Linear programming foundations and extensions
Vanderbei, Robert J
2001-01-01
Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions is an introduction to the field of optimization. The book emphasizes constrained optimization, beginning with a substantial treatment of linear programming, and proceeding to convex analysis, network flows, integer programming, quadratic programming, and convex optimization. The book is carefully written. Specific examples and concrete algorithms precede more abstract topics. Topics are clearly developed with a large number of numerical examples worked out in detail. Moreover, Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions underscores the purpose of optimization: to solve practical problems on a computer. Accordingly, the book is coordinated with free efficient C programs that implement the major algorithms studied: -The two-phase simplex method; -The primal-dual simplex method; -The path-following interior-point method; -The homogeneous self-dual methods. In addition, there are online JAVA applets that illustrate various pivot rules and variants of the simplex m...
Squares of Random Linear Codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cascudo Pueyo, Ignacio; Cramer, Ronald; Mirandola, Diego
2015-01-01
Given a linear code $C$, one can define the $d$-th power of $C$ as the span of all componentwise products of $d$ elements of $C$. A power of $C$ may quickly fill the whole space. Our purpose is to answer the following question: does the square of a code ``typically'' fill the whole space? We give...
Decoding Algorithms for Random Linear Network Codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heide, Janus; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Fitzek, Frank
2011-01-01
We consider the problem of efficient decoding of a random linear code over a finite field. In particular we are interested in the case where the code is random, relatively sparse, and use the binary finite field as an example. The goal is to decode the data using fewer operations to potentially a...
Efficient $\\chi ^{2}$ Kernel Linearization via Random Feature Maps.
Yuan, Xiao-Tong; Wang, Zhenzhen; Deng, Jiankang; Liu, Qingshan
2016-11-01
Explicit feature mapping is an appealing way to linearize additive kernels, such as χ2 kernel for training large-scale support vector machines (SVMs). Although accurate in approximation, feature mapping could pose computational challenges in high-dimensional settings as it expands the original features to a higher dimensional space. To handle this issue in the context of χ2 kernel SVMs learning, we introduce a simple yet efficient method to approximately linearize χ2 kernel through random feature maps. The main idea is to use sparse random projection to reduce the dimensionality of feature maps while preserving their approximation capability to the original kernel. We provide approximation error bound for the proposed method. Furthermore, we extend our method to χ2 multiple kernel SVMs learning. Extensive experiments on large-scale image classification tasks confirm that the proposed approach is able to significantly speed up the training process of the χ2 kernel SVMs at almost no cost of testing accuracy.
ILCDIRAC, a DIRAC extension for the Linear Collider community
Grefe, C; Sailer, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A
2014-01-01
ILCDIRAC is a complete distributed computing solution for the Linear Collider community. It's an extension of the Dirac system and now used by all detector concepts of the LC community. ILCDIRAC provides a unified interface to the distributed resources for the ILC Virtual Organization and provides common interfaces to all ILC applications via a simplified API. It supports the overlay of beam-induced backgrounds with minimal impact on the Storage Elements by properly scheduling the jobs attempting to access the files. ILCDIRAC has been successfully used for the CLIC Conceptual Design Report and the ILC SiD Detailed Baseline Design, and is now adopted by the LC community as the official grid production tool. Members of the CALICE collaboration also use ILCDIRAC within their own Virtual Organization.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holst, René; Jørgensen, Bent
2015-01-01
The paper proposes a versatile class of multiplicative generalized linear longitudinal mixed models (GLLMM) with additive dispersion components, based on explicit modelling of the covariance structure. The class incorporates a longitudinal structure into the random effects models and retains...... a marginal as well as a conditional interpretation. The estimation procedure is based on a computationally efficient quasi-score method for the regression parameters combined with a REML-like bias-corrected Pearson estimating function for the dispersion and correlation parameters. This avoids...... the multidimensional integral of the conventional GLMM likelihood and allows an extension of the robust empirical sandwich estimator for use with both association and regression parameters. The method is applied to a set of otholit data, used for age determination of fish....
Random effect selection in generalised linear models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Denwood, Matt; Houe, Hans; Forkman, Björn
We analysed abattoir recordings of meat inspection codes with possible relevance to onfarm animal welfare in cattle. Random effects logistic regression models were used to describe individual-level data obtained from 461,406 cattle slaughtered in Denmark. Our results demonstrate that the largest ...
Lal, Ramji
2017-01-01
This is the second in a series of three volumes dealing with important topics in algebra. Volume 2 is an introduction to linear algebra (including linear algebra over rings), Galois theory, representation theory, and the theory of group extensions. The section on linear algebra (chapters 1–5) does not require any background material from Algebra 1, except an understanding of set theory. Linear algebra is the most applicable branch of mathematics, and it is essential for students of science and engineering As such, the text can be used for one-semester courses for these students. The remaining part of the volume discusses Jordan and rational forms, general linear algebra (linear algebra over rings), Galois theory, representation theory (linear algebra over group algebras), and the theory of extension of groups follow linear algebra, and is suitable as a text for the second and third year students specializing in mathematics. .
Non-linear continuous time random walk models★
Stage, Helena; Fedotov, Sergei
2017-11-01
A standard assumption of continuous time random walk (CTRW) processes is that there are no interactions between the random walkers, such that we obtain the celebrated linear fractional equation either for the probability density function of the walker at a certain position and time, or the mean number of walkers. The question arises how one can extend this equation to the non-linear case, where the random walkers interact. The aim of this work is to take into account this interaction under a mean-field approximation where the statistical properties of the random walker depend on the mean number of walkers. The implementation of these non-linear effects within the CTRW integral equations or fractional equations poses difficulties, leading to the alternative methodology we present in this work. We are concerned with non-linear effects which may either inhibit anomalous effects or induce them where they otherwise would not arise. Inhibition of these effects corresponds to a decrease in the waiting times of the random walkers, be this due to overcrowding, competition between walkers or an inherent carrying capacity of the system. Conversely, induced anomalous effects present longer waiting times and are consistent with symbiotic, collaborative or social walkers, or indirect pinpointing of favourable regions by their attractiveness. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Continuous Time Random Walk Still Trendy: Fifty-year History, Current State and Outlook", edited by Ryszard Kutner and Jaume Masoliver.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Köyluoglu, H.U.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, A.S.
1994-01-01
The paper deals with the first and second order statistical moments of the response of linear systems with random parameters subject to random excitation modelled as white-noise multiplied by an envelope function with random parameters. The method of analysis is basically a second order perturbat......The paper deals with the first and second order statistical moments of the response of linear systems with random parameters subject to random excitation modelled as white-noise multiplied by an envelope function with random parameters. The method of analysis is basically a second order...... for multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems and the method is illustrated for a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillator. The results are compared to those of exact results for a random oscillator subject to white noise excitation with random intensity....
Information inefficiency in a random linear economy model
Jerico, Joao Pedro
2016-01-01
We study the effects of introducing information inefficiency in a model for a random linear economy with a representative consumer. This is done by considering statistical, instead of classical, economic general equilibria. Employing two different approaches we show that inefficiency increases the consumption set of a consumer but decreases her expected utility. In this scenario economic activity grows while welfare shrinks, that is the opposite of the behavior obtained by considering a rational consumer.
Logistic ensembles of Random Spherical Linear Oracles for microarray classification.
Peterson, Leif E; Coleman, Matthew A
2009-01-01
Random Spherical Linear Oracles (RSLO) for DNA microarray gene expression data are proposed for classifier fusion. RSLO employs random hyperplane splits of samples in the principal component score space based on the first three principal components (X, Y, Z) of the input feature set. Hyperplane splits are used to assign training(testing) samples to separate logistic regression mini-classifiers, which increases the diversity of voting results since errors are not shared across mini-classifiers. We recommend use of RSLO with 3-4 10-fold CV and re-partitioning samples randomly every ten iterations prior to each 10-fold CV. This equates to a total of 30-40 iterations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Micaletti, R. C.; Cakmak, A. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.
structural properties. The resulting state-space formulation is a system of ordinary stochastic differential equations with random coefficient and deterministic initial conditions which are subsequently transformed into ordinary stochastic differential equations with deterministic coefficients and random...... initial conditions. This transformation facilitates the derivation of differential equations which govern the evolution of the unconditional statistical moments of response. Primary consideration is given to linear systems and systems with odd polynomial nonlinearities, for in these cases...... there is a significant reduction in the number of equations to be solved. The method is illustrated for a five-story shear-frame structure with nonlinear interstory restoring forces and random damping and stiffness properties. The results of the proposed method are compared to those estimated by extensive Monte Carlo...
Linear minimax estimation for random vectors with parametric uncertainty
Bitar, E
2010-06-01
In this paper, we take a minimax approach to the problem of computing a worst-case linear mean squared error (MSE) estimate of X given Y , where X and Y are jointly distributed random vectors with parametric uncertainty in their distribution. We consider two uncertainty models, PA and PB. Model PA represents X and Y as jointly Gaussian whose covariance matrix Λ belongs to the convex hull of a set of m known covariance matrices. Model PB characterizes X and Y as jointly distributed according to a Gaussian mixture model with m known zero-mean components, but unknown component weights. We show: (a) the linear minimax estimator computed under model PA is identical to that computed under model PB when the vertices of the uncertain covariance set in PA are the same as the component covariances in model PB, and (b) the problem of computing the linear minimax estimator under either model reduces to a semidefinite program (SDP). We also consider the dynamic situation where x(t) and y(t) evolve according to a discrete-time LTI state space model driven by white noise, the statistics of which is modeled by PA and PB as before. We derive a recursive linear minimax filter for x(t) given y(t).
Random linear network coding for streams with unequally sized packets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Taghouti, Maroua; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk
2016-01-01
State of the art Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) schemes assume that data streams generate packets with equal sizes. This is an assumption that results in the highest efficiency gains for RLNC. A typical solution for managing unequal packet sizes is to zero-pad the smallest packets. However...... of packets, which are strategies that require additional signalling. Performance is evaluated using CAIDA TCP packets and 4k video traces. Our results show that our mechanisms reduce significantly the padding overhead even for small field sizes. Finally, our strategies provide a natural trade-off between...
Interactive Multiobjective Fuzzy Random Linear Programming through Fractile Criteria
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hitoshi Yano
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We propose an interactive fuzzy decision making method for multiobjective fuzzy random linear programming problems through fractile criteria optimization. In the proposed method, it is assumed that the decision maker has fuzzy goals for not only objective functions but also permissible probability levels in a fractile optimization model, and such fuzzy goals are quantified by eliciting the corresponding membership functions. Using the fuzzy decision, such two kinds of membership functions are integrated. In the integrated membership space, the satisfactory solution is obtained from among an extended Pareto optimal solution set through the interaction with the decision maker. An illustrative numerical example is provided to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.
Peer-Assisted Content Distribution with Random Linear Network Coding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hundebøll, Martin; Ledet-Pedersen, Jeppe; Sluyterman, Georg
2014-01-01
Peer-to-peer networks constitute a widely used, cost-effective and scalable technology to distribute bandwidth-intensive content. The technology forms a great platform to build distributed cloud storage without the need of a central provider. However, the majority of todays peer-to-peer systems...... require complex algorithms to schedule what parts of obtained content to forward to other peers. Random Linear Network Coding can greatly simplify these algorithm by removing the need for coordination between the distributing nodes. In this paper we propose and evaluate the structure of the BRONCO peer-to-peer....... Furthermore, we evaluate the performance of different parameters and suggest a suitable trade-off between CPU utilization and network overhead. Within the limitations of the used test environment, we have shown that networkc coding is usable in peer-assisted content distribution and we suggest further...
Linear extension rates of massive corals from the Dry Tortugas National Park (DRTO), Florida
Muslic, Adis; Flannery, Jennifer A.; Reich, Christopher D.; Umberger, Daniel K.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Poore, Richard Z.
2013-01-01
Colonies of three coral species, Montastraea faveolata, Diploria strigosa, and Siderastrea siderea, located in the Dry Tortugas National Park (DRTO), Florida, were sampled and analyzed to evaluate annual linear extension rates. Montastraea faveolata had the highest average linear extension and variability in (DRTO: C2 = 0.67 centimeters/year (cm yr-1) ± 0.04, B3 = 0.85 cm yr-1 ± 0.07), followed by D. strigosa (DRTO: C1 = 0.73 cm yr-1 ± 0.04; MK = 0.59 cm yr-1 ± 0.06) and S. siderea (DRTO: A1 = 0.41 cm yr-1 ± 0.03). Intercolony comparison of M. faveolata from DRTO yielded a significant correlation (r = 0.34, df = 67, P = 0.005) and similar long-term patterns. DRTO S. siderea core A1 showed an overall increasing trend (r = 0.61, df = 119, P < 0.0001) in extension rates that correlated significantly with International Comprehensive Ocean/Atmosphere Data Set annual sea-surface temperature (r = 0.42, df = 115, P < 0.0001) and an air temperature record from Key West (r = 0.37, df = 111, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, annual linear extension rates are species specific and potentially influence by long-term variability in sea-surface temperature.
Mixed-Integer Linear Programming Models for Teaching Assistant Assignment and Extensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaobo Qu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we develop mixed-integer linear programming models for assigning the most appropriate teaching assistants to the tutorials in a department. The objective is to maximize the number of tutorials that are taught by the most suitable teaching assistants, accounting for the fact that different teaching assistants have different capabilities and each teaching assistant’s teaching load cannot exceed a maximum value. Moreover, with optimization models, the teaching load allocation, a time-consuming process, does not need to be carried out in a manual manner. We have further presented a number of extensions that capture more practical considerations. Extensive numerical experiments show that the optimization models can be solved by an off-the-shelf solver and used by departments in universities.
Small subgraphs and their extensions in a random distance graph
Burkin, A. V.; Zhukovskii, M. E.
2017-01-01
In previous papers, threshold probabilities for the properties of a random distance graph to contain strictly balanced graphs were found. We extend this result to arbitrary graphs and prove that the number of copies of a strictly balanced graph has asymptotically Poisson distribution at the threshold.
Extension of the Multipole Approach to Random Metamaterials
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A. Chipouline
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Influence of the short-range lateral disorder in the meta-atoms positioning on the effective parameters of the metamaterials is investigated theoretically using the multipole approach. Random variation of the near field quasi-static interaction between metaatoms in form of double wires is shown to be the reason for the effective permittivity and permeability changes. The obtained analytical results are compared with the known experimental ones.
Correcting for population structure and kinship using the linear mixed model: theory and extensions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriel E Hoffman
Full Text Available Population structure and kinship are widespread confounding factors in genome-wide association studies (GWAS. It has been standard practice to include principal components of the genotypes in a regression model in order to account for population structure. More recently, the linear mixed model (LMM has emerged as a powerful method for simultaneously accounting for population structure and kinship. The statistical theory underlying the differences in empirical performance between modeling principal components as fixed versus random effects has not been thoroughly examined. We undertake an analysis to formalize the relationship between these widely used methods and elucidate the statistical properties of each. Moreover, we introduce a new statistic, effective degrees of freedom, that serves as a metric of model complexity and a novel low rank linear mixed model (LRLMM to learn the dimensionality of the correction for population structure and kinship, and we assess its performance through simulations. A comparison of the results of LRLMM and a standard LMM analysis applied to GWAS data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA illustrates how our theoretical results translate into empirical properties of the mixed model. Finally, the analysis demonstrates the ability of the LRLMM to substantially boost the strength of an association for HDL cholesterol in Europeans.
Correcting for population structure and kinship using the linear mixed model: theory and extensions.
Hoffman, Gabriel E
2013-01-01
Population structure and kinship are widespread confounding factors in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). It has been standard practice to include principal components of the genotypes in a regression model in order to account for population structure. More recently, the linear mixed model (LMM) has emerged as a powerful method for simultaneously accounting for population structure and kinship. The statistical theory underlying the differences in empirical performance between modeling principal components as fixed versus random effects has not been thoroughly examined. We undertake an analysis to formalize the relationship between these widely used methods and elucidate the statistical properties of each. Moreover, we introduce a new statistic, effective degrees of freedom, that serves as a metric of model complexity and a novel low rank linear mixed model (LRLMM) to learn the dimensionality of the correction for population structure and kinship, and we assess its performance through simulations. A comparison of the results of LRLMM and a standard LMM analysis applied to GWAS data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) illustrates how our theoretical results translate into empirical properties of the mixed model. Finally, the analysis demonstrates the ability of the LRLMM to substantially boost the strength of an association for HDL cholesterol in Europeans.
2016-09-01
We consider the problem of solving mixed random linear equations with k components. This is the noiseless setting of mixed linear regression. The goal is to estimate multiple linear models from mixed samples in the case where the labels (which sample...
Ogutu, Joseph O; Schulz-Streeck, Torben; Piepho, Hans-Peter
2012-05-21
Genomic selection (GS) is emerging as an efficient and cost-effective method for estimating breeding values using molecular markers distributed over the entire genome. In essence, it involves estimating the simultaneous effects of all genes or chromosomal segments and combining the estimates to predict the total genomic breeding value (GEBV). Accurate prediction of GEBVs is a central and recurring challenge in plant and animal breeding. The existence of a bewildering array of approaches for predicting breeding values using markers underscores the importance of identifying approaches able to efficiently and accurately predict breeding values. Here, we comparatively evaluate the predictive performance of six regularized linear regression methods-- ridge regression, ridge regression BLUP, lasso, adaptive lasso, elastic net and adaptive elastic net-- for predicting GEBV using dense SNP markers. We predicted GEBVs for a quantitative trait using a dataset on 3000 progenies of 20 sires and 200 dams and an accompanying genome consisting of five chromosomes with 9990 biallelic SNP-marker loci simulated for the QTL-MAS 2011 workshop. We applied all the six methods that use penalty-based (regularization) shrinkage to handle datasets with far more predictors than observations. The lasso, elastic net and their adaptive extensions further possess the desirable property that they simultaneously select relevant predictive markers and optimally estimate their effects. The regression models were trained with a subset of 2000 phenotyped and genotyped individuals and used to predict GEBVs for the remaining 1000 progenies without phenotypes. Predictive accuracy was assessed using the root mean squared error, the Pearson correlation between predicted GEBVs and (1) the true genomic value (TGV), (2) the true breeding value (TBV) and (3) the simulated phenotypic values based on fivefold cross-validation (CV). The elastic net, lasso, adaptive lasso and the adaptive elastic net all had
Richly parameterized linear models additive, time series, and spatial models using random effects
Hodges, James S
2013-01-01
A First Step toward a Unified Theory of Richly Parameterized Linear ModelsUsing mixed linear models to analyze data often leads to results that are mysterious, inconvenient, or wrong. Further compounding the problem, statisticians lack a cohesive resource to acquire a systematic, theory-based understanding of models with random effects.Richly Parameterized Linear Models: Additive, Time Series, and Spatial Models Using Random Effects takes a first step in developing a full theory of richly parameterized models, which would allow statisticians to better understand their analysis results. The aut
2012-01-01
Background Genomic selection (GS) is emerging as an efficient and cost-effective method for estimating breeding values using molecular markers distributed over the entire genome. In essence, it involves estimating the simultaneous effects of all genes or chromosomal segments and combining the estimates to predict the total genomic breeding value (GEBV). Accurate prediction of GEBVs is a central and recurring challenge in plant and animal breeding. The existence of a bewildering array of approaches for predicting breeding values using markers underscores the importance of identifying approaches able to efficiently and accurately predict breeding values. Here, we comparatively evaluate the predictive performance of six regularized linear regression methods-- ridge regression, ridge regression BLUP, lasso, adaptive lasso, elastic net and adaptive elastic net-- for predicting GEBV using dense SNP markers. Methods We predicted GEBVs for a quantitative trait using a dataset on 3000 progenies of 20 sires and 200 dams and an accompanying genome consisting of five chromosomes with 9990 biallelic SNP-marker loci simulated for the QTL-MAS 2011 workshop. We applied all the six methods that use penalty-based (regularization) shrinkage to handle datasets with far more predictors than observations. The lasso, elastic net and their adaptive extensions further possess the desirable property that they simultaneously select relevant predictive markers and optimally estimate their effects. The regression models were trained with a subset of 2000 phenotyped and genotyped individuals and used to predict GEBVs for the remaining 1000 progenies without phenotypes. Predictive accuracy was assessed using the root mean squared error, the Pearson correlation between predicted GEBVs and (1) the true genomic value (TGV), (2) the true breeding value (TBV) and (3) the simulated phenotypic values based on fivefold cross-validation (CV). Results The elastic net, lasso, adaptive lasso and the
On a q-extension of the linear harmonic oscillator with the continuous orthogonality property on R
Álvarez Nodarse, Renato; Atakishiyeva Kyazim Zade, Messouma; Atakishiyev Mektiyev, Natig
2005-01-01
We discuss a q-analogue of the linear harmonic oscillator in quantum mechanics, based on a q-extension of the classical Hermite polynomials Hn(x), recently introduced by us in [1] R. Alvarez-Nodarse, M. K. Atakishiyeva, and N. M. Atakishiyev.. On a q-extension of the Hermite polynomials Hn(x) with the continuous orthogonality property on R. Boletín de la Sociedad Matemática Mexicana (3), 8, No.2, pp.127–139, 2002. The wave functions in this q-model of the quantum harmonic oscillator posses...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qi, Shuyan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, and Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chakraborty, Arup K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, and Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
2000-01-15
We derive a Landau free energy functional for polymeric mixtures containing components with different sequence statistics. We then apply this general field theory to two mixtures that belong to the Ising universality class: mixtures of two different linear random copolymers, and ternary systems of linear random copolymers and two homopolymers. We discuss the instability conditions for the homogeneous state of these mixtures, and calculate the structure factors for different components in the homogeneous state. The structure factors show interesting features which can directly be compared with scattering experiments carried out with selectively deuterated samples. We also work out the eigenmodes representing the least stable concentration fluctuations for these mixtures. The nature of these concentration fluctuations provides information regarding the ordered phases and the kinetic pathways that lead to them. We find various demixing modes for different characteristics of the two mixtures (e.g., average compositions, statistical correlation lengths, and volume fractions). (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.
Non-extensive random matrix theory--a bridge connecting chaotic and regular dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abul-Magd, A.Y. [Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig (Egypt)]. E-mail: a_y_abul_magd@hotmail.com
2004-11-29
We consider a possible generalization of the random matrix theory, which involves the maximization of Tsallis' q-parametrized entropy. We discuss the dependence of the spacing distribution on q using a non-extensive generalization of Wigner's surmises for ensembles belonging to the orthogonal, unitary and symplectic symmetry universal classes.
Choi, In-Hee; Wilson, Mark
2015-01-01
An essential feature of the linear logistic test model (LLTM) is that item difficulties are explained using item design properties. By taking advantage of this explanatory aspect of the LLTM, in a mixture extension of the LLTM, the meaning of latent classes is specified by how item properties affect item difficulties within each class. To improve…
Mixed-Integer Linear Programming Models for Teaching Assistant Assignment and Extensions
Qu, Xiaobo; Yi, Wen; Wang, Tingsong; Wang, Shuaian; Xiao, Lin; Liu, Zhiyuan
2017-01-01
In this paper, we develop mixed-integer linear programming models for assigning the most appropriate teaching assistants to the tutorials in a department. The objective is to maximize the number of tutorials that are taught by the most suitable teaching assistants, accounting for the fact that different teaching assistants have different capabilities and each teaching assistant’s teaching load cannot exceed a maximum value. Moreover, with optimization models, the teaching load allocation, a t...
Helou, Bassam; Chen, Yanbei
2017-08-01
Nonlinear modifications of quantum mechanics have a troubled history. They were initially studied for many promising reasons: resolving the measurement problem, formulating a theory of quantum mechanics and gravity, and understanding the limits of standard quantum mechanics. However, certain non-linear theories have been experimentally tested and failed. More significantly, it has been shown that, in general, deterministic non-linear theories can be used for superluminal communication. We highlight another serious issue: the distribution of measurement results predicted by non-linear quantum mechanics depends on the formulation of quantum mechanics. In other words, Born’s rule cannot be uniquely extended to non-linear quantum mechanics. We present these generalizations of Born’s rule, and then examine whether some exclude superluminal communication. We determine that a large class do not allow for superluminal communication, but many lack a consistent definition. Nonetheless, we find a single extension of Born’s rule with a sound operational definition, and that does not exhibit superluminal communication. The non-linear time-evolution leading to a certain measurement event is driven by the state conditioned on measurements that lie within the past light cone of that event.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David T Redden
2006-08-01
Full Text Available Individual genetic admixture estimates, determined both across the genome and at specific genomic regions, have been proposed for use in identifying specific genomic regions harboring loci influencing phenotypes in regional admixture mapping (RAM. Estimates of individual ancestry can be used in structured association tests (SAT to reduce confounding induced by various forms of population substructure. Although presented as two distinct approaches, we provide a conceptual framework in which both RAM and SAT are special cases of a more general linear model. We clarify which variables are sufficient to condition upon in order to prevent spurious associations and also provide a simple closed form "semiparametric" method of evaluating the reliability of individual admixture estimates. An estimate of the reliability of individual admixture estimates is required to make an inherent errors-in-variables problem tractable. Casting RAM and SAT methods as a general linear model offers enormous flexibility enabling application to a rich set of phenotypes, populations, covariates, and situations, including interaction terms and multilocus models. This approach should allow far wider use of RAM and SAT, often using standard software, in addressing admixture as either a confounder of association studies or a tool for finding loci influencing complex phenotypes in species as diverse as plants, humans, and nonhuman animals.
Selecting Optimal Parameters of Random Linear Network Coding for Wireless Sensor Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heide, Janus; Zhang, Qi; Fitzek, Frank
2013-01-01
This work studies how to select optimal code parameters of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). With Rateless Deluge [1] the authors proposed to apply Network Coding (NC) for Over-the-Air Programming (OAP) in WSNs, and demonstrated that with NC a significant...
Roerdink, J.B.T.M.
1981-01-01
The cumulant expansion for linear stochastic differential equations is extended to the general case in which the coefficient matrix, the inhomogeneous part and the initial condition are all random and, moreover, statistically interdependent. The expansion now involves not only the autocorrelation
Huaping, Jiang; Wanjun, Chen; Chuang, Liu; Zugang, Rao; Bin, Dong; Bo, Zhang
2011-12-01
A linearly graded-doping junction termination extension (LG-JTE) for 3.3-kV-class insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) was proposed and experimentally investigated. Unlike conventional multi-implantation utilizing more than one photolithography step, a single mask with injection window widths varied linearly away from the main junction to the edge was implemented in this proposed structure. Based on the simulation results, IGBTs with LG-JTE structures were successfully fabricated on the domestic process platform. The fabricated devices exhibited a 3.7 kV forward-blocking voltage, which is close to the theoretical value of an ideal parallel plane case. This is the first success in fabrication 3.3-kV-class IGBT in a domestic application.
Dattoli, Giuseppe
2005-01-01
The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) is one of the main problems limiting the performance of high intensity electron accelerators. A code devoted to the analysis of this type of problems should be fast and reliable: conditions that are usually hardly achieved at the same time. In the past, codes based on Lie algebraic techniques have been very efficient to treat transport problem in accelerators. The extension of these method to the non-linear case is ideally suited to treat CSR instability problems. We report on the development of a numerical code, based on the solution of the Vlasov equation, with the inclusion of non-linear contribution due to wake field effects. The proposed solution method exploits an algebraic technique, using exponential operators implemented numerically in C++. We show that the integration procedure is capable of reproducing the onset of an instability and effects associated with bunching mechanisms leading to the growth of the instability itself. In addition, parametric studies a...
On a q-extension of the linear harmonic oscillator with the continuous orthogonality property on ℝ
Alvarez-Nodarse, R.; Atakishiyeva, M. K.; Atakishiyev, N. M.
2005-11-01
We discuss a q-analogue of the linear harmonic oscillator in quantum mechanics based on a q-extension of the classical Hermite polynomials H n ( x) recently introduced by us in R. Alvarez-Nodarse et al.: Boletin de la Sociedad Matematica Mexicana (3) 8 (2002) 127. The wave functions in this q-model of the quantum harmonic oscillator possess the continuous orthogonality property on the whole real line ℝ with respect to a positive weight function. A detailed description of the corresponding q-system is carried out.
Molnar, Nicolas; Cruden, Alexander
2017-04-01
Propagating rifts are a natural consequence of lithospheric plates that diverge with respect to each other about a pole of rotation. This process of "unzipping" is common in the geological record, but how rifts interact with pre-existing structures (i.e., with a non-homogeneous lithosphere) as they propagate is poorly understood. Here we report on a series of lithospheric-scale three-dimensional analogue experiments of rotational extension with in-built, variably oriented linear weak zones in the lithospheric mantle, designed to investigate the role that inherited structural or thermal weaknesses play in the localisation of strain and rifting. Surface strain and dynamic topography in the analogue models are quantified by high-resolution particle imaging velocimetry and digital photogrammetry, which allows us to characterise the spatio-temporal evolution of deformation as a function of the orientation of the linear heterogeneities in great detail. The results show that the presence of a linear zone of weakness oriented at low angles with respect to the rift axis (i.e., favourably oriented) produces strain localisation in narrow domains, which enhances the "unzipping" process prior to continental break up. Strong strain partitioning is observed when the linear heterogeneity is oriented at high angles with respect to the rift axis (i.e., unfavourably oriented). In these experiments, early sub-parallel V-shaped basins propagate towards the pole of rotation until they are abandoned and strain is transferred entirely to structures developed in the vicinity of the strongly oblique weak lithosphere zone boundary. The modelling also provides insights on how propagating rift branches that penetrate the weak linear zone boundary are aborted when strain is relayed onto structures that develop in rheologically weaker areas. The experimental results are summarised in terms of their evolution, patterns of strain localisation, and dynamic topography as a function of the
Moustafa, Ibrahim M; Diab, Aliaa A
2013-01-01
To investigate the effects of lumbar extension traction in patients with unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy due to L5-S1 disc herniation. A randomized controlled study with six-month follow-up. University research laboratory. Sixty-four patients with confirmed unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy due to L5-S1 disc herniation and a lumbar lordotic angle less than 39°, randomly assigned to traction or control group. The control group (n = 32) received hot packs and interferential therapy, whereas the traction group (n = 32) received lumbar extension traction in addition to hot packs and interferential therapy. Absolute rotatory angle, back and leg pain rating scale, Oswestry Disability Index, Modified Schober test, H-reflex (latency and amplitude) and intervertebral movements were measured for all patients three times (before treatment, after 10 weeks of treatment and at six-month follow-up). There was a significant difference between the traction group and the control group adjusted to baseline values at 10 weeks post treatment with respect to: absolute rotatory angle (P traction group receiving lumbar extension traction in addition to hot packs and interferential therapy had better effects than the control group with regard to pain, disability, H-reflex parameters and segmental intervertebral movements.
A new neural network model for solving random interval linear programming problems.
Arjmandzadeh, Ziba; Safi, Mohammadreza; Nazemi, Alireza
2017-05-01
This paper presents a neural network model for solving random interval linear programming problems. The original problem involving random interval variable coefficients is first transformed into an equivalent convex second order cone programming problem. A neural network model is then constructed for solving the obtained convex second order cone problem. Employing Lyapunov function approach, it is also shown that the proposed neural network model is stable in the sense of Lyapunov and it is globally convergent to an exact satisfactory solution of the original problem. Several illustrative examples are solved in support of this technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Generalized linear models with random effects unified analysis via H-likelihood
Lee, Youngjo; Pawitan, Yudi
2006-01-01
Since their introduction in 1972, generalized linear models (GLMs) have proven useful in the generalization of classical normal models. Presenting methods for fitting GLMs with random effects to data, Generalized Linear Models with Random Effects: Unified Analysis via H-likelihood explores a wide range of applications, including combining information over trials (meta-analysis), analysis of frailty models for survival data, genetic epidemiology, and analysis of spatial and temporal models with correlated errors.Written by pioneering authorities in the field, this reference provides an introduction to various theories and examines likelihood inference and GLMs. The authors show how to extend the class of GLMs while retaining as much simplicity as possible. By maximizing and deriving other quantities from h-likelihood, they also demonstrate how to use a single algorithm for all members of the class, resulting in a faster algorithm as compared to existing alternatives. Complementing theory with examples, many of...
Short communication: Alteration of priors for random effects in Gaussian linear mixed model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vandenplas, Jérémie; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Gengler, Nicholas
2014-01-01
such alterations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to propose a method to alter both the mean and (co)variance of the prior multivariate normal distributions of random effects of linear mixed models while using currently available software packages. The proposed method was tested on simulated examples with 3......Linear mixed models, for which the prior multivariate normal distributions of random effects are assumed to have a mean equal to 0, are commonly used in animal breeding. However, some statistical analyses (e.g., the consideration of a population under selection into a genomic scheme breeding......, multiple-trait predictions of lactation yields, and Bayesian approaches integrating external information into genetic evaluations) need to alter both the mean and (co)variance of the prior distributions and, to our knowledge, most software packages available in the animal breeding community do not permit...
Truncated Linear Statistics Associated with the Top Eigenvalues of Random Matrices
Grabsch, Aurélien; Majumdar, Satya N.; Texier, Christophe
2017-04-01
Given a certain invariant random matrix ensemble characterised by the joint probability distribution of eigenvalues P(λ _1,\\ldots ,λ _N), many important questions have been related to the study of linear statistics of eigenvalues L=\\sum _{i=1}^Nf(λ _i), where f(λ ) is a known function. We study here truncated linear statistics where the sum is restricted to the N_1analysis of the statistical physics of fluctuating one-dimensional interfaces, we consider the case of the Laguerre ensemble of random matrices with f(λ )=√{λ }. Using the Coulomb gas technique, we study the N→ ∞ limit with N_1/N fixed. We show that the constraint that \\tilde{L}=\\sum _{i=1}^{N_1}f(λ _i) is fixed drives an infinite order phase transition in the underlying Coulomb gas. This transition corresponds to a change in the density of the gas, from a density defined on two disjoint intervals to a single interval. In this latter case the density presents a logarithmic divergence inside the bulk. Assuming that f(λ ) is monotonous, we show that these features arise for any random matrix ensemble and truncated linear statitics, which makes the scenario described here robust and universal.
Selection of locations of knots for linear splines in random regression test-day models.
Jamrozik, J; Bohmanova, J; Schaeffer, L R
2010-04-01
Using spline functions (segmented polynomials) in regression models requires the knowledge of the location of the knots. Knots are the points at which independent linear segments are connected. Optimal positions of knots for linear splines of different orders were determined in this study for different scenarios, using existing estimates of covariance functions and an optimization algorithm. The traits considered were test-day milk, fat and protein yields, and somatic cell score (SCS) in the first three lactations of Canadian Holsteins. Two ranges of days in milk (from 5 to 305 and from 5 to 365) were taken into account. In addition, four different populations of Holstein cows, from Australia, Canada, Italy and New Zealand, were examined with respect to first lactation (305 days) milk only. The estimates of genetic and permanent environmental covariance functions were based on single- and multiple-trait test-day models, with Legendre polynomials of order 4 as random regressions. A differential evolution algorithm was applied to find the best location of knots for splines of orders 4 to 7 and the criterion for optimization was the goodness-of-fit of the spline covariance function. Results indicated that the optimal position of knots for linear splines differed between genetic and permanent environmental effects, as well as between traits and lactations. Different populations also exhibited different patterns of optimal knot locations. With linear splines, different positions of knots should therefore be used for different effects and traits in random regression test-day models when analysing milk production traits.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hideki Katagiri
2017-10-01
Full Text Available This paper considers linear programming problems (LPPs where the objective functions involve discrete fuzzy random variables (fuzzy set-valued discrete random variables. New decision making models, which are useful in fuzzy stochastic environments, are proposed based on both possibility theory and probability theory. In multi-objective cases, Pareto optimal solutions of the proposed models are newly defined. Computational algorithms for obtaining the Pareto optimal solutions of the proposed models are provided. It is shown that problems involving discrete fuzzy random variables can be transformed into deterministic nonlinear mathematical programming problems which can be solved through a conventional mathematical programming solver under practically reasonable assumptions. A numerical example of agriculture production problems is given to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed models to real-world problems in fuzzy stochastic environments.
Treatment of obesity with extension of sleep duration: a randomized, prospective, controlled trial.
Cizza, Giovanni; Marincola, Paula; Mattingly, Megan; Williams, Lyda; Mitler, Merrill; Skarulis, Monica; Csako, Gyorgy
2010-06-01
The prevalence of chronic sleep deprivation is increasing in modern societies with negative health consequences. Recently, an association between short sleep and obesity has been reported. To assess the feasibility of increasing sleep duration to a healthy length (approximately 7(1/2) h) and to determine the effect of sleep extension on body weight. To examine the long-term effects of sleep extension on endocrine (leptin and ghrelin) and immune (cytokines) parameters, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, body composition, psychomotor vigilance, mood, and quality of life. One hundred-fifty obese participants who usually sleep less than 6(1/2) h, are being randomized at a 2:1 ratio to either an Intervention or to a Comparison Group. They are stratified by age (above and below 35) and the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome. During the first 12 months (Efficacy Phase) of the study, participants are evaluated at bi-monthly intervals: the Intervention Group is coached to increase sleep by at least 30-60 min/night, while the Comparison Group maintains baseline sleep duration. In the second (Effectiveness) phase, participants converge into the same group and are asked to increase (Comparison Group) or maintain (Intervention Group) sleep duration and are evaluated at 6-month intervals for an additional 3 years. Non-pharmacological and behavior-based interventions are being utilized to increase sleep duration. Endocrine, metabolic, and psychological effects are monitored. The sleep, energy expenditure, and caloric intake are assessed by activity monitors and food recall questionnaires. At yearly intervals, body composition, abdominal fat, and basal metabolic rate are measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), computerized tomography (CT), and indirect calorimetry, respectively. As of January 2010, 109 participants had been randomized, 64 to the Intervention Group and 45 to the Comparison Group (76% women, 62% minorities, average age: 40.8 years; BMI: 38.5 kg
Throughput vs. Delay in Lossy Wireless Mesh Networks with Random Linear Network Coding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hundebøll, Martin; Pahlevani, Peyman; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani
2014-01-01
This work proposes a new protocol applying on– the–fly random linear network coding in wireless mesh net- works. The protocol provides increased reliability, low delay, and high throughput to the upper layers, while being oblivious to their specific requirements. This seemingly conflicting goals ...... and evaluated in a real test bed with Raspberry Pi devices. We show that order of magnitude gains in throughput over plain TCP are possible with moderate losses and up to two fold improvement in per packet delay in our results....
Rizzi, Stephen A.; Muravyov, Alexander A.
2002-01-01
Two new equivalent linearization implementations for geometrically nonlinear random vibrations are presented. Both implementations are based upon a novel approach for evaluating the nonlinear stiffness within commercial finite element codes and are suitable for use with any finite element code having geometrically nonlinear static analysis capabilities. The formulation includes a traditional force-error minimization approach and a relatively new version of a potential energy-error minimization approach, which has been generalized for multiple degree-of-freedom systems. Results for a simply supported plate under random acoustic excitation are presented and comparisons of the displacement root-mean-square values and power spectral densities are made with results from a nonlinear time domain numerical simulation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wen-Min Zhou
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the consensus problem of general linear discrete-time multiagent systems (MASs with random packet dropout that happens during information exchange between agents. The packet dropout phenomenon is characterized as being a Bernoulli random process. A distributed consensus protocol with weighted graph is proposed to address the packet dropout phenomenon. Through introducing a new disagreement vector, a new framework is established to solve the consensus problem. Based on the control theory, the perturbation argument, and the matrix theory, the necessary and sufficient condition for MASs to reach mean-square consensus is derived in terms of stability of an array of low-dimensional matrices. Moreover, mean-square consensusable conditions with regard to network topology and agent dynamic structure are also provided. Finally, the effectiveness of the theoretical results is demonstrated through an illustrative example.
Throughput-Delay Analysis of Random Linear Network Coding for Wireless Broadcasting
Swapna, B T; Shroff, Ness B
2011-01-01
In an unreliable single-hop broadcast network setting, we investigate the throughput and decoding-delay performance of random linear network coding as a function of the coding window size and the network size. Our model consists of a source transmitting packets of a single flow to a set of $n$ users over independent erasure channels. The source performs random linear network coding (RLNC) over $k$ (coding window size) packets and broadcasts them to the users. We note that the broadcast throughput of RLNC must vanish with increasing $n$, for any fixed $k.$ Hence, in contrast to other works in the literature, we investigate how the coding window size $k$ must scale for increasing $n$. Our analysis reveals that the coding window size of $\\Theta(\\ln(n))$ represents a phase transition rate, below which the throughput converges to zero, and above which it converges to the broadcast capacity. Further, we characterize the asymptotic distribution of decoding delay and provide approximate expressions for the mean and v...
Collis, Julie; Collocott, Shirley; Hing, Wayne; Kelly, Edel
2013-07-01
To clarify the efficacy and detrimental effects of orthoses used to maintain finger extension following surgical release of Dupuytren contracture. We conducted a single-center, randomized, controlled trial to investigate the effect of night extension orthoses on finger range of motion and hand function for 3 months following surgical release of Dupuytren contracture. We also wanted to determine how well finger extension was maintained in the total sample. We randomized 56 patients to receive a night extension orthosis plus hand therapy (n = 26) or hand therapy alone (n = 30). The primary outcome was total active extension of the operated fingers (°). Secondary outcomes were total active flexion of the operated fingers (°), active distal palmar crease (cm), grip strength (kg), and self-reported hand function using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (0-100 scale). There were no statistically significant differences between the no-orthosis and orthosis groups for total active extension or for any of the secondary outcomes. Between the first postoperative measure and 3 months after surgery, 62% of little fingers had maintained or improved total active extension. The use of a night extension orthosis in combination with standard hand therapy has no greater effect on maintaining finger extension than hand therapy alone in the 3 months following surgical release of Dupuytren contracture. Our results indicate that the practice of providing every patient with a night extension orthosis following surgical release of Dupuytren contracture may not be justified except for cases in which extension loss occurs after surgery. Our results also challenge clinicians to research ways of maintaining finger extension in a greater number of patients. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ramakrishnan, Navneeth; Lai, Ying Tong; Lara, Silvia; Parish, Meera M.; Adam, Shaffique
2017-12-01
A linear unsaturating magnetoresistance at high perpendicular magnetic fields, together with a quadratic positive magnetoresistance at low fields, has been seen in many different experimental materials, ranging from silver chalcogenides and thin films of InSb to topological materials like graphene and Dirac semimetals. In the literature, two very different theoretical approaches have been used to explain this classical magnetoresistance as a consequence of sample disorder. The phenomenological random resistor network model constructs a grid of four terminal resistors, each with a varying random resistance. The effective medium theory model imagines a smoothly varying disorder potential that causes a continuous variation of the local conductivity. Here, we demonstrate numerically that both models belong to the same universality class and that a restricted class of the random resistor network is actually equivalent to the effective medium theory. Both models are also in good agreement with experiments on a diverse range of materials. Moreover, we show that in both cases, a single parameter, i.e., the ratio of the fluctuations in the carrier density to the average carrier density, completely determines the magnetoresistance profile.
Wannier-Stark ladder in the linear absorption of a random system with scale-free disorder
Diaz, E.; Dominguez-Adame, F.; Kosevich, Yu. A.; Malyshev, V.A.
We study numerically the linear optical response of a quasiparticle moving on a one-dimensional disordered lattice in the presence of a linear bias. The random site potential is assumed to be long-range correlated with a power-law spectral density S(k)similar to 1/k(alpha), alpha > 0. This type of
Analysis and Optimization of Sparse Random Linear Network Coding for Reliable Multicast Services
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tassi, Andrea; Chatzigeorgiou, Ioannis; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani
2016-01-01
techniques, and without any assumption on the implementation of the RLNC decoder in use, we provide an efficient way to characterize the performance of users targeted by ultra-reliable layered multicast services. The proposed modeling allows to efficiently derive the average number of coded packet...... transmissions needed to recover one or more service layers. We design a convex resource allocation framework that allows to minimize the complexity of the RLNC decoder by jointly optimizing the transmission parameters and the sparsity of the code. The designed optimization framework also ensures service......Point-to-multipoint communications are expected to play a pivotal role in next-generation networks. This paper refers to a cellular system transmitting layered multicast services to a multicast group of users. Reliability of communications is ensured via different random linear network coding (RLNC...
