: We recruited a convenience sample (N = 202) of U.S. adult smokers from population subgroups with higher rates of smoking and smoking-related deaths who had participated in a larger survey about graphic warning labels. Participants were randomized to get 1 of 9 graphic + text labels or a text-only label. Research staff affixed a warning label sticker to participants’ cigarette pack(s) at enrollment. Color graphic labels covered slightly more than the lower half of packs. Black and white labels of current U.S. text-only warnings covered the existing side warning to prompt attention to the label (i.e., attention control). Participants received extra stickers of the same label for subsequent packs, and completed 3 telephone interviews in 1 week. Results: Participants reported low avoidance (graphic than text-only labels. Only 5 of the 9 graphic warning labels were significantly associated with greater thoughts of health risks. Thinking about quitting and stopping smoking did not differ by label. Qualitative data illustrated differences in the “stickiness,” self-referencing, and counterarguments of graphic warning labels. Conclusions: U.S. smokers’ reactions to graphic warning labels on their own packs were similar to other, more controlled studies. Qualitative findings underscore the need for warning labels that encourage self-referential processing without increasing defensive reactions. PMID:25589676

  13. Reactions to FDA-Proposed Graphic Warning Labels Affixed to U.S. Smokers' Cigarette Packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Amy; Kreuter, Matthew W; Boyum, Sonia; Thompson, Vetta S; Caburnay, Charlene A; Waters, Erika A; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Rath, Suchitra; Fu, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Graphic warning labels have been shown to be more effective than text-only labels in increasing attention and perceived health risks, but most U.S. studies have involved single exposures in laboratory or Internet settings. We recruited a convenience sample (N = 202) of U.S. adult smokers from population subgroups with higher rates of smoking and smoking-related deaths who had participated in a larger survey about graphic warning labels. Participants were randomized to get 1 of 9 graphic + text labels or a text-only label. Research staff affixed a warning label sticker to participants' cigarette pack(s) at enrollment. Color graphic labels covered slightly more than the lower half of packs. Black and white labels of current U.S. text-only warnings covered the existing side warning to prompt attention to the label (i.e., attention control). Participants received extra stickers of the same label for subsequent packs, and completed 3 telephone interviews in 1 week. Participants reported low avoidance (graphic than text-only labels. Only 5 of the 9 graphic warning labels were significantly associated with greater thoughts of health risks. Thinking about quitting and stopping smoking did not differ by label. Qualitative data illustrated differences in the "stickiness," self-referencing, and counterarguments of graphic warning labels. U.S. smokers' reactions to graphic warning labels on their own packs were similar to other, more controlled studies. Qualitative findings underscore the need for warning labels that encourage self-referential processing without increasing defensive reactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Packing of ganglioside-phospholipid monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majewski, J.; Kuhl, T.L.; Kjær, K.

    2001-01-01

    Using synchrotron grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD) and reflectivity, the in-plane and out-of-plane structure of mixed ganglioside-phospholipid monolayers was investigated at the air-water interface. Mixed monolayers of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 100 mol% ganglioside GM, and the phospholipid...... dipaimitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) were studied in the solid phase at 23 degreesC and a surface pressure of 45 mN/m. At these concentrations and conditions the two components do not phase-separate and no evidence for domain formation was observed. X-ray scattering measurements reveal that GM, is accommodated within the host...... polymer groups. Indeed, the lack of packing disruptions by the oligosaccharide groups indicates that protein-GM, interactions, including binding, insertion, chain fluidization, and domain formation (lipid rafts), can be studied in 2-D monolayers using scattering techniques....

  15. Slow creep in soft granular packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ishan; Fisher, Timothy S

    2017-05-14

    Transient creep mechanisms in soft granular packings are studied numerically using a constant pressure and constant stress simulation method. Rapid compression followed by slow dilation is predicted on the basis of a logarithmic creep phenomenon. Characteristic scales of creep strain and time exhibit a power-law dependence on jamming pressure, and they diverge at the jamming point. Microscopic analysis indicates the existence of a correlation between rheology and nonaffine fluctuations. Localized regions of large strain appear during creep and grow in magnitude and size at short times. At long times, the spatial structure of highly correlated local deformation becomes time-invariant. Finally, a microscale connection between local rheology and local fluctuations is demonstrated in the form of a linear scaling between granular fluidity and nonaffine velocity.

  16. School meal sociality or lunch pack individualism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    the social life of a school class, and how these arrangements involve strategies of both inclusion and exclusion. Two types of school meals are compared in the intervention study: a hot meal based on Nordic ingredients and the normal Danish school meal arrangement in which children bring lunch packs......The present article specifies and broadens our understanding of the concept of commensality by investigating what it means to ‘share a meal’. The study utilizes a school meal intervention carried out in Denmark in 2011/2012. It shows how different types of school meal arrangement influence...... to school. The study discusses commensality by examining and comparing lunchtime interactions within the same group of children in the two contrasting meal situations. The results fail to confirm the conventional view that shared meals have greater social impacts and benefits than eating individualized...

  17. Experimental and numerical investigation of a packed-bed thermal energy storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bei; Wang, Yan; Bai, Fengwu; Wang, Zhifeng

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a pilot-scale setup built to study a packed bed thermal energy storage device based on ceramic balls randomly poured into a cylindrical tank while using air as heat transfer fluid. Temperature distribution of ceramic balls throughout the packed bed is investigated both experimentally and numerically. Method of characteristic is adopted to improve the numerical computing efficiency, and mesh independence is verified to guarantee the accuracy of numerical solutions and the economy of computing time cost at the same time. Temperature in tests is as high as over 600 °C, and modeling prediction shows good agreements with experimental results under various testing conditions when heat loss is included and thermal properties of air are considered as temperature dependent.

  18. Modeling root growth in granular soils: effects of root stiffness and packing fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Mahmoud; Delenne, Jean Yves; Radjai, Farhang; Fourcaud, Thierry

    2017-06-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effects of root bending stiffness and packing fraction on the path followed by a growing root in 2D packings of grains representing a soil. The root is modeled as a chain of elements that can grow in length and change their direction depending on the forces exerted by soil grains. We show that the root shape is mainly controlled by the bending stiffness of its apex. At low stiffness, the root randomly explores the pore space whereas at sufficiently high stiffness, of the order of soil hardness multiplied by mean grain size, the root follows a straight path across the soil. Between these two limits, the root shape can be characterized by the standard deviation of its re-directions at the scale of soil grains. We find that this shape parameter varies as a power-law function of the normalized bending stiffness.

  19. Sound Packing DNA: packing open circular DNA with low-intensity ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donghee; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Park, Hyunjin; Lee, Hyungbeen; Lee, Gyudo; Park, Jingam; Shin, Unchul; Won, Jong Ho; Jo, Yong Jun; Chang, Jin Woo; Lee, Sangwoo; Yoon, Daesung; Seo, Jongbum; Kim, Chul-Woo

    2015-04-01

    Supercoiling DNA (folding DNA into a more compact molecule) from open circular forms requires significant bending energy. The double helix is coiled into a higher order helix form; thus it occupies a smaller footprint. Compact packing of DNA is essential to improve the efficiency of gene delivery, which has broad implications in biology and pharmaceutical research. Here we show that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound can pack open circular DNA into supercoil form. Plasmid DNA subjected to 5.4 mW/cm2 intensity ultrasound showed significant (p-values DNA without exposure to ultrasound. Radiation force induced from ultrasound and dragging force from the fluid are believed to be the main factors that cause supercoiling. This study provides the first evidence to show that low-intensity ultrasound can directly alter DNA topology. We anticipate our results to be a starting point for improved non-viral gene delivery.

  20. Measured Black Carbon Deposition on the Sierra Nevada Snow Pack and Implication for Snow Pack Retreat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, O.L.; Corrigan, C.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Cliff, S.S.; Ramanathan, V.

    2010-01-12

    Modeling studies show that the darkening of snow and ice by black carbon deposition is a major factor for the rapid disappearance of arctic sea ice, mountain glaciers and snow packs. This study provides one of the first direct measurements for the efficient removal of black carbon from the atmosphere by snow and its subsequent deposition to the snow packs of California. The early melting of the snow packs in the Sierras is one of the contributing factors to the severe water problems in California. BC concentrations in falling snow were measured at two mountain locations and in rain at a coastal site. All three stations reveal large BC concentrations in precipitation, ranging from 1.7 ng/g to 12.9 ng/g. The BC concentrations in the air after the snow fall were negligible suggesting an extremely efficient removal of BC by snow. The data suggest that below cloud scavenging, rather than ice nuclei, was the dominant source of BC in the snow. A five-year comparison of BC, dust, and total fine aerosol mass concentrations at multiple sites reveals that the measurements made at the sampling sites were representative of large scale deposition in the Sierra Nevada. The relative concentration of iron and calcium in the mountain aerosol indicates that one-quarter to one-third of the BC may have been transported from Asia.

  1. New series of paper pack vending machines; Paper pack jido hanbaiki no shin series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, M. [Fuji Denki Reiki Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Umino, S. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-10

    This paper presents series of paper pack vending machines. These machines may be broadly classified into those of cold drinks and of hot and cold drinks depending on the storage temperature of products. The former is the machine for cooling dairy products at 10{degree}C with a combined stacking by direct-stacked racks and chain-multiracks. The latter is provided with divided storing chambers with each chamber selectively cooled or heated. Products in the hot chamber are canned coffee and the like set at 55{degree}C. The temperature control is performed by a microcomputer. The chain-multiracks are provided with advantages such as capability of handling various kinds of container shapes, storing drinks and foods vertically, replacing products by the change of a shelf attachment with one operation, and storing one liter packs by setting pair columns. The direct-stacked racks are provided with advantages such as versatility of handling various kinds of containers and miniaturization of the mechanism other than the storage part. The installation space was reduced by devising the opening and closing of the door. The control part is capable of setting temperatures differently for cans and paper packs. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Measured black carbon deposition on the Sierra Nevada snow pack and implication for snow pack retreat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Hadley

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Modeling studies show that the darkening of snow and ice by black carbon deposition is a major factor for the rapid disappearance of arctic sea ice, mountain glaciers and snow packs. This study provides one of the first direct measurements for the efficient removal of black carbon from the atmosphere by snow and its subsequent deposition to the snow packs of California. The early melting of the snow packs in the Sierras is one of the contributing factors to the severe water problems in California. BC concentrations in falling snow were measured at two mountain locations and in rain at a coastal site. All three stations reveal large BC concentrations in precipitation, ranging from 1.7 ng/g to 12.9 ng/g. The BC concentrations in the air after the snow fall were negligible suggesting an extremely efficient removal of BC by snow. The data suggest that below cloud scavenging, rather than ice nuclei, was the dominant source of BC in the snow. A five-year comparison of BC, dust, and total fine aerosol mass concentrations at multiple sites reveals that the measurements made at the sampling sites were representative of large scale deposition in the Sierra Nevada. The relative concentration of iron and calcium in the mountain aerosol indicates that one-quarter to one-third of the BC may have been transported from Asia.

  3. Complexity in Surfaces of Densest Packings for Families of Polyhedra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R. Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Packings of hard polyhedra have been studied for centuries due to their mathematical aesthetic and more recently for their applications in fields such as nanoscience, granular and colloidal matter, and biology. In all these fields, particle shape is important for structure and properties, especially upon crowding. Here, we explore packing as a function of shape. By combining simulations and analytic calculations, we study three two-parameter families of hard polyhedra and report an extensive and systematic analysis of the densest known packings of more than 55 000 convex shapes. The three families have the symmetries of triangle groups (icosahedral, octahedral, tetrahedral and interpolate between various symmetric solids (Platonic, Archimedean, Catalan. We find optimal (maximum packing-density surfaces that reveal unexpected richness and complexity, containing as many as 132 different structures within a single family. Our results demonstrate the importance of thinking about shape not as a static property of an object, in the context of packings, but rather as but one point in a higher-dimensional shape space whose neighbors in that space may have identical or markedly different packings. Finally, we present and interpret our packing results in a consistent and generally applicable way by proposing a method to distinguish regions of packings and classify types of transitions between them.

  4. Hydrodynamics of multi-phase packed bed micro-reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Márquez Luzardo, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Why to use packed bed micro-reactors for catalyst testing? Miniaturized packed bed reactors have a large surface-to-volume ratio at the reactor and particle level that favors the heat- and mass-transfer processes at all scales (intra-particle, inter-phase and inter-particle or reactor level). If the

  5. The sintering behavior of close-packed spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Tikare, V.; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2012-01-01

    The sintering behavior of close-packed spheres is investigated using a numerical model. The investigated systems are the body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal close-packed spheres (hcp). The sintering behavior is found to be ideal, with no grain growth until full...

  6. The performance of structured packings in trickle-bed reactors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, M.J.W.; Frank, M.J.W.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1999-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate whether the use of structured packings might improve the mass transfer characteristics and the catalyst effectiveness of a trickle-bed reactor. Therefore, the performances of a structured packing, consisting of KATAPAK elements, and a dumped

  7. The Performance of Structured Packings in Trickle-Bed Reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, M.J.W.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1999-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate whether the use of structured packings might improve the mass transfer characteristics and the catalyst effectiveness of a trickle-bed reactor. Therefore, the performances of a structured packing, consisting of KATAPAK elements, and a dumped

  8. Softening of stressed granular packings with resonant sound waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhardt, C J Olson; Lopatina, L M; Jia, X; Johnson, P A

    2015-08-01

    We perform numerical simulations of a two-dimensional bidisperse granular packing subjected to both a static confining pressure and a sinusoidal dynamic forcing applied by a wall on one edge of the packing. We measure the response experienced by a wall on the opposite edge of the packing and obtain the resonant frequency of the packing as the static or dynamic pressures are varied. Under increasing static pressure, the resonant frequency increases, indicating a velocity increase of elastic waves propagating through the packing. In contrast, when the dynamic amplitude is increased for fixed static pressure, the resonant frequency decreases, indicating a decrease in the wave velocity. This occurs both for compressional and for shear dynamic forcing and is in agreement with experimental results. We find that the average contact number Zc at the resonant frequency decreases with increasing dynamic amplitude, indicating that the elastic softening of the packing is associated with a reduced number of grain-grain contacts through which the elastic waves can travel. We image the excitations created in the packing and show that there are localized disturbances or soft spots that become more prevalent with increasing dynamic amplitude. Our results are in agreement with experiments on glass bead packings and earth materials such as sandstone and granite and may be relevant to the decrease in elastic wave velocities that has been observed to occur near fault zones after strong earthquakes, in surficial sediments during strong ground motion, and in structures during earthquake excitation.

  9. Evaluation of microbial quality of selected blister-packed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten brands of blister-packed paracetamol tablet and twenty brands of paracetamol syrup marketed in Nigeria were evaluated for their microbial quality. While no microbial contaminant was isolated from all blistered-packed paracetamol tablets, ten of syrups were contaminated with organisms such as Escherichia coli, ...

  10. demonstrating close-packing of atoms using spherical bubble gums

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    chemistry and junior inorganic chemistry courses. However, the subject of three dimen- sional close-packing of atoms has always been difficult for students to understand. In particular, students find it difficult to visualize the packing of atoms in different layers. They cannot clearly identify tetrahedral and octahedral holes, and.

  11. CoolPack – Simulation tools for refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.; Andersen, Simon Engedal

    1999-01-01

    from www.et.dtu.dk/coolpack. Users without access to the Internet can contact Team CoolPack by using the address stated in the last paragraph.The purpose of this article is twofold: Introduction to the use of CoolPack and presentation of some of the related technical issues of modelling and layout...

  12. 76 FR 251 - Country of Origin Labeling of Packed Honey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 52 RIN 0581-AC89 Country of Origin Labeling of Packed Honey AGENCY: Agricultural..., establishing new regulations addressing country of origin labeling for packed honey bearing any official USDA... service for honey if country of origin labeling requirements are not met for packages of honey containing...

  13. Characteristics of illegal and legal cigarette packs sold in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Rodrigo; Corral, Juan E; Monzon, Diego; Yoon, Mira; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2016-11-25

    Guatemala, as a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is required to regulate cigarette packaging and labeling and eliminate illicit tobacco trade. Current packaging and labeling characteristics (of legal and illegal cigarettes) and their compliance with the FCTC is unknown. We sought to analyze package and label characteristics of illegal and legal cigarettes sold in Guatemala. We visited the 22 largest traditional markets in the country to purchase illegal cigarettes. All brands registered on tobacco industry websites were purchased as legal cigarettes. Analysis compared labeling characteristics of illegal and legal packs. Most (95%) markets and street vendors sold illegal cigarettes; 104 packs were purchased (79 illegal and 25 legal). Ten percent of illegal and none of the legal packs had misleading terms. Half of the illegal packs had a warning label covering 26 to 50% of the pack surface. All legal packs had a label covering 25% of the surface. Illegal packs were more likely to have information on constituents and emissions (85% vs. 45%, p illegal nor legal cigarette packs comply with FCTC labeling mandates. Urgent implementation and enforcement of the FCTC is necessary to halt the tobacco epidemic.

  14. Nutritional Contents of Lunch Packs of Primary School Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lunch packs play a significant role in the nutritional status and academic performance of school children. Available data show a high prevalence of malnutrition among school‑age children. Aims: The aim of this study is to document the nutritional contents of lunch packs of primary school children in Nnewi, ...

  15. demonstrating close-packing of atoms using spherical bubble gums

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    ABSTRACT: In this paper, the use of spherical bubble gums (Gum Balls) to demonstrate the close-packing of atoms and ions is presented. Spherical bubble gums having distinctive colours were used to illustrate the different layers in variety of crystalline packing and the formation of tetrahedral and octahedral holes.

  16. Nutritional Contents of Lunch Packs of Primary School Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    range of nutrients, a child needs to consume a good variety of foods from different food groups, every day and in the right proportions.[6] Packing adequate meals including fruits and. Nutritional Contents of Lunch Packs of Primary. School Children in Nnewi, Nigeria. Ugochukwu EF, Onubogu CU, Edokwe ES, Okeke KN.

  17. Effects on Packed Cell Volume and Parasitic Worm Load from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the consequences of parasitic worm infestation in children is anaemia which is objectively measured by estimating the packed cell volume. This study carried out through four months was to examine the effects, (on packed cell volume and parasitic worm load) of de-worming pupils of a primary school in Rivers State.

  18. Improved Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Packed Cell Volume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Packed Cell Volume following administration of Aloe barbadensis Juice Extract in Rats. ... Abstract. Aloe barbadensis is a popular house plant that has a long history of a multipurpose folk remedy. ... Keywords: osmotic fragility, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, Aloe vera ...

  19. Experimental validation of packed bed chemical-looping combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorman, S.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical-looping combustion has emerged as a promising alternative technology, intrinsically integrating CO2 capture in power production. A novel reactor concept based on dynamically operated packed beds has been proposed [Noorman, S., van Sint Annaland, M., Kuipers, J.A.M., 2007. Packed bed reactor

  20. An efficient block-discriminant identification of packed malware

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Extracting original payload by executing packed file in virtual environment requires resources and is prone to ... To create these environments, numerous virtual or sandboxing frameworks are .... ESCAPE utilizes blockwise entropy values and PEAL uses learning algorithm for discriminat- ing packed or native binaries.

  1. The Knot Spectrum of Confined Random Equilateral Polygons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diao Y.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that genomic materials (long DNA chains of living organisms are often packed compactly under extreme confining conditions using macromolecular self-assembly processes but the general DNA packing mechanism remains an unsolved problem. It has been proposed that the topology of the packed DNA may be used to study the DNA packing mechanism. For example, in the case of (mutant bacteriophage P4, DNA molecules packed inside the bacteriophage head are considered to be circular since the two sticky ends of the DNA are close to each other. The DNAs extracted from the capsid without separating the two ends can thus preserve the topology of the (circular DNAs. It turns out that the circular DNAs extracted from bacteriophage P4 are non-trivially knotted with very high probability and with a bias toward chiral knots. In order to study this problem using a systematic approach based on mathematical modeling, one needs to introduce a DNA packing model under extreme volume confinement condition and test whether such a model can produce the kind of knot spectrum observed in the experiments. In this paper we introduce and study a model of equilateral random polygons con_ned in a sphere. This model is not meant to generate polygons that model DNA packed in a virus head directly. Instead, the average topological characteristics of this model may serve as benchmark data for totally randomly packed circular DNAs. The difference between the biologically observed topological characteristics and our benchmark data might reveal the bias of DNA packed in the viral capsids and possibly lead to a better understanding of the DNA packing mechanism, at least for the bacteriophage DNA. The purpose of this paper is to provide information about the knot spectrum of equilateral random polygons under such a spherical confinement with length and confinement ratios in a range comparable to circular DNAs packed inside bacteriophage heads.

  2. [Stability of oral rehydration solutions in various packing materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M I; Hackmann, E R; Moudatsos, K M

    1993-10-01

    The aim of this research was to provide data to select an ideal packing material to preserve the integrity of oral rehydration salts (ORS), a therapeutic formulation that is essential in developing countries. Previous research had verified that water is the factor that most affects ORS stability. For this research, a pharmaceutical industry prepared an ORS batch that was packed in six different types of packing materials. The humidity determination was made after storage of samples during 36 weeks at room temperature, at room temperature with 76% relative humidity, and at 40 degrees C with 80% relative humidity. The moisture in the samples was measured at pre-determined intervals using methods like loss on drying at 50 degrees C and the Karl Fischer method. The results indicated that the most efficient packing material was composed of 18g polyester, 35 g aluminum, and 50 g polyethylene (packing material no. 6).

  3. Numerical optimization method for packing regular convex polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiev, Sh. I.; Lisafina, M. S.

    2016-08-01

    An algorithm is presented for the approximate solution of the problem of packing regular convex polygons in a given closed bounded domain G so as to maximize the total area of the packed figures. On G a grid is constructed whose nodes generate a finite set W on G, and the centers of the figures to be packed can be placed only at some points of W. The problem of packing these figures with centers in W is reduced to a 0-1 linear programming problem. A two-stage algorithm for solving the resulting problems is proposed. The algorithm finds packings of the indicated figures in an arbitrary closed bounded domain on the plane. Numerical results are presented that demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  4. Comparisons of ice packs, hot water immersion, and analgesia injection for the treatment of centipede envenomations in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaou, Chung-Hsien; Chen, Chian-Kuang; Chen, Jih-Chang; Chiu, Te-Fa; Lin, Chih-Chuan

    2009-08-01

    To compare the effectiveness of ice packs and hot water immersion for the treatment of centipede envenomations. Sixty patients envenomated by centipedes were randomized into three groups and were treated with ice packs, hot water immersion, or analgesia injection. The visual analog score (VAS) for pain was measured before the treatment and 15 min afterward. Demographic data and data on local and systemic effects after centipede bites were collected. The VAS scores and the pain decrease (DeltaVAS) were compared between the three groups. All patients suffered from pain at the affected sites; other local effects included redness (n = 49, 81.7%), swelling (n = 32, 53.3%), heat (n = 14, 23.3%), itchiness (n = 5, 8.3), and bullae formation (n = 3, 5.0%). Rare systemic effects were reported. All three groups had similar VAS scores before and after treatment. They also had similar effectiveness in reducing pain caused by centipedes bites (DeltaVAS = 2.55 +/- 1.88, 2.33 +/- 1.78, and 1.55 +/- 1.68, with ice packs, analgesia, and hot water immersion, respectively, p = 0.165). Ice packs, hot water immersion, and analgesics all improved the pain from centipede envenomation. Ice pack treatment is a safe, inexpensive, and non-invasive method for pre-hospital management in patients with centipede envenomation.

