Sample records for random crack size

  1. Sizing stress corrosion cracks using laser ultrasonics

    Rehman, Hamood; McNealy, Rick; Fingerhut, Martin [Applus-RTD. Houston, TX (United States); Klein, Marvin; Ansari, Homayoon [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc. Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kania Richard [TransCanada. Calgary, AB (Canada); Rapp, Steve [Spectra Energy, Houston, TX (United States)


    Despite various efforts, no reliable tools and techniques are available to enable an operator to quantify the impact of an SCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking) colony on the safety and integrity of a pipeline. Reliable non-destructive detection and measurement tools are not available either. There is therefore a large gap between current technology and the needs of the pipeline industry. Recent developments promise that with a concentrated effort, a comprehensive solution can be devised. This paper describes technical work performed to develop and validate both the inspection tool and the time of flight diffraction (TOFD) technique for sizing the depth of SCC. It also presents preliminary results of work on a closely related project that provides, on the basis of this technology, an integrated approach and tool for mapping, sizing, and evaluating SCC, through which significant cracks are filtered from more benign cracks within an SCC colony.

  2. Generation mechanism of nonlinear ultrasonic Lamb waves in thin plates with randomly distributed micro-cracks.

    Zhao, Youxuan; Li, Feilong; Cao, Peng; Liu, Yaolu; Zhang, Jianyu; Fu, Shaoyun; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Ning


    Since the identification of micro-cracks in engineering materials is very valuable in understanding the initial and slight changes in mechanical properties of materials under complex working environments, numerical simulations on the propagation of the low frequency S0 Lamb wave in thin plates with randomly distributed micro-cracks were performed to study the behavior of nonlinear Lamb waves. The results showed that while the influence of the randomly distributed micro-cracks on the phase velocity of the low frequency S0 fundamental waves could be neglected, significant ultrasonic nonlinear effects caused by the randomly distributed micro-cracks was discovered, which mainly presented as a second harmonic generation. By using a Monte Carlo simulation method, we found that the acoustic nonlinear parameter increased linearly with the micro-crack density and the size of micro-crack zone, and it was also related to the excitation frequency and friction coefficient of the micro-crack surfaces. In addition, it was found that the nonlinear effect of waves reflected by the micro-cracks was more noticeable than that of the transmitted waves. This study theoretically reveals that the low frequency S0 mode of Lamb waves can be used as the fundamental waves to quantitatively identify micro-cracks in thin plates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Size Evolution of the Surface Short Fatigue Cracks of 1Cr18Ni9Ti Weld Metal


    Size evolution of the surface short fatigue cracks of 1Cr18Ni9Ti weld metal was investigated. A local viewpoint is applied to be agreement with a so-called "effectively short fatigue crack criterion". Attention was paid to the dominant effectively short fatigue crack (DESFC) initiation zone and the zones ahead of the DESFC tips. The results revealed that the evolutionary size shows a significant character of microstructural short crack (MSC) and physical short crack (PSC) stages. In the MSC stage, fatigue damage is due to mainly the initiation and irregular growth of the effectively short fatigue cracks (ESFCs). In the PSC stage, the damage is conversely due to mainly the DESFC growth and partially, the growth of the ESFCs and the coalescence of the ESFCs themselves with the DESFC. The process involves from a non-ordered/chaotic state in the initiation of MSC stage, gradually to an independently random state at the transition point between the MSC and PSC stages and then, to an ordered/history-dependent random state. Interactive effect of the collective cracks is stronger and shows an increase in the MSC stage. It reaches a maximum value at the transition point and then, tends to a decrease in the PSC stage. The DESFC acts as a result of the interactive cracks and thus, is deemed suitable to describe the behaviour of collective cracks.

  4. Crack detection and sizing technique by ultrasonic and electromagnetic methods

    Komura, Ichiro E-mail:; Hirasawa, Taiji; Nagai, Satoshi; Takabayashi, Jun-ichi; Naruse, Katsuhiko


    Improvements in defect detection and sizing capabilities for non-destructive inspection techniques have been required in order to ensure the reliable operation and life extension of nuclear power plants. For the volumetric inspection, the phased array UT technique has superior capabilities for beam steering and focusing to objective regions, and real-time B-scan imaging without mechanical scanning. In contrast to the conventional UT method, high-speed inspection is realized by the unique feature of the phased array technique. A 256-channel array system has developed for the inspection of weldment of BWR internal components such as core shrouds. The TOFD crack sizing technique also can be applied using this system. For the surface inspection, potential drop techniques and eddy current techniques have been improved, which combined the theoretical analysis. These techniques have the crack sizing capability for surface breaking cracks to which UT method is difficult to apply. This paper provides the recent progress of these phased array and electromagnetic inspection techniques.

  5. Effects of crack depth and specimen size on ductile crack growth of SENT and SENB specimens for fracture mechanics evaluation of pipeline steels

    Xu, J. [Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Richard Birkelands vei 1a, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB), 100083 Beijing (China); Zhang, Z.L., E-mail: zhiliang.zhang@ntnu.n [Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Richard Birkelands vei 1a, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Ostby, E.; Nyhus, B. [SINTEF, Materials and Chemistry, N-7465 Trondheim (Norway); Sun, D.B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB), 100083 Beijing (China)


    A strong geometry dependence of ductile crack growth resistance emerges under large scale yielding. The geometry dependence is associated with different levels of crack tip constraint conditions. However, in a recent attempt to identify appropriate fracture mechanics specimens for pipeline steels, an 'independent' relationship between the crack growth resistance curves and crack depths for SENT specimens has been observed experimentally. In this paper, we use the complete Gurson model to study the effects of crack depth and specimen size on ductile crack growth behavior. Crack growth resistance curves for plane strain, mode I crack growth under large scale yielding conditions have been computed. SENB and SENT specimens with three different specimen sizes, each specimen size with three different crack depths, have been selected. It has been found that crack tip constraint (Q-parameter) has a weak dependence on the crack depth for specimens in the low constraint regime.

  6. selection of an ideal mesh size for the cracking unit of a palm kernel ...


    out confirmed the need for separation of nuts before cracking and also the need to select an ideal sieve size for each ... Keywords: Cracking efficiency, Dura nut, Oil palm, Mesh size, Tenera nut .... water concentrate is mixed in large pots into.

  7. Inclusion size effect on the fatigue crack propagation mechanism and fracture mechanics of a superalloy

    Denda, Takeshi; Bretz, Perter L.; Tien, John K.


    Low cycle fatigue life of nickel-base superalloys is enhanced as a consequence of inclusion reduction in the melt process; however, the functional dependencies between fatigue characteristics and inclusions have not been well investigated. In this study, the propagation mechanism of the fatigue crack initiated from inclusions is examined in fine-grained IN718, which is a representative turbine disc material for jet engines. There is a faceted-striated crack transition on the fracture surfaces. This faceted-striated transition also appears in the da/dN vs crack length curves. It is observed that the faceted crack propagation time can be more than 50 pct of total lifetime in the low cycle fatigue test. The significance of inclusion size effect is explained on the premise that the faceted fatigue crack propagation time scales with the inclusion size, which is taken as the initial crack length. A predictive protocol for determining inclusion size effect is given.

  8. Effect of crack size on gas leakage characteristics in a confined space

    Sung, Kun Hyuk; Ryou, Hong Sun; Yoon, Kee Bong; Lee, Hy Uk; Bang, Joo Won [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Li, Longnan; Choi, Jin Wook; Kim, Dae Joong [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We numerically investigated the influence of crack size on gas leakage characteristics in a confined space. The real scale model of underground Combined cycle power plant (CCPP) was taken for simulating gas leakage characteristics for different crack sizes such as 10 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm. The commercial code of Fluent (v.16.1) was used for three-dimensional simulation. In particular, a risk region showing such a probability of ignition was newly suggested with the concept of Lower flammable limit (LFL) of methane gas used in the present study to characterize the gas propagation and the damage area in space. From the results, the longitudinal and transverse leakage distances were estimated and analyzed for quantitative evaluation of risk area. The crack size was found to have a great impact on the longitudinal leakage distance, showing an increasing tendency with the crack size. In case of a crack size of 20 mm, the longitudinal leakage distance suddenly increased after 180 s, whereas it remained constant after 2 s in the other cases. This is because a confinement effect, which is caused by circulation flows in the whole space, increased the gas concentration near the gas flow released from the crack. The confinement effect is thus closely associated with the released mass flow rate changing with the crack size. This result would be useful in designing the gas detector system for preventing accidents in the confined space as like CCPP.

  9. Random walks and cell size.

    Agutter, P S; Wheatley, D N


    For many years, it has been believed that diffusion is the principle motive force for distributing molecules within the cell. Yet, our current information about the cell makes this improbable. Furthermore, the argument that limitations responsible for the relative constancy of cell size--which seldom varies by more than a factor of 2, whereas organisms can vary in mass by up to 10(24)--are based on the limits of diffusion is questionable. This essay seeks to develop an alternative explanation based on transport of molecules along structural elements in the cytoplasm and nucleus. This mechanism can better account for cell size constancy, in light of modern biological knowledge of the complex microstructure of the cell, than simple diffusion.

  10. Detection and sizing of short fatigue cracks in a simulated aircraft structure of aluminum thin plate

    KIm, Jung Chan; Kwon, Oh Yang [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Since the fatigue damage usually occurs around the rivet holes in aircraft structures, the detection and sizing of short fatigue cracks emanating from rivet holes is extremely important. The initiation of fatigue cracks in a simulated aircraft structures with a series of rivet holes was detected by acoustic emission(AE), and the crack length was determined by the surface acoustic wave(SAW) technique. AE events increased intermittently with the initiation and growth of short cracks to form a stepwise incremental curve of cumulative AE events. with the SAW technique employed, the crack sizing in the range of 1-8 mm long was possible but it was impossible in the range shorter than 1 mm.

  11. A probabilistic crack size quantification method using in-situ Lamb wave test and Bayesian updating

    Yang, Jinsong; He, Jingjing; Guan, Xuefei; Wang, Dengjiang; Chen, Huipeng; Zhang, Weifang; Liu, Yongming


    This paper presents a new crack size quantification method based on in-situ Lamb wave testing and Bayesian method. The proposed method uses coupon test to develop a baseline quantification model between the crack size and damage sensitive features. In-situ Lamb wave testing data on actual structures are used to update the baseline model parameters using Bayesian method to achieve more accurate crack size predictions. To demonstrate the proposed method, Lamb wave testing on simple plates with artificial cracks of different sizes is performed using surface-bonded piezoelectric wafers, and the data are used to obtain the baseline model. Two damage sensitive features, namely, the phase change and normalized amplitude are identified using signal processing techniques and used in the model. To validate the effectiveness of the method, the damage data from an in-situ fatigue testing on a realistic lap-joint component are used to update the baseline model using Bayesian method.

  12. Estimation of gear tooth transverse crack size from vibration by fusing selected gear condition indices

    Choi, Sukhwan; Li, C. James


    Gears are common power transmission elements and are frequently responsible for transmission failures. Since a tooth crack is not directly measurable while a gear is in operation, one has to develop an indirect method to estimate its size from some measurables. This study developed such a method to estimate the size of a tooth transverse crack for a spur gear in operation. Using gear vibrations measured from an actual gear accelerated test, this study examined existing gear condition indices to identify those correlated well to crack size and established their utility for crack size estimation through index fusion using a neural network. When tested with vibrations measured from another accelerated test, the method had an averaged estimation error of about 5%.

  13. Particle- and crack-size dependency of lithium-ion battery materials LiFePO4

    Michael A. Stamps


    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries have become a widely-used commodity for satisfying the world’s mobile power needs. However, the mechanical degradation of lithium-ion batteries initiated by micro cracks is considered to be a bottleneck for advancing the current technology. This study utilizes a finite element method-based virtual crack closure technique to obtain particle- and crack-size-dependent estimates of mixed-mode energy release rates and stress intensity factors. Interfacial cracks in orthotropic bi-materials are considered in the current study, whereas the crack extension along the interface is assumed. The results show that energy release rate, stress intensity factor, and the propensity of crack extension are particle- and crack-size- dependent. In particular, our results show that for smaller plate-like LiFePO4 particles (100 nm × 45 nm, a crack has lesser tendency to extend if crack-to-particle size is less than 0.2, and for 200 nm × 90 nm particles, similar results are obtained for crack-to-particle sizes of less than 0.15. However, for larger particles (500 nm × 225 nm, it requires an almost flawless particle to have no crack extension. Therefore, the current study provides insight into the fracture mechanics of LiFePO4 and the associated crack-to-particle size dependency to prevent crack extensions.


    Guo Ruiping; Liu Guanting; Fan Tianyou


    In this paper a semi-elliptic surface crack problem in an elastic solid of finite size under impact loading is investigated. An analysis is performed by means of fracture dynamics and the finite element method, and a three-dimensional finite element program is developed to compute the dynamic stress intensity factor. The results reveal that the effects of the solid's boundary surface, crack surface, material inertia and stress wave interactions play significant roles in dynamic fracture.