Numerical Demultiplexing of Color Image Sensor Measurements via Non-linear Random Forest Modeling.
Deglint, Jason; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Cho, Daniel; Clausi, David A; Wong, Alexander
2016-06-27
The simultaneous capture of imaging data at multiple wavelengths across the electromagnetic spectrum is highly challenging, requiring complex and costly multispectral image devices. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of simultaneous multispectral imaging using conventional image sensors with color filter arrays via a novel comprehensive framework for numerical demultiplexing of the color image sensor measurements. A numerical forward model characterizing the formation of sensor measurements from light spectra hitting the sensor is constructed based on a comprehensive spectral characterization of the sensor. A numerical demultiplexer is then learned via non-linear random forest modeling based on the forward model. Given the learned numerical demultiplexer, one can then demultiplex simultaneously-acquired measurements made by the color image sensor into reflectance intensities at discrete selectable wavelengths, resulting in a higher resolution reflectance spectrum. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of such a method for the purpose of simultaneous multispectral imaging.
Numerical Demultiplexing of Color Image Sensor Measurements via Non-linear Random Forest Modeling
Deglint, Jason; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Cho, Daniel; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander
2016-06-01
The simultaneous capture of imaging data at multiple wavelengths across the electromagnetic spectrum is highly challenging, requiring complex and costly multispectral image devices. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of simultaneous multispectral imaging using conventional image sensors with color filter arrays via a novel comprehensive framework for numerical demultiplexing of the color image sensor measurements. A numerical forward model characterizing the formation of sensor measurements from light spectra hitting the sensor is constructed based on a comprehensive spectral characterization of the sensor. A numerical demultiplexer is then learned via non-linear random forest modeling based on the forward model. Given the learned numerical demultiplexer, one can then demultiplex simultaneously-acquired measurements made by the color image sensor into reflectance intensities at discrete selectable wavelengths, resulting in a higher resolution reflectance spectrum. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of such a method for the purpose of simultaneous multispectral imaging.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elli Kartsakli
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Relay sensor networks are often employed in end-to-end healthcare applications to facilitate the information flow between patient worn sensors and the medical data center. Medium access control (MAC protocols, based on random linear network coding (RLNC, are a novel and suitable approach to efficiently handle data dissemination. However, several challenges arise, such as additional delays introduced by the intermediate relay nodes and decoding failures, due to channel errors. In this paper, we tackle these issues by adopting a cloud architecture where the set of relays is connected to a coordinating entity, called cloud manager. We propose a cloud-assisted RLNC-based MAC protocol (CLNC-MAC and develop a mathematical model for the calculation of the key performance metrics, namely the system throughput, the mean completion time for data delivery and the energy efficiency. We show the importance of central coordination in fully exploiting the gain of RLNC under error-prone channels.
Estimating a DIF decomposition model using a random-weights linear logistic test model approach.
Paek, Insu; Fukuhara, Hirotaka
2015-09-01
A differential item functioning (DIF) decomposition model separates a testlet item DIF into two sources: item-specific differential functioning and testlet-specific differential functioning. This article provides an alternative model-building framework and estimation approach for a DIF decomposition model that was proposed by Beretvas and Walker (2012). Although their model is formulated under multilevel modeling with the restricted pseudolikelihood estimation method, our approach illustrates DIF decomposition modeling that is directly built upon the random-weights linear logistic test model framework with the marginal maximum likelihood estimation method. In addition to demonstrating our approach's performance, we provide detailed information on how to implement this new DIF decomposition model using an item response theory software program; using DIF decomposition may be challenging for practitioners, yet practical information on how to implement it has previously been unavailable in the measurement literature.
Dai, James Y.; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Hsu, Li
2014-01-01
Instrumental variable regression is one way to overcome unmeasured confounding and estimate causal effect in observational studies. Built on structural mean models, there has been considerale work recently developed for consistent estimation of causal relative risk and causal odds ratio. Such models can sometimes suffer from identification issues for weak instruments. This hampered the applicability of Mendelian randomization analysis in genetic epidemiology. When there are multiple genetic variants available as instrumental variables, and causal effect is defined in a generalized linear model in the presence of unmeasured confounders, we propose to test concordance between instrumental variable effects on the intermediate exposure and instrumental variable effects on the disease outcome, as a means to test the causal effect. We show that a class of generalized least squares estimators provide valid and consistent tests of causality. For causal effect of a continuous exposure on a dichotomous outcome in logistic models, the proposed estimators are shown to be asymptotically conservative. When the disease outcome is rare, such estimators are consistent due to the log-linear approximation of the logistic function. Optimality of such estimators relative to the well-known two-stage least squares estimator and the double-logistic structural mean model is further discussed. PMID:24863158
Smith, Paul F; Ganesh, Siva; Liu, Ping
2013-10-30
Regression is a common statistical tool for prediction in neuroscience. However, linear regression is by far the most common form of regression used, with regression trees receiving comparatively little attention. In this study, the results of conventional multiple linear regression (MLR) were compared with those of random forest regression (RFR), in the prediction of the concentrations of 9 neurochemicals in the vestibular nucleus complex and cerebellum that are part of the l-arginine biochemical pathway (agmatine, putrescine, spermidine, spermine, l-arginine, l-ornithine, l-citrulline, glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)). The R(2) values for the MLRs were higher than the proportion of variance explained values for the RFRs: 6/9 of them were ≥ 0.70 compared to 4/9 for RFRs. Even the variables that had the lowest R(2) values for the MLRs, e.g. ornithine (0.50) and glutamate (0.61), had much lower proportion of variance explained values for the RFRs (0.27 and 0.49, respectively). The RSE values for the MLRs were lower than those for the RFRs in all but two cases. In general, MLRs seemed to be superior to the RFRs in terms of predictive value and error. In the case of this data set, MLR appeared to be superior to RFR in terms of its explanatory value and error. This result suggests that MLR may have advantages over RFR for prediction in neuroscience with this kind of data set, but that RFR can still have good predictive value in some cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Non-linear blend coding in the moth antennal lobe emerges from random glomerular networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alberto eCapurro
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Neural responses to odor blends often interact at different stages of the olfactory pathway. The first olfactory processing center in insects, the antennal lobe (AL, exhibits a complex network connectivity. We attempt to determine if non-linear blend interactions can arise purely as a function of the AL network connectivity itself, without necessitating additional factors such as competitive ligand binding at the periphery or intrinsic cellular properties. To assess this, we compared blend interactions among responses from single neurons recorded intracellularly in the AL of the moth M. sexta with those generated using a population-based computational model constructed from the morphologically-based connectivity pattern of projection neurons (PNs and local interneurons (LNs with randomized connection probabilities, from which we excluded detailed intrinsic neuronal properties. The model accurately predicted most of the proportions of blend interaction types observed in the physiological data. Our simulations also indicate that input from LNs is important in establishing both the type of blend interaction and the nature of the neuronal response (excitation or inhibition exhibited by AL neurons. For LNs, the only input that significantly impacted the blend interaction type was received from other LNs, while for PNs the input from olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs and other PNs contributed agonistically with the LN input to shape the AL output. Our results demonstrate that non-linear blend interactions can be a natural consequence of AL connectivity, and highlight the importance of lateral inhibition as a key feature of blend coding to be addressed in future experimental and computational studies.
Marchese Robinson, Richard L; Palczewska, Anna; Palczewski, Jan; Kidley, Nathan
2017-08-28
The ability to interpret the predictions made by quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) offers a number of advantages. While QSARs built using nonlinear modeling approaches, such as the popular Random Forest algorithm, might sometimes be more predictive than those built using linear modeling approaches, their predictions have been perceived as difficult to interpret. However, a growing number of approaches have been proposed for interpreting nonlinear QSAR models in general and Random Forest in particular. In the current work, we compare the performance of Random Forest to those of two widely used linear modeling approaches: linear Support Vector Machines (SVMs) (or Support Vector Regression (SVR)) and partial least-squares (PLS). We compare their performance in terms of their predictivity as well as the chemical interpretability of the predictions using novel scoring schemes for assessing heat map images of substructural contributions. We critically assess different approaches for interpreting Random Forest models as well as for obtaining predictions from the forest. We assess the models on a large number of widely employed public-domain benchmark data sets corresponding to regression and binary classification problems of relevance to hit identification and toxicology. We conclude that Random Forest typically yields comparable or possibly better predictive performance than the linear modeling approaches and that its predictions may also be interpreted in a chemically and biologically meaningful way. In contrast to earlier work looking at interpretation of nonlinear QSAR models, we directly compare two methodologically distinct approaches for interpreting Random Forest models. The approaches for interpreting Random Forest assessed in our article were implemented using open-source programs that we have made available to the community. These programs are the rfFC package ( https://r-forge.r-project.org/R/?group_id=1725 ) for the R statistical
42 CFR 421.505 - Termination and extension of non-random prepayment complex medical review.
2010-10-01
... prepayment complex medical review. If the reduction in the error rate is attributed to a 25 percent or... error are no longer suspended for non-random prepayment complex medical review. (d) Periodic re... that appears to have resumed a high level of payment error on non-random prepayment complex medical...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Fields PhD
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This study compared the growth of healthy infants fed a hypoallergenic 100% whey-based extensively hydrolyzed formula (EHF with Bifidobacterium lactis (test with that of infants fed an extensively hydrolyzed casein formula (control. Formula-fed infants (14 ± 3 days were randomized to test or control groups until 112 days of age. Anthropometrics were assessed at 14, 28, 56, 84, and 112 days, and daily records were kept for 2 days prior to study visits. Serum albumin and plasma amino acids at 84 days were assessed in a subset. A total of 282 infants were randomized (124 test, 158 control. Significantly more infants dropped out of the control (56% as compared with the test (41% group. Mean daily weight gain was significantly higher in the test group compared with the control group (27.95 ± 5.91 vs 25.93 ± 6.12 g/d; P = .027 with the test group reporting significantly fewer stools (2.2 vs 3.6 stools/d; P 3 loose stools/d and a higher incidence of vomiting as compared with the test group. There were no differences in gas, mood, sleep, or serum albumin. Plasma arginine and valine were significantly lower in the test group, whereas leucine and lysine were higher; all values were within normal limits. Significantly more adverse events attributed to the study formula were reported in the control group. The 100% whey-based hypoallergenic EHF containing Bifidobacterium lactis and medium chain triglycerides supported growth of healthy infants. Future studies on the application of this formula in clinically indicated populations are warranted.
Penning, L; Irwan, R; Oudkerk, M
Background The presently available method of measuring segmental lumbar spine mobility by means of superimposition of lumbar spine radiographs in flexion and extension lacks precision due to differences in the cortical outline of the vertebral bodies in flexed and extended position. The introduction
Modeling and control of switching max-plus-linear systems with random and deterministic switching
Van den Boom, T.J.J.; De Schutter, B.
2012-01-01
Switching max-plus-linear (SMPL) systems are discrete-event systems that can switch between different modes of operation. In each mode the system is described by a max-plus-linear state equation and a max-plus-linear output equation, with different system matrices for each mode. The switching may
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
FLORIN MARIUS PAVELESCU
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In econometric models, linear regressions with three explanatory variables are widely used. As examples can be cited: Cobb-Douglas production function with three inputs (capital, labour and disembodied technical change, Kmenta function used for approximation of CES production function parameters, error-correction models, etc. In case of multiple linear regressions, estimated parameters values and some statistical tests are influenced by collinearity between explanatory variables. In fact, collinearity acts as a noise which distorts the signal (proper parameter values. This influence is emphasized by the coefficients of alignment to collinearity hazard values. The respective coefficients have some similarities with the signal to noise ratio. Consequently, it may be used when the type of collinearity is determined. For these reasons, the main purpose of this paper is to identify all the modeling factors and quantify their impact on the above-mentioned indicator values in the context of linear regression with three explanatory variables.Classification-JEL:C13,C20,C51,C52Keywords:types of collinearity, coefficient of mediated correlation, rank of explanatory variable, order of attractor of collinearity, mediated collinearity, anticollinearity.
Dewald-Kaufmann, J F; Oort, F J; Meijer, A M
2014-03-01
Sleep problems are common and persistent during adolescence and can have negative effects on adolescents' mood. To date, studies that investigate the effects of sleep extension on adolescents' sleep and depressive symptoms are still lacking. This study aims to investigate the effects of gradual sleep extension combined with sleep hygiene advice in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction on objectively measured sleep, self-reported sleep problems and depressive symptoms. Fifty-five adolescents with chronic sleep reduction (mean age: 15.44 years; 85.5% females) were included in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to either a sleep extension group (gradual sleep extension by advancing bedtimes in the evening and receiving sleep hygiene advice) or to a control group (no instruction). Sleep was measured with actigraphy during three weeks, the first week was the baseline week, and the last two weeks were the experimental weeks during which sleep was extended. Other outcome variables were self-reported sleep problems (daytime sleepiness, symptoms of insomnia and circadian rhythm sleep disorder) and depressive symptoms, which were assessed before and after the experimental manipulation. During the third week of the experiment, adolescents in the sleep extension group had earlier bedtimes, earlier sleep onsets, spent more time in bed and slept longer than adolescents in the control group. Their chronic sleep reduction, insomnia symptoms and depressive symptoms diminished significantly. In addition, there was a trend of improved circadian rhythm sleep disorder symptoms and sleep quality. Gradual sleep extension combined with sleep hygiene advice seems to have beneficial effects on sleep, self-reported sleep problems and depressive symptoms of adolescents with chronic sleep reduction. Although we cannot distinguish between the effects of sleep extension and sleep hygiene advice, the results suggest that advancing bedtimes can extend sleep and improve depressive
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christanell Franz
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Loss of knee extension and a deficit in quadriceps strength are frequently found following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the addition of Eletromyographic Biofeedback (EMG BFB therapy for the vastus medialis muscle to the in the early phase of the standard rehabilitation programme could improve the range of knee extension and strength after ACL reconstruction more than a standard rehabilitation programme. The correlation between EMG measurement and passive knee extension was also investigated. Method Sixteen patients, all of whom underwent endoscopic ACL reconstruction using patellar tendon autograft, were randomly assigned to two groups: • Control group (8 patients: standard rehabilitation protocol; with full weight-bearing postoperative, knee brace (0° extension, 90° flexion, electrical stimulation, aquatics and proprioceptive training. • The EMG BFB group (8 patients: EMG BFB was added to the standard rehabilitation protocol within the first postoperative week and during each session for the next 6 weeks. Each patent attended a total of 16 outpatient physiotherapy sessions following surgery. High-Heel-Distance (HHD Test, range of motion (ROM and integrated EMG (iEMG for vastus medialis were measured preoperatively, and at the 1, 2, 4 and 6-week follow ups. Additionally, knee function, swelling and pain were evaluated using standardized scoring scales. Results At 6 weeks, passive knee extension (p 0.01 differences were found between the two groups for the assessment of knee function, swelling and pain. Conclusion The results indicate that EMG BFB therapy, in the early phase of rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction, is useful in enhancing knee extension. Improved innervation of the vastus medialis can play a key role in the development of postoperative knee extension. EMG BFB therapy is a simple, inexpensive and valuable adjunct to conventional
Northouse, Laurel L.; Mood, Darlene W.; Schafenacker, Ann; Kalemkerian, Gregory; Zalupski, Mark; LoRusso, Patricia; Hayes, Daniel F.; Hussain, Maha; Ruckdeschel, John; Fendrick, A. Mark; Trask, Peter C.; Ronis, David L.; Kershaw, Trace
2012-01-01
Objective Few intervention programs assist patients and their family caregivers to manage advanced cancer and maintain their quality of life (QOL). This study examined: 1) whether patient-caregiver dyads (i.e., pairs) randomly assigned to a Brief or Extensive dyadic intervention (the FOCUS Program) had better outcomes than dyads randomly assigned to usual care, and 2) if patients' risk for distress (RFD) and other factors moderated the effect of the Brief or Extensive Program on outcomes. Methods Advanced cancer patients and their caregivers (N=484 dyads) were stratified by patients' baseline risk for distress (high versus low), cancer type (lung, colorectal, breast, prostate), and research site, and then randomly assigned to a Brief (3-session) or Extensive (6-session) intervention or Control. The interventions offered dyads information and support. Intermediary outcomes were: appraisals (i.e., appraisal of illness/caregiving, uncertainty, hopelessness) and resources (i.e., coping, interpersonal relationships, and self-efficacy). The primary outcome was QOL. Data were collected prior to intervention and post-intervention (3 and 6 months from baseline). The final sample was 302 dyads. Repeated Measures MANOVA was used to evaluate outcomes. Results Significant Group by Time interactions showed there was improvement in dyads' coping (p<.05), self-efficacy (p<.05), and social QOL (p<.01), and in caregivers' emotional QOL (p<.05). Effects varied by intervention dose. Most effects were found at 3 months only. Risk for distress accounted for very few moderation effects. Conclusions Both Brief and Extensive programs had positive outcomes for patient-caregiver dyads, but few sustained effects. Patient-caregiver dyads benefit when viewed as the “unit of care.” PMID:22290823
Northouse, Laurel L; Mood, Darlene W; Schafenacker, Ann; Kalemkerian, Gregory; Zalupski, Mark; LoRusso, Patricia; Hayes, Daniel F; Hussain, Maha; Ruckdeschel, John; Fendrick, A Mark; Trask, Peter C; Ronis, David L; Kershaw, Trace
2013-03-01
Few intervention programs assist patients and their family caregivers to manage advanced cancer and maintain their quality of life (QOL). This study examined (i) whether patient-caregiver dyads (i.e., pairs) randomly assigned to a brief or extensive dyadic intervention (the FOCUS Program) had better outcomes than dyads randomly assigned to usual care and (ii) whether patients' risk for distress and other factors moderated the effect of the brief or extensive program on outcomes. Advanced cancer patients and their caregivers (N = 484 dyads) were stratified by patients' baseline risk for distress (high versus low), cancer type (lung, colorectal, breast, or prostate), and research site and then randomly assigned to a brief (three-session) or extensive (six-session) intervention or control. The interventions offered dyads information and support. Intermediary outcomes were appraisals (i.e., appraisal of illness/caregiving, uncertainty, and hopelessness) and resources (i.e., coping, interpersonal relationships, and self-efficacy). The primary outcome was QOL. Data were collected prior to intervention and post-intervention (3 and 6 months from baseline). The final sample was 302 dyads. Repeated measures MANCOVA was used to evaluate outcomes. Significant group by time interactions showed that there was an improvement in dyads' coping (p < 0.05), self-efficacy (p < 0.05), and social QOL (p < 0.01) and in caregivers' emotional QOL (p < 0.05). Effects varied by intervention dose. Most effects were found at 3 months only. Risk for distress accounted for very few moderation effects. Both brief and extensive programs had positive outcomes for patient-caregiver dyads, but few sustained effects. Patient-caregiver dyads benefit when viewed as the 'unit of care'. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Phil Diamond
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Sensitivity of output of a linear operator to its input can be quantified in various ways. In Control Theory, the input is usually interpreted as disturbance and the output is to be minimized in some sense. In stochastic worst-case design settings, the disturbance is considered random with imprecisely known probability distribution. The prior set of probability measures can be chosen so as to quantify how far the disturbance deviates from the white-noise hypothesis of Linear Quadratic Gaussian control. Such deviation can be measured by the minimal Kullback-Leibler informational divergence from the Gaussian distributions with zero mean and scalar covariance matrices. The resulting anisotropy functional is defined for finite power random vectors. Originally, anisotropy was introduced for directionally generic random vectors as the relative entropy of the normalized vector with respect to the uniform distribution on the unit sphere. The associated a-anisotropic norm of a matrix is then its maximum root mean square or average energy gain with respect to finite power or directionally generic inputs whose anisotropy is bounded above by a≥0. We give a systematic comparison of the anisotropy functionals and the associated norms. These are considered for unboundedly growing fragments of homogeneous Gaussian random fields on multidimensional integer lattice to yield mean anisotropy. Correspondingly, the anisotropic norms of finite matrices are extended to bounded linear translation invariant operators over such fields.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Benninger, Richard K P; Vanherberghen, Bruno; Young, Stephen
2009-01-01
We have applied fluorescence imaging of two-photon linear dichroism to measure the subresolution organization of the cell membrane during formation of the activating (cytolytic) natural killer (NK) cell immune synapse (IS). This approach revealed that the NK cell plasma membrane is convoluted...... into ruffles at the periphery, but not in the center of a mature cytolytic NK cell IS. Time-lapse imaging showed that the membrane ruffles formed at the initial point of contact between NK cells and target cells and then spread radialy across the intercellular contact as the size of the IS increased, becoming...
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Zhifeng Dai
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Combining the Rosen gradient projection method with the two-term Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP conjugate gradient method, we propose a two-term Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP conjugate gradient projection method for solving linear equality constraints optimization problems. The proposed method possesses some attractive properties: (1 search direction generated by the proposed method is a feasible descent direction; consequently the generated iterates are feasible points; (2 the sequences of function are decreasing. Under some mild conditions, we show that it is globally convergent with Armijio-type line search. Preliminary numerical results show that the proposed method is promising.
Serang, Oliver
2012-01-01
Linear programming (LP) problems are commonly used in analysis and resource allocation, frequently surfacing as approximations to more difficult problems. Existing approaches to LP have been dominated by a small group of methods, and randomized algorithms have not enjoyed popularity in practice. This paper introduces a novel randomized method of solving LP problems by moving along the facets and within the interior of the polytope along rays randomly sampled from the polyhedral cones defined by the bounding constraints. This conic sampling method is then applied to randomly sampled LPs, and its runtime performance is shown to compare favorably to the simplex and primal affine-scaling algorithms, especially on polytopes with certain characteristics. The conic sampling method is then adapted and applied to solve a certain quadratic program, which compute a projection onto a polytope; the proposed method is shown to outperform the proprietary software Mathematica on large, sparse QP problems constructed from mass spectometry-based proteomics.
A model for a correlated random walk based on the ordered extension of pseudopodia.
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Peter J M Van Haastert
Full Text Available Cell migration in the absence of external cues is well described by a correlated random walk. Most single cells move by extending protrusions called pseudopodia. To deduce how cells walk, we have analyzed the formation of pseudopodia by Dictyostelium cells. We have observed that the formation of pseudopodia is highly ordered with two types of pseudopodia: First, de novo formation of pseudopodia at random positions on the cell body, and therefore in random directions. Second, pseudopod splitting near the tip of the current pseudopod in alternating right/left directions, leading to a persistent zig-zag trajectory. Here we analyzed the probability frequency distributions of the angles between pseudopodia and used this information to design a stochastic model for cell movement. Monte Carlo simulations show that the critical elements are the ratio of persistent splitting pseudopodia relative to random de novo pseudopodia, the Left/Right alternation, the angle between pseudopodia and the variance of this angle. Experiments confirm predictions of the model, showing reduced persistence in mutants that are defective in pseudopod splitting and in mutants with an irregular cell surface.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iliopoulos, AS; Sun, X [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Pitsianis, N [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Yin, FF; Ren, L
2016-06-15
Purpose: To address and lift the limited degree of freedom (DoF) of globally bilinear motion components such as those based on principal components analysis (PCA), for encoding and modeling volumetric deformation motion. Methods: We provide a systematic approach to obtaining a multi-linear decomposition (MLD) and associated motion model from deformation vector field (DVF) data. We had previously introduced MLD for capturing multi-way relationships between DVF variables, without being restricted by the bilinear component format of PCA-based models. PCA-based modeling is commonly used for encoding patient-specific deformation as per planning 4D-CT images, and aiding on-board motion estimation during radiotherapy. However, the bilinear space-time decomposition inherently limits the DoF of such models by the small number of respiratory phases. While this limit is not reached in model studies using analytical or digital phantoms with low-rank motion, it compromises modeling power in the presence of relative motion, asymmetries and hysteresis, etc, which are often observed in patient data. Specifically, a low-DoF model will spuriously couple incoherent motion components, compromising its adaptability to on-board deformation changes. By the multi-linear format of extracted motion components, MLD-based models can encode higher-DoF deformation structure. Results: We conduct mathematical and experimental comparisons between PCA- and MLD-based models. A set of temporally-sampled analytical trajectories provides a synthetic, high-rank DVF; trajectories correspond to respiratory and cardiac motion factors, including different relative frequencies and spatial variations. Additionally, a digital XCAT phantom is used to simulate a lung lesion deforming incoherently with respect to the body, which adheres to a simple respiratory trend. In both cases, coupling of incoherent motion components due to a low model DoF is clearly demonstrated. Conclusion: Multi-linear decomposition can
Penning, L; Irwan, R; Oudkerk, M
2005-03-01
The presently available method of measuring segmental lumbar spine mobility by means of superimposition of lumbar spine radiographs in flexion and extension lacks precision due to differences in the cortical outline of the vertebral bodies in flexed and extended position. The introduction of digital image processing has opened the possibility of computerised superimposition ('matching') of digital vertebral body images by means of image registration. Theoretically this technique allows more accurate image matching and, consequently, greater precision of measurement because the whole vertebral body image (not only its cortical outline) can be chosen as region of interest, with registration of all available digital information within this region. To check accuracy and convenience of the new method, two computer program experts performed five image registration measurements of the five lumbar motion segments in five consecutive flexion-extension studies of old lumbar fracture, spondylolytic spondylolisthesis and degenerative anterolisthesis. For comparison an experienced radiologist performed the same repeated measurements with the manual superimposition method. Measurement error of the image registration method proved to be significantly smaller than that of the manual superimposition method. There was no overlap between the 95% confidence intervals of the mean standard deviations of experts A and B using the image registration method and the 95% confidence interval of the mean standard deviations of the experienced radiologist using the manual superimposition method. Besides, the image registration method proved to be more convenient because the whole procedure from import of the image data to display of the measurement outcomes lasted 2-3 min compared to 3-6 min for the superimposition method.
Nakano, Masahiko; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Hirata, So; Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi
2017-11-05
We have implemented a linear-scaling divide-and-conquer (DC)-based higher-order coupled-cluster (CC) and Møller-Plesset perturbation theories (MPPT) as well as their combinations automatically by means of the tensor contraction engine, which is a computerized symbolic algebra system. The DC-based energy expressions of the standard CC and MPPT methods and the CC methods augmented with a perturbation correction were proposed for up to high excitation orders [e.g., CCSDTQ, MP4, and CCSD(2)TQ ]. The numerical assessment for hydrogen halide chains, polyene chains, and first coordination sphere (C1) model of photoactive yellow protein has revealed that the DC-based correlation methods provide reliable correlation energies with significantly less computational cost than that of the conventional implementations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Larsen, Kristian; Weidick, Flemming; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte
2002-12-15
Back schools may be effective in treating back problems, but there is conflicting evidence of the effect on prevention. To investigate if passive prone extensions of the back can prevent back problems. Prospective, randomized controlled intervention trial. In total, 314 male conscripts were randomized into two groups. After randomization, 65 conscripts dropped out for administrative reasons, leaving 249 conscripts to participate fully in the study. Data were collected through questionnaires at the start of military duty and after 10 months. All conscripts in the intervention group had one 40-minute theoretical lesson on back problems and ergonomics and had to perform passive prone extensions of the back daily during the rest of their military duty. The control group had no intervention. Outcome variables were as follows: 1) number of persons with self-reported back problems during the last 3 weeks; 2) number of persons with self-reported back problems during the last year; and 3) number of persons who reported having consulted the regiment medical physician with back problems during their military service. In an intention-to-treat analysis, significantly fewer persons in the intervention group versus those in the control group reported back problems during the last year (33% versus 51%), and the number needed to prevent was 6. Significantly fewer persons in the intervention group versus those in the control group consulted the regiment infirmary (9% versus 25%), and the number needed to prevent was 6. It may be possible to reduce the prevalence rate of back problems and the use of health care services during military service, at a low cost, using passive prone extensions of the back motivated by a back school approach, including the theory of the disc as a pain generator and ergonomic instructions.
Kougioumtzoglou, I. A.; Fragkoulis, V. C.; Pantelous, A. A.; Pirrotta, A.
2017-09-01
A frequency domain methodology is developed for stochastic response determination of multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) linear and nonlinear structural systems with singular matrices. This system modeling can arise when a greater than the minimum number of coordinates/DOFs is utilized, and can be advantageous, for instance, in cases of complex multibody systems where the explicit formulation of the equations of motion can be a nontrivial task. In such cases, the introduction of additional/redundant DOFs can facilitate the formulation of the equations of motion in a less labor intensive manner. Specifically, relying on the generalized matrix inverse theory, a Moore-Penrose (M-P) based frequency response function (FRF) is determined for a linear structural system with singular matrices. Next, relying on the M-P FRF a spectral input-output (excitation-response) relationship is derived in the frequency domain for determining the linear system response power spectrum. Further, the above methodology is extended via statistical linearization to account for nonlinear systems. This leads to an iterative determination of the system response mean vector and covariance matrix. Furthermore, to account for singular matrices, the generalization of a widely utilized formula that facilitates the application of statistical linearization is proved as well. The formula relates to the expectation of the derivatives of the system nonlinear function and is based on a Gaussian response assumption. Several linear and nonlinear MDOF structural systems with singular matrices are considered as numerical examples for demonstrating the validity and applicability of the developed frequency domain methodology.
Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Merino-Marban, Rafael; Manzano-Lagunas, Jorge; Blanco, Humberto; Viciana, Jesús
2016-03-01
The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a physical education-based stretching development and maintenance program on hamstring extensibility in schoolchildren. A sample of 150 schoolchildren aged 7-10 years old from a primary school participated in the present study (140 participants were finally included). The six classes balanced by grade were cluster randomly assigned to the experimental group 1 (n = 51), experimental group 2 (n = 51) or control group (n = 49) (i.e., a cluster randomized controlled trial design was used). During the physical education classes, the students from the experimental groups 1 and 2 performed a four-minute stretching program twice a week for nine weeks (first semester). Then, after a five-week period of detraining coinciding with the Christmas holidays, the students from the experimental groups 1 and 2 completed another stretching program twice a week for eleven weeks (second semester). The students from the experimental group 1 continued performing the stretching program for four minutes while those from the experimental group 2 completed a flexibility maintenance program for only one minute. The results of the two-way analysis of variance showed that the physical education-based stretching development program significantly improved the students' hamstring extensibility (p stretching maintenance program (p 0.05). After a short-term stretching development program, a physical education-based stretching maintenance program of only one-minute sessions twice a week is effective in maintaining hamstring extensibility among schoolchildren. This knowledge could help and guide teachers to design programs that allow a feasible and effective development and maintenance of students' flexibility in the physical education setting. Key pointsA physical education-based stretching maintenance program of only one-minute sessions twice a week is effective in maintaining hamstring extensibility among schoolchildren.A four
1980-04-01
dubbed their whole body of techniques Kriging, see Delfiner (1975) and further references given there. In another paper (Cabannes 1979b) , meant to...predictors and related predictors. Dept. of Mathematics, M.I.T., report #16. (3) Delfiner , P. (1975): Linear estimation of nonstationary spatial
Linear theory of random textures of 3He-A in an aerogel
Fomin, I. A.
2016-07-01
The spatial variation of the orbital part of the order parameter of 3He-A in an aerogel has been represented as random walk of a unit vector l( r) over a sphere under the action of random anisotropy created by the system of strands of the aerogel. The statistical properties of the resulting random texture have been studied. For distances at which the variation of l is much smaller than its magnitude, the average square of variation of l has been expressed in terms of the correlation function of the component of the random anisotropy tensor. Under simplifying assumptions on the structure of this correlation function, an analytical dependence of on r has been obtained for isotropic and axially anisotropic aerogels. The average values of the squares of the projections of l on the axes of anisotropy for an anisotropic aerogel have been represented in terms of the parameters of the aerogel. The characteristic scale at which the long-range order is broken, as well as the magnitude of global anisotropy sufficient for the recovery of the long-range order, has been numerically estimated within a simple model. The values obtained have been compared to other estimates.
Optimizing Linear Functions with Randomized Search Heuristics - The Robustness of Mutation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Witt, Carsten
2012-01-01
The analysis of randomized search heuristics on classes of functions is fundamental for the understanding of the underlying stochastic process and the development of suitable proof techniques. Recently, remarkable progress has been made in bounding the expected optimization time of the simple (1...
Tight Bounds on the Optimization Time of a Randomized Search Heuristic on Linear Functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Witt, Carsten
2013-01-01
The analysis of randomized search heuristics on classes of functions is fundamental to the understanding of the underlying stochastic process and the development of suitable proof techniques. Recently, remarkable progress has been made in bounding the expected optimization time of a simple...
OPTIMAL LINEAR COMBINED FILTERING OF RANDOM SEQUENCES BASED ON THE RECURSIVE LEAST SQUARES METHOD
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V. M. Artemiev
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of the synthesis of linear combined filter for the criterion of minimizing current losses on the basis of the recursive least squares method is being solved. This approach does not requirea priori knowledge of the statistical characteristics of impacts that is an advantage compared with the Kalman filter. A comparative evaluation of the filters’ accuracy is provided using the values of variances of the filtering errors.
Robb, Adelaide; Bose, Anjana
2013-01-01
Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extended efficacy, safety, and tolerability of escitalopram relative to placebo in adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Adolescents (12–17 years) who completed an 8-week randomized, double-blind, flexible-dose, placebo-controlled, lead-in study of escitalopram 10–20 mg versus placebo could enroll in a 16–24-week, multisite extension trial; patients maintained the same lead-in randomization (escitalopram or placebo) and dosage (escitalopram 10 or 20 mg/day, or placebo) during the extension. The primary efficacy was Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) change from the lead-in study baseline to treatment week 24 (8-week lead-in study plus 16-week extension); the secondary efficacy was Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) score at week 24. All efficacy analyses used the last observation carried forward (LOCF) approach; sensitivity analyses used observed cases (OC) and mixed-effects model for repeated measures (MMRM). Safety was evaluated via adverse event (AE) reports and the clinician-rated Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Results Following lead-in, 165 patients enrolled in the double-blind extension (82 placebo; 83 escitalopram); 40 (48.8%) placebo and 37 (44.6%) escitalopram patients completed treatment. CDRS-R total score improvement was significantly greater for escitalopram than for placebo (p=0.005, LOCF; p=0.014; MMRM). Response rates (CDRS-R ≥40% reduction from baseline [adjusted and unadjusted] and CGI-I ≤2) were significantly higher for escitalopram than for placebo (LOCF); remission rates (CDRS-R ≤28) were 50.6% for escitalopram and 35.7% for placebo (p=0.002). OC analyses were not significantly different between groups. The most frequent escitalopram AEs (≥5% and more frequent than placebo) were headache, nausea, insomnia, vomiting, influenza-like symptoms, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection. Most AEs were
2017-01-01
Proposal to negotiate extensions to four collaboration agreements for the design of key components of the beam-delivery and linac systems for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) for a duration of two years
Müller Dittrich, Maria Helena; Brunow de Carvalho, Werther; Lopes Lavado, Edson
2016-06-01
To compare early versus delayed albumin resuscitation in children with burns in terms of clinical outcome and response. Randomized controlled trial. Burn center at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Forty-six children aged 1-12 years with burns greater than 15-45% total body surface area admitted within 12 hours of burn injury. Fluid resuscitation was based on the Parkland formula (3 mL/kg/% total body surface area), adjusted according to urine output. Patients received 5% albumin solution between 8 and 12 hours post burn in the intervention group (n = 23) and 24 hours post burn in the control group (n = 23). Both groups were assessed for reduction in crystalloid fluid infusion during resuscitation, development of fluid creep, and length of hospital stay. There was no difference between groups regarding age, weight, sex, % total body surface area, cause of burn, or severity scores. The median crystalloid fluid volume required during the first 3 days post burn was lower in the intervention than in the control group (2.04 vs 3.05 mL/kg/% total body surface area; p = 0.025 on day 1; 1.2 vs 1.71 mL/kg/% total body surface area; p = 0.002 on day 2; and 0.82 vs 1.3 mL/kg/% total body surface area; p = 0.002 on day 3). The median urine output showed no difference between intervention and control groups (2.1 vs 2.0 mL/kg/hr; p = 0.152 on day 1; 2.58 vs 2.54 mL/kg/hr; p = 0.482 on day 2; and 2.9 vs 3.0 mL/kg/hr; p = 0.093 on day 3). Fluid creep was observed in 13 controls (56.5%) and in one patient (4.3%) in the intervention group. The median length of hospital stay was 18 days (range, 15-21 d) for controls and 14 days (range, 10-17 d) in the intervention group (p = 0.004). Early albumin infusion in children with burns greater than 15-45% total body surface area reduced the need for crystalloid fluid infusion during resuscitation. Significantly fewer cases of fluid creep and shorter hospital stay were also observed in this group of patients.
Linear bioconvection in a suspension of randomly swimming, gyrotactic micro-organisms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bees, Martin Alan; Hill, N.A.
1998-01-01
We have analyzed the initiation of pattern formation in a layer of finite depth for Pedley and Kessler's new model [J. Fluid Mech. 212, 155 (1990)] of bioconvection. This is the first analysis of bioconvection in a realistic geometry using a model that deals with random swimming in a rational man...... experimental measurements of key parameters are needed for a proper comparison. (C) 1998 American Institute of Physics....
Ramírez-Sánchez, F.; Gutierrez-Rodríguez, A.; Hernández-Ruiz, M. A.
2017-10-01
We study the phenomenology of the light h and heavy H Higgs boson production and decay in the context of a U(1) B ‑ L extension of the standard model with an additional Z´ boson at future e + e ‑ linear colliders with center-of-mass energies of √𝑠 = 500 – 3000 GeV and integrated luminosities of L = 500 ‑ 2000 fb‑1. The study includes the processes e + e ‑ → (Z, Z´) → Zh and e + e ‑ → (Z, Z´) → ZH, considering both the resonant and non-resonant effects. We find that the total number of expected Zh and ZH events can reach 106 and 105, respectively, which is a very optimistic scenario allowing us to perform precision measurements for both Higgs bosons h and H, as well as for the Z‧ boson in future high-energy and high-luminosity e + e ‑ colliders.
Cherian, Jeffrey J; Bhave, Anil; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Starr, Roland; McElroy, Mark J; Mont, Michael A
2015-05-01
Pneumatic unloader bracing with extension assists have been proposed as a non-operative modality that may delay the need for knee surgery by reducing pain and improving function. This prospective, randomized trial evaluated 52 patients who had knee osteoarthritis for changes in: (1) muscle strength; (2) objective functional improvements; (3); subjective functional improvements; (4) pain; (5) quality of life; and (6) conversion to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) compared to standard of care. Patient outcomes were evaluated at a minimum 3 months. Braced patient's demonstrated significant improvements in muscle strength, several functional tests, and patient reported outcomes when compared to the matched cohort. These results are encouraging and suggest that this device may represent a promising alternative to standard treatment methods for knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noella Angele Piquette
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The present paper reports a cluster randomized control trial evaluation of teaching using ABRACADABRA (ABRA, an evidence-based and web-based literacy intervention (http://abralite.concordia.ca with 107 kindergarten and 96 grade 1 children in 24 classes (12 intervention 12 control classes from all 12 elementary schools in one school district in Canada. Children in the intervention condition received 10-12 hours of whole class instruction using ABRA between pre- and post-test. Hierarchical linear modeling of post-test results showed significant gains in letter-sound knowledge for intervention classrooms over control classrooms. In addition, medium effect sizes were evident for three of five outcome measures favoring the intervention: letter-sound knowledge (d = +.66, phonological blending (d = +.52, and word reading (d = +.52, over effect sizes for regular teaching. It is concluded that regular teaching with ABRA technology adds significantly to literacy in the early elementary years.
Diab, Aliaa Attiah Mohamed; Moustafa, Ibrahim Moustafa
2013-01-01
There is growing interest in the role of abnormal asymmetrical posture, which is considered one of the most important etiological factors reported to be associated with mechanical low back pain. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of lumbar extension traction on the pain, function and whole spine sagittal balance as represented in lumbar curvature, thoracic curvature, C7 plumb line, and sacral slope. Eighty patients with chronic mechanical low back pain (CMLBP) and definite hypolordosis were randomly assigned to traction or a control group. The control group (n=40) received stretching exercises and infrared radiation, whereas the traction group (n=40) received lumbar extension traction in addition to stretching exercises and infrared radiation three times a week for 10 weeks. Back pain rating scale, Oswestry Disability Index, and radiological spine sagittal balance parameters in terms of lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, sacral slope, and positioning of C7 plumb line were measured for all patients at three intervals (before treatment, after 10 weeks of treatment, and at six months follow-up). There was a significant difference between the traction and control groups adjusted to baseline value of outcome at 10 weeks post treatment with respect to lumbar lordotic curve (P=0.000), thoracic kyphosis (P=0.013), sacral slope (P=0.001), C7 plump line distance (p=0.001), while there was no significant difference with respect to pain (p=0.29) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) (p=0.1). At 6-months follow-up, there were significant differences between both groups for all the previous variables (pLumbar extension traction in addition to stretching exercises and infrared radiation improved the spine sagittal balance parameters and decreased the pain and disability in CMLBP.
Mariani, L; Coradini, D; Biganzoli, E; Boracchi, P; Marubini, E; Pilotti, S; Salvadori, B; Silvestrini, R; Veronesi, U; Zucali, R; Rilke, F
1997-06-01
The purpose of the present study was to assess prognostic factor for metachronous contralateral recurrence of breast cancer (CBC). Two factors were of particular interest, namely estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PgR) receptors assayed with the biochemical method in primary tumor tissue. Information was obtained from a prospective clinical database for 1763 axillary node-negative women who had received curative surgery, mostly of the conservative type, and followed-up for a median of 82 months. The analysis was performed based on both a standard (linear) Cox model and an artificial neural network (ANN) extension of this model proposed by Faraggi and Simon. Furthermore, to assess the prognostic importance of the factors considered, model predictive ability was computed. In agreement with already published studies, the results of our analysis confirmed the prognostic role of age at surgery, histology, and primary tumor site, in that young patients (extensive intraductal component, and a lower hazard in infiltrating lobular carcinoma or other histotypes. In spite of the above findings, the predictive value of both the standard and ANN Cox models was relatively low, thus suggesting an intrinsic limitation of the prognostic variables considered, rather than their suboptimal modeling. Research for better prognostic variables should therefore continue.
Faster Simulation Methods for the Non-Stationary Random Vibrations of Non-Linear MDOF Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Askar, A.; Köylüoglu, H. U.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.
In this paper semi-analytical forward-difference Monte Carlo simulation procedures are proposed for the determination of the lower order statistics and the Joint Probability Density Function (JPDF) of the stochastic response of geometrically nonlinear multi-degree-of-freedom structural systems...... of motion. All of the proposed procedures yield the exact results as the time step goes to zero. The proposed procedures are based on analytical convolutions of the excitation process, hereby, reducing the generation of stochastic processes and numerical integration to the generation of random vectors only...
Faster Simulation Methods for the Nonstationary Random Vibrations of Non-linear MDOF Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Askar, A.; Köylüo, U.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
1996-01-01
In this paper semi-analytical forward-difference Monte Carlo simulation procedures are proposed for the determination of the lower order statistics and the Joint Probability Density Function (JPDF) of the stochastic response of geometrically nonlinear multi-degree-of-freedom structural systems...... of motion. All of the proposed procedures yield the exact results as the time step goes to zero. The proposed procedures are based on analytical convolutions of the excitation process, hereby, reducing the generation of stochastic processes and numerical integration to the generation of random vectors only...
Sliwinski, M J; Hall, C B
1998-03-01
General slowing (GS) theories are often tested by meta-analysis that model mean latencies of older adults as a function of mean latencies of younger adults. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression is inappropriate for this purpose because it fails to account for the nested structure of multitask response time (RT) data. Hierarchical linear models (HLM) are an alternative method for analyzing such data. OLS analysis of data from 21 studies that used iterative cognitive tasks supported GS; however, HLM analysis demonstrated significant variance in slowing across experimental tasks and a process-specific effect by showing less slowing for memory scanning than for visual-search and mental-rotation tasks. The authors conclude that HLM is more suitable than OLS methods for meta-analyses of RT data and for testing GS theories.