  5. SEPTOPLASTY WITH AND WITHOUT NASAL PACKING: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Septoplasty is one of the most commonly performed surgeries in rhinology to relieve nasal obstruction of patients with distortion in the midline cartilage or septum of the nose to relieve nasal obstruction of patient and findings consistent with nasal endoscopy. The anterior nasal packing routinely done following septoplasty is usually conventional and not evidence based. The purpose of nasal packing is to obtain haemostasis, enhance opposition of septal flaps, avoid septal haematoma formation, close the dead space, avoid synechiae formation, provide support to septal cartilage and prevent its displacement. OBJECTIVE This study intends to evaluate the effects of nasal packing on surgical success and related complications in septoplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present clinical prospective and randomised study was carried out on patients attending Otorhinolaryngology Department of Santhiram Medical College & General Hospital between March 2012 and March 2015. Patients undergoing septoplasty were randomised either to receive anterior nasal packing or to not receive nasal packing postoperatively. RESULTS Levels of pain experienced by patients with nasal packing postoperatively during the initial 24 hours postoperatively and during the removal of the pack were significantly more. Post-operative headache, epiphora, swallowing discomfort and sleep disturbance were more in patients with nasal packing and statistically (p.05. Septal haematoma, adhesions and local infections in both groups were statistically insignificant (p>.05. CONCLUSION Septoplasty enhances the standard of living of patients with septal deviation and nasal obstruction. Our study results suggest that nasal packing after septoplasty is not obligatory. Nasal packing causes considerably more pain and complications, and it should be reserved only for those who have bleeding predisposition.

  6. Incongruent reduction following post-traumatic hip dislocations as an indicator of intra-articular loose bodies: A prospective study of 117 dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Karthik

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Intra-articular loose bodies were identified by nonconcentric reduction in 12 out of 117 patients with simple hip dislocation. Careful evaluation by fluoroscopy and good quality radiographs are indicated following reduction of hip dislocations.

  7. Biochemical and histological evaluation of the synovial-like tissue around failed (loose) total joint replacement prostheses in human subjects and a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, T S; Ozuna, R M; Shortkroff, S; Keller, K; Sledge, C B; Spector, M

    1990-07-01

    The tissue around loose total joint replacement prostheses displays a synovial-like lining comprised of cells that produce IL-1 and PGE2, mediators of inflammation that stimulate bone resorption. Particles of titanium alloy, as well as cobalt-chromium alloy and polyethylene, were found to aggravate the histiocytic response and production of IL-1 and PGE2. Tissue with similar histological and biochemical features was produced in a canine model of the aseptic loose cemented femoral stem.

  8. Comparison of an indirect tri-planar myofascial release (MFR) technique and a hot pack for increasing range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Jay; Martorello, Laura; Swanson, Edward; Sego, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the randomized clinical study was to scientifically assess which intervention increases passive range of motion most effectively: the indirect tri-planar myofascial release (MFR) technique or the application of hot packs for gleno-humeral joint flexion, extension, and abduction. A total of 31 participants from a sample of convenience were randomly assigned to examine whether or not MFR was as effective in increasing range of motion as hot packs. The sample consisted of students at American International College. Students were randomly assigned to two groups: hot pack application (N=13) or MFR technique (N=18). The independent variable was the intervention, either the tri-planar MFR technique or the hot pack application. Group one received the indirect tri-planar MFR technique once for 3min. Group two received one hot pack application for 20min. The dependent variables, passive gleno-humeral shoulder range of motion in shoulder flexion, shoulder extension, and shoulder abduction, were taken pre- and post-intervention for both groups. Data was analyzed through the use of a two-way factorial design with mixed-factors ANOVA. Prior to conducting the study, inter-rater reliability was established using three testers for goniometric measures. A 2 (type of intervention: hot packs or MFR) by 2 (pre-test or post-test) mixed-factors ANOVA was calculated. Significant increases in range of motion were found for flexion, extension and abduction when comparing pre-test scores to post-test scores. The results of the ANOVA showed that for passive range of motion no differences were found for flexion, extension and abduction between the effectiveness of hot packs and MFR. For each of the dependent variables measured, MFR was shown to be as effective as hot packs in increasing range of motion, supporting the hypothesis. Since there was no significant difference between the types of intervention, both the hot pack application and the MFR technique were found to be

  9. Packing schemes of cavities in selected clathrasils and zeolites and the analogous packings of atoms in crystal structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hem, Caroline Piper; Makovicky, Emil; Balic Zunic, Tonci

    2010-01-01

    Sizes of cavities and their packing schemes in selected zeolites and clathrasils were studied by means of least squares fitting of circumscribed spheres to them. Resulting packing of spheres of different diameters was analyzed by the coordinates of their centers, their volumes and sphericity......, and interpreted by comparison with analogous packings of atoms in inorganic compounds and alloys. The topology is described qualitatively as “negative” structures formed by the cavities. Melanophlogite and dodecasils 3C and 1H are all clathrasils with isolated cavities. They all have pentagonal dodecahedral [512......] cages, associated with other cavity types. The packing of cavities in melanophlogite is analogous to the packing of atoms in the structure of Cr3Si, where the Cr atoms form icosahedra around the Si sites. Dodecasil 3C has a cubic arrangement of [512] cavities, which is described as ABC stacking...

  10. IBA investigations of loose garnets from Pietroasa, Apahida and Cluj-Someşeni treasures (5th century AD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugoi, R.; Oanţă-Marghitu, R.; Calligaro, T.

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports the archaeometric investigations of 418 loose garnets from Pietroasa and Cluj-Someşeni treasures and Apahida II and III princely grave inventories (5th century AD). The chemical composition of the gems was determined by external beam micro-PIXE technique at the AGLAE accelerator of C2RMF, Paris, France. Complementary observations made by Optical Microscopy revealed details on the gemstones cutting and polishing and permitted to identify certain mineral inclusions. The compositional results evidenced several types of garnets from the pyralspite series, suggesting distinct provenances for these Early Medieval gems.

  11. IBA investigations of loose garnets from Pietroasa, Apahida and Cluj-Someşeni treasures (5th century AD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugoi, R., E-mail: bugoi@nipne.ro [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering, Măgurele 077125 (Romania); Oanţă-Marghitu, R., E-mail: rodicamarghitu@yahoo.com [Muzeul Naţional de Istorie a României, Bucureşti 030026 (Romania); Calligaro, T., E-mail: thomas.calligaro@culture.gouv.fr [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 75001 Paris (France); PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech – CNRS, Institut de Recherche Chimie Paris, UMR8247, 75005 Paris (France)

    2016-03-15

    This paper reports the archaeometric investigations of 418 loose garnets from Pietroasa and Cluj-Someşeni treasures and Apahida II and III princely grave inventories (5th century AD). The chemical composition of the gems was determined by external beam micro-PIXE technique at the AGLAE accelerator of C2RMF, Paris, France. Complementary observations made by Optical Microscopy revealed details on the gemstones cutting and polishing and permitted to identify certain mineral inclusions. The compositional results evidenced several types of garnets from the pyralspite series, suggesting distinct provenances for these Early Medieval gems.

  12. The effect of feed trough position on choice of defecation area in farrowing pens by loose sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate how the feed trough position affects the sow’s choice of defecation area in a loose house farrowing pen. The eliminative behaviour of 24 1st parity sows was studied in a cross-over design. The feed trough and the water were positioned either...... in the activity area towards the neighbouring pen or in the activity area towards the aisle. On day 15 after farrowing, the feed trough and the water were moved to the opposite position. Videotapes were observed continuously on real time and the time of urination or defecation were recorded along with head...

  13. Reduction in the thermal resistance (R-value) of loose-fill insulation and fiberglass batts due to compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbrough, D.W.; Wright, J.H.

    1981-04-01

    A method is presented for calculating the thickness reduction of loose-fill insulations and fiberglass batts that result from compressive forces exerted by additional insulation. The thickness reduction is accompanied by an increase in density and a reduction in the R value of the compressed layer. Calculations for thermal resistance of two layers of insulation are given. Information in 4 appendices includes: identification of products tested (products from 3 companies); experimental values for thickness as a function of loading; Fortran programs and output; and calculated R values for stacked insulations. (MCW)

  14. Fast charge implications: Pack and cell analysis and comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanim, Tanvir R.; Shirk, Matthew G.; Bewley, Randy L.; Dufek, Eric J.; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of 50-kW (about 2C) direct current fast charging on a full-size battery electric vehicle's battery pack in comparison to a pack exclusively charged at 3.3 kW, which is the common alternating current Level 2 charging power level. Comparable scaled charging protocols are also independently applied to individual cells at three different temperatures, 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C, to perform a comparative analysis with the packs. Dominant cell-level aging modes were identified through incremental capacity analysis and compared with full packs to gain a clear understanding of additional key factors that affect pack aging. While the cell-level study showed a minor impact on performance due to direct current fast charging, the packs showed a significantly higher rate of capacity fade under similar charging protocols. This indicates that pack-level aging cannot be directly extrapolated from cell evaluation. Delayed fast charging, completing shortly before discharge, was found to have less of an impact on battery degradation than conventional alternating current Level 2 charging.

  15. Identifying counterfeit cigarette packs using ultraviolet irradiation and light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurti, Marin; He, Yi; von Lampe, Klaus; Li, Yanlei

    2017-01-01

    Develop a method that yields high rates of sensitivity and specificity for determination of counterfeit cigarette packs for three popular brands: Newport, Marlboro ('Red') and Marlboro Gold. Using systematic keyword searches, we identified industry documents from the University of California, San Francisco's Legacy Tobacco Documents Library that describe the use of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and close examination of printing quality to distinguish between counterfeit and genuine cigarette packs. Guided by these documents, we identified six markers for counterfeit cigarettes across three popular brands using counterfeit cigarette packs (N=68) seized by law enforcement agencies in the USA. We assessed the diagnostic test accuracy of these markers and tested it against genuine packs (N=22) using receiver operating characteristic curves analysis. We find that counterfeit cigarette packs fluoresce to long-wave UV irradiation and display poor printing quality. The optimal cut-off value varies among the three brands. For example, counterfeit Newport and Marlboro packaging can be reliably classified with two of six characteristics, while Marlboro Gold requires four. Researchers who conduct littered pack and pack swap studies are urged to include this method to assess the share of counterfeit cigarettes, and compare the result against tobacco industry figures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Do gray wolves (Canis lupus) support pack mates during aggressive inter-pack interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Kira A; McIntyre, Richard T

    2016-09-01

    For group-living mammals, social coordination increases success in everything from hunting and foraging (Crofoot and Wrangham in Mind the Gap, Springer, Berlin, 2010; Bailey et al. in Behav Ecol Sociobiol 67:1-17, 2013) to agonism (Mosser and Packer in Anim Behav 78:359-370, 2009; Wilson et al. in Anim Behav 83:277-291, 2012; Cassidy et al. in Behav Ecol 26:1352-1360, 2015). Cooperation is found in many species and, due to its low costs, likely is a determining factor in the evolution of living in social groups (Smith in Anim Behav 92:291-304, 2014). Beyond cooperation, many mammals perform costly behaviors for the benefit of group mates (e.g., parental care, food sharing, grooming). Altruism is considered the most extreme case of cooperation where the altruist increases the fitness of the recipient while decreasing its own fitness (Bell in Selection: the mechanism of evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2008). Gray wolf life history requires intra-pack familiarity, communication, and cooperation in order to succeed in hunting (MacNulty et al. in Behav Ecol doi: 10.1093/beheco/arr159 2011) and protecting group resources (Stahler et al. in J Anim Ecol 82: 222-234, 2013; Cassidy et al. in Behav Ecol 26:1352-1360, 2015). Here, we report 121 territorial aggressive inter-pack interactions in Yellowstone National Park between 1 April 1995 and 1 April 2011 (>5300 days of observation) and examine each interaction where one wolf interferes when its pack mate is being attacked by a rival group. This behavior was recorded six times (17.6 % of interactions involving an attack) and often occurred between dyads of closely related individuals. We discuss this behavior as it relates to the evolution of cooperation, sociality, and altruism.

  17. Avoidance of cigarette pack health warnings among regular cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Olivia M; Attwood, Angela; O'Brien, Laura; Brooks, Sabrina; Hedge, Craig; Leonards, Ute; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-03-01

    Previous research with adults and adolescents indicates that plain cigarette packs increase visual attention to health warnings among non-smokers and non-regular smokers, but not among regular smokers. This may be because regular smokers: (1) are familiar with the health warnings, (2) preferentially attend to branding, or (3) actively avoid health warnings. We sought to distinguish between these explanations using eye-tracking technology. A convenience sample of 30 adult dependent smokers participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants viewed branded, plain and blank packs of cigarettes with familiar and unfamiliar health warnings. The number of fixations to health warnings and branding on the different pack types were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated that regular smokers were biased towards fixating the branding rather than the health warning on all three pack types. This bias was smaller, but still evident, for blank packs, where smokers preferentially attended the blank region over the health warnings. Time-course analysis showed that for branded and plain packs, attention was preferentially directed to the branding location for the entire 10s of the stimulus presentation, while for blank packs this occurred for the last 8s of the stimulus presentation. Familiarity with health warnings had no effect on eye gaze location. Smokers actively avoid cigarette pack health warnings, and this remains the case even in the absence of salient branding information. Smokers may have learned to divert their attention away from cigarette pack health warnings. These findings have implications for cigarette packaging and health warning policy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Enabling Microliquid Chromatography by Microbead Packing of Microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balvin, Manuel; Zheng, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The microbead packing is the critical element required in the success of on-chip microfabrication of critical microfluidic components for in-situ analysis and detection of chiral amino acids. In order for microliquid chromatography to occur, there must be a stationary phase medium within the microchannel that interacts with the analytes present within flowing fluid. The stationary phase media are the microbeads packed by the process discussed in this work. The purpose of the microliquid chromatography is to provide a lightweight, low-volume, and low-power element to separate amino acids and their chiral partners efficiently to understand better the origin of life. In order to densely pack microbeads into the microchannels, a liquid slurry of microbeads was created. Microbeads were extracted from a commercially available high-performance liquid chromatography column. The silica beads extracted were 5 microns in diameter, and had surface coating of phenyl-hexyl. These microbeads were mixed with a 200- proof ethanol solution to create a microbead slurry with the right viscosity for packing. A microfilter is placed at the outlet via of the microchannel and the slurry is injected, then withdrawn across a filter using modified syringes. After each injection, the channel is flushed with ethanol to enhance packing. This cycle is repeated numerous times to allow for a tightly packed channel of microbeads. Typical microbead packing occurs in the macroscale into tubes or channels by using highly pressurized systems. Moreover, these channels are typically long and straight without any turns or curves. On the other hand, this method of microbead packing is completed within a microchannel 75 micrometers in diameter. Moreover, the microbead packing is completed into a serpentine type microchannel, such that it maximizes microchannel length within a microchip. Doing so enhances the interactions of the analytes with the microbeads to separate efficiently amino acids and amino acid

  19. Optimization of heterogeneous Bin packing using adaptive genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, R.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Sriramya, C.; Page, Tom

    2017-03-01

    This research is concentrates on a very interesting work, the bin packing using hybrid genetic approach. The optimal and feasible packing of goods for transportation and distribution to various locations by satisfying the practical constraints are the key points in this project work. As the number of boxes for packing can not be predicted in advance and the boxes may not be of same category always. It also involves many practical constraints that are why the optimal packing makes much importance to the industries. This work presents a combinational of heuristic Genetic Algorithm (HGA) for solving Three Dimensional (3D) Single container arbitrary sized rectangular prismatic bin packing optimization problem by considering most of the practical constraints facing in logistic industries. This goal was achieved in this research by optimizing the empty volume inside the container using genetic approach. Feasible packing pattern was achieved by satisfying various practical constraints like box orientation, stack priority, container stability, weight constraint, overlapping constraint, shipment placement constraint. 3D bin packing problem consists of ‘n’ number of boxes being to be packed in to a container of standard dimension in such a way to maximize the volume utilization and in-turn profit. Furthermore, Boxes to be packed may be of arbitrary sizes. The user input data are the number of bins, its size, shape, weight, and constraints if any along with standard container dimension. This user input were stored in the database and encoded to string (chromosomes) format which were normally acceptable by GA. GA operators were allowed to act over these encoded strings for finding the best solution.

  20. Ecology of southern ocean pack ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Andrew S; Thomas, David N

    2002-01-01

    Around Antarctica the annual five-fold growth and decay of sea ice is the most prominent physical process and has a profound impact on marine life there. In winter the pack ice canopy extends to cover almost 20 million square kilometres--some 8% of the southern hemisphere and an area larger than the Antarctic continent itself (13.2 million square kilometres)--and is one of the largest, most dynamic ecosystems on earth. Biological activity is associated with all physical components of the sea-ice system: the sea-ice surface; the internal sea-ice matrix and brine channel system; the underside of sea ice and the waters in the vicinity of sea ice that are modified by the presence of sea ice. Microbial and microalgal communities proliferate on and within sea ice and are grazed by a wide range of proto- and macrozooplankton that inhabit the sea ice in large concentrations. Grazing organisms also exploit biogenic material released from the sea ice at ice break-up or melt. Although rates of primary production in the underlying water column are often low because of shading by sea-ice cover, sea ice itself forms a substratum that provides standing stocks of bacteria, algae and grazers significantly higher than those in ice-free areas. Decay of sea ice in summer releases particulate and dissolved organic matter to the water column, playing a major role in biogeochemical cycling as well as seeding water column phytoplankton blooms. Numerous zooplankton species graze sea-ice algae, benefiting additionally because the overlying sea-ice ceiling provides a refuge from surface predators. Sea ice is an important nursery habitat for Antarctic krill, the pivotal species in the Southern Ocean marine ecosystem. Some deep-water fish migrate to shallow depths beneath sea ice to exploit the elevated concentrations of some zooplankton there. The increased secondary production associated with pack ice and the sea-ice edge is exploited by many higher predators, with seals, seabirds and whales

  1. Packing parameters effect on injection molding of polypropylene nanostructured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    In today´s industry, applications involving surface patterning of sub-μm to nanometer scale structures have shown a high growth potential. To investigate the injection molding capability of replicating sub-μm surface texture on a large scale area, a 30x80 mm2 tool insert with surface structures...... having a diameter of 500 nm was employed. The tool insert surface was produced using chemical-based-batch techniques such aluminum anodization and nickel electroplating. During the injection molding process, polypropylene (PP) was employed as material and packing phase parameters (packing time, packing...

  2. Multilayer DNA Origami Packed on Hexagonal and Hybrid Lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, Yonggang; Voigt, Niels Vinther; Shih, William M.

    2012-01-01

    “Scaffolded DNA origami” has been proven to be a powerful and efficient approach to construct two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects with great complexity. Multilayer DNA origami has been demonstrated with helices packing along either honeycomb-lattice geometry or square-lattice geometry. H...... DNA origami with honeycomb-lattice, square-lattice, and hexagonal-lattice packing of helices all in one design. The availability of hexagonal close-packing of helices extends our ability to build complex structures using DNA nanotechnology....

  3. Multi-dimensional Bin Packing Problems with Guillotine Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amossen, Rasmus Resen; Pisinger, David

    2010-01-01

    The problem addressed in this paper is the decision problem of determining if a set of multi-dimensional rectangular boxes can be orthogonally packed into a rectangular bin while satisfying the requirement that the packing should be guillotine cuttable. That is, there should exist a series of face...... parallel straight cuts that can recursively cut the bin into pieces so that each piece contains a box and no box has been intersected by a cut. The unrestricted problem is known to be NP-hard. In this paper we present a generalization of a constructive algorithm for the multi-dimensional bin packing...

  4. Frontal plane dynamic margins of stability in individuals with and without transtibial amputation walking on a loose rock surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Deanna H; Scott, Shawn J; Wilken, Jason M; Dingwell, Jonathan B

    2013-09-01

    Uneven walking surfaces pose challenges to balance, especially in individuals with lower extremity amputation. The purpose of this study was to determine if lateral stability of persons with unilateral transtibial amputation (TTA) is compromised when walking on a loose rock surface. Thirteen TTA and 15 healthy controls walked over level ground and over a loose rock surface at four controlled speeds. Dependent measures, including medial-lateral center of mass (COM) motion, step width variability, lateral arm swing velocity, and mean and variability of the minimum margins of stability (MOSmin), were compared between subject groups and across conditions. TTA had greater average MOSmin than Control subjects (p=0.018). TTA exhibited decreased MOSmin on their prosthetic limbs compared to their intact limbs (p=0.036), while Control subjects did not exhibit side to side differences. Both groups increased MOSmin with increasing walking speed (p≤0.001). There was no difference in the average MOSmin between walking surfaces (p=0.724). However, the variability of MOSmin was greater on the rocks compared to level ground. Both subject groups increased step width, step width variability, COM range of motion and peak COM velocity when walking on the rock surface. TTA exhibited greater variability of both step width and MOSmin, which suggests that they made larger step-to-step corrective responses, more often, to achieve the same average result. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Frontal Plane Dynamic Margins of Stability in Individuals With and Without Transtibial Amputation Walking on a Loose Rock Surface☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Deanna H.; Scott, Shawn J.; Wilken, Jason M.; Dingwell, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-01

    Uneven walking surfaces pose challenges to balance, especially in individuals with lower extremity amputation. The purpose of this study was to determine if lateral stability of persons with unilateral transtibial amputation (TTA) is compromised when walking on a loose rock surface. Thirteen TTA and 15 healthy controls walked over level ground and over a loose rock surface at four controlled speeds. Dependent measures, including medial-lateral center of mass (COM) motion, step width variability, lateral arm swing velocity, and mean and variability of the minimum margins of stability (MOSmin), were compared between subject groups and across conditions. TTA had greater average MOSmin than Control subjects (p = 0.018). TTA exhibited decreased MOSmin on their prosthetic limbs compared to their intact limbs (p = 0.036), while Control subjects did not exhibit side to side differences. Both groups increased MOSmin with increasing walking speed (p ≤ 0.001). There was no difference in the average MOSmin between walking surfaces (p = 0.724). However, the variability of MOSmin was greater on the rocks compared to level ground. Both subject groups increased step width, step width variability, COM range of motion and peak COM velocity when walking on the rock surface. TTA exhibited greater variability of both step width and MOSmin, which suggests that they made larger step-to-step, corrective responses, more often, to achieve the same average result. PMID:23481866

  6. Virtual and Experimental Visualization of Flows in Packed Beds of Spheres Simulating Porous Media Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Athavale, M. M.; Lattime, S. B.; Braun, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    A videotape presentation of flow in a packed bed of spheres is provided. The flow experiment consisted of three principal elements: (1) an oil tunnel 76.2 mm by 76.2 mm in cross section, (2) a packed bed of spheres in regular and irregular arrays, and (3) a flow characterization methodology, either (a) full flow field tracking (FFFT) or (b) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation. The refraction indices of the oil and the test array of spheres were closely matched, and the flow was seeded with aluminum oxide particles. Planar laser light provided a two-dimensional projection of the flow field, and a traverse simulated a three-dimensional image of the entire flow field. Light focusing and reflection rendered the spheres black, permitting visualization of the planar circular interfaces in both the axial and transverse directions. Flows were observed near the wall-sphere interface and within the set of spheres. The CFD model required that a representative section of a packed bed be formed and gridded, enclosing and cutting six spheres so that symmetry conditions could be imposed at all cross-boundaries. Simulations had to be made with the flow direction at right angles to that used in the experiments, however, to take advantage of flow symmetry. Careful attention to detail was required for proper gridding. The flow field was three-dimensional and complex to describe, yet the most prominent finding was flow threads, as computed in the representative 'cube' of spheres with face symmetry and conclusively demonstrated experimentally herein. Random packing and bed voids tended to disrupt the laminar flow, creating vortices.