  15. Random polycrystals of grains containing cracks: Model of quasistatic elastic behavior for fractured systems

    Berryman, James G.; Grechka, Vladimir


    A model study on fractured systems was performed using a concept that treats isotropic cracked systems as ensembles of cracked grains by analogy to isotropic polycrystalline elastic media. The approach has two advantages: (a) Averaging performed is ensemble averaging, thus avoiding the criticism legitimately leveled at most effective medium theories of quasistatic elastic behavior for cracked media based on volume concentrations of inclusions. Since crack effects are largely independent of the volume they occupy in the composite, such a non-volume-based method offers an appealingly simple modeling alternative. (b) The second advantage is that both polycrystals and fractured media are stiffer than might otherwise be expected, due to natural bridging effects of the strong components. These same effects have also often been interpreted as crack-crack screening in high-crack-density fractured media, but there is no inherent conflict between these two interpretations of this phenomenon. Results of the study are somewhat mixed. The spread in elastic constants observed in a set of numerical experiments is found to be very comparable to the spread in values contained between the Reuss and Voigt bounds for the polycrystal model. Unfortunately, computed Hashin-Shtrikman bounds are much too tight to be in agreement with the numerical data, showing that polycrystals of cracked grains tend to violate some implicit assumptions of the Hashin-Shtrikman bounding approach. However, the self-consistent estimates obtained for the random polycrystal model are nevertheless very good estimators of the observed average behavior.

  16. Fatigue Crack Length Sizing Using a Novel Flexible Eddy Current Sensor Array

    Ruifang Xie


    Full Text Available The eddy current probe, which is flexible, array typed, highly sensitive and capable of quantitative inspection is one practical requirement in nondestructive testing and also a research hotspot. A novel flexible planar eddy current sensor array for the inspection of microcrack presentation in critical parts of airplanes is developed in this paper. Both exciting and sensing coils are etched on polyimide films using a flexible printed circuit board technique, thus conforming the sensor to complex geometric structures. In order to serve the needs of condition-based maintenance (CBM, the proposed sensor array is comprised of 64 elements. Its spatial resolution is only 0.8 mm, and it is not only sensitive to shallow microcracks, but also capable of sizing the length of fatigue cracks. The details and advantages of our sensor design are introduced. The working principal and the crack responses are analyzed by finite element simulation, with which a crack length sizing algorithm is proposed. Experiments based on standard specimens are implemented to verify the validity of our simulation and the efficiency of the crack length sizing algorithm. Experimental results show that the sensor array is sensitive to microcracks, and is capable of crack length sizing with an accuracy within ±0.2 mm.

  17. Comparison of particle size of cracking catalyst determined by laser light scattering and dry sieve methods

    Dishman, K.L.; Doolin, P.K.; Hoffman, J.F. (Ashland Petroleum Co., Ashland, KY (United States))


    A method of interconversion of dry sieve and laser light scattering particle size values has been developed for cracking catalysts. Values obtained by light scattering techniques were consistently larger than those obtained by dry sieve analysis. The differences were primarily due to lack of sphericity of the particles. The particle size distribution determined by light scattering techniques was based on an average particle diameter. Conversely, the sieve measured the smallest diameter of the particle which can pass through the opening. Microscopic examination of commercial cracking catalysts confirmed their nonuniformity. The sphericity of the catalyst particles decreased as particle size increased. Therefore, the divergence between the laser light scattering and dry sieving value became greater as the catalyst particle size increased.

  18. Material size effects on crack growth along patterned wafer-level Cu–Cu bonds

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, John W.


    The role of micron-scale patterning on the interface toughness of bonded Cu-to-Cu nanometer-scale films is analyzed, motivated by experimental studies of Tadepalli, Turner and Thompson. In the experiments 400nm Cu films were deposited in various patterns on Si wafer substrates and then bonded...... together. Crack growth along the bond interface is here studied numerically using finite element analyses. The experiments have shown that plasticity in the Cu films makes a major contribution to the macroscopic interface toughness. To account for the size dependence of the plastic flow a strain gradient...... plasticity model is applied here for the metal. A cohesive zone model is applied to represent the crack growth along the bond between the two Cu films. This cohesive zone model incorporates the effect of higher order stresses in the continuum, such that the higher order tractions on the crack faces decay...

  19. Life distribution of thermal fatigue crack propagation under random temperature fluctuation with wide-band spectrum

    Toyoda, Michiko; Tanaka, Hiroaki [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)


    Thermal fatigue crack propagation under random temperature fluctuation is theoretically investigated from a probabilistic view point by the use of a Markov approximation method, under the condition that the temporary variation of the inner surface temperature of plate is modeled as a wide-band stationary Gaussian process. First, a crack growth equation is formulated on the basis of the Paris law under the assumption that the stress intensity factor range {Delta}K can be approximated by the local expectation of a relative maximum of the stress intensity factor K. Next it is extended to a random differential equation, where the randomness in crack propagation resistance is taken into account. The Markov approximation method is then applied to derive a residual life distribution function as well as a probability distribution function of the crack length. Finally, numerical examples are shown to examine the quantitative behavior of the residual life distribution, whose results indicate that the present model is applicable even if the spectrum of temperature is of narrow-band type. (author).

  20. Thermal Stresses and Cracks During the Growth of Large-sized Sapphire with SAPMAC Method


    The finite-element method has been used to study the thermal stress distribution in large-sized sapphire crystals grown with the sapphire growth technique with micro-pulling and shoulder-expanding at cooled center (SAPMAC) method. A critical defect model has been established to explain the growth and propagation of cracks during the sapphire growing process. It is demonstrated that the stress field depends on the growth rate, the ambient temperature and the crystallizing direction. High stresses always exist near the growth interfaces, at the shoulder-expanding locations, the tailing locations and the sites where the diameters undergo sharp changes. The maximum stresses always occur at the interface of seeds and crystals. Cracks often form in the critical defect region and spread in the m-planes and a-planes under applied tensile stresses during crystal growth. The experimental results have verified that with the improved system of crystal growth and well-controlled techniques, the large-sized sapphire crystals of high quality can be grown due to absence of cracks.

  1. Fracture-Based Mesh Size Requirements for Matrix Cracks in Continuum Damage Mechanics Models

    Leone, Frank A.; Davila, Carlos G.; Mabson, Gerald E.; Ramnath, Madhavadas; Hyder, Imran


    This paper evaluates the ability of progressive damage analysis (PDA) finite element (FE) models to predict transverse matrix cracks in unidirectional composites. The results of the analyses are compared to closed-form linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) solutions. Matrix cracks in fiber-reinforced composite materials subjected to mode I and mode II loading are studied using continuum damage mechanics and zero-thickness cohesive zone modeling approaches. The FE models used in this study are built parametrically so as to investigate several model input variables and the limits associated with matching the upper-bound LEFM solutions. Specifically, the sensitivity of the PDA FE model results to changes in strength and element size are investigated.

  2. Contribution to crack sizing by phased array ultrasonic techniques: part 2: comparison with optical, magnetic particles, fracture mechanics and metallography for last significant crack tip

    Ciorau, P. [Ontario Power Generation, Inc., Pickering, Ontario (Canada)


    The paper presents phased array results for 1-D linear array probes of high frequency (7-10 MHz) in L-, and S-waves for detecting the crack shape and the last significant tip. Fatigue and stress-corrosion cracks with height ranging from 1.6 mm to 20.4 mm were detected in welded samples, piping welds and straight bars with thickness between 1.6 mm to 38 mm. The results of S-scan display are compared with different methods: optical, magnetic particles, fracture mechanics and metallography. The experimental results concluded the undersizing trend of PAUT in detecting the last crack tip or closure, in spite of using dynamic depth focusing, and/or focusing on crack tip. The average undersizing error is - 0.4 mm. This error increases for cracks with depth >12 mm. The largest errors occur when the crack is sized from outer surface coupled with initiation from the outside surface with propagation towards the inside surface. These errors were reduced by a combination of shear and longitudinal waves and by increasing the angular resolution. (author)


    ZHAO Yong-xiang; YANG Bing; LIANG Hong-qin; WU Ping-bo; ZENG Jing


    A so-called "local probabilistic Paris relation method" was presented for measuring the random thresholds of long fatigue crack propagation. A check was made to the conventional method, in which the thresholds were measured statistically and directly by the test data. It was revealed that this method was not reasonable because the test data have seldom a unified level of crack growth rates. Differently,in the presented method the Paris-Erdogan equation was applied to model the local test data around the thresholds. Local probabilistic relations with both the survival probability and the confidence were established on a lognormal distribution of the stress density factors.And then, the probabilistic thresholds were derived from the probabilistic factors with a given critical level of growth rate. An analysis on the test data of LZ50 axle steel for the Chinese railway vehicles verifies that the present method is feasible and available.

  4. Homogenous Crack-Free Large Size YBCO/YSZ/Sapphire Films for Application

    Almog, B.; Azoulay, M.; Deutscher, G.


    YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films grown on Sapphire are highly suitable for applications. The production of large size (2-3″) homogeneous, thick (d ⩾ 600nm) films of high quality is of major importance. We report the growth of such films using a buffer layer of Yttrium-stabilized ZrO2(YSZ). The films are highly homogeneous and show excellent mechanical properties. They exhibit no sign of cracking even after many thermal cycles. Their critical thickness exceeds 1000nm. However, because of the large lattice mismatch there is a decrease in the electric properties(increases Rs, decreases jc).




    Full Text Available It was discovered in a Korean PWR that an extensive number of very short and shallow cracks in the SG tubes were undetectable by eddy current in-service-inspection because of the masking effect of sludge deposits. Axial stress corrosion cracks at the outside diameter of the steam generator tubes near the line contacts with the tube support plates are the major concern among the six identical Korean nuclear power plants having CE-type steam generators with Alloy 600 high temperature mill annealed tubes, HU3&4 and HB3∼6. The tubes in HB3&4 have a less susceptible microstructure so that the onset of ODSCC was substantially delayed compared to HU3&4 whose tubes are most susceptible to ODSCC among the six units. The numbers of cracks detected by the eddy current inspection jumped drastically after the steam generators of HB4 were chemically cleaned. The purpose of the chemical cleaning was to mitigate stress corrosion cracking by removing the heavy sludge deposit, since a corrosive environment is formed in the occluded region under the sludge deposit. SGCC also enhances the detection capability of the eddy current inspection at the same time. Measurement of the size of each crack using the motorized rotating pancake coil probe indicated that the cracks in HB4 were shorter and substantially shallower than the cracks in HU3&4. It is believed that the cracks were shorter and shallower because the microstructure of the tubes in HB4 is less susceptible to ODSCC. It was readily understood from the size distribution of the cracks and the quantitative information available on the probability of detection that most cracks in HB4 had been undetected until the steam generators were chemically cleaned.

  6. A random energy model for size dependence : recurrence vs. transience

    Külske, Christof


    We investigate the size dependence of disordered spin models having an infinite number of Gibbs measures in the framework of a simplified 'random energy model for size dependence'. We introduce two versions (involving either independent random walks or branching processes), that can be seen as gener

  7. A Fatigue Crack Size Evaluation Method Based on Lamb Wave Simulation and Limited Experimental Data

    Jingjing He


    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic and general method for Lamb wave-based crack size quantification using finite element simulations and Bayesian updating. The method consists of construction of a baseline quantification model using finite element simulation data and Bayesian updating with limited Lamb wave data from target structure. The baseline model correlates two proposed damage sensitive features, namely the normalized amplitude and phase change, with the crack length through a response surface model. The two damage sensitive features are extracted from the first received S0 mode wave package. The model parameters of the baseline model are estimated using finite element simulation data. To account for uncertainties from numerical modeling, geometry, material and manufacturing between the baseline model and the target model, Bayesian method is employed to update the baseline model with a few measurements acquired from the actual target structure. A rigorous validation is made using in-situ fatigue testing and Lamb wave data from coupon specimens and realistic lap-joint components. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated under different loading and damage conditions.

  8. Fatigue reliability of cracked engineering structures

    Lanning, David Bruce, Jr.