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Kiess Marla
2002-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac rehabilitation programs (CRP represent comprehensive interventions that are typically limited to four months. Following completion of CRP, it appears that risk factors and lifestyle behaviours may deteriorate. The Extensive Lifestyle Management Intervention (ELMI Following Cardiac Rehabilitation trial will investigate the benefits of a randomized intervention to prevent these adverse changes. Methods Patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD were randomized following a standard CRP to the ELMI or to usual care. The ELMI program is a case-managed intervention aimed at individualizing risk factor and lifestyle management based on current treatment guidelines. The program consists of cardiac rehabilitation sessions, telephone follow-up and risk factor and lifestyle counselling sessions. Health professionals work with participants using behavioural counselling and communications with participants' family physicians. Usual care participants return to their family physicians' care, and come to the study clinic only to undergo annual outcomes assessment. The primary outcome is change in IHD global risk after four years. Secondary outcomes include combined cardiovascular events, health care utilization, lifestyle adherence, quality of life and risk factors. Results Over 28 months, 302 men and women were randomized. This represented 29% of the total population screened. The average age of study participants is 64 years, 18% are women, 53% have had a previous myocardial infarction, 73% have undergone previous revascularization and 20% have diabetes mellitus. Ischemic heart disease risk factors for the entire cohort improved significantly after subjects had gone through previous CRPs. Baseline risk factors, lifestyle behaviours and medications were similar between the groups. Conclusions This study population is representative of patients completing a standard CRP. Results of the ELMI trial will provide valuable information for
Brilleman, Samuel L; Howe, Laura D; Wolfe, Rory; Tilling, Kate
2017-11-01
Body mass index (BMI) rebound refers to the beginning of the second rise in BMI during childhood. Accurate estimation of an individual's timing of BMI rebound is important because it is associated with health outcomes in later life. We estimated BMI trajectories for 6545 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We used a novel Bayesian two-phase piecewise linear mixed model where the "change point" was an individual-level random effect corresponding to the individual-specific timing of BMI rebound. The model's individual-level random effects (intercept, prechange slope, postchange slope, change point) were multivariate normally distributed with an unstructured variance-covariance matrix, thereby, allowing for correlation between all random effects. Average age at BMI rebound (mean change point) was 6.5 (95% credible interval: 6.4 to 6.6) years. The standard deviation of the individual-specific timing of BMI rebound (random effects) was 2.0 years for females and 1.6 years for males. Correlation between the prechange slope and change point was 0.57, suggesting that faster rates of decline in BMI prior to rebound were associated with rebound occurring at an earlier age. Simulations showed that estimates from the model were less biased than those from models, assuming a common change point for all individuals or a nonlinear trajectory based on fractional polynomials. Our model flexibly estimated the individual-specific timing of BMI rebound, while retaining parameters that are meaningful and easy to interpret. It is applicable in any situation where one wishes to estimate a change-point process which varies between individuals.
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Daniel G Datiko
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the main strategies to control tuberculosis (TB is to find and treat people with active disease. Unfortunately, the case detection rates remain low in many countries. Thus, we need interventions to find and treat sufficient number of patients to control TB. We investigated whether involving health extension workers (HEWs: trained community health workers in TB control improved smear-positive case detection and treatment success rates in southern Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We carried out a community-randomized trial in southern Ethiopia from September 2006 to April 2008. Fifty-one kebeles (with a total population of 296, 811 were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. We trained HEWs in the intervention kebeles on how to identify suspects, collect sputum, and provide directly observed treatment. The HEWs in the intervention kebeles advised people with productive cough of 2 weeks or more duration to attend the health posts. Two hundred and thirty smear-positive patients were identified from the intervention and 88 patients from the control kebeles. The mean case detection rate was higher in the intervention than in the control kebeles (122.2% vs 69.4%, p<0.001. In addition, more females patients were identified in the intervention kebeles (149.0 vs 91.6, p<0.001. The mean treatment success rate was higher in the intervention than in the control kebeles (89.3% vs 83.1%, p = 0.012 and more for females patients (89.8% vs 81.3%, p = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The involvement of HEWs in sputum collection and treatment improved smear-positive case detection and treatment success rate, possibly because of an improved service access. This could be applied in settings with low health service coverage and a shortage of health workers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00803322.
Datiko, Daniel G; Lindtjørn, Bernt
2009-01-01
One of the main strategies to control tuberculosis (TB) is to find and treat people with active disease. Unfortunately, the case detection rates remain low in many countries. Thus, we need interventions to find and treat sufficient number of patients to control TB. We investigated whether involving health extension workers (HEWs: trained community health workers) in TB control improved smear-positive case detection and treatment success rates in southern Ethiopia. We carried out a community-randomized trial in southern Ethiopia from September 2006 to April 2008. Fifty-one kebeles (with a total population of 296, 811) were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. We trained HEWs in the intervention kebeles on how to identify suspects, collect sputum, and provide directly observed treatment. The HEWs in the intervention kebeles advised people with productive cough of 2 weeks or more duration to attend the health posts. Two hundred and thirty smear-positive patients were identified from the intervention and 88 patients from the control kebeles. The mean case detection rate was higher in the intervention than in the control kebeles (122.2% vs 69.4%, pcontrol kebeles (89.3% vs 83.1%, p = 0.012) and more for females patients (89.8% vs 81.3%, p = 0.05). The involvement of HEWs in sputum collection and treatment improved smear-positive case detection and treatment success rate, possibly because of an improved service access. This could be applied in settings with low health service coverage and a shortage of health workers. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00803322.
Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria; Bandholm, Thomas Q; Zilmer, Camilla K; Bagger, Jens; Hornsleth, Mette; Kehlet, Henrik
2017-01-01
Background and purpose - Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) face challenges related to postoperative reduction in knee-extension strength. We evaluated whether inhibition of the inflammatory response by a single preoperative dose of methylprednisolone (MP) reduces the pronounced loss of knee-extension strength at discharge after fast-track TKA. Patients and methods - 70 patients undergoing elective unilateral TKA were randomized (1:1) to preoperative intravenous (IV) MP 125 mg ...
Steinbrecher, György; Weyssow, B
2004-03-26
The extreme heavy tail and the power-law decay of the turbulent flux correlation observed in hot magnetically confined plasmas are modeled by a system of coupled Langevin equations describing a continuous time linear randomly amplified stochastic process where the amplification factor is driven by a superposition of colored noises which, in a suitable limit, generate a fractional Brownian motion. An exact analytical formula for the power-law tail exponent beta is derived. The extremely small value of the heavy tail exponent and the power-law distribution of laminar times also found experimentally are obtained, in a robust manner, for a wide range of input values, as a consequence of the (asymptotic) self-similarity property of the noise spectrum. As a by-product, a new representation of the persistent fractional Brownian motion is obtained.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qi, Shuyan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, and Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chakraborty, Arup K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, and Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
2000-01-15
We use a Landau theory to study the instability of the homogeneous state of a mixture of linear random copolymers and diblock copolymers. Interesting features of the calculated structure factors for different components of the mixture are found, which can be directly compared with scattering experiments with selectively deuterated samples. We also investigate the least stable concentration fluctuations and find four different types of segregation modes at the spinodal depending upon the characteristics of the mixture (e.g., average compositions, statistical correlation lengths and volume fractions). The different segregation modes are also indicative of the kinetic pathways leading to the formation of ordered microstructures. Experiments probing these pathways are suggested. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.
Terevnikov, Viacheslav; Stenberg, Jan-Henry; Joffe, Marina; Tiihonen, Jari; Burkin, Mark; Tchoukhine, Evgueni; Joffe, Grigori
2010-08-01
Adjunctive mirtazapine improved negative symptoms of schizophrenia in several studies. Recently, we found an improvement also in positive symptoms when mirtazapine was added to first generation antipsychotics (FGAs) in a 6 week randomized controlled trial (RCT). The short duration of that trial was its limitation. This study aimed to explore whether longer treatment is worthwhile. Completers of the RCT (n = 39) received open-label add-on mirtazapine for additional 6 weeks. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (primary outcome) and several other clinical parameters were measured prospectively. During the open-label phase, significant improvement was achieved in all parameters, with an effect size of 0.94 (CI 95% = 0.45-1.43) on the primary outcome and an impressive additive antipsychotic effect. Patients who received mirtazapine during both phases demonstrated greater improvement in positive symptoms (29.6% versus 21.2%, p = 0.027) than those who received mirtazapine during open-label extension phase only. These findings support our previous data on the additive antipsychotic effect of mirtazapine in FGAs-treated schizophrenia. Mirtazapine may be effective in other symptom domains, too. Longer duration of mirtazapine treatment may yield additional benefits. If these results will be confirmed in larger studies, add-on mirtazapine may become a feasible option in difficult-to-treat schizophrenia. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Li, Hongjian; Leung, Kwong-Sak; Wong, Man-Hon; Ballester, Pedro J
2014-08-27
State-of-the-art protein-ligand docking methods are generally limited by the traditionally low accuracy of their scoring functions, which are used to predict binding affinity and thus vital for discriminating between active and inactive compounds. Despite intensive research over the years, classical scoring functions have reached a plateau in their predictive performance. These assume a predetermined additive functional form for some sophisticated numerical features, and use standard multivariate linear regression (MLR) on experimental data to derive the coefficients. In this study we show that such a simple functional form is detrimental for the prediction performance of a scoring function, and replacing linear regression by machine learning techniques like random forest (RF) can improve prediction performance. We investigate the conditions of applying RF under various contexts and find that given sufficient training samples RF manages to comprehensively capture the non-linearity between structural features and measured binding affinities. Incorporating more structural features and training with more samples can both boost RF performance. In addition, we analyze the importance of structural features to binding affinity prediction using the RF variable importance tool. Lastly, we use Cyscore, a top performing empirical scoring function, as a baseline for comparison study. Machine-learning scoring functions are fundamentally different from classical scoring functions because the former circumvents the fixed functional form relating structural features with binding affinities. RF, but not MLR, can effectively exploit more structural features and more training samples, leading to higher prediction performance. The future availability of more X-ray crystal structures will further widen the performance gap between RF-based and MLR-based scoring functions. This further stresses the importance of substituting RF for MLR in scoring function development.
Kim, Diane N. H.; Teitell, Michael A.; Reed, Jason; Zangle, Thomas A.
2015-11-01
Standard algorithms for phase unwrapping often fail for interferometric quantitative phase imaging (QPI) of biological samples due to the variable morphology of these samples and the requirement to image at low light intensities to avoid phototoxicity. We describe a new algorithm combining random walk-based image segmentation with linear discriminant analysis (LDA)-based feature detection, using assumptions about the morphology of biological samples to account for phase ambiguities when standard methods have failed. We present three versions of our method: first, a method for LDA image segmentation based on a manually compiled training dataset; second, a method using a random walker (RW) algorithm informed by the assumed properties of a biological phase image; and third, an algorithm which combines LDA-based edge detection with an efficient RW algorithm. We show that the combination of LDA plus the RW algorithm gives the best overall performance with little speed penalty compared to LDA alone, and that this algorithm can be further optimized using a genetic algorithm to yield superior performance for phase unwrapping of QPI data from biological samples.
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Yamaguchi David K
2006-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylitol is a naturally occurring sugar substitute that has been shown to reduce the level of mutans streptococci in plaque and saliva and to reduce tooth decay. It has been suggested that the degree of reduction is dependent on both the amount and the frequency of xylitol consumption. For xylitol to be successfully and cost-effectively used in public health prevention strategies dosing and frequency guidelines should be established. This study determined the reduction in mutans streptococci levels in plaque and unstimulated saliva to increasing frequency of xylitol gum use at a fixed total daily dose of 10.32 g over five weeks. Methods Participants (n = 132 were randomized to either active groups (10.32 g xylitol/day or a placebo control (9.828 g sorbitol and 0.7 g maltitol/day. All groups chewed 12 pieces of gum per day. The control group chewed 4 times/day and active groups chewed xylitol gum at a frequency of 2 times/day, 3 times/day, or 4 times/day. The 12 gum pieces were evenly divided into the frequency assigned to each group. Plaque and unstimulated saliva samples were taken at baseline and five-weeks and were cultured on modified Mitis Salivarius agar for mutans streptococci enumeration. Results There were no significant differences in mutans streptococci level among the groups at baseline. At five-weeks, mutans streptococci levels in plaque and unstimulated saliva showed a linear reduction with increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use at the constant daily dose. Although the difference observed for the group that chewed xylitol 2 times/day was consistent with the linear model, the difference was not significant. Conclusion There was a linear reduction in mutans streptococci levels in plaque and saliva with increasing frequency of xylitol gum use at a constant daily dose. Reduction at a consumption frequency of 2 times per day was small and consistent with the linear-response line but was not statistically
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holm, Bente; Husted, Henrik; Kehlet, Henrik
2012-01-01
Objective: To investigate the acute effect of knee joint icing on knee extension strength and knee pain in patients shortly after total knee arthroplasty.Design: A prospective, single-blinded, randomized, cross-over study.Setting: A fast-track orthopaedic arthroplasty unit at a university hospital.......Participants: Twenty patients (mean age 66 years; 10 women) scheduled for primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty.Interventions: The patients were treated on two days (day 7 and day 10) postoperatively. On one day they received 30 minutes of knee icing (active treatment) and on the other day they received 30...... minutes of elbow icing (control treatment). The order of treatments was randomized.Main outcome measures: Maximal knee extension strength (primary outcome), knee pain at rest and knee pain during the maximal knee extensions were measured 2-5 minutes before and 2-5 minutes after both treatments...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Köylüoglu, H. U.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Cakmak, A. S.
Geometrically non-linear multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems subject to random excitation are considered. New semi-analytical approximate forward difference equations for the lower order non-stationary statistical moments of the response are derived from the stochastic differential equations...... of motion, and, the accuracy of these equations is numerically investigated. For stationary excitations, the proposed method computes the stationary statistical moments of the response from the solution of non-linear algebraic equations....
Dias, Sofia; Sutton, Alex J; Ades, A E; Welton, Nicky J
2013-07-01
We set out a generalized linear model framework for the synthesis of data from randomized controlled trials. A common model is described, taking the form of a linear regression for both fixed and random effects synthesis, which can be implemented with normal, binomial, Poisson, and multinomial data. The familiar logistic model for meta-analysis with binomial data is a generalized linear model with a logit link function, which is appropriate for probability outcomes. The same linear regression framework can be applied to continuous outcomes, rate models, competing risks, or ordered category outcomes by using other link functions, such as identity, log, complementary log-log, and probit link functions. The common core model for the linear predictor can be applied to pairwise meta-analysis, indirect comparisons, synthesis of multiarm trials, and mixed treatment comparisons, also known as network meta-analysis, without distinction. We take a Bayesian approach to estimation and provide WinBUGS program code for a Bayesian analysis using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. An advantage of this approach is that it is straightforward to extend to shared parameter models where different randomized controlled trials report outcomes in different formats but from a common underlying model. Use of the generalized linear model framework allows us to present a unified account of how models can be compared using the deviance information criterion and how goodness of fit can be assessed using the residual deviance. The approach is illustrated through a range of worked examples for commonly encountered evidence formats.
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Nishant Sahay
2016-01-01
Conclusion: Sniffing position provides better glottis exposure and it is easier to intubate a patient in the sniffing position as compared to simple head extension position. Sniffing position should therefore be used as initial position when attempting intubation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, J.; Laetgaard, J.; Lindecrona, A.L.
2008-01-01
by a visual analogue scale. RESULTS: Pain in both back and leg decreased without differences between groups. Segmental binding of the low-back was associated with persisting clinical symptoms at four weeks. CONCLUSION: No additional effect was demonstrated of manipulation, when extension exercises were used......OBJECTIVES: Both exercises and manipulation are recommended as basic therapy in back diseases, while a possible synergistic effect of these treatments have not been clarified. This study was conducted to test a possible further effect of manipulation as adjunct to extension exercises for unspecific...... LBP. METHODS: 72 patients with chronic LBP (mean 12 months) were examined by a specialist in manual medicine, who detected localized binding between the lumbar segments. All patients were instructed in extension exercises, while randomized to either pretreatment with specific manipulation or control...
Holm, Bente; Husted, Henrik; Kehlet, Henrik; Bandholm, Thomas
2012-08-01
To investigate the acute effect of knee joint icing on knee extension strength and knee pain in patients shortly after total knee arthroplasty. A prospective, single-blinded, randomized, cross-over study. A fast-track orthopaedic arthroplasty unit at a university hospital. Twenty patients (mean age 66 years; 10 women) scheduled for primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. The patients were treated on two days (day 7 and day 10) postoperatively. On one day they received 30 minutes of knee icing (active treatment) and on the other day they received 30 minutes of elbow icing (control treatment). The order of treatments was randomized. Maximal knee extension strength (primary outcome), knee pain at rest and knee pain during the maximal knee extensions were measured 2-5 minutes before and 2-5 minutes after both treatments by an assessor blinded for active or control treatment. The change in knee extension strength associated with knee icing was not significantly different from that of elbow icing (knee icing change (mean (1 SD)) -0.01 (0.07) Nm/kg, elbow icing change -0.02 (0.07) Nm/kg, P = 0.493). Likewise, the changes in knee pain at rest (P = 0.475), or knee pain during the knee extension strength measurements (P = 0.422) were not different between treatments. In contrast to observations in experimental knee effusion models and inflamed knee joints, knee joint icing for 30 minutes shortly after total knee arthroplasty had no acute effect on knee extension strength or knee pain.
Dewald-Kaufmann, J. F.; Oort, F. J.; Meijer, A. M.
2014-01-01
Sleep problems are common and persistent during adolescence and can have negative effects on adolescents' mood. To date, studies that investigate the effects of sleep extension on adolescents' sleep and depressive symptoms are still lacking. This study aims to investigate the effects of gradual
Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.; Oort, F.J.; Meijer, A.M.
2014-01-01
Objective: Sleep problems are common and persistent during adolescence and can have negative effects on adolescents' mood. To date, studies that investigate the effects of sleep extension on adolescents' sleep and depressive symptoms are still lacking. This study aims to investigate the effects of
Davoodi, H.; Noori, M.
1990-07-01
The work presented in this paper constitutes the second phase of on-going research aimed at developing mathematical models for representing general hysteretic behavior of structures and approximation techniques for the computation and analysis of the response of hysteretic systems to random excitations. In this second part, the technique previously developed by the authors for the Gaussian response analysis of non-linear systems with general hysteretic behavior is extended for the non-Gaussian analysis of these systems. This approximation technique is based on the approach proposed independently by Ibrahim and Wu-Lin. In this work up to fourth order moments of the response co-ordinates are obtained for the Bouc-Baber-Wen smooth hysteresis model. These higher order statistics previously have not been made available for general hysteresis models by using existing approximation methods. Second order moments obtained for the model by this non-Gaussian closure scheme are compared with equivalent linearization and Gaussian closure results via Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). Higher order moments are compared with the simulation results. The study performed for a wide range of degradation parameters and input power spectral density ( PSD) levels shows that the non-Gaussian responses obtained by this approach are in better agreement with the MCS results than the linearized and Gaussian ones. This approximation technique can provide information on higher order moments for general hysteretic systems. This information is valuable in random vibration and the reliability analysis of hysteretically yielding structures.
Giovannoni, Gavin; Soelberg Sorensen, Per; Cook, Stuart; Rammohan, Kottil; Rieckmann, Peter; Comi, Giancarlo; Dangond, Fernando; Adeniji, Abidemi K; Vermersch, Patrick
2017-08-01
In the 2-year CLARITY study, cladribine tablets significantly improved clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes (vs placebo) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). To assess the safety and efficacy of cladribine treatment in a 2-year Extension study. In this 2-year Extension study, placebo recipients from CLARITY received cladribine 3.5 mg/kg; cladribine recipients were re-randomized 2:1 to cladribine 3.5 mg/kg or placebo, with blind maintained. A total of 806 patients were assigned to treatment. Adverse event rates were generally similar between groups, but lymphopenia Grade ⩾ 3 rates were higher with cladribine than placebo (Grade 4 lymphopenia occurred infrequently). In patients receiving cladribine 3.5 mg/kg in CLARITY and experiencing lymphopenia Grade ⩾ 3 in the Extension, >90% of those treated with cladribine 3.5 mg/kg and all treated with placebo in the Extension, recovered to Grade 0-1 by study end. Cladribine treatment in CLARITY produced efficacy improvements that were maintained in patients treated with placebo in the Extension; in patients treated with cladribine 3.5 mg/kg in CLARITY, approximately 75% remained relapse-free when given placebo during the Extension. Cladribine tablets treatment for 2 years followed by 2 years' placebo treatment produced durable clinical benefits similar to 4 years of cladribine treatment with a low risk of severe lymphopenia or clinical worsening. No clinical improvement in efficacy was apparent following further treatment with cladribine tablets after the initial 2-year treatment period in this trial setting.
Schmessane, Andrea; Laboratory of matter out equilibrium Team
2012-11-01
Wave localization explains how a perturbation is trapped by the randomness present in a propagation medium. As it propagates, the localized wave amplitude decreases strongly by multiple internal reflections with randomly positioned scatterers, effectively trapping the perturbation inside the random region. The characteristic length where a localized wave is propagated before being extinguish by randomness is called localization length. We carried experiments in a quasi-onedimensional channel with random bottom in a shallow water regime for surface gravity water waves, using a Perfilometry Fourier Transform method, which enables us to obtain global surface measurements. We discuss keys aspects of the control of variables, the experimental setup and the implementation of the measurement method. Thus, we can control, measure and evaluate fundamental variables present in the localization phenomenon such as the type of randomness, scattering intensity and sample length, which allows us to characterize wave localization. We use the scattering matrix method to compare the experimental measurements with theoretical and numerical predictions, using the Lyapunov exponent of the scattering matrix, and discuss their agreement. Conicyt
Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria; Bandholm, Thomas Q; Zilmer, Camilla K; Bagger, Jens; Hornsleth, Mette; Kehlet, Henrik
2017-10-01
Background and purpose - Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) face challenges related to postoperative reduction in knee-extension strength. We evaluated whether inhibition of the inflammatory response by a single preoperative dose of methylprednisolone (MP) reduces the pronounced loss of knee-extension strength at discharge after fast-track TKA. Patients and methods - 70 patients undergoing elective unilateral TKA were randomized (1:1) to preoperative intravenous (IV) MP 125 mg (group MP) or isotonic saline IV (group C). All procedures were performed under spinal anesthesia without tourniquet, and with a standardized multimodal analgesic regime. The primary outcome was change in knee-extension strength from baseline to 48 hours postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were knee joint circumference, functional performance using the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, pain during the aforementioned tests, rescue analgesic requirements, and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) changes. Results - 61 patients completed the follow-up. The loss in quadriceps muscle strength was similar between groups; group MP 1.04 (0.22-1.91) Nm/kg (-89%) vs. group C 1.02 (0.22-1.57) Nm/kg (-88%). Also between-group differences were similar for knee circumference, TUG test, and pain scores. MP reduced the inflammatory response (CRP) at 24 hours postoperatively; group MP 33 (IQR 21-50) mg/L vs. group C 72 (IQR 58-92) mg/L (p loss of knee-extension strength or other functional outcomes at discharge after fast-track TKA despite a reduced systemic inflammatory response.
2014-09-18
when 3 or more images were used for classification. All three easily outperform the Naive Bayes Maximum Likelihood method. In [85], the Random Forest is...Maximum Likelihood (MDA/ML) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.5.1.2 Naive Bayes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24...probabilities [59], log-likelihood is used here. Given a known distribution, ML provides optimal classification performance [125]. 2.5.1.2 Naive Bayes If N
Baba, Toshimi; Gotoh, Yusaku; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Abe, Hayato; Masuda, Yutaka; Kawahara, Takayoshi
2017-08-01
This study aimed to evaluate a validation reliability of single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP) with a multiple-lactation random regression test-day model and investigate an effect of adding genotyped cows on the reliability. Two data sets for test-day records from the first three lactations were used: full data from February 1975 to December 2015 (60 850 534 records from 2 853 810 cows) and reduced data cut off in 2011 (53 091 066 records from 2 502 307 cows). We used marker genotypes of 4480 bulls and 608 cows. Genomic enhanced breeding values (GEBV) of 305-day milk yield in all the lactations were estimated for at least 535 young bulls using two marker data sets: bull genotypes only and both bulls and cows genotypes. The realized reliability (R 2 ) from linear regression analysis was used as an indicator of validation reliability. Using only genotyped bulls, R 2 was ranged from 0.41 to 0.46 and it was always higher than parent averages. The very similar R 2 were observed when genotyped cows were added. An application of ssGBLUP to a multiple-lactation random regression model is feasible and adding a limited number of genotyped cows has no significant effect on reliability of GEBV for genotyped bulls. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Sharma, Saurab; Balthillaya, Ganesh; Rao, Roopa; Mani, Ramakrishnan
2016-01-01
To investigate the added benefit of nerve-biased interventions over static stretching in hamstring flexibility and to compare the effectiveness of two types of nerve-biased interventions over a week. Three-arm assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial. University Laboratory. Sixty healthy individuals (mean age = 22 ± 2.4 years) with reduced hamstring flexibility were randomized to three groups who received static stretching and neurodynamic sliders (NS-SS); static stretching with neurodynamic tensioner (NT-SS) and static stretching (SS) alone. Knee extension angle (KEA) in degrees. Baseline characteristics including demographic, anthropomorphic and KEA between groups were comparable. A significant interaction was observed between group (intervention) and time, [F (2,114) = 3.595; p = 0.031]. Post-hoc pairwise comparisons analyses revealed significant differences at post-intervention measurement time point between NS-SS and SS (mean difference: -6.8; 95%CI = -12, -1.5; p = 0.011) and NT-SS and SS (mean difference: -11.6; 95%CI = -16.7, -6.3; p tensioners are both effective in increasing hamstring flexibility as an adjunct to static hamstring stretching when compared to static stretching alone. No neural mobilization technique proved to be superior over another. This clinical trial is registered in Clinical Trials Registry- India (CTRI) with registration number CTRI/2012/05/002619. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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P.D.Gujrati
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Theoretical evidence is presented in this review that architectural aspects can play an important role, not only in the bulk but also in confined geometries by using our recursive lattice theory, which is equally applicable to fixed architectures (regularly branched polymers, stars, dendrimers, brushes, linear chains, etc. and variable architectures, i.e. randomly branched structures. Linear chains possess an inversion symmetry (IS of a magnetic system (see text, whose presence or absence determines the bulk phase diagram. Fixed architectures possess the IS and yield a standard bulk phase diagram in which there exists a theta point at which two critical lines C and C' meet and the second virial coefficient A2 vanishes. The critical line C appears only for infinitely large polymers, and an order parameter is identified for this criticality. The critical line C' exists for polymers of all sizes and represents phase separation criticality. Variable architectures, which do not possess the IS, give rise to a topologically different phase diagram with no theta point in general. In confined regions next to surfaces, it is not the IS but branching and monodispersity, which becomes important in the surface regions. We show that branching plays no important role for polydisperse systems, but become important for monodisperse systems. Stars and linear chains behave differently near a surface.
Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Signoriello, Giuseppe; Andini, Roberto; Mattei, Annunziata; De Cristoforo, Maria; Murino, Patrizia; Bassetti, Matteo; Malacarne, Paolo; Petrosillo, Nicola; Galdieri, Nicola; Mocavero, Paola; Corcione, Antonio; Viscoli, Claudio; Zarrilli, Raffaele; Gallo, Ciro; Utili, Riccardo
2013-08-01
Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii may cause serious infections in critically ill patients. Colistin often remains the only therapeutic option. Addition of rifampicin to colistin may be synergistic in vitro. In this study, we assessed whether the combination of colistin and rifampicin reduced the mortality of XDR A. baumannii infections compared to colistin alone. This multicenter, parallel, randomized, open-label clinical trial enrolled 210 patients with life-threatening infections due to XDR A. baumannii from intensive care units of 5 tertiary care hospitals. Patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to either colistin alone, 2 MU every 8 hours intravenously, or colistin (as above), plus rifampicin 600 mg every 12 hours intravenously. The primary end point was overall 30-day mortality. Secondary end points were infection-related death, microbiologic eradication, and hospitalization length. Death within 30 days from randomization occurred in 90 (43%) subjects, without difference between treatment arms (P = .95). This was confirmed by multivariable analysis (odds ratio, 0.88 [95% confidence interval, .46-1.69], P = .71). A significant increase of microbiologic eradication rate was observed in the colistin plus rifampicin arm (P = .034). No difference was observed for infection-related death and length of hospitalization. In serious XDR A. baumannii infections, 30-day mortality is not reduced by addition of rifampicin to colistin. These results indicate that, at present, rifampicin should not be routinely combined with colistin in clinical practice. The increased rate of A. baumannii eradication with combination treatment could still imply a clinical benefit. NCT01577862.
Gold, Ralf; Arnold, Douglas L; Bar-Or, Amit; Hutchinson, Michael; Kappos, Ludwig; Havrdova, Eva; MacManus, David G; Yousry, Tarek A; Pozzilli, Carlo; Selmaj, Krysztof; Sweetser, Marianne T; Zhang, Ray; Yang, Minhua; Potts, James; Novas, Mark; Miller, David H; Kurukulasuriya, Nuwan C; Fox, Robert J; Phillips, Theodore J
2017-02-01
Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF) demonstrated strong efficacy and a favorable benefit-risk profile for patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in phase 3 DEFINE/CONFIRM studies. ENDORSE is an ongoing long-term extension of DEFINE/CONFIRM. We report efficacy and safety results of a 5-year interim analysis of ENDORSE (2 years DEFINE/CONFIRM; minimum 3 years ENDORSE). In ENDORSE, patients randomized to DMF 240 mg twice (BID) or thrice daily (TID) in DEFINE/CONFIRM continued this dosage, and those initially randomized to placebo (PBO) or glatiramer acetate (GA) were re-randomized to DMF 240 mg BID or TID. For patients continuing DMF BID (BID/BID), annualized relapse rates were 0.202, 0.163, 0.139, 0.143, and 0.138 (years 1-5, respectively) and 63%, 73%, and 88% were free of new or enlarging T2 hyperintense lesions, new T1 hypointense lesions, and gadolinium-enhanced lesions, respectively, at year 5. Adverse events (AEs; serious adverse events (SAEs)) were reported in 91% (22%; BID/BID), 95% (24%; PBO/BID), and 88% (16%; GA/BID) of the patients. One case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy was reported in the setting of severe, prolonged lymphopenia. Treatment with DMF was associated with continuously low clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disease activity in patients with RRMS. These interim data demonstrate a sustained treatment benefit and an acceptable safety profile with DMF.
Pan, Guangming; Wang, Shaochen; Zhou, Wang
2017-10-01
In this paper, we consider the asymptotic behavior of Xfn (n )≔∑i=1 nfn(xi ) , where xi,i =1 ,…,n form orthogonal polynomial ensembles and fn is a real-valued, bounded measurable function. Under the condition that Var Xfn (n )→∞ , the Berry-Esseen (BE) bound and Cramér type moderate deviation principle (MDP) for Xfn (n ) are obtained by using the method of cumulants. As two applications, we establish the BE bound and Cramér type MDP for linear spectrum statistics of Wigner matrix and sample covariance matrix in the complex cases. These results show that in the edge case (which means fn has a particular form f (x ) I (x ≥θn ) where θn is close to the right edge of equilibrium measure and f is a smooth function), Xfn (n ) behaves like the eigenvalues counting function of the corresponding Wigner matrix and sample covariance matrix, respectively.
2014-01-01
Background Problem-based learning (PBL) is well established in medical education and beyond, and continues to be developed and explored. Challenges include how to connect the somewhat abstract nature of classroom-based PBL with clinical practice and how to maintain learner engagement in the process of PBL over time. Objective A study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of decision-PBL (D-PBL), a variant form of PBL that replaces linear PBL cases with virtual patients. These Web-based interactive cases provided learners with a series of patient management pathways. Learners were encouraged to consider and discuss courses of action, take their chosen management pathway, and experience the consequences of their decisions. A Web-based application was essential to allow scenarios to respond dynamically to learners’ decisions, to deliver the scenarios to multiple PBL classrooms in the same timeframe, and to record centrally the paths taken by the PBL groups. Methods A randomized controlled trial in crossover design was run involving all learners (N=81) in the second year of the graduate entry stream for the undergraduate medicine program at St George’s University of London. Learners were randomized to study groups; half engaged in a D-PBL activity whereas the other half had a traditional linear PBL activity on the same subject material. Groups alternated D-PBL and linear PBL over the semester. The measure was mean cohort performance on specific face-to-face exam questions at the end of the semester. Results D-PBL groups performed better than linear PBL groups on questions related to D-PBL with the difference being statistically significant for all questions. Differences between the exam performances of the 2 groups were not statistically significant for the questions not related to D-PBL. The effect sizes for D-PBL–related questions were large and positive (>0.6) except for 1 question that showed a medium positive effect size. The effect sizes for questions
Poulton, Terry; Ellaway, Rachel H; Round, Jonathan; Jivram, Trupti; Kavia, Sheetal; Hilton, Sean
2014-11-05
Problem-based learning (PBL) is well established in medical education and beyond, and continues to be developed and explored. Challenges include how to connect the somewhat abstract nature of classroom-based PBL with clinical practice and how to maintain learner engagement in the process of PBL over time. A study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of decision-PBL (D-PBL), a variant form of PBL that replaces linear PBL cases with virtual patients. These Web-based interactive cases provided learners with a series of patient management pathways. Learners were encouraged to consider and discuss courses of action, take their chosen management pathway, and experience the consequences of their decisions. A Web-based application was essential to allow scenarios to respond dynamically to learners' decisions, to deliver the scenarios to multiple PBL classrooms in the same timeframe, and to record centrally the paths taken by the PBL groups. A randomized controlled trial in crossover design was run involving all learners (N=81) in the second year of the graduate entry stream for the undergraduate medicine program at St George's University of London. Learners were randomized to study groups; half engaged in a D-PBL activity whereas the other half had a traditional linear PBL activity on the same subject material. Groups alternated D-PBL and linear PBL over the semester. The measure was mean cohort performance on specific face-to-face exam questions at the end of the semester. D-PBL groups performed better than linear PBL groups on questions related to D-PBL with the difference being statistically significant for all questions. Differences between the exam performances of the 2 groups were not statistically significant for the questions not related to D-PBL. The effect sizes for D-PBL-related questions were large and positive (>0.6) except for 1 question that showed a medium positive effect size. The effect sizes for questions not related to D-PBL were all small (≤0
Zhong, Chao; You, Chun; Wei, Ping; Zhang, Yi-Heng Percival
2017-01-01
We developed a simple method (simple cloning) for subcloning DNA fragments into any location of a targeted vector without the need of restriction enzyme, ligase, exonuclease, or recombinase in Escherichia coli. This technology can be applied to common E. coli hosts (e.g., DH5α, JM109, TOP10, BL21(DE3)). The protocol includes three steps: (1) generate DNA insert and linear vector backbone by regular high-fidelity PCR, where these two DNA fragments contain 3' and 5' overlapping termini; (2) generate DNA multimers based on these two DNA fragments by using prolonged overlap extension-PCR (POE-PCR) without primers added; and (3) transform POE-PCR product to competent Escherichia coli cells directly, yielding the desired plasmid. Simple cloning provides a new cloning method with great simplicity and flexibility. Furthermore, this new method can be modified for the preparation of a large-size mutant library for directed evolution in E. coli. Using this method, it is very easy to generate a mutant library with a size of more than 10(7) per 50 μL of the POE-PCR product within 1 day.
Terevnikov, Viacheslav; Stenberg, Jan-Henry; Tiihonen, Jari; Joffe, Marina; Burkin, Mark; Tchoukhine, Evgueni; Joffe, Grigori
2011-04-01
Depression is common in schizophrenia and worsens its course. The role of antidepressants for schizophrenic depression remains unclear. In this study, the efficacy of add-on mirtazapine on depression in schizophrenia was explored in a subsidiary arm of a recent randomized controlled trial. Patients (n = 41) with chronic but stable schizophrenia and inadequate response to stable doses of different first-generation antipsychotics were treated with add-on mirtazapine 30 mg or placebo during a 6-week double-blind phase and with open-label add-on mirtazapine during a 6-week extension phase. Efficacy measures were the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale depression item. During the double-blind phase, both measures' scores decreased significantly in the mirtazapine group but not in the placebo group (for the CDSS, 52.0% vs 19.6%, respectively). During the open‐label phase, both groups demonstrated significant improvements. In between‐group comparison, a trend favoring mirtazapine did not reach statistical significance. The changes in the CDSS correlated positively with those in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative, positive and total (sub)scales for mirtazapine‐treated patients during the double‐blind phase. Depressed patients with schizophrenia may benefit from mirtazapine–first‐generation antipsychotics combination, with no increased risk for psychosis. However, more studies are needed.
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Qin Yong-Li
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The West Nile virus (WNV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 is an important antigenic protein that elicits protective antibody responses in animals and can be used for the serological diagnosis of WNV infection. Although previous work has demonstrated the vital role of WNV NS1-specific antibody responses, the specific epitopes in the NS1 have not been identified. Results The present study describes the identification of two linear B-cell epitopes in WNV NS1 through screening a phage-displayed random 12-mer peptide library with two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs 3C7 and 4D1 that directed against the NS1. The mAbs 3C7 and 4D1 recognized phages displaying peptides with the consensus motifs LTATTEK and VVDGPETKEC, respectively. Exact sequences of both motifs were found in the NS1 (895LTATTEK901 and 925VVDGPETKEC934. Further identification of the displayed B cell epitopes were conducted using a set of truncated peptides expressed as MBP fusion proteins. The data indicated that 896TATTEK901 and925VVDGPETKEC934 are minimal determinants of the linear B cell epitopes recognized by the mAbs 3C7 and 4D1, respectively. Antibodies present in the serum of WNV-positive horses recognized the minimal linear epitopes in Western blot analysis, indicating that the two peptides are antigenic in horses during infection. Furthermore, we found that the epitope recognized by 3C7 is conserved only among WNV strains, whereas the epitope recognized by 4D1 is a common motif shared among WNV and other members of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV serocomplex. Conclusions We identified TATTEK and VVDGPETKEC as NS1-specific linear B-cell epitopes recognized by the mAbs 3C7 and 4D1, respectively. The knowledge and reagents generated in this study may have potential applications in differential diagnosis and the development of epitope-based marker vaccines against WNV and other viruses of JEV serocomplex.
Bronstein, Marcello D; Fleseriu, Maria; Neggers, Sebastian; Colao, Annamaria; Sheppard, Michael; Gu, Feng; Shen, Chiung-Chyi; Gadelha, Mônica; Farrall, Andrew J; Hermosillo Reséndiz, Karina; Ruffin, Matthieu; Chen, YinMiao; Freda, Pamela
2016-04-02
Many patients with acromegaly do not achieve biochemical control with first-generation somatostatin analogues. A large, multicenter, randomized, Phase III core study demonstrated that pasireotide LAR had significantly superior efficacy over octreotide LAR. This analysis explores the efficacy and safety of switching therapeutic arms in inadequately controlled patients during a 12-month crossover extension. Patients with inadequate biochemical control (GH ≥2.5 μg/L and/or IGF-1 > ULN) at end of core study (month 12) were eligible to switch to pasireotide LAR 40 mg/28 days (n = 81) or octreotide LAR 20 mg/28 days (n = 38). One dose escalation to pasireotide LAR 60 mg/28 days or octreotide LAR 30 mg/28 days was permitted, but not mandatory, at month 17 or 20. Twelve months after crossover, 17.3 % of pasireotide LAR and 0 % of octreotide LAR patients achieved GH <2.5 μg/L and normal IGF-1 (main outcome measure); 27.2 and 5.3 % of pasireotide LAR and octreotide LAR patients achieved normal IGF-1, respectively; 44.4 and 23.7 % of pasireotide LAR and octreotide LAR patients achieved GH <2.5 μg/L, respectively. Mean (±SD) tumor volume further decreased from the end of the core study by 25 % (±25) and 18 % (±28); 54.3 % of pasireotide LAR and 42.3 % of octreotide LAR patients achieved significant (≥20 %) tumor volume reduction during the extension. The safety profile of pasireotide LAR was similar to that of octreotide LAR, with the exception of the frequency and degree of hyperglycemia-related adverse events. Pasireotide LAR is a promising treatment option for patients with acromegaly inadequately controlled with the first-generation somatostatin analogue octreotide LAR. clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00600886 . Registered 14 January 2008.
Cittadini, Antonio; Marra, Alberto M; Arcopinto, Michele; Bobbio, Emanuele; Salzano, Andrea; Sirico, Domenico; Napoli, Raffaele; Colao, Annamaria; Longobardi, Salvatore; Baliga, Ragavendra R; Bossone, Eduardo; Saccà, Luigi
2013-08-01
This study sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in GH-deficient patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Recent evidence indicates that growth hormone deficiency (GHD) affects as many as 40% of patients with CHF, and short-term GH replacement causes functional benefit. Whether long-term GH replacement also affects CHF progression is unknown. The study is an extension of a previous randomized, controlled single-blind trial that screened 158 consecutive CHF patients (New York Heart Association classes II to IV) and identified 63 who had GHD by the growth hormone releasing hormone plus arginine test. Fifty-six patients were randomized to receive either GH therapy or standard CHF therapy. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after a 4-year follow-up. The primary endpoint was peak oxygen consumption (VO2). Secondary endpoints included left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction and volumes, serum amino terminal fragment of the pro-hormone brain-type natriuretic peptide, quality of life, and safety. Seventeen patients in the GH group and 14 in the control group completed the study. In the GH group, peak VO2 improved over the 4-year follow-up. The treatment effect was 7.1 ± 0.7 ml/kg/min versus -1.8 ± 0.5 ml/kg/min in the GH and control groups, respectively. At 4 years, LV ejection fraction increased by 10 ± 3% in the GH group, whereas it decreased by 2 ± 5% in control patients. The treatment effect on LV end-systolic volume index was -22 ± 6 ml and 8 ± 3 ml/m(2) in the GH and control groups, respectively (all p < 0.001). No major adverse events were reported in the patients who received GH. Although this is a preliminary study, the finding suggests a new therapeutic approach to a large proportion of GHD patients with CHF. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McMenemy, Matthew G.; Realini, Tony; Whitson, Jess T.; Goode, Stephen M.