  7. Random Projection Trees Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Dhesi, Aman; Kar, Purushottam

    2010-01-01

    The Random Projection Tree structures proposed in [Freund-Dasgupta STOC08] are space partitioning data structures that automatically adapt to various notions of intrinsic dimensionality of data. We prove new results for both the RPTreeMax and the RPTreeMean data structures. Our result for RPTreeMax gives a near-optimal bound on the number of levels required by this data structure to reduce the size of its cells by a factor $s \\geq 2$. We also prove a packing lemma for this data structure. Our...

  8. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS PACKED UNDER MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Giampietro-Ganeco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eggs are perishable foods and lose quality quickly if not stored properly. From the moment of posture to the marketing of egg, quality loss occurs through gas exchange and water through the pores of the shell with the external environment and thus, studies involving modified atmosphere packaging are extremely important. The aim of the present study is to assess the internal quality of eggs packed under modified atmosphere and stored at room temperature. Six hundred and twelve fresh commercial eggs from 38-week old Hisex White laying hens were used. The present study was conducted in a completely randomized experimental design in a 4 x 4 + 1 factorial arrangement [vacuum, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 and carbon dioxide (CO2 absorbents, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent and carbon dioxide (CO2 gas generator; storage times (7, 14, 21 and 28 days, control group (fresh eggs], with three repetitions (12 eggs each. The following factors were assessed: weight maintenance during storage; Haugh unit; color and yolk index. The modified atmosphere packaging maintained the weight of the eggs during a period of 28 days. Vacuum packaging with O2 absorbent and CO2 gas generator was more efficient in maintenance of egg quality, based on the values ​​of Haugh unit and yolk index. The luminosity of the yolk was preserved during the 28 storage days in all of the packaging types used. The vacuum packaging with O2 gas absorbent and CO2 gas generator provide an increase in internal egg quality.

  9. Tying Down Loose Ends in the Chlamydomonas Genome: Functional Significance of Abundant Upstream Open Reading Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick R. Cross

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Chlamydomonas genome has been sequenced, assembled, and annotated to produce a rich resource for genetics and molecular biology in this well-studied model organism. The annotated genome is very rich in open reading frames upstream of the annotated coding sequence (‘uORFs’: almost three quarters of the assigned transcripts have at least one uORF, and frequently more than one. This is problematic with respect to the standard ‘scanning’ model for eukaryotic translation initiation. These uORFs can be grouped into three classes: class 1, initiating in-frame with the coding sequence (CDS (thus providing a potential in-frame N-terminal extension; class 2, initiating in the 5′ untranslated sequences (5UT and terminating out-of-frame in the CDS; and class 3, initiating and terminating within the 5UT. Multiple bioinformatics criteria (including analysis of Kozak consensus sequence agreement and BLASTP comparisons to the closely related Volvox genome, and statistical comparison to cds and to random sequence controls indicate that of ∼4000 class 1 uORFs, approximately half are likely in vivo translation initiation sites. The proposed resulting N-terminal extensions in many cases will sharply alter the predicted biochemical properties of the encoded proteins. These results suggest significant modifications in ∼2000 of the ∼20,000 transcript models with respect to translation initiation and encoded peptides. In contrast, class 2 uORFs may be subject to purifying selection, and the existent ones (surviving selection are likely inefficiently translated. Class 3 uORFs are found in more than half of transcripts, frequently multiple times per transcript; however, they are remarkably similar to random sequence expectations with respect to size, number, and composition, and therefore may in most cases be selectively neutral.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of the evogliptin/metformin extended-release (5/1,000 mg fixed-dose combination formulation compared to the corresponding loose combination, and food effect in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhee SJ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Su-jin Rhee,1,* SeungHwan Lee,1,2,* Seo Hyun Yoon,1 Joo-Youn Cho,1 In-Jin Jang,1 Kyung-Sang Yu1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, 2Clinical Trials Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A new fixed-dose combination formulation of evogliptin 5 mg and metformin extended-release (XR 1,000 mg (FDC_EVO5/MET1000 was developed to improve medication adherence for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pharmacokinetics of FDC_EVO5/MET1000 was compared to the corresponding loose combination in a randomized, open-label, crossover study in 36 healthy male subjects (Part 1, and the food effect on FDC_EVO5/MET1000 was assessed (under fasted or fed conditions in a randomized, open-label, crossover study in 28 healthy male subjects (Part 2. Serial blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected up to 72 hours, and pharmacokinetic parameters of evogliptin and metformin were calculated using non-compartmental methods. The geometric mean ratios (fixed-dose combination to loose combination and 90% confidence intervals of pharmacokinetic parameters for evogliptin and metformin were all within 0.800–1.250, suggesting bioequivalent pharmacokinetic. After a single oral dose of FDC_EVO5/MET1000, food did not significantly affect evogliptin pharmacokinetic while systemic exposure of metformin was increased about 47.5% under the fed condition, which is consistent with the already established food effect on metformin XR. FDC_EVO5/MET1000 was generally well tolerated without any drug-related serious adverse events. In conclusion, FDC_EVO5/MET1000 can be substituted for the loose combination of FDC_EVO5/MET1000, providing better compliance with convenient administration. Keywords: pharmacokinetics, bioequivalence, food effect, fixed-dose combination, evogliptin, metformin XR

  11. Increasing the shelf- life of papaya through vacuum packing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padmanaban, Geetha; Singaravelu, Kanchana; Annavi, Susheela Thirumaran

    2014-01-01

    .... Papaya fruits were pretreated with waxing, oil application, purafil packets, tissue paper wrapping given along with control and were packed in 150 gauge thickness polyethylene film bags under vacuum...

  12. Gibbon Packing, LLC - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Gibbon Packing, LLC, for alleged violations at the facility located in 218 East Highway 30, P.O. Box 730, Gibbon, NE 68840 (“facility”).

  13. Ice pack heat sink subsystem - phase 1, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The design, development, and test of a functional laboratory model ice pack heat sink subsystem are discussed. Operating instructions to include mechanical and electrical schematics, maintenance instructions, and equipment specifications are presented.

  14. Ice pack heat sink subsystem - Phase 1, Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication, and test at one-g of a functional laboratory model (non-flight) ice pack heat sink subsystem to be used eventually for astronaut cooling during manned space missions are discussed. In normal use, excess heat in the liquid cooling garment (LCG) coolant is transferred to a reusable/regenerable ice pack heat sink. For emergency operation, or for extension of extravehicular activity mission time after all the ice has melted, water from the ice pack is boiled to vacuum, thereby continuing to remove heat from the LCG coolant. This subsystem incorporates a quick connect/disconnect thermal interface between the ice pack heat sink and the subsystem heat exchanger.

  15. SWORDFISH STEAKS VACUUM-PACKED WITH ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A Anastasio; R Marrone; C Chirollo; G Smaldone; M Attouchi; P Adamo; S Sadok; T Pepe

    2014-01-01

      In order to investigate the shelf life of swordfish steaks vacuum-packed with Rosmarinus officinalis, microbiological, chemical and sensorial analyses were carried out after 1, 3, 6, 8, 12 and 16 days of storage...

  16. Packing 16, 17 of 18 circles in an equilateral triangle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melissen, J.B.M.; Schuur, Peter

    1995-01-01

    We present new, efficient packings for 16, 17 and 18 congruent circles in an equilateral triangle. The results have been found by the use of simulated annealing and a quasi-Newton optimization technique, supplemented with some human intelligence.

  17. Physical and structural characteristics of Weddell Sea pack ice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gow, A.J; Ackley, S.F; Buck, K.R; Golden, K.M

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies by CRREL researchers of the dynamics and thermodynamics of sea ice in the Antarctic have included investigations of the physical and structural properties of pack ice in the Weddell Sea...

  18. Excise Tax Rates On Packs Of Cigarettes PDF Slides

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Download the current excise tax rates on packs of cigarettes slides. These slides are available in PDF and PowerPoint formats. The PowerPoint version can be found...

  19. The Effect of Pharyngeal Packing during Nasal Surgery on the Incidence of Post Operative Nausea, Vomiting, and Sore Throat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karbasfrushan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nausea and vomiting after ear, nose and throat (ENT surgery is one of the most common and notable problems facing anesthesiologists in this area. This study was conducted to determine the effect of a pharyngeal pack on the severity of nausea, vomiting, and sore throat among patients after ear, pharynx, and throat surgeries.   Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical study was performed in 140 patients (61 men and 79 women; age range, 20–40 years who had undergone nasal surgery in 2010. Patients were divided into two groups: the first group were treated using a pharyngeal pack (case group and the second group were managed without a pharyngeal pack (control group. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney U test. SPSS software was used for data analysis.   Results: The mean severity of nausea and vomiting in the two groups was 2.057, 1.371 and 1.100, respectively, with no significant differences between groups. However, the mean severity of sore throat was 1.714 in the group with the pharyngeal pack and 1.385 in the group without pharyngeal pack (P=0.010.   Conclusion:  Not only does a pharyngeal pack in ENT surgery not reduce the extent and severity of nausea and vomiting, but it also increases the severity of sore throat in patients when leaving the recovery room and discharging hospital.

  20. Models for Metal Hydride Particle Shape, Packing, and Heat Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kyle C.; Fisher, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    A multiphysics modeling approach for heat conduction in metal hydride powders is presented, including particle shape distribution, size distribution, granular packing structure, and effective thermal conductivity. A statistical geometric model is presented that replicates features of particle size and shape distributions observed experimentally that result from cyclic hydride decrepitation. The quasi-static dense packing of a sample set of these particles is simulated via energy-based structu...

  1. Development of Dynamic Models for a Reactive Packed Distillation Column

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulwahab GIWA; Süleyman KARACAN

    2012-01-01

    This work has been carried out to develop dynamic models for a reactive packed distillation column using the production of ethyl acetate as the case study. The experimental setup for the production of ethyl acetate was a pilot scale packed column divided into condenser, rectification, acetic acid feed, reaction, ethanol feed, stripping and reboiler sections. The reaction section was filled with Amberlyst 15 catalyst while the rectification and the stripping sections were both filled raschig r...

  2. Packing Infinite Number of Cubes in a Finite Volume Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Haishen; Wajngurt, Clara

    2006-01-01

    Packing an infinite number of cubes into a box of finite volume is the focus of this article. The results and diagrams suggest two ways of packing these cubes. Specifically suppose an infinite number of cubes; the side length of the first one is 1; the side length of the second one is 1/2 , and the side length of the nth one is 1/n. Let n approach…

  3. Porosity and packing of Holocene river, dune, and beach sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, J.E. (Conoco, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)); McBride, E.F. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

    1991-03-01

    The porosity and packing of 174 samples of well-sorted surficial and shallowly buried (to 17 m), unconsolidated Holocene sands were determined by point counting the upper surface of thin sections of epoxy-impregnated samples in reflected light. Average depositional porosity for 124 surficial beach sands, river point-bar and braid-bar sands, and eolian dune sands is between 40% and 58%. Beach sands exhibit an average packing value (contact index = CI) of 0.79, river sands an average IC of 0.91, and eolian dune sands an average CI of 1.02. Packing gets tighter with depth, but the authors found no decrease in porosity with depth for river and beach sands buried to 17 m. Thus, packing is more sensitive to small changes in fabric than is porosity. Beach sands typically contain 5.5% oversized pores (OSP), river sands 3.8% OSP, and eolian dune sands 4.0% OSP. Most OSP are packing defects rather than dissolution pores, although trapped air bubbles are common in some beach sands. OSP decrease linearly with depth to 17 m, our deepest sample. Extrapolation of our data indicates that they will be destroyed at a depth less than 100 m. Significant differences in porosity, oversized-pore, and packing values exist between most point-bar and braid-bar deposits and between two heavily sampled point bars, but no significant differences in these values exist when braid-bar sands are compared to other braid-bar sands. Sands form different beaches have significant differences in porosity, oversized pores, and packing. The average porosity is 46% for eolian ripple strata, 50% for grain-fall strata, and 51% for grain-flow strata. Ripple strata are tighter packed than grain-fall and grain-flow strata.

  4. Spectral action models of gravity on packed swiss cheese cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Adam; Marcolli, Matilde

    2016-06-01

    We present a model of (modified) gravity on spacetimes with fractal structure based on packing of spheres, which are (Euclidean) variants of the packed swiss cheese cosmology models. As the action functional for gravity we consider the spectral action of noncommutative geometry, and we compute its expansion on a space obtained as an Apollonian packing of three-dimensional spheres inside a four-dimensional ball. Using information from the zeta function of the Dirac operator of the spectral triple, we compute the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of the spectral action. They consist of a zeta regularization of the divergent sum of the leading terms of the spectral actions of the individual spheres in the packing. This accounts for the contribution of points 1 and 3 in the dimension spectrum (as in the case of a 3-sphere). There is an additional term coming from the residue at the additional point in the real dimension spectrum that corresponds to the packing constant, as well as a series of fluctuations coming from log-periodic oscillations, created by the points of the dimension spectrum that are off the real line. These terms detect the fractality of the residue set of the sphere packing. We show that the presence of fractality influences the shape of the slow-roll potential for inflation, obtained from the spectral action. We also discuss the effect of truncating the fractal structure at a certain scale related to the energy scale in the spectral action.

  5. The effect of loose versus stranded seeds on biochemical no evidence of disease in patients with carcinoma of the prostate treated with iodine-125 brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Christopher; Morris, W James; Hamm, Jeremy; Lapointe, Vincent; McKenzie, Michael; Pickles, Tom; Spadinger, Ingrid; Keyes, Mira

    2011-01-01

    The British Columbia Cancer Agency has been performing iodine-125 prostate brachytherapy since 1998, initially using loose seeds and phasing into the exclusive use of RAPIDStrand (RS) (Oncura Inc., Plymouth Meeting, PA) by November 2000. The aim of this study was to investigate rates of biochemical no evidence of disease (bNED) in patients treated with loose seeds compared with RS from this population-based cohort. Between July 1998 and February 2006, 1500 implants were performed (327 loose and 1173 RS). Biochemical failure is reported using the Phoenix definition and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >0.4ng/mL at ≥48 months postimplant. Actuarial estimates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Analysis was repeated with the first 100 loose and stranded implants excluded to assess the learning curve effect. Log-rank test was used to evaluate differences in bNED. Variables showing association with bNED were included in a multivariate model. There was no difference between loose and stranded seeds. Estimated rate of bNED was 93.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.6-96.4) at 7 years for patients treated with loose seeds and 94.0% (95% CI, 91.8-96.2) for patients treated with RS according to Phoenix definition (p=0.846). Using the PSA >0.4ng/mL definition, estimated rates were 91.3% (95% CI, 88.0-94.6) and 91.9% (95% CI, 89.7-94.1) for loose and stranded seeds, respectively (p=0.871). Exclusion of the first 100 loose and stranded implants also revealed no difference in bNED. This study of 1500 patients treated with iodine-125 brachytherapy demonstrates no difference in bNED between loose and stranded seeds, using either Phoenix or PSA >0.4ng/mL definitions of biochemical failure. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Confidence and Loose Opportunism in the Science Classroom: Towards a pedagogy of investigative science for beginning teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Jim

    2006-03-01

    This paper attempts to establish a conceptual basis on which beginning teachers may be introduced to investigative science teaching in a way that accommodates the teacher voice. It draws mainly on preliminary theory from the shared reflections of 20 science teachers, augmented by a more general interview-based study of the experience of early professional learning of 18 new teachers. Internationally, it is situated in the wider concern in the literature with the nature of science, mainly in initial teacher education. Empirically located within the Scottish context, a grounded epistemological base of teacher knowledge is illustrated and presented as components of confidence in a cycle of professional learning that needs to be set in motion during initial teacher education. It is proposed that, given protected experience in their early attempts to teach investigatively, new teachers can begin to develop a confident pedagogy of loose opportunism that comes close to authentic science for the children they teach.

  7. Cellulose loose-fill insulation material. Thermal transmittance determined by means of heat flow meters; Papirisolering. Varmeisoleringsevne maalt med varmestroemsmaaler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolajsen, Asta

    2001-07-01

    Determination of design values of thermal conductivity, {lambda}{sub p}, for insulation materials is based on the laboratory measured {lambda}-value ((lampbda){sub 10}) of dry materials and experience gained over many years. Only limited documentation regarding cellulose loose-fill insulation is available, as this type of insulation has only been used in Denmark for comparatively few years. By og Byg has received a grant to investigate the insulating properties of cellulose insulation materials in a number of facade elements, including the dependency of insulating properties on the moisture content. The insulating properties also depends on other parameters, e.g. workmanship in connection with the actual insulation and any subsequent settling of the insulation material. These aspects has not been investigated in this project. (au)

  8. Tracking control of WMRs on loose soil based on mixed H2/H∞ control with longitudinal slip ratio estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haibo; Chen, Chao; Ding, Liang; Li, Weihua; Yu, Haitao; Xia, Kerui; Liu, Zhen

    2017-11-01

    Wheeled mobile robots (WMRs) often suffer from the longitudinal slipping when moving on the loose soil of the surface of the moon during exploration. Longitudinal slip is the main cause of WMRs' delay in trajectory tracking. In this paper, a nonlinear extended state observer (NESO) is introduced to estimate the longitudinal velocity in order to estimate the slip ratio and the derivative of the loss of velocity which are used in modelled disturbance compensation. Owing to the uncertainty and disturbance caused by estimation errors, a multi-objective controller using the mixed H2/H∞ method is employed to ensure the robust stability and performance of the WMR system. The final inputs of the trajectory tracking consist of the feedforward compensation, compensation for the modelled disturbances and designed multi-objective control inputs. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the controller, which exhibits a satisfactory tracking performance.

  9. Mussel-Inspired Architecture of High-Flux Loose Nanofiltration Membrane Functionalized with Antibacterial Reduced Graphene Oxide-Copper Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junyong; Wang, Jing; Uliana, Adam Andrew; Tian, Miaomiao; Zhang, Yiming; Zhang, Yatao; Volodin, Alexander; Simoens, Kenneth; Yuan, Shushan; Li, Jian; Lin, Jiuyang; Bernaerts, Kristel; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2017-08-30

    Graphene-based nanocomposites have a vast potential for wide-ranging antibacterial applications due to the inherently strong biocidal activity and versatile compatibility of such nanocomposites. Therefore, graphene-based functional nanomaterials can introduce enhanced antibiofouling and antimicrobial properties to polymeric membrane surfaces. In this study, reduced graphene oxide-copper (rGOC) nanocomposites were synthesized as newly robust biocides via in situ reduction. Inspired by the emerging method of bridging ultrafiltration membrane surface cavities, loose nanofiltration (NF) membranes were designed using a rapid (2 h) bioinspired strategy in which rGOC nanocomposites were firmly codeposited with polydopamine (PDA) onto an ultrafiltration support. A series of analyses (SEM, EDS, XRD, XPS, TEM, and AFM) confirmed the successful synthesis of the rGO-Cu nanocomposites. The secure loading of rGOC composites onto the membrane surfaces was also confirmed by SEM and AFM images. Water contact angle results display a high surface hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. The PDA-rGOC functionalization layer facilitated a high water permeability (22.8 L m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1)). The PDA-rGOC modification additionally furnished the membrane with superior separation properties advantageous for various NF applications such as dye purification or desalination, as ultrahigh (99.4% for 0.5 g L(-1) reactive blue 2) dye retention and high salt permeation (7.4% for 1.0 g L(-1) Na2SO4, 2.5% for 1.0 g L(-1) NaCl) was achieved by the PDA-rGOC-modified membranes. Furthermore, after 3 h of contact with Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, the rGOC-functionalized membranes exhibited a strong antibacterial performance with a 97.9% reduction in the number of live E. coli. This study highlights the use of rGOC composites for devising loose NF membranes with strong antibacterial and separation performance.

  10. Incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen, and pelvis after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with loose 125I seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiraishi Yutaka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to determine the incidence of seed migration not only to the chest, but also to the abdomen and pelvis after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with loose 125I seeds. Methods We reviewed the records of 267 patients who underwent prostate brachytherapy with loose 125I seeds. After seed implantation, orthogonal chest radiographs, an abdominal radiograph, and a pelvic radiograph were undertaken routinely to document the occurrence and sites of seed migration. The incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen, and pelvis was calculated. All patients who had seed migration to the abdomen and pelvis subsequently underwent a computed tomography scan to identify the exact location of the migrated seeds. Postimplant dosimetric analysis was undertaken, and dosimetric results were compared between patients with and without seed migration. Results A total of 19,236 seeds were implanted in 267 patients. Overall, 91 of 19,236 (0.47% seeds migrated in 66 of 267 (24.7% patients. Sixty-nine (0.36% seeds migrated to the chest in 54 (20.2% patients. Seven (0.036% seeds migrated to the abdomen in six (2.2% patients. Fifteen (0.078% seeds migrated to the pelvis in 15 (5.6% patients. Seed migration occurred predominantly within two weeks after seed implantation. None of the 66 patients had symptoms related to the migrated seeds. Postimplant prostate D90 was not significantly different between patients with and without seed migration. Conclusion We showed the incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen and pelvis. Seed migration did not have a significant effect on postimplant prostate D90.