    This study investigates the reliability of engineering structures containing fatigue cracks. Stress concentrations and welded joints are probable locations for the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. Due to the many unknowns of loading, materials properties, crack sizes and crack shapes present at these locations, a statistics-based reliability analysis is valuable in the careful consideration of these many different random factors involved in a fatigue life analysis, several of which are expanded upon in this study. The basic problem of a crack near a stress concentration is first considered. A formulation for the aspect ratio (a/c) of a propagating semi-elliptical fatigue crack located at the toe of a welded T-joint is developed using Newman and Raju's stress intensity factor for a cracked flat plate with a weld magnification factor and compared to that of a cracked flat plate, and the reliability in terms of fatigue lifetime is calculated with the aid of Paris' crack propagation equation for membrane and bending loadings. Crack closure effects are then introduced in the consideration of short crack effects, where crack growth rates typically may exceed those found using traditional linear elastic fracture mechanics solutions for long cracks. The probability of a very small, microstructurally influenced crack growing to a size influenced by local plastic conditions is calculated utilizing the probability of a crack continuing to grow past an obstacle, such as a grain boundary. The result is then combined with the probability for failure defined using the crack closure-modified Paris equation to find an overall reliability for the structure. Last, the probability of fracture is determined when a crack front encounters regions of non-uniform toughness, such as typical in the heat affected zone of a welded joint. An expression for the effective crack lengths of the dissimilar regions is derived, and used in a weakest-link fracture model in the evaluation

  9. A failed RCT to determine if antibiotics prevent mastitis: Cracked nipples colonized with Staphylococcus aureus: A randomized treatment trial [ISRCTN65289389

    Garland Suzanne M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A small, non-blinded, RCT (randomised controlled trial had reported that oral antibiotics reduced the incidence of mastitis in lactating women with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus- colonized cracked nipples. We aimed to replicate the study with a more rigorous design and adequate sample size. Methods Our intention was to conduct a double-blind placebo-controlled trial to determine if an antibiotic (flucloxacillin could prevent mastitis in lactating women with S. aureus-colonized cracked nipples. We planned to recruit two groups of 133 women with S. aureus-colonized cracked nipples. Results We spent over twelve months submitting applications to five hospital ethics committees and seven funding bodies, before commencing the trial. Recruitment to the trial was very slow and only ten women were randomized to the trial after twelve months, and therefore the trial was stopped early. Conclusions In retrospect we should have conducted a feasibility study, which would have revealed the low number of women in these Melbourne hospitals (maternity wards and breastfeeding clinics with damaged nipples. The appropriate use of antibiotics for breastfeeding women with cracked nipples still needs to be tested.

  10. Effect of glide path and apical preparation size on the incidence of apical crack during the canal preparation using Reciproc, WaveOne, and ProTaper Next systems in curved root canals: A stereomicroscope study.

    Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Düzgün, Salih; Akpek, Firdevs; Topçuoğlu, Gamze


    This study evaluated the effect of creating a glide path and apical preparation size on the incidence of apical cracks during canal preparation in mandibular molar teeth with curved canals. One hundred and forty extracted teeth were used. The teeth were randomly assigned to one control group or six experimental groups (n = 20 per group) for canal preparation. No preparation was performed on teeth in the control group. In three of the six experimental groups, a glide path was not created; a glide path was created on the curved mesial canals of all teeth in the remaining three experimental groups. All teeth in experimental groups were then instrumented with the following systems: Reciproc, WaveOne (WO), and ProTaper Next (PTN). Digital images of the apical root surfaces of these teeth were recorded before preparation, after instrumentation with size 25 files, and after instrumentation with size 40 files. The images were then inspected for the presence of any new apical cracks and propagation. There was no significant difference between the experimental groups during canal preparation using size 25 files (p > 0.05). Reciproc and WO caused more new apical cracks than did PTN during canal preparation using size 40 files (p canal preparation using size 40 files did not cause propagation of existing cracks (p > 0.05). Performing a glide path prior to canal preparation did not change the incidence of apical crack during preparation. Additionally, increasing apical preparation size may increase the incidence of apical crack during canal preparation. SCANNING 38:585-590, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Novel Method for Sizing Metallic Bottom Crack Depth Using Multi-frequency Alternating Current Potential Drop Technique

    Li Yuting


    Full Text Available Potential drop techniques are of two types: the direct current potential drop (DCPD technique and alternating current potential drop (ACPD technique, and both of them are used in nondestructive testing. ACPD, as a kind of valid method in sizing metal cracks, has been applied to evaluate metal structures. However, our review of most available approaches revealed that some improvements can be done in measuring depth of metal bottom crack by means of ACPD, such as accuracy and sensitivity of shallow crack. This paper studied a novel method which utilized the slope of voltage ratio-frequency curve to solve bottom crack depth by using a simple mathematic equation based on finite element analysis. It is found that voltage ratio varies linearly with frequency in the range of 5-15 Hz; this range is slightly higher than the equivalent frequency and lower than semi-permeable frequency. Simulation and experiment show that the novel method can measure the bottom crack depth accurately.

  12. Open crack depth sizing by multi-speed continuous laser stimulated lock-in thermography

    Boué, C.; Holé, S.


    A crack located in the thermal diffusion zone of a heat source behaves like a thermal barrier modifying the heat diffusion. For a moving continuous source, the sample surface is heated on a little area near the crack for a duration which depends on the speed of the thermal source. A lock-in process synchronized by the displacement of the continuous heat source along the crack is studied. The thermal signature of the crack is extracted via a space operator applied to the amplitude and the phase of surface temperature images for various speeds of the thermal source. With the technical solution presented in this article, the thermal signature images are analysed according to a length representative of the thermal diffusion length to give a local evaluation of the crack depth (around 3 mm at the maximum) for crack lengths of about few centimetres long. The multi-speed lock-in thermography approach is initially studied with finite element method simulations. Experimental tests using an infra-red camera validate the method in a second part. The results do not depend on the heating source if its power is sufficient to produce a temperature rise detectable by an infra-red camera. The depth estimations are obtained independently of the crack width and heat source trajectory. The multi-speed lock-in thermography is a method without contact, without sample preparation, non-polluting, non-destructive and with simple optical adjustments.

  13. Deviations from the Gutenberg–Richter law on account of a random distribution of block sizes

    Sibiryakov, B. P., E-mail: [Trofimuk Institute of Oil and Gas Geology and Geophysics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)


    This paper studies properties of a continuum with structure. The characteristic size of the structure governs the fact that difference relations are nonautomatically transformed into differential ones. It is impossible to consider an infinitesimal volume of a body, to which the major conservation laws could be applied, because the minimum representative volume of the body must contain at least a few elementary microstructures. The corresponding equations of motion are equations of infinite order, solutions of which include, along with usual sound waves, unusual waves with abnormally low velocities without a lower limit. It is shown that in such media weak perturbations can increase or decrease outside the limits. The number of complex roots of the corresponding dispersion equation, which can be interpreted as the number of unstable solutions, depends on the specific surface of cracks and is an almost linear dependence on a logarithmic scale, as in the seismological Gutenberg–Richter law. If the distance between one pore (crack) to another one is a random value with some distribution, we must write another dispersion equation and examine different scenarios depending on the statistical characteristics of the random distribution. In this case, there are sufficient deviations from the Gutenberg–Richter law and this theoretical result corresponds to some field and laboratory observations.

  14. Spatial Randomness of Fatigue Crack Growth Rate in Friction Stir Welded 7075-T111 Aluminum Alloy Welded Joints (Case of L T Orientation Specimen)

    Jeong, Yeui Han; Kim, Seon Jin [Pukyong Nat' l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    This study aims to investigate the spatial randomness of fatigue crack growth rate for the friction stir welded (FSWed) 7075-T111 aluminum alloy joints. Our previous fatigue crack growth test data are adopted in this investigation. To clearly understand the spatial randomness of fatigue crack growth rate, fatigue crack growth tests were conducted under constant stress intensity factor range (SEFOR) control testing. The experimental data were analyzed for two different materials-base metal (BM) and weld metal (WM)-to investigate the effects of spatial randomness of fatigue crack growth rate and material properties, the friction stir welded (FSWed) 7075-T111 aluminum alloy joints, namely weld metal (WM) and base metal (BM). The results showed that the variability, as evaluated by Wobble statistical analysis, of the WM is higher than that of the BM.

  15. Local dynamics of a randomly pinned crack front: A numerical study

    Knut Skogstrand Gjerden


    Full Text Available We investigate numerically the dynamics of crack propagation along a weak plane using a model consisting of fibers connecting a soft and a hard clamp. This bottom-up model has previously been shown to contain the competition of two crack propagation mechanisms: coalescence of damage with the front on small scales and pinned elastic line motion on large scales. We investigate the dynamical scaling properties of the model, both on small and large scale. The model results compare favorable with experimental results on stable crack propagation between sintered PMMA plates.

  16. Finite-Size Scaling in Random K-SAT Problems

    Ha, Meesoon; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeon, Chanil; Jeong, Hawoong


    We propose a comprehensive view of threshold behaviors in random K-satisfiability (K-SAT) problems, in the context of the finite-size scaling (FSS) concept of nonequilibrium absorbing phase transitions using the average SAT (ASAT) algorithm. In particular, we focus on the value of the FSS exponent to characterize the SAT/UNSAT phase transition, which is still debatable. We also discuss the role of the noise (temperature-like) parameter in stochastic local heuristic search algorithms.

  17. Effect of cracking and randomness of inputs on corrosion initiation of reinforced concrete bridge decks exposed to chlorides

    P. Konecny


    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at the indicative evaluation of the effect of random scatter of input parameters in case of durability of reinforced concrete bridge deck. The time to onset of corrosion of steel reinforcement of concrete bridge deck exposed to chloride is evaluated. The effect of cracking in concrete onto chloride ingress is considered. The selected steel reinforcement protection strategies are: unprotected steel reinforcement, epoxy-coated steel reinforcement and water-proof barrier bellow asphalt overlay. The preliminary model for damage effect on chloride ion ingress through water proof membrane under penetrable asphalt overlay is used. 2-D finite element chloride ingress model is combined with Monte Carlo simulation technique. The innovative crack effect modeling via highly penetrable elements is applied. Deterministic and probabilistic calculations are compared.

  18. Probabilistic Model Updating for Sizing of Hole-Edge Crack Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors and the High-Order Extended Finite Element Method

    Jingjing He


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel framework for probabilistic crack size quantification using fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors. The key idea is to use a high-order extended finite element method (XFEM together with a transfer (T-matrix method to analyze the reflection intensity spectra of FBG sensors, for various crack sizes. Compared with the standard FEM, the XFEM offers two superior capabilities: (i a more accurate representation of fields in the vicinity of the crack tip singularity and (ii alleviation of the need for costly re-meshing as the crack size changes. Apart from the classical four-term asymptotic enrichment functions in XFEM, we also propose to incorporate higher-order functions, aiming to further improve the accuracy of strain fields upon which the reflection intensity spectra are based. The wavelength of the reflection intensity spectra is extracted as a damage sensitive quantity, and a baseline model with five parameters is established to quantify its correlation with the crack size. In order to test the feasibility of the predictive model, we design FBG sensor-based experiments to detect fatigue crack growth in structures. Furthermore, a Bayesian method is proposed to update the parameters of the baseline model using only a few available experimental data points (wavelength versus crack size measured by one of the FBG sensors and an optical microscope, respectively. Given the remaining data points of wavelengths, even measured by FBG sensors at different positions, the updated model is shown to give crack size predictions that match well with the experimental observations.

  19. Size dependence of the largest distance between random points

    Krawczyk, Malgorzata J; Kulakowski, Krzysztof


    A set of $N$ points is chosen randomly in a $D$-dimensional volume $V=a^D$, with periodic boundary conditions. For each point $i$, its distance $d_i$ is found to its nearest neighbour. Then, the maximal value is found, $d_{max}=max(d_i, i=1,...,N)$. Our numerical calculations indicate, that when the density $N/V$=const, $d_{max}$ scales with the linear system size as $d^2_{max}\\propto a^\\phi$, with $\\phi=0.24\\pm0.04$ for $D=1,2,3,4$.

  20. Sample size in orthodontic randomized controlled trials: are numbers justified?

    Koletsi, Despina; Pandis, Nikolaos; Fleming, Padhraig S


    Sample size calculations are advocated by the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) group to justify sample sizes in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). This study aimed to analyse the reporting of sample size calculations in trials published as RCTs in orthodontic speciality journals. The performance of sample size calculations was assessed and calculations verified where possible. Related aspects, including number of authors; parallel, split-mouth, or other design; single- or multi-centre study; region of publication; type of data analysis (intention-to-treat or per-protocol basis); and number of participants recruited and lost to follow-up, were considered. Of 139 RCTs identified, complete sample size calculations were reported in 41 studies (29.5 per cent). Parallel designs were typically adopted (n = 113; 81 per cent), with 80 per cent (n = 111) involving two arms and 16 per cent having three arms. Data analysis was conducted on an intention-to-treat (ITT) basis in a small minority of studies (n = 18; 13 per cent). According to the calculations presented, overall, a median of 46 participants were required to demonstrate sufficient power to highlight meaningful differences (typically at a power of 80 per cent). The median number of participants recruited was 60, with a median of 4 participants being lost to follow-up. Our finding indicates good agreement between projected numbers required and those verified (median discrepancy: 5.3 per cent), although only a minority of trials (29.5 per cent) could be examined. Although sample size calculations are often reported in trials published as RCTs in orthodontic speciality journals, presentation is suboptimal and in need of significant improvement.