2013-01-01
Abstract Purpose This study compared the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy of fixed-combination brinzolamide 1%/brimonidine 0.2% (BBFC) with that of its component medications, brinzolamide and brimonidine, in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Patients and Methods In this phase 3, multicenter, double-masked, parallel-group, 3-month study with a 3-month safety extension, eligible patients were randomized 1:1:1 to treatment with BBFC, brinzolamide, or brimonidine thrice daily after a washout period, during which any IOP-lowering medications were discontinued. The primary objectives of this study were to determine whether the IOP-lowering efficacy of BBFC was superior to that of brinzolamide alone and, separately, of brimonidine alone. IOP was assessed at 8:00 AM, 10:00 AM, 3:00 PM, and 5:00 PM at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 3 months after study drug initiation. Results A total of 690 patients were enrolled in the study, and 615 completed the 3-month visit. Baseline mean IOP levels were similar among the 3 treatment groups at each of the 4 time points assessed. At the 3-month primary endpoint, mean IOP of the BBFC group was significantly lower than that of either the brinzolamide group or the brimonidine group (P≤0.005) across all time points. At the 2- and 6-week supportive endpoints, mean IOP of the BBFC group was significantly lower at all time points than the mean IOP of either the brinzolamide group (P≤0.01) or the brimonidine group (Pbrimonidine group, n=41, 17.4%), the majority of which were ocular AEs. Conclusions This study demonstrated that BBFC has significantly superior IOP-lowering activity compared with either brinzolamide 1% or brimonidine 0.2% in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension while providing a safety profile which is consistent with that of the individual components. PMID:23425430
Tchoukhine, Evgueni; Takala, Pirjo; Hakko, Helinä; Raidma, Mirjam; Putkonen, Hanna; Räsänen, Pirkko; Terevnikov, Viacheslav; Stenberg, Jan-Henry; Eronen, Markku; Joffe, Grigori
2011-03-01
To explore long-term effects of orlistat in adult clozapine- or olanzapine-treated patients with DSM-IV-diagnosed schizophrenia and overweight or obesity who tolerate orlistat. Orlistat or placebo was added to clozapine or olanzapine in stable doses in a 16-week randomized controlled trial. Open-label orlistat was added to the antipsychotics during a 16-week extension phase for those completing the double-blind phase. No low-calorie diet or participation in behavioral programs was required. Body weight (primary outcome) and some metabolic parameters were measured prospectively. Analyses were performed for those completing both phases (ie, population differing from that reported earlier). The study was conducted from 2004 through 2005. During the open-label phase, the 44 patients experienced mean ± SD body weight loss of -1.29 ± 3.04 kg, P = .007. During both phases, men (but not women) showed a weight loss of -2.39 ± 5.45 kg, P = .023. Some subgroups showed desirable changes in several metabolic parameters. Prolonged (32 weeks) orlistat treatment yielded no additional benefits as compared to short (16 weeks) treatment. In clozapine- or olanzapine-treated overweight or obese patients able to take orlistat on a long-term basis, the drug, with no concomitant hypocaloric diet or behavioral interventions, caused moderate weight loss only in men. However, some metabolic benefits may be achieved independently of weight changes. In patients who do not respond to orlistat within the first 16 weeks, continuation treatment may provide no additional benefits. controlled-trials.com Identifier: ISRCTN65731856. © Copyright 2011 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Qiu, Lefeng; Wang, Kai; Long, Wenli; Wang, Ke; Hu, Wei; Amable, Gabriel S
2016-01-01
Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination has attracted a great deal of attention because of its detrimental effects on animals and humans. This study aimed to develop and compare the performances of stepwise linear regression (SLR), classification and regression tree (CART) and random forest (RF) models in the prediction and mapping of the spatial distribution of soil Cd and to identify likely sources of Cd accumulation in Fuyang County, eastern China. Soil Cd data from 276 topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected and randomly divided into calibration (222 samples) and validation datasets (54 samples). Auxiliary data, including detailed land use information, soil organic matter, soil pH, and topographic data, were incorporated into the models to simulate the soil Cd concentrations and further identify the main factors influencing soil Cd variation. The predictive models for soil Cd concentration exhibited acceptable overall accuracies (72.22% for SLR, 70.37% for CART, and 75.93% for RF). The SLR model exhibited the largest predicted deviation, with a mean error (ME) of 0.074 mg/kg, a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.160 mg/kg, and a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.274 mg/kg, and the RF model produced the results closest to the observed values, with an ME of 0.002 mg/kg, an MAE of 0.132 mg/kg, and an RMSE of 0.198 mg/kg. The RF model also exhibited the greatest R2 value (0.772). The CART model predictions closely followed, with ME, MAE, RMSE, and R2 values of 0.013 mg/kg, 0.154 mg/kg, 0.230 mg/kg and 0.644, respectively. The three prediction maps generally exhibited similar and realistic spatial patterns of soil Cd contamination. The heavily Cd-affected areas were primarily located in the alluvial valley plain of the Fuchun River and its tributaries because of the dramatic industrialization and urbanization processes that have occurred there. The most important variable for explaining high levels of soil Cd accumulation was the presence of metal smelting industries. The
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Lefeng Qiu
Full Text Available Soil cadmium (Cd contamination has attracted a great deal of attention because of its detrimental effects on animals and humans. This study aimed to develop and compare the performances of stepwise linear regression (SLR, classification and regression tree (CART and random forest (RF models in the prediction and mapping of the spatial distribution of soil Cd and to identify likely sources of Cd accumulation in Fuyang County, eastern China. Soil Cd data from 276 topsoil (0-20 cm samples were collected and randomly divided into calibration (222 samples and validation datasets (54 samples. Auxiliary data, including detailed land use information, soil organic matter, soil pH, and topographic data, were incorporated into the models to simulate the soil Cd concentrations and further identify the main factors influencing soil Cd variation. The predictive models for soil Cd concentration exhibited acceptable overall accuracies (72.22% for SLR, 70.37% for CART, and 75.93% for RF. The SLR model exhibited the largest predicted deviation, with a mean error (ME of 0.074 mg/kg, a mean absolute error (MAE of 0.160 mg/kg, and a root mean squared error (RMSE of 0.274 mg/kg, and the RF model produced the results closest to the observed values, with an ME of 0.002 mg/kg, an MAE of 0.132 mg/kg, and an RMSE of 0.198 mg/kg. The RF model also exhibited the greatest R2 value (0.772. The CART model predictions closely followed, with ME, MAE, RMSE, and R2 values of 0.013 mg/kg, 0.154 mg/kg, 0.230 mg/kg and 0.644, respectively. The three prediction maps generally exhibited similar and realistic spatial patterns of soil Cd contamination. The heavily Cd-affected areas were primarily located in the alluvial valley plain of the Fuchun River and its tributaries because of the dramatic industrialization and urbanization processes that have occurred there. The most important variable for explaining high levels of soil Cd accumulation was the presence of metal smelting industries
Huete Ruiz de Lira, C.; Velikovich, A. L.; Wouchuk, J. G.
2011-05-01
We present an analytical linear model describing the interaction of a planar shock wave with an isotropic random pattern of density nonuniformities. This kind of interaction is important in inertial confinement fusion where shocks travel into weakly inhomogeneous cryogenic deuterium-wicked foams, and also in astrophysics, where shocks interact with interstellar density clumps. The model presented here is based on the exact theory of space and time evolution of the perturbed quantities generated by a corrugated shock wave traveling into a small-amplitude single-mode density field. Corresponding averages in both two and three dimensions are obtained as closed analytical expressions for the turbulent kinetic energy, acoustic energy flux, density amplification, and vorticity generation downstream. They are given as explicit functions of the two parameters (adiabatic exponent γ and shock strength M1) that govern the dynamics of the problem. In addition, these explicit formulas are simplified in the important asymptotic limits of weak and strong shocks and highly compressible fluids.
Takeuchi, Nobuyuki; Takezako, Nobuhiro; Shimonishi, Yuko; Usuda, Shigeru
2017-08-01
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of high-intensity pulse irradiation with linear polarized near-infrared rays (HI-LPNR) and stretching on hypertonia in cerebrovascular disease patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 40 cerebrovascular disease patients with hypertonia of the ankle joint plantar flexor muscle. The subjects were randomly allocated to groups undergoing treatment with HI-LPNR irradiation (HI-LPNR group), stretching (stretching group), HI-LPNR irradiation followed by stretching (combination group), and control group (10 subjects each). In all groups, the passive range of motion of ankle dorsiflexion and passive resistive joint torque of ankle dorsiflexion were measured before and after the specified intervention. [Results] The changes in passive range of motion, significant increase in the stretching and combination groups compared with that in the control group. The changes in passive resistive joint torque, significant decrease in HI-LPNR, stretching, and combination groups compared with that in the control group. [Conclusion] HI-LPNR irradiation and stretching has effect of decrease muscle tone. However, combination of HI-LPNR irradiation and stretching has no multiplier effect.
Iannotti, Lora L; Dulience, Sherlie Jean Louis; Green, Jamie; Joseph, Saminetha; François, Judith; Anténor, Marie-Lucie; Lesorogol, Carolyn; Mounce, Jacqueline; Nickerson, Nathan M
2014-01-01
Haiti has experienced rapid urbanization that has exacerbated poverty and undernutrition in large slum areas. Stunting affects 1 in 5 young children. We aimed to test the efficacy of a daily lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) for increased linear growth in young children. Healthy, singleton infants aged 6-11 mo (n = 589) were recruited from an urban slum of Cap Haitien and randomly assigned to receive: 1) a control; 2) a 3-mo LNS; or 3) a 6-mo LNS. The LNS provided 108 kcal and other nutrients including vitamin A, vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc at ≥80% of the recommended amounts. Infants were followed monthly on growth, morbidity, and developmental outcomes over a 6-mo intervention period and at one additional time point 6 mo postintervention to assess sustained effects. The Bonferroni multiple comparisons test was applied, and generalized least-squares (GLS) regressions with mixed effects was used to examine impacts longitudinally. Baseline characteristics did not differ by trial arm except for a higher mean age in the 6-mo LNS group. GLS modeling showed LNS supplementation for 6 mo significantly increased the length-for-age z score (±SE) by 0.13 ± 0.05 and the weight-for-age z score by 0.12 ± 0.02 compared with in the control group after adjustment for child age (P growth of young children in this urban setting. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01552512.
Han, Sang Youb; Yoon, Sun Ae; Han, Byoung Geun; Kim, Sung Gyun; Jo, Young-Il; Jeong, Kyung Hwan; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Park, Hyeong Cheon; Park, Sun-Hee; Kang, Shin-Wook; Na, Ki-Ryang; Kang, Sun Woo; Kim, Nam-Ho; Jang, Younghwan; Kim, Bogyeong; Shin, Seonghye; Cha, Dae Ryong
2018-02-01
The long-term safety and efficacy of gemigliptin was evaluated in the present extension study after a 12-week study during a 40-week follow-up period. The main study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, phase IIIb study in which 50 mg of gemigliptin (N = 66) or placebo (N = 66) was administered to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and moderate or severe renal impairment over a 12-week period. Patients with a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level of 7% to 11% and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 15 to 59 mL/min/1.73 m2 were enrolled in the main study. After 12 weeks, patients in the gemigliptin group continued to receive gemigliptin (N = 50), whereas patients in the placebo group were transitioned from placebo to linagliptin (N = 52). Each group received the indicated treatment over the subsequent 40-week period. A total of 102 patients consented to participate in the extension study, and 79 patients ultimately completed the study. The HbA1c levels of both groups were significantly reduced at week 52 compared with baseline. Specifically, the adjusted mean change ± standard error in HbA1c level in the gemigliptin and placebo/linagliptin groups was 1.00% ± 0.21% and 0.65% ± 0.22% lower at week 52 than at baseline (P < .001 and P = .003), respectively. No significant difference in the change in HbA1c level was found between the 2 groups (P = .148). Trends in fasting plasma glucose, fructosamine and glycated albumin levels in the 2 groups were similar to trends in HbA1c levels. The eGFR of both groups was also significantly lower at week 52 than at baseline, and no significant difference in change in eGFR was found between the 2 groups. In contrast, both drugs had little effect on urinary albumin excretion, although both drugs significantly reduced the urinary type IV collagen level. The overall rates of adverse events were similar between the 2 groups. Gemigliptin and
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Thierry Berghmans
2017-09-01
Full Text Available IntroductionIn a literature meta-analysis, we showed survival benefits for regimens including cisplatin [hazard ratio (HR 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.57–0.66] and for those including etoposide (HR 0.65; 0.61–0.69. That benefit was mainly observed when etoposide alone or in combination with cisplatin was included in the chemotherapy regimens. Our objective was to determine if chemotherapy with both drugs improves survival in comparison to a non-platinum regimen with etoposide.MethodsExtensive small-cell lung cancer patients were randomized between cisplatin–etoposide (CE and ifosfamide + etoposide + epirubicin regimen (IVE between 2000 and 2013.Results176 and 170 eligible patients were allocated to CE and IVE (315 deaths were required before analysis, respectively. Objective response rates were not significantly different: 60% with CE and 59% with IVE. No statistically significant difference in median survival and 1-year and 2-year was observed with rates of 9.6 months, 31 and 5% for CE and 10 months, 39 and 9% for IVE, respectively. HR was 0.84 (95% CI 0.68–1.05, p = 0.16. Only two prognostic factors for survival were retained in multivariate analysis: sex with HR = 0.69 (95% CI 0.49–0.97, p = 0.03 and performance status with HR = 0.53 (95% CI 0.49–0.97, p < 0.0001. After adjustment for these prognostic factors, HR for survival was 0.83 (95% CI 0.65–1.08, p = 0.17. There was more thrombopenia in the CE regimen and more leukopenia with IVE.ConclusionCombination of CE failed to improve survival in comparison to an etoposide-containing regimen without cisplatin.Clinical Trial Registrationhttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00658580?term=ELCWP+01994&rank=1, identifier NCT00658580.
Baldwin, David S; Chrones, Lambros; Florea, Ioana; Nielsen, Rebecca; Nomikos, George G; Palo, William; Reines, Elin
2016-03-01
The safety and tolerability of vortioxetine in adults with major depressive disorder was assessed. Tolerability was based on the nature, incidence and severity of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) during acute (6/8) week treatment in 11 randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled short-term studies in major depressive disorder: six with an active reference. Symptoms following discontinuation were assessed through the Discontinuation-Emergent Signs and Symptoms checklist in three studies. Long-term (⩽52 weeks) tolerability was evaluated in five open-label extension studies. Patients (n =5701) were acutely treated with either placebo (n=1817), vortioxetine (5-20mg/day; n=3018), venlafaxine XR (225mg/day; n=113) or duloxetine (60mg/day; n=753). The withdrawal rate due to TEAEs during treatment with vortioxetine (5-20mg/day) was 4.5-7.8%, compared with placebo (3.6%), venlafaxine XR (14.2%) or duloxetine (8.8%). Common TEAEs (incidence ⩾5% and >2 × placebo) with vortioxetine (5-20mg/day) were nausea (20.9-31.2%) and vomiting (2.9-6.5%). For vortioxetine (5-20mg/day), the incidence of TEAEs associated with insomnia was 2.0-5.1% versus 4.0% for placebo, and with sexual dysfunction 1.6-1.8% versus 1.0% for placebo. Discontinuation symptoms as assessed by the mean Discontinuation-Emergent Signs and Symptoms total score after abrupt discontinuation were comparable to placebo in the first and second week. Vortioxetine had no effect relative to placebo on clinical laboratory parameters, body weight, heart rate or blood pressure. Vortioxetine showed no clinically relevant effect on ECG parameters, including the QTcF interval. In long-term treatment, no new types of TEAEs were seen; the mean weight gain was 0.7-0.8kg. Thus, vortioxetine (5-20mg/day) appears safe and generally well tolerated in the treatment of major depressive disorder. © The Author(s) 2016.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaemin Shim
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Objective: Radiofrequency catheter ablation for persistent atrial fibrillation (PeAF still has a substantial recurrence rate. This study aims to investigate whether an AF ablation lesion set chosen using in-silico ablation (V-ABL is clinically feasible and more effective than an empirically chosen ablation lesion set (Em-ABL in patients with PeAF.Methods: We prospectively included 108 patients with antiarrhythmic drug-resistant PeAF (77.8% men, age 60.8 ± 9.9 years, and randomly assigned them to the V-ABL (n = 53 and Em-ABL (n = 55 groups. Five different in-silico ablation lesion sets [1 pulmonary vein isolation (PVI, 3 linear ablations, and 1 electrogram-guided ablation] were compared using heart-CT integrated AF modeling. We evaluated the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of V-ABL compared with that of Em-ABL.Results: The pre-procedural computing time for five different ablation strategies was 166 ± 11 min. In the Em-ABL group, the earliest terminating blinded in-silico lesion set matched with the Em-ABL lesion set in 21.8%. V-ABL was not inferior to Em-ABL in terms of procedure time (p = 0.403, ablation time (p = 0.510, and major complication rate (p = 0.900. During 12.6 ± 3.8 months of follow-up, the clinical recurrence rate was 14.0% in the V-ABL group and 18.9% in the Em-ABL group (p = 0.538. In Em-ABL group, clinical recurrence rate was significantly lower after PVI+posterior box+anterior linear ablation, which showed the most frequent termination during in-silico ablation (log-rank p = 0.027.Conclusions: V-ABL was feasible in clinical practice, not inferior to Em-ABL, and predicts the most effective ablation lesion set in patients who underwent PeAF ablation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abrikosov, I. A.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt
1993-01-01
We present an efficient technique for calculating surface properties of random alloys based on the coherent-potential approximation within a tight-binding linear-muffin-tin-orbitals basis. The technique has been applied in the calculation of bulk thermodynamic properties as well as (001) surface...
Grabsch, Aurélien; Texier, Christophe
2016-11-01
An invariant ensemble of N × N random matrices can be characterised by a joint distribution for eigenvalues P({λ }1,\\cdots ,{λ }N). The distribution of linear statistics, i.e. of quantities of the form L=(1/N){\\sum }if({λ }i) where f(x) is a given function, appears in many physical problems. In the N\\to ∞ limit, L scales as L˜ {N}η , where the scaling exponent η depends on the ensemble and the function f(x). Its distribution can be written in the form {P}N(s={N}-η L)≃ {A}N,β (s)\\exp \\{-(β {N}2/2){{Φ }}(s)\\}, where β \\in \\{1,2,4\\} is the Dyson index. The Coulomb gas technique naturally provides the large deviation function {{Φ }}(s), which can be efficiently obtained thanks to a ‘thermodynamic identity’ introduced earlier. We conjecture the pre-exponential function {A}N,β (s). We check our conjecture on several well controlled cases within the Laguerre and the Jacobi ensembles. Then we apply our main result to a situation where the large deviation function has no minimum (and L has infinite moments): this arises in the statistical analysis of the Wigner time delay for semi-infinite multichannel disordered wires (Laguerre ensemble). The statistical analysis of the Wigner time delay then crucially depends on the pre-exponential function {A}N,β (s), which ensures the decay of the distribution for large argument.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Specht, L.; Gray, R.G.; Clarke, M.J.
1998-01-01
of treatment failure (resistant or recurrent disease) at 10 years by more than one third (31.3% v 43.4% failures; P improvement in overall 10-year survival (77.1 % v 77.0% alive). The addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy halved the 10-year risk of failure (15.8% v 32......PURPOSE: To assess the effect of more extensive radiotherapy and of adjuvant combination chemotherapy on long-term outcome of early-stage Hodgkin's disease. METHODS: In a collaborative worldwide systematic overview, individual patient data were centrally reviewed on 1,974 patients in eight...... randomized trials of more versus less extensive radiotherapy and on 1,688 patients in 13 trials of radiotherapy plus chemotherapy versus radiotherapy alone. Crude mortality data on 226 patients in two other trials of chemotherapy were also reviewed. RESULTS: More extensive radiotherapy reduced the risk...
M.D. Bronstein (Marcello); Fleseriu, M. (Maria); S.J.C.M.M. Neggers (Bas); A. Colao (Annamaria); Sheppard, M. (Michael); Gu, F. (Feng); Shen, C.-C. (Chiung-Chyi); M.R. Gadelha (Mônica R.); Farrall, A.J. (Andrew J.); Reséndiz, K.H. (Karina Hermosillo); Ruffin, M. (Matthieu); Chen, Y. (YinMiao); P.U. Freda (Pamela)
2016-01-01
markdownabstractBackground Many patients with acromegaly do not achieve biochemical control with first-generation somatostatin analogues. A large, multicenter, randomized, Phase III core study demonstrated that pasireotide LAR had significantly superior efficacy over octreotide LAR. This analysis
Klemola, Timo; Vanto, Timo; Juntunen-Backman, Kaisu; Kalimo, Kirsti; Korpela, Riitta; Varjonen, Elina
2002-02-01
We conducted a prospective, randomized study to evaluate the cumulative incidence of allergy or other adverse reactions to soy formula and to extensively hydrolyzed formula up to the age of 2 years in infants with confirmed cow's milk allergy. Infants (n = 170) with documented cow's milk allergy were randomly assigned to receive either a soy formula or an extensively hydrolyzed formula. If it was suspected that the formula caused symptoms, a double-blind, placebo-controlled challenge (DBPCFC) with the formula was performed. The children were followed to the age of 2 years, and soy-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies were measured at the time of diagnosis and at the ages of 1 and 2 years. An adverse reaction to the formula was confirmed by challenge in 8 patients (10%; 95% confidence interval, 4.4%-18.8%) randomly assigned to soy formula and in 2 patients (2.2%; 95% confidence interval, 0.3% to 7.8%) randomly assigned to extensively hydrolyzed formula. Adverse reactions to soy were similar in IgE-associated and non-IgE-associated cow's milk allergy (11% and 9%, respectively). IgE to soy was detected in only 2 infants with an adverse reaction to soy. Adverse reactions to soy formula were more common in younger (Soy formula was well tolerated by most infants with IgE-associated and non-IgE-associated cow's milk allergy. Development of IgE-associated allergy to soy was rare. Soy formula can be recommended as a first-choice alternative for infants >or=6 months of age with cow's milk allergy.
Diaz, Francisco J; Berg, Michel J; Krebill, Ron; Welty, Timothy; Gidal, Barry E; Alloway, Rita; Privitera, Michael
2013-12-01
Due to concern and debate in the epilepsy medical community and to the current interest of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in revising approaches to the approval of generic drugs, the FDA is currently supporting ongoing bioequivalence studies of antiepileptic drugs, the EQUIGEN studies. During the design of these crossover studies, the researchers could not find commercial or non-commercial statistical software that quickly allowed computation of sample sizes for their designs, particularly software implementing the FDA requirement of using random-effects linear models for the analyses of bioequivalence studies. This article presents tables for sample-size evaluations of average bioequivalence studies based on the two crossover designs used in the EQUIGEN studies: the four-period, two-sequence, two-formulation design, and the six-period, three-sequence, three-formulation design. Sample-size computations assume that random-effects linear models are used in bioequivalence analyses with crossover designs. Random-effects linear models have been traditionally viewed by many pharmacologists and clinical researchers as just mathematical devices to analyze repeated-measures data. In contrast, a modern view of these models attributes an important mathematical role in theoretical formulations in personalized medicine to them, because these models not only have parameters that represent average patients, but also have parameters that represent individual patients. Moreover, the notation and language of random-effects linear models have evolved over the years. Thus, another goal of this article is to provide a presentation of the statistical modeling of data from bioequivalence studies that highlights the modern view of these models, with special emphasis on power analyses and sample-size computations.
Manning, Donald C; Gimbel, Joseph; Wertz, Robert; Rauck, Richard; Cooper, Alyse; Zeldis, Jerome B; Levinsky, Dale M
2017-03-01
This phase II study assessed lenalidomide efficacy and safety. Three-phase core study: 14-day prerandomization, 12-week treatment, and 52-week open-label extension. Fourteen US centers from July 2005 to July 2007. Chronic lumbar radicular pain patients without history of nerve injury or deficit. Subjects were randomized (1:1) to double-blind treatment with lenalidomide 10 mg or placebo once daily for 12 weeks, followed by a 52-week open-label extension. A 12-week, single-center, randomized-withdrawal (1:2, lenalidomide:placebo), exploratory study with open-label extension was undertaken in 12 subjects from the core extension who were naïve to neuropathic medications and with at least a two-point decrease from baseline average daily Pain Intensity-Numerical Rating Scale score. Of 180 subjects enrolled, 176 had at least one postbaseline measure; 132 completed the 12-week treatment phase. In the core study, no statistically significant difference in Pain Intensity-Numerical Rating Scale mean change (-0.02, P = 0.958) was observed at week 12 between lenalidomide and placebo; proportions achieving pain reduction at week 12 and other secondary measures were comparable between lenalidomide and placebo. In the exploratory study, week 12 mean changes in Pain Intensity-Numerical Rating Scale scores were -0.05 (lenalidomide: N = 3) and 2.11 (placebo: N = 8). Mean changes in Brief Pain Inventory-short form interference scores were -3.33 and 8.38, respectively; scores at six months were maintained or decreased in 10 of 12 subjects. While this study does not support lenalidomide use in an unselected lumbar radicular pain population, an immunomodulating agent may relieve pain in select subjects naïve to neuropathic pain medications. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00120120.
Fuzzy extended preferences: fuzzified extension
Montero, Javier
1988-01-01
This paper deals with decision-making problems where a fuzzy preference relation with no unfuzzy nondominated alternatives has been defined. While in the first part randomized extension was considered in order to get a solution, in this second part an aggregative approach to fuzzified extension will be developed.
Cizza, Giovanni; Piaggi, Paolo; Rother, Kristina I; Csako, Gyorgy
2014-01-01
To evaluate the effects of study participation per se at the beginning of a sleep extension trial between screening, randomization, and the run-in visit. Subjects were screened, returned for randomization (Comparison vs. Intervention) after 81 days (median), and attended run-in visit 121 days later. Outpatient. Obese (N = 125; M/F, 30/95; Blacks/Whites/Other, N = 73/44/8), mean weight 107.6±19.7 kg, Hawthorne effect", according to which behavior measured in the setting of an experimental study changes in response to the attention received from study investigators. This is the first time that biochemical changes were documented with respect to the Hawthorne effect. The findings have implications for the design and conduct of clinical research. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00261898.
Said-Houari, Belkacem
2017-01-01
This self-contained, clearly written textbook on linear algebra is easily accessible for students. It begins with the simple linear equation and generalizes several notions from this equation for the system of linear equations and introduces the main ideas using matrices. It then offers a detailed chapter on determinants and introduces the main ideas with detailed proofs. The third chapter introduces the Euclidean spaces using very simple geometric ideas and discusses various major inequalities and identities. These ideas offer a solid basis for understanding general Hilbert spaces in functional analysis. The following two chapters address general vector spaces, including some rigorous proofs to all the main results, and linear transformation: areas that are ignored or are poorly explained in many textbooks. Chapter 6 introduces the idea of matrices using linear transformation, which is easier to understand than the usual theory of matrices approach. The final two chapters are more advanced, introducing t...
Puhan, Gautam
2012-01-01
Tucker and chained linear equatings were evaluated in two testing scenarios. In Scenario 1, referred to as rater comparability scoring and equating, the anchor-to-total correlation is often very high for the new form but moderate for the reference form. This may adversely affect the results of Tucker equating, especially if the new and reference…
Stoll, R R
1968-01-01
Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand
BLAS (Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines), Linear Algebra Modules and Supercomputers.
1984-12-31
Linear Algebra Subroutines (BLAS) and linear algebra software modules in general. The need for these extensions and new sets of modules is largely due...potential computin .p"er. The participants represented most active groups in ilecar algebral , ware an were about equally divided among industry...discussions. Section 2 describes seven proposals for linear algebra software modules and Sec- tion 3 describes four presentations on the use of such
Linear Algebra and Linear Models
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This monograph provides an introduction to the basic aspects of the theory oflinear estima- tion and that of testing linear hypotheses. The primary objective is to provide a basic knowledge of analysis of linear models to advanced undergraduate or first year Master's students. The second edition virtually covers the same ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Hole, Arne Risa
2012-01-01
We develop an extension of the familiar linear mixed logit model to allow for the direct estimation of parametric non-linear functions defined over structural parameters. Classic applications include the estimation of coefficients of utility functions to characterize risk attitudes and discountin...
Liesen, Jörg
2015-01-01
This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...
Searle, Shayle R
2012-01-01
This 1971 classic on linear models is once again available--as a Wiley Classics Library Edition. It features material that can be understood by any statistician who understands matrix algebra and basic statistical methods.
Solow, Daniel
2014-01-01
This text covers the basic theory and computation for a first course in linear programming, including substantial material on mathematical proof techniques and sophisticated computation methods. Includes Appendix on using Excel. 1984 edition.
Berberian, Sterling K
2014-01-01
Introductory treatment covers basic theory of vector spaces and linear maps - dimension, determinants, eigenvalues, and eigenvectors - plus more advanced topics such as the study of canonical forms for matrices. 1992 edition.
Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.
1959-02-17
Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giovanni Cizza
Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of study participation per se at the beginning of a sleep extension trial between screening, randomization, and the run-in visit.Subjects were screened, returned for randomization (Comparison vs. Intervention after 81 days (median, and attended run-in visit 121 days later.Outpatient.Obese (N = 125; M/F, 30/95; Blacks/Whites/Other, N = 73/44/8, mean weight 107.6±19.7 kg, <6.5 h sleep/night.Non-pharmacological sleep extension.Sleep duration (diaries and actigraphy watch, sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, daily sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, fasting glucose, insulin and lipids.Prior to any intervention, marked improvements occurred between screening and randomization. Sleep duration increased (diaries: 357.4 ±51.2 vs. 388.1±48.6 min/night; mean±SD; P<0.001 screening vs. randomization; actigraphy: 344.3 ±41.9 vs. 358.6±48.2 min/night; P<0.001 sleep quality improved (9.1±3.2 vs. 8.2±3.0 PSQI score; P<0.001, sleepiness tended to improve (8.9±4.6 vs. 8.3±4.5 ESS score; P = 0.06, insulin resistance decreased (0.327±0.038 vs. 0.351±0.045; Quicki index; P<0.001, and lipids improved, except for HDL-C. Abnormal fasting glucose (25% vs. 11%; P = 0.007, and metabolic syndrome (42% vs. 29%; P = 0.007 both decreased. In absence of intervention, the earlier metabolic improvements disappeared at the run-in visit.Relatively small sample size.Improvements in biochemical and behavioral parameters between screening and randomization changed the "true" study baseline, thereby potentially affecting outcome. While regression to the mean and placebo effect were considered, these findings are most consistent with the "Hawthorne effect", according to which behavior measured in the setting of an experimental study changes in response to the attention received from study investigators. This is the first time that biochemical changes were documented with respect to the Hawthorne effect. The findings
Goldberg, Joseph F; Ng-Mak, Daisy; Siu, Cynthia; Chuang, Chien-Chia; Rajagopalan, Krithika; Loebel, Antony
2017-04-01
This post-hoc analysis assessed rates of symptomatic and functional remission, as well as recovery (combination of symptomatic and functional remission), in patients treated with lurasidone for major depressive disorder (MDD) associated with subthreshold hypomanic symptoms (mixed features). Patients with MDD plus two or three manic symptoms (defined as per the DSM-5 mixed-features specifier) were randomly assigned to flexible-dose lurasidone 20-60 mg/day (n=109) or placebo (n=100) for 6 weeks, followed by a 3-month open-label, flexible-dose extension study for U.S. sites only (n=48). Cross-sectional recovery was defined as the presence of both symptomatic remission (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale score ≤ 12) and functional remission (all Sheehan Disability Scale [SDS] domain scores ≤3) at week 6, and at both months 1 and 3 of the extension study ("sustained recovery"). A significantly higher proportion of lurasidone-treated patients (31.3%) achieved recovery (assessed cross-sectionally) compared to placebo (12.2%, p=0.002) at week 6. The number of manic symptoms at baseline moderated the effect size for attaining cross-sectional recovery for lurasidone treatment (vs. placebo) (p=0.028). Sustained recovery rates were higher in patients initially treated with lurasidone (20.8%) versus placebo (12.5%). In this post-hoc analysis of a placebo-controlled study with open-label extension that involved patients with MDD and mixed features, lurasidone was found to significantly improve the rate of recovery at 6 weeks (vs. placebo) that was sustained at month 3 of the extension study. The presence of two (as opposed to three) manic symptoms moderated recovery at the acute study endpoint.
Linear Programming and Network Flows
Bazaraa, Mokhtar S; Sherali, Hanif D
2011-01-01
The authoritative guide to modeling and solving complex problems with linear programming-extensively revised, expanded, and updated The only book to treat both linear programming techniques and network flows under one cover, Linear Programming and Network Flows, Fourth Edition has been completely updated with the latest developments on the topic. This new edition continues to successfully emphasize modeling concepts, the design and analysis of algorithms, and implementation strategies for problems in a variety of fields, including industrial engineering, management science, operations research
Sakamoto, Kentaro; Kawamura, Mitsunobu; Watanabe, Takayuki; Ashidate, Keiko; Kohro, Takahide; Tanaka, Akira; Mori, Yasumichi; Tagami, Motoki; Hirano, Tsutomu; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Shiba, Teruo
2017-06-24
Lowering cholesterol levels decreases the risk of atherosclerotic diseases. Effective ways to stably reduce LDL-C level are warranted in type 2 diabetic patients, a high-risk population for CVD, with various anti-diabetic therapeutic background. The RESEARCH study focuses on LDL-C reduction in this population along with modifications of the lipid profiles. We evaluated long-term ezetimibe add-on therapy in T2DM patients with hypercholesterolemia. In a randomized, multicenter, open-label, prospective study, a total of 109 T2DM patients not attaining LDL-C target value despite first-line dose statin (10 mg of atorvastatin or 1 mg of pitavastatin) therapy in Japan were recruited. We investigated the difference in cholesterol lowering effect between ezetimibe (10 mg) add-on statin (EAT) group and double-dose statin (DST) group. Changes of parameters related to atherosclerotic event risks were assessed. The reduction of LDL-C was larger in the EAT group (28.3%) than in the DST group (9.2%) at 52 weeks as well as the primary endpoint of 12 weeks. EAT achieved significant lower levels of TC and apo B, respectively. Both treatments attained significant reduction in sd-LDL-C or hsCRP on this long-term basis. Notably, sd-LDL-C in EAT reduced as low as 36.1 ± 14.9 mg/dl to reach near the threshold (35.0 mg/dl) for atherosclerosis with significantly higher achievement rate (55.6%) than DST treatment. Simultaneously, hsCRP reduction by EAT attained as low value as 0.52 ± 0.43 mg/l. In the present 52-week long-term period, ezetimibe add-on therapy showed a robust advantage in lowering LDL-C and in attaining target LDL-C values compared with the doubling of statin dose. Moreover, it's meaningful that sd-LDL, powerfully atherogenic lipoprotein, exhibited prominent decrease consistently prominently by ezetimibe add-on therapy. DM patients with hypercholesterolemia are at high risk for CAD, and adding ezetimibe onto usual-dose statin treatment in Japan has been
Olive, David J
2017-01-01
This text covers both multiple linear regression and some experimental design models. The text uses the response plot to visualize the model and to detect outliers, does not assume that the error distribution has a known parametric distribution, develops prediction intervals that work when the error distribution is unknown, suggests bootstrap hypothesis tests that may be useful for inference after variable selection, and develops prediction regions and large sample theory for the multivariate linear regression model that has m response variables. A relationship between multivariate prediction regions and confidence regions provides a simple way to bootstrap confidence regions. These confidence regions often provide a practical method for testing hypotheses. There is also a chapter on generalized linear models and generalized additive models. There are many R functions to produce response and residual plots, to simulate prediction intervals and hypothesis tests, to detect outliers, and to choose response trans...
Sahai, Vivek
2013-01-01
Beginning with the basic concepts of vector spaces such as linear independence, basis and dimension, quotient space, linear transformation and duality with an exposition of the theory of linear operators on a finite dimensional vector space, this book includes the concept of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalization, triangulation and Jordan and rational canonical forms. Inner product spaces which cover finite dimensional spectral theory and an elementary theory of bilinear forms are also discussed. This new edition of the book incorporates the rich feedback of its readers. We have added new subject matter in the text to make the book more comprehensive. Many new examples have been discussed to illustrate the text. More exercises have been included. We have taken care to arrange the exercises in increasing order of difficulty. There is now a new section of hints for almost all exercises, except those which are straightforward, to enhance their importance for individual study and for classroom use.
Edwards, Harold M
1995-01-01
In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject
Allenby, Reg
1995-01-01
As the basis of equations (and therefore problem-solving), linear algebra is the most widely taught sub-division of pure mathematics. Dr Allenby has used his experience of teaching linear algebra to write a lively book on the subject that includes historical information about the founders of the subject as well as giving a basic introduction to the mathematics undergraduate. The whole text has been written in a connected way with ideas introduced as they occur naturally. As with the other books in the series, there are many worked examples.Solutions to the exercises are available onlin
Ariyarathenam, A V; Currie, R; Cooper, M J; Ferguson, D J; Dunn, J M
2013-01-01
The aim of this study was to assess the impact on the surgical unit of the first year (prevalence screening) of non-randomized invitations to 47-49 year old women for breast screening, from a single breast screening unit. All women undergoing surgery in the age group 47-49 years, referred via screening were identified and the increased workload analysed. 4250 (76%) women were screened of the 5624 invited. 396 women were recalled, of whom 88 (22%) underwent a core biopsy. 32 patients required surgical intervention. 20 patients (62.5%) were confirmed to have either DCIS (6 patients) or invasive malignancy (14 patients). They required 37 theatres attendances requiring 42 operations. 16 wire guided wide local excisions (14 with sentinel node biopsy), 7 mastectomies (2 with sentinel node biopsy; 1 with axillary clearance), 6 margin re-excisions, 1 tissue expander insertion and removal, 3 Latissimus Dorsi with implant and 2 TRAM reconstructions. Other cases include haematoma drainage, scar revisions and nipple reconstructions. This group generated 100 NHS surgical outpatient consultations (78 breast and 22 plastic surgery). 12 patients (37.5%) underwent surgery for a B3 vacuum result; 10 underwent wire guided and 1 ultrasound guided skin marked excision biopsy. 1 patient was treated privately. This group generated 25 NHS surgical outpatients consultations. This study highlights the impact of the 47-49 year age extension within the breast screening programme on the workload of the surgical department of a UK Breast Cancer Screening Unit offering non-randomized invitations. The study will inform other surgical units of expected workload when age extension is fully implemented. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maroco, João; Silva, Dina; Rodrigues, Ana; Guerreiro, Manuela; Santana, Isabel; de Mendonça, Alexandre
2011-08-17
Dementia and cognitive impairment associated with aging are a major medical and social concern. Neuropsychological testing is a key element in the diagnostic procedures of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), but has presently a limited value in the prediction of progression to dementia. We advance the hypothesis that newer statistical classification methods derived from data mining and machine learning methods like Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines and Random Forests can improve accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of predictions obtained from neuropsychological testing. Seven non parametric classifiers derived from data mining methods (Multilayer Perceptrons Neural Networks, Radial Basis Function Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines, CART, CHAID and QUEST Classification Trees and Random Forests) were compared to three traditional classifiers (Linear Discriminant Analysis, Quadratic Discriminant Analysis and Logistic Regression) in terms of overall classification accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, Area under the ROC curve and Press'Q. Model predictors were 10 neuropsychological tests currently used in the diagnosis of dementia. Statistical distributions of classification parameters obtained from a 5-fold cross-validation were compared using the Friedman's nonparametric test. Press' Q test showed that all classifiers performed better than chance alone (p classification accuracy (Median (Me) = 0.76) an area under the ROC (Me = 0.90). However this method showed high specificity (Me = 1.0) but low sensitivity (Me = 0.3). Random Forest ranked second in overall accuracy (Me = 0.73) with high area under the ROC (Me = 0.73) specificity (Me = 0.73) and sensitivity (Me = 0.64). Linear Discriminant Analysis also showed acceptable overall accuracy (Me = 0.66), with acceptable area under the ROC (Me = 0.72) specificity (Me = 0.66) and sensitivity (Me = 0.64). The remaining classifiers showed overall classification accuracy above a median value of 0.63, but for most
Karloff, Howard
1991-01-01
To this reviewer’s knowledge, this is the first book accessible to the upper division undergraduate or beginning graduate student that surveys linear programming from the Simplex Method…via the Ellipsoid algorithm to Karmarkar’s algorithm. Moreover, its point of view is algorithmic and thus it provides both a history and a case history of work in complexity theory. The presentation is admirable; Karloff's style is informal (even humorous at times) without sacrificing anything necessary for understanding. Diagrams (including horizontal brackets that group terms) aid in providing clarity. The end-of-chapter notes are helpful...Recommended highly for acquisition, since it is not only a textbook, but can also be used for independent reading and study. —Choice Reviews The reader will be well served by reading the monograph from cover to cover. The author succeeds in providing a concise, readable, understandable introduction to modern linear programming. —Mathematics of Computing This is a textbook intend...
Inoue, Takeshi; Nishimura, Akira; Sasai, Kiyofumi; Kitagawa, Tadayuki
2017-11-21
Safety and efficacy of vortioxetine (5-20 mg/day) in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder were evaluated in two phase 3 studies consisting of a short-term, 8-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind study followed by a long-term, 52-week, open-label extension study. The primary end-point of the short-term study was change from baseline in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score at week 8. The primary objective of the extension study was vortioxetine's long-term safety; efficacy end-points included change in MADRS total score, Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI)-Severity (S) score from the long-term study baseline, and CGI-Improvement (CGI-I) score over 52 weeks. Of the 366 randomized patients, 338 completed the short-term study, and 119 patients continued into the extension study. Primary (analysis of covariance) and secondary (mixed model for repeated measurements) analyses in the short-term study showed numerically greater, but not statistically significant, decreases in change in MADRS total score from baseline between the vortioxetine and placebo groups at week 8. In the long-term study, 86.6% of patients reported at least one treatment-emergent adverse event, with the most common being nasopharyngitis (40.3%) and nausea (21%). MADRS total score and CGI-I and CGI-S scores improved with continued vortioxetine treatment from baseline of the open-label study to week 52. Vortioxetine failed to meet significance versus placebo in the primary efficacy analysis at week 8 in the short-term study. The extension trial indicated continued improvement of depressive symptoms from baseline of this study throughout the 52-week treatment period. Vortioxetine treatment was safe and well tolerated in both studies. © 2017 Takeda Pharmaceutical Company, Ltd. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Votino, C; Kacem, Y; Dobrescu, O; Dessy, H; Cos, T; Foulon, W; Jani, J
2012-02-01
To prospectively assess the contribution of a high-frequency linear transducer and of moving target indicator (MTI) filtered color flow mapping in the visualization of cardiac fetal anatomy at the routine 11 to 13 + 6-week scan. This was a cross-sectional prospective study, including 300 singleton fetuses at 11 to 13 + 6 weeks' gestation. Patients were randomized into four groups and a detailed fetal cardiac examination was conducted transabdominally using either a conventional curvilinear transducer, a conventional curvilinear transducer and MTI filtered color flow mapping, a high-frequency linear transducer or a high-frequency linear transducer and MTI filtered color flow mapping. Regression analysis was used to investigate the effect on the ability to visualize different cardiac structures of the following parameters: gestational age at ultrasound examination; fetal crown-rump length (CRL); maternal body mass index (BMI); transducer-heart distance; the technique used at ultrasound; and the position of the placenta. The four-chamber view was visualized in 89.0% of fetuses and regression analysis showed this rate was correlated with CRL and the use of MTI filtered color flow mapping during ultrasonography, and inversely correlated with BMI and transducer-heart distance. Use of a conventional curvilinear transducer and MTI filtered color flow mapping allowed visualization of the four-chamber view in 97.3% of fetuses, while this was only possible in 84.0% of fetuses using a high-frequency linear transducer. The left and right outflow tracts were visualized in 62.3 and 57.7% of fetuses, respectively. Regression analysis showed that the ability to visualize the left or the right outflow tract was correlated with the use of MTI filtered color flow mapping during scanning and was inversely correlated with transducer-heart distance. The use of a conventional curvilinear transducer and MTI filtered color flow mapping allowed visualization of the left and right outflow
Skau, Jutta K H; Touch, Bunthang; Chhoun, Chamnan; Chea, Mary; Unni, Uma S; Makurat, Jan; Filteau, Suzanne; Wieringa, Frank T; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A; Ritz, Christian; Wells, Jonathan C; Berger, Jacques; Friis, Henrik; Michaelsen, Kim F; Roos, Nanna
2015-04-01
Poor nutritional quality of complementary foods often limits growth. Animal source foods, such as milk or meat, are often unaffordable. Local affordable alternatives are needed. We evaluate the efficacy of 2 newly developed, rice-based complementary food products: WinFood (WF) with small fish and edible spiders and WinFood-Lite (WF-L) fortified with small fish, against 2 existing fortified corn-soy blend products, CSB+ (purely plant based) and CSB++ (8% dried skimmed milk). In total, 419 infants aged 6 mo were enrolled in this randomized, single-blinded study for 9 mo, designed primarily to assess increments in fat-free mass by a deuterium dilution technique and change in plasma ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. Secondary endpoints were changes in anthropometric variables, including knee-heel length. Data were analyzed by the intention-to-treat approach. There was no difference in fat-free mass increment in WF or WF-L compared with CSB+ [WF: +0.04 kg (95% CI: -0.20, 0.28 kg); WF-L: +0.14 kg (95% CI: -0.10, 0.38 kg)] or CSB++ [WF: -0.03 kg (95% CI: -0.27, 0.21 kg); WF-L: +0.07 kg (95% CI: -0.18, 0.31 kg)] and no effect on iron status. The 1.7-mm (95% CI: -0.1, 3.5 mm) greater increase in knee-heel length in WF-L than in CSB+ was not significant. No difference was found between the locally produced products (WF and WF-L) and the CSBs. Micronutrient fortification may be necessary, and small fish may be an affordable alternative to milk to improve complementary foods. The dietary role of edible spiders needs to be further explored. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN19918531. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Saxena, Smariti; Lakshminarayan, Nagesh; Gudli, Shanmukha; Kumar, Manish
2017-02-01
From the oral health perspective, it is well established that microorganisms have an important role in caries aetiology. From the dawn of civilization, herbal plants have served an array of roles. Triphala a tradtional herbal Ayurvedic formula consists of three native fruits of india including Terminalia Chebula (T. chebula), Terminalia Bellirica (T. bellirica) and Embilica Officinalis (E. officinalis). As per Ayurvedic Formulary of India (AFI) Triphala is prepared by combining a 1:1:1 mixture of ground dry fruits called myrobalans. Till date, an inadequate number of clinical researches on herb based mouth rinses have been reported in Asia, especially in India and other Southeast Asian countries (where these products are most accepted and widely used). The present study was planned to assess the effectiveness of Triphala with its three constituents. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Triphala, T. chebula, T. bellirica and E. officinalis aqueous extract rinses separately on Streptococcusmutans count at various time intervals. This is a double-blind, linear cross over, within group experimental trial conducted among subjects visiting the Department of Public Health Dentistry aged 15 to 40 years. In this design, subjects received all of the treatments sequentially in time. The independent variables to be assessed in this study were all the four interventions of herbal preparations used and the dependent variable assessed is anti bacterial efficacy. Each subject receives two or more different treatments. All the subjects were exposed to all four interventions: 1) T. chebula; 2) T. bellirica; 3) E. officinalis; and 4) Triphala and were provided 15 ml of the freshly prepared 10% rinse. The subjects were instructed not to eat or drink between salivary samples collection. Post rinse unstimulated salivary samples were collected at five minutes and 60 minutes intervals. All the salivary samples were transferred immediately to microbiological
Bourlès, Henri
2013-01-01
Linear systems have all the necessary elements (modeling, identification, analysis and control), from an educational point of view, to help us understand the discipline of automation and apply it efficiently. This book is progressive and organized in such a way that different levels of readership are possible. It is addressed both to beginners and those with a good understanding of automation wishing to enhance their knowledge on the subject. The theory is rigorously developed and illustrated by numerous examples which can be reproduced with the help of appropriate computation software. 60 exe
Extended linear chain compounds
Linear chain substances span a large cross section of contemporary chemistry ranging from covalent polymers, to organic charge transfer com plexes to nonstoichiometric transition metal coordination complexes. Their commonality, which coalesced intense interest in the theoretical and exper imental solid state physics/chemistry communities, was based on the obser vation that these inorganic and organic polymeric substrates exhibit striking metal-like electrical and optical properties. Exploitation and extension of these systems has led to the systematic study of both the chemistry and physics of highly and poorly conducting linear chain substances. To gain a salient understanding of these complex materials rich in anomalous aniso tropic electrical, optical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, the conver gence of diverse skills and talents was required. The constructive blending of traditionally segregated disciplines such as synthetic and physical organic, inorganic, and polymer chemistry, crystallog...