  11. Preparation and characterization of starch-based loose-fill packaging foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qi

    Regular and waxy corn starches were blended in various ratios with biodegradable polymers including polylactic acid (PLA), Eastar Bio Copolyester 14766 (EBC) and Mater-Bi ZF03U (MBI) and extruded with a C. W. Brabender laboratory twin screw extruder using a 3-mm die nozzle at 150°C and 150 rev/min. Physical characteristics including radial expansion, unit density and bulk density and water solubility index, water absorption characteristics, mechanical properties including compressibility, Young's modulus, spring index, bulk compressibility and bulk spring index and abrasion resistance were investigated as affected by the ingredient formulations, i.e. type of polymers, type of starches, polymer to starch ratio and starch moisture content. A completely randomized factorial blocking experimental design was used. Fifty-four treatments resulted. Each treatment was replicated three times. SAS statistical software package was used to analyze the data. Foams made of waxy starch had better radial expansion, lower unit density and bulk density than did foams made of regular starch. Regular starch foams had significantly lower water solubility index than did the waxy starch foams. PLA-starch foams had the lowest compressibility and Young's modulus. MBI-starch foams were the most rigid. All foams had excellent spring indices and bulk spring indices which were comparable to the spring index of commercial expanded polystyrene foam. Correlations were established between the foam mechanical properties and the physical characteristics. Foam compressibility and Young's modulus decreased as increases in radial expansion and decreases in unit and bulk densities. Their relationships were modeled with power law equations. No correlation was observed between spring index and bulk spring index and foam physical characteristics. MBI-starch foams had the highest equilibrium moisture content. EBC-starch and PLA-starch foams had similar water absorption characteristics. No significant

  12. KP4 to control Ustilago tritici in wheat: Enhanced greenhouse resistance to loose smut and changes in transcript abundance of pathogen related genes in infected KP4 plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Diaz Quijano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ustilago tritici causes loose smut, which is a seed-borne fungal disease of wheat, and responsible for yield losses up to 40%. Loose smut is a threat to seed production in developing countries where small scale farmers use their own harvest as seed material. The killer protein 4 (KP4 is a virally encoded toxin from Ustilago maydis and inhibits growth of susceptible races of fungi from the Ustilaginales. Enhanced resistance in KP4 wheat to stinking smut, which is caused by Tilletia caries, had been reported earlier. We show that KP4 in genetically engineered wheat increased resistance to loose smut up to 60% compared to the non-KP4 control under greenhouse conditions. This enhanced resistance is dose and race dependent. The overexpression of the transgene kp4 and its effect on fungal growth have indirect effects on the expression of endogenous pathogen defense genes.

  13. Modi ed strip packing heuristics for the rectangular variable-sized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two packing problems are considered in this paper, namely the well-known strip packing problem (SPP) and the variable-sized bin packing problem (VSBPP). A total of 252 strip packing heuristics (and variations thereof) from the literature, as well as novel heuristics proposed by the authors, are compared statistically by ...

  14. Performance of high-rate gravel-packed oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unneland, Trond

    2001-05-01

    Improved methods for the prediction, evaluation, and monitoring of performance in high-rate cased-hole gravel-packed oil wells are presented in this thesis. The ability to predict well performance prior to the gravel-pack operations, evaluate the results after the operation, and monitor well performance over time has been improved. This lifetime approach to performance analysis of gravel-packed oil wells contributes to increase oil production and field profitability. First, analytical models available for prediction of performance in gravel-packed oil wells are reviewed, with particular emphasis on high-velocity flow effects. From the analysis of field data from three North Sea oil fields, improved and calibrated cased-hole gravel-pack performance prediction models are presented. The recommended model is based on serial flow through formation sand and gravel in the perforation tunnels. In addition, new correlations for high-velocity flow in high-rate gravel-packed oil wells are introduced. Combined, this improves the performance prediction for gravel-packed oil wells, and specific areas can be targeted for optimized well design. Next, limitations in the current methods and alternative methods for evaluation and comparison of well performance are presented. The most widely used parameter, the skin factor, remains a convenient and important parameter. However, using the skin concept in direct comparisons between wells with different reservoir properties may result in misleading or even invalid conclusions. A discussion of the parameters affecting the skin value, with a clarification of limitations, is included. A methodology for evaluation and comparison of gravel-packed well performance is presented, and this includes the use of results from production logs and the use of effective perforation tunnel permeability as a parameter. This contributes to optimized operational procedures from well to well and from field to field. Finally, the data sources available for

  15. The effects of floor heating on body temperature, water consumption, stress response and immune competence around parturition in loose-housed sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, B M; Malmkvist, J; Pedersen, L J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to study whether floor heating from 12 h after onset of nest building until 48 h after birth of the first piglet had any effect on measures related to body temperature, water consumption, stress response and immune competence in loose-housed sows (n = 23......). In conclusion, the present results indicate that floor heating for a limited period around parturition did not compromise physiological and immunological parameters, water intake and body temperature in loose-housed sows. The water intake peaked the day before parturition and the body temperature peaked...

  16. Important notice for Windows 2000 Service Pack 3 computers

    CERN Multimedia

    The NICE Team

    2005-01-01

    Microsoft is ending support for Windows 2000 Service Pack 3, which was introduced in 2002. As a consequence, computers running Windows 2000 Service Pack 3 (or older versions1)) must be updated. It is recommended that Windows 2000 computers be re-installed with Windows XP Service Pack 2 (see http://cern.ch/Win/Services/Installation/Diane). If this is not possible for compatibility reasons, Windows 2000 Service Pack 4 must be installed to ensure the computers continue to receive security patches (see http://cern.ch/Win/Docs/2000SP4). In the next few days, NICE 2000 computers requiring an update will receive a pop-up window with instructions. Users requiring help with the update can contact Helpdesk@cern.ch or call 78888. If your computer needs to be updated you are recommended to read the additional information available at http://cern.ch/Win/Docs/2000SP3. The NICE Team 1) To determine your Windows service pack version, use the ‘Start' button and select ‘Run'. In the new window that open...

  17. Important notice for Windows 2000 Service Pack 3 computers

    CERN Multimedia

    The NICE Team

    2005-01-01

    Microsoft is ending support for Windows 2000 Service Pack 3, which was introduced in 2002. As a consequence, computers running Windows 2000 Service Pack 3 (or older versions1) ) must be updated. It is recommended that Windows 2000 computers be re-installed with Windows XP Service Pack 2 (see http://cern.ch/Win/Services/Installation/Diane). If this is not possible for compatibility reasons, Windows 2000 Service Pack 4 must be installed to ensure the computers continue to receive security patches (see http://cern.ch/Win/Docs/2000SP4). In the next few days, NICE 2000 computers requiring an update will receive a pop-up window with instructions. Users requiring help with the update can contact Helpdesk@cern.ch or call 78888. If your computer needs to be updated you are recommended to read the additional information available at http://cern.ch/Win/Docs/2000SP3. The NICE Team 1) To determine your Windows service pack version, use the ‘Start' button and select ‘Run'. In the new window that opens, type ‘wi...

  18. SPH Modelling of Sea-ice Pack Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staroszczyk, Ryszard

    2017-12-01

    The paper is concerned with the problem of sea-ice pack motion and deformation under the action of wind and water currents. Differential equations describing the dynamics of ice, with its very distinct mateFfigrial responses in converging and diverging flows, express the mass and linear momentum balances on the horizontal plane (the free surface of the ocean). These equations are solved by the fully Lagrangian method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Assuming that the ice behaviour can be approximated by a non-linearly viscous rheology, the proposed SPH model has been used to simulate the evolution of a sea-ice pack driven by wind drag stresses. The results of numerical simulations illustrate the evolution of an ice pack, including variations in ice thickness and ice area fraction in space and time. The effects of different initial ice pack configurations and of different conditions assumed at the coast-ice interface are examined. In particular, the SPH model is applied to a pack flow driven by a vortex wind to demonstrate how well the Lagrangian formulation can capture large deformations and displacements of sea ice.

  19. Studies of Particle Packings in Mixtures of Pharmaceutical Excipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentham, Craig; Dutt, Meenakshi; Hancock, Bruno; Elliott, James

    2005-03-01

    Pharmaceutical powder blends used to generate tablets are complex multicomponent mixtures of the drug powder and excipients which facilitate the delivery of the required drug. The individual constituents of these blends can be noncohesive and cohesive powders. We study the geometric and mechanical characteristics of idealized mixtures of excipient particle packings, for a small but representative number of dry noncohesive particles, generated via gravitational compaction followed by uniaxial compaction. We discuss particle packings in 2- and 3- component mixtures of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) & lactose and MCC, starch & lactose, respectively. We have computed the evolution of the force and stress distributions in monodisperse and polydisperse mixtures comprised of equal parts of each excipient; comparisons are made with results for particles packings of pure blends of MCC and lactose. We also compute the stress-strain relations for these mixtures. In order to obtain insight into details of the particle packings, we calculate the coordination number, packing fraction, radial distribution functions and contact angle distributions for the various mixtures. The numerical experiments have been performed on spheroidal idealizations of the excipient grains using Discrete Element Method simulations (Dutt et al., 2004 to be published).

  20. Spectral Action Models of Gravity on Packed Swiss Cheese Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Adam

    2015-01-01

    We present a model of (modified) gravity on spacetimes with fractal structure based on packing of spheres, which are (Euclidean) variants of the Packed Swiss Cheese Cosmology models. As the action functional for gravity we consider the spectral action of noncommutative geometry, and we compute its asymptotic expansion on a space obtained as an Apollonian packing of 3-dimensional spheres inside a 4-dimensional ball. Using information from the zeta function of the Dirac operator of the spectral triple, we show that the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of the spectral action consist of a zeta regularization of the divergent sum of the leading terms of the spectral actions of the individual spheres in the packing, which accounts for the contribution of the points 1 and 3 in the dimension spectrum (as in the case of a 3-sphere). There is also an additional term coming from the residue at the additional point in the dimension spectrum that corresponds to the packing constant. It detects the fractality of t...

  1. Controlling Blown Pack Spoilage Using Anti-Microbial Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Rachael; Bolton, Declan; Tiuftin, Andrey A; Kerry, Joe P; Fanning, Séamus; Whyte, Paul

    2017-08-12

    Active (anti-microbial) packaging was prepared using three different formulations; Auranta FV; Inbac-MDA and sodium octanoate at two concentrations (2.5 and 3.5 times their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, the lowest concentration that will inhibit the visible growth of the organisms) against Clostridium estertheticum, DSMZ 8809). Inoculated beef samples were packaged using the active packaging and monitored for 100 days storage at 2 °C for blown pack spoilage. The time to the onset of blown pack spoilage was significantly (p < 0.01) increased using Auranta FV and sodium octanoate (caprylic acid sodium salt) at both concentrations. Moreover, sodium octanoate packs had significantly (p < 0.01) delayed blown pack spoilage as compared to Auranta FV. It was therefore concluded that Auranta FV or sodium octanoate, incorporated into the packaging materials used for vacuum packaged beef, would inhibit blown pack spoilage and in the case of the latter, well beyond the 42 days storage period currently required for beef primals.

  2. Random-walk enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Chi H.; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A.; Goodman, Myron F.

    2015-09-01

    Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C →U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics.

  3. Packing properties 1-alkanols and alkanes in a phospholipid membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Peter

    2006-01-01

    and long chain alcohols. On the basis of these observations, previously published information on the structure of the membrane-solute complexes and the free volume properties of (pure) phospholipid membranes, we suggest that two effects dominate the packing properties of hydrophobic solutes in DMPC. First......, perturbation of the tightly packed interfacial zone around the ester bonds and first few methylene groups of DMPC brings about a positive contribution to Vm(puremem). This effect dominates the volume behavior for alcohols like 1-butanol, 1-pentanol and 1-hexanol. More hydrophobic solutes penetrate......We have used vibrating tube densitometry to investigate the packing properties of four alkanes and a homologous series of ten alcohols in fluid-phase membranes of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC). It was found that the volume change of transferring these compounds from their pure states...

  4. Experimental study of a rotating packed bed distillation column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. S. Nascimento

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study the mass transfer performance of rotating packed beds applying the "Higee" process. The operations were carried out with the n-hexane/n-heptane distilling system at atmospheric pressure and under total reflux conditions. The rotating speed could be varied between 300 and 2500 rpm, which provided centrifugal forces from 5 to 316 times the Earth's gravity. The effects of concentration, vapor velocity, rotating speed and packing type (two different Raschig ring sizes and structured wire mesh packing on mass transfer behavior were analyzed. Experimental results showed that the mass transfer coefficient depends on the liquid flow rates and rotating speed. The equipment had high separation efficiency in a reduced bed volume.

  5. Process enhancement of supercritical methanol biodiesel production by packing beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Bao-Quan; Zhou, Dan; Li, Gen; Yin, Jian-Zhong; Xue, Song; Liu, Jiao

    2017-03-01

    Continuous fixed bed reactors filled by three kinds of packing which were glass bead, glass spring and Dixon rings were investigated. The effect of temperature, pressure, the molar ratio of methanol to oil, flow rate, the size and shape of the packing were researched. The highest yield 90.84% of FAME was obtained by filling Dixon rings as packing with the condition of the temperature was 350°C, the pressure was 22MPa, the molar ratio of methanol to oil was 42:1. In addition, the reusability of Dixon rings was perfect. Numerical simulation was researched to provide theoretical basis for experimental results, besides the kinetics and thermodynamics behavior were investigated to explore the reaction mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. FY-87 packing fabrication techniques (commercial waste form) results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werry, E.V.; Gates, T.E.; Cabbage, K.S.; Eklund, J.D.

    1988-04-01

    This report covers the investigation of fabrication techniques associated with the development of suitable materials and methods to provide a prefabricated packing for waste packages for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). The principal functions of the packing are to minimize container corrosion during the 300 to 1000 years following repository closure and provide long-term control of the release of radionuclides from the waste package. The investigative work, discussed in this report, was specifically conceived to develop the design criteria for production of full-scale prototypical packing rings. The investigative work included the preparation of procedures, the preparation of fabrication materials, physical properties, and the determination of the engineering properties. The principal activities were the preparation of the materials and the determination of the physical properties. 21 refs., 20 figs., 14 tabs.

  7. A Heuristic Algorithm for Solving Triangle Packing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on the triangle packing problem has important theoretic significance, which has broad application prospects in material processing, network resource optimization, and so forth. Generally speaking, the orientation of the triangle should be limited in advance, since the triangle packing problem is NP-hard and has continuous properties. For example, the polygon is not allowed to rotate; then, the approximate solution can be obtained by optimization method. This paper studies the triangle packing problem by a new kind of method. Such concepts as angle region, corner-occupying action, corner-occupying strategy, and edge-conjoining strategy are presented in this paper. In addition, an edge-conjoining and corner-occupying algorithm is designed, which is to obtain an approximate solution. It is demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is highly efficient, and by the time complexity analysis and the analogue experiment result is found.

  8. Polymer ultrapermeability from the inefficient packing of 2D chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Ian; Bezzu, C. Grazia; Carta, Mariolino; Comesaña-Gándara, Bibiana; Lasseuguette, Elsa; Ferrari, M. Chiara; Bernardo, Paola; Clarizia, Gabriele; Fuoco, Alessio; Jansen, Johannes C.; Hart, Kyle E.; Liyana-Arachchi, Thilanga P.; Colina, Coray M.; McKeown, Neil B.

    2017-09-01

    The promise of ultrapermeable polymers, such as poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) (PTMSP), for reducing the size and increasing the efficiency of membranes for gas separations remains unfulfilled due to their poor selectivity. We report an ultrapermeable polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-TMN-Trip) that is substantially more selective than PTMSP. From molecular simulations and experimental measurement we find that the inefficient packing of the two-dimensional (2D) chains of PIM-TMN-Trip generates a high concentration of both small (polymers with three-dimensional (3D) contorted chains confirm that its additional intrinsic microporosity is generated from the awkward packing of its 2D polymer chains in a 3D amorphous solid. This strategy of shape-directed packing of chains of microporous polymers may be applied to other rigid polymers for gas separations.

  9. MP:PD--a data base of internal packing densities, internal packing defects and internal waters of helical membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Alexander; Theune, Dominic; Goede, Andrean; Hildebrand, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    The membrane protein packing database (MP:PD) (http://proteinformatics.charite.de/mppd) is a database of helical membrane proteins featuring internal atomic packing densities, cavities and waters. Membrane proteins are not tightly packed but contain a considerable number of internal cavities that differ in volume, polarity and solvent accessibility as well as in their filling with internal water. Internal cavities are supposed to be regions of high physical compressibility. By serving as mobile hydrogen bonding donors or acceptors, internal waters likely facilitate transition between different functional states. Despite these distinct functional roles, internal cavities of helical membrane proteins are not well characterized, mainly because most internal waters are not resolved by crystal structure analysis. Here we combined various computational biophysical techniques to characterize internal cavities, reassign positions of internal waters and calculate internal packing densities of all available helical membrane protein structures and stored them in MP:PD. The database can be searched using keywords and entries can be downloaded. Each entry can be visualized in Provi, a Jmol-based protein viewer that provides an integrated display of low energy waters alongside membrane planes, internal packing density, hydrophobic cavities and hydrogen bonds.

  10. Growth of Vanadium Carbide by Halide-Activated Pack Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Dahl, Kristian Vinter

    The present work investigates growth of vanadium carbide (VC) layers by the pack diffusion method on a Vanadis 6 tool steel. The VC layers were produced by pack diffusion at 1000°C for 1, 4 and 16 hours. The VC layers were characterized with optical and electron microscopy, Vickers hardness tests...... and X-ray diffraction. Homogeneous VC mono-phase layers with Vickers hardness of more than 2400 HV were obtained. Hardening and tempering of the vanadized Vanadis 6 steel did not affect the VC layers....

  11. Involvement of Clostridium gasigenes and C. algidicarnis in 'blown pack' spoilage of Brazilian vacuum-packed beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alessandra R; Paulo, Ezio N; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Chaves, Rafael D; Massaguer, Pilar R

    2011-08-15

    The objectives of this study were to isolate psychrotrophic clostridia from Brazilian vacuum-packed beef cuts (spoiled or not) and to identify the isolates by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Anaerobic psychrotrophic microorganisms were also enumerated and samples were collected to verify the incidence of psychrotrophic clostridia in the abattoir environment. Vacuum-packed beef cuts (n=8 grossly distended and n=5 non-spoiled) and environmental samples were obtained from a beef packing plant located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Each sample was divided in three subsamples (exudate, beef surface and beef core) that were analyzed for vegetative forms, total spore-forming, and sulfide reducing spore-forming, both activated by alcohol and heat. Biochemical profiles of the isolates were obtained using API20A, with further identification using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The growth temperature and the pH range were also assessed. Populations of psychrotrophic anaerobic vegetative microorganisms of up to 10(10)CFU/(g, mL or 100 cm(2)) were found in 'blown pack' samples, while in non-spoiled samples populations of 10(5)CFU/(g, CFU/mL or CFU/100 cm(2)) was found. Overall, a higher population of total spores and sulfide reducing spores activated by heat in spoiled samples was found. Clostridium gasigenes (n=10) and C. algidicarnis (n=2) were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Among the ten C. gasigenes isolates, six were from spoiled samples (C1, C2 and C9), two were isolated from non-spoiled samples (C4 and C5) and two were isolated from the hide and the abattoir corridor/beef cut conveyor belt. C. algidicarnis was recovered from spoiled beef packs (C2). Although some samples (C3, C7, C10 and C14) presented signs of 'blown pack' spoilage, Clostridium was not recovered. C. algidicarnis (n=1) and C. gasigenes (n=9) isolates have shown a psychrotrophic behavior, grew in the range 6.2-8.2. This is the first report on the isolation of psychrotrophic Clostridium (C

  12. Scaling laws for the mechanics of loose and cohesive granular materials based on Baxter's sticky hard spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, Johan; Löwe, Henning; Tan, Shurun; Tsang, Leung

    2017-09-01

    We have conducted discrete element simulations (pfc3d) of very loose, cohesive, granular assemblies with initial configurations which are drawn from Baxter's sticky hard sphere (SHS) ensemble. The SHS model is employed as a promising auxiliary means to independently control the coordination number z_{c} of cohesive contacts and particle volume fraction ϕ of the initial states. We focus on discerning the role of z_{c} and ϕ for the elastic modulus, failure strength, and the plastic consolidation line under quasistatic, uniaxial compression. We find scaling behavior of the modulus and the strength, which both scale with the cohesive contact density ν_{c}=z_{c}ϕ of the initial state according to a power law. In contrast, the behavior of the plastic consolidation curve is shown to be independent of the initial conditions. Our results show the primary control of the initial contact density on the mechanics of cohesive granular materials for small deformations, which can be conveniently, but not exclusively explored within the SHS-based assembling procedure.

  13. A search of the Orion spur for continuous gravitational waves using a "loosely coherent" algorithm on data from LIGO interferometers

    CERN Document Server

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Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Branco, V; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Celerier, C; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Baiardi, L Cerboni; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; 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Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Macarthur, J; Macdonald, E P; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Madden-Fong, D X; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Magee, R M; Mageswaran, M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mangini, N M; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meidam, J; Meinders, M; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; 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Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J

    2015-01-01

    We report results of a wideband search for periodic gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars within the Orion spur towards both the inner and outer regions of our Galaxy. As gravitational waves interact very weakly with matter, the search is unimpeded by dust and concentrations of stars. One search disk (A) is $6.87^\\circ$ in diameter and centered on $20^\\textrm{h}10^\\textrm{m}54.71^\\textrm{s}+33^\\circ33'25.29"$, and the other (B) is $7.45^\\circ$ in diameter and centered on $8^\\textrm{h}35^\\textrm{m}20.61^\\textrm{s}-46^\\circ49'25.151"$. We explored the frequency range of 50-1500 Hz and frequency derivative from $0$ to $-5\\times 10^{-9}$ Hz/s. A multi-stage, loosely coherent search program allowed probing more deeply than before in these two regions, while increasing coherence length with every stage. Rigorous followup parameters have winnowed initial coincidence set to only 70 candidates, to be examined manually. None of those 70 candidates proved to be consistent with an isolated gravitational wave em...