  1. Effect of Particle Size Upon Pt/SiO2 Catalytic Cracking of n-Dodecane Under Supercritical Conditions: in situ SAXS and XANES Studies

    Lee, Sungwon; Lee, Sungsik; Kumbhalkar, Mrunmayi; Wiaderek, Kamila M.; Dumesic, James A; Winans, Randall E.


    The endothermic cracking and dehydrogenation of n-dodecane is investigated over well-defined nanometer size platinum catalysts supported on SiO2 to study the particle size effects in the catalytic cracking reaction, with simultaneous in situ monitoring of the particle size and oxidation state of the working catalysts by in situ SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering) and XAS (X-ray absorption spectroscopy). The selectivity toward olefins products was found dominant in the 1 nm size platinum catalysts, whereas paraffins are dominant in the 2 nm catalysts. This reveals a strong correlation between catalytic performance and catalyst size as well as the stability of the nanoparticles in supercritical condition of n-dodecane. The presented results suggest that controlling the size and geometric structure of platinum nanocatalysts could lead to a fundamentally new level of understanding of nanoscale materials by monitoring the catalysts in realistic reaction conditions.

  2. Sample size for cluster randomized trials: effect of coefficient of variation of cluster size and analysis method.

    Eldridge, Sandra M; Ashby, Deborah; Kerry, Sally


    Cluster randomized trials are increasingly popular. In many of these trials, cluster sizes are unequal. This can affect trial power, but standard sample size formulae for these trials ignore this. Previous studies addressing this issue have mostly focused on continuous outcomes or methods that are sometimes difficult to use in practice. We show how a simple formula can be used to judge the possible effect of unequal cluster sizes for various types of analyses and both continuous and binary outcomes. We explore the practical estimation of the coefficient of variation of cluster size required in this formula and demonstrate the formula's performance for a hypothetical but typical trial randomizing UK general practices. The simple formula provides a good estimate of sample size requirements for trials analysed using cluster-level analyses weighting by cluster size and a conservative estimate for other types of analyses. For trials randomizing UK general practices the coefficient of variation of cluster size depends on variation in practice list size, variation in incidence or prevalence of the medical condition under examination, and practice and patient recruitment strategies, and for many trials is expected to be approximately 0.65. Individual-level analyses can be noticeably more efficient than some cluster-level analyses in this context. When the coefficient of variation is <0.23, the effect of adjustment for variable cluster size on sample size is negligible. Most trials randomizing UK general practices and many other cluster randomized trials should account for variable cluster size in their sample size calculations.

  3. Cracks in random brittle solids:. From fiber bundles to continuum mechanics

    Patinet, S.; Vandembroucq, D.; Hansen, A.; Roux, S.


    Statistical models are essential to get a better understanding of the role of disorder in brittle disordered solids. Fiber bundle models play a special role as a paradigm, with a very good balance of simplicity and non-trivial effects. We introduce here a variant of the fiber bundle model where the load is transferred among the fibers through a very compliant membrane. This Soft Membrane fiber bundle mode reduces to the classical Local Load Sharing fiber bundle model in 1D. Highlighting the continuum limit of the model allows to compute an equivalent toughness for the fiber bundle and hence discuss nucleation of a critical defect. The computation of the toughness allows for drawing a simple connection with crack front propagation (depinning) models.

  4. Root crack sizing using phased array inspections and autoregressive spectral extrapolation signal processing

    Caldwell, J.; Shakibi, B.; Moles, M.; Sinclair, A. N.


    Phased array inspection was conducted on a V-butt welded steel sample with multiple shallow flaws of varying depths. The inspection measurements were processed using Wiener filtering and Autoregressive Spectral Extrapolation (AS) to enhance the signals. Phased array inspections were conducted using multiple phased array probes of varying nominal central frequencies (2.25, 4, 5 and 10 MHz). This paper describes the measured results, which show high accuracy, typically in the range of 0.1-0.2 mm. The results concluded that: 1. There was no statistical difference between the calculated flaw depths from phased array inspections at different flaw tip angles. 2. There was no statistical difference in flaw depths calculated using phased array data collected from either side of the weld. 3. Flaws with depths less than the estimated probe signal shear wavelength could not be sized. 4. Finally, there was no statistical difference in the calculated flaw depths using phased array probes with different sampling frequencies and destructive measurements of the flaws.

  5. Small-crack test methods

    Larsen, James M.; Allison, John E.

    This book contains chapters on fracture mechanics parameters for small fatigue cracks, monitoring small-crack growth by the replication method, measurement of small cracks by photomicroscopy (experiments and analysis), and experimental mechanics of microcracks. Other topics discussed are the real-time measurement of small-crack-opening behavior using an interferometric strain/displacement gage; direct current electrical potential measurement of the growth of small cracks; an ultrasonic method for the measurement of the size and opening behavior of small fatigue cracks; and the simulation of short crack and other low closure loading conditions, utilizing constant K(max) Delta-K-decreasing fatigue crack growth procedures.

  6. General Framework for Effect Sizes in Cluster Randomized Experiments

    VanHoudnos, Nathan


    Cluster randomized experiments are ubiquitous in modern education research. Although a variety of modeling approaches are used to analyze these data, perhaps the most common methodology is a normal mixed effects model where some effects, such as the treatment effect, are regarded as fixed, and others, such as the effect of group random assignment…

  7. Effect of crack propagation on crack tip fields

    F.V. Antunes


    Full Text Available Crack closure influences fatigue crack growth rate and must be included in the design of components. Plasticity induced crack closure is intimately linked with the crack tip plastic deformation, which becomes residual as the crack propagates. The objective here is to study numerically the effect of crack propagation on crack tip fields. The transient effect observed at the beginning of crack propagation is linked to the hardening behavior of material. The effect of mesh refinement is studied, and a singular behavior is evident, which is explained by the sharp crack associated with mesh topology, composed of a regular pattern of square elements. The plastic zone size measured perpendicularly to crack flank in the residual plastic wake is quantified and compared with literature models. Finally, the removal of material at the first node behind crack tip with load cycling was observed for plane strain state and some hardening models in plane stress state.

  8. Model based Inverse Methods for Sizing Cracks of Varying Shape and Location in Bolt hole Eddy Current (BHEC) Inspections (Postprint)


    10.1063/1.4940557 14. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) A comprehensive approach is presented to perform model-based inversion of crack characteristics ...thickness crack types, and from both standard eddy current hardware and a prototype BHEC system with z -axis position encoding. Signal processing...algorithms were developed to process and extract features from the 2D data sets, and inversion algorithms using VIC-3D generated surrogate models were used

  9. Studies on the effect of vibration on hot cracking and Grain size in AA7075 Aluminum alloy Welding



    Full Text Available The aim of this present study is to investigate the vibration effect which is applied during Gas tungsten Arc welding (GTAW welding in order to improve the quality of high strength Aluminum alloy weldment. An important metallurgical difficulty in arc welding of high strength aluminum alloys is formation of hot cracking. When Aluminum alloy is welded by GTAW process, weld fusion zone shows coarse columnar grains during weld metal solidification. This often leads to poor resistance to hot cracking. In this work, an attempt is made to reduce the hot cracking and to refine the fusion zone grains in welding of aluminum alloys through vibratory treatment. The material used for the investigation is AA7075 aluminum alloy, which is highly prone for hot cracking. Vibratory treatment was carried out in the frequency range of 100Hz to 2050Hz. Weldments made with and without vibratory treatment were compared using weld cracking tests and other characterization tests like micro structural analysis, hardness measurements. Test results show that by applying vibratory treatment, hot cracking can be largely controlled in arc welding.

  10. Sample size calculations for 3-level cluster randomized trials

    Teerenstra, S.; Moerbeek, M.; Achterberg, T. van; Pelzer, B.J.; Borm, G.F.


    BACKGROUND: The first applications of cluster randomized trials with three instead of two levels are beginning to appear in health research, for instance, in trials where different strategies to implement best-practice guidelines are compared. In such trials, the strategy is implemented in health

  11. Sample size calculations for 3-level cluster randomized trials

    Teerenstra, S.; Moerbeek, M.; Achterberg, T. van; Pelzer, B.J.; Borm, G.F.


    Background The first applications of cluster randomized trials with three instead of two levels are beginning to appear in health research, for instance, in trials where different strategies to implement best-practice guidelines are compared. In such trials, the strategy is implemented in health

  12. Sample size calculations for 3-level cluster randomized trials

    Teerenstra, S.; Moerbeek, M.; Achterberg, T. van; Pelzer, B.J.; Borm, G.F.


    BACKGROUND: The first applications of cluster randomized trials with three instead of two levels are beginning to appear in health research, for instance, in trials where different strategies to implement best-practice guidelines are compared. In such trials, the strategy is implemented in health ca

  13. Sample size calculations for 3-level cluster randomized trials

    Teerenstra, S.; Moerbeek, M.; Achterberg, T. van; Pelzer, B.J.; Borm, G.F.


    Background The first applications of cluster randomized trials with three instead of two levels are beginning to appear in health research, for instance, in trials where different strategies to implement best-practice guidelines are compared. In such trials, the strategy is implemented in health car

  14. Precision of recombination frequency estimates after random intermating with finite population sizes.

    Frisch, Matthias; Melchinger, Albrecht E


    Random intermating of F2 populations has been suggested for obtaining precise estimates of recombination frequencies between tightly linked loci. In a simulation study, sampling effects due to small population sizes in the intermating generations were found to abolish the advantages of random intermating that were reported in previous theoretical studies considering an infinite population size. We propose a mating scheme for intermating with planned crosses that yields more precise estimates than those under random intermating.

  15. Empirical power and sample size calculations for cluster-randomized and cluster-randomized crossover studies.

    Reich, Nicholas G; Myers, Jessica A; Obeng, Daniel; Milstone, Aaron M; Perl, Trish M


    In recent years, the number of studies using a cluster-randomized design has grown dramatically. In addition, the cluster-randomized crossover design has been touted as a methodological advance that can increase efficiency of cluster-randomized studies in certain situations. While the cluster-randomized crossover trial has become a popular tool, standards of design, analysis, reporting and implementation have not been established for this emergent design. We address one particular aspect of cluster-randomized and cluster-randomized crossover trial design: estimating statistical power. We present a general framework for estimating power via simulation in cluster-randomized studies with or without one or more crossover periods. We have implemented this framework in the clusterPower software package for R, freely available online from the Comprehensive R Archive Network. Our simulation framework is easy to implement and users may customize the methods used for data analysis. We give four examples of using the software in practice. The clusterPower package could play an important role in the design of future cluster-randomized and cluster-randomized crossover studies. This work is the first to establish a universal method for calculating power for both cluster-randomized and cluster-randomized clinical trials. More research is needed to develop standardized and recommended methodology for cluster-randomized crossover studies.

  16. Cluster-size dependent randomization traffic flow model

    Gao Kun; Wang Bing-Hong; Fu Chuan-Ji; Lu Yu-Feng


    In order to exhibit the meta-stable states, several slow-to-start rules have been investigated as modification to Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) model. These models can reproduce some realistic phenomena which are absent in the original NS model. But in these models, the size of cluster is still not considered as a useful parameter. In real traffic,the slow-to-start motion of a standing vehicle often depends on the degree of congestion which can be measured by the clusters'size. According to this idea, we propose a cluster-size dependent slow-to-start model based on the speeddependent slow-to-start rule (VDR) model. It gives expected results through simulations. Comparing with the VDR model, our new model has a better traffic efficiency and shows richer complex characters.

  17. The feasibility of small size specimens for testing of environmentally assisted cracking of irradiated materials and of materials under irradiation in reactor core

    Toivonen, A.; Moilanen, P.; Pyykkoenen, M.; Taehtinen, S.; Rintamaa, R.; Saario, T. [Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland)


    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of core materials has become an increasingly important issue of downtime and maintenance costs in nuclear power plants. Small size specimens are necessary in stress corrosion testing of irradiated materials because of difficulties in handling high dose rate materials and because of restricted availability of the materials. The drawback of using small size specimens is that in some cases they do not fulfil the requirements of the relevant testing standards. Recently VTT has developed J-R testing with irradiated and non-irradiated sub size 3 PB specimens, both in inert and in LWR environments. Also, a new materials testing system which will enable simultaneous multiple specimen testing both in laboratory conditions and in operating reactor core is under development. The new testing system will utilize Charpy and sub size 3 PB specimens. The feasibility study of the system has been carried out using different materials. Fracture resistance curves of a Cu-Zr-Cr alloy are shown to be independent of the specimen geometry and size, to some extent. Results gained from tests in simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) water are presented for sensitized SIS 2333 stainless steel. The experimental results indicate that the size of the plastic zone or stress triaxiality must be further studied although no significant effect on the environmentally assisted crack growth rate was observed. (orig.)