On Noisy Extensions of Nonholonomic Constraints
Gay-Balmaz, François; Putkaradze, Vakhtang
2016-12-01
We propose several stochastic extensions of nonholonomic constraints for mechanical systems and study the effects on the dynamics and on the conservation laws. Our approach relies on a stochastic extension of the Lagrange-d'Alembert framework. The mechanical system we focus on is the example of a Routh sphere, i.e., a rolling unbalanced ball on the plane. We interpret the noise in the constraint as either a stochastic motion of the plane, random slip or roughness of the surface. Without the noise, this system possesses three integrals of motion: energy, Jellet and Routh. Depending on the nature of noise in the constraint, we show that either energy, or Jellet, or both integrals can be conserved, with probability 1. We also present some exact solutions for particular types of motion in terms of stochastic integrals. Next, for an arbitrary nonholonomic system, we consider two different ways of including stochasticity in the constraints. We show that when the noise preserves the linearity of the constraints, then energy is preserved. For other types of noise in the constraint, e.g., in the case of an affine noise, the energy is not conserved. We study in detail a class of Lagrangian mechanical systems on semidirect products of Lie groups, with "rolling ball type" constraints. We conclude with numerical simulations illustrating our theories, and some pedagogical examples of noise in constraints for other nonholonomic systems popular in the literature, such as the nonholonomic particle, the rolling disk and the Chaplygin sleigh.
Jin, S-M; Park, C-Y; Cho, Y M; Ku, B J; Ahn, C W; Cha, B-S; Min, K W; Sung, Y A; Baik, S H; Lee, K W; Yoon, K-H; Lee, M-K; Park, S W
2015-06-01
We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of lobeglitazone and pioglitazone as add-ons to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients who were inadequately controlled by metformin were randomized and treated once daily with either lobeglitazone (0.5 mg, n = 128) or pioglitazone (15 mg, n = 125) for 24 weeks, with a 28-week extension trial of lobeglitazone treatment in patients who consented. The primary endpoint was the change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration from baseline to week 24. At week 24, the mean change from baseline in HbA1c was -0.74% for the lobeglitazone group and -0.74% for the pioglitazone group, with a mean difference of 0.01% [95% confidence interval (CI) of difference, -0.16 to 0.18]. The effects of lobeglitazone on lipid variables and the adverse events associated with lobeglitazone were similar to those observed with pioglitazone. Lobeglitazone was not inferior to pioglitazone as an add-on to metformin in terms of their efficacy and safety. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Linear optics based nanoscopy.
Gur, Aviram; Fixler, Dror; Micó, Vicente; Garcia, Javier; Zalevsky, Zeev
2010-10-11
Classically, optical systems are considered to have a fundamental resolution limit due to wave nature of light. This article presents a novel method for observing sub-wavelength features in a conventional optical microscope using linear optics. The operation principle is based on a random and time varying flow of nanoparticles moving in proximity to the inspected sample. Those particles excite the evanescent waves and couple them into harmonic waves. The sub-wavelength features are encoded and later on digitally decoded by proper image processing of a sequence of images. The achievable final resolution limit corresponds to the size of the nanoparticles. Experimental proof of principle validation of the technique is reported.
Use of a linearization approximation facilitating stochastic model building.
Svensson, Elin M; Karlsson, Mats O
2014-04-01
The objective of this work was to facilitate the development of nonlinear mixed effects models by establishing a diagnostic method for evaluation of stochastic model components. The random effects investigated were between subject, between occasion and residual variability. The method was based on a first-order conditional estimates linear approximation and evaluated on three real datasets with previously developed population pharmacokinetic models. The results were assessed based on the agreement in difference in objective function value between a basic model and extended models for the standard nonlinear and linearized approach respectively. The linearization was found to accurately identify significant extensions of the model's stochastic components with notably decreased runtimes as compared to the standard nonlinear analysis. The observed gain in runtimes varied between four to more than 50-fold and the largest gains were seen for models with originally long runtimes. This method may be especially useful as a screening tool to detect correlations between random effects since it substantially quickens the estimation of large variance-covariance blocks. To expedite the application of this diagnostic tool, the linearization procedure has been automated and implemented in the software package PsN.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin Heidrich
Full Text Available Although sofosbuvir has been approved for patients with genotypes 2/3 (G2/3, many parts of the world still consider pegylated Interferon alpha (P and ribavirin (R as standard of care for G2/3. Patients with rapid virological response (RVR show response rates >80%. However, SVR (sustained virological response in non-RVR patients is not satisfactory. Longer treatment duration may be required but evidence from prospective trials are lacking. A total of 1006 chronic HCV genotype 2/3 patients treated with P/R were recruited into a German HepNet multicenter screening registry. Of those, only 226 patients were still HCV RNA positive at week 4 (non-RVR. Non-RVR patients with ongoing response after 24 weeks P-2b/R qualified for OPTEX, a randomized trial investigating treatment extension of additional 24 weeks (total 48 weeks, Group A or additional 12 weeks (total 36 weeks, group B of 1.5 μg/kg P-2b and 800-1400 mg R. Due to the low number of patients without RVR, the number of 150 anticipated study patients was not met and only 99 non-RVR patients (n=50 Group A, n=49 Group B could be enrolled into the OPTEX trial. Baseline factors did not differ between groups. Sixteen patients had G2 and 83 patients G3. Based on the ITT (intention-to-treat analysis, 68% [55%; 81%] in Group A and 57% [43%; 71%] in Group B achieved SVR (p= 0.31. The primary endpoint of better SVR rates in Group A compared to a historical control group (SVR 70% was not met. In conclusion, approximately 23% of G2/3 patients did not achieve RVR in a real world setting. However, subsequent recruitment in a treatment-extension study was difficult. Prolonged therapy beyond 24 weeks did not result in higher SVR compared to a historical control group.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00803309.
Mori, Etsuro; Ikeda, Manabu; Nakagawa, Masaki; Miyagishi, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Hideo; Kosaka, Kenji
2015-01-01
The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of donepezil on extrapyramidal symptoms in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Using pooled datasets from phase 2 and 3, 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCT, n = 281) and 52-week open-label long-term extension trials (OLE, n = 241) of donepezil in DLB, the effects of donepezil on the incidence of extrapyramidal adverse events (AEs) and on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part III were assessed, and potential baseline factors affecting the AEs were explored. The RCT analysis did not show significant differences between the placebo and active (3, 5, and 10 mg donepezil) groups in extrapyramidal AE incidence (3.8 and 6.5%, p = 0.569) and change in the UPDRS (mean ± SD: -0.2 ± 4.3 and -0.6 ± 6.5, p = 0.562). In the OLE analysis (5 and 10 mg donepezil), the incidence did not increase chronologically; all AEs leading to a dose reduction or discontinuation except one were relieved. The UPDRS was unchanged for 52 weeks. An exploratory multivariate logistic regression analysis of the RCTs revealed that donepezil treatment was not a significant factor affecting the AEs. Baseline severity of parkinsonism was a predisposing factor for worsening of parkinsonism without significant interactions between donepezil and baseline severity. DLB can safely be treated with donepezil without relevant worsening of extrapyramidal symptoms, but treatment requires careful attention to symptom progression when administered to patients with relatively severe parkinsonism. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Job satisfaction of extension agents towards innovation ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study assessed job satisfaction of extension agents towards innovation dissemination to fish farmers in Lagos State, Nigeria. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 44 extension officers from which data were collected. A structured questionnaire consisting of 6 personal characteristics, 23 management ...
assessment of extension agents' communication methods
African Journals Online (AJOL)
USER
ABSTRACT. The need to improve aquaculture production through enhanced technology transfer necessitated this study to assess extension agents' use of communication methods and its impact on linkage. A structured questionnaire was administered to 44 extension agents who were randomly selected from Lagos State ...
Convergence of a random walk method for the Burgers equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roberts, S.
1985-10-01
In this paper we consider a random walk algorithm for the solution of Burgers' equation. The algorithm uses the method of fractional steps. The non-linear advection term of the equation is solved by advecting ''fluid'' particles in a velocity field induced by the particles. The diffusion term of the equation is approximated by adding an appropriate random perturbation to the positions of the particles. Though the algorithm is inefficient as a method for solving Burgers' equation, it does model a similar method, the random vortex method, which has been used extensively to solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the strong convergence of our random walk method and so provide a model for the proof of convergence for more complex random walk algorithms; for instance, the random vortex method without boundaries.
Journal of Agricultural Extension
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Mission Statement The mission of the "Journal of Agricultural Extension" is to publish conceptual papers and empirical research that tests, extends, or builds agricultural extension theory and contributes to the practice of extension worldwide. Scope of journal The Journal of Agricultural Extension" is devoted to the ...
Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra
Vasantha, Kandasamy
2003-01-01
The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and ve...
Jiang, Tao; Rong, Zhengxing; Xu, Yiping; Chen, Bing; Xie, Yifan; Chen, Congying; Lu, Yang; Shen, Yifeng; Li, Huafang; Sun, Jing; Chen, Hongzhuan
2013-01-01
Citalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) mainly prescribed to treat major depression. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics of a new and a branded citalopram 20 mg formulation to support the marketing authorization of the test formulation in China. A single-dose, open-label, randomized-sequence, two-period crossover design was used in this study. Healthy Chinese male cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 extensive metabolizers, aged 18-40 years, were eligible to participate. CYP2C19 poor metabolizers were excluded, based on genotyping of genomic DNA from blood samples. Twenty-four subjects were randomly assigned to receive the test formulation followed by the reference formulation, and then vice versa. A 2-week washout occurred between study periods. Blood samples were collected for up to 144 h post-dose. Quantification was carried out using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and analysed statistically. The two formulations were considered pharmacokinetically equivalent if the 90 % confidence intervals (CIs) of the log-transformed ratios (test/reference) of the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last measurable concentration (AUC(last)), and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(∞)) were within the predetermined acceptance range (70-143 % for C(max); 80-125 % for AUC(last) and AUC(∞)) according to China State Food and Drug Administration bioequivalence guidelines. Tolerability was monitored by clinical assessment, vital signs, laboratory analysis and interviews with participants about adverse events. A total of 24 participants, with a mean (SD) age of 26 (3) years (range 22-32 years), body weight of 65.2 (5.0) kg (range 53-73 kg), and height of 172.7 (4.9) cm (range 159-182 cm), were enrolled in this
Linear Logistic Test Modeling with R
Baghaei, Purya; Kubinger, Klaus D.
2015-01-01
The present paper gives a general introduction to the linear logistic test model (Fischer, 1973), an extension of the Rasch model with linear constraints on item parameters, along with eRm (an R package to estimate different types of Rasch models; Mair, Hatzinger, & Mair, 2014) functions to estimate the model and interpret its parameters. The…
Simplified Linear Equation Solvers users manual
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gropp, W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Smith, B. (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States))
1993-02-01
The solution of large sparse systems of linear equations is at the heart of many algorithms in scientific computing. The SLES package is a set of easy-to-use yet powerful and extensible routines for solving large sparse linear systems. The design of the package allows new techniques to be used in existing applications without any source code changes in the applications.
Realization of Positive Linear Systems
van den Hof, J.M.
1997-01-01
textabstractPositive linear systems are frequently used as mathematical models in research areas like biology and economics. The problem to classify all minimal realizations of these systems is treated in this paper. Extensive use is made of the theory of polyhedral cones. Sufficient and necessary conditions for the existence of a positive realization are given, but the problem of minimality leads to the factorization problem of positive matrices. Ideas and results are given to come towards a...
Multivariate generalized linear mixed models using R
Berridge, Damon Mark
2011-01-01
Multivariate Generalized Linear Mixed Models Using R presents robust and methodologically sound models for analyzing large and complex data sets, enabling readers to answer increasingly complex research questions. The book applies the principles of modeling to longitudinal data from panel and related studies via the Sabre software package in R. A Unified Framework for a Broad Class of Models The authors first discuss members of the family of generalized linear models, gradually adding complexity to the modeling framework by incorporating random effects. After reviewing the generalized linear model notation, they illustrate a range of random effects models, including three-level, multivariate, endpoint, event history, and state dependence models. They estimate the multivariate generalized linear mixed models (MGLMMs) using either standard or adaptive Gaussian quadrature. The authors also compare two-level fixed and random effects linear models. The appendices contain additional information on quadrature, model...
Random field estimation approach to robot dynamics
Rodriguez, Guillermo
1990-01-01
The difference equations of Kalman filtering and smoothing recursively factor and invert the covariance of the output of a linear state-space system driven by a white-noise process. Here it is shown that similar recursive techniques factor and invert the inertia matrix of a multibody robot system. The random field models are based on the assumption that all of the inertial (D'Alembert) forces in the system are represented by a spatially distributed white-noise model. They are easier to describe than the models based on classical mechanics, which typically require extensive derivation and manipulation of equations of motion for complex mechanical systems. With the spatially random models, more primitive locally specified computations result in a global collective system behavior equivalent to that obtained with deterministic models. The primary goal of applying random field estimation is to provide a concise analytical foundation for solving robot control and motion planning problems.
Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models
McCulloch, Charles E; Neuhaus, John M
2011-01-01
An accessible and self-contained introduction to statistical models-now in a modernized new editionGeneralized, Linear, and Mixed Models, Second Edition provides an up-to-date treatment of the essential techniques for developing and applying a wide variety of statistical models. The book presents thorough and unified coverage of the theory behind generalized, linear, and mixed models and highlights their similarities and differences in various construction, application, and computational aspects.A clear introduction to the basic ideas of fixed effects models, random effects models, and mixed m
Linearly constrained minimax optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans
1978-01-01
We present an algorithm for nonlinear minimax optimization subject to linear equality and inequality constraints which requires first order partial derivatives. The algorithm is based on successive linear approximations to the functions defining the problem. The resulting linear subproblems...
Bolton, W
1995-01-01
This book is concerned with linear equations and matrices, with emphasis on the solution of simultaneous linear equations. The solution of simultaneous linear equations is applied to electric circuit analysis and structural analysis.
Nguyen, Phuong H; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Young, Melissa F; Truong, Truong Viet; Hoang, Hue; Nguyen, Huong; Nguyen, Son; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha
2017-08-01
Background: Maternal health and nutrition play a crucial role in early child growth and development. However, little is known about the benefits of preconception micronutrient interventions beyond the role of folic acid (FA) and neural tube defects.Objective: We evaluated the impact of weekly preconception multiple micronutrient (MM) or iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child growth and development through the age of 2 y compared with FA alone.Methods: We followed 1599 offspring born to women who participated in a randomized controlled trial of preconception supplementation in Vietnam. Women received weekly supplements that contained either 2800 μg FA, 60 mg Fe and 2800 μg FA, or 15 MMs including IFA, from baseline until conception followed by daily prenatal IFA supplements until delivery. Child anthropometry was measured at birth and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo. Child development was measured with the use of the Bayley Scales for Infant Development III at 24 mo.Results: The groups were similar for baseline maternal and offspring birth characteristics. At 24 mo of age, the offspring in the IFA group had significantly higher length-for-age z scores (LAZs) (0.14; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.26), reduced risk of being stunted (0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.99), and smaller yearly decline in LAZs (0.10; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.15) than the offspring in the FA group. Similar trends were found for the offspring in the MM group compared with the FA group for LAZs (0.10; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.22) and the risk of being stunted (0.88; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.01). Offspring in the IFA group had improved motor development (P = 0.03), especially fine motor development (0.41; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.77), at the age of 24 mo, but there were no differences for measures of cognition or language.Conclusions: Preconception supplementation with IFA improved linear growth and fine motor development at 2 y of age compared with FA. Future studies should examine whether these effects persist and improve child health and
Marketing Extension Needs for Sustainable Extension Practices ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study investigated the marketing extension needs of cassava farmers in Surulere Local Government Area of Oyo State. Multistage sampling technique was used to select one hundred and five respondents from the list of contact farmers obtained from the state Agricultural Development Programme (ADP). Interview ...
Less extensive surgery compared to extensive surgery
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lauszus, Finn F; Petersen, Astrid C; Neumann, Gudrun
2014-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcome of adult granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) with respect to initial clinical findings, methods of surgery, and perioperative treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective follow-up study. Setting: All hospitals in Jutland. Sample: 163 women diagnosed with AGCT. Methods: Follo...... with similar survival compared to extensive surgery, but with advancing age conservative surgery increased the risk of relapse and death....
Non-linear Models for Longitudinal Data
Serroyen, Jan; Molenberghs, Geert; Verbeke, Geert; Davidian, Marie
2009-01-01
While marginal models, random-effects models, and conditional models are routinely considered to be the three main modeling families for continuous and discrete repeated measures with linear and generalized linear mean structures, respectively, it is less common to consider non-linear models, let alone frame them within the above taxonomy. In the latter situation, indeed, when considered at all, the focus is often exclusively on random-effects models. In this paper, we consider all three families, exemplify their great flexibility and relative ease of use, and apply them to a simple but illustrative set of data on tree circumference growth of orange trees. PMID:20160890
Parametrices and exact paralinearization of semi-linear boundary problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johnsen, Jon
2008-01-01
The subject is parametrices for semi-linear problems, based on parametrices for linear boundary problems and on non-linearities that decompose into solution-dependent linear operators acting on the solutions. Non-linearities of product type are shown to admit this via exact paralinearization. The...... of homogeneous distributions, tensor products and halfspace extensions have been revised. Examples include the von Karman equation....
Foundations of linear and generalized linear models
Agresti, Alan
2015-01-01
A valuable overview of the most important ideas and results in statistical analysis Written by a highly-experienced author, Foundations of Linear and Generalized Linear Models is a clear and comprehensive guide to the key concepts and results of linear statistical models. The book presents a broad, in-depth overview of the most commonly used statistical models by discussing the theory underlying the models, R software applications, and examples with crafted models to elucidate key ideas and promote practical model building. The book begins by illustrating the fundamentals of linear models,
Stress coping strategies among agricultural extension agents in Oyo ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study examined the coping strategies used by extension agents A total of seventy 72agricultural extension agents were randomly sampled out of 288 agricultural extension agents from the four zones (Saki, Oyo, Ogbomosho, and Ibadan) in the Oyo State Agricultural Development Programme (OYSADEP).
Journal of Agricultural Extension Vol.17 (2) December, 2013 ISSN ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ONIKOYI
Abstract. The study assessed the availability and dissemination of information to farmers using mobile phones by public extension agents in Delta state, Nigeria. Data were collected from 64 randomly selected public extension agents from the three agricultural zones in the state. Majority (98.4%) of the extension agents were ...
Job burnout and coping strategies among extension agents in south ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The need to maintain a non-mineral dependent economy and daunting food import bills have been the drive for the provision of extension services, which is dependent on motivated extension work force.. Extension personnel will not stay motivated under circumstances where the risk of job burnout is high. A simple random ...
Farmers and Extension Personnel View of Constraints to Effective ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study examined farmers' and extension personnel's View of constraints to effectiveness of agricultural extension services in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 100 farmers and 20 extension personnel. Data subjected to descriptive and correlation analyses were collected using ...
Evaluation of the effectiveness of the Imo State fisheriers extension ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Evaluation of the effectiveness of the Imo State fisheriers extension programme. DO Ohajianya, DO Onu, JA Echetama. Abstract. This study evaluated the Imo State Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries Extension Programmes. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 15 randomly selected extension staff and 200 ...
Piecewise Linear-Linear Latent Growth Mixture Models with Unknown Knots
Kohli, Nidhi; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hancock, Gregory R.
2013-01-01
Latent growth curve models with piecewise functions are flexible and useful analytic models for investigating individual behaviors that exhibit distinct phases of development in observed variables. As an extension of this framework, this study considers a piecewise linear-linear latent growth mixture model (LGMM) for describing segmented change of…
Generalized extensions and blocking factors for FITS
Grosbol, P.; Harten, R. H.; Greisen, E. W.; Wells, D. C.
1988-06-01
A general design for extending the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) tape format is proposed. The present design is shown to preserve compatibility with existing FITS tapes and software (including the 'random groups'), while being general enough to permit a wide variety of new extension files to be designed in the future. Rules are given for the blocking of FITS logical records. The rules for the generalized extension of FITS ensure that extensions can be located and decoded by standard routines without interfering with each other.
Kentucky's Urban Extension Focus
Young, Jeffery; Vavrina, Charles
2014-01-01
Defining the success of Urban Extension units is sometimes challenging. For those Extension agents, specialists, administrators, and others who have worked to bring solid, research-based programming to urban communities, it is no surprise that working in these communities brings its own unique and sometimes difficult challenges. Kentucky's Urban…
Hayward, J. A.
Agricultural extension is one component in an array including research, training, education, marketing, international trade, etc. which develop together to bring about growth, and sustained growth determines the priorities for extension. These priorities depend inevitably on the stage of development of a country or region, and on the current…
University Extension Before 1915
Eklund, Lowell R.
1976-01-01
The author traces university extension from its elite English roots to evolving forces toward democratization of educational opportunities and the simultaneous emergence of similar American programs such as library-related night schools, the Lyceum movement, Chataqua, the Philadelphia Society for Extension of University Teaching, and the…
Computational linear and commutative algebra
Kreuzer, Martin
2016-01-01
This book combines, in a novel and general way, an extensive development of the theory of families of commuting matrices with applications to zero-dimensional commutative rings, primary decompositions and polynomial system solving. It integrates the Linear Algebra of the Third Millennium, developed exclusively here, with classical algorithmic and algebraic techniques. Even the experienced reader will be pleasantly surprised to discover new and unexpected aspects in a variety of subjects including eigenvalues and eigenspaces of linear maps, joint eigenspaces of commuting families of endomorphisms, multiplication maps of zero-dimensional affine algebras, computation of primary decompositions and maximal ideals, and solution of polynomial systems. This book completes a trilogy initiated by the uncharacteristically witty books Computational Commutative Algebra 1 and 2 by the same authors. The material treated here is not available in book form, and much of it is not available at all. The authors continue to prese...
Permafrost Hazards and Linear Infrastructure
Stanilovskaya, Julia; Sergeev, Dmitry
2014-05-01
The international experience of linear infrastructure planning, construction and exploitation in permafrost zone is being directly tied to the permafrost hazard assessment. That procedure should also consider the factors of climate impact and infrastructure protection. The current global climate change hotspots are currently polar and mountain areas. Temperature rise, precipitation and land ice conditions change, early springs occur more often. The big linear infrastructure objects cross the territories with different permafrost conditions which are sensitive to the changes in air temperature, hydrology, and snow accumulation which are connected to climatic dynamics. One of the most extensive linear structures built on permafrost worldwide are Trans Alaskan Pipeline (USA), Alaska Highway (Canada), Qinghai-Xizang Railway (China) and Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline (Russia). Those are currently being influenced by the regional climate change and permafrost impact which may act differently from place to place. Thermokarst is deemed to be the most dangerous process for linear engineering structures. Its formation and development depend on the linear structure type: road or pipeline, elevated or buried one. Zonal climate and geocryological conditions are also of the determining importance here. All the projects are of the different age and some of them were implemented under different climatic conditions. The effects of permafrost thawing have been recorded every year since then. The exploration and transportation companies from different countries maintain the linear infrastructure from permafrost degradation in different ways. The highways in Alaska are in a good condition due to governmental expenses on annual reconstructions. The Chara-China Railroad in Russia is under non-standard condition due to intensive permafrost response. Standards for engineering and construction should be reviewed and updated to account for permafrost hazards caused by the
Algebraic extensions of fields
McCarthy, Paul J
1991-01-01
""...clear, unsophisticated and direct..."" - MathThis textbook is intended to prepare graduate students for the further study of fields, especially algebraic number theory and class field theory. It presumes some familiarity with topology and a solid background in abstract algebra. Chapter 1 contains the basic results concerning algebraic extensions. In addition to separable and inseparable extensions and normal extensions, there are sections on finite fields, algebraically closed fields, primitive elements, and norms and traces. Chapter 2 is devoted to Galois theory. Besides the fundamenta
Dettol: Managing Brand Extensions
Anand Kumar Jaiswal; Arpita Srivastav; Dhwani Kothari
2009-01-01
This case is about evolution of a parent brand and its subsequent extensions into different product categories. Dettol as a brand has immense trust and loyalty from the consumers. Since the 1930s when Dettol was introduced in India, it has occupied a distinct position in the mind of its consumers. To achieve fast growth and leverage the strong brand equity of Dettol, Reckitt Benckiser India Limited (RBIL) rolled out a number of brand extensions. Some of these extensions such as Dettol soap an...
Need for Methamphetamine Programming in Extension Education
Beaudreault, Amy R.; Miller, Larry E.
2011-01-01
The study reported sought to identify the prevention education needs involving methamphetamine through survey methodology. The study focused on a random sample of U.S. states and the Extension Directors within each state, resulting in a 70% response rate (n = 134). Findings revealed that 11% reported they had received methamphetamine user…
Tuey, R. C.
1972-01-01
Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jaeger, Manfred
2006-01-01
We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts of at...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....
Bozga, Marius; Graf, Susanne; Mounier, Laurent; Ober, Iulian; Roux, Jean-Luc; Vincent, Daniel
2001-01-01
International audience; In this paper we propose some extensions necessary to enable the specification and description language SDL to become an appropriate formalism for the design of real-time and embedded systems. The extensions we envisage concern both roles of SDL: First, in order to make SDL a real-time specification language, allowing to correctly simulate and verify real-time specifications, we propose a set of annotations to express in a flexible way assumptions and assertions on tim...
Zamir, Syed Waqas,; Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Bertalmío, Marcelo
2017-01-01
Emerging display technologies are able to produce images with a much wider color gamut than those of conventional distribution gamuts for cinema and TV, creating an opportunity for the development of gamut extension algorithms (GEAs) that exploit the full color potential of these new systems. In this paper, we present a novel GEA, implemented as a PDE-based optimization procedure related to visual perception models, that performs gamut extension (GE) by taking into account the analysis of dis...
An Expressive Extension of TLC
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Jesper Gulmann
2002-01-01
A temporal logic of causality (TLC) was introduced by Alur, Penczek and Peled in [1]. It is basically a linear time temporal logic interpreted over Mazurkiewicz traces which allows quantification over causal chains. Through this device one can directly formulate causality properties of distributed...... systems. In this paper we consider an extension of TLC by strengthening the chain quantification operators. We show that our logic TLC* adds to the expressive power of TLC. We do so by defining an Ehrenfeucht-Fraïssé game to capture the expressive power of TLC. We then exhibit a property and by means...... of this game prove that the chosen property is not definable in TLC. We then show that the same property is definable in TLC*. We prove in fact the stronger result that TLC* is expressively stronger than TLC exactly when the dependency relation associated with the underlying trace alphabet is not transitive....
African Journals Online (AJOL)
by considering two linear transforms of the unbiased estimator of the coefﬁcients of the multiple linear regression model. Key words/phrases: Admissibility, linear transforms, multivariate statistics, strong-and weak mean square criteria. INTRODUCTION. Improvement of estimation and prediction by introducing biased ...
Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.
1982-01-01
The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.
A quantum-statistical-mechanical extension of Gaussian mixture model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tanaka, K [Graduate School of Information Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3-09 Aramaki-aza-aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Tsuda, K [Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Spemannstrasse 38, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)], E-mail: kazu@smapip.is.tohoku.ac.jp
2008-01-15
We propose an extension of Gaussian mixture models in the statistical-mechanical point of view. The conventional Gaussian mixture models are formulated to divide all points in given data to some kinds of classes. We introduce some quantum states constructed by superposing conventional classes in linear combinations. Our extension can provide a new algorithm in classifications of data by means of linear response formulas in the statistical mechanics.
Chowdhury, A.H.; Odame, H.H.; Leeuwis, C.
2014-01-01
Purpose: The rapidly evolving nature of agricultural innovation processes in low-income countries requires agricultural extension agencies to transform the classical roles that previously supported linear information dissemination and adoption of innovation. In Bangladesh, strengthening agricultural
Hagedorn, Peter
1982-01-01
Thoroughly revised and updated, the second edition of this concise text provides an engineer's view of non-linear oscillations, explaining the most important phenomena and solution methods. Non-linear descriptions are important because under certain conditions there occur large deviations from the behaviors predicted by linear differential equations. In some cases, completely new phenomena arise that are not possible in purely linear systems. The theory of non-linear oscillations thus has important applications in classical mechanics, electronics, communications, biology, and many other branches of science. In addition to many other changes, this edition has a new section on bifurcation theory, including Hopf's theorem.
TEMPORAL PATTERN OF KINESIOLOGY TAPE EFFICACY ON HAMSTRING EXTENSIBILITY.
Farquharson, Claire; Greig, Matt
2015-12-01
Kinesiology tape has been advocated as a means of improving muscle flexibility, a potential modifiable risk factor for injury, over time. The epidemiology and etiology of hamstring injuries in sport have been well documented. To compare the temporal pattern of efficacy of kinesiology tape and traditional stretching techniques on hamstring extensibility over a five day period. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty recreationally active male participants (Mean ± SD: age 20.0 ± 1.55 years; height 179.3 ± 4.94 cm; mass 76.9 ± 7.57 kg) completed an active knee extension assessment (of the dominant leg) as a measure of hamstring extensibility. Three experimental interventions were applied in randomized order: Kinesiology tape (KT), static stretch (SS), proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). Measures were taken at baseline, +1min, + 30mins, + 3days and +5days days after each intervention. The temporal pattern of change in active knee extension was modelled as a range of regression polynomials for each intervention, quantified as the regression coefficient. Hamstring ROM with KT application at +3days was significantly greater than baseline (129.18 ± 15.46%, p = 0.01), SS (106.99 ± 9.84%, p = 0.03) and PNF (107.42 ± 136.13%, p = 0.03) interventions. The temporal pattern of changes in ROM for SS and PNF were best modelled by a negative linear function, although the strength of the correlation was weak in each case. In contrast, the KT data was optimised using a quadratic polynomial function (r(2) = 0.60), which yielded an optimum time of 2.76 days, eliciting a predicted ROM of 129.6% relative to baseline. Each intervention displayed a unique temporal pattern of changes in active knee extension. SS was best suited to immediate improvements, and PNF to +30 minutes in hamstring extensibility, whereas kinesiology tape offered advantages over a longer duration, peaking at 2.76 days. These findings have implications for the
Design of experiments an introduction based on linear models
Morris, Max D
2011-01-01
IntroductionExample: rainfall and grassland Basic elements of an experimentExperiments and experiment-like studies Models and data analysisLinear Statistical ModelsLinear vector spaces Basic linear model The hat matrix, least-squares estimates, and design information matrixThe partitioned linear model The reduced normal equations Linear and quadratic forms Estimation and information Hypothesis testing and informationBlocking and informationCompletely Randomized DesignsIntroductionModels Matrix formulation Influence of design on estimation Influence of design on hypothesis testingRandomized Com
Vizza, Carmine Dario; Sastry, B K S; Safdar, Zeenat; Harnisch, Lutz; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Min; Lamba, Manisha; Jing, Zhi-Cheng
2017-02-23
In a previous study, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) improvement with sildenafil was not dose dependent at the 3 doses tested (20, 40, and 80 mg 3 times daily [TID]). This study assessed whether lower doses were less effective than the approved 20-mg TID dosage. Treatment-naive patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension were randomized to 12 weeks of double-blind sildenafil 1, 5, or 20 mg TID; 12 weeks of open-label sildenafil 20 mg TID followed. Changes from baseline in 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) for sildenafil 1 or 5 mg versus 20 mg TID were compared using a Williams test. Hemodynamics, functional class, and biomarkers were assessed. The study was prematurely terminated for non-safety reasons, with 129 of 219 planned patients treated. At week 12, 6MWD change from baseline was significantly greater for sildenafil 20 versus 1 mg (P = 0.011) but not versus 5 mg. At week 24, 6MWD increases from baseline were larger in those initially randomized to 20 versus 5 or 1 mg (74 vs 50 and 47 m, respectively). At week 12, changes in hemodynamic parameters were generally small and variable between treatment groups; odds ratios for improvement in functional class were not statistically significantly different. Improvements in B-type natriuretic peptide levels were significantly greater with sildenafil 20 versus 1 but not 5 mg. Sildenafil 20 mg TID appeared to be more effective than 1 mg TID for improving 6MWD; sildenafil 5 mg TID appeared to have similar clinical and hemodynamic effects as 20 mg TID. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00430716 (Registration date: January 31, 2007).
Android Access Control Extension
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anton Baláž
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to analyze and extend security model of mobile devices running on Android OS. Provided security extension is a Linux kernel security module that allows the system administrator to restrict program's capabilities with per-program profiles. Profiles can allow capabilities like network access, raw socket access, and the permission to read, write, or execute files on matching paths. Module supplements the traditional Android capability access control model by providing mandatory access control (MAC based on path. This extension increases security of access to system objects in a device and allows creating security sandboxes per application.
Random Numbers and Quantum Computers
McCartney, Mark; Glass, David
2002-01-01
The topic of random numbers is investigated in such a way as to illustrate links between mathematics, physics and computer science. First, the generation of random numbers by a classical computer using the linear congruential generator and logistic map is considered. It is noted that these procedures yield only pseudo-random numbers since…
Blyth, T S
2002-01-01
Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...
Linearity in Process Languages
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn
2002-01-01
The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open-map bisi......The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiedemann, H.
1981-11-01
Since no linear colliders have been built yet it is difficult to know at what energy the linear cost scaling of linear colliders drops below the quadratic scaling of storage rings. There is, however, no doubt that a linear collider facility for a center of mass energy above say 500 GeV is significantly cheaper than an equivalent storage ring. In order to make the linear collider principle feasible at very high energies a number of problems have to be solved. There are two kinds of problems: one which is related to the feasibility of the principle and the other kind of problems is associated with minimizing the cost of constructing and operating such a facility. This lecture series describes the problems and possible solutions. Since the real test of a principle requires the construction of a prototype I will in the last chapter describe the SLC project at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.
Matrices and linear transformations
Cullen, Charles G
1990-01-01
""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first
Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.
2006-01-01
Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....
Mobile Applications for Extension
Drill, Sabrina L.
2012-01-01
Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…
Selecting Extensive Reading Materials
Jacobs, George M.
2014-01-01
This article offers guidance to teachers and students in selecting materials for extensive reading (ER). First, the article explains characteristics of ER and reviews some of the potential gains for students who do ER. Second, the article considers criteria for teachers to bear in mind when selecting ER materials. Third, the article then suggests…
Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.; Oort, F.J.; Meijer, A.M.
2013-01-01
Objective: To investigate the effects of gradual sleep extension in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction. Outcome variables were objectively measured sleep and cognitive performance. Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either a sleep extension group (gradual sleep extension by
Carr, Joseph
1996-01-01
The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa
Faraway, Julian J
2014-01-01
A Hands-On Way to Learning Data AnalysisPart of the core of statistics, linear models are used to make predictions and explain the relationship between the response and the predictors. Understanding linear models is crucial to a broader competence in the practice of statistics. Linear Models with R, Second Edition explains how to use linear models in physical science, engineering, social science, and business applications. The book incorporates several improvements that reflect how the world of R has greatly expanded since the publication of the first edition.New to the Second EditionReorganiz
Long-range correlation in synchronization and syncopation tapping: a linear phase correction model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Didier Delignières
Full Text Available We propose in this paper a model for accounting for the increase in long-range correlations observed in asynchrony series in syncopation tapping, as compared with synchronization tapping. Our model is an extension of the linear phase correction model for synchronization tapping. We suppose that the timekeeper represents a fractal source in the system, and that a process of estimation of the half-period of the metronome, obeying a random-walk dynamics, combines with the linear phase correction process. Comparing experimental and simulated series, we show that our model allows accounting for the experimentally observed pattern of serial dependence. This model complete previous modeling solutions proposed for self-paced and synchronization tapping, for a unifying framework of event-based timing.
Softening in random networks of non-identical beams
Ban, Ehsan; Barocas, Victor H.; Shephard, Mark S.; Picu, R. Catalin
2016-02-01
Random fiber networks are assemblies of elastic elements connected in random configurations. They are used as models for a broad range of fibrous materials including biopolymer gels and synthetic nonwovens. Although the mechanics of networks made from the same type of fibers has been studied extensively, the behavior of composite systems of fibers with different properties has received less attention. In this work we numerically and theoretically study random networks of beams and springs of different mechanical properties. We observe that the overall network stiffness decreases on average as the variability of fiber stiffness increases, at constant mean fiber stiffness. Numerical results and analytical arguments show that for small variabilities in fiber stiffness the amount of network softening scales linearly with the variance of the fiber stiffness distribution. This result holds for any beam structure and is expected to apply to a broad range of materials including cellular solids.
Softening in Random Networks of Non-Identical Beams.
Ban, Ehsan; Barocas, Victor H; Shephard, Mark S; Picu, Catalin R
2016-02-01
Random fiber networks are assemblies of elastic elements connected in random configurations. They are used as models for a broad range of fibrous materials including biopolymer gels and synthetic nonwovens. Although the mechanics of networks made from the same type of fibers has been studied extensively, the behavior of composite systems of fibers with different properties has received less attention. In this work we numerically and theoretically study random networks of beams and springs of different mechanical properties. We observe that the overall network stiffness decreases on average as the variability of fiber stiffness increases, at constant mean fiber stiffness. Numerical results and analytical arguments show that for small variabilities in fiber stiffness the amount of network softening scales linearly with the variance of the fiber stiffness distribution. This result holds for any beam structure and is expected to apply to a broad range of materials including cellular solids.
QUANTUM OPTICS. Universal linear optics.
Carolan, Jacques; Harrold, Christopher; Sparrow, Chris; Martín-López, Enrique; Russell, Nicholas J; Silverstone, Joshua W; Shadbolt, Peter J; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Oguma, Manabu; Itoh, Mikitaka; Marshall, Graham D; Thompson, Mark G; Matthews, Jonathan C F; Hashimoto, Toshikazu; O'Brien, Jeremy L; Laing, Anthony
2015-08-14
Linear optics underpins fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and quantum technologies. We demonstrate a single reprogrammable optical circuit that is sufficient to implement all possible linear optical protocols up to the size of that circuit. Our six-mode universal system consists of a cascade of 15 Mach-Zehnder interferometers with 30 thermo-optic phase shifters integrated into a single photonic chip that is electrically and optically interfaced for arbitrary setting of all phase shifters, input of up to six photons, and their measurement with a 12-single-photon detector system. We programmed this system to implement heralded quantum logic and entangling gates, boson sampling with verification tests, and six-dimensional complex Hadamards. We implemented 100 Haar random unitaries with an average fidelity of 0.999 ± 0.001. Our system can be rapidly reprogrammed to implement these and any other linear optical protocol, pointing the way to applications across fundamental science and quantum technologies. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Guerrini, Renzo; Rosati, Anna; Bradshaw, Kate; Giorgi, Luigi
2014-04-01
To investigate the safety/tolerability and efficacy of long-term adjunctive zonisamide and its impact on growth and development in children (6-18 years) with partial epilepsy. Open-label extension of a phase III, placebo-controlled trial. Started with double-blind transition period (2-11 weeks), during which patients on zonisamide continued at the same dose and those on placebo switched to zonisamide 1 mg/kg/day, up-titrated to 8 mg/kg/day (maximum 500 mg/day). During the subsequent open-label period (45-57 weeks), zonisamide dosing could be adjusted according to tolerability/response. Safety assessments included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), clinical laboratory parameters, and vital signs. Efficacy assessments included responder rate (primary assessment) and seizure freedom rate during the open-label period. Growth and development assessments comprised Tanner stages, hand x-rays, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL 6/18), School Performance questionnaire, Physician and Parent/Guardian Global Impression of Change, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT). One hundred forty-four children entered the study; 99 (68.8%) of 144 children completed it, and 108 (75.0%) of 144 received zonisamide for ≥1 year. TEAEs occurred in 39 (27.1%) of 144 patients. There were low incidences of serious TEAEs (2.1%) and TEAEs leading to discontinuation (2.8%). Bicarbonate level decreases >3.5 mm occurred in 64 patients (44.4%), and 24 patients (16.7%) had a weight decrease of ≥10% from baseline. During the open-label period, 81 (56.3%) of 144 patients were responders and 16 (11.1%) of 144 achieved seizure freedom. Tanner staging and skeletal development were as expected for the study population. Changes were minimal for CBCL 6/18 and School Performance scores. Most patients were "much improved"/"very much improved" on Physician (73.8%) and Parent/Guardian (75.4%) Global Impressions of Change. Median changes in COWAT Category and Letter Fluency scores were 2
Khuri, Andre I
2009-01-01
Supported by a large number of examples, this book provides a foundation in the theory of linear models and explores the developments in data analysis. It encompasses a wide variety of topics in linear models that incorporate the classical approach and other trends and modeling techniques.