  14. Transmission of equine influenza virus during an outbreak is characterized by frequent mixed infections and loose transmission bottlenecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joseph; Allen, Richard C; Baguelin, Marc; Hampson, Katie; Baillie, Gregory J; Elton, Debra; Newton, J Richard; Kellam, Paul; Wood, James L N; Holmes, Edward C; Murcia, Pablo R

    2012-12-01

    The ability of influenza A viruses (IAVs) to cross species barriers and evade host immunity is a major public health concern. Studies on the phylodynamics of IAVs across different scales - from the individual to the population - are essential for devising effective measures to predict, prevent or contain influenza emergence. Understanding how IAVs spread and evolve during outbreaks is critical for the management of epidemics. Reconstructing the transmission network during a single outbreak by sampling viral genetic data in time and space can generate insights about these processes. Here, we obtained intra-host viral sequence data from horses infected with equine influenza virus (EIV) to reconstruct the spread of EIV during a large outbreak. To this end, we analyzed within-host viral populations from sequences covering 90% of the infected yards. By combining gene sequence analyses with epidemiological data, we inferred a plausible transmission network, in turn enabling the comparison of transmission patterns during the course of the outbreak and revealing important epidemiological features that were not apparent using either approach alone. The EIV populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity, and in many cases we observed distinct viral populations containing a dominant variant and a number of related minor variants that were transmitted between infectious horses. In addition, we found evidence of frequent mixed infections and loose transmission bottlenecks in these naturally occurring populations. These frequent mixed infections likely influence the size of epidemics.

  15. Percutaneous bone cement refixation of aseptically loose hip prostheses: the effect of interface tissue removal on injected cement volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malan, Daniel F. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Department of Intelligent Systems, Delft (Netherlands); Valstar, Edward R. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft (Netherlands); Nelissen, Rob G.H.H. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    To quantify whether injected cement volumes differed between two groups of patients who underwent experimental minimally invasive percutaneous cement injection procedures to stabilize aseptically loose hip prostheses. One patient group was preoperatively treated using gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy to remove fibrous interface tissue, while the other group received no preoperative treatment. It was hypothesized that cement penetration may have been inhibited by the presence of fibrous interface tissue in periprosthetic lesions. We analyzed 17 patients (14 female, 3 male, ages 72-91, ASA categories 2-4) who were treated at our institution. Osteolytic lesions and injected cement were manually delineated using 3D CT image segmentation, and the deposition of injected cement was quantified. Patients who underwent preoperative gene-directed enzyme therapy to remove fibrous tissue exhibited larger injected cement volumes than those who did not. The observed median increase in injected cement volume was 6.8 ml. Higher cement leakage volumes were also observed for this group. We conclude that prior removal of periprosthetic fibrous interface tissue may enable better cement flow and penetration. This might lead to better refixation of aseptically loosened prostheses. (orig.)

  16. Transmission of equine influenza virus during an outbreak is characterized by frequent mixed infections and loose transmission bottlenecks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Hughes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of influenza A viruses (IAVs to cross species barriers and evade host immunity is a major public health concern. Studies on the phylodynamics of IAVs across different scales - from the individual to the population - are essential for devising effective measures to predict, prevent or contain influenza emergence. Understanding how IAVs spread and evolve during outbreaks is critical for the management of epidemics. Reconstructing the transmission network during a single outbreak by sampling viral genetic data in time and space can generate insights about these processes. Here, we obtained intra-host viral sequence data from horses infected with equine influenza virus (EIV to reconstruct the spread of EIV during a large outbreak. To this end, we analyzed within-host viral populations from sequences covering 90% of the infected yards. By combining gene sequence analyses with epidemiological data, we inferred a plausible transmission network, in turn enabling the comparison of transmission patterns during the course of the outbreak and revealing important epidemiological features that were not apparent using either approach alone. The EIV populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity, and in many cases we observed distinct viral populations containing a dominant variant and a number of related minor variants that were transmitted between infectious horses. In addition, we found evidence of frequent mixed infections and loose transmission bottlenecks in these naturally occurring populations. These frequent mixed infections likely influence the size of epidemics.

  17. Loosely coupled level sets for retinal layers and drusen segmentation in subjects with dry age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosel, Jelena; Wang, Ziyuan; de Jong, Henk; Vermeer, Koenraad A.; van Vliet, Lucas J.

    2016-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used to produce high-resolution three-dimensional images of the retina, which permit the investigation of retinal irregularities. In dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a chronic eye disease that causes central vision loss, disruptions such as drusen and changes in retinal layer thicknesses occur which could be used as biomarkers for disease monitoring and diagnosis. Due to the topology disrupting pathology, existing segmentation methods often fail. Here, we present a solution for the segmentation of retinal layers in dry AMD subjects by extending our previously presented loosely coupled level sets framework which operates on attenuation coefficients. In eyes affected by AMD, Bruch's membrane becomes visible only below the drusen and our segmentation framework is adapted to delineate such a partially discernible interface. Furthermore, the initialization stage, which tentatively segments five interfaces, is modified to accommodate the appearance of drusen. This stage is based on Dijkstra's algorithm and combines prior knowledge on the shape of the interface, gradient and attenuation coefficient in the newly proposed cost function. This prior knowledge is incorporated by varying the weights for horizontal, diagonal and vertical edges. Finally, quantitative evaluation of the accuracy shows a good agreement between manual and automated segmentation.

  18. Parallel Simulation of Loosely Timed SystemC/TLM Programs: Challenges Raised by an Industrial Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Becker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Transaction level models of systems-on-chip in SystemC are commonly used in the industry to provide an early simulation environment. The SystemC standard imposes coroutine semantics for the scheduling of simulated processes, to ensure determinism and reproducibility of simulations. However, because of this, sequential implementations have, for a long time, been the only option available, and still now the reference implementation is sequential. With the increasing size and complexity of models, and the multiplication of computation cores on recent machines, the parallelization of SystemC simulations is a major research concern. There have been several proposals for SystemC parallelization, but most of them are limited to cycle-accurate models. In this paper we focus on loosely timed models, which are commonly used in the industry. We present an industrial context and show that, unfortunately, most of the existing approaches for SystemC parallelization can fundamentally not apply in this context. We support this claim with a set of measurements performed on a platform used in production at STMicroelectronics. This paper surveys existing techniques, presents a visualization and profiling tool and identifies unsolved challenges in the parallelization of SystemC models at transaction level.

  19. High flux, positively charged loose nanofiltration membrane by blending with poly (ionic liquid) brushes grafted silica spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Liang [School of Chemical Engineering and Energy, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Zhang, Yatao, E-mail: zhangyatao@zzu.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Energy, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); UNESCO Center for Membrane Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Wang, Yuanming; Zhang, Haoqin [School of Chemical Engineering and Energy, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Liu, Jindun, E-mail: liujindun@zzu.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Energy, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • SiO{sub 2} spheres were modified by poly (ionic liquid) brushes via RATRP. • Positively charged NF membranes were fabricated by incorporation of SiO{sub 2}-PIL. • The membranes exhibited higher rejection for dyes and superior penetration for salts. - Abstract: Silica spheres modified by poly (ionic liquid) brushes, a novel positively charged nanomaterial is prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A high flux positively charged loose nanofiltration membrane is fabricated via “blending-phase inversion” method. The morphology structures, hydrophilicity, thermal and mechanical properties, permeation performance of these membranes are investigated in detail. The results reveal that the hybrid membranes have enhanced surface hydrophilicity, water permeability, thermal stability, and mechanical properties. Characterization of membrane separation properties shows that the hybrid membranes possess higher salt permeability and relatively higher rejection for reactive dyes, which may open opportunities for the recycling of reactive dyes wastewater. Moreover, such hybrid membranes have an outstanding operational stability and salts concentration showed little effect on the separation properties.

  20. Intuitive Understanding of σ Delocalization in Loose and σ Localization in Tight Helical Conformations of an Oligosilane Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Milena; Antic, Dean; Rooklin, David; Bande, Annika; Michl, Josef

    2017-06-01

    Conformational effects on the σ-electron delocalization in oligosilanes are addressed by Hartree-Fock and time-dependent density functional theory calculations (B3LYP, 6-311G**) at MP2 optimized geometries of permethylated uniformly helical linear oligosilanes (all-ω-Sin R2n+2 ) up to n=16 and for backbone dihedral angles ω=55-180°. The extent of σ delocalization is judged by the partition ratio of the highest occupied molecular orbital and is reflected in the dependence of its shape and energy and of UV absorption spectra on n. The results agree with known spectra of all-transoid loose-helix conformers (all-[±165]-Sin Me2n+2 ) and reveal a transition at ω≈90° from the "σ-delocalized" limit at ω=180° toward and close to the physically non-realizable "σ-localized" tight-helix limit ω=0 with entirely different properties. The distinction is also obtained in the Hückel Ladder H and C models of σ delocalization. An easy intuitive way to understand the origin of the two contrasting limits is to first view the linear chain as two subchains with alternating primary and vicinal interactions (σ hyperconjugation), one consisting of the odd and the other of the even σ(SiSi) bonds, and then allow the two subchains to interact by geminal interactions (σ conjugation). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Adolescents' ability to select healthy food using two different front-of-pack food labels: a cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babio, Nancy; Vicent, Paloma; López, Leonor; Benito, Anna; Basulto, Julio; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    To compare, in adolescents, two models of front-of-pack Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA) labels in terms of (i) friendliness and acceptance and (ii) the ability to choose a diet that closely follows the nutritional recommendations. A randomized cross-over study was designed to compare two simplified front-of-pack GDA nutrition labels. A Spanish secondary school. Eighty-one healthy adolescents aged between 14 and 16 years were recruited. Participants were randomly exposed to two experimental non-real food-choice conditions using multiple-traffic-light or monochrome nutritional labels. Participants had to choose options from a closed menu for 5 d on the basis of the experimental front-of-pack labelling. For each meal, three food options with different nutritional compositions were given to the participants. The contents of total energy and fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt of the chosen options were calculated. There were no significant differences in baseline sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics between participants regardless of the experimental condition in which they started. There were no carry-over effects between the experimental sequences. It was observed that when participants used the multiple-traffic-light GDA system they chose significantly less total energy (mean -123·1 (sd 211·0) kJ (-29·4 (sd 50·4) kcal), P front-of-pack nutritional label, the multiple-traffic-light system helped adolescents to differentiate between healthier and less healthy food, theoretically making it possible for them to choose a diet closer to dietary recommendations.

  2. Destabilization of confined granular packings due to fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monloubou, Martin; Sandnes, Bjørnar

    2016-04-01

    Fluid flow through granular materials can cause fluidization when fluid drag exceeds the frictional stress within the packing. Fluid driven failure of granular packings is observed in both natural and engineered settings, e.g. soil liquefaction and flowback of proppants during hydraulic fracturing operations. We study experimentally the destabilization and flow of an unconsolidated granular packing subjected to a point source fluid withdrawal using a model system consisting of a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing a water-grain mixture. The fluid is withdrawn from the cell at a constant rate, and the emerging flow patterns are imaged in time-lapse mode. Using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), we show that the granular flow gets localized in a narrow channel down the center of the cell, and adopts a Gaussian velocity profile similar to those observed in dry grain flows in silos. We investigate the effects of the experimental parameters (flow rate, grain size, grain shape, fluid viscosity) on the packing destabilization, and identify the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed complex flow behaviour.

  3. Social Interactions Sparked by Pictorial Warnings on Cigarette Packs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa G. Hall

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Message Impact Framework suggests that social interactions may offer smokers the opportunity to process pictorial warnings on cigarette packs more deeply. We aimed to describe adult smokers’ social interactions about pictorial cigarette pack warnings in two longitudinal pilot studies. In Pilot Study 1, 30 smokers used cigarette packs with one of nine pictorial warnings for two weeks. In Pilot Study 2, 46 smokers used cigarette packs with one of five pictorial warnings for four weeks. Nearly all smokers (97%/96% in Pilot Study 1/2 talked about the warnings with other people, with the most common people being friends (67%/87% and spouses/significant others (34%/42%. Pilot Study 2 found that 26% of smokers talked about the warnings with strangers. Discussions about the health effects of smoking and quitting smoking were more frequent during the first week of exposure to pictorial warnings than in the week prior to beginning the study (both p < 0.05. Pictorial warnings sparked social interactions about the warnings, the health effects of smoking, and quitting smoking, indicating that pictorial warnings may act as a social intervention reaching beyond the individual. Future research should examine social interactions as a potential mediator of the impact of pictorial warnings on smoking behavior.

  4. Tile-Packing Tomography Is NP-hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrobak, Marek; Dürr, Christoph; Guíñez, Flavio

    2010-01-01

    Discrete tomography deals with reconstructing finite spatial objects from their projections. The objects we study in this paper are called tilings or tile-packings, and they consist of a number of disjoint copies of a fixed tile, where a tile is defined as a connected set of grid points. A row pr...

  5. The Quality of Equilibria for Set Packing Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Jasper de; Uetz, Marc

    2017-01-01

    We introduce set packing games as an abstraction of situations in which $n$ selfish players select subsets of a finite set of indivisible items, and analyze the quality of several equilibria for this class of games. Assuming that players are able to approximately play equilibrium strategies, we show

  6. Diffraction Symmetry in Crystalline, Close-Packed C60

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, R.M.; Siegrist, T.; Marsh, P.M.; Hessen, B.; Kortan, A.R.; Murphy, D.W.; Haddon, R.C.; Tycko, R.; Dabbagh, G.; Mujsce, A.M.; Kaplan, M.L.; Zahurak, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    We have grown crystals of the carbon structure C60 by sublimation. In contrast to solution-grown crystals, the sublimed crystals have long range order with no evidence of solvent inclusions. Sublimed C60 forms three dimensional, faceted crystals with a close-packed, face-centered cubic unit cell. We

  7. Design and Production of Damage-Resistant Tray Pack Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    Nutrition Technology, Task area BC-Food Packaging, AMAFN 81-20(V). The contract Project Officer was Joseph TW. Szczeblowski. Because the Tray Packs are...BOX #6 DATE% 6-18-85 TEST TYPE: SIDE DROP TEST SAMPLE CONFIGURATION: 98# LABELED LID -REINFORCED TEST TECH: 2X2 - AKN 98#/.050 REINFORCED TRAY -WATER

  8. Tuning of intermolecular interactions results in packing diversity in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Crystal structures of four green fluorescent protein (GFP) chromophore analogues with different packing interactions could be tuned by appropriate substitutions around the imidazolin-5-one ring are reported here. Compound 1 was crystallized from tetrahydrofuran at room temperature while compounds 2-4 have been ...

  9. An Experimental Investigation of the Boundary Layer under Pack Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Layer- Under Pack Ice- 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AU.THOR(s) -8. CONTRACT OR GRANT’NUMBER(r) ’ eMiles -G. McPhee N-00014-67-A-0103-0021 .N-00014... nolds number the range of the spectrum in which dissipation occurs is locally Isotropic and depends only on the viscosity, v, and the energy

  10. Cannabis body packing : a case report | Ngatchou | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cannabis body packing : a case report. ... a diffuse abdominal plain to the emergency department. Abdominal X-ray demonstrated multiple foreign bodies along the intestinal tract, which were found to be cannabis packets. The patient was treated conservatively with a good result. The Pan African Medical Journal 2016;24.

  11. Microbiological Quality of Blister Pack Tablets in Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the microbiological quality of blister-packed tablets manufactured and marketed in Jordan in order to assess Good Manufacturing ... Six of the products with the highest stratified bacterial count were manufactured by one company and were also found to be contaminated with Aeromonas species.

  12. Gas-solid trickle flow hydrodynamics in a packed column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Kuczynski, M.

    1987-01-01

    The pressure gradient and the static and the dynamic hold-up have been measured for a system consisting of a Fluid Cracking Catalyst (FCC) of 30–150 × 10−6 m diameter, trickling over a packed bed and with a gas streaming in countercurrent flow. The experiments were carried out at ambient conditions

  13. Frac-and-pack stimulation: Application, design, and field experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roodhart, L.P.; Fokker, P.A.; Davies, D.R.; Shlyapobersky, J.; Wong, G.K.

    1994-03-01

    This paper discusses the criteria for selecting wells to be frac-and-packed. The authors show how systematic study of the inflow performance can be used to assess the potential of frac-and-packed wells, to identify the controlling factors, and to optimize design parameters. They also show that fracture conductivity is often the key to successful treatment. This conductivity depends largely on proppant size; formation permeability damage around the created fracture has less effect. Appropriate allowance needs to be made for flow restrictions caused by the presence of the perforations, partial penetration, and non-Darcy effects. They describe the application of the overpressure-calibrated hydraulic fracture model in frac-and-pack treatment design, and discuss some operational considerations with reference to field examples. The full potential of this promising new completion method can be achieved only if the design is tailored to the individual well. This demands high-quality input data, which can be obtained only from a calibration test. This paper presents their strategy for frac-and-pack design, drawing on examples from field experience. They also point out several areas that the industry needs to address, such as the sizing of proppant in soft formations and the interaction between fracturing fluids and resin in resin-coated proppant.

  14. Technology of mine stone packing in abandoned workings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neshitin, V.M.; Kurchenko, Eh.P.; Afanas' ev, V.V. (DonUGI (USSR))

    1990-03-01

    Describes technology of stone packing into abandoned workings using a scraper and a slinging machine of belt drum type. Three schemes are presented, one that uses the BS-4P scraper, the 1LP winch and a slinging machine, a second one that uses the UZM slinger with the stone delivered by a conveyor and a third scheme that uses the UZM slinger, 1PPN-5 loader and the OB or BOM tippler. The first and third schemes can be used in two-way workings with cross-section area not less than 9 m{sup 2} and the second scheme in workings with cross-section area not under 6 m{sup 2}. The rate of packing is 168, 236 and 248 m{sup 3}/d respectively. The cost of packing operations is 2.36, 2.82 and 2.46 rubles/t respectively which is 0.99-1.45 less than in the case of hauling and hoisting waste rock to the surface. Organization of packing operations is described.

  15. Packing and Cohesive Properties of Some Locally Extracted Starches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tapping experiments were used to quantify the packing and cohesive properties of the starches. The volume reduction ability was estimated using the Kawakita equation. Results: The shape factor of the starches provided a proportionality constant between the particle size and surface area. The rank order of the particle ...

  16. Editorial: Authorship: Lone wolf or wolf pack? | Wolvaardt | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Health Professions Education. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 2 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editorial: Authorship: Lone wolf or wolf pack? J.E. Wolvaardt ...

  17. Rapidly falling costs of battery packs for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykvist, Björn; Nilsson, Måns

    2015-04-01

    To properly evaluate the prospects for commercially competitive battery electric vehicles (BEV) one must have accurate information on current and predicted cost of battery packs. The literature reveals that costs are coming down, but with large uncertainties on past, current and future costs of the dominating Li-ion technology. This paper presents an original systematic review, analysing over 80 different estimates reported 2007-2014 to systematically trace the costs of Li-ion battery packs for BEV manufacturers. We show that industry-wide cost estimates declined by approximately 14% annually between 2007 and 2014, from above US$1,000 per kWh to around US$410 per kWh, and that the cost of battery packs used by market-leading BEV manufacturers are even lower, at US$300 per kWh, and has declined by 8% annually. Learning rate, the cost reduction following a cumulative doubling of production, is found to be between 6 and 9%, in line with earlier studies on vehicle battery technology. We reveal that the costs of Li-ion battery packs continue to decline and that the costs among market leaders are much lower than previously reported. This has significant implications for the assumptions used when modelling future energy and transport systems and permits an optimistic outlook for BEVs contributing to low-carbon transport.

  18. Particle shape effects on the stress response of granular packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassiadis, Athanasios G; Miskin, Marc Z; Kaplan, Paul; Rodenberg, Nicholas; Lee, Seung Hwan; Merritt, Jason; Brown, Eric; Amend, John; Lipson, Hod; Jaeger, Heinrich M

    2014-01-07

    We present measurements of the stress response of packings formed from a wide range of particle shapes. Besides spheres these include convex shapes such as the Platonic solids, truncated tetrahedra, and triangular bipyramids, as well as more complex, non-convex geometries such as hexapods with various arm lengths, dolos, and tetrahedral frames. All particles were 3D-printed in hard resin. Well-defined initial packing states were established through preconditioning by cyclic loading under given confinement pressure. Starting from such initial states, stress-strain relationships for axial compression were obtained at four different confining pressures for each particle type. While confining pressure has the largest overall effect on the mechanical response, we find that particle shape controls the details of the stress-strain curves and can be used to tune packing stiffness and yielding. By correlating the experimentally measured values for the effective Young's modulus under compression, yield stress and energy loss during cyclic loading, we identify trends among the various shapes that allow for designing a packing's aggregate behavior.

  19. Consumer preferences for front-of-pack calories labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Paeps, F.; Fernández-Celemín, L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective In light of the emerging obesity pandemic, front-of-pack calories labels may be an important tool to assist consumers in making informed healthier food choices. However, there is little prior research to guide key decisions on whether caloric content should be expressed in absolute terms

  20. Packed Bed Reactor Technology for Chemical-Looping Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorman, S.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has emerged as an alternative for conventional power production processes to intrinsically integrate power production and CO2 capture. In this work a new reactor concept for CLC is proposed, based on dynamically operated packed bed reactors. With analytical

  1. Packing states of multilamellar vesicles in a nonionic surfactant system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, T.D.; Olsson, U.; Mortensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    under shear. Here, we focused only in the MLV region, L-alpha(*), of a temperature sensitive surfactant system (C12E4-water) to investigate the packing of multilamellar vesicles as a function of temperature under constant shear. Two sets of temperature scan experiments were performed in the L...

  2. Optimizing the Heat Dissipation of an Electric Vehicle Battery Pack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Ying Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery packs are critical components to electric vehicles. They are designed to last for the designed life cycles. Temperature affects the performance and life span of batteries. Maintaining stable and evenly distributed temperatures within the operating temperature range among all modules and battery cells is one of key factors to prolong the life of battery packs. This paper studied the effects of the ventilation locations of the inlets and outlets and the gaps among battery cells on the rate of heat dissipation and temperature distribution in the pack. An existing battery pack was used as a baseline design. A computational fluid dynamics model was created to analyze the temperature distribution and air flow conditions. The design intent is to keep the package changes to the minimum but with better cooling efficiency. The results show that the locations and shapes of inlets and outlets have significant impact on the battery heat dissipation. A design is proposed to minimize the temperature variation among all battery cells. The temperature difference between highest and lowest ones for the evaluated event is reduced from 6.04°C to 3.67°C with 39% improvements, and the heat dissipation rate is improved with 3.8%.

  3. Nutritional Contents of Lunch Packs of Primary School Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    school hours alleviate short term hunger, increase attention span, facilitate learning and obviate the need for children to leave school in search of food.[4] Healthier and better nourished children stay in school longer, learn more and later become healthier and more productive adults. Content of lunch pack should supply a ...