  18. Calculating sample sizes for cluster randomized trials: we can keep it simple and efficient !

    van Breukelen, Gerard J.P.; Candel, Math J.J.M.


    Objective: Simple guidelines for efficient sample sizes in cluster randomized trials with unknown intraclass correlation and varying cluster sizes. Methods: A simple equation is given for the optimal number of clusters and sample size per cluster. Here, optimal means maximizing power for a given

  19. A failed RCT to determine if antibiotics prevent mastitis: Cracked nipples colonized with Staphylococcus aureus: A randomized treatment trial [ISRCTN65289389

    Garland Suzanne M; Lumley Judith; Amir Lisa


    Abstract Background A small, non-blinded, RCT (randomised controlled trial) had reported that oral antibiotics reduced the incidence of mastitis in lactating women with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)- colonized cracked nipples. We aimed to replicate the study with a more rigorous design and adequate sample size. Methods Our intention was to conduct a double-blind placebo-controlled trial to determine if an antibiotic (flucloxacillin) could prevent mastitis in lactating women with S. aureus...

  20. Optical encryption for large-sized images using random phase-free method

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hiyama, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Satoki; Nagahama, Yuki; Sano, Marie; Sugie, Takashige; Ito, Tomoyoshi


    We propose an optical encryption framework that can encrypt and decrypt large-sized images beyond the size of the encrypted image using our two methods: random phase-free method and scaled diffraction. In order to record the entire image information on the encrypted image, the large-sized images require the random phase to widely diffuse the object light over the encrypted image; however, the random phase gives rise to the speckle noise on the decrypted images, and it may be difficult to recognize the decrypted images. In order to reduce the speckle noise, we apply our random phase-free method to the framework. In addition, we employ scaled diffraction that calculates light propagation between planes with different sizes by changing the sampling rates.

  1. Studies on the effect of vibration on hot cracking and Grain size in AA7075 Aluminum alloy Welding


    The aim of this present study is to investigate the vibration effect which is applied during Gas tungsten Arc welding (GTAW) welding in order to improve the quality of high strength Aluminum alloy weldment. An important metallurgical difficulty in arc welding of high strength aluminum alloys is formation of hot cracking. When Aluminum alloy is welded by GTAW process, weld fusion zone shows coarse columnar grains during weld metal solidification. This often leads to poor resistance to hot crac...

  2. Studying the influence of surface effects on vibration behavior of size-dependent cracked FG Timoshenko nanobeam considering nonlocal elasticity and elastic foundation

    Ghadiri, Majid; Soltanpour, Mahdi; Yazdi, Ali; Safi, Mohsen


    Free transverse vibration of a size-dependent cracked functionally graded (FG) Timoshenko nanobeam resting on a polymer elastic foundation is investigated in the present study. Also, all of the surface effects: surface density, surface elasticity and residual surface tension are studied. Moreover, satisfying the balance condition between the nanobeam and its surfaces was discussed. According to the power-law distribution, it is supposed that the material properties of the FG nanobeam are varying continuously across the thickness. Considering the small-scale effect, the Eringen's nonlocal theory is used; accounting the effect of polymer elastic foundation, the Winkler model is proposed. For this purpose, the equations of motion of the FG Timoshenko nanobeam and boundary conditions are obtained using Hamilton's principle. To find the analytical solutions for equations of motion of the FG nanobeam, the separation of variables method is employed. Two cases of boundary conditions, i.e., simply supported-simply supported (SS) and clamped-clamped (CC) are investigated in the present work. Numerical results are demonstrating a good agreement between the results of the present study and some available cases in the literature. The emphasis of the present study is on investigating the effect of various parameters such as crack severity, crack position, gradient index, mode number, nonlocal parameter, elastic foundation parameter and nanobeam length. It is clearly revealed that the vibrational behavior of a FG nanobeam is depending significantly on these effects. Also, these numerical results can be serving as benchmarks for future studies of FG nanobeams.

  3. Influence of crystallite size and shape of zeolite ZSM-22 on its activity and selectivity in the catalytic cracking of n-octane

    Bager, F.; Ernst, S. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry, Chemical Technology


    Light olefins belong to the major building blocks for the petrochemical industry, particularly for the production of polymers. It has become necessary to increase the production of light olefins specifically in the case for propene with so called 'on-purpose propene' technologies. One possible route is to increase the amount of propene that can be obtained from Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) by optimizing the catalyst through introducing new additives, which offer a high selectivity to propene. Zeolite ZSM-22 samples with different crystallite sizes and morphologies have been synthesized via hydrothermal syntheses and characterized by powder X-Ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption, atomic absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The zeolites in the Broensted-acid form have been tested as catalysts in the catalytic cracking of n-octane as a model hydrocarbon. Clear influences of the crystallite size on the deactivation behavior have been observed. Larger crystals of zeolite ZSM-22 produce an increased amount of coke deposits resulting in a faster deactivation of the catalyst. The experimental results suggest that there is probably some influence of pore diffusion on the catalytic activity of the ZSM-22 sample with the large crystallite size. However a noticeable influence on the general product distribution could not be observed. (orig.)

  4. Pore size distribution, survival probability, and relaxation time in random and ordered arrays of fibers

    Tomadakis, Manolis M.; Robertson, Teri J.


    We present a random walk based investigation of the pore size probability distribution and its moments, the survival probability and mean survival time, and the principal relaxation time, for random and ordered arrays of cylindrical fibers of various orientation distributions. The dimensionless mean survival time, principal relaxation time, mean pore size, and mean square pore size are found to increase with porosity, remain practically independent of the directionality of random fiber beds, and attain lower values for ordered arrays. Wide pore size distributions are obtained for random fiber structures and relatively narrow for ordered square arrays, all in very good agreement with theoretically predicted limiting values. Analytical results derived for the pore size probability and its lower moments for square arrays of fibers practically coincide with the corresponding simulation results. Earlier variational bounds on the mean survival time and principal relaxation time are obeyed by our numerical results in all cases, and are found to be quite sharp up to very high porosities. Dimensionless groups representing the deviation of such bounds from our simulation results vary in practically the same range as the corresponding values reported earlier for beds of spherical particles. A universal scaling expression of the literature relating the mean survival time to the mean pore size [S. Torquato and C. L. Y. Yeong, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8814 (1997)] agrees very well with our results for all types of fiber structures, thus validated for the first time for anisotropic porous media.

  5. Power and sample size calculations for Mendelian randomization studies using one genetic instrument.

    Freeman, Guy; Cowling, Benjamin J; Schooling, C Mary


    Mendelian randomization, which is instrumental variable analysis using genetic variants as instruments, is an increasingly popular method of making causal inferences from observational studies. In order to design efficient Mendelian randomization studies, it is essential to calculate the sample sizes required. We present formulas for calculating the power of a Mendelian randomization study using one genetic instrument to detect an effect of a given size, and the minimum sample size required to detect effects for given levels of significance and power, using asymptotic statistical theory. We apply the formulas to some example data and compare the results with those from simulation methods. Power and sample size calculations using these formulas should be more straightforward to carry out than simulation approaches. These formulas make explicit that the sample size needed for Mendelian randomization study is inversely proportional to the square of the correlation between the genetic instrument and the exposure and proportional to the residual variance of the outcome after removing the effect of the exposure, as well as inversely proportional to the square of the effect size.

  6. Effect of the size of the apical enlargement with rotary instruments, single-cone filling, post space preparation with drills, fiber post removal, and root canal filling removal on apical crack initiation and propagation.

    Çapar, İsmail Davut; Uysal, Banu; Ok, Evren; Arslan, Hakan


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of apical crack initiation and propagation in root dentin after several endodontic procedures. Sixty intact mandibular premolars were sectioned perpendicular to the long axis at 1 mm from the apex, and the apical surface was polished. Thirty teeth were left unprepared and served as a control, and the remaining 30 teeth were instrumented with ProTaper Universal instruments (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) up to size F5. The root canals were filled with the single-cone technique. Gutta-percha was removed with drills of the Rebilda post system (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany). Glass fiber-reinforced composite fiber posts were cemented using a dual-cure resin cement. The fiber posts were removed with a drill of the post system. Retreatment was completed after the removal of the gutta-percha. Crack initiation and propagation in the apical surfaces of the samples were examined with a stereomicroscope after each procedure. The absence/presence of cracks was recorded. Logistic regression was performed to analyze statistically the incidence of crack initiation and propagation with each procedure. The initiation of the first crack and crack propagation was associated with F2 and F4 instruments, respectively. The logistic regression analysis revealed that instrumentation and F2 instrument significantly affected apical crack initiation (P propagation (P = .0004). The other procedures had no significant effects on crack initiation and propagation (P > .05). Rotary nickel-titanium instrumentation had a significant effect on apical crack initiation, and post space preparation with drills had a significant impact on crack propagation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prediction of crack growth of surface crack at bracket toe of ship under random wave loading condition%肘板趾端表面裂纹在随机波浪载荷作用下的疲劳扩展预报

    武锐锋; 黄小平


    The bracket toe is one of the fatigue hot spots in ship and ocean structures. In this paper, the SIFs of surface cracks at bracket toe are analyzed by 3D FEA and compared with the results of SIF magnification factors of the same size surface crack at T joints calculated by equations recommended in BS7910. Results show that the SIF magnification factor of surface crack at bracket toe at deepest point is close to that of T-butt joints, while the results at surface point are quite different when the crack length is larger than the bracket thickness. The fatigue crack growth of a surface crack at bracket toe in bottom plate of a Ro-Ro passenger ship was predicted by generating series stress amplitude with zero mean stress which the long-term stress range distribution obey Weibull distribution, the stress intensity factors were calculated by FEA results and the T-joint formula in BS7910 respectively, the unique crack growth rate curve model is employed. The welded residual stress effect is considered in the equivalent stress intensity factor amplitude. It shows thai the predicted fatigue lives of the SIF of surface crack at bracket toe calculated by FEA and by the T-joint formula are very close. The formula for calculating the SIF of surface crack at weld toe of T joint are recommended to the SIF calculation of the surface crack at bracket toe. The unique crack growth rate curve model is recommended in prediction of the fatigue crack propagation life of weld toe of ship hull under random wave loads.%肘板趾端是船舶与海洋结构的疲劳热点.文章用三维有限元分析了趾端表面裂纹应力强度因子修正系数的变化规律,并与BS7910推荐的典型节点表面裂纹应力强度因子公式计算结果作了对比,结果表明趾端表面裂纹应力强度因子沿深度方向的放大系数和T型节点相差很小,而表面端点应力强度因子修正系数则当裂纹长度在肘板厚度范围内时和T型节点相差很小,超出后

  8. Asymptotic normality of the size of the giant component in a random hypergraph

    Bollobas, Bela


    Recently, we adapted random walk arguments based on work of Nachmias and Peres, Martin-L\\"of, Karp and Aldous to give a simple proof of the asymptotic normality of the size of the giant component in the random graph $G(n,p)$ above the phase transition. Here we show that the same method applies to the analogous model of random $k$-uniform hypergraphs, establishing asymptotic normality throughout the (sparse) supercritical regime. Previously, asymptotic normality was known only towards the two ends of this regime.

  9. Crack Characterisation for In-service Inspection Planning - An Update

    Waale, Jan [lnspecta Technology AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    ; Mechanical fatigue; and Solidification cracking in weld metal. The evaluated parameters were divided into visually detectable and metallurgical parameters, which need to be evaluated from a cross-section. The visually detectable parameters are; location, orientation and shape in surface direction and finally the number of cracks in the cracked region. The metallurgical parameters are; orientation and shape in the through thickness direction, macroscopic branching, crack tip radius, crack surface roughness, crack width and finally discontinuous appearance. The morphology parameters were statistically processed and the results are presented as minimum, maximum. mean, median and scatter values for each data group, both in tables and in various graphs. Finally each morphology parameter is compared between the seven data groups. A brief description of typical characteristics of each data group is given below. Most IGSCC develop next to welds with straight or winding cracks oriented almost parallel to the weld. Single cracking is most common but occasionally two cracks are formed on each side of the weld. In the through thickness direction IGSCC is typically winding or lightly bend and macroscopic branching is rare. The surface roughness is normally on a grain size magnitude and the cracks are particularly narrow providing secondary corrosion is small. Similar characteristics to IGSCC in austenitic stainless steels may be expected. However, cracking close to weld are less frequent and macroscopic branching is more common for IGSCC in nickel base alloys compared to austenitic stainless steels. Typically IDSCC is winding or straight, single cracking in the weld metal transverse to the weld. In the through thickness direction IDSCC cause typically winding, non branched cracks with large surface roughness due to course solidification microstructure. The crack width often shows large variation along the crack and a width close to zero at the surface intersection is common. Typically

  10. The effect of cluster size variability on statistical power in cluster-randomized trials.

    Stephen A Lauer

    Full Text Available The frequency of cluster-randomized trials (CRTs in peer-reviewed literature has increased exponentially over the past two decades. CRTs are a valuable tool for studying interventions that cannot be effectively implemented or randomized at the individual level. However, some aspects of the design and analysis of data from CRTs are more complex than those for individually randomized controlled trials. One of the key components to designing a successful CRT is calculating the proper sample size (i.e. number of clusters needed to attain an acceptable level of statistical power. In order to do this, a researcher must make assumptions about the value of several variables, including a fixed mean cluster size. In practice, cluster size can often vary dramatically. Few studies account for the effect of cluster size variation when assessing the statistical power for a given trial. We conducted a simulation study to investigate how the statistical power of CRTs changes with variable cluster sizes. In general, we observed that increases in cluster size variability lead to a decrease in power.