Problems associated with extension visists among maize farmers in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study investigated the problems related to field visits carried out by extension staff to farmers in the rural areas. A total of 125 farmers were purposively and randomly sampled for this study from two villages, in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The three objectives were; (1) to identify the period of extension visits carried out by the ...
Assessment of extension agents' use of communication methods ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The need to improve aquaculture production through enhanced technology transfer necessitated this study to assess extension agents' use of communication methods and its impact on linkage. A structured questionnaire was administered to 44 extension agents who were randomly selected from Lagos State Agricultural ...
Evaluation of Extension Agents Commitment to the Agricultural ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study evaluated the activities of Extension agents on Agricultural Loans and Inputs Supply Programme participant farmers' rice output/income. Data were collected with the aid of questionnaire from 60 Extension agents (participating in the ALIS programme) randomly selected from 6 LGAs (where the programme is ...
Assessment of veterinary extension services to livestock farmers in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study examined operational modes of providing veterinary extension services to livestock farmers in Egba-Division, Ogun-State Nigeria. Information was obtained from 120 livestock farmers and 8 extension agents selected through multi-stage random sampling technique with the use of both structured questionnaire ...
Analysis of Training Needs of Extension Agents on Climate Change ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study specifically examined tasks performed by extension agents in the EKSADP as related to climate change and the task areas in which they needed further training. Using structured questionnaire, data were collected from thirty three (33) randomly selected extension agents in the two agricultural zones of Ekiti State.
Assessment Of e–Readiness Of Extension Agents In Agricultural ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The need to improve agricultural production in Nigeria through effective dissemination of information necessitated the assessment of the e-readiness of extension agents. One hundred and twenty-seven out of one hundred and fifty eight extension officers were randomly sampled from Imo State Agricultural Development ...
Motivational needs assessment of extension agents of Abia State ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study assessed the motivational needs of extension agents of Abia Agricultural Development Project. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted to select a total of 128 extension agents (EAs) from the State. Data on the effects of various needs/motivational theories (as Maslows' needs hierarchy theory, ...
Axler, Sheldon
2015-01-01
This best-selling textbook for a second course in linear algebra is aimed at undergrad math majors and graduate students. The novel approach taken here banishes determinants to the end of the book. The text focuses on the central goal of linear algebra: understanding the structure of linear operators on finite-dimensional vector spaces. The author has taken unusual care to motivate concepts and to simplify proofs. A variety of interesting exercises in each chapter helps students understand and manipulate the objects of linear algebra. The third edition contains major improvements and revisions throughout the book. More than 300 new exercises have been added since the previous edition. Many new examples have been added to illustrate the key ideas of linear algebra. New topics covered in the book include product spaces, quotient spaces, and dual spaces. Beautiful new formatting creates pages with an unusually pleasant appearance in both print and electronic versions. No prerequisites are assumed other than the ...
Zamir, Syed Waqas; Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Bertalmio, Marcelo
2017-04-01
Emerging display technologies are able to produce images with a much wider color gamut than those of conventional distribution gamuts for cinema and TV, creating an opportunity for the development of gamut extension algorithms (GEAs) that exploit the full color potential of these new systems. In this paper, we present a novel GEA, implemented as a PDE-based optimization procedure related to visual perception models, that performs gamut extension (GE) by taking into account the analysis of distortions in hue, chroma, and saturation. User studies performed using a digital cinema projector under cinematic (low ambient light, large screen) conditions show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state of the art, producing gamut extended images that are perceptually more faithful to the wide-gamut ground truth, as well as free of color artifacts and hue shifts. We also show how currently available image quality metrics, when applied to the GE problem, provide results that do not correlate with users' choices.
Simondon, K B; Gartner, A; Berger, J; Cornu, A; Massamba, J P; San Miguel, J L; Ly, C; Missotte, I; Simondon, F; Traissac, P; Delpeuch, F; Maire, B
1996-10-01
The effect of supplementation on growth was tested by means of four similar controlled randomized trials in the Congo (n = 120), Senegal (n = 110), Bolivia (n = 127), and New Caledonia (n = 90). Four-month-old infants were randomly allocated to supplement or control groups. A cereal-based precooked porridge was offered twice daily for 3 mo and consumption was monitored. Both groups were free to eat local food. At 7 mo of age, all infants were still breast-fed in the Congo, Senegal, and Bolivia compared with 47% in New Caledonia. Mean daily consumption of the supplement varied among countries (558-790 kJ/d). Mean length at 4 mo was lowest in Bolivia, higher in Senegal and the Congo, and near the National Center for Health Statistics reference in New Caledonia. The mean 4-7 mo length increment was 0.48 cm higher for supplemented than for control infants in Senegal (P < 0.05), whereas weight increments did not differ. No significant effect was found in the other countries.
The mathematics of networks of linear systems
Fuhrmann, Paul A
2015-01-01
This book provides the mathematical foundations of networks of linear control systems, developed from an algebraic systems theory perspective. This includes a thorough treatment of questions of controllability, observability, realization theory, as well as feedback control and observer theory. The potential of networks for linear systems in controlling large-scale networks of interconnected dynamical systems could provide insight into a diversity of scientific and technological disciplines. The scope of the book is quite extensive, ranging from introductory material to advanced topics of current research, making it a suitable reference for graduate students and researchers in the field of networks of linear systems. Part I can be used as the basis for a first course in algebraic system theory, while Part II serves for a second, advanced, course on linear systems. Finally, Part III, which is largely independent of the previous parts, is ideally suited for advanced research seminars aimed at preparing graduate ...
Linear programming mathematics, theory and algorithms
1996-01-01
Linear Programming provides an in-depth look at simplex based as well as the more recent interior point techniques for solving linear programming problems. Starting with a review of the mathematical underpinnings of these approaches, the text provides details of the primal and dual simplex methods with the primal-dual, composite, and steepest edge simplex algorithms. This then is followed by a discussion of interior point techniques, including projective and affine potential reduction, primal and dual affine scaling, and path following algorithms. Also covered is the theory and solution of the linear complementarity problem using both the complementary pivot algorithm and interior point routines. A feature of the book is its early and extensive development and use of duality theory. Audience: The book is written for students in the areas of mathematics, economics, engineering and management science, and professionals who need a sound foundation in the important and dynamic discipline of linear programming.
attitude of extension personnel to training and visit extension system ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ISAAC E. ILEVBAOJE. ABSTRACT. This study was undertaken to ﬁnd out the attitudes of extension workers to the training and visit (T&V) extension system as a complimentary step to specify if this extension approach is on course in Nigeria. Results obtained indicate that about 10. 8, 65.8 and 23.3% of the extension ...
Linearity in Process Languages
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nygaard, Mikkel; Winskel, Glynn
2002-01-01
The meaning and mathematical consequences of linearity (managing without a presumed ability to copy) are studied for a path-based model of processes which is also a model of affine-linear logic. This connection yields an affine-linear language for processes, automatically respecting open......-map bisimulation, in which a range of process operations can be expressed. An operational semantics is provided for the tensor fragment of the language. Different ways to make assemblies of processes lead to different choices of exponential, some of which respect bisimulation....
Weisberg, Sanford
2013-01-01
Praise for the Third Edition ""...this is an excellent book which could easily be used as a course text...""-International Statistical Institute The Fourth Edition of Applied Linear Regression provides a thorough update of the basic theory and methodology of linear regression modeling. Demonstrating the practical applications of linear regression analysis techniques, the Fourth Edition uses interesting, real-world exercises and examples. Stressing central concepts such as model building, understanding parameters, assessing fit and reliability, and drawing conclusions, the new edition illus
Schneider, Hans
1989-01-01
Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t
Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N
1962-01-01
Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a
Abian, Alexander
1973-01-01
Linear Associative Algebras focuses on finite dimensional linear associative algebras and the Wedderburn structure theorems.The publication first elaborates on semigroups and groups, rings and fields, direct sum and tensor product of rings, and polynomial and matrix rings. The text then ponders on vector spaces, including finite dimensional vector spaces and matrix representation of vectors. The book takes a look at linear associative algebras, as well as the idempotent and nilpotent elements of an algebra, ideals of an algebra, total matrix algebras and the canonical forms of matrices, matrix
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehdi Yaseri
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB injection alone or with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVB/IVT versus macular photocoagulation (MPC in bilateral diabetic macular edema (DME. Methods: In this study we revisited data from a subset of subjects previously enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. The original study included 150 eyes randomized to three treatment arms: 1.25 mg IVB alone, combined injection of 1.25 mg IVB and 2 mg IVT, and focal or modified grid MPC. To eliminate the possible effects of systemic confounders, we selected fellow eyes of bilaterally treated subjects who had undergone different treatments; eventually 30 eyes of 15 patients were re-evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Using mixed model analysis, we compared the treatment protocols regarding visual acuity (VA and central macular thickness (CMT. Results: Improvement in VA in the IVB group was significantly greater compared to MPC at months 6 and 12 (P = 0.037 and P = 0.035, respectively but this difference did not persist thereafter up to 24 months. Other levels of VA were comparable at different follow-up intervals (all P > 0.05. The only significant difference in CMT was observed in favor of the IVB group as compared to IVB/IVT group at 24 months (P = 0.048. Conclusion: Overall VA was superior in IVB group as compared to MPC up to 12 months. Although the IVB group showed superiority regarding CMT reduction over 24 months as compared to IVB/IVT group, it was comparable to the MPC group through the same period of follow up.
Yaseri, Mehdi; Zeraati, Hojjat; Mohammad, Kazem; Soheilian, Masoud; Ramezani, Alireza; Eslani, Medi; Peyman, Gholam A
2014-01-01
To compare the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection alone or with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVB/IVT) versus macular photocoagulation (MPC) in bilateral diabetic macular edema (DME). In this study we revisited data from a subset of subjects previously enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. The original study included 150 eyes randomized to three treatment arms: 1.25 mg IVB alone, combined injection of 1.25 mg IVB and 2 mg IVT, and focal or modified grid MPC. To eliminate the possible effects of systemic confounders, we selected fellow eyes of bilaterally treated subjects who had undergone different treatments; eventually 30 eyes of 15 patients were re-evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Using mixed model analysis, we compared the treatment protocols regarding visual acuity (VA) and central macular thickness (CMT). Improvement in VA in the IVB group was significantly greater compared to MPC at months 6 and 12 (P = 0.037 and P = 0.035, respectively) but this difference did not persist thereafter up to 24 months. Other levels of VA were comparable at different follow-up intervals (all P > 0.05). The only significant difference in CMT was observed in favor of the IVB group as compared to IVB/IVT group at 24 months (P = 0.048). Overall VA was superior in IVB group as compared to MPC up to 12 months. Although the IVB group showed superiority regarding CMT reduction over 24 months as compared to IVB/IVT group, it was comparable to the MPC group through the same period of follow up.
A Linear Theory for Pretwisted Elastic Beams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
1983-01-01
contains a general system of differential equations and gives explicit solutions for homogenous extension, torsion, and bending. The theory accounts explicitly for the shear center, the elastic center, and the axis of pretwist. The resulting torsion-extension coupling is in agreement with a recent......A linear theory for pretwisted elastic beams subjected to general loads is developed from the potential energy functional. The longitudinal strain distribution is that of a similar beam without pretwist supplemented by terms from the warping function and its longitudinal derivative. The paper...
Selecting Extensive Reading Materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George M Jacobs
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This article offers guidance to teachers and students in selecting materials for extensive reading (ER. First, the article explains characteristics of ER and reviews some of the potential gains for students who do ER. Second, the article considers criteria for teachers to bear in mind when selecting ER materials. Third, the article then suggests ways that teachers and students can find ER materials. Fourth, guidance is provided to students for when they select what to read from among the ER materials available to them. Finally, advice is given on integrating ER with course textbooks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Вячеслав Бабич
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The paper contains the results which describe the properties of such general topological construction as open extension topology. In particular, we prove that this topology is not transitive. We find the base of the least cardinality for the topology and local one for the neighborhood system of every point. We calculate the interior, the closure, and the sets of isolated and limit points of any set. Also we prove that this space is path connected and is not metrizable, and investigate its cardinal invariants and separation axioms.
Rao, M V S
1997-01-01
Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays carry information about their sources and the intervening medium apart from providing a beam of particles for studying certain features of high energy interactions currently inaccessible at man-made accelerators. They can at present be studied only via the extensive air showers (EAS's) they generate while passing through the Earth's atmosphere, since their fluxes are too low for the experiments of limited capability flown in balloons and satellites. The EAS is generated by a series of interactions of the primary cosmic ray and its progeny with the atmospheric nucle
Faraway, Julian J
2005-01-01
Linear models are central to the practice of statistics and form the foundation of a vast range of statistical methodologies. Julian J. Faraway''s critically acclaimed Linear Models with R examined regression and analysis of variance, demonstrated the different methods available, and showed in which situations each one applies. Following in those footsteps, Extending the Linear Model with R surveys the techniques that grow from the regression model, presenting three extensions to that framework: generalized linear models (GLMs), mixed effect models, and nonparametric regression models. The author''s treatment is thoroughly modern and covers topics that include GLM diagnostics, generalized linear mixed models, trees, and even the use of neural networks in statistics. To demonstrate the interplay of theory and practice, throughout the book the author weaves the use of the R software environment to analyze the data of real examples, providing all of the R commands necessary to reproduce the analyses. All of the ...
An R companion to linear statistical models
Hay-Jahans, Christopher
2011-01-01
Focusing on user-developed programming, An R Companion to Linear Statistical Models serves two audiences: those who are familiar with the theory and applications of linear statistical models and wish to learn or enhance their skills in R; and those who are enrolled in an R-based course on regression and analysis of variance. For those who have never used R, the book begins with a self-contained introduction to R that lays the foundation for later chapters.This book includes extensive and carefully explained examples of how to write programs using the R programming language. These examples cove
Statistics of linear polymers in disordered media
Chakrabarti, Bikas K
2005-01-01
With the mapping of the partition function graphs of the n-vector magnetic model in the n to 0 limit as the self-avoiding walks, the conformational statistics of linear polymers was clearly understood in early seventies. Various models of disordered solids, percolation model in particular, were also established by late seventies. Subsequently, investigations on thestatistics of linear polymers or of self-avoiding walks in, say, porous medium or disordered lattices were started in early eighties. Inspite of the brilliant ideas forwarded and extensive studies made for the next two decades, the
... View full size with caption Related Articles and Media External Beam Therapy (EBT) Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Image-guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) Images related to Linear Accelerator Sponsored ...
Logic regression and its extensions.
Schwender, Holger; Ruczinski, Ingo
2010-01-01
Logic regression is an adaptive classification and regression procedure, initially developed to reveal interacting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetic association studies. In general, this approach can be used in any setting with binary predictors, when the interaction of these covariates is of primary interest. Logic regression searches for Boolean (logic) combinations of binary variables that best explain the variability in the outcome variable, and thus, reveals variables and interactions that are associated with the response and/or have predictive capabilities. The logic expressions are embedded in a generalized linear regression framework, and thus, logic regression can handle a variety of outcome types, such as binary responses in case-control studies, numeric responses, and time-to-event data. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to the logic regression methodology, list some applications in public health and medicine, and summarize some of the direct extensions and modifications of logic regression that have been proposed in the literature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høskuldsson, Agnar
1996-01-01
Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.
2008-01-01
Afilament stretching rheometer (FSR) was used for measuring the start-up of uni-axial elongational flow followed by reversed bi-axial flow, both with a constant elongational rate. A narrow molecular mass distribution linear polystyrene with a molecular weight of 145 kg / mole wis subjected...... to the start-up of elongation for three Hencky strain units and subsequently the reversed flow. The integral molecular stress function formulation within the 'interchain pressure' concept agrees with the experiments. In the experiments the Hencky strain at which the str~ss becomes zero (the recovery strain...
Temporal efficacy of kinesiology tape vs. Traditional stretching methods on hamstring extensibility.
Farquharson, Claire; Greig, Matt
2015-02-01
The epidemiology and aetiology of hamstring injuries in sport have been well documented. Kinesiology tape has been advocated as a means of improving muscle flexibility, with potential implications for injury prevention. To compare the temporal pattern of efficacy of kinesiology tape and traditional stretching techniques on hamstring extensibility. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty recreationally active male participants (Mean ± SD: age 21.0 ± 0.1 years; height 180 ± 6 cm; mass 79.4 ± 6.9 kg) completed an active knee extension assessment (of the dominant leg) as a measure of hamstring extensibility. Three experimental interventions of equal time duration were applied in randomized order: Kinesiology tape (KT), static stretch (SS), proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). Measures were taken at baseline, +1, +10 and +30 mins after each intervention. The temporal pattern of change in active knee extension (AKE) was modelled as a range of regression polynomials for each intervention, quantified as the regression coefficient. With baseline scores not statistically different between groups, and baseline AKE set at 100%, PNF showed a significant improvement immediately post-intervention (PNF+1 = 107.7 ± 8.2%, p = .01). Thereafter, only KT showed significant improvements in active knee extension (KT+10 = 106.0 ± 7.1%, p = .05; KT+30 = 106.9 ± 5.0%, p = .02). The temporal pattern of changes in active knee extension after intervention was best modelled as a positive quadratic for KT, with a predicted peak of 108.8% baseline score achieved at 24.2 mins. SS was best modelled as a negative linear function, and PNF as a negative logarithmic function, reflecting a rapid decrease in active knee extension after an immediate positive effect. Each intervention displayed a unique temporal pattern of changes in active knee extension. PNF was best suited to affect immediate improvements in hamstring extensibility, whereas kinesiology tape offered advantages over a
A Note on the Identifiability of Generalized Linear Mixed Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Labouriau, Rodrigo
2014-01-01
I present here a simple proof that, under general regularity conditions, the standard parametrization of generalized linear mixed model is identifiable. The proof is based on the assumptions of generalized linear mixed models on the first and second order moments and some general mild regularity...... conditions, and, therefore, is extensible to quasi-likelihood based generalized linear models. In particular, binomial and Poisson mixed models with dispersion parameter are identifiable when equipped with the standard parametrization...
Linearized supergravity with a dynamical preferred frame
Marakulin, Arthur
2016-01-01
We study supersymmetric extension of the Einstein-aether gravitational model where local Lorentz invariance is broken down to the subgroup of spatial rotations by a vacuum expectation value of a timelike vector field. By restricting to the level of linear perturbations around Lorentz-violating vacuum and using the superfield formalism we construct the most general action invariant under the linearized supergravity transformations. We show that, unlike its non-supersymmetric counterpart, the model contains only a single free dimensionless parameter, besides the usual dimensionful gravitational coupling. This makes the model highly predictive. An analysis of the spectrum of physical excitations reveal superluminal velocity of gravitons. The latter property leads to the extension of the gravitational multiplet by additional fermonic and bosonic states with helicities $\\pm 3/2$ and $\\pm 1$. We outline the observational constraints on the model following from its low-energy phenomenology.
Dietary arginine and linear growth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van Vught, Anneke J A H; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Arts, Ilja C W
2013-01-01
The amino acid arginine is a well-known growth hormone (GH) stimulator and GH is an important modulator of linear growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary arginine on growth velocity in children between 7 and 13 years of age. Data from the Copenhagen School...... Child Intervention Study during 2001-2 (baseline), and at 3-year and 7-year follow-up, were used. Arginine intake was estimated via a 7 d precoded food diary at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Data were analysed in a multilevel structure in which children were embedded within schools. Random intercept...... and slopes were defined to estimate the association between arginine intake and growth velocity, including the following covariates: sex; age; baseline height; energy intake; puberty stage at 7-year follow-up and intervention/control group. The association between arginine intake and growth velocity...
Edgington, Eugene
2007-01-01
Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani
Emmy Noether and Linear Evolution Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. G. L. Leach
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Noether’s Theorem relates the Action Integral of a Lagrangian with symmetries which leave it invariant and the first integrals consequent upon the variational principle and the existence of the symmetries. These each have an equivalent in the Schrödinger Equation corresponding to the Lagrangian and by extension to linear evolution equations in general. The implications of these connections are investigated.
Mining Distance-Based Outliers in Near Linear Time
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Full title: Mining Distance-Based Outliers in Near Linear Time with Randomization and a Simple Pruning Rule Abstract: Defining outliers by their distance to...
Polymeric Nanoparticles via Noncovalent Cross-Linking of Linear Chains
Seo, Myungeun; Beck, Benjamin J.; Paulusse, Jos Marie Johannes; Hawker, Craig J.; Kim, Sang Youl
2008-01-01
Novel polymeric nanoparticles were prepared through the chain collapse of linear polymers driven by noncovalent cross-linking of dendritic self-complementary hydrogen-bonding units (SHB). Random copolymers containing SHB units, poly[(methyl
Blyth, T S
2002-01-01
Most of the introductory courses on linear algebra develop the basic theory of finite dimensional vector spaces, and in so doing relate the notion of a linear mapping to that of a matrix. Generally speaking, such courses culminate in the diagonalisation of certain matrices and the application of this process to various situations. Such is the case, for example, in our previous SUMS volume Basic Linear Algebra. The present text is a continuation of that volume, and has the objective of introducing the reader to more advanced properties of vector spaces and linear mappings, and consequently of matrices. For readers who are not familiar with the contents of Basic Linear Algebra we provide an introductory chapter that consists of a compact summary of the prerequisites for the present volume. In order to consolidate the student's understanding we have included a large num ber of illustrative and worked examples, as well as many exercises that are strategi cally placed throughout the text. Solutions to the ex...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
zlukovi
modelled as a quadratic regression, nested within parity. The previous lactation length was ... This proportion was mainly covered by linear and quadratic coefficients. Results suggest that RRM could .... The multiple trait models in scalar notation are presented by equations (1, 2), while equation. (3) represents the random ...
Attitude Of Extension Personnel To Training And Visit Extension ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In order to make the attitudes of extension workers more affirmative, the paper recommended, inter alia, staff motivation, minimizing political and administrative interference in staff work and a reasonable reduction in the work load of extension staff. Key words: attitude, extension personnel, training and visit. Journal of ...
Burgers' turbulence problem with linear or quadratic external potential
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Leonenko, N.N.
2005-01-01
We consider solutions of Burgers' equation with linear or quadratic external potential and stationary random initial conditions of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck type. We study a class of limit laws that correspond to a scale renormalization of the solutions.......We consider solutions of Burgers' equation with linear or quadratic external potential and stationary random initial conditions of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck type. We study a class of limit laws that correspond to a scale renormalization of the solutions....
Linear programming using Matlab
Ploskas, Nikolaos
2017-01-01
This book offers a theoretical and computational presentation of a variety of linear programming algorithms and methods with an emphasis on the revised simplex method and its components. A theoretical background and mathematical formulation is included for each algorithm as well as comprehensive numerical examples and corresponding MATLAB® code. The MATLAB® implementations presented in this book are sophisticated and allow users to find solutions to large-scale benchmark linear programs. Each algorithm is followed by a computational study on benchmark problems that analyze the computational behavior of the presented algorithms. As a solid companion to existing algorithmic-specific literature, this book will be useful to researchers, scientists, mathematical programmers, and students with a basic knowledge of linear algebra and calculus. The clear presentation enables the reader to understand and utilize all components of simplex-type methods, such as presolve techniques, scaling techniques, pivoting ru...
Banach, S
1987-01-01
This classic work by the late Stefan Banach has been translated into English so as to reach a yet wider audience. It contains the basics of the algebra of operators, concentrating on the study of linear operators, which corresponds to that of the linear forms a1x1 + a2x2 + ... + anxn of algebra.The book gathers results concerning linear operators defined in general spaces of a certain kind, principally in Banach spaces, examples of which are: the space of continuous functions, that of the pth-power-summable functions, Hilbert space, etc. The general theorems are interpreted in various mathematical areas, such as group theory, differential equations, integral equations, equations with infinitely many unknowns, functions of a real variable, summation methods and orthogonal series.A new fifty-page section (``Some Aspects of the Present Theory of Banach Spaces'''') complements this important monograph.
Conserved linear dynamics of single-molecule Brownian motion
Serag, Maged F.
2017-06-06
Macromolecular diffusion in homogeneous fluid at length scales greater than the size of the molecule is regarded as a random process. The mean-squared displacement (MSD) of molecules in this regime increases linearly with time. Here we show that non-random motion of DNA molecules in this regime that is undetectable by the MSD analysis can be quantified by characterizing the molecular motion relative to a latticed frame of reference. Our lattice occupancy analysis reveals unexpected sub-modes of motion of DNA that deviate from expected random motion in the linear, diffusive regime. We demonstrate that a subtle interplay between these sub-modes causes the overall diffusive motion of DNA to appear to conform to the linear regime. Our results show that apparently random motion of macromolecules could be governed by non-random dynamics that are detectable only by their relative motion. Our analytical approach should advance broad understanding of diffusion processes of fundamental relevance.
Linear Logical Voting Protocols
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten
2012-01-01
Current approaches to electronic implementations of voting protocols involve translating legal text to source code of an imperative programming language. Because the gap between legal text and source code is very large, it is difficult to trust that the program meets its legal specification....... In response, we promote linear logic as a high-level language for both specifying and implementing voting protocols. Our linear logical specifications of the single-winner first-past-the-post (SW- FPTP) and single transferable vote (STV) protocols demonstrate that this approach leads to concise...
Hogben, Leslie
2013-01-01
With a substantial amount of new material, the Handbook of Linear Algebra, Second Edition provides comprehensive coverage of linear algebra concepts, applications, and computational software packages in an easy-to-use format. It guides you from the very elementary aspects of the subject to the frontiers of current research. Along with revisions and updates throughout, the second edition of this bestseller includes 20 new chapters.New to the Second EditionSeparate chapters on Schur complements, additional types of canonical forms, tensors, matrix polynomials, matrix equations, special types of
Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained
Vujičić, Milan
2008-01-01
Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject suitable for adoption as a self-contained text for courses at undergraduate and postgraduate level. The clear and comprehensive presentation of the basic theory is illustrated throughout with an abundance of worked examples. The book is written for teachers and students of linear algebra at all levels and across mathematics and the applied sciences, particularly physics and engineering. It will also be an invaluable addition to research libraries as a comprehensive resource book for the subject.
Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios
Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.
2010-09-01
We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.
Linear mixed models for longitudinal data
Molenberghs, Geert
2000-01-01
This paperback edition is a reprint of the 2000 edition. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of linear mixed models for continuous longitudinal data. Next to model formulation, this edition puts major emphasis on exploratory data analysis for all aspects of the model, such as the marginal model, subject-specific profiles, and residual covariance structure. Further, model diagnostics and missing data receive extensive treatment. Sensitivity analysis for incomplete data is given a prominent place. Several variations to the conventional linear mixed model are discussed (a heterogeity model, conditional linear mixed models). This book will be of interest to applied statisticians and biomedical researchers in industry, public health organizations, contract research organizations, and academia. The book is explanatory rather than mathematically rigorous. Most analyses were done with the MIXED procedure of the SAS software package, and many of its features are clearly elucidated. However, some other commerc...
Seber, George A F
2012-01-01
Concise, mathematically clear, and comprehensive treatment of the subject.* Expanded coverage of diagnostics and methods of model fitting.* Requires no specialized knowledge beyond a good grasp of matrix algebra and some acquaintance with straight-line regression and simple analysis of variance models.* More than 200 problems throughout the book plus outline solutions for the exercises.* This revision has been extensively class-tested.
Solving Linear Differential Equations
Nguyen, K.A.; Put, M. van der
2010-01-01
The theme of this paper is to 'solve' an absolutely irreducible differential module explicitly in terms of modules of lower dimension and finite extensions of the differential field K. Representations of semi-simple Lie algebras and differential Galo is theory are the main tools. The results extend
The effect of non-linear human visual system components on linear model observers
Zhang, Yani; Pham, Binh T.; Eckstein, Miguel P.
2004-05-01
Linear model observers have been used successfully to predict human performance in clinically relevant visual tasks for a variety of backgrounds. On the other hand, there has been another family of models used to predict human visual detection of signals superimposed on one of two identical backgrounds (masks). These masking models usually include a number of non-linear components in the channels that reflect properties of the firing of cells in the primary visual cortex (V1). The relationship between these two traditions of models has not been extensively investigated in the context of detection in noise. In this paper, we evaluated the effect of including some of these non-linear components into a linear channelized Hotelling observer (CHO), and the associated practical implications for medical image quality evaluation. In particular, we evaluate whether the rank order evaluation of two compression algorithms (JPEG vs. JPEG 2000) is changed by inclusion of the non-linear components. The results show: a) First that the simpler linear CHO model observer outperforms CHO model with the nonlinear components investigated. b) The rank order of model observer performance for the compression algorithms did not vary when the non-linear components were included. For the present task, the results suggest that the addition of the physiologically based channel non-linearities to a channelized Hotelling might add complexity to the model observers without great impact on medical image quality evaluation.
Kaplan-Meier type distributions for linear contact distributions
Hansen, M.B.; Gill, R.D.; Baddeley, A.
1996-01-01
The linear contact distribution function is shown to be continuously dierentiable for any stationary random closed set which implies the existence of a continuous density and hazard rate Moreover it is proved that the density is monotone decreasing When the linear contact distribution function is
Dobbs, David E.
2013-01-01
A direct method is given for solving first-order linear recurrences with constant coefficients. The limiting value of that solution is studied as "n to infinity." This classroom note could serve as enrichment material for the typical introductory course on discrete mathematics that follows a calculus course.
Linear Classification Functions.
Huberty, Carl J.; Smith, Jerry D.
Linear classification functions (LCFs) arise in a predictive discriminant analysis for the purpose of classifying experimental units into criterion groups. The relative contribution of the response variables to classification accuracy may be based on LCF-variable correlations for each group. It is proved that, if the raw response measures are…
Linear Projective Program Syntax
Bergstra, J.A.; Bethke, I.
2004-01-01
Based on an extremely simple program notation more advanced program features can be developed in linear projective program syntax such as conditional statements, while loops, recursion, use of an evaluation stack, object classes, method calls etc. Taking care of a cumulative and bottom up
Temporal Linear System Structure
Willigenburg, van L.G.; Koning, de W.L.
2008-01-01
Piecewise constant rank systems and the differential Kalman decomposition are introduced in this note. Together these enable the detection of temporal uncontrollability/unreconstructability of linear continuous-time systems. These temporal properties are not detected by any of the four conventional
Rauck, Richard L; Bookbinder, Stephen A; Bunker, Timothy R; Alftine, Christopher D; Ghalie, Richard; Negro-Vilar, Andres; de Jong, Egbert; Gershon, Steven
2006-01-01
The ACTION trial, an open-label, randomized, multicenter, two-part study, compared the efficacy and safety of two sustained-release opioids (SROs), A VINZA (A-MQD), morphine sulfate extended-release capsules given once a day, and OxyContin (O-ER), oxycodone modified-release tablets given twice a day, in subjects with chronic, moderate to severe low back pain. The first part of the study, the evaluation phase, was followed by an optional four-month extension phase aimed at evaluating the long-term stability of pain control, SRO dose, and quality of sleep. Three hundred and ninety-two subjects were enrolled in the study; 220 completed the evaluation phase, and 174 entered the extensionphase. During the latterphase, subjects in the A-MQD group (n=79) continued to report lower pain scores, better quality of sleep, lower daily morphine-equivalent doses (means of 86 mg versus 119 mg), and a comparable usage of ibuprofen compared to subjects in the O-ER group (n=95). The incidence and severity of elicited opioid side effects were similar between the two groups. Both study drugs resulted in significant pain relief and improved sleep in SRO-naive patients with chronic low back pain, and this outcome was attained with a stable daily SRO dose. In patients who completed opioid dose titration, A VINZA performed significantly better than OxyContin in reducing pain scores and improving sleep-with a lower morphine-equivalent daily dose-during both the evaluation and extension phases.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcos Inacio Severo de Almeida
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The scope of services marketing has a theoretical and empirical gap that refers to the impact of the provision of services on sales. This research opportunity is routinely highlighted in theoretical proposals such as the Augmented Service Offering (ASO, Innovation in Services (IS and Service Dominant Logic (SDL, which require alternative measures of combinations of product and service and the possible effects that these arrangements may cause. This article aims to investigate the impact of the extension and the interaction of services on Business to Business (B2B sales. Three hypotheses were tested with data from the fuel sector. Research was operationalized based on secondary data, ceded by an energy company, which comprise sales of regular and premium gasoline of this company to 19 gas stations along 27 months, totaling 513 observations. The study involved the construction of a generalized linear model with balanced, long and random effects panel structure. The three hypotheses were supported, identifying how the extensive principle of service contributes to the increased performance and conclude the existence of a direct, linear and positive impact of extension and interaction of services on B2B sales.
Approximate Solution of nth-Order Fuzzy Linear Differential Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaobin Guo
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The approximate solution of nth-order fuzzy linear differential equations in which coefficient functions maintain the sign is investigated by the undetermined fuzzy coefficients method. The differential equations is converted to a crisp function system of linear equations according to the operations of fuzzy numbers. The fuzzy approximate solution of the fuzzy linear differential equation is obtained by solving the crisp linear equations. Some numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed method. It is an extension of Allahviranloo's results.
Concentration of Magnetization for Linear Block Codes
Korada, Satish Babu; Kudekar, Shrinivas; Macris, Nicolas
2008-01-01
We consider communication over the binary erasure and the binary additive white gaussian noise channels using fixed linear block codes and also appropriate ensembles of such codes. We show concentration of the magnetization over the channel realizations and also over the code ensembles. The result has various implications. For the binary erasure channel, the result implies the concentration of the fraction of bits in error over the randomness in both noise and code realization, and that of th...
IDENTIFICATION OF LINEAR DYNAMIC SYSTEMS,
CONTROL SYSTEMS , LINEAR SYSTEMS ), (*LINEAR SYSTEMS , IDENTIFICATION ), REAL TIME, MONTE CARLO METHOD, LEAST SQUARES METHOD, SERIES(MATHEMATICS), STOCHASTIC PROCESSES, MATHEMATICAL PREDICTION, OPTIMIZATION, STABILITY
Nonlinear damping and quasi-linear modelling.
Elliott, S J; Ghandchi Tehrani, M; Langley, R S
2015-09-28
The mechanism of energy dissipation in mechanical systems is often nonlinear. Even though there may be other forms of nonlinearity in the dynamics, nonlinear damping is the dominant source of nonlinearity in a number of practical systems. The analysis of such systems is simplified by the fact that they show no jump or bifurcation behaviour, and indeed can often be well represented by an equivalent linear system, whose damping parameters depend on the form and amplitude of the excitation, in a 'quasi-linear' model. The diverse sources of nonlinear damping are first reviewed in this paper, before some example systems are analysed, initially for sinusoidal and then for random excitation. For simplicity, it is assumed that the system is stable and that the nonlinear damping force depends on the nth power of the velocity. For sinusoidal excitation, it is shown that the response is often also almost sinusoidal, and methods for calculating the amplitude are described based on the harmonic balance method, which is closely related to the describing function method used in control engineering. For random excitation, several methods of analysis are shown to be equivalent. In general, iterative methods need to be used to calculate the equivalent linear damper, since its value depends on the system's response, which itself depends on the value of the equivalent linear damper. The power dissipation of the equivalent linear damper, for both sinusoidal and random cases, matches that dissipated by the nonlinear damper, providing both a firm theoretical basis for this modelling approach and clear physical insight. Finally, practical examples of nonlinear damping are discussed: in microspeakers, vibration isolation, energy harvesting and the mechanical response of the cochlea. © 2015 The Author(s).
Dynamic randomization and a randomization model for clinical trials data.
Kaiser, Lee D
2012-12-20
Randomization models are useful in supporting the validity of linear model analyses applied to data from a clinical trial that employed randomization via permuted blocks. Here, a randomization model for clinical trials data with arbitrary randomization methodology is developed, with treatment effect estimators and standard error estimators valid from a randomization perspective. A central limit theorem for the treatment effect estimator is also derived. As with permuted-blocks randomization, a typical linear model analysis provides results similar to the randomization model results when, roughly, unit effects display no pattern over time. A key requirement for the randomization inference is that the unconditional probability that any patient receives active treatment is constant across patients; when this probability condition is violated, the treatment effect estimator is biased from a randomization perspective. Most randomization methods for balanced, 1 to 1, treatment allocation satisfy this condition. However, many dynamic randomization methods for planned unbalanced treatment allocation, like 2 to 1, do not satisfy this constant probability condition, and these methods should be avoided. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The International Linear Collider
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
List Benno
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The International Linear Collider (ILC is a proposed e+e− linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy of 200–500 GeV, based on superconducting RF cavities. The ILC would be an ideal machine for precision studies of a light Higgs boson and the top quark, and would have a discovery potential for new particles that is complementary to that of LHC. The clean experimental conditions would allow the operation of detectors with extremely good performance; two such detectors, ILD and SiD, are currently being designed. Both make use of novel concepts for tracking and calorimetry. The Japanese High Energy Physics community has recently recommended to build the ILC in Japan.
Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper we have studied the Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in materials using the band transport model. For low light beam intensities the change in the refractive index is proportional to the electric field for linear optics while for non- linear optics the change in refractive index is directly proportional ...
Zimmermann, Frank
2001-01-01
Proceeding from the collision point towards the source, we discuss purpose and design concepts of the various linear-collider subsystems, as well as important mechanisms of emittance dilution, beam diagnostics, and advanced tuning methods. In particular, we address beamstrahlung, linac emittance degradation due to dispersion and wake fields, scaling of damping-ring parameters with collider energy, fast beam-ion and electron-cloud instabilities, coherent synchrotron radiation, and rf guns. Five case studies are examined in detail.
Diamond, Jared M.
1966-01-01
1. The relation between osmotic gradient and rate of osmotic water flow has been measured in rabbit gall-bladder by a gravimetric procedure and by a rapid method based on streaming potentials. Streaming potentials were directly proportional to gravimetrically measured water fluxes. 2. As in many other tissues, water flow was found to vary with gradient in a markedly non-linear fashion. There was no consistent relation between the water permeability and either the direction or the rate of water flow. 3. Water flow in response to a given gradient decreased at higher osmolarities. The resistance to water flow increased linearly with osmolarity over the range 186-825 m-osM. 4. The resistance to water flow was the same when the gall-bladder separated any two bathing solutions with the same average osmolarity, regardless of the magnitude of the gradient. In other words, the rate of water flow is given by the expression (Om — Os)/[Ro′ + ½k′ (Om + Os)], where Ro′ and k′ are constants and Om and Os are the bathing solution osmolarities. 5. Of the theories advanced to explain non-linear osmosis in other tissues, flow-induced membrane deformations, unstirred layers, asymmetrical series-membrane effects, and non-osmotic effects of solutes could not explain the results. However, experimental measurements of water permeability as a function of osmolarity permitted quantitative reconstruction of the observed water flow—osmotic gradient curves. Hence non-linear osmosis in rabbit gall-bladder is due to a decrease in water permeability with increasing osmolarity. 6. The results suggest that aqueous channels in the cell membrane behave as osmometers, shrinking in concentrated solutions of impermeant molecules and thereby increasing membrane resistance to water flow. A mathematical formulation of such a membrane structure is offered. PMID:5945254
Graffi, Dario
2011-01-01
L. Cesari: Non-linear analysis.- J.K. Hale: Oscillations in neutral functional differential equations.- M. Jean: Elements de la theorie des equations differentielles avec commandes.- J. Mawhin: Un apercu des recherches belges en theorie des equations differentielles ordinaires dans le champ reel entre 1967 et 1972.- Yu A. Mitropol'skii: Certains aspects des progres de la methode de centrage.- Th. Vogel: Quelques problemes non lineaires en physique mathematique.
Relativistic Linear Restoring Force
Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.
2012-01-01
We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…
Sander, K F
1964-01-01
Linear Network Theory covers the significant algebraic aspect of network theory, with minimal reference to practical circuits. The book begins the presentation of network analysis with the exposition of networks containing resistances only, and follows it up with a discussion of networks involving inductance and capacity by way of the differential equations. Classification and description of certain networks, equivalent networks, filter circuits, and network functions are also covered. Electrical engineers, technicians, electronics engineers, electricians, and students learning the intricacies
Non linear viscoelastic models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agerkvist, Finn T.
2011-01-01
Viscoelastic eects are often present in loudspeaker suspensions, this can be seen in the displacement transfer function which often shows a frequency dependent value below the resonance frequency. In this paper nonlinear versions of the standard linear solid model (SLS) are investigated....... The simulations show that the nonlinear version of the Maxwell SLS model can result in a time dependent small signal stiness while the Kelvin Voight version does not....
Optimal Allocation in Stratified Randomized Response Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javid Shabbir
2005-07-01
Full Text Available A Warner (1965 randomized response model based on stratification is used to determine the allocation of samples. Both linear and log-linear cost functions are discussed under uni and double stratification. It observed that by using a log-linear cost function, one can get better allocations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francisco L. Silva-González
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A non-Gaussian stochastic equivalent linearization (NSEL method for estimating the non-Gaussian response of inelastic non-linear structural systems subjected to seismic ground motions represented as nonstationary random processes is presented. Based on a model that represents the time evolution of the joint probability density function (PDF of the structural response, mathematical expressions of equivalent linearization coefficients are derived. The displacement and velocity are assumed jointly Gaussian and the marginal PDF of the hysteretic component of the displacement is modeled by a mixed PDF which is Gaussian when the structural behavior is linear and turns into a bimodal PDF when the structural behavior is hysteretic. The proposed NSEL method is applied to calculate the response of hysteretic single-degree-of-freedom systems with different vibration periods and different design displacement ductility values. The results corresponding to the proposed method are compared with those calculated by means of Monte Carlo simulation, as well as by a Gaussian equivalent linearization method. It is verified that the NSEL approach proposed herein leads to maximum structural response standard deviations similar to those obtained with Monte Carlo technique. In addition, a brief discussion about the extension of the method to muti-degree-of-freedom systems is presented.
Wave Propagation inside Random Media
Cheng, Xiaojun
This thesis presents results of studies of wave scattering within and transmission through random and periodic systems. The main focus is on energy profiles inside quasi-1D and 1D random media. The connection between transport and the states of the medium is manifested in the equivalence of the dimensionless conductance, g, and the Thouless number which is the ratio of the average linewidth and spacing of energy levels. This equivalence and theories regarding the energy profiles inside random media are based on the assumption that LDOS is uniform throughout the samples. We have conducted microwave measurements of the longitudinal energy profiles within disordered samples contained in a copper tube supporting multiple waveguide channels with an antenna moving along a slit on the tube. These measurements allow us to determine the local density of states (LDOS) at a location which is the sum of energy from all incoming channels on both sides. For diffusive samples, the LDOS is uniform and the energy profile decays linearly as expected. However, for localized samples, we find that the LDOS drops sharply towards the middle of the sample and the energy profile does not follow the result of the local diffusion theory where the LDOS is assumed to be uniform. We analyze the field spectra into quasi-normal modes and found that the mode linewidth and the number of modes saturates as the sample length increases. Thus the Thouless number saturates while the dimensionless conductance g continues to fall with increasing length, indicating that the modes are localized near the boundaries. This is in contrast to the general believing that g and Thouless number follow the same scaling behavior. Previous measurements show that single parameter scaling (SPS) still holds in the same sample where the LDOS is suppressed te{shi2014microwave}. We explore the extension of SPS to the interior of the sample by analyzing statistics of the logrithm of the energy density ln W(x) and found that
ON THE GASTALDI – D’URSO FUZZY LINEAR REGRESSION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
DANA-FLORENTA SIMION
2011-04-01
Full Text Available In the crisp regression models, the differences between observed values and calculates ones are suspected to be caused by random distributed errors, although these are due to observation errors and an unappropriate model structure. So, the fuzzy character of model prevails. The Fuzzy linear regression models (FLRM are, roughly speaking, of two kinds: Fuzzy linear programming (FLP based methods and Fuzzy least squares (FLS methods. The FLP methods have been initiated by H.Tanaka (1982 and developed by H. Ishibuchi et al. The classical FLR model, Y=A0+A1X1+...+AkXk, has a explained Fuzzy triangular variable, Y, Fuzzy triangular coefficients {Aj} and crisp explanatory variables {Xj}: the parameters {Aj} of the model are estimated by minimizing the total indetermination of the model, so each data point lies within the limits of the response variable. In a large number of situations the prediction interval of the FLR model were much less than the interval obtained applying classical the Multiple linear regression model (see V.M. Kandala – 2002, 2003. However, this approach is somehow heuristic; on the other side, the LP model complexity overmuch increases as the number of data points increases. The FLS approach (P. Diamond; Miin-Shen Yang, Hsien-Hsiung Liu – 1988 et al is an extension of the classical OLS method, using various metrics defined on the space of the fuzzy numbers. A significant number of recent works (McCauley- Bell (1999, J. deA. Sanchez and A. T. Gomez (2003 who used FLS to estimate the term structure of interest rates deals with models with a fuzzy output, fuzzy coefficients and a crisp input vector. All the fuzzy components are symmetric triangular fuzzy numbers: the main idea of the method is to minimize the total support of the fuzzy coeficients. Sometimes, different restrictions occur. In our paper, we intend to build some examples for the P. d’Urso and T. Gastaldi models, that allow a comparative study on various options
Mingotti, Nicola
2015-01-01
This work aims at the exposition of two different results we have obtained in Functional Data Analysis. The first is a variable selection method in Functional Regression which is an adaptation of the well known Lasso technique. The second is a brand new Random Walk test for Functional Time Series. Being the results afferent to different areas of Functional Data Analysis, as well as of general Statistics, the introduction will be divided in three parts. Firstly we expose the fundament...