  4. Influence of organic cations on the crystal packing of decavanadate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Influence of organic cations on the crystal packing of decavanadate containing solids. A RAMANAN, PRASUN ROY, T DURAISAMY, SANJEEV SHARMA and P AYYAPPAN. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi. 110 016, India. Polyoxometallates form a rich class of inorganic materials which ...

  5. Tobacco smuggling estimates based on pack examination in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I Andreeva

    2017-05-01

    Cigarette pack examination as a part of tobacco surveillance allows estimating the proportion of cigarettes brought from other countries, part of which could be smuggled. This information can be used for counterbalancing the industry's statements, which usually overestimate the level of cigarette smuggling.

  6. General advancing front packing algorithm for the discrete element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfa, Carlos A. Recarey; Pérez Morales, Irvin Pablo; de Farias, Márcio Muniz; de Navarra, Eugenio Oñate Ibañez; Valera, Roberto Roselló; Casañas, Harold Díaz-Guzmán

    2018-01-01

    A generic formulation of a new method for packing particles is presented. It is based on a constructive advancing front method, and uses Monte Carlo techniques for the generation of particle dimensions. The method can be used to obtain virtual dense packings of particles with several geometrical shapes. It employs continuous, discrete, and empirical statistical distributions in order to generate the dimensions of particles. The packing algorithm is very flexible and allows alternatives for: 1—the direction of the advancing front (inwards or outwards), 2—the selection of the local advancing front, 3—the method for placing a mobile particle in contact with others, and 4—the overlap checks. The algorithm also allows obtaining highly porous media when it is slightly modified. The use of the algorithm to generate real particle packings from grain size distribution curves, in order to carry out engineering applications, is illustrated. Finally, basic applications of the algorithm, which prove its effectiveness in the generation of a large number of particles, are carried out.

  7. Circle packing: experiments in discrete analytic function theory

    OpenAIRE

    Dubejko, Tomasz; Stephenson, Kenneth

    1995-01-01

    Circle packings are configurations of circles with specified patterns of tangency, and lend themselves naturally to computer experimentation and visualization. Maps between them display, with surprising faithfulness, many of the geometric properties associated with classical analytic functions. This paper introduces the fundamentals of an emerging "discrete analytic function theory'' and investigates connections with the classical theory. It then describes several experiment...

  8. Assessing the clogging and permeability of degrading packed bed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-01

    Jan 1, 2018 ... technologies are expensive, the mining sector has an increasing need for passive water treatment technology, with low maintenance and ... low-cost water treatment in South Africa. The degrading packed bed reactor (DPBR) is one of the units comprising the hybrid treatment group. The DPBR's main action ...

  9. Levels Of Haemoglobin And Packed Cell Volumes In Umbilical Cord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were taken from 121 umbilical cords at time of birth, and were analysed for haemoglobin concentration (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV). The Hb concentration was determined by the indirect colorimetric method, and the PCV by the microhaematocrit centrifuge method. The mean values obtained were Hb ...

  10. Noncontact ultrasound detection of exotic insects in wood packing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary R. Fleming; Dinesh K. Agrawal; Mahesh C. Bhardwaj; Leah S. Bauer; John J. Janowiak; Deborah L. Miller; Jeffrey E. Shield; Kelli Hoover; Rustum Roy

    2005-01-01

    Nondestructive methods for detection of wood-boring insects such as the Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) inside solid wood packing materials is a valuable tool in the fight to exclude exotic insects from attacking a nation?s timber resources. Nondestructive, non-contact, ultrasound was investigated as...

  11. Means for sealing hemp packings in gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistek, P.; Kubat, J.; Novak, L.

    1981-02-15

    The means for sealing hemp packings in gas pipelines has the following composition: 25-35% diethylene glycol, 10-15% glycerin, 10-15% triethylene glycol, 5-15% high ethylene glycols with an average molecular weight of 300, 20-35% the monobutyl ether of triethylene glycol, 4-7% ethoxylated p-chlorophenol, and 5-15% monoethanol amine.

  12. Effect of Plasmodium species infections on packed cell volume of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Populations of exotic and indigenous domestic chickens and guinea fowls in northeastern Nigeria were surveyed for Plasmodium sp by examining their stained blood samples. The packed cel volumes of all blood samples were estimated. During the period of study (March to September 2006), raina data were collected.

  13. PISCO GETTING IN A PACKED DISTILLATION COLUMN BATCH

    OpenAIRE

    Otiniano Cáceres, Manuel Eduardo; Departamento de Operaciones Unitarias, FACULTAD DE QUÌMICA E INGENIERÌA QUÌMICA, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS.LIMA-PERÚ; Romero, P.; Departamento de Análisis y Diseño de Procesos, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química-Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima-Perú; Vicuña, E.; Departamento de Análisis y Diseño de Procesos, FACULTAD DE QUÌMICA E INGENIERÌA QUÌMICA, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS. LIMA-PERÚ; Robles, R.; Departamento de Análisis y Diseño de Procesos, FACULTAD DE QUÌMICA E INGENIERÌA QUÌMICA, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS. LIMA-PERÚ; Garrido, A.; Departamento de Operaciones Unitarias, FACULTAD DE QUÌMICA E INGENIERÌA QUÌMICA, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS.LIMA-PERÚ; Linares, T.; Departamento de Química Orgánica, FACULTAD DE QUÌMICA E INGENIERÌA QUÌMICA, UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL MAYOR DE SAN MARCOS.LIMA-PERÚ

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of experimental runs performed far obtaining pisco in batch distillation column packed stainless steel from fermented wine of grape Quebranta. Se presentan los resultados de las corridas experimentales realizadas para la obtención de pisco en la columna de desülación disconlirua empacada de acero inoxidable a partir de vino fermentado de uva Quebranta.

  14. Influence of different packing methods on the hydrodynamic stability of chromatography columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, M; Eschbach, F; Hekmat, D; Weuster-Botz, D

    2017-09-22

    It is well known that packing non-uniformity may cause peak asymmetry and limit the performance of packed-bed chromatographic columns. However, understanding of the reasons leading to packing non-uniformity is still limited. Therefore, the effect of different column packing methods, i.e. dynamic axial compression (DAC), flow packing, and combinations of both on the hydrodynamic packing heterogeneity and stability of packings composed of polymer-based compressible porous resins with a mean diameter of 90μm was investigated experimentally as well as in-silico. Deterministic Euler-Lagrange modeling of a small chromatographic column with a diameter of 9.6mm and a bed height of 30mm was applied by coupling Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the Discrete Element Method (DEM). Interparticle micromechanics as well as the fluid-particle and particle-wall interactions were taken into account. Experiments and simulations revealed substantial non-uniformity of compression force transmission and axial packing density distribution during both dynamic axial compression and flow packing which was related to wall support and interparticle friction. By combining both packing methods sequentially (dynamic axial compression followed by flow packing or vice versa), the compression forces were more homogeneous resulting in improved packing procedures. Repeated alternating application of flow packing and DAC (the so-called hybrid packing method) resulted in the most homogeneous packing density distribution and the highest packing stability which was kept nearly constant during long-term operation with cyclic hydrodynamic load. The hydrodynamic stability of the chromatographic column was evaluated by calculating the integral porosity deviation and packing induced flow velocity dispersion. The hybrid packing method gave the best results for both parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bacterial Count of Pasteurized Milk Packed by Plastic Distributed in Malang Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Mastuti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of study was to investigated the number of bacteria in pasteurized milk packed by plastic and distributed in Malang Municipality. The results were compared with the standards, then. The material consisted of six different products obtained from six milk pasteurized agents. A survey research was carried out, and sampling of pasteurized milk was taken by simple random sampling and the agent was taken as total sampling. The number and type of bacteria were determined in the laboratory. TPC method was used to test the number of bacteria, MPN method on coliform bacteria, Gram colouring on bacterial identification, and TPC method on the number of bacteria in plastic packaging. Data were descriptively analysed. Compared with standard of pasteurized milk quality according to the standard regulated by government. The results showed the pasteurized milk packed by plastic distributed in Malang Municipality was unsuitable according to the standards with bacterial content and still found the coliform bacteria. It is recommended the need of agency which enable to control and testing for the products in Malang Municipality to keep quality and safety for the consument.   Keywords : bacterial count, pasteurized milk, plastic packaging.

  16. Pictorial cigarette pack warnings: a meta-analysis of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Hall, Marissa G; Francis, Diane B; Ribisl, Kurt M; Pepper, Jessica K; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-05-01

    To inform international research and policy, we conducted a meta-analysis of the experimental literature on pictorial cigarette pack warnings. We systematically searched 7 computerised databases in April 2013 using several search terms. We also searched reference lists of relevant articles. We included studies that used an experimental protocol to test cigarette pack warnings and reported data on both pictorial and text-only conditions. 37 studies with data on 48 independent samples (N=33,613) met criteria. Two independent coders coded all study characteristics. Effect sizes were computed from data extracted from study reports and were combined using random effects meta-analytic procedures. Pictorial warnings were more effective than text-only warnings for 12 of 17 effectiveness outcomes (all ptheory-based research on how warnings exert their effects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Loosely coupled class families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Families of mutually dependent classes that may be accessed polymor- phically provide an advanced tool for separation of concerns, in that it enables client code to use a group of instances of related classes safely without depending on the exact classes involved. However, class families which ar...

  18. Consumer preferences for front-of-pack calories labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans; Paeps, Frederic; Fernández-Celemín, Laura

    2008-02-01

    In light of the emerging obesity pandemic, front-of-pack calories labels may be an important tool to assist consumers in making informed healthier food choices. However, there is little prior research to guide key decisions on whether caloric content should be expressed in absolute terms or relative to recommended daily intake, whether it should be expressed in per serving or per 100 g and whether the information should be further brought alive for consumers in terms of what the extra calorie intake implies in relation to activity levels. The present study aimed at providing more insight into consumers' appreciation of front-of-pack labelling of caloric content of food products and their specific preferences for alternative execution formats for such information in Europe. For this purpose, eight executions of front-of-pack calorie flags were designed and their appeal and information value were extensively discussed with consumers through qualitative research in four different countries (Germany, The Netherlands, France and the UK). The results show that calories are well-understood and that participants were generally positive about front-of-pack flags, particularly when flags are uniform across products. The most liked flags are the simpler flags depicting only the number of calories per serving or per 100 g, while more complex flags including references to daily needs or exercise and the flag including a phrase referring to balanced lifestyle were least preferred. Some relevant differences between countries were observed. Although participants seem to be familiar with the notion of calories, they do not seem to fully understand how to apply them. From the results, managerial implications for the design and implementation of front-of-pack calorie labelling as well as important directions for future research are discussed.

  19. Consumer preferences for front-of-pack calories labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans; Paeps, Frederic; Fernández-Celemín, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Objective In light of the emerging obesity pandemic, front-of-pack calories labels may be an important tool to assist consumers in making informed healthier food choices. However, there is little prior research to guide key decisions on whether caloric content should be expressed in absolute terms or relative to recommended daily intake, whether it should be expressed in per serving or per 100 g and whether the information should be further brought alive for consumers in terms of what the extra calorie intake implies in relation to activity levels. The present study aimed at providing more insight into consumers’ appreciation of front-of-pack labelling of caloric content of food products and their specific preferences for alternative execution formats for such information in Europe. Design For this purpose, eight executions of front-of-pack calorie flags were designed and their appeal and information value were extensively discussed with consumers through qualitative research in four different countries (Germany, The Netherlands, France and the UK). Results The results show that calories are well-understood and that participants were generally positive about front-of-pack flags, particularly when flags are uniform across products. The most liked flags are the simpler flags depicting only the number of calories per serving or per 100 g, while more complex flags including references to daily needs or exercise and the flag including a phrase referring to balanced lifestyle were least preferred. Some relevant differences between countries were observed. Although participants seem to be familiar with the notion of calories, they do not seem to fully understand how to apply them. Conclusion From the results, managerial implications for the design and implementation of front-of-pack calorie labelling as well as important directions for future research are discussed. PMID:17601362

  20. Singlet Fission in Rubrene Derivatives: Impact of Molecular Packing

    KAUST Repository

    Sutton, Christopher

    2017-03-13

    We examine the properties of six recently synthesized rubrene derivatives (with substitutions on the side phenyl rings) that show vastly different crystal structures. In order to understand how packing in the solid state affects the excited states and couplings relevant for singlet fission, the lowest excited singlet (S), triplet (T), multiexciton (TT), and charge-transfer (CT) states of the rubrene derivatives are compared to known singlet fission materials [tetracene, pentacene, 5,12-diphenyltetracene (DPT), and rubrene itself]. While a small difference of less than 0.2 eV is calculated for the S and TT energies, a range of 0.50 to 1.2 eV in the CT energies and nearly 3 orders of magnitude in the electronic couplings are computed for the rubrene derivatives in their crystalline packings, which strongly affects the role of the CT state in facilitating SF. To rationalize experimental observations of singlet fission occurring in amorphous phases of rubrene, DPT, and tetracene, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to assess the impact of molecular packing and orientations and to gain a better understanding of the parameters that control singlet fission in amorphous films compared to crystalline packings. The MD simulations point to a crystalline-like packing for thin films of tetracene; on the other hand, DPT, rubrene, and the rubrene derivatives all show various degrees of disorder with a number of sites that have larger electronic couplings than in the crystal, which can facilitate singlet fission in such thin films. Our analysis underlines the potential of these materials as promising candidates for singlet fission and helps understand how various structural motifs affect the critical parameters that control the ability of a system to undergo singlet fission.

  1. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  2. Fluid model for a partially packed dielectric barrier discharge plasma reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Siddharth; Tu, Xin; Gu, Sai

    2017-09-01

    In this work, a two-dimensional numerical fluid model is developed for a partially packed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in pure helium. Influence of packing on the discharge characteristics is studied by comparing the results of DBD with partial packing with those obtained for DBD with no packing. In the axial partial packing configuration studied in this work, the electric field strength was shown to be enhanced at the top surface of the spherical packing material and at the contact points between the packing and the dielectric layer. For each value of applied potential, DBD with partial packing showed an increase in the number of pulses in the current profile in the positive half cycle of the applied voltage, as compared to DBD with no packing. Addition of partial packing to the plasma-alone DBD also led to an increase in the electron and ion number densities at the moment of breakdown. The time averaged electron energy profiles showed that a much higher range of electron energy can be achieved with the use of partial packing as compared to no packing in a DBD, at the same applied power. The spatially and time averaged values over one voltage cycle also showed an increase in power density and electron energy on inclusion of partial packing in the DBD. For the applied voltage parameters studied in this work, the discharge was found to be consistently homogeneous and showed the characteristics of atmospheric pressure glow discharge.

  3. Modelling the dissolution of non-aqueous phase liquid blobs in sphere packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, Elisa; Hilpert, Markus; Miller, Casey; Pitea, Demetrio

    2003-01-01

    Pore-scale modelling is appealing for investigating and obtaining macroscale constitutive equations for multiphase porous medium systems, because this approach bridges the macroscopic and microscopic scales. In this study, we develop a method to simulate and study the dissolution of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) blobs; accurately quantifying NAPL mass transfer is crucial for modelling decontamination studies faithfully. We simulate a random packing of spheres and a residual NAPL distribution by matching macroscopic morphological descriptors of an experimental NAPL distribution; then we simulate single-phase flow by using a lattice-Boltzmann approach. Finally we numerically solve the advection-diffusion equation in the pore space to simulate mass transfer and transport of the dissolved components. Based upon different simulation results, we evaluate the sensitivity of the mass transfer coefficient with respect to two non-dimensional parameters and compare the simulation results to existing empirical relationships.

  4. On the onset of secondary flow and unsteady solutions through a loosely coiled rectangular duct for large aspect ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaha, Poly Rani; Poddar, Nayan Kumar; Mondal, Rabindra Nath, E-mail: rnmondal71@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Jagannath University, Dhaka-1100 (Bangladesh); Rudro, Sajal Kanti [Department of Mathematics, Notredame Colleage, Motijheel, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    The study of flows through coiled ducts and channels has attracted considerable attention not only because of their ample applications in Chemical, Mechanical, Civil, Nuclear and Biomechanical engineering but also because of their ample applications in other areas, such as blood flow in the veins and arteries of human and other animals. In this paper, a numerical study is presented for the fully developed two-dimensional flow of viscous incompressible fluid through a loosely coiled rectangular duct of large aspect ratio. Numerical calculations are carried out by using a spectral method, and covering a wide range of the Dean number, Dn, for two types of curvatures of the duct. The main concern of the present study is to find out effects of curvature as well as formation of secondary vortices on unsteady solutions whether the unsteady flow is steady-state, periodic, multi-periodic or chaotic, if Dn is increased. Time evolution calculations as well as their phase spaces are performed with a view to study the non-linear behavior of the unsteady solutions, and it is found that the steady-state flow turns into chaotic flow through various flow instabilities, if Dn is increased no matter what the curvature is. It is found that the unsteady flow is a steady-state solution for small Dn’s and oscillates periodically or non-periodically (chaotic) between two- and twelve-vortex solutions, if Dn is increased. It is also found that the chaotic solution is weak for small Dn’s but strong as Dn becomes large. Axial flow distribution is also investigated and shown in contour plots.

  5. The roles of loosely-bound and tightly-bound extracellular polymer substances in enhanced biological phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiangyu; Tang, Ran; Fang, Zhendong; Xie, Chaoxin; Li, Yongqin; Xian, Guang

    2017-12-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) have be founded to participate in the process of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), but the exact role of EPS in EBPR process is unclear. In this work, the roles of loosely-bound EPS (LB-EPS), tightly-bound EPS (TB-EPS) and microbial cell in EBPR were explored, taking the activated sludge from 4 lab-scale A/O-SBR reactors with different temperatures and organic substrates as objects. It was founded that the P of EBPR activated sludge was mainly stored in TB-EPS, but the P of non-EBPR activated sludge was primarily located in microbial cell. The P release and uptake of EBPR activated sludge was attributed to the combined action of TB-EPS and microbial cell. Furthermore, TB-EPS played an more important role than microbial cell in EBPR process. With the analysis of (31)P NMR spectroscopy, both polyP and orthoP were the main phosphorus species of TB-EPS in EBPR sludge, but only orthoP was the main phosphorus species of LB-EPS and microbial cell. During the anaerobic-aerobic cycle, the roles of LB-EPS, TB-EPS and microbial cell in transfer and transformation of P in EBPR sludge were obviously different. LB-EPS transported and retained orthoP, and microbial cell directly anaerobically released or aerobically absorbed orthoP. Importantly, TB-EPS not only transported and retained orthoP, but also participated in biological phosphorus accumulation. The EBPR performance of sludge was closely related with the polyp in TB-EPS, which might be synthesized and decomposed by extracellular enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The first description of dominance hierarchy in captive giraffe: not loose and egalitarian, but clear and linear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horová, Edita; Brandlová, Karolína; Gloneková, Markéta

    2015-01-01

    Wild giraffes live in extensive groups in the fission fusion system, maintaining long social distances and loose social bonds. Within these groups, resources are widely distributed, agonistic encounters are scarce and the dominance hierarchy was reported in males only, while never deeply analysed. In captivity, the possibility to maintain inter-individual distances is limited and part of the resources is not evenly distributed. Consequently, we suggest that agonistic encounters should be more frequent, leading to the establishment of the dominance hierarchy. Based on the differences in resource-holding potential, we suggested that the rank of an individual would be affected by age and sex. Based on hypotheses of prior ownership, we tested whether rank was positively affected by the time spent in a herd and whether it was stable in adult females, which were present long-term in the same herd. We originally monitored four herds of Rothschild giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildii) in Dvůr Králové zoo (n = 8), Liberec zoo (n = 6), and two herds in Prague zoo: Prague 1 (n = 8) and Prague 2 (n = 9). The Prague 1 and Prague 2 herds were then combined and the resulting fifth herd was observed over three consecutive years (2009, 2010, and 2011) (n = 14, 13, and 14, respectively). We revealed a significantly linear hierarchy in Dvůr Králové, Prague 2 and in the combined herd in Prague. Rank was significantly affected by age in all herds; older individuals dominated the younger ones. In females, rank was positively affected by the time spent in the herd and adult females in Prague maintained their rank during three consecutive years. This study represents the first analysis of the dominance hierarchy in the captive giraffe, and discusses the behavioural flexibility of the social structure in response to monopolisable resources in a captive environment.

  7. The first description of dominance hierarchy in captive giraffe: not loose and egalitarian, but clear and linear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Horová

    Full Text Available Wild giraffes live in extensive groups in the fission fusion system, maintaining long social distances and loose social bonds. Within these groups, resources are widely distributed, agonistic encounters are scarce and the dominance hierarchy was reported in males only, while never deeply analysed. In captivity, the possibility to maintain inter-individual distances is limited and part of the resources is not evenly distributed. Consequently, we suggest that agonistic encounters should be more frequent, leading to the establishment of the dominance hierarchy. Based on the differences in resource-holding potential, we suggested that the rank of an individual would be affected by age and sex. Based on hypotheses of prior ownership, we tested whether rank was positively affected by the time spent in a herd and whether it was stable in adult females, which were present long-term in the same herd. We originally monitored four herds of Rothschild giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildii in Dvůr Králové zoo (n = 8, Liberec zoo (n = 6, and two herds in Prague zoo: Prague 1 (n = 8 and Prague 2 (n = 9. The Prague 1 and Prague 2 herds were then combined and the resulting fifth herd was observed over three consecutive years (2009, 2010, and 2011 (n = 14, 13, and 14, respectively. We revealed a significantly linear hierarchy in Dvůr Králové, Prague 2 and in the combined herd in Prague. Rank was significantly affected by age in all herds; older individuals dominated the younger ones. In females, rank was positively affected by the time spent in the herd and adult females in Prague maintained their rank during three consecutive years. This study represents the first analysis of the dominance hierarchy in the captive giraffe, and discusses the behavioural flexibility of the social structure in response to monopolisable resources in a captive environment.