  11. Standardized Effect Size Measures for Mediation Analysis in Cluster-Randomized Trials

    Stapleton, Laura M.; Pituch, Keenan A.; Dion, Eric


    This article presents 3 standardized effect size measures to use when sharing results of an analysis of mediation of treatment effects for cluster-randomized trials. The authors discuss 3 examples of mediation analysis (upper-level mediation, cross-level mediation, and cross-level mediation with a contextual effect) with demonstration of the…

  12. Particle-size distribution and packing fraction of geometric random packings

    Brouwers, H.J.H.


    This paper addresses the geometric random packing and void fraction of polydisperse particles. It is demonstrated that the bimodal packing can be transformed into a continuous particle-size distribution of the power law type. It follows that a maximum packing fraction of particles is obtained when t

  13. On the repeated measures designs and sample sizes for randomized controlled trials.

    Tango, Toshiro


    For the analysis of longitudinal or repeated measures data, generalized linear mixed-effects models provide a flexible and powerful tool to deal with heterogeneity among subject response profiles. However, the typical statistical design adopted in usual randomized controlled trials is an analysis of covariance type analysis using a pre-defined pair of "pre-post" data, in which pre-(baseline) data are used as a covariate for adjustment together with other covariates. Then, the major design issue is to calculate the sample size or the number of subjects allocated to each treatment group. In this paper, we propose a new repeated measures design and sample size calculations combined with generalized linear mixed-effects models that depend not only on the number of subjects but on the number of repeated measures before and after randomization per subject used for the analysis. The main advantages of the proposed design combined with the generalized linear mixed-effects models are (1) it can easily handle missing data by applying the likelihood-based ignorable analyses under the missing at random assumption and (2) it may lead to a reduction in sample size, compared with the simple pre-post design. The proposed designs and the sample size calculations are illustrated with real data arising from randomized controlled trials.

  14. Planning a cluster randomized trial with unequal cluster sizes: practical issues involving continuous outcomes

    Ravaud Philippe


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cluster randomization design is increasingly used for the evaluation of health-care, screeening or educational interventions. At the planning stage, sample size calculations usually consider an average cluster size without taking into account any potential imbalance in cluster size. However, there may exist high discrepancies in cluster sizes. Methods We performed simulations to study the impact of an imbalance in cluster size on power. We determined by simulations to which extent four methods proposed to adapt the sample size calculations to a pre-specified imbalance in cluster size could lead to adequately powered trials. Results We showed that an imbalance in cluster size can be of high influence on the power in the case of severe imbalance, particularly if the number of clusters is low and/or the intraclass correlation coefficient is high. In the case of a severe imbalance, our simulations confirmed that the minimum variance weights correction of the variation inflaction factor (VIF used in the sample size calculations has the best properties. Conclusion Publication of cluster sizes is important to assess the real power of the trial which was conducted and to help designing future trials. We derived an adaptation of the VIF from the minimum variance weights correction to be used in case the imbalance can be a priori formulated such as "a proportion (γ of clusters actually recruit a proportion (τ of subjects to be included (γ ≤ τ".

  15. Survival and relaxation time, pore size distribution moments, and viscous permeability in random unidirectional fiber structures

    Tomadakis, Manolis M.; Robertson, Teri J.


    Computer simulation results are presented for the mean survival time, principal relaxation time, mean pore size, and mean square pore size, for random porous structures consisting of parallel nonoverlapping or partially overlapping fibers. The numerical procedure is based on a discrete step-by-step random walk mechanism simulating the Brownian diffusion trajectories of molecules in the porous media. Numerical results on the viscous permeability of these structures are computed with a method based on electrical conduction principles and compared to a variational bound derived from the mean survival time. The results show that nonoverlapping fiber structures exhibit lower values of the dimensionless mean survival time, principal relaxation time, mean pore size, and mean square pore size than randomly overlapping fiber structures of the same porosity, while partially overlapping fiber structures show behavior intermediate to those of the two extreme cases. The mean square pore size (second moment of the pore size distribution) is found to be a very good predictor of the mean survival time for non-, partially, and randomly overlapping fiber structures. Dimensionless groups representing the deviation of variational bounds from our simulation results vary in practically the same range as the corresponding values reported earlier for beds of spherical particles. A universal scaling expression of the literature relating the mean survival time to structural properties [S. Torquato and C. L. Y. Yeong, J. Chem. Phys. 106, 8814 (1997)] agrees very well with our results for all examined fiber structures, thus validated for the first time for porous media formed by partially overlapping particles. The permeability behavior of partially overlapping fiber structures resembles that of nonoverlapping fiber structures for flow parallel to the fibers, but not for transverse flow, where percolation phenomena prevail. The permeability results for beds of unidirectional partially

  16. The limit distribution of the maximum increment of a random walk with dependent regularly varying jump sizes

    Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Moser, Martin


    We investigate the maximum increment of a random walk with heavy-tailed jump size distribution. Here heavy-tailedness is understood as regular variation of the finite-dimensional distributions. The jump sizes constitute a strictly stationary sequence. Using a continuous mapping argument acting on...... on the point processes of the normalized jump sizes, we prove that the maximum increment of the random walk converges in distribution to a Fréchet distributed random variable....

  17. Sample size calculation in cost-effectiveness cluster randomized trials: optimal and maximin approaches.

    Manju, Md Abu; Candel, Math J J M; Berger, Martijn P F


    In this paper, the optimal sample sizes at the cluster and person levels for each of two treatment arms are obtained for cluster randomized trials where the cost-effectiveness of treatments on a continuous scale is studied. The optimal sample sizes maximize the efficiency or power for a given budget or minimize the budget for a given efficiency or power. Optimal sample sizes require information on the intra-cluster correlations (ICCs) for effects and costs, the correlations between costs and effects at individual and cluster levels, the ratio of the variance of effects translated into costs to the variance of the costs (the variance ratio), sampling and measuring costs, and the budget. When planning, a study information on the model parameters usually is not available. To overcome this local optimality problem, the current paper also presents maximin sample sizes. The maximin sample sizes turn out to be rather robust against misspecifying the correlation between costs and effects at the cluster and individual levels but may lose much efficiency when misspecifying the variance ratio. The robustness of the maximin sample sizes against misspecifying the ICCs depends on the variance ratio. The maximin sample sizes are robust under misspecification of the ICC for costs for realistic values of the variance ratio greater than one but not robust under misspecification of the ICC for effects. Finally, we show how to calculate optimal or maximin sample sizes that yield sufficient power for a test on the cost-effectiveness of an intervention.

  18. Large Mesopore Generation in an Amorphous Silica-Alumina by Controlling the Pore Size with the Gel Skeletal Reinforcement and Its Application to Catalytic Cracking

    Hiroyuki Nasu


    Full Text Available Tetraethoxy orthosilicate (TEOS was used not only as a precursor of silica, but also as an agent which reinforces the skeleton of silica-gel to prepare an aerogel and resultant silica and silica-alumina with large pore size and pore volume. In this gel skeletal reinforcement, the strength of silica aerogel skeleton was enhanced by aging with TEOS/2-propanol mixed solution to prevent the shrink of the pores. When silica aerogel was reinforced by TEOS solution, the pore diameter and pore volume of calcined silica could be controlled by the amount of TEOS solution and reached 30 nm and 3.1 cm3/g. The results from N2 adsorption measurement indicated that most of pores for this silica consisted of mesopores. Silica-alumina was prepared by the impregnation of an aluminum tri-sec-butoxide/2-butanol solution with obtained silica. Mixed catalysts were prepared by the combination of β-zeolite (26 wt% and prepared silica-aluminas with large mesopore (58 wt% and subsequently the effects of their pore sizes on the catalytic activity and the product selectivity were investigated in catalytic cracking of n-dodecane at 500 °C. The mixed catalysts exhibited not only comparable activity to that for single zeolite, but also unique selectivity where larger amounts of branched products were formed.

  19. Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracks in Nickel Alloy Dissimilar Metal Welds: Detection and Sizing Using Established and Emerging Nondestructive Examination Techniques

    Braatz, Brett G.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Prokofiev, Iouri


    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) as a follow-on to the international cooperative Program for the Inspection of Nickel Alloy Components (PINC). The goal of PINC was to evaluate the capabilities of various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to detect and characterize surface-breaking primary water stress corrosion cracks in dissimilar-metal welds (DMW) in bottom-mounted instrumentation (BMI) penetrations and small-bore (≈400-mm diameter) piping components. A series of international blind round-robin tests were conducted by commercial and university inspection teams. Results from these tests showed that a combination of conventional and phased-array ultrasound techniques provided the highest performance for flaw detection and depth sizing in dissimilar metal piping welds. The effective detection of flaws in BMIs by eddy current and ultrasound shows that it may be possible to reliably inspect these components in the field. The goal of PARENT is to continue the work begun in PINC and apply the lessons learned to a series of open and blind international round-robin tests that will be conducted on a new set of piping components including large-bore (≈900-mm diameter) DMWs, small-bore DMWs, and BMIs. Open round-robin testing will engage universities and industry worldwide to investigate the reliability of emerging NDE techniques to detect and accurately size flaws having a wide range of lengths, depths, orientations, and locations. Blind round-robin testing will invite testing organizations worldwide, whose inspectors and procedures are certified by the standards for the nuclear industry in their respective countries, to investigate the ability of established NDE techniques to detect and size flaws whose characteristics range from easy to very difficult to detect and size. This paper presents highlights of PINC and reports on the plans and progress for

  20. A Study of the Optimum Lot Size and the Newsboy Problem Under Random Demands

    Sira Allende Alonso


    Full Text Available The determination of the optimum lot size is a stochastic problem because of the randomness of the demands. The usual approaches consider that the involved distributions are known. We consider the case in which they are unknown. The optimization problem is probabilistic constraint program. The demands are modeled by an autoregressive process and the needed quantiles are derived. The newsboy problem is revisited using the derived results.

  1. Confidence intervals for single-case effect size measures based on randomization test inversion.

    Michiels, Bart; Heyvaert, Mieke; Meulders, Ann; Onghena, Patrick


    In the current paper, we present a method to construct nonparametric confidence intervals (CIs) for single-case effect size measures in the context of various single-case designs. We use the relationship between a two-sided statistical hypothesis test at significance level α and a 100 (1 - α) % two-sided CI to construct CIs for any effect size measure θ that contain all point null hypothesis θ values that cannot be rejected by the hypothesis test at significance level α. This method of hypothesis test inversion (HTI) can be employed using a randomization test as the statistical hypothesis test in order to construct a nonparametric CI for θ. We will refer to this procedure as randomization test inversion (RTI). We illustrate RTI in a situation in which θ is the unstandardized and the standardized difference in means between two treatments in a completely randomized single-case design. Additionally, we demonstrate how RTI can be extended to other types of single-case designs. Finally, we discuss a few challenges for RTI as well as possibilities when using the method with other effect size measures, such as rank-based nonoverlap indices. Supplementary to this paper, we provide easy-to-use R code, which allows the user to construct nonparametric CIs according to the proposed method.

  2. Finite size corrections in the random energy model and the replica approach

    Derrida, Bernard; Mottishaw, Peter


    We present a systematic and exact way of computing finite size corrections for the random energy model, in its low temperature phase. We obtain explicit (though complicated) expressions for the finite size corrections of the overlap functions. In its low temperature phase, the random energy model is known to exhibit Parisi's broken symmetry of replicas. The finite size corrections given by our exact calculation can be reproduced using replicas if we make specific assumptions about the fluctuations (with negative variances!) of the number and sizes of the blocks when replica symmetry is broken. As an alternative we show that the exact expression for the non-integer moments of the partition function can be written in terms of coupled contour integrals over what can be thought of as ‘complex replica numbers’. Parisi's one step replica symmetry breaking arises naturally from the saddle point of these integrals without making any ansatz or using the replica method. The fluctuations of the ‘complex replica numbers’ near the saddle point in the imaginary direction correspond to the negative variances we observed in the replica calculation. Finally our approach allows one to see why some apparently diverging series or integrals are harmless.