Barriers and Effective Educational Strategies to Develop Extension Agents' Professional Competencies
Lakai, Dona; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Moore, Gary E.; Kistler, Mark J.
2012-01-01
The study reported here determined the barriers and effective educational strategies to develop Extension agents' professional competencies. This was a descriptive survey research conducted with a random sample of Extension agents. Increased workload and lack of time and funding were identified as the most constraining barriers of Extension agents…
attitude of extension personnel to training and visit extension system ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
the training and visit (T&V) extension system as a complimentary step to specify if this extension approach is ... at 5 percent level of probability, the mean score for the project headquarters staff (106.25) was highest while ... which offered them the opportunity to use their knowledge and skills. Asiabiaka (1991) studied women ...
Robotic hand with modular extensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan
2015-01-20
A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.
Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask
Kask, Kalle
2002-01-01
Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele
Lopez, Cesar
2014-01-01
MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Linear Algebra introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. In addition to giving an introduction to
Wangler, Thomas P
2008-01-01
Thomas P. Wangler received his B.S. degree in physics from Michigan State University, and his Ph.D. degree in physics and astronomy from the University of Wisconsin. After postdoctoral appointments at the University of Wisconsin and Brookhaven National Laboratory, he joined the staff of Argonne National Laboratory in 1966, working in the fields of experimental high-energy physics and accelerator physics. He joined the Accelerator Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1979, where he specialized in high-current beam physics and linear accelerator design and technology. In 2007
Fermionic Linear Optics and Matchgates
Knill, E.
2001-01-01
Fermionic linear optics is efficiently classically simulatable. Here it is shown that the set of states achievable with fermionic linear optics and particle measurements is the closure of a low dimensional Lie group. The weakness of fermionic linear optics and measurements can therefore be explained and contrasted with the strength of bosonic linear optics with particle measurements. An analysis of fermionic linear optics is used to show that the two-qubit matchgates and the simulatable match...
Fractional extensions of some boundary value problems in oil strata
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In the present paper, we solve three boundary value problems related to the temperature field in oil strata - the fractional extensions of the incomplete lumped formulation and lumped formulation in the linear case and the fractional generalization of the incomplete lumped formulation in the radial case. By using the Caputo ...
The Torsion-Extension Coupling in Pretwisted Elastic Beams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
1983-01-01
An explicit asymptotic formula is derived for the untwist of a pretwisted elastic beam subjected to homogeneous extension or equivalently for the longitudinal contraction produced by a torsional moment. It is based on an asymptotic expansion of the three dimensional equations of linear elasticity...
Fractional extensions of some boundary value problems in oil strata
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In the present paper, we solve three boundary value problems related to the temperature field in oil strata – the fractional extensions of the incomplete lumped formulation and lumped formulation in the linear case and the fractional generalization of the incomplete lumped formulation in the radial case. By using the ...
Extension of Jensen's Inequality for Operators without Operator Convexity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jadranka Mićić
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We give an extension of Jensen's inequality for -tuples of self-adjoint operators, unital -tuples of positive linear mappings, and real-valued continuous convex functions with conditions on the operators' bounds. We also study operator quasiarithmetic means under the same conditions.
Nanoconfined circular and linear DNA - equilibrium conformations and unfolding kinetics
Alizadehheidari, M; Noble, C; Reiter-Schad, M; Nyberg, L K; Fritzsche, J; Mehlig, B; Tegenfeldt, J O; Ambjörnsson, T; Persson, F; Westerlund, F
2016-01-01
Studies of circular DNA confined to nanofluidic channels are relevant both from a fundamental polymer-physics perspective and due to the importance of circular DNA molecules in vivo. We here observe the unfolding of DNA from the circular to linear configuration as a light-induced double strand break occurs, characterize the dynamics, and compare the equilibrium conformational statistics of linear and circular configurations. This is important because it allows us to determine to which extent existing statistical theories describe the extension of confined circular DNA. We find that the ratio of the extensions of confined linear and circular DNA configurations increases as the buffer concentration decreases. The experimental results fall between theoretical predictions for the extended de Gennes regime at weaker confinement and the Odijk regime at stronger confinement. We show that it is possible to directly distinguish between circular and linear DNA molecules by measuring the emission intensity from the DNA....
Chowdhury, Ataharul Huq; Odame, Helen Hambly; Leeuwis, Cees
2014-01-01
Purpose: The rapidly evolving nature of agricultural innovation processes in low-income countries requires agricultural extension agencies to transform the classical roles that previously supported linear information dissemination and adoption of innovation. In Bangladesh, strengthening agricultural innovation calls for facilitation of interactive…
Extensive Reading Coursebooks in China
Renandya, Willy A.; Hu, Guangwei; Xiang, Yu
2015-01-01
This article reports on a principle-based evaluation of eight dedicated extensive reading coursebooks published in mainland China and used in many universities across the country. The aim is to determine the extent to which these coursebooks reflect a core set of nine second language acquisition and extensive reading principles. Our analysis shows…
Frames and extension problems I
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Ole
2014-01-01
In this article we present a short survey of frame theory in Hilbert spaces. We discuss Gabor frames and wavelet frames and set the stage for a discussion of various extension principles; this will be presented in the article Frames and extension problems II (joint with H.O. Kim and R.Y. Kim)....
Research-extension-farmer linkages
African Journals Online (AJOL)
charged with the role of articulating the most appropriate research and extension systems for Uganda. Following the recommendations of these working groups, national agricultural research and extension strategies and plans were adopted ..... meetings at institutes have been taking place regularly since 1994. These take ...
Homomorphisms between C∗ -algebra extensions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
-algebra extensions. CHANGGUO WEI. School of Mathematical Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266071, ... into the other in general, so we have to consider properties of extension homomorphisms before studying the ..... Theory (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, N.S., 1973) Lecture Notes in Math. (Berlin: Springer).
EXTENSION WORKERS' OPINIONS REGARDING THE ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The primary purpose of the study was to determine extension worker's opinions regarding the influence of the National Maize Competition (NAMCOM) on the farmers' agricultural practices and experiences in the Manzini region. A census population of front-line extension workers in charge of the participating areas in ...
Repeat Customer Success in Extension
Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.
2013-01-01
Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…
Hokr, Brett H; Mason, John D; Beier, Hope T; Rockwll, Benjamin A; Thomas, Robert J; Noojin, Gary D; Petrov, Georgi I; Golovan, Leonid A; Yakovlev, Vladislav V
2013-01-01
Propagation of light in a highly scattering medium is among the most fascinating optical effect that everyone experiences on an everyday basis and possesses a number of fundamental problems which have yet to be solved. Conventional wisdom suggests that non-linear effects do not play a significant role because the diffusive nature of scattering acts to spread the intensity, dramatically weakening these effects. We demonstrate the first experimental evidence of lasing on a Raman transition in a bulk three-dimensional random media. From a practical standpoint, Raman transitions allow for spectroscopic analysis of the chemical makeup of the sample. A random Raman laser could serve as a bright Raman source allowing for remote, chemically specific, identification of powders and aerosols. Fundamentally, the first demonstration of this new light source opens up an entire new field of study into non-linear light propagation in turbid media, with the most notable application related to non-invasive biomedical imaging.
Efficient estimation of the partly linear additive Cox model
Huang, Jian
1999-01-01
The partly linear additive Cox model is an extension of the (linear) Cox model and allows flexible modeling of covariate effects semiparametrically. We study asymptotic properties of the maximum partial likelihood estimator of this model with right-censored data using polynomial splines. We show that, with a range of choices of the smoothing parameter (the number of spline basis functions) required for estimation of the nonparametric components, the estimator of the finite-d...
On the linear programming bound for linear Lee codes.
Astola, Helena; Tabus, Ioan
2016-01-01
Based on an invariance-type property of the Lee-compositions of a linear Lee code, additional equality constraints can be introduced to the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes. In this paper, we formulate this property in terms of an action of the multiplicative group of the field [Formula: see text] on the set of Lee-compositions. We show some useful properties of certain sums of Lee-numbers, which are the eigenvalues of the Lee association scheme, appearing in the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes. Using the additional equality constraints, we formulate the linear programming problem of linear Lee codes in a very compact form, leading to a fast execution, which allows to efficiently compute the bounds for large parameter values of the linear codes.
Linear algebra and group theory for physicists
Rao, K N Srinivasa
2006-01-01
Professor Srinivasa Rao's text on Linear Algebra and Group Theory is directed to undergraduate and graduate students who wish to acquire a solid theoretical foundation in these mathematical topics which find extensive use in physics. Based on courses delivered during Professor Srinivasa Rao's long career at the University of Mysore, this text is remarkable for its clear exposition of the subject. Advanced students will find a range of topics such as the Representation theory of Linear Associative Algebras, a complete analysis of Dirac and Kemmer algebras, Representations of the Symmetric group via Young Tableaux, a systematic derivation of the Crystallographic point groups, a comprehensive and unified discussion of the Rotation and Lorentz groups and their representations, and an introduction to Dynkin diagrams in the classification of Lie groups. In addition, the first few chapters on Elementary Group Theory and Vector Spaces also provide useful instructional material even at an introductory level. An author...
Non-Linear Dynamics and Fundamental Interactions
Khanna, Faqir
2006-01-01
The book is directed to researchers and graduate students pursuing an advanced degree. It provides details of techniques directed towards solving problems in non-linear dynamics and chos that are, in general, not amenable to a perturbative treatment. The consideration of fundamental interactions is a prime example where non-perturbative techniques are needed. Extension of these techniques to finite temperature problems is considered. At present these ideas are primarily used in a perturbative context. However, non-perturbative techniques have been considered in some specific cases. Experts in the field on non-linear dynamics and chaos and fundamental interactions elaborate the techniques and provide a critical look at the present status and explore future directions that may be fruitful. The text of the main talks will be very useful to young graduate students who are starting their studies in these areas.
Linear Parametric Model Checking of Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hune, Tohmas Seidelin; Romijn, Judi; Stoelinga, Mariëlle
2001-01-01
We present an extension of the model checker Uppaal capable of synthesize linear parameter constraints for the correctness of parametric timed automata. The symbolic representation of the (parametric) state-space is shown to be correct. A second contribution of this paper is the identication...... of a subclass of parametric timed automata (L/U automata), for which the emptiness problem is decidable, contrary to the full class where it is know to be undecidable. Also we present a number of lemmas enabling the verication eort to be reduced for L/U automata in some cases. We illustrate our approach...
Introduction to linear elasticity
Gould, Phillip L
2013-01-01
Introduction to Linear Elasticity, 3rd Edition, provides an applications-oriented grounding in the tensor-based theory of elasticity for students in mechanical, civil, aeronautical, and biomedical engineering, as well as materials and earth science. The book is distinct from the traditional text aimed at graduate students in solid mechanics by introducing the subject at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The author's presentation allows students to apply the basic notions of stress analysis and move on to advanced work in continuum mechanics, plasticity, plate and shell theory, composite materials, viscoelasticity and finite method analysis. This book also: Emphasizes tensor-based approach while still distilling down to explicit notation Provides introduction to theory of plates, theory of shells, wave propagation, viscoelasticity and plasticity accessible to advanced undergraduate students Appropriate for courses following emerging trend of teaching solid mechan...
Extreme bosonic linear channels
Holevo, A. S.
2013-02-01
The set of all channels with a fixed input and output is convex. We first give a convenient formulation of the necessary and sufficient condition for a channel to be an extreme point of this set in terms of the complementary channel, a notion of great importance in quantum information theory. This formulation is based on the general approach to extremality of completely positive maps in an operator algebra in the spirit of Arveson. We then use this formulation to prove our main result: under certain nondegeneracy conditions, environmental purity is necessary and sufficient for the extremality of a bosonic linear (quasifree) channel. It hence follows that a Gaussian channel between finite-mode bosonic systems is extreme if and only if it has minimum noise.
Journal of Agricultural Extension submitted to Agricultural Extension ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
PROF. MADUKWE
followed by lack of contact with extension agents (71.7%) and gender ... As women typically confront narrower range of labour markets than men, and lower wage ..... gap in accessibility to productive resources between male and female heads ...
Computer Program For Linear Algebra
Krogh, F. T.; Hanson, R. J.
1987-01-01
Collection of routines provided for basic vector operations. Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is collection from FORTRAN-callable routines for employing standard techniques to perform basic operations of numerical linear algebra.
Extensions of the Poincare group
Antoniadis, Ignatios; Savvidy, George
2011-01-01
We construct an extension of the Poincare group which involves a mixture of internal and space-time supersymmetries. The resulting group is an extension of the superPoincare group with infinitely many generators which carry internal and space-time indices. It is a closed algebra since all Jacobi identities are satisfied and it has therefore explicit matrix representations. We investigate the massless case and construct the irreducible representations of the extended symmetry. They are divided into two sets, longitudinal and transversal representations. The transversal representations involve an infinite series of integer and half-integer helicities. Finally we suggest an extension of the conformal group along the same line.
Programming Reactive Extensions and LINQ
Liberty, Jesse
2011-01-01
Pro Reactive Extensions and LINQ is a deep dive into the next important technology for .NET developers: Reactive Extensions. This in-depth tutorial goes beyond what is available anywhere else to teach how to write WPF, Silverlight, and Windows Phone applications using the Reactive Extensions (Rx) to handle events and asynchronous method calls. Reactive programming allows you to turn those aspects of your code that are currently imperative into something much more event-driven and flexible. For this reason, it's sometimes referred to as LINQ for Events. Reactive programming hinges on the concep
Learning Joomla! 3 extension development
Plummer, Tim
2013-01-01
A practical guide with step-by-step examples that build on each other so you can learn by doing and get hands-on knowledge about creating your plugins, modules, and components in Joomla.""Learning Joomla! 3 Extension Development, Third Edition"" is for developers who want to create their own Joomla extensions. It is assumed you will have some basic PHP, HTML, and CSS knowledge, but you don't need any prior Joomla programming experience. This book will also be useful to people who just want to make minor customizations to existing Joomla extensions and build on the work of others in the open so
Use of internet for innovation management by extension agents in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study examined extension agents' perception of the use of the Internet for sourcing and disseminating agricultural innovation in Oyo state. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 80 respondents. Data collected with a questionnaire were subjected to descriptive and Pearson product moment correlation ...
Mobile Phone as an extension tool among female agricultural ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study assessed the use of mobile telephone for extension among female agricultural practitioners in Lagos State. The study adopted purposive selection of Epe and Ikorodu Local Government Areas (LGA), while simple random sampling technique was used to select 60 female farmers and 5 female EAs in each of the ...
A QoS-oriented extension of UML statecharts
Jansen, D.N.; Hermanns, H.; Katoen, Joost P.; Stevens, Perdita; Whittle, Jon; Booch, Grady
2003-01-01
Performance, dependability and quality of service (QoS) are prime aspects of the UML modeling domain. To capture these aspects effectively in a modeling language requires easy-to-use support for the specification and analysis of randomly varying behaviors. This paper introduces an extension of UML
Individual and Group Extension Methods: Perspectives from Vi ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of group and individual extension methods in delivering agroforestry technologies at Vi-Agroforestry project, Masaka district. Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRAs) tools including semi-structured questionnaires were administrated to 90 randomly selected farmers who had ...
Evaluation Of Farmers\\' Extension Education Needs In Ohaji ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study evaluated farmers extension education needs in Ohaji/Egbema local government area of Imo State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected with the aid of questionnaire and interview from 124 randomly selected farmers in the study area. Data analysis was with the use of frequencies, percentages and Pearson ...
Public extension agents' need for new competencies: evidence from ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The purpose of the paper is to determine Extension agents' climate variability coping competencies required to effectively support smallholder crop farmers' production. The study adopted a multi-stage random sampling approach to site and respondents' selection. Semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data in ...
Performance Evaluation of the Training and Visit Extension ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study evaluated the performance of the training and visit (T&V) extension management system in Owerri Agricultural Zone of Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaires administered to 60 randomly selected respondents from three Local Government Areas (LGAs) of the Zone.
Monahan, John F
2008-01-01
Preface Examples of the General Linear Model Introduction One-Sample Problem Simple Linear Regression Multiple Regression One-Way ANOVA First Discussion The Two-Way Nested Model Two-Way Crossed Model Analysis of Covariance Autoregression Discussion The Linear Least Squares Problem The Normal Equations The Geometry of Least Squares Reparameterization Gram-Schmidt Orthonormalization Estimability and Least Squares Estimators Assumptions for the Linear Mean Model Confounding, Identifiability, and Estimability Estimability and Least Squares Estimators F
Templates for Linear Algebra Problems
Bai, Z.; Day, D.; Demmel, J.; Dongarra, J.; Gu, M.; Ruhe, A.; Vorst, H.A. van der
1995-01-01
The increasing availability of advanced-architecture computers is having a very signicant eect on all spheres of scientic computation, including algorithm research and software development in numerical linear algebra. Linear algebra {in particular, the solution of linear systems of equations and
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn
This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...
Control Theory for Linear Systems
Trentelman, Harry L.; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Hautus, Malo
2001-01-01
Control Theory for Linear Systems deals with the mathematical theory of feedback control of linear systems. It treats a wide range of control synthesis problems for linear state space systems with inputs and outputs. The book provides a treatment of these problems using state space methods, often
A feasible DY conjugate gradient method for linear equality constraints
LI, Can
2017-09-01
In this paper, we propose a feasible conjugate gradient method for solving linear equality constrained optimization problem. The method is an extension of the Dai-Yuan conjugate gradient method proposed by Dai and Yuan to linear equality constrained optimization problem. It can be applied to solve large linear equality constrained problem due to lower storage requirement. An attractive property of the method is that the generated direction is always feasible and descent direction. Under mild conditions, the global convergence of the proposed method with exact line search is established. Numerical experiments are also given which show the efficiency of the method.
Linear covariance analysis for gimbaled pointing systems
Christensen, Randall S.
Linear covariance analysis has been utilized in a wide variety of applications. Historically, the theory has made significant contributions to navigation system design and analysis. More recently, the theory has been extended to capture the combined effect of navigation errors and closed-loop control on the performance of the system. These advancements have made possible rapid analysis and comprehensive trade studies of complicated systems ranging from autonomous rendezvous to vehicle ascent trajectory analysis. Comprehensive trade studies are also needed in the area of gimbaled pointing systems where the information needs are different from previous applications. It is therefore the objective of this research to extend the capabilities of linear covariance theory to analyze the closed-loop navigation and control of a gimbaled pointing system. The extensions developed in this research include modifying the linear covariance equations to accommodate a wider variety of controllers. This enables the analysis of controllers common to gimbaled pointing systems, with internal states and associated dynamics as well as actuator command filtering and auxiliary controller measurements. The second extension is the extraction of power spectral density estimates from information available in linear covariance analysis. This information is especially important to gimbaled pointing systems where not just the variance but also the spectrum of the pointing error impacts the performance. The extended theory is applied to a model of a gimbaled pointing system which includes both flexible and rigid body elements as well as input disturbances, sensor errors, and actuator errors. The results of the analysis are validated by direct comparison to a Monte Carlo-based analysis approach. Once the developed linear covariance theory is validated, analysis techniques that are often prohibitory with Monte Carlo analysis are used to gain further insight into the system. These include the creation
No extension of quantum theory can have improved predictive power.
Colbeck, Roger; Renner, Renato
2011-08-02
According to quantum theory, measurements generate random outcomes, in stark contrast with classical mechanics. This raises the question of whether there could exist an extension of the theory that removes this indeterminism, as suspected by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen. Although this has been shown to be impossible, existing results do not imply that the current theory is maximally informative. Here we ask the more general question of whether any improved predictions can be achieved by any extension of quantum theory. Under the assumption that measurements can be chosen freely, we answer this question in the negative: no extension of quantum theory can give more information about the outcomes of future measurements than quantum theory itself. Our result has significance for the foundations of quantum mechanics, as well as applications to tasks that exploit the inherent randomness in quantum theory, such as quantum cryptography.
Horizontal Brand Extension and Customer perception
Khan, Khalid; Janthimapornkij, Rattanawilai
2011-01-01
Company use different method for extended their business to different market and to different segment. They use different method; brand extension is one of popular strategy for extension of business. Brand extension does not become successful for every brand, it is very risky. The purpose of this thesis is to study horizontal brand extension and customer perception. We will discuss horizontal brand extension and its two main types franchise brand extension and line extension. Brand extension ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)
1995-12-01
The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.
Frames and extension problems II
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young
2014-01-01
This article is a follow-up on the article Frames and Extension Problems I. Here we will go into more recent progress on the topic and also present some open problems.......This article is a follow-up on the article Frames and Extension Problems I. Here we will go into more recent progress on the topic and also present some open problems....
Villard, Judith A.; Earnest, Garee W.
2006-01-01
This descriptive-correlational study used a census of Ohio State University Extension county directors and a random sample of county staff throughout the State of Ohio. Data were collected utilizing Bar-On's Emotional Intelligence Quotient instrument (county directors) and Warner's job satisfaction instrument (county staff). The study examined the…
On an asymmetric extension of multivariate Archimedean copulas based on quadratic form
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Elena Di Bernardino; Didier Rullière
2016-01-01
.... Our extension is based on the observation that when applied to the copula the inverse function of the generator of an Archimedean copula can be expressed as a linear form of generator inverses...
Anomalous subdiffusion with multispecies linear reaction dynamics.
Langlands, T A M; Henry, B I; Wearne, S L
2008-02-01
We have introduced a set of coupled fractional reaction-diffusion equations to model a multispecies system undergoing anomalous subdiffusion with linear reaction dynamics. The model equations are derived from a mesoscopic continuous time random walk formulation of anomalously diffusing species with linear mean field reaction kinetics. The effect of reactions is manifest in reaction modified spatiotemporal diffusion operators as well as in additive mean field reaction terms. One consequence of the nonseparability of reaction and subdiffusion terms is that the governing evolution equation for the concentration of one particular species may include both reactive and diffusive contributions from other species. The general solution is derived for the multispecies system and some particular special cases involving both irreversible and reversible reaction dynamics are analyzed in detail. We have carried out Monte Carlo simulations corresponding to these special cases and we find excellent agreement with theory.
Linear infrastructure impacts on landscape hydrology.
Raiter, Keren G; Prober, Suzanne M; Possingham, Hugh P; Westcott, Fiona; Hobbs, Richard J
2018-01-15
The extent of roads and other forms of linear infrastructure is burgeoning worldwide, but their impacts are inadequately understood and thus poorly mitigated. Previous studies have identified many potential impacts, including alterations to the hydrological functions and soil processes upon which ecosystems depend. However, these impacts have seldom been quantified at a regional level, particularly in arid and semi-arid systems where the gap in knowledge is the greatest, and impacts potentially the most severe. To explore the effects of extensive track, road, and rail networks on surface hydrology at a regional level we assessed over 1000 km of linear infrastructure, including approx. 300 locations where ephemeral streams crossed linear infrastructure, in the largely intact landscapes of Australia's Great Western Woodlands. We found a high level of association between linear infrastructure and altered surface hydrology, with erosion and pooling 5 and 6 times as likely to occur on-road than off-road on average (1.06 erosional and 0.69 pooling features km -1 on vehicle tracks, compared with 0.22 and 0.12 km -1 , off-road, respectively). Erosion severity was greater in the presence of tracks, and 98% of crossings of ephemeral streamlines showed some evidence of impact on water movement (flow impedance (62%); diversion of flows (73%); flow concentration (76%); and/or channel initiation (31%)). Infrastructure type, pastoral land use, culvert presence, soil clay content and erodibility, mean annual rainfall, rainfall erosivity, topography and bare soil cover influenced the frequency and severity of these impacts. We conclude that linear infrastructure frequently affects ephemeral stream flows and intercepts natural overland and near-surface flows, artificially changing site-scale moisture regimes, with some parts of the landscape becoming abnormally wet and other parts becoming water-starved. In addition, linear infrastructure frequently triggers or exacerbates erosion
Vazquez, A I; Gianola, D; Bates, D; Weigel, K A; Heringstad, B
2009-02-01
Clinical mastitis is typically coded as presence/absence during some period of exposure, and records are analyzed with linear or binary data models. Because presence includes cows with multiple episodes, there is loss of information when a count is treated as a binary response. The Poisson model is designed for counting random variables, and although it is used extensively in epidemiology of mastitis, it has rarely been used for studying the genetics of mastitis. Many models have been proposed for genetic analysis of mastitis, but they have not been formally compared. The main goal of this study was to compare linear (Gaussian), Bernoulli (with logit link), and Poisson models for the purpose of genetic evaluation of sires for mastitis in dairy cattle. The response variables were clinical mastitis (CM; 0, 1) and number of CM cases (NCM; 0, 1, 2, ..). Data consisted of records on 36,178 first-lactation daughters of 245 Norwegian Red sires distributed over 5,286 herds. Predictive ability of models was assessed via a 3-fold cross-validation using mean squared error of prediction (MSEP) as the end-point. Between-sire variance estimates for NCM were 0.065 in Poisson and 0.007 in the linear model. For CM the between-sire variance was 0.093 in logit and 0.003 in the linear model. The ratio between herd and sire variances for the models with NCM response was 4.6 and 3.5 for Poisson and linear, respectively, and for model for CM was 3.7 in both logit and linear models. The MSEP for all cows was similar. However, within healthy animals, MSEP was 0.085 (Poisson), 0.090 (linear for NCM), 0.053 (logit), and 0.056 (linear for CM). For mastitic animals the MSEP values were 1.206 (Poisson), 1.185 (linear for NCM response), 1.333 (logit), and 1.319 (linear for CM response). The models for count variables had a better performance when predicting diseased animals and also had a similar performance between them. Logit and linear models for CM had better predictive ability for healthy
Linear algebra and its applications
Lax, Peter D
2013-01-01
Praise for the First Edition"". . .recommended for the teacher and researcher as well as for graduate students. In fact, [it] has a place on every mathematician's bookshelf."" -American Mathematical MonthlyLinear Algebra and Its Applications, Second Edition presents linear algebra as the theory and practice of linear spaces and linear maps with a unique focus on the analytical aspects as well as the numerous applications of the subject. In addition to thorough coverage of linear equations, matrices, vector spaces, game theory, and numerical analysis, the Second Edition features
LINEAR - DERIVATION AND DEFINITION OF A LINEAR AIRCRAFT MODEL
Duke, E. L.
1994-01-01
The Derivation and Definition of a Linear Model program, LINEAR, provides the user with a powerful and flexible tool for the linearization of aircraft aerodynamic models. LINEAR was developed to provide a standard, documented, and verified tool to derive linear models for aircraft stability analysis and control law design. Linear system models define the aircraft system in the neighborhood of an analysis point and are determined by the linearization of the nonlinear equations defining vehicle dynamics and sensors. LINEAR numerically determines a linear system model using nonlinear equations of motion and a user supplied linear or nonlinear aerodynamic model. The nonlinear equations of motion used are six-degree-of-freedom equations with stationary atmosphere and flat, nonrotating earth assumptions. LINEAR is capable of extracting both linearized engine effects, such as net thrust, torque, and gyroscopic effects and including these effects in the linear system model. The point at which this linear model is defined is determined either by completely specifying the state and control variables, or by specifying an analysis point on a trajectory and directing the program to determine the control variables and the remaining state variables. The system model determined by LINEAR consists of matrices for both the state and observation equations. The program has been designed to provide easy selection of state, control, and observation variables to be used in a particular model. Thus, the order of the system model is completely under user control. Further, the program provides the flexibility of allowing alternate formulations of both the state and observation equations. Data describing the aircraft and the test case is input to the program through a terminal or formatted data files. All data can be modified interactively from case to case. The aerodynamic model can be defined in two ways: a set of nondimensional stability and control derivatives for the flight point of
Penalized maximum likelihood estimation for generalized linear point processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Niels Richard
2010-01-01
-likelihood. Of particular interest is when the intensity is expressed in terms of a linear filter parametrized by a Sobolev space. Using that the Sobolev spaces are reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces we derive results on the representation of the penalized maximum likelihood estimator in a special case and the gradient......A generalized linear point process is specified in terms of an intensity that depends upon a linear predictor process through a fixed non-linear function. We present a framework where the linear predictor is parametrized by a Banach space and give results on Gateaux differentiability of the log...... of the negative log-likelihood in general. The latter is used to develop a descent algorithm in the Sobolev space. We conclude the paper by extensions to multivariate and additive model specifications. The methods are implemented in the R-package ppstat....
Linear and Nonlinear Oblivious Data Hiding
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akansu Ali N
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The majority of the existing data hiding schemes are based on the direct-sequence (DS modulation where a low-power random sequence is embedded into the original cover signal to represent hidden information. In this paper, we investigate linear and nonlinear modulation approaches in digital data hiding. One typical DS modulation algorithm is explored and its optimal oblivious detector is derived. The results expose its poor cover noise suppression as the hiding signature signal always has much lower energy than the cover signal. A simple nonlinear algorithm, called set partitioning, is proposed and its performance is analyzed. Analysis and simulation studies further demonstrate improvements over the existing schemes.
(Zulu) Sheep using linear body measurements and some
African Journals Online (AJOL)
NKUNENE
Data on linear body measurements (LBM) of ca. 100 Zulu sheep ... Keywords: Indigenous sheep, body measurements; scrotum circumference, extensive management .... Star grass. * Flock kept at OSCA from May 2002 to November 2002. LW - live weight; HG - heart girth; WH - wither height; SC - scrotal circumference.
Agricultural extension and mass media.
Perraton, H
1983-12-01
To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its
EPMLR: sequence-based linear B-cell epitope prediction method using multiple linear regression.
Lian, Yao; Ge, Meng; Pan, Xian-Ming
2014-12-19
B-cell epitopes have been studied extensively due to their immunological applications, such as peptide-based vaccine development, antibody production, and disease diagnosis and therapy. Despite several decades of research, the accurate prediction of linear B-cell epitopes has remained a challenging task. In this work, based on the antigen's primary sequence information, a novel linear B-cell epitope prediction model was developed using the multiple linear regression (MLR). A 10-fold cross-validation test on a large non-redundant dataset was performed to evaluate the performance of our model. To alleviate the problem caused by the noise of negative dataset, 300 experiments utilizing 300 sub-datasets were performed. We achieved overall sensitivity of 81.8%, precision of 64.1% and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.728. We have presented a reliable method for the identification of linear B cell epitope using antigen's primary sequence information. Moreover, a web server EPMLR has been developed for linear B-cell epitope prediction: http://www.bioinfo.tsinghua.edu.cn/epitope/EPMLR/ .
Effect of Linear and Non-linear Resistance Exercise on Anaerobic Performance among Young Women
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Homa Esmaeili
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The main goals of strength training are improving muscle strength, power and muscle endurance. The objective of the current study is to compare two popular linear and nonlinear resistance exercises interventions on the anaerobic power. Previous research has shown differences intervention by the linear and non-linear resistance exercise in performance and strength in male athletes. By the way there are not enough data regarding female subjects. Eighteen young women subjects participated in this study. The subjects were randomly divided in two linear (n=8 and nonlinear (n=10 groups. An 11-week exercise protocol was applied in both groups. The anaerobic power and the body composition variables were measured in the pre and posttests. The results of this research substantiated that there was no difference in the peak anaerobic power between the linear and nonlinear models of the resistance exercise. The results of the current study proved greater improvement in the nonlinear model in contrast to the linear one in two groups at the final phase of the exercise [F(1,16=6.270 , p=0.023]. Greater improvement of the anaerobic power in the undulating group may have been influenced by less overtraining risk in the nonlinear model. The increase of the muscle and lean body mass (LBM directly improved the anaerobic power by increasing the Atp-pc energy system. It was also observed that the nonlinear model of the resistance exercise experienced noticeable improvement in the body composition. Both linear and non-linear models of resistance exercise improve anaerobic power, but at difference's situation coach and researcher should choose the best method according to type of sport and competition's season. Keywords: Anaerobic power, Energy system, resistance exercise, performance
Dynamic Conditionally Linear Mixed Models for Longitudinal Data
Pourahmadi, M.; Daniels, M.J.
2002-01-01
We develop a new class of models, dynamic conditionally linear mixed models, for longitudinal data by decomposing the within-subject covariance matrix using a special Cholesky decomposition. Here ‘dynamic’ means using past responses as covariates and ‘conditional linearity’ means that parameters entering the model linearly may be random, but nonlinear parameters are nonrandom. This setup offers several advantages and is surprisingly similar to models obtained from the first-order linearizatio...
On a linear method in bootstrap confidence intervals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Pallini
2007-10-01
Full Text Available A linear method for the construction of asymptotic bootstrap confidence intervals is proposed. We approximate asymptotically pivotal and non-pivotal quantities, which are smooth functions of means of n independent and identically distributed random variables, by using a sum of n independent smooth functions of the same analytical form. Errors are of order Op(n-3/2 and Op(n-2, respectively. The linear method allows a straightforward approximation of bootstrap cumulants, by considering the set of n independent smooth functions as an original random sample to be resampled with replacement.
Approximation with positive linear operators and linear combinations
Gupta, Vijay
2017-01-01
This book presents a systematic overview of approximation by linear combinations of positive linear operators, a useful tool used to increase the order of approximation. Fundamental and recent results from the past decade are described with their corresponding proofs. The volume consists of eight chapters that provide detailed insight into the representation of monomials of the operators Ln , direct and inverse estimates for a broad class of positive linear operators, and case studies involving finite and unbounded intervals of real and complex functions. Strong converse inequalities of Type A in terminology of Ditzian–Ivanov for linear combinations of Bernstein and Bernstein–Kantorovich operators and various Voronovskaja-type estimates for some linear combinations are analyzed and explained. Graduate students and researchers in approximation theory will find the list of open problems in approximation of linear combinations useful. The book serves as a reference for graduate and postgraduate courses as we...
RURAL EXTENSION EPISTEMOLOGY AND THE TIME OF TOTAL EXTENSION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silvio Calgaro Neto
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This article is dedicated to explore the field of knowledge related to rural extension. In general, a three complementary perspective is used as theoretical strategy to present this epistemological study. The first perspective, seeks to accomplish a brief archeology of rural extension, identifying the remarkable historical passages. At the second, we look to some theoretical models through the modern epistemological platform. Finally, the third perspective, aims to present a methodological proposal that contemplate this epistemic characteristics, relating with the contemporary transformations observed in the knowledge construction and technological transference for a rural development. Keywords: Total institutions. University.
Adaptive distributional extensions to DFR ranking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Casper; Simonsen, Jakob Grue; Järvelin, Kalervo
2016-01-01
Divergence From Randomness (DFR) ranking models assume that informative terms are distributed in a corpus differently than non-informative terms. Different statistical models (e.g. Poisson, geometric) are used to model the distribution of non-informative terms, producing different DFR models....... An informative term is then detected by measuring the divergence of its distribution from the distribution of non-informative terms. However, there is little empirical evidence that the distributions of non-informative terms used in DFR actually fit current datasets. Practically this risks providing a poor...... separation between informative and non-informative terms, thus compromising the discriminative power of the ranking model. We present a novel extension to DFR, which first detects the best-fitting distribution of non-informative terms in a collection, and then adapts the ranking computation to this best...
Implementasi Algoritma Linear Congruentials Generator Untuk Menentukan Posisi Jabatan Kepanitiaan
Suendri Suendri
2017-01-01
Determination of the committee position an event during this time has been determined by the authorities in an organization. However, the positioning sometimes falls to the same person with the same position. This is certainly a form of injustice in the positioning. Linear Congruential Generator or LCG is one of the methods of Random Number Generator. With this Algorithm the position can be randomized so that the same person does not occupy the same position for the second time so justice can...
Asymptotic ray theory of linear viscoelastic media
Nechtschein, Stephane
The Asymptotic Ray Theory (ART) has become a frequently used technique for the numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation in complex geological models. This theory was originally developed for elastic structures with the ray amplitude computation performed in the time domain. ART is now extended to linear viscoelastic media, the linear theory of viscoelasticity being used to simulate the dispersive properties peculiar to anelastic materials. This extension of ART is based on the introduction of a frequency dependent amplitude term having the same properties as in the elastic case and on a frequency dependent complex phase function. Consequently the ray amplitude computation is now performed in the frequency domain, the final solution being obtained by carrying out an Inverse Fourier Transform. Since ART is used, the boundary conditions for the kinematic and dynamic properties of the waves only have to be satisfied locally. This results in a much simpler Snell's Law for linear viscoelastic media, which in fact turns out to be of the same form as for the elastic case. No complex angle is involved. Furthermore the rays, the ray parameters, the geometrical spreading are all real values implying that the direction of the attenuation vector is always along the ray. The reflection and transmission coefficients were therefore rederived. These viscoelastic ART coefficients behave differently from those obtained with the Plane Wave method. Their amplitude and phase curves are always close to those computed for perfectly elastic media and they smoothly approach the elastic reflection/transmission coefficients when the quality factors increase to infinity. These same ART coefficients also display some non-physical results depending on the choice of the quality factors. This last feature might be useful to determine whether or not the two media making up the interface can be regarded as linear viscoelastic. Finally the results obtained from synthetic seismogram computations
On the linear hard sphere chain fluids
Chamoux, Antoine; Perera, Aurelien
The thermodynamic and structural properties of linear hard sphere chain fluids are studied using geometrical properties of the single chain. This is an extension of the method recently proposed by the authors to study convex particle fluids. The validity of this application to non-convex particles is tested against other theories and the integral equations PY and HNC for which a new simpler solution method is proposed also. The cases of both tangent and fused hard sphere chains are examined. An accurate equation of state is proposed which is valid for both linear tangent hard spheres and fused hard spheres. A semi-analytical expression for the Ornstein-Zernike direct correlation function is proposed which compares well with PY and HNC numerical results. The orientational instabiilty of the isotropic fluid is examined for several cases. In particular the Flory conjecture for linear N -tangent hard sphere fluid which predicts the isotropic-nematic transition around N = 7 is confirmed by the integral equations results for the orientational instability criteria, whereas the present theory predicts an instability for smaller aspect ratio. The influence of chain flexibility on the equation of state is discussed, mainly in the context of very long chains. In particular, it is found that the expressions for the pressure proposed here can be valid also for fully flexible long chains.
1975-04-01
Seainumerical Algorithms, Addison-Hesley, 1972. [6] Lanchester, H.O., Tfee X£ Dist^ibatiga» « Hey » 1965. [7] Learmonth, G.P-., and Lewis... Whipple , Code 55Wp Prof. P.A.W. Lewis, Code 55Lw Department of Operations Research and Administrative Sciences Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA
Equivalent linearization of nonlinear forces
Meng, Guang; Xue, Zhongqing
1987-07-01
A method used for equivalent linearization of the two orthogonal squeeze-film forces is extended here to the general case of n degrees of freedom and n components of nonlinear forces, and the expressions for equivalent linear coefficients are derived. Nonlinear forces can be linearized by the methods of Fourier expansion, active and reactive powers, or mean-square error. The n components of nonlinear forces can all be expressed formally as the sum of an average force, a linear spring force, and a linear damping force. This paper also gives a flow chart for calculating the steady-state responses of a nonlinear system with many degrees of freedom, using the method of equivalent linearization. The resulting saving in computation time is demonstrated by a numerical example of a flexible rotor-bearing system with a noncentralized squeeze-film damper.
Efficient Searching with Linear Constraints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff
2000-01-01
We show how to preprocess a set S of points in d into an external memory data structure that efficiently supports linear-constraint queries. Each query is in the form of a linear constraint xd a0+∑d−1i=1 aixi; the data structure must report all the points of S that satisfy the constraint...... space and answers linear-constraint queries using an optimal number of I/Os in the worst case. For d=3, we present a near-linear-size data structure that answers queries using an optimal number of I/Os on the average. We present linear-size data structures that can answer d-dimensional linear-constraint...
Privacy preserving randomized gossip algorithms
Hanzely, Filip
2017-06-23
In this work we present three different randomized gossip algorithms for solving the average consensus problem while at the same time protecting the information about the initial private values stored at the nodes. We give iteration complexity bounds for all methods, and perform extensive numerical experiments.
Hood, John Linsley
2013-01-01
The Art of Linear Electronics presents the principal aspects of linear electronics and techniques in linear electronic circuit design. The book provides a wide range of information on the elucidation of the methods and techniques in the design of linear electronic circuits. The text discusses such topics as electronic component symbols and circuit drawing; passive and active semiconductor components; DC and low frequency amplifiers; and the basic effects of feedback. Subjects on frequency response modifying circuits and filters; audio amplifiers; low frequency oscillators and waveform generato
Linear operators for quantum mechanics
Jordan, Thomas F
1969-01-01
This compact treatment highlights the logic and simplicity of the mathematical structure of quantum mechanics. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students, it treats the language of quantum mechanics as expressed in the mathematics of linear operators.Originally oriented toward atomic physics, quantum mechanics became a basic language for solid-state, nuclear, and particle physics. Its grammar consists of the mathematics of linear operators, and with this text, students will find it easier to understand and use the language of physics. Topics include linear spaces and linear fun
Elementary linear programming with applications
Kolman, Bernard
1995-01-01
Linear programming finds the least expensive way to meet given needs with available resources. Its results are used in every area of engineering and commerce: agriculture, oil refining, banking, and air transport. Authors Kolman and Beck present the basic notions of linear programming and illustrate how they are used to solve important common problems. The software on the included disk leads students step-by-step through the calculations. The Second Edition is completely revised and provides additional review material on linear algebra as well as complete coverage of elementary linear program
Pseudo-random number generator based on asymptotic deterministic randomness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang Kai [Department of Radio Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing (China)], E-mail: kaiwang@seu.edu.cn; Pei Wenjiang; Xia Haishan [Department of Radio Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Cheung Yiuming [Department of Computer Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)
2008-06-09
A novel approach to generate the pseudorandom-bit sequence from the asymptotic deterministic randomness system is proposed in this Letter. We study the characteristic of multi-value correspondence of the asymptotic deterministic randomness constructed by the piecewise linear map and the noninvertible nonlinearity transform, and then give the discretized systems in the finite digitized state space. The statistic characteristics of the asymptotic deterministic randomness are investigated numerically, such as stationary probability density function and random-like behavior. Furthermore, we analyze the dynamics of the symbolic sequence. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the symbolic sequence of the asymptotic deterministic randomness possesses very good cryptographic properties, which improve the security of chaos based PRBGs and increase the resistance against entropy attacks and symbolic dynamics attacks.
African Journal of Livestock Extension
African Journals Online (AJOL)
African Journal of Livestock Extension aims to bring to the fore the role and significance of livestock in maintaining rural, peri-urban and urban households, vis-à-vis its impact on poverty alleviation, household nutritional status, economic coping strategy and provision of employment. The focus of the journal relates to all ...
Longest common extensions in trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Gørtz, Inge Li
2016-01-01
The longest common extension (LCE) of two indices in a string is the length of the longest identical substrings starting at these two indices. The LCE problem asks to preprocess a string into a compact data structure that supports fast LCE queries. In this paper we generalize the LCE problem to t...