  8. Expanding the SHOC2 mutation associated phenotype of Noonan syndrome with loose anagen hair: structural brain anomalies and myelofibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gripp, Karen W; Zand, Dina J; Demmer, Laurie; Anderson, Carol E; Dobyns, William B; Zackai, Elaine H; Denenberg, Elizabeth; Jenny, Kim; Stabley, Deborah L; Sol-Church, Katia

    2013-10-01

    Noonan syndrome is a heterogenous rasopathy typically presenting with short stature, characteristic facial features, cardiac abnormalities including pulmonic valve stenosis, ASD and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), cryptorchidism, ectodermal abnormalities, and learning differences. The phenotype is variable, and limited genotype phenotype correlation exists with SOS1 mutations often associated with normal cognition and stature, RAF1 mutations entailing a high HCM risk, and certain PTPN11 mutations predisposing to juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. The recently identified SHOC2 mutation (p.Ser2Gly) causes Noonan syndrome with loose anagen hair. We report five patients with this mutation. All had skin hyperpigmentation, sparse light colored hair, increased fine wrinkles, ligamentous laxity, developmental delay, and 4/4 had a structural cardiac anomaly. Hypotonia and macrocephaly occurred in 4/5 (80%); 3/5 (60%) had polyhydramnios, increased birth weight or required use of a feeding tube. Distinctive brain abnormalities included relative megalencephaly and enlarged subarachnoid spaces suggestive of benign external hydrocephalus, and a relatively small posterior fossa as indicated by a vertical tentorium. The combination of a large brain with a small posterior fossa likely resulted in the high rate of cerebellar tonsillar ectopia (3/4; 75%). Periventricular nodular heterotopia was seen in one patient with a thick and dysplastic corpus callosum. We report on the first hematologic neoplasm, myelofibrosis, in a 2-year-old patient with SHOC2 mutation. Myelofibrosis is exceedingly rare in children and young adults. The absence of a somatic JAK2 mutation, seen in the majority of patients with myelofibrosis, is noteworthy as it suggests that germline or somatic SHOC2 mutations are causally involved in myelofibrosis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A Systematic Review of Research into the Impact of Loose Parts Play on Children's Cognitive, Social and Emotional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jenny Louise; Cornell, Megan; Gill, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Loose parts play (LPP) interventions introduce moveable materials and equipment to children's play spaces to facilitate unstructured, child-led play. Meta-analysis of previous school-based research has shown significant benefits of LPP for physical activity. In the current paper, we review the scope and quality of the quantitative evidence relating to cognitive, social and emotional outcomes. We conducted a systematic search of the literature on LPP interventions for primary school-aged children which used quantitative outcome indicators for cognitive, social and/or emotional development. Studies were screened for inclusion by two independent researchers and reviewed for content, relevant outcomes and quality indicators. Five studies met the review inclusion criteria. Two studies used a randomised controlled trial design, two studies used quasi-experimental design, and one used an observational design. Outcomes measured focused mainly on social development. With the exception of enjoyment, school satisfaction and self-esteem, emotional outcomes were almost entirely absent. No measures of cognitive or academic outcomes were found. For the studies using control groups, few differences between groups were reported, although one study found increased happiness at school and increased odds of reporting being pushed/shoved at playtime associated with intervention. Null results were found for peer acceptance, relational bullying, social competence, social skills, peer group size and psychosocial quality of life. In the non-controlled study, there were observed increases in co-operative play. There is insufficient high-quality, quantitative, empirical evidence available to determine whether or not LPP interventions have an impact on children's cognitive, social and emotional development. We conclude our review with some recommendations which we hope will assist future research in this promising field.

  10. cellPACK: a virtual mesoscope to model and visualize structural systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Graham T; Autin, Ludovic; Al-Alusi, Mostafa; Goodsell, David S; Sanner, Michel F; Olson, Arthur J

    2015-01-01

    cellPACK assembles computational models of the biological mesoscale, an intermediate scale (10-100 nm) between molecular and cellular biology scales. cellPACK's modular architecture unites existing and novel packing algorithms to generate, visualize and analyze comprehensive three-dimensional models of complex biological environments that integrate data from multiple experimental systems biology and structural biology sources. cellPACK is available as open-source code, with tools for validation of models and with 'recipes' and models for five biological systems: blood plasma, cytoplasm, synaptic vesicles, HIV and a mycoplasma cell. We have applied cellPACK to model distributions of HIV envelope protein to test several hypotheses for consistency with experimental observations. Biologists, educators and outreach specialists can interact with cellPACK models, develop new recipes and perform packing experiments through scripting and graphical user interfaces at http://cellPACK.org/.

  11. Fuel Cell Shaft Power Pack - Regulering af brændselsceller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    2009-01-01

    Afsluttende formidling af forskningsresultater i forbindelse med projektet Fuel Cell Shaft Power Pack......Afsluttende formidling af forskningsresultater i forbindelse med projektet Fuel Cell Shaft Power Pack...

  12. Insulation Resistance Monitoring Algorithm for Battery Pack in Electric Vehicle Based on Extended Kalman Filtering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chuanxue Song; Yulong Shao; Shixin Song; Silun Peng; Fang Zhou; Cheng Chang; Da Wang

    2017-01-01

    To improve the accuracy of insulation monitoring between the battery pack and chassis of electric vehicles, we established a serial battery pack model composed of first-order resistor-capacitor (RC...

  13. 7 CFR 989.702 - Minimum grade standards for packed raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for those factors. (b) Golden Seedless Raisins. Packed Golden Seedless raisins shall at least meet the... Currant Raisins. Packed Zante Currant raisins shall at least meet the requirements of U.S. Grade B as...

  14. Psychosocial outcomes of Lunch is in the Bag, a parent program for packing healthful lunches for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweitzer, Sara J; Briley, Margaret E; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Harrist, Ronald B; Staskel, Deanna M; Almansour, Fawaz D

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated effects of Lunch is in the Bag on behavioral constructs and their predictive relationship to lunch-packing behaviors of parents of young children. Six child care centers were pair-matched and randomly assigned to intervention (n = 3) and comparison (n = 3) groups. Parent/child dyads participated. Constructs of knowledge, outcome expectations, perceived control, subjective norms, and intentions were measured by a pre/post questionnaire. Hierarchical linear regression was used, and P < .05 was considered significant. There were significant increases in knowledge (P = .01); outcome expectations for whole grains (P < .001); and subjective norms for fruit (P = .002), vegetables (P = .046), and whole grains (P = .02). Perceived control, outcome expectations, and intentions significantly predicted packing vegetables and knowledge predicted whole grains. Lunch is in the Bag is a feasible intervention to improve the lunch-packing behaviors of parents of preschool-aged children. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Are oral-maxillofacial surgery patients given proper postoperative instructions for disposal of blood-soaked gauze packs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Alyssa; Laskin, Daniel M

    2014-11-01

    Although there are Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidelines for the proper disposal of hazardous waste in the dental office, there are no guidelines for patients regarding the disposal of the gauze packs that are usually placed after tooth extraction or other dental surgery. Thus there is the possibility of cross contamination by patients with undiagnosed blood-transmitted viral diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine what, if any, instructions are given by oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMSs) and if such instructions are adequate. A 5-question survey was sent electronically to 375 randomly selected OMSs, and there was a 17% response. They were asked whether they provided written and verbal postoperative instructions, whether these included instructions about gauze pack disposal, and whether they gave special instructions to patients with known viral diseases such as hepatitis or human immunodeficiency virus infection. All respondents indicated that they provided both written and verbal postoperative instructions. However, only 1 respondent's instructions indicated how to dispose of the gauze pack, and only 1 gave special instructions to patients with known viral infections. There is a need for OMSs to provide specific instructions to all patients about the proper disposal of blood-soaked sponges to avoid potential cross contamination. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulator for a packing and weighing system of granulated powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto Rodrigues de Oliveira, Rafael; Garcia, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    The development of a simulator for a packing and weighing system (PWS) of granulated powder is described. It employed system identification to obtain the deterministic part of the model and stochastic processes to reproduce disturbances. It reproduces the fluctuations in carton weight observed in real packing systems. Its final use is to evaluate proposed improvements in the PWS, aiming at reducing overweight and underweight. Its performance is satisfactory, as the oscillations observed in the carton weights, due to powder density variability, are close to reality as well as the monetary losses due to overweight and underweight and the power spectral density graphs of the real and simulated weights. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of Computational Fluid Dynamics for Absorption Packed Column Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroun Yacine

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD is today commonly used in a wide variety of process industries and disciplines for the development of innovative technologies. The present article aims to show how CFD can be used as an effective analysis and design tool for the development and design of packed gas/liquid absorption columns. It is first shown how CFD can be used for the characterisation of packings. The different hydrodynamic and mass transfer design parameters are investigated and adapted CFD methods are suggested. Secondly, column distribution internal development is discussed to show how CFD simulations should be performed to improve the design of gas and liquid distributors. An example of the development of new distribution technologies for floating installation of a reactive absorption column is also presented.

  18. Packing Different Cuboids with Rotations and Spheres into a Cuboid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a packing optimization problem of different spheres and cuboids into a cuboid of the minimal height. Translations and continuous rotations of cuboids are allowed. In the paper, we offer a way of construction of special functions (Φ-functions describing how rotations can be dealt with. These functions permit us to construct the mathematical model of the problem as a classical mathematical programming problem. Basic characteristics of the mathematical model are investigated. When solving the problem, the characteristics allow us to apply a number of original and state-of-the-art efficient methods of local and global optimization. Numerical examples of packing from 20 to 300 geometric objects are given.

  19. An unusual case of predation: dog pack or cougar attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Gabriel M; Palacios, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Injuries produced by animals are capable of leaving severe patterns and in some cases may result in the death of the attacked individual. Law enforcement authorities may come to erroneous conclusions about the source of the bites based on their awareness of animals present and similarities of the injuries to the untrained eye, with dreadful consequences. Expertise of a carnivore biologist and an odontologist that indentifies the particularities of bite marks may be useful for identifying the attacking species. We present the investigation of a fatal dog pack attack involving a 43-year-old man in Bell Ville (Argentina) where the evidence provided by a forensic dentist and a biologist was categorical for establishing the animal species involved. Because of the unusual characteristics of the wounds and the initial hypothesis made by local authorities of a cougar attack, habits and specific patterns of both dog pack and cougar predation on humans are discussed. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Mobility of icy sand packs, with application to Martian permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, W.B.; Pathare, A.V.; Stern, L.A.; Lenferink, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    [1] The physical state of water on Mars has fundamental ramifications for both climatology and astrobiology. The widespread presence of "softened" Martian landforms (such as impact craters) can be attributed to viscous creep of subsurface ground ice. We present laboratory experiments designed to determine the minimum amount of ice necessary to mobilize topography within Martian permafrost. Our results show that the jammed-to-mobile transition of icy sand packs neither occurs at fixed ice content nor is dependent on temperature or stress, but instead correlates strongly with the maximum dry packing density of the sand component. Viscosity also changes rapidly near the mobility transition. The results suggest a potentially lower minimum volatile inventory for the impact-pulverized megaregolith of Mars. Furthermore, the long-term preservation of partially relaxed craters implies that the ice content of Martian permafrost has remained close to that at the mobility transition throughout Martian history. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Close-packed array of light emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Simpson, John T.

    2013-04-09

    A close-packed array of light emitting diodes includes a nonconductive substrate having a plurality of elongate channels extending therethrough from a first side to a second side, where each of the elongate channels in at least a portion of the substrate includes a conductive rod therein. The conductive rods have a density over the substrate of at least about 1,000 rods per square centimeter and include first conductive rods and second conductive rods. The close-packed array further includes a plurality of light emitting diodes on the first side of the substrate, where each light emitting diode is in physical contact with at least one first conductive rod and in electrical contact with at least one second conductive rod.

  2. Packing of Helices: Is Chirality the Highest Crystallographic Symmetry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Gautier

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chiral structures resulting from the packing of helices are common in biological and synthetic materials. Herein, we analyze the noncentrosymmetry (NCS in such systems using crystallographic considerations. A comparison of the chiral structures built from helices shows that the chirality can be expected for specific building units such as 31/32 or 61/65 helices which, in hexagonal arrangement, will more likely lead to a chiral resolution. In these two systems, we show that the highest crystallographic symmetry (i.e., the symmetry which can describe the crystal structure from the smallest assymetric unit is chiral. As an illustration, we present the synthesis of two materials ([Zn(2,2’-bpy3](NbF62 and [Zn(2,2’-bpy3](TaF62 in which the 3n helices pack into a chiral structure.

  3. Online Variable-Sized Bin Packing with Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, Leah; Favrholdt, Lene Monrad; Levin, Asaf

    2011-01-01

    We study a new kind of on-line bin packing with conflicts, motivated by a problem arising when scheduling jobs on the Grid. In this bin packing problem, the set of items is given at the beginning, together with a set of conflicts on pairs of items. A conflict on a pair of items implies...... that they cannot be assigned to a common bin. The online scenario is realized as follows. Variable-sized bins arrive one by one, and items need to be assigned to each bin before the next bin arrives. We analyze the online problem as well as semi-online versions of it, which are the variant where the sizes...... of the arriving bins are monotonically non-increasing as well as the variant where they are monotonically non-decreasing....

  4. Development of resistance of Apera spica-venti (L. P. Beauv. (Loose silky-bent in Lower Saxony in 2013 - also increasingly against Pinoxaden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolber, Dirk Michael

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbicide resistance has increased dramatically all over the world. Especially North America, South America and Australia are affected. In the last few years also in Europe different active ingredient groups become more and more ineffectively. The risk of resistance is very high for the ACC-ase inhibitors (Group A, the photosynthese- inhibitors (Group C and by now also for the ALS - inhibitors (Group B. In almost every agricultural region of Lower Saxony the loose silky-bent grass (Apera spica-venti shows resistance to at least one mode of action. Since 2005 especially in the lower saxonian region between Osnabrück, Hannover and Braunschweig resistance in loose silky-bent grass against the ALS- inhibitors occurs. 2012 target site resistance against Pinoxaden was found for the first time. In the last few years also in Europe different active ingredient groups became more and more ineffectively.

  5. Overview of the Development of Australian Combat Ration Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    specifications and nutritional composition , and quality evaluation of ration packs and their components. She is a Professional Member of the...chocolate candy ration chocolate (x2) ration chocolate, chocolate candy vegetables (potatoes, peas, carrots , corn, baked bean)  Spread (yeast...cater for consumers with any food allergy or special dietary requirements. A look at the composition of CR1M since 1986 reveals that

  6. Pediatric body packing: drug smuggling reaches a new low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beno, Suzanne; Calello, Diane; Baluffi, Andrew; Henretig, Fred M

    2005-11-01

    The case of a 6-year-old boy presenting with severe clinical manifestations of an opioid intoxication and who is discovered to be an international "body packer" is presented and discussed. This article is the first to report on the phenomenon of body packing in young children. It also highlights the use of prescription opioids as cargo, which has not previously been addressed in the literature.

  7. Catalyst design for the growth of highly packed nanotube forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esconjauregui, Santiago; Fouquet, Martin; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Robertson, John [Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, CB2 1PZ Cambridge (United Kingdom); Ducati, Caterina [Materials Science Department, University of Cambridge, CB2 3QZ Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    We report a technique for the design of high-density catalyst nanoparticles (NPs) which allow the growth of highly packed forests of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The technique consists of cycles of deposition and annealing of thin metal films, followed by NP immobilisation. This allows a CNT areal density of at least 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. 78 FR 17155 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption; Correction AGENCY: Food and..., harvesting, packing, and holding of produce, meaning fruits and vegetables grown for human consumption. FDA..., Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption.'' The document published with several...

  9. 78 FR 24692 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption; Extension of Comment Periods..., Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption'' that appeared in the Federal Register of... Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption'' with a 120-day comment period...

  10. The generic geometry of helices and their close-packed structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kasper; Bohr, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    with values from the literature for helical polypeptide backbone structures, the alpha-, pi-. 3-10-, and gamma-helices. The alpha-helices are close to being optimally packed in the sense of efficient use of space, i.e. close-packed. They are more densely packed than the other three types of helices...

  11. 7 CFR 915.306 - Florida avocado grade, pack, and container marking regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Florida avocado grade, pack, and container marking... AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Container and Pack Regulations § 915.306 Florida avocado grade, pack, and container marking regulation. (a) No handler shall handle any variety of avocados grown in...

  12. Evaluation of a Novel BEV Concept Based on Fixed and Swappable Li-Ion Battery Packs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela; Pinto, Claudio; de Castro, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    by the relatively small-fixed battery pack, without the large swappable battery pack. In this way, the mass of the vehicle is reduced and, therefore, the energy consumed per unit distance is improved. For higher ranges, the BEV is powered by both battery packs. This concept allows the introduction of subscription...

  13. Method and device for loading packed goods using an intermediate load unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, R.; Ross, L.H.A.; Houlleberghs, B.R.Y.; Naber, J.; Van der Meulen, R.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a device for loading packed goods into a transport unit (8b), the device comprising an orientation unit for orienting each packed good in a predetermined direction, means for transferring the packed goods in the order of a predetermined loading sequence to the orientation

  14. Experimental performance evaluation of sintered Gd spheres packed beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tura, A.; Nielsen, Klaus K.; Van Nong, Ngo

    2016-01-01

    Research in magnetic refrigeration heavily relies on the use of packed spheres in regenerators, however little investigation to verify that such non-monolithic arrangements guarantee a sufficiently constrained structure has yet been performed. This work presents a preliminary comparison of the pe......Research in magnetic refrigeration heavily relies on the use of packed spheres in regenerators, however little investigation to verify that such non-monolithic arrangements guarantee a sufficiently constrained structure has yet been performed. This work presents a preliminary comparison...... of the performance of AMRs consisting of Gd spheres with diameters ranging from 450-550 microns partially sintered by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) to similar spheres, sorted in the same size range and from the same batch, but merely packed. Pressure drop is compared at uniform temperature and at a range of heat...... rejection temperatures and temperature spans. Performance is compared in terms of temperature span at a range of heat rejection temperatures (295-308 K) and 0 and 10 W cooling loads. Results show a moderate increase of pressure drop with the sintered spheres, while temperature spans were consistently 2...

  15. Approximate hard-sphere method for densely packed granular flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttenberg, Nicholas

    2011-05-01

    The simulation of granular media is usually done either with event-driven codes that treat collisions as instantaneous but have difficulty with very dense packings, or with molecular dynamics (MD) methods that approximate rigid grains using a stiff viscoelastic spring. There is a little-known method that combines several collision events into a single timestep to retain the instantaneous collisions of event-driven dynamics, but also be able to handle dense packings. However, it is poorly characterized as to its regime of validity and failure modes. We present a modification of this method to reduce the introduction of overlap error, and test it using the problem of two-dimensional (2D) granular Couette flow, a densely packed system that has been well characterized by previous work. We find that this method can successfully replicate the results of previous work up to the point of jamming, and that it can do so a factor of 10 faster than comparable MD methods.

  16. Carbon Sequestration in Olivine and Basalt Powder Packed Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Wells, Rachel K; Giammar, Daniel E

    2017-02-21

    Fractures and pores in basalt could provide substantial pore volume and surface area of reactive minerals for carbonate mineral formation in geologic carbon sequestration. In many fractures solute transport will be limited to diffusion, and opposing chemical gradients that form as a result of concentration differences can lead to spatial distribution of silicate mineral dissolution and carbonate mineral precipitation. Glass tubes packed with grains of olivine or basalt with different grain sizes and compositions were used to explore the identity and spatial distribution of carbonate minerals that form in dead-end one-dimensional diffusion-limited zones that are connected to a larger reservoir of water in equilibrium with 100 bar CO 2 at 100 °C. Magnesite formed in experiments with olivine, and Mg- and Ca-bearing siderite formed in experiments with flood basalt. The spatial distribution of carbonates varied between powder packed beds with different powder sizes. Packed beds of basalt powder with large specific surface areas sequestered more carbon per unit basalt mass than powder with low surface area. The spatial location and extent of carbonate mineral formation can influence the overall ability of fractured basalt to sequester carbon.

  17. Evolution of completion tools gravel pack systems for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, Francisco [BJ Services Company, Houston, TX (United States); Vilela, Alvaro; Montanha, Roberto; Hightower, Chad; Acosta, Marco; Farias, Rodrigo [BJ Services do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Conventional gravel pack or frac pack completions typically require the use of wash pipe to act as a conduit for fluid returns as well as to carry a shifting mechanism to open or close a return port. Using properly sized wash pipe can enhance the placement of the gravel across the entire annular space and the formation. It can also be used in conjunction with a shifting mechanism and a sliding sleeve to force the fluid returns to pass through the bottom of the screen. It can allow a wash-down capability while running the assembly into an open hole. In specialty systems, it can even act as a pumping conduit for post-gravel pack stimulation. However, the use of wash pipe, especially in long horizontal wells, means the loss of valuable rig time due to make up and break out of the wash pipe, or recovery if the wash pipe is stuck. Economic considerations, along with completion efficiencies, are especially important on deep water completions. Not using wash pipe reduces rig time, generating significant cost savings, and also eliminates the risk of a fishing operation. This paper reviews conventional wash pipe applications and describes new systems that accomplish the same goal with a minimum amount of wash pipe or no wash pipe at all. (author)

  18. Forging method for consolidating loose structure in steel ingot with v shape dies. V ji gata kanashiki ni yoru kokon no zagu acchaku tanzoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isobe, K.; Noguchi, H. (Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Kato, K. (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-10-01

    A forging method effective for consolidating loose structure in steel ingot is proposed to measure distribution of deformation of round billets in forging with 135{degree} dies, using a model sample made by piling up extremely thin plasticine sheets and a moire technique. From the observation of moire fringes at the time of forging plane deformation, an octagonal forging method with billet rotation of 0-90-135-225{degree} is effective to consolidate the loose structure in the wide area of steel ingot axial region. Moreover, according to the axial distribution of moire stripes of three-dimensional deformation materials with axial direction elongation, it is necessary to axially shift the ingot fittingly in the cogging process. As a result of the cogging experiment using dummy steel ingot plasticine, a {1/4} full die-width shifting method is more effective than a full die-width shifting method in terms of strain distribution in the axial region. Furthermore, it is confirmed that in the forging of the actual steel ingot, loose structure of the steel ingot can be consolidated by the combined use of the octagonal forging method and the {1/4} full die-width shifting method. 13 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Incipient loose detection of hoops for pipeline based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition and multi-scale entropy and extreme learning machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Wei, Qin; Qu, Yongzhi; Cai, Lin

    2017-06-01

    Hoops are very important fittings in hydraulic pipeline, incipient loose detection of hoops will help to prevent hydraulic piping system from breaking down. Since the vibration signals of fluid pipe are non-stationary and of great complexity, multi-scale entropy(MSE), a method characterized by evaluating complexity and irregularity of time series on multiple scales, is used for extracting feature vectors from the vibration signals. In order to obtain components related to system characteristics, ensemble empirical mode decomposition(EEMD) is applied to reconstruct the original signals before the procedure of MSE. Extreme learning machine(ELM) is a new machine learning algorithm characterized by high accuracy and efficiency. In this paper, ELM is introduced as a classifier to identify the different conditions of hoops according to feature vectors extracted by EEMD and MSE algorithms. Thus a novel loose detection method combining with EEMD-MSE and ELM is put forward. The analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed loose detection and feature extraction method for hydraulic pipeline is effective with high performance.

  20. The Statistical Mechanics of Random Set Packing and a Generalization of the Karp-Sipser Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lucibello, C; Ricci-Tersenghi, F

    2014-01-01

    .... We also propose a heuristic algorithm, a generalization of the celebrated Karp-Sipser one, which allows us to rigorously prove that the replica symmetric cavity method prediction is exact for certain...

  1. A novel BEV concept based on fixed and swappable li-ion battery packs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela; Pinto, C.; de Castro, R.

    2015-01-01

    by the relatively small fixed battery pack, without the large swappable battery pack. In this way the mass of the vehicle is reduced and therefore the energy consumed per unit distance is improved. For higher ranges the BEV is powered by both battery packs. This concept allows the introduction of subscription......-based ownership models to distribute the cost of the large battery pack over the vehicle lifetime. A methodology is proposed for the analysis and evaluation of the proposed concept in comparison with a direct owned non swappable single pack BEV, proving that significant improvements on city fuel economy (up to 20...

  2. COMPARISON BETWEEN DYNAMIC MUSCULAR STABILIZATION TECHNIQUE (DMST), YOGA THERAPY AND HOT PACKS IN IMPROVING GENERAL HEALTH STATUS OF POSTURAL LOW BACK PAIN PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Chhabra; K. Mrityunjay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different interventions can reduce the burden of postural low back pain. For example the use of Dynamic Muscular Stabilization Technique(DMST), Yoga Therapy and Hot Packs, which aids patients by muscle strengthening and relaxation. This study is aimed to evaluate to what extent the above techniques can improve the quality of life in those who suffer from the condition. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial. Thirty subjects (15 male and 15 females) with p...

  3. Adaptive state of charge estimator for lithium-ion cells series battery pack in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Rui; Sun, Fengchun; Gong, Xianzhi; He, Hongwen

    2013-11-01

    Due to cell-to-cell variations in battery pack, it is hard to model the behavior of the battery pack accurately; as a result, accurate State of Charge (SoC) estimation of battery pack remains very challenging and problematic. This paper tries to put effort on estimating the SoC of cells series lithium-ion battery pack for electric vehicles with adaptive data-driven based SoC estimator. First, a lumped parameter equivalent circuit model is developed. Second, to avoid the drawbacks of cell-to-cell variations in battery pack, a filtering approach for ensuring the performance of capacity/resistance conformity in battery pack has been proposed. The multi-cells “pack model” can be simplified by the unit model. Third, the adaptive extended Kalman filter algorithm has been used to achieve accurate SoC estimates for battery packs. Last, to analyze the robustness and the reliability of the proposed approach for cells and battery pack, the federal urban driving schedule and dynamic stress test have been conducted respectively. The results indicate that the proposed approach not only ensures higher voltage and SoC estimation accuracy for cells, but also achieves desirable prediction precision for battery pack, both the pack's voltage and SoC estimation error are less than 2%.

  4. A study on parameter variation effects on battery packs for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Long; Zheng, Yuejiu; Ouyang, Minggao; Lu, Languang

    2017-10-01

    As one single cell cannot meet power and driving range requirement in an electric vehicle, the battery packs with hundreds of single cells connected in parallel and series should be constructed. The most significant difference between a single cell and a battery pack is cell variation. Not only does cell variation affect pack energy density and power density, but also it causes early degradation of battery and potential safety issues. The cell variation effects on battery packs are studied, which are of great significant to battery pack screening and management scheme. In this study, the description for the consistency characteristics of battery packs was first proposed and a pack model with 96 cells connected in series was established. A set of parameters are introduced to study the cell variation and their impacts on battery packs are analyzed through the battery pack capacity loss simulation and experiments. Meanwhile, the capacity loss composition of the battery pack is obtained and verified by the temperature variation experiment. The results from this research can demonstrate that the temperature, self-discharge rate and coulombic efficiency are the major affecting parameters of cell variation and indicate the dissipative cell equalization is sufficient for the battery pack.

  5. Territoriality and inter-pack aggression in gray wolves: shaping a social carnivore's life history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Kira A.; Smith, Douglas W.; Mech, L. David; MacNulty, Daniel R.; Stahler, Daniel R.; Metz, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    When Rudyard Kipling wrote The Jungle Book in 1894 and included the famous line "For the strength of the Wolf is the Pack, and the strength of the Pack is the Wolf," he would have had no idea that over a century later, scientific research would back up his poetic phrase. Recent studies in Yellowstone have found that both the individual wolf and the collective pack rely on each other and play important roles in territoriality. At a time when most fairy tales and fables were portraying wolves as demonic killers or, at best, slapstick gluttons, Kipling seemed to have a respect or even reverence for the wolf. Wolves in The Jungle Book raise and mentor the main character Mowgli, with the pack's leader eventually dying to save the "man-cub" from a pack of wolves. Kipling may have extended intra- pack benevolence to a human boy for literary sake, but he was clearly enthralled with how pack members treat each other. As wolf packs are almost always family units, most commonly comprised of a breeding pair and their offspring from several years, amiable behavior within the pack is unsurprising. By contrast, wolf packs are fiercely intolerant of their neighbors, their rivals. And this competition is proving to be an important facet in the life of a wolf and its pack.

  6. Hydrodynamic impact of particle shape in slurry packed liquid chromatography columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottes, F.; Arlt, W.; Minceva, M.

    2009-01-01

    for visualization of the inner part of a packed column and measurement of the spatial resolved column packing properties. For evaluation of the influence of the particle shape on the velocity distribution and column performance, irregular and spherical reversed phases were studied in detail. The results showed...... a decreasing velocity towards the column wall most certainly due to a lower permeability. This effect was much less pronounced in the case of spherical particles, indicating a more homogenous packing structure. The influence of the column packing pressure, as a possible measure for improvement of the packing...... homogeneity was also studied. It was shown that under the same packing conditions spherical particles always lead to a more homogeneous packing. The overall results of this work contribute to the origin of the fact that spherical material is superior to irregular one from the hydrodynamic point of view....

  7. Development of cooling strategy for an air cooled lithium-ion battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongguang; Dixon, Regan

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes a cooling strategy development method for an air cooled battery pack with lithium-ion pouch cells used in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The challenges associated with the temperature uniformity across the battery pack, the temperature uniformity within each individual lithium-ion pouch cell, and the cooling efficiency of the battery pack are addressed. Initially, a three-dimensional battery pack thermal model developed based on simplified electrode theory is correlated to physical test data. An analytical design of experiments (DOE) approach using Optimal Latin-hypercube technique is then developed by incorporating a DOE design model, the correlated battery pack thermal model, and a morphing model. Analytical DOE studies are performed to examine the effects of cooling strategies including geometries of the cooling duct, cooling channel, cooling plate, and corrugation on battery pack thermal behavior and to identify the design concept of an air cooled battery pack to maximize its durability and its driving range.

  8. Three Dimensional Thermal Modeling of Li-Ion Battery Pack Based on Multiphysics and Calorimetric Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional multiphysics-based thermal model of a battery pack is presented. The model is intended to demonstrate the cooling mechanism inside the battery pack. Heat transfer (HT) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) physics are coupled for both time-dependent and steady-state simulation...... is simulated to find the temperature gradient over the pack surfaces. Moreover, the temperature evolution results are simulated. It is demonstrated that the developed pack model can provide the thermal spatio-temporal behaviour with great detail. The result helps to understand the thermal behavior of the cells....... Inside the battery cells in the pack a lumped value of heat generation (HG), that works as a volumetric heat source, is used. The measured HG stems from the cell level isothermal calorimeter experiment. The batteries inside the pack stay in the same initial thermal state in the simulation case. The pack...

  9. Produção e resistência ao pendoamento de alfaces tipo lisa cultivadas sob diferentes ambientes Production and resistance to bolting of loose-leaf lettuce grown in different environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla Silvia Diamante

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de indicar qual ambiente, telado ou campo aberto, fornece melhores condições para a produção e maior resistência ao pendoamento de diferentes cultivares de alface lisa, para as condições climáticas de Cáceres-MT, desenvolveu-se esse trabalho no período de fevereiro a abril de 2011. Foram avaliados vinte tratamentos, empregando o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 5 x 4, sendo cinco ambientes de cultivo (telas de sombreamento 30 e 50%, telas termo-refletoras 30 e 50% e campo aberto e quatro cultivares de alface tipo lisa (Elisa, Elizabeth, Regiane e Regina, com quatro repetições. A colheita foi realizada aos 30 dias após o transplante. As cultivares de alface lisa mais produtivas foram Regiane, que obteve maior número de folhas e Regina com menor comprimento de caule. Os ambientes de cultivo que aumentaram a resistência ao pendoamento da alface foram as tela de sombreamento e termorefletora 50%. As cultivares não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre si quanto à resistência ao pendoamento.This work was developed during the period of February to April, 2011, with the objective of indicating which environment, greenhouse or open field, provides better conditions for production, and greater resistance to bolting of different cultivars of loose-leaf lettuce, for the climatic conditions of Cáceres, Mato Grosso, Brazil, Twenty treatments were evaluated, using a randomized block experimental design in a 5 x 4 factorial of five environmental conditions (shading screens of 30 and 50%, heat-reflective screens of 30 and 50%, and open field and four cultivars of loose-leaf lettuce (Elisa, Elizabeth, Regiane and Regina, with four replications. Harvesting was carried out 30 days after transplanting. The most productive lettuce cultivars were Regiane, which obtained the greatest number of leaves, and Regina with the smallest stem length. The environmental conditions that increased

  10. Identification of mineral dust layers in high alpine snow packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greilinger, Marion; Kau, Daniela; Schauer, Gerhard; Kasper-Giebl, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Deserts serve as a major source for aerosols in the atmosphere with mineral dust as a main contributor to primary aerosol mass. Especially the Sahara, the largest desert in the world, contributes roughly half of the primarily emitted aerosol mass found in the atmosphere [1]. The eroded Saharan dust is episodically transported over thousands of kilometers with synoptic wind patterns towards Europe [2] and reaches Austria about 20 to 30 days per year. Once the Saharan dust is removed from the atmosphere via dry or wet deposition processes, the chemical composition of the precipitation or the affected environment is significantly changed. Saharan dust serves on the one hand as high ionic input leading to an increase of ionic species such as calcium, magnesium or sulfate. On the other hand Saharan dust provides a high alkaline input neutralizing acidic components and causing the pH to increase [3]. Based on these changes in the ion composition, the pH and cross plots of the ion and conductivity balance [4] we tried to develop a method to identify Saharan dust layers in high alpine snow packs. We investigated seasonal snow packs of two high alpine sampling sites situated on the surrounding glaciers of the meteorological Sonnblick observatory serving as a global GAW (Global Atmospheric Watch) station located in the National Park Hohe Tauern in the Austrian Alps. Samples with 10 cm resolution representing the whole winter accumulation period were taken just prior to the start of snow melt at the end of April 2016. In both snow packs two layers with clearly different chemical behavior were observed. In comparison with the aerosol data from the Sonnblick observatory, these layers could be clearly identified as Saharan dust layers. Identified Saharan dust layers in the snow pack allow calculations of the ecological impact of deposited ions, with and without Saharan dust, during snow melt. Furthermore the chemical characteristics for the identification of Saharan dust layers

  11. Modelling of Packed Co Nanorods for Hard Magnetic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toson P.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical algorithm based on the bullet physics library to generate densely packed (39% - 41% structures of high-aspect-ratio nanorods for finite element micromagnetic simulations. The coercivities µ0Hc of the corresponding Cobalt nanorod structures vary between 0.50T and 0.67T, depending on the overall orientation of nanorods, which is in good agreement with experimental results. The simulations make it possible to estimate the coercivity loss due to incoherent reversal processes (27% as well as the gain due to shape anisotropy (59%. Our calculations show permanent magnets consisting of packed Co nanorods with an energy density product (BHmax of 83kJ/m3. We estimate that this value can be increased to 103kJ/m3 by increasing the packing density from 40% to 45%. Another way to optimize (BHmax is the usage of novel materials. By varying the anisotropy constant K1 and the saturation polarisation JS we found lower limits for these parameters to reach a certain energy density product. To increase (BHmax to 160 kJ/m3, K1 and JS have to be in the order of 450kJ/m3 and 2.25T, respectively. The thermal stability of this approach was verified by elastic band calculations. Cobalt nanorods with a diameter of 10nm and a height of 50nm are thermally stable at room temperature, but problematic at 900K. Doubling the nanorods' height to 100nm increases that limit considerably.

  12. Atom interaction propensities of oxygenated chemical functions in crystal packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsch, Christian; Bibila Mayaya Bisseyou, Yvon

    2017-01-01

    The crystal contacts of several families of hydrocarbon compounds substituted with one or several types of oxygenated chemical groups were analyzed statistically using the Hirshfeld surface methodology. The propensity of contacts to occur between two chemical types is described with the contact enrichment descriptor. The systematic large enrichment ratios of some interactions like the O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds suggests that these contacts are a driving force in the crystal packing formation. The same statement holds for the weaker C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds in ethers, esters and ketones, in the absence of polar H atoms. The over-represented contacts in crystals of oxygenated hydrocarbons are generally of two types: electrostatic attractions (hydrogen bonds) and hydrophobic interactions. While Cl⋯O interactions are generally avoided, in a minority of chloro-oxygenated hydrocarbons, significant halogen bonding does occur. General tendencies can often be derived for many contact types, but outlier compounds are instructive as they display peculiar or rare features. The methodology also allows the detection of outliers which can be structures with errors. For instance, a significant number of hydroxylated molecules displaying over-represented non-favorable oxygen–oxygen contacts turned out to have wrongly oriented hydroxyl groups. Beyond crystal packings with a single molecule in the asymmetric unit, the behavior of water in monohydrate compounds and of crystals with Z′ = 2 (dimers) are also investigated. It was found in several cases that, in the presence of several oxygenated chemical groups, cross-interactions between different chemical groups (e.g. water/alcohols; alcohols/phenols) are often favored in the crystal packings. While some trends in accordance with common chemical principles are retrieved, some unexpected results can however appear. For example, in crystals of alcohol–phenol compounds, the strong O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between two phenol groups

  13. Atom interaction propensities of oxygenated chemical functions in crystal packings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Jelsch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The crystal contacts of several families of hydrocarbon compounds substituted with one or several types of oxygenated chemical groups were analyzed statistically using the Hirshfeld surface methodology. The propensity of contacts to occur between two chemical types is described with the contact enrichment descriptor. The systematic large enrichment ratios of some interactions like the O—H...O hydrogen bonds suggests that these contacts are a driving force in the crystal packing formation. The same statement holds for the weaker C—H...O hydrogen bonds in ethers, esters and ketones, in the absence of polar H atoms. The over-represented contacts in crystals of oxygenated hydrocarbons are generally of two types: electrostatic attractions (hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. While Cl...O interactions are generally avoided, in a minority of chloro-oxygenated hydrocarbons, significant halogen bonding does occur. General tendencies can often be derived for many contact types, but outlier compounds are instructive as they display peculiar or rare features. The methodology also allows the detection of outliers which can be structures with errors. For instance, a significant number of hydroxylated molecules displaying over-represented non-favorable oxygen–oxygen contacts turned out to have wrongly oriented hydroxyl groups. Beyond crystal packings with a single molecule in the asymmetric unit, the behavior of water in monohydrate compounds and of crystals with Z′ = 2 (dimers are also investigated. It was found in several cases that, in the presence of several oxygenated chemical groups, cross-interactions between different chemical groups (e.g. water/alcohols; alcohols/phenols are often favored in the crystal packings. While some trends in accordance with common chemical principles are retrieved, some unexpected results can however appear. For example, in crystals of alcohol–phenol compounds, the strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds between

  14. Investigation on the water retention curve of loose pyroclastic ashes of Campania (Italy) and its potential implications on slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comegna, Luca; Damiano, Emilia; Greco, Roberto; Olivares, Lucio; Piccolo, Marco; Picarelli, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    Loose pyroclastic soils in Campania cover a large amount of steep slopes in the area surrounding the volcanic complex of Somma-Vesuvius. The stability of such slopes is assured by the contribution of suction to soil shear strength, which decreases during rainy periods till the possible attainment of a failure condition. The resulting landslide may evolve in form of a fast flow, if at the onset of instability the soil is nearly saturated and undrained conditions establish, so that soil liquefaction arises. The attainment of instability near saturation is not uncommon, as it requires the slope to have an inclination close to the friction angle of the soil constituting the deposit. The pyroclastic ashes of Campania are typically silty sands with friction angle between 36° and 38°, and small or even null cohesion. Many of the flow-like landslides, occurred during the last decades, were indeed triggered along slopes with inclination around 40°, which are quite common in Campania. As a suction of few kPa may be enough to guarantee the stability of a slope, knowledge of the water retention curve of the soil constituting the deposit is mandatory to correctly predict soil conditions at failure. Several studies report that the pyroclastic ashes of Campania exhibit a quite complex water retention behavior, showing a bimodal porosity distribution and, in some cases, a marked hysteresis domain, possibly enhanced by air entrapment during the infiltration of steep wetting fronts. In this study, a series of vertical infiltration and evaporation cycles have been carried out over two reconstituted specimens, both 20cm high, of pyroclastic ashes collected at the slope of Cervinara. TDR probes and minitensiometers were buried at various depths to provide coupled measurements of soil water content and suction. In order to highlight the possible hysteretic effects due to air entrapment, different hydraulic boundary conditions were established at the base of the two specimens: in one

  15. Effectiveness of a nursing intervention during transfusion of packed red cells on the patient´s anxiety state receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Fernando Martín Díaz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The transfusion provokes anxiety and this one compromises the improvement of the patient. Objetive: The study aims to evaluate whether a nursing intervention protocol-through oral and written submissions previous to the transfusion of packed red blood cells decreases anxiety levels in pretransfusion and postransfusion recipient patients through a randomized clinical trial. Methodology: Be conducted in patients over 18 years admitted in the Hospitable complex of Toledo, prescription transfusion of packed red blood cells. For an alpha error 0.05, beta error of 0.90, with an expected effect of 10%, need 70 subjects in each group. The allocation to the intervention group and the control group was randomly made simple. The performance in the normal control group will be done in the hospital, patients receiving transfusion. As dependent variables evaluated:- The anxiety level pretransfusion and postransfusion. Using the questionnaire was validated by Spielberger (STAI. - The level of satisfaction perceived by the user on the information received prior to transfusion. By design developed for this study. Also recorded other control variables: sex, age, socio-cultural level, marital status, reason for transfusion, or no knowledge of the prescription of transfusion, incidents during transfusion.Scientific and sociosanitary relevancy of the study: The results will allow to know if the transfusion increases the anxiety and if an educational intervention nurse can diminish it; and to do the intervention before every transfusion.

  16. Assessing support packs from an occupational hygiene perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, Cecilia J

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Support packs in the mining industry are used to support the hangingwall from imminent collapse where the rock and/or soil have been excavated in mining activities. Mines generally use explosives to move the rock face while following the reef... fraction CS is a problem to employees and users of the products only once the bulk material becomes airborne. The Metrology Working Group of the Industrial Minerals Association in Europe (IMA-EU) has developed the Size-Weighted Poten- tial Respirable...

  17. Routing Trains Through Railway Junctions: A New Set Packing Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard; Larsen, Jesper; Ryan, David

    The problem of routing trains through railway junctions is an integral part of railway operations. Large junctions are highly interconnected networks of track where multiple railway lines meet, intersect, and split. The number of possible routings makes this a very complicated problem. Here we show...... how the problem can be formulated as a set packing model. To exploit the structure of the problem we present a solution procedure which entails solving the dual of this formulation through the dynamic addition of violated cuts (primal variables). A discussion of the variable (train path) generation...

  18. Electron beam weld development on a Filter Pack Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereskiewicz, J. P.

    1994-06-01

    A continuous electron beam welding procedure was developed to replace the manual gas tungsten arc welding procedure on the Filter Pack Assembly. A statistical study was used to evaluate the feasibility of electron beam welding 6061-T6 aluminum covers to A356 cast weldments throughout the joint tolerance range specified on product drawings. Peak temperature exposures were not high enough to degrade the heat sensitive electrical components inside the cast weldment. Actual weldments with alodine coating on the weld joint area were successfully cleaned using a nonmetallic fiberglass brush cleaning method.

  19. Origin of Noncubic Scaling Law in Disordered Granular Packing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Chengjie; Li, Jindong; Kou, Binquan; Cao, Yixin; Li, Zhifeng; Xiao, Xianghui; Fu, Yanan; Xiao, Tiqiao; Hong, Liang; Zhang, Jie; Kob, Walter; Wang, Yujie

    2017-06-01

    Recent diffraction experiments on metallic glasses have unveiled an unexpected non-cubic scaling law between density and average interatomic distance, which lead to the speculations on the presence of fractal glass order. Using X-ray tomography we identify here a similar non-cubic scaling law in disordered granular packing of spherical particles. We find that the scaling law is directly related to the contact neighbors within first nearest neighbor shell, and therefore is closely connected to the phenomenon of jamming. The seemingly universal scaling exponent around 2.5 arises due to the isostatic condition with contact number around 6, and we argue that the exponent should not be universal.

  20. Non-dimensional analysis of pack ice loading arising from three hull-ice friction coefficients on a turret-moored offshore vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolgar, R.C.; Colbourne, D.B.

    2006-03-15

    Turret-moored vessel-shaped offshore production systems are being increasingly used in Canada's ice-infested waters. Accurate quantification of the expected ice loading on the systems is needed. This study modeled the effect of the hull-ice friction coefficient on the pack ice loading experienced by vessel-shaped offshore production systems in order to help designers make decisions concerning low-friction coatings of a means of reduced mooring load. Experiments were conducted on 3 different hull-ice coefficients in an ice tank. The first coating represented a high-gloss finish with a low friction coefficient of 0.01, while the second coating represented an offshore vessel with several years of service, and an average friction coefficient of 0.13. The third coating represented an aged and deteriorated hull with a friction coefficient of 0.46. Pack ice loads and forces in the spring mooring lines were instrumented. The curves of horizontal restoring force were derived through a numerical analysis of the mooring line configuration. A linear physical model of the horizontal restoring force provided by a catenary mooring line was then made. Pack ice experiments were conducted by breaking the ice into desired ice floes. The friction coefficient was determined as the slope of a graph of the frictional force against the normal load. The 3 friction surfaces were tested in different ice thicknesses, floe sizes and concentrations. Model velocities were run in random order throughout each test. A yoyo potentiometer was used to measure the heave of the model, while pitch and roll were measured using 2 rotary variable differential transformers embedded in a two post gimbaled dynamometer. A Froude number was used along with an applicable force coefficient. Measured ice loads were non-dimensionalized to a predicted pack ice force coefficient. The effect of the pack ice concentrations was incorporated to account for the reduction in mass, and the inertia of ice interacting