  3. Influence of particle size distribution on random close packing of spheres.

    Desmond, Kenneth W; Weeks, Eric R


    The densest amorphous packing of rigid particles is known as random close packing. It has long been appreciated that higher densities are achieved by using collections of particles with a variety of sizes. For spheres, the variety of sizes is often quantified by the polydispersity of the particle size distribution: the standard deviation of the radius divided by the mean radius. Several prior studies quantified the increase of the packing density as a function of polydispersity. A particle size distribution is also characterized by its skewness, kurtosis, and higher moments, but the influence of these parameters has not been carefully quantified before. In this work, we numerically generate many sphere packings with different particle radii distributions, varying polydispersity and skewness independently of one another. We find that the packing density can increase significantly with increasing skewness and in some cases skewness can have a larger effect than polydispersity. However, the packing fraction is relatively insensitive to the higher moment value of the kurtosis. We present a simple empirical formula for the value of the random close packing density as a function of polydispersity and skewness.

  4. Gabapentin Effect on Pain Associated with Heroin Withdrawal in Iranian Crack: a Randomized Double-blind Clinical Trial

    Behnam, Behnaz; Semnani, Vahid; Saghafi, Nadia; Ghorbani, Raheb; Dianak Shori, Mina; Ghooshchian Choobmasjedi, Samaneh


    Gabapentin seems to be a safe and well tolerated medication for treating heroine dependence. This study examined the efficacy of gabapentin for relieving withdrawal-related pain due to heroin use. Sixty men were recruited from an inpatient psychiatric ward of Fatemieh hospital in Semnan and randomized to receive either placebo (n = 30) or gabapentin (1800 mg/day) (n = 30) for 7 days. Subjective Opioid Withdrawal Scale (SOWS) was measured as a self-administered scale for grading body pain at b...

  5. Estimating required information size by quantifying diversity in random-effects model meta-analyses

    Wetterslev, Jørn; Thorlund, Kristian; Brok, Jesper;


    an intervention effect suggested by trials with low-risk of bias. METHODS: Information size calculations need to consider the total model variance in a meta-analysis to control type I and type II errors. Here, we derive an adjusting factor for the required information size under any random-effects model meta......-analysis. RESULTS: We devise a measure of diversity (D2) in a meta-analysis, which is the relative variance reduction when the meta-analysis model is changed from a random-effects into a fixed-effect model. D2 is the percentage that the between-trial variability constitutes of the sum of the between...... and interpreted using several simulations and clinical examples. In addition we show mathematically that diversity is equal to or greater than inconsistency, that is D2 >or= I2, for all meta-analyses. CONCLUSION: We conclude that D2 seems a better alternative than I2 to consider model variation in any random...

  6. Estimating the Size of a Large Network and its Communities from a Random Sample

    Chen, Lin; Crawford, Forrest W


    Most real-world networks are too large to be measured or studied directly and there is substantial interest in estimating global network properties from smaller sub-samples. One of the most important global properties is the number of vertices/nodes in the network. Estimating the number of vertices in a large network is a major challenge in computer science, epidemiology, demography, and intelligence analysis. In this paper we consider a population random graph G = (V;E) from the stochastic block model (SBM) with K communities/blocks. A sample is obtained by randomly choosing a subset W and letting G(W) be the induced subgraph in G of the vertices in W. In addition to G(W), we observe the total degree of each sampled vertex and its block membership. Given this partial information, we propose an efficient PopULation Size Estimation algorithm, called PULSE, that correctly estimates the size of the whole population as well as the size of each community. To support our theoretical analysis, we perform an exhausti...

  7. Knuckle Cracking

    ... Ask The Expert Ask a Question Physician Corner Rheumatology Conference Rheumatology Rounds Case Rounds Radiology Rounds Pathophysiology of the ... Appointment Information Contact Us Our Faculty Our Staff Rheumatology Specialty Centers Knuckle Cracking Q & A September 10, ...

  8. Subcritical, Critical and Supercritical Size Distributions in Random Coagulation-Fragmentation Processes

    Dong HAN; Xin Sheng ZHANG; Wei An ZHENG


    We consider the asymptotic probability distribution of the size of a reversible random coagula-tion-fragmentation process in the thermodynamic limit.We prove that the distributions of small,medium and the largest clusters converge to Gaussian,Poisson and 0-1 distributions in the supercritical stage (post-gelation),respectively.We show also that the mutually dependent distributions of clusters will become independent after the occurrence of a gelation transition.Furthermore,it is proved that all the number distributions of clusters are mutually independent at the critical stage (gelation),but the distributions of medium and the largest clusters are mutually dependent with positive correlation coe .cient in the supercritical stage.When the fragmentation strength goes to zero,there will exist only two types of clusters in the process,one type consists of the smallest clusters, the other is the largest one which has a size nearly equal to the volume (total number of units).

  9. Size effects and internal length scales in the elasticity of random fiber networks

    Picu, Catalin; Berkache, Kamel; Shahsavari, Ali; Ganghoffer, Jean-Francois

    Random fiber networks are the structural element of many biological and man-made materials, including connective tissue, various consumer products and packaging materials. In all cases of practical interest the scale at which the material is used and the scale of the fiber diameter or the mean segment length of the network are separated by several orders of magnitude. This precludes solving boundary value problems defined on the scale of the application while resolving every fiber in the system, and mandates the development of continuum equivalent models. To this end, we study the intrinsic geometric and mechanical length scales of the network and the size effect associated with them. We consider both Cauchy and micropolar continuum models and calibrate them based on the discrete network behavior. We develop a method to predict the characteristic length scales of the problem and the minimum size of a representative element of the network based on network structural parameters and on fiber properties.

  10. Gabapentin Effect on Pain Associated with Heroin Withdrawal in Iranian Crack: a Randomized Double-blind Clinical Trial.

    Behnam, Behnaz; Semnani, Vahid; Saghafi, Nadia; Ghorbani, Raheb; Dianak Shori, Mina; Ghooshchian Choobmasjedi, Samaneh


    Gabapentin seems to be a safe and well tolerated medication for treating heroine dependence. This study examined the efficacy of gabapentin for relieving withdrawal-related pain due to heroin use. Sixty men were recruited from an inpatient psychiatric ward of Fatemieh hospital in Semnan and randomized to receive either placebo (n = 30) or gabapentin (1800 mg/day) (n = 30) for 7 days. Subjective Opioid Withdrawal Scale (SOWS) was measured as a self-administered scale for grading body pain at baseline, and on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7. Mean of pain score had a significant decrease trend in both gabapentin and placebo groups. Pain severity during the most of detoxification duration was significantly lower in gabapentin group compared with the placebo group. It is suggested that gabapentin may have an effective role in removing heroin withdrawal-related pain.

  11. Effect of Endotracheal Tube Size on Vocal Outcomes After Thyroidectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Mehanna, Rania; Hennessy, Anthony; Mannion, Stephen; O'Leary, Gerard; Sheahan, Patrick


    The optimum size of endotracheal tube (ETT) for general anesthesia remains unresolved. Choice of ETT size may be of particular relevance to thyroid surgery because of the increased risk of laryngeal trauma and concerns regarding postoperative vocal outcomes. To test our hypothesis that intubation with a smaller ETT would lead to reduced postoperative vocal impairment and associated reduced laryngoscopic evidence of laryngeal trauma compared with intubation with a standard-size ETT. This double-blind randomized clinical trial studied patients 18 years and older undergoing elective thyroidectomy at an academic teaching hospital from October 15, 2012, through June 13, 2013. Patients were randomized to group 1 (standard-size ETT, 8.0 mm for men and 7.5 mm for women; n = 24) or group 2 (small ETT, 7.0 mm for men and 6.5 mm for women; n = 25). Patients were assessed preoperatively and at 24 hours and 3 weeks postoperatively. Fiberoptic videolaryngoscopy with modified scoring system, voice assessment using the GRBAS (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain) rating scale, vocal self-assessment using the 30-item Voice Handicap Index, and subjective pain score. At 24 hours, no significant differences were found between patients in groups 1 and 2 in change in GRBAS scores, change in laryngoscopic score (1.71 vs 1.76, P = .90), or postoperative pain score (3.3 vs 3.2, P = .91). At 3 weeks, no significant differences were found in changes in the 30-item Voice Handicap Index score (-2.2 vs -1.3, P = .74), GRBAS scores, or laryngoscopic score (0.25 vs 0.16, P = .67). We did not find evidence that smaller ETT size for thyroidectomy has any significant effect on postoperative vocal outcomes, incidence of laryngeal trauma as assessed by laryngoscopy, or pain scores. However, because of the small sample size, our study may have been underpowered to detect small differences. Identifier: NCT02136459.

  12. Myocardial Infarct Size by CMR in Clinical Cardioprotection Studies: Insights From Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Hammond-Haley, Matthew; Weinmann, Shane; Martinez-Macias, Roberto; Hausenloy, Derek J


    The aim of this study was to review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) to assess myocardial infarct (MI) size in reperfused patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). There is limited guidance on the use of CMR in clinical cardioprotection RCTs in patients with STEMI treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention. All RCTs in which CMR was used to quantify MI size in patients with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention were identified and reviewed. Sixty-two RCTs (10,570 patients, January 2006 to November 2016) were included. One-third did not report CMR vendor or scanner strength, the contrast agent and dose used, and the MI size quantification technique. Gadopentetate dimeglumine was most commonly used, followed by gadoterate meglumine and gadobutrol at 0.20 mmol/kg each, with late gadolinium enhancement acquired at 10 min; in most RCTs, MI size was quantified manually, followed by the 5 standard deviation threshold; dropout rates were 9% for acute CMR only and 16% for paired acute and follow-up scans. Weighted mean acute and chronic MI sizes (≤12 h, initial TIMI [Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction] flow grade 0 to 3) from the control arms were 21 ± 14% and 15 ± 11% of the left ventricle, respectively, and could be used for future sample-size calculations. Pre-selecting patients most likely to benefit from the cardioprotective therapy (≤6 h, initial TIMI flow grade 0 or 1) reduced sample size by one-third. Other suggested recommendations for standardizing CMR in future RCTs included gadobutrol at 0.15 mmol/kg with late gadolinium enhancement at 15 min, manual or 6-SD threshold for MI quantification, performing acute CMR at 3 to 5 days and follow-up CMR at 6 months, and adequate reporting of the acquisition and analysis of CMR. There is significant heterogeneity in RCT design using CMR in patients with STEMI. The authors provide recommendations for standardizing

  13. Generalisations of Hamilton's Rule Applied to Non-Additive Public Goods Games with Random Group Size

    James A R Marshall


    Full Text Available Inclusive fitness theory has been described as being limited to certain special cases of social evolution. In particular some authors argue that the theory can only be applied to social interactions having additive fitness effects, and involving only pairs of individuals. This article takes an elegant formulation of non-additive public goods games from the literature, and shows how the two main generalisations of Hamilton's rule can be applied to such games when group sizes are random. In doing so inclusive fitness theory is thus applied to a very general class of social dilemmas, thereby providing further evidence for its generality. Interestingly, one of the two predominant versions of Hamilton's rule is found to be mathematically easier to apply to the scenario considered, despite both necessarily giving equivalent predictions.

  14. Effects of hydrodynamic interaction on random adhesive loose packings of micron-sized particles

    Liu Wenwei


    Full Text Available Random loose packings of monodisperse spherical micron-sized particles under a uniform flow field are investigated via an adhesive discrete-element method with the two-way coupling between the particles and the fluid. Characterized by a dimensionless adhesion parameter, the packing fraction follows the similar law to that without fluid, but results in larger values due to the hydrodynamic compression. The total pressure drop through the packed bed shows a critical behaviour at the packing fraction of ϕ ≈ 0.22 in the present study. The normalized permeability of the packed bed for different parameters increases with the increase of porosities and is also in consistent with the Kozeny-Carman equation.

  15. Effects of hydrodynamic interaction on random adhesive loose packings of micron-sized particles

    Liu, Wenwei; Tao, Ran; Chen, Sheng; Zhang, Huang; Li, Shuiqing


    Random loose packings of monodisperse spherical micron-sized particles under a uniform flow field are investigated via an adhesive discrete-element method with the two-way coupling between the particles and the fluid. Characterized by a dimensionless adhesion parameter, the packing fraction follows the similar law to that without fluid, but results in larger values due to the hydrodynamic compression. The total pressure drop through the packed bed shows a critical behaviour at the packing fraction of ϕ ≈ 0.22 in the present study. The normalized permeability of the packed bed for different parameters increases with the increase of porosities and is also in consistent with the Kozeny-Carman equation.

  16. On multiple crack detection in beam structures

    Moradi, Shapour; Kargozarfard, Mohammad [Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    This study presents an inverse procedure to identify multiple cracks in beams using an evolutionary algorithm. By considering the crack detection procedure as an optimization problem, an objective function can be constructed based on the change of the eigenfrequencies and some strain energy parameters. Each crack is modeled by a rotational spring. The changes in natural frequencies due to the presence of the cracks are related to a damage index vector. Then, the bees algorithm, a swarm-based evolutionary optimization technique, is used to optimize the objective function and find the damage index vector, whose positive components show the number and position of the cracks. A second objective function is also optimized to find the crack depths. Several experimental studies on cracked cantilever beams are conducted to ensure the integrity of the proposed method. The results show that the number of cracks as well as their sizes and locations can be predicted well through this method.

  17. Dye Penetrant Crack Detectability in External Corners in Presence of Fillet Radius

    Koshti, Ajay M.


    NASA uses special dye penetrant nondestructive evaluation process to provide reliable detection of very small cracks. Typically the surface crack lengths sizes are 0.030' and 0.050' for special dye penetrant process. Qualification requires demonstration of crack detection on a set of cracks with average crack size smaller than or equal to the qualification crack size. The demonstration is called point estimate demonstration. A set of corner cracks can be used to determine reliably detectable corner crack using the point estimate demonstration method. However, dye penetrant demonstration on surface cracks can be used to assess reliably detectable corner crack sizes by using similarity in the penetrant process. The paper provides similarity analysis approach for determining the reliably detectable corner crack sizes for given a point estimate demonstrated surface crack size.

  18. Transition from Multiple Macro-Cracking to Multiple Micro-Cracking in Cementitious Composites

    ZHANG Jun; LENG Bing


    This paper presents an experimental study of the possibility of transition from multiple macro-cracking to multiple micro-cracking in cementitious composites.Conventional polyvinyl alcohol fiber reinforced cementitious composites normally exhibit macroscopic strain-hardening and multiple cracking after the first cracks appear.However,the individual crack width at the saturated stage is normally 60 to 80 μm.In the current study,the effect of fine aggregate size on the cracking performance,especially the individual crack width in the strain-hardening stage was studied by bending tests.The results show that the individual crack widths can be reduced from 60-80 μm to 10-30 μm by modifying the particle size of the fine aggregates used in the composites.

  19. Equivalent Crack Size Modelling of Corrosion Pitting in an AA7050-T7451 Aluminium Alloy and its Implications for Aircraft Structural Integrity


    provides a quantitative measurement of the spatial density of pits14 but there is no quantitative measurement of corrosion pit metrics without...and stress corrosion cracking in the 7075 T6 components of the RAAF C-130 Hercules...Post-Fracture Examination................................................................... 16 3.5.3 Surface Roughness Measurement

  20. Effect of Crack Closure on Ultrasonic Detection of Fatigue Cracks at Fastener Holes

    Bowles, S. J.; Harding, C. A.; Hugo, G. R.


    The ultrasonic response from closed fatigue cracks grown in aluminium alloy specimens using a representative aircraft spectrum loading has been characterised as a function of tensile applied load using pulse-echo 45° shear-wave ultrasonic C-scans with focused immersion transducers. Observed trends with crack size and applied load are described and compared to results for artificial machined defects. The results demonstrate that crack closure significantly reduces the ultrasonic response compared to open cracks or machined defects.

  1. Density Evolution of the Surface Short Fatigue Cracks of 1Cr18Ni9Ti Pipe-Weld Metal


    The evolutionary density and the scatter of densities of the short fatigue cracks on the surface of 1Cr18Ni9Ti pipeweld metal were observed by local and overall viewpoints, respectively. The local viewpoint, which is in accordance with a so-called "effectively short fatigue crack criterion", paid attention to the dominant effective short fatigue crack (DESFC) initiation zone and the zones ahead of the DESFC tips. The overall viewpoint focused on the whole test piece of specimen. The results revealed that the density and scatter evolution exhibited a significant character of microstructural short crack and physical short crack stages. The evolutionary behavior by the local viewpoint was sensitive to the increase of DESFC size and tip location. The mechanism of the short crack growth associated with the general test observations that the DESFC acted gradually as a long crack and the scatter of DESFC growth rates tended gradually to that of a long crack was well revealed. Intrinsic causes of the random cyclic strain-life relations and stress-strain responses are appropriately given. In contrast, the evolutionary behavior by the overall viewpoint was non-sensitive and violated the general test observations. Therefore, the intrinsic localization and randomization of material evolutionary fatigue damage should be more appropriately revealed from the observations by the local viewpoint.

  2. Effects of Catalyst Particle Size and Mass on Catalytic Cracking of Biomass Pyrolysis Tar%催化剂粒径与质量对生物质热解焦油催化裂化反应的影响

    李永玲; 吴占松


    According to the effects of catalytic cracking conditions on the treatment of biomass pyrolysis tar, the process of tar catalytic cracking under the action of catalyst was studied on the fixed-bed test rig by taking the tar from stalk pyrolysis as the raw material, so as to analyze the influence of catalyst particle size, mass and other parameters on the tar eonversion effect and the catalytic cracking product. Results show that the decrease in catalyst particle size or the increase in catalyst mass can facilitate the conversion of gases from large molecular size with high heating values into small molecular size with low heating values, so that the catalytic craeking of tar is promoted, the gas yield is improved and the gas heating value is reduced.%针对催化裂化条件对生物质热解焦油处理的影响,以秸秆热解产生的焦油为原料,在固定床焦油催化裂化反应试验台上研究了催化剂作用下焦油催化裂化的过程,并对催化剂粒径和质量等参数对焦油转化效果和催化裂化产物的影响进行了分析.结果表明:减小催化剂的粒径或者增加催化剂质量能促进燃气中高热值大分子气体转化为低热值的小分子轻质气体,从而有效促进焦油裂化,提高燃气产率,降低燃气热值.

  3. Anisotropic finite-size scaling of an elastic string at the depinning threshold in a random-periodic medium

    Sebastián Bustingorry


    Full Text Available We numerically study the geometry of a driven elastic string at its sample-dependent depinning threshold in random-periodic media. We find that the anisotropic finite-size scaling of the average square width $overline{w^2}$ and of its associated probability distribution are both controlled by the ratio $k=M/L^{zeta_{dep}}$, where $zeta_{dep}$ is the random-manifold depinning roughness exponent, $L$ is the longitudinal size of the string and $M$ the transverse periodicity of the random medium. The rescaled average square width $overline{w^2}/L^{2zeta_{dep}}$ displays a non-trivial single minimum for a finite value of $k$. We show that the initial decrease for small $k$ reflects the crossover at $k sim 1$ from the random-periodic to the random-manifold roughness. The increase for very large $k$ implies that the increasingly rare critical configurations, accompanying the crossover to Gumbel critical-force statistics, display anomalous roughness properties: a transverse-periodicity scaling in spite that $overline{w^2} ll M$, and subleading corrections to the standard random-manifold longitudinal-size scaling. Our results are relevant tounderstanding the dimensional crossover from interface to particle depinning. Received: 20 October 2010, Accepted: 1 December 2010; Edited by:  A. Vindigni; Reviewed by: A. A. Fedorenko, CNRS-Lab. de Physique, ENS de Lyon, France; DOI: 10.4279/PIP.020008

  4. Typical kernel size and number of sparse random matrices over GF(q) - a statistical physics approach

    Alamino, Roberto C.; Saad, David


    Using methods of statistical physics, we study the average number and kernel size of general sparse random matrices over GF(q), with a given connectivity profile, in the thermodynamical limit of large matrices. We introduce a mapping of $GF(q)$ matrices onto spin systems using the representation of the cyclic group of order q as the q-th complex roots of unity. This representation facilitates the derivation of the average kernel size of random matrices using the replica approach, under the re...

  5. Subcritical crack growth under mode I, II, and III loading for Coconino sandstone

    Ko, Tae Young

    In systems subjected to long-term loading, subcritical crack growth is the principal mechanism causing the time-dependent deformation and failure of rocks. Subcritical crack growth is environmentally-assisted crack growth, which can allow cracks to grow over a long period of time at stresses far smaller than their failure strength and at tectonic strain rates. The characteristics of subcritical crack growth can be described by a relationship between the stress intensity factor and the crack velocity. This study presents the results of studies conducted to validate the constant stress-rate test for determining subcritical crack growth parameters in Coconino sandstone, compared with the conventional testing method, the double torsion test. The results of the constant stress-rate test are in good agreement with the results of double torsion test. More importantly, the stress-rate tests can determine the parameter A with a much smaller standard deviation than the double torsion test. Thus the constant stress-rate test seems to be both a valid and preferred test method for determining the subcritical crack growth parameters in rocks. We investigated statistical aspects of the constant stress-rate test. The effects of the number of tests conducted on the subcritical crack growth parameters were examined and minimum specimen numbers were determined. The mean and standard deviation of the subcritical crack growth parameters were obtained by randomly selecting subsets from the original strength data. In addition, the distribution form of the subcritical crack growth parameters and the relation between the parameter n and A were determined. We extended the constant stress-rate test technique to modes II and III subcritical crack growth in rocks. The experimental results of the modes I, II and III tests show that the values of the subcritical crack growth parameters are similar to each other. The subcritical crack growth parameter n value for Coconino sandstone has the range

  6. Hierarchical Formation of Intrasplat Cracks in Thermal Spray Ceramic Coatings

    Chen, Lin; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu


    Intrasplat cracks, an essential feature of thermally sprayed ceramic coatings, play important roles in determining coating properties. However, final intrasplat crack patterns are always considered to be disordered and irregular, resulting from random cracking during splat cooling, since the detailed formation process of intrasplat cracks has scarcely been considered. In the present study, the primary formation mechanism for intrasplat cracking was explored based on both experimental observations and mechanical analysis. The results show that the intrasplat crack pattern in thermally sprayed ceramic splats presents a hierarchical structure with four sides and six neighbors, indicating that intrasplat crack patterns arise from successive domain divisions due to sequential cracking during splat cooling. The driving forces for intrasplat cracking are discussed, and the experimental data quantitatively agree well with theoretical results. This will provide insight for further coating structure designs and tailoring by tuning of intrasplat cracks.

  7. Comparing cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens using sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trials: Regression estimation and sample size considerations.

    NeCamp, Timothy; Kilbourne, Amy; Almirall, Daniel


    Cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens can be used to guide sequential treatment decision-making at the cluster level in order to improve outcomes at the individual or patient-level. In a cluster-level dynamic treatment regimen, the treatment is potentially adapted and re-adapted over time based on changes in the cluster that could be impacted by prior intervention, including aggregate measures of the individuals or patients that compose it. Cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials can be used to answer multiple open questions preventing scientists from developing high-quality cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens. In a cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial, sequential randomizations occur at the cluster level and outcomes are observed at the individual level. This manuscript makes two contributions to the design and analysis of cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials. First, a weighted least squares regression approach is proposed for comparing the mean of a patient-level outcome between the cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens embedded in a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial. The regression approach facilitates the use of baseline covariates which is often critical in the analysis of cluster-level trials. Second, sample size calculators are derived for two common cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial designs for use when the primary aim is a between-dynamic treatment regimen comparison of the mean of a continuous patient-level outcome. The methods are motivated by the Adaptive Implementation of Effective Programs Trial which is, to our knowledge, the first-ever cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial in psychiatry.

  8. Random Shift and XOR of Unequal-sized Packets (RaSOR) to Shave off Transmission Overhead

    Taghouti, Maroua; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank Hanns Paul


    We propose the design of a novel coding scheme of unequal-sized packets. Unlike the conventional wisdom that consists of brute-force zero-padding in Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC), we exploit this heterogeneity to shave off this trailing overhead and transmit considerably less coded packets...

  9. Slip-Size Distribution and Self-Organized Criticality in Block-Spring Models with Quenched Randomness

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Kadowaki, Shuntaro


    We study slowly pulling block-spring models in random media. Second-order phase transitions exist in a model pulled by a constant force in the case of velocity-strengthening friction. If external forces are slowly increased, nearly critical states are self-organized. Slips of various sizes occur, and the probability distributions of slip size roughly obey power laws. The exponent is close to that in the quenched Edwards-Wilkinson model. Furthermore, the slip-size distributions are investigated in cases of Coulomb friction, velocity-weakening friction, and two-dimensional block-spring models.

  10. Controlling fatigue crack paths for crack surface marking and growth investigations

    S. Barter


    Full Text Available While it is well known that fatigue crack growth in metals that display confined slip, such as high strength aluminium alloys, develop crack paths that are responsive to the loading direction and the local microstructural orientation, it is less well known that such paths are also responsive to the loading history. In these materials, certain loading sequences can produce highly directional slip bands ahead of the crack tip and by adjusting the sequence of loads, distinct fracture surface features or progression marks, even at very small crack depths can result. Investigating the path a crack selects in fatigue testing when particular combinations of constant and variable amplitude load sequences are applied is providing insight into crack growth. Further, it is possible to design load sequences that allow very small amounts of crack growth to be measured, at very small crack sizes, well below the conventional crack growth threshold in the aluminium alloy discussed here. This paper reports on observations of the crack path