Dept. of Agricultural Economics & Extension
African Journals Online (AJOL)
duce poverty include education, credit, durable assets, living in the forest belt and in the south of the country. .... underscores the importance of education and extension services in the technology adoption/diffusion process. Poverty is a ...... Detwerminantes de la Pobreza de los hogares, México. Revista Mexicana de ...
Extension Resources for International Trade
Seal, Susan D.
2016-01-01
With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…
Symmetrical Extensions of Dirichlet Operators
Us, A G
1997-01-01
There is constructed and considered the extension of classical Diriclet operator corresponding to uniformly log-concave measure in the space of symmetric differential forms. Sufficient conditions for its essential self-adjointness in one-dimensional case as well as for the same of its "sypersymmetric" part in general situations are given.
Extensiveness of Farmers' Buying Process
Kool, M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Broens, D.F.
1997-01-01
In this article we study farmers' buying processes, in particular the selection of a supplier for a given farm input. Extensiveness of farmers' buying processes is defined as the degree information acquisition and alternative evaluation effort carried out to prepare that selection. Hypotheses,
Non-Linear Metamodeling Extensions to the Robust Parameter Design of Computer Simulations
2016-09-15
and G. C. White, "Program MARK: a gentle introduction ( 13th Edition )," 13 September 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.fwspubs.org/doi/suppl...presented a comprehensive assessment framework for comparing the results of several RPD problem solving strategies. This approach expanded beyond ...approach expanded beyond the typical tactic of only investigating how close the system’s predicted means and variances at each of the established
Fracchia, F.; Filippi, Claudia; Amovilli, C.
2012-01-01
We propose a new class of multideterminantal Jastrow–Slater wave functions constructed with localized orbitals and designed to describe complex potential energy surfaces of molecular systems for use in quantum Monte Carlo (QMC). Inspired by the generalized valence bond formalism, we elaborate a
Supersymmetry in Random Matrix Theory
Guhr, Thomas
2010-01-01
Supersymmetry is nowadays indispensable for many problems in Random Matrix Theory. It is presented here with an emphasis on conceptual and structural issues. An introduction to supermathematics is given. The Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation as well as its generalization and superbosonization are explained. The supersymmetric non-linear sigma model, Brownian motion in superspace and the color-flavor transformation are discussed.
Propositional interval neighborhood logics: Expressiveness, decidability, and undecidable extensions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bresolin, Davide; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo
2009-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the expressiveness of the variety of propositional interval neighborhood logics (PNL), we establish their decidability on linearly ordered domains and some important subclasses, and we prove the undecidability of a number of extensions of PNL with additional modalities...... over interval relations. All together, we show that PNL form a quite expressive and nearly maximal decidable fragment of Halpern–Shoham’s interval logic HS....
175 Years of Linear Programming
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The announcement, by L G Khachiyan, of the poly- nomial solvability of linear programming by the el- lipsoid method, followed by the probabilistic anal- yses of the simplex method in the early 1980's left researchers in linear programming with a dilemma. We had one method that was good in a theoreti- cal sense but poor in ...
175 Years of Linear Programming
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The theory of flows in networks began to evolve in the early 1950's. The various linear optimisation questions that could be asked of flows in conserv- ing networks turned out to be neat combinatorial specialisations of linear programming. The simplex method (and its variants) turned out to have very pretty combinatorial ...
Linear contextual modal type theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten
Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that gives...
Linearization of hyperbolic resonant germs
Bonckaert, P; Naudot, [No Value; Yang, JH
In this paper we develop an explicit normal form conjugacy procedure, called an 'LMT normal form', to study linearization of a smooth vector field in the neighbourhood of a hyperbolic equilibrium point with resonant eigenvalues. We give an asymptotic expression for such a linearization in terms of
Linear Quadratic Games : An Overview
Engwerda, J.C.
2006-01-01
In this paper we review some basic results on linear quadratic differential games.We consider both the cooperative and non-cooperative case.For the non-cooperative game we consider the open-loop and (linear) feedback information structure.Furthermore the effect of adding uncertainty is
Linear Programming across the Curriculum
Yoder, S. Elizabeth; Kurz, M. Elizabeth
2015-01-01
Linear programming (LP) is taught in different departments across college campuses with engineering and management curricula. Modeling an LP problem is taught in every linear programming class. As faculty teaching in Engineering and Management departments, the depth to which teachers should expect students to master this particular type of…
Introduction to coordinated linear systems
Kempker, P.L.
2014-01-01
This chapter serves as an introduction to the concepts of coordinated linear systems, in formal as well as intuitive terms. The concept of a coordinated linear system is introduced and formulated, and some basic properties are derived, providing both a motivaton and a formal basis for the following
Linear Algebra and Image Processing
Allali, Mohamed
2010-01-01
We use the computing technology digital image processing (DIP) to enhance the teaching of linear algebra so as to make the course more visual and interesting. Certainly, this visual approach by using technology to link linear algebra to DIP is interesting and unexpected to both students as well as many faculty. (Contains 2 tables and 11 figures.)
Campagnoli, Patrizia; Petris, Giovanni
2009-01-01
State space models have gained tremendous popularity in as disparate fields as engineering, economics, genetics and ecology. Introducing general state space models, this book focuses on dynamic linear models, emphasizing their Bayesian analysis. It illustrates the fundamental steps needed to use dynamic linear models in practice, using R package.
Introduction to generalized linear models
Dobson, Annette J
2008-01-01
Introduction Background Scope Notation Distributions Related to the Normal Distribution Quadratic Forms Estimation Model Fitting Introduction Examples Some Principles of Statistical Modeling Notation and Coding for Explanatory Variables Exponential Family and Generalized Linear Models Introduction Exponential Family of Distributions Properties of Distributions in the Exponential Family Generalized Linear Models Examples Estimation Introduction Example: Failure Times for Pressure Vessels Maximum Likelihood Estimation Poisson Regression Example Inference Introduction Sampling Distribution for Score Statistics Taylor Series Approximations Sampling Distribution for MLEs Log-Likelihood Ratio Statistic Sampling Distribution for the Deviance Hypothesis Testing Normal Linear Models Introduction Basic Results Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of Variance Analysis of Covariance General Linear Models Binary Variables and Logistic Regression Probability Distributions ...
Topological properties of random wireless networks
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Wireless networks in which the node locations are random are best modelled as random geometric graphs (RGGs). In addition to their extensive application in the modelling of wireless networks, RGGs ﬁnd many new applications and are being studied in their own right. In this paper we ﬁrst provide a brief introduction to the ...
Effect of Integral Non-Linearity on Energy Calibration of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The integral non-linearity (INL) of four spectroscopy systems, two integrated (A1 and A2) and two classical (B1 and B2) systems was determined using pulses from a random pulse generator. The effect of INL on the system's energy calibration was also determined. The effect is minimal in the classical system at high ...
Linear kinetic theory and particle transport in stochastic mixtures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pomraning, G.C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
1995-12-31
We consider the formulation of linear transport and kinetic theory describing energy and particle flow in a random mixture of two or more immiscible materials. Following an introduction, we summarize early and fundamental work in this area, and we conclude with a brief discussion of recent results.
Poincare Algebra Extension with Tensor Generator
Soroka, Dmitrij V.; Soroka, Vyacheslav A.
2005-01-01
A tensor extension of the Poincar\\'e algebra is proposed for the arbitrary dimensions. Casimir operators of the extension are constructed. A possible supersymmetric generalization of this extension is also found in the dimensions $D=2,3,4$.
Tensor extension of the Poincare algebra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soroka, Dmitrij V. [Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)]. E-mail: dsoroka@kipt.kharkov.ua; Soroka, Vyacheslav A. [Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)]. E-mail: vsoroka@kipt.kharkov.ua
2005-02-10
A tensor extension of the Poincare algebra is proposed for the arbitrary dimensions. Casimir operators of the extension are constructed. A possible supersymmetric generalization of this extension is also found in the dimensions D=2,3,4.
ajansen; kwhitefoot; panteltje1; edprochak; sudhakar, the
2014-07-01
In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “How to make a quantum random-number generator from a mobile phone” (16 May, http://ow.ly/xFiYc, see also p5), which describes a way of delivering random numbers by counting the number of photons that impinge on each of the individual pixels in the camera of a Nokia N9 smartphone.
Dewald-Kaufmann, J. F.; Oort, F. J.; Meijer, A. M.
2013-01-01
To investigate the effects of gradual sleep extension in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction. Outcome variables were objectively measured sleep and cognitive performance. Participants were randomly assigned to either a sleep extension group (gradual sleep extension by advancing bedtimes in the
Linear combinations come alive in crossover designs.
Shuster, Jonathan J
2017-10-30
Before learning anything about statistical inference in beginning service courses in biostatistics, students learn how to calculate the mean and variance of linear combinations of random variables. Practical precalculus examples of the importance of these exercises can be helpful for instructors, the target audience of this paper. We shall present applications to the "1-sample" and "2-sample" methods for randomized short-term 2-treatment crossover studies, where patients experience both treatments in random order with a "washout" between the active treatment periods. First, we show that the 2-sample method is preferred as it eliminates "conditional bias" when sample sizes by order differ and produces a smaller variance. We also demonstrate that it is usually advisable to use the differences in posttests (ignoring baseline and post washout values) rather than the differences between the changes in treatment from the start of the period to the end of the period ("delta of delta"). Although the intent is not to provide a definitive discussion of crossover designs, we provide a section and references to excellent alternative methods, where instructors can provide motivation to students to explore the topic in greater detail in future readings or courses. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Analysis of effects of extension teaching methods on farmers' level of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study analyzed the effects of extension teaching methods used by Ogun State (Nigeria) Agricultural Development Programme's extension agents on farmers' level of production in maize and cassava. The sample included 210 randomly selected farmers, comprising adopters and non-adopters of introduced agricultural ...
Reciprocity in Linear Deterministic Networks under Linear Coding
Raja, Adnan; Viswanath, Pramod
2009-01-01
The linear deterministic model has been used recently to get a first order understanding of many wireless communication network problems. In many of these cases, it has been pointed out that the capacity regions of the network and its reciprocal (where the communication links are reversed and the roles of the sources and the destinations are swapped) are the same. In this paper, we consider a linear deterministic communication network with multiple unicast information flows. For this model and under the restriction to the class of linear coding, we show that the rate regions for a network and its reciprocal are the same. This can be viewed as a generalization of the linear reversibility of wireline networks, already known in the network coding literature.
Extension agents and conflict narratives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bond, Jennifer Lauren
2016-01-01
Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used...... to elicit the conflict narratives present among extension professionals. A concourse of 221 statements were devised from interviews and group discussions with key informants and a final sample of 49 statements was used for the sorting. Thirteen Q-sorts were undertaken with among rural extension...... professionals from government, non-government, faith-based and private organizations. Findings: Four factors were elicited from the data, labelled—A: ‘Improved Leadership’; B: ‘Resource-centred conflict’; C: ‘Improved Governance’; and D: ‘Improved Management’. Practical Implications: Narratives of neo...
Linear canonical transforms theory and applications
Kutay, M; Ozaktas, Haldun; Sheridan, John
2016-01-01
This book provides a clear and accessible introduction to the essential mathematical foundations of linear canonical transforms from a signals and systems perspective. Substantial attention is devoted to how these transforms relate to optical systems and wave propagation. There is extensive coverage of sampling theory and fast algorithms for numerically approximating the family of transforms. Chapters on topics ranging from digital holography to speckle metrology provide a window on the wide range of applications. This volume will serve as a reference for researchers in the fields of image and signal processing, wave propagation, optical information processing and holography, optical system design and modeling, and quantum optics. It will be of use to graduate students in physics and engineering, as well as for scientists in other areas seeking to learn more about this important yet relatively unfamiliar class of integral transformations.
Random Network Coding over Composite Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geil, Olav; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique
2017-01-01
Random network coding is a method that achieves multicast capacity asymptotically for general networks [1, 7]. In this approach, vertices in the network randomly and linearly combine incoming information in a distributed manner before forwarding it through their outgoing edges. To ensure success...
Rosacea with extensive extrafacial lesions
Pereira, TM; Vieira, AP; Sousa-Basto, A
2008-01-01
Rosacea is a very common skin disorder in the clinical practice that primarily affects the convex areas of the face. Extrafacial rosacea lesions have occasionally been described, but extensive involvement is exceptional. In the absence of its typical clinical or histological features, the diagnosis of extrafacial rosacea may be problematic. We describe an unusual case of rosacea with very exuberant extrafacial lesions, when compared with the limited involvement of the face.
An Extension for ESO Headquarters
Fischer, Robert; Walsh, Jeremy
2009-03-01
The ESO Headquarters was completed in 1980, but is now too small to house all the ESO staff and currently only about 50% reside in the original building. A decision was taken to seek an extension to the Headquarters building in close proximity to the current one and a competition was launched for architectural designs. Three designs were shortlisted and the process of selection for the final design is described. Construction will begin in 2010 and is due for completion in 2012.
Ferencz, Donald C.; Viterna, Larry A.
1991-01-01
ALPS is a computer program which can be used to solve general linear program (optimization) problems. ALPS was designed for those who have minimal linear programming (LP) knowledge and features a menu-driven scheme to guide the user through the process of creating and solving LP formulations. Once created, the problems can be edited and stored in standard DOS ASCII files to provide portability to various word processors or even other linear programming packages. Unlike many math-oriented LP solvers, ALPS contains an LP parser that reads through the LP formulation and reports several types of errors to the user. ALPS provides a large amount of solution data which is often useful in problem solving. In addition to pure linear programs, ALPS can solve for integer, mixed integer, and binary type problems. Pure linear programs are solved with the revised simplex method. Integer or mixed integer programs are solved initially with the revised simplex, and the completed using the branch-and-bound technique. Binary programs are solved with the method of implicit enumeration. This manual describes how to use ALPS to create, edit, and solve linear programming problems. Instructions for installing ALPS on a PC compatible computer are included in the appendices along with a general introduction to linear programming. A programmers guide is also included for assistance in modifying and maintaining the program.
Primordial black holes in linear and non-linear regimes
Allahyari, Alireza; Abolhasani, Ali Akbar
2016-01-01
Using the concept of apparent horizon for dynamical black holes, we revisit the formation of primordial black holes (PBH) in the early universe for both linear and non-linear regimes. First, we develop the perturbation theory for spherically symmetric spacetimes to study the formation of spherical PBHs in linear regime and we fix two gauges. We also introduce a well defined gauge invariant quantity for the expansion. Using this quantity, we argue that PBHs do not form in the linear regime. Finally, we study the non-linear regime. We adopt the spherical collapse picture by taking a closed FRW model in the radiation dominated era to investigate PBH formation. Taking the initial condition of the spherical collapse from the linear theory of perturbations, we allow for both density and velocity perturbations. Our model gives a constraint on the velocity perturbation. This model also predicts that the apparent horizon of PBHs forms when $\\delta > 3$. Applying the sound horizon constraint, we have shown the threshol...
Kononovicius, Aleksejus
2014-01-01
Systems with long-range interactions often exhibit power-law distributions and can by described by the non-extensive statistical mechanics framework proposed by Tsallis. In this contribution we consider a simple model reproducing continuous transition from the extensive to the non-extensive statistics. The considered model is composed of agents interacting among themselves on a certain network topology. To generate the underlying network we propose a new network formation algorithm, in which the mean degree scales sub-linearly with a number of nodes in the network (the scaling depends on a single parameter). By changing this parameter we are able to continuously transition from short-range to long-range interactions in the agent-based model. Our numerical results are backed by the analytical mean-fi?eld description of the model.
Optimal control linear quadratic methods
Anderson, Brian D O
2007-01-01
This augmented edition of a respected text teaches the reader how to use linear quadratic Gaussian methods effectively for the design of control systems. It explores linear optimal control theory from an engineering viewpoint, with step-by-step explanations that show clearly how to make practical use of the material.The three-part treatment begins with the basic theory of the linear regulator/tracker for time-invariant and time-varying systems. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation is introduced using the Principle of Optimality, and the infinite-time problem is considered. The second part outlines the
Practical Session: Simple Linear Regression
Clausel, M.; Grégoire, G.
2014-12-01
Two exercises are proposed to illustrate the simple linear regression. The first one is based on the famous Galton's data set on heredity. We use the lm R command and get coefficients estimates, standard error of the error, R2, residuals …In the second example, devoted to data related to the vapor tension of mercury, we fit a simple linear regression, predict values, and anticipate on multiple linear regression. This pratical session is an excerpt from practical exercises proposed by A. Dalalyan at EPNC (see Exercises 1 and 2 of http://certis.enpc.fr/~dalalyan/Download/TP_ENPC_4.pdf).
Longest Common Extensions via Fingerprinting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Kristensen, Jesper
2012-01-01
query time, no extra space and no preprocessing achieves significantly better average case performance. We show a new algorithm, Fingerprint k , which for a parameter k, 1 ≤ k ≤ [log n], on a string of length n and alphabet size σ, gives O(k n1/k) query time using O(k n) space and O(k n + sort......(n,σ)) preprocessing time, where sort(n,σ) is the time it takes to sort n numbers from σ. Though this solution is asymptotically strictly worse than the asymptotically best previously known algorithms, it outperforms them in practice in average case and is almost as fast as the simple linear time algorithm. On worst....... The LCE problem can be solved in linear space with constant query time and a preprocessing of sorting complexity. There are two known approaches achieving these bounds, which use nearest common ancestors and range minimum queries, respectively. However, in practice a much simpler approach with linear...
Linear and logistic regression analysis
Tripepi, G.; Jager, K. J.; Dekker, F. W.; Zoccali, C.
2008-01-01
In previous articles of this series, we focused on relative risks and odds ratios as measures of effect to assess the relationship between exposure to risk factors and clinical outcomes and on control for confounding. In randomized clinical trials, the random allocation of patients is hoped to
Needs Assessment Competencies: Are They Important for Extension Educators?
Ghimire, Nav R.; Martin, Robert A.
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of eleven professional competencies related to needs assessment and program development; a secondary purpose was to identify the best time these competencies should be learned. The study followed a survey research design, in which 441 randomly selected extension educators in the North Central Region of the United States responded to a questionnaire through an online survey. Results suggest that respondents perceived nine of the eleven ...
Linear IgA bullous dermatosis in a patient with renal cell carcinoma
Van der Waal, RIF; Van de Scheur, MR; Pas, HH; Jonkman, MF; Van Groeningen, CJ; Nieboer, C; Starink, TM
Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) is an autoimmune subepidermal bullous disease with heterogeneous clinical manifestations, characterized by linear deposition of IgA along the epidermal basement membrane zone. We report a patient with a metastasized renal cell carcinoma who developed an extensive
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dlugosz, Stephan; Mammen, Enno; Wilke, Ralf
We consider the semiparametric generalised linear regression model which has mainstream empirical models such as the (partially) linear mean regression, logistic and multinomial regression as special cases. As an extension to related literature we allow a misclassified covariate to be interacted ...... misclassification in the educational status on estimated transition probabilities and marginal effects....
A New Perspective on Randomized Gossip Algorithms
Loizou, Nicolas; Richtárik, Peter
2016-01-01
In this short note we propose a new approach for the design and analysis of randomized gossip algorithms which can be used to solve the average consensus problem. We show how that Randomized Block Kaczmarz (RBK) method - a method for solving linear systems - works as gossip algorithm when applied to a special system encoding the underlying network. The famous pairwise gossip algorithm arises as a special case. Subsequently, we reveal a hidden duality of randomized gossip algorithms, with the ...
"A Review of Linear Mixed Models and Small Area Estimation"
2009-01-01
The linear mixed models (LMM) and the empirical best linear unbiased predictor (EBLUP) induced from LMM have been well studied and extensively used for a long time in many applications. Of these, EBLUP in small area estimation has been recognized as a useful tool in various practical statistics. In this paper, we give a review on LMM and EBLUP from a aspect of small area estimation. Especially, we explain why EBLUP is likely to be reliable. The reason is that EBLUP possesses the shrinkage fun...
[New technology for linear colliders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McIntyre, P.M.
1992-08-12
This report discusses the following topics on research of microwave amplifiers for linear colliders: Context in current microwave technology development; gated field emission for microwave cathodes; cathode fabrication and tests; microwave cathode design using field emitters; and microwave localization.
Linearity of holographic entanglement entropy
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Almheiri, Ahmed; Dong, Xi; Swingle, Brian
2017-01-01
We consider the question of whether the leading contribution to the entanglement entropy in holographic CFTs is truly given by the expectation value of a linear operator as is suggested by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula...
An introduction to linear algebra
Mirsky, L
2003-01-01
Rigorous, self-contained coverage of determinants, vectors, matrices and linear equations, quadratic forms, more. Elementary, easily readable account with numerous examples and problems at the end of each chapter.
CERN balances linear collider studies
ILC Newsline
2011-01-01
The forces behind the two most mature proposals for a next-generation collider, the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study, have been steadily coming together, with scientists from both communities sharing ideas and information across the technology divide. In a support of cooperation between the two, CERN in Switzerland, where most CLIC research takes place, recently converted the project-specific position of CLIC Study Leader to the concept-based Linear Collider Study Leader. The scientist who now holds this position, Steinar Stapnes, is charged with making the linear collider a viable option for CERN’s future, one that could include either CLIC or the ILC. The transition to more involve the ILC must be gradual, he said, and the redefinition of his post is a good start. Though not very much involved with superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) technology, where ILC researchers have made significant advances, CERN participates in many aspect...
Klumpp, A. R.; Lawson, C. L.
1988-01-01
Routines provided for common scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion operations. Computer program extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to HAS/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as software for Space Station.
CLIC: developing a linear collider
Laurent Guiraud
1999-01-01
Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a CERN project to provide high-energy electron-positron collisions. Instead of conventional radio-frequency klystrons, CLIC will use a low-energy, high-intensity primary beam to produce acceleration.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Du, Yigang
without iteration steps. The ASA is implemented in combination with Field II and extended to simulate the pulsed ultrasound fields. The simulated results from a linear array transducer are made by the ASA based on Field II, and by a released non-linear simulation program- Abersim, respectively....... The calculation speed of the ASA is increased approximately by a factor of 140. For the second harmonic point spread function the error of the full width is 1.5% at -6 dB and 6.4% at -12 dB compared to Abersim. To further investigate the linear and non-linear ultrasound fields, hydrophone measurements.......3% relative to the measurement from a 1 inch diameter transducer. A preliminary study for harmonic imaging using synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) has been demonstrated. A wire phantom underwater measurement is made by an experimental synthetic aperture real-time ultrasound scanner (SARUS...
Functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tuba, Robert; Grubbs, Robert H.
2018-02-13
This invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing linear and cyclic polyolefins. More particularly, the invention relates to methods and compositions for preparing functionalized linear and cyclic polyolefins via olefin metathesis reactions. Polymer products produced via the olefin metathesis reactions of the invention may be utilized for a wide range of materials applications. The invention has utility in the fields of polymer and materials chemistry and manufacture.
LINEAR AND NONLINEAR SEMIDEFINITE PROGRAMMING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Walter Gómez Bofill
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper provides a short introduction to optimization problems with semidefinite constraints. Basic duality and optimality conditions are presented. For linear semidefinite programming some advances by dealing with degeneracy and the semidefinite facial reduction are discussed. Two relatively recent areas of application are presented. Finally a short overview of relevant literature on algorithmic approaches for efficiently solving linear and nonlinear semidefinite programming is provided.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rumen Daskalov
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dotsenko, Viktor S [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2011-03-31
In the last two decades, it has been established that a single universal probability distribution function, known as the Tracy-Widom (TW) distribution, in many cases provides a macroscopic-level description of the statistical properties of microscopically different systems, including both purely mathematical ones, such as increasing subsequences in random permutations, and quite physical ones, such as directed polymers in random media or polynuclear crystal growth. In the first part of this review, we use a number of models to examine this phenomenon at a simple qualitative level and then consider the exact solution for one-dimensional directed polymers in a random environment, showing that free energy fluctuations in such a system are described by the universal TW distribution. The second part provides detailed appendix material containing the necessary mathematical background for the first part. (reviews of topical problems)
Matula, Dominik
2013-01-01
The author summarizes some previous results concerning random triangles. He describes the Gaussian triangle and random triangles whose vertices lie in a unit n-dimensional ball, in a rectangle or in a general bounded convex set. In the second part, the author deals with an inscribed triangle in a triangle - let ABC be an equilateral triangle and let M, N, O be three points, each laying on one side of the ABC. We call MNO inscribed triangle (in an equi- laterral triangle). The median triangle ...
Mehta, Madan Lal
1990-01-01
Since the publication of Random Matrices (Academic Press, 1967) so many new results have emerged both in theory and in applications, that this edition is almost completely revised to reflect the developments. For example, the theory of matrices with quaternion elements was developed to compute certain multiple integrals, and the inverse scattering theory was used to derive asymptotic results. The discovery of Selberg's 1944 paper on a multiple integral also gave rise to hundreds of recent publications. This book presents a coherent and detailed analytical treatment of random matrices, leading
Coal Combustion Products Extension Program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe
2006-01-11
This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to
EXTENSION OPERATOR AND NEURON NETWORK
LUIZ CARLOS C PEDROZA
1997-01-01
Na tese se desenvolve a teoria do Operador de extensão (OPEX) e utiliza-se desta para compreender melhor algumas questões relativas a teoria de Redes Neurais(RN). A abordagem de Redes Neurais pela ótica do Operador de Extensão possibilita também um melhoramento no algoritmo de retropropagação de erro usado no treinamento supervisionado das Redes Neurais. In this thesis, theory of Extension Operator is developed and used to understand some questions related to ...
Howarth, Samuel J; Callaghan, Jack P
2012-02-02
Despite the findings that peak anterior shear load is highly correlated with low-back pain reporting, very little research has been conducted to determine how vertebral shear injury potential is influenced. The current study quantified the combined effects of vertebral joint compression and flexion/extension postural deviation from neutral on ultimate shear failure. Ninety-six porcine cervical specimens (48C3-C4, 48C5-C6) were tested. Each specimen was randomly assigned to one of twelve combinations of compressive force (15%, 30%, 45%, or 60% of predicted compressive failure force) and flexion/extension postural deviation (extended, neutral, or flexed). Vertebral joint shear failure was induced by applying posterior shear displacement of the caudal vertebra at a constant rate of 0.15 mm/s. Throughout shear failure tests, vertebral joint kinematics were measured using an optoelectronic camera and a series of infrared light emitting diodes while shear force was measured from load cells rigidly interfaced in series with linear actuators that applied the shear displacement. Measurements of shear stiffness, ultimate force, displacement, and energy stored were made from the force-displacement data. Compressive force and postural deviation demonstrated main effects without a statistically significant interaction for any of the measurements. Shear failure force increased by 11.1% for each 15% increment in compressive force (pincrease with extension (pDisplacement at ultimate failure was not significantly altered by either compressive force or postural deviation. These results demonstrate that shear failure force may be governed by changes in facet articulation, either by postural deviation or by reducing vertebral joint height through compression that alter the moment arm length between the center of facet contact pressure and the pars interarticularis location. However, objective evidence of this alteration currently does not exist. Both compression and flexion/extension
Deformed Fredkin Spin Chain with Extensive Entanglement
Salberger, Olof; Zhang, Zhao; Katsura, Hosho; Klich, Israel; Korepin, Vladimir
2016-01-01
We introduce a new spin chain which is a deformation of the Fredkin spin chain and has a phase transition between bounded and extensive entanglement entropy scaling. In this chain, spins have a local interaction of three nearest neighbors. The Hamiltonian is frustration-free and its ground state can be described analytically as a weighted superposition of Dyck paths. In the purely spin $1/2$ case, the entanglement entropy obeys an area law: it is bounded from above by a constant, when the size of the block $n$ increases (and $t>1$). When a local color degree of freedom is introduced the entanglement entropy increases linearly with the size of the block (and $t>1$). The entanglement entropy of half of the chain is tightly bounded by ${ n}\\log s$ where $n$ is the size of the block, and $s$ is the number of colors. Our chain fosters a new example for a significant boost to entropy and for the existence of the associated critical rainbow phase where the entanglement entropy scales with volume that has recently be...
Seeking the boundary of boundary extension.
McDunn, Benjamin A; Siddiqui, Aisha P; Brown, James M
2014-04-01
Boundary extension (BE) is a remarkably consistent visual memory error in which participants remember seeing a more wide-angle image of a scene than was actually viewed (Intraub & Richardson, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 15:179-187, 1989). Multiple stimulus factors are thought to contribute to the occurrence of BE, including object recognition, conceptual knowledge of scenes, and amodal perception at the view boundaries (Intraub, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science 3:117-127, 2012). In the present study, we used abstract scenes instead of images of the real world, in order to remove expectations based on semantic associations with objects and the schematic context of the view. Close-angle and wide-angle scenes were created using irregular geometric shapes rated by independent observers as lacking any easily recognizable structure. The abstract objects were tested on either a random-dot or a blank background in order to assess the influence of implied continuation of the image beyond its boundaries. The random-dot background conditions had background occlusion cues either present or absent at the image border, in order to test their influence on BE in the absence of high-level information about the scenes. The results indicate that high-level information about objects and schematic context is unnecessary for BE to occur, and that occlusion information at the image boundary also has little influence on BE. Contrary to previous studies, we also found clear BE for all conditions, despite using scenes depicting undetailed objects on a blank white background. The results highlighted the ubiquitous nature of BE and the adaptability of scene perception processes.
Linear and Nonlinear Theory of Eigenfunction Scars
Kaplan, L
1998-01-01
The theory of scarring of eigenfunctions of classically chaotic systems by short periodic orbits is extended in several ways. The influence of short-time linear recurrences on correlations and fluctuations at long times is emphasized. We include the contribution to scarring of nonlinear recurrences associated with homoclinic orbits, and treat the different scenarios of random and nonrandom long-time recurrences. The importance of the local classical structure around the periodic orbit is emphasized, and it is shown for an optimal choice of test basis in phase space, scars must persist in the semiclassical limit. The crucial role of symmetry is also discussed, which together with the nonlinear recurrences gives a much improved account of the actual strength of scars for given classical orbits and in individual wavefunctions. Quantitative measures of scarring are provided and comparisons are made with numerical data.
Combined Dietotherapy after Extensive Hepatectomies
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V. V. Kiselev
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Objective: to compare the time course of nutritional changes in relation to the components of nutritive support in the early postoperative period after extensive hepatectomies.Subjects and methods. Beginning with the 1st postoperative day, 12 patients had parenteral feeding comprising 20% glucose, fat emulsions, and specialized amino acid solutions (Group 1. Beginning with the same day, 14 patients were given the parenteral formula Oliclinomel (Group 2. Starting from the 2nd postoperative day, both groups additionally received a balanced feeding formula by sipping.Results. Postoperatively, first-to-second degree encephalopathy was recorded in both groups. Positive changes as consciousness recovery were found in both Group 1 in which the patients used branched-chain amino acid-enriched solutions and Group 2 (parenteral Oliclinomel feeding. The patients under examination were not given albumin solutions and fresh frozen plasma in the postoperative period. Moreover, by postoperative day 7, there were significant increases in the levels of albumin and total protein in Groups 1 and 2, in those of cholinesterase and the absolute count of lymphocytes, and a reduction in the concentration of C-reactive protein.Conclusion. Combined parenteral and enteral feedings are effective in patients after extensive hepatectomies. The parenteral feeding formula Oliclinomel may be used in this group of patients.
Body linear traits for identifying prolific goats
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Avijit Haldar
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted on prolific goat breed to identify body linear type traits that might be associated with prolificacy trait in goats. Materials and Methods: Two-stage stratified random sample survey based data were collected from 1427 non-pregnant goats with the history of single, twin and triplet litter sizes (LZ between January 2008 to February 2011 for 3 years in 68 villages located in East and North East India. Data on sixteen body linear traits were analyzed using logistic regression model to do the step-wise selection for identifying the body linear traits that could determine LZ. An average value for each identified body linear trait was determined for classifying the goats into three categories: Goats having the history of single LZ, goats having the history of twin LZ and goats having the history of triplet LZ. Results: The LZ proportions for single, twin and triplet, were 29.50, 59.14 and 11.36%, respectively, with the prolificacy rate of 181.85% in Indian Black Bengal goats. A total of eight body linear traits that could determine LZ in prolific goats were identified. Heart girth (HG measurement (>60.90 cm, paunch girth (PG (>70.22 cm, wither height (WH (>49.75 cm, neck length (>21.45 cm, ear length (>12.80 cm and distance between trochanter major (DTM bones (>12.28 cm, pelvic triangle area (PTA (>572.25 cm2 and clearance at udder (CU (>23.16 cm showed an increase likelihood of multiple LZ when compared to single LZ. Further, HG measurement (>62.29 cm, WH (>50.54 cm, PG (>71.85 cm and ear length (>13.00 cm, neck length (>22.01 cm, PTA (>589.64 cm2, CU (>23.20 cm and DTM bones (>12.47 cm were associated with increased likelihood of triplet LZ, when compared with that of twin LZ. Conclusion: HG measurement was the best discriminating factor, while PG, neck length, DTM bones, CU, PTA, WH and ear length measurements were other important factors that could be used for identifying prolific goats to achieve economic
Formulating Linear and Integer Linear Programs: A Rogues' Gallery
Brown, Gerald; Robert F.
2007-01-01
INFORMS Transactions on Education, 7, 2007, pp. 153-159. The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/ited.7.2.153 The art of formulating linear and integer linear programs is, well, an art: It is hard to teach, and even harder to learn. To help demystify this art, we present a set of modeling building blocks that we call “formulettes.” Each formulette consists of a short verbal description that must be expressed in terms of variables and const...
On Solving Linear Complementarity Problems as Linear Programs.
1976-03-01
I,1 c, -, I - - -= 1. I NIRODU CIT I ON Et is a fair’ly well-known fa(t that if a lineas complemenl•arity problem has L solution) then it has a...W. Cottle, "Manifestations of the Schur complement," Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 8 (1974), 189-211. [6] R. W. Cottle and G. B. Dantzig...34Complementarity pivot theory of mathematical programming," Linear Algebra and Its Applications . (1968), 103-125. [7] R. W. Cottle, G. H. Golub and R. S
Linear models in the mathematics of uncertainty
Mordeson, John N; Clark, Terry D; Pham, Alex; Redmond, Michael A
2013-01-01
The purpose of this book is to present new mathematical techniques for modeling global issues. These mathematical techniques are used to determine linear equations between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables in cases where standard techniques such as linear regression are not suitable. In this book, we examine cases where the number of data points is small (effects of nuclear warfare), where the experiment is not repeatable (the breakup of the former Soviet Union), and where the data is derived from expert opinion (how conservative is a political party). In all these cases the data is difficult to measure and an assumption of randomness and/or statistical validity is questionable. We apply our methods to real world issues in international relations such as nuclear deterrence, smart power, and cooperative threat reduction. We next apply our methods to issues in comparative politics such as successful democratization, quality of life, economic freedom, political stability, and fail...
Phylogenetic mixtures and linear invariants for equal input models.
Casanellas, Marta; Steel, Mike
2017-04-01
The reconstruction of phylogenetic trees from molecular sequence data relies on modelling site substitutions by a Markov process, or a mixture of such processes. In general, allowing mixed processes can result in different tree topologies becoming indistinguishable from the data, even for infinitely long sequences. However, when the underlying Markov process supports linear phylogenetic invariants, then provided these are sufficiently informative, the identifiability of the tree topology can be restored. In this paper, we investigate a class of processes that support linear invariants once the stationary distribution is fixed, the 'equal input model'. This model generalizes the 'Felsenstein 1981' model (and thereby the Jukes-Cantor model) from four states to an arbitrary number of states (finite or infinite), and it can also be described by a 'random cluster' process. We describe the structure and dimension of the vector spaces of phylogenetic mixtures and of linear invariants for any fixed phylogenetic tree (and for all trees-the so called 'model invariants'), on any number n of leaves. We also provide a precise description of the space of mixtures and linear invariants for the special case of [Formula: see text] leaves. By combining techniques from discrete random processes and (multi-) linear algebra, our results build on a classic result that was first established by James Lake (Mol Biol Evol 4:167-191, 1987).
Power analysis for a linear regression model when regressors are matrix sampled
Kolenikov, Stanislav; Hammer, Heather
2017-01-01
Multiple matrix sampling is a survey methodology technique that randomly chooses a relatively small subset of items to be presented to survey respondents for the purpose of reducing respondent burden. The data produced are missing completely at random (MCAR), and special missing data techniques should be used in linear regression and other multivariate statistical analysis. We derive asymptotic variances of regression parameter estimates that allow us to conduct power analysis for linear regr...
A canonical decomposition for linear operators and linear relations
Hassi, S.; Sebestyén, Z.; Snoo, H.S.V. de; Szafraniec, F.H.
An arbitrary linear relation (multivalued operator) acting from one Hilbert space to another Hilbert space is shown to be the sum of a closable operator and a singular relation whose closure is the Cartesian product of closed subspaces. This decomposition can be seen as an analog of the Lebesgue
Advanced statistics: linear regression, part II: multiple linear regression.
Marill, Keith A
2004-01-01
The applications of simple linear regression in medical research are limited, because in most situations, there are multiple relevant predictor variables. Univariate statistical techniques such as simple linear regression use a single predictor variable, and they often may be mathematically correct but clinically misleading. Multiple linear regression is a mathematical technique used to model the relationship between multiple independent predictor variables and a single dependent outcome variable. It is used in medical research to model observational data, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic studies in which the outcome is dependent on more than one factor. Although the technique generally is limited to data that can be expressed with a linear function, it benefits from a well-developed mathematical framework that yields unique solutions and exact confidence intervals for regression coefficients. Building on Part I of this series, this article acquaints the reader with some of the important concepts in multiple regression analysis. These include multicollinearity, interaction effects, and an expansion of the discussion of inference testing, leverage, and variable transformations to multivariate models. Examples from the first article in this series are expanded on using a primarily graphic, rather than mathematical, approach. The importance of the relationships among the predictor variables and the dependence of the multivariate model coefficients on the choice of these variables are stressed. Finally, concepts in regression model building are discussed.
The linear-non-linear frontier for the Goldstone Higgs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gavela, M.B.; Saa, S. [IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Kanshin, K. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' G. Galilei' , Padua (Italy); INFN, Padova (Italy); Machado, P.A.N. [IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Theoretical Physics Department, Batavia, IL (United States)
2016-12-15
The minimal SO(5)/SO(4) σ-model is used as a template for the ultraviolet completion of scenarios in which the Higgs particle is a low-energy remnant of some high-energy dynamics, enjoying a (pseudo) Nambu-Goldstone-boson ancestry. Varying the σ mass allows one to sweep from the perturbative regime to the customary non-linear implementations. The low-energy benchmark effective non-linear Lagrangian for bosons and fermions is obtained, determining as well the operator coefficients including linear corrections. At first order in the latter, three effective bosonic operators emerge which are independent of the explicit soft breaking assumed. The Higgs couplings to vector bosons and fermions turn out to be quite universal: the linear corrections are proportional to the explicit symmetry-breaking parameters. Furthermore, we define an effective Yukawa operator which allows a simple parametrization and comparison of different heavy-fermion ultraviolet completions. In addition, one particular fermionic completion is explored in detail, obtaining the corresponding leading low-energy fermionic operators. (orig.)
Inferential Models for Linear Regression
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Zuoyi Zhang
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Linear regression is arguably one of the most widely used statistical methods in applications. However, important problems, especially variable selection, remain a challenge for classical modes of inference. This paper develops a recently proposed framework of inferential models (IMs in the linear regression context. In general, an IM is able to produce meaningful probabilistic summaries of the statistical evidence for and against assertions about the unknown parameter of interest and, moreover, these summaries are shown to be properly calibrated in a frequentist sense. Here we demonstrate, using simple examples, that the IM framework is promising for linear regression analysis --- including model checking, variable selection, and prediction --- and for uncertain inference in general.
Bayes linear statistics, theory & methods
Goldstein, Michael
2007-01-01
Bayesian methods combine information available from data with any prior information available from expert knowledge. The Bayes linear approach follows this path, offering a quantitative structure for expressing beliefs, and systematic methods for adjusting these beliefs, given observational data. The methodology differs from the full Bayesian methodology in that it establishes simpler approaches to belief specification and analysis based around expectation judgements. Bayes Linear Statistics presents an authoritative account of this approach, explaining the foundations, theory, methodology, and practicalities of this important field. The text provides a thorough coverage of Bayes linear analysis, from the development of the basic language to the collection of algebraic results needed for efficient implementation, with detailed practical examples. The book covers:The importance of partial prior specifications for complex problems where it is difficult to supply a meaningful full prior probability specification...
Linearization of broadband microwave amplifier
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Đorić Aleksandra
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The linearization of broadband power amplifier for application in the frequency range 0.9-1.3 GHz is considered in this paper. The amplifier is designed for LDMOSFET characterized by the maximum output power 4W designing the broadband lumped element matching circuits and matching circuits in topologies that combines LC elements and transmission lines. The linearization of the amplifier is carried out by the second harmonics of the fundamental signals injected at the input and output of the amplifier transistor. The effects of linearization are considered for the case of two sinusoidal signals separated in frequency by different intervals up to 80 MHz ranging input power levels to saturation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-32052
Linearization: Geometric, Complex, and Conditional
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Asghar Qadir
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Lie symmetry analysis provides a systematic method of obtaining exact solutions of nonlinear (systems of differential equations, whether partial or ordinary. Of special interest is the procedure that Lie developed to transform scalar nonlinear second-order ordinary differential equations to linear form. Not much work was done in this direction to start with, but recently there have been various developments. Here, first the original work of Lie (and the early developments on it, and then more recent developments based on geometry and complex analysis, apart from Lie’s own method of algebra (namely, Lie group theory, are reviewed. It is relevant to mention that much of the work is not linearization but uses the base of linearization.
Multivariate covariance generalized linear models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bonat, W. H.; Jørgensen, Bent
2016-01-01
We propose a general framework for non-normal multivariate data analysis called multivariate covariance generalized linear models, designed to handle multivariate response variables, along with a wide range of temporal and spatial correlation structures defined in terms of a covariance link...... function combined with a matrix linear predictor involving known matrices. The method is motivated by three data examples that are not easily handled by existing methods. The first example concerns multivariate count data, the second involves response variables of mixed types, combined with repeated...... measures and longitudinal structures, and the third involves a spatiotemporal analysis of rainfall data. The models take non-normality into account in the conventional way by means of a variance function, and the mean structure is modelled by means of a link function and a linear predictor. The models...
Window observers for linear systems
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Utkin Vadim
2000-01-01
Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications
Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity
Knops, Robin John
1971-01-01
The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...
Topics in quaternion linear algebra
Rodman, Leiba
2014-01-01
Quaternions are a number system that has become increasingly useful for representing the rotations of objects in three-dimensional space and has important applications in theoretical and applied mathematics, physics, computer science, and engineering. This is the first book to provide a systematic, accessible, and self-contained exposition of quaternion linear algebra. It features previously unpublished research results with complete proofs and many open problems at various levels, as well as more than 200 exercises to facilitate use by students and instructors. Applications presented in the book include numerical ranges, invariant semidefinite subspaces, differential equations with symmetries, and matrix equations. Designed for researchers and students across a variety of disciplines, the book can be read by anyone with a background in linear algebra, rudimentary complex analysis, and some multivariable calculus. Instructors will find it useful as a complementary text for undergraduate linear algebra courses...
Air Gauge Characteristics Linearity Improvement
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Cz. J. Jermak
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses calibration uncertainty and linearity issues of the typical back-pressure air gauge. In this sort of air gauge, the correlation between the measured dimension (represented by the slot width and the air pressure in the measuring chamber is used in a proportional range. However, when high linearity is required (e.g., nonlinearity less than 1%, the measuring range should be shortened. In the proposed method, based on knowledge of the static characteristics of air gauges, the measuring range is kept unchanged but the nonlinearity is decreased. The static characteristics may be separated into two sections, each of them approximated with a different linear function. As a result, the nonlinearity is reduced from 5% down to 1% and even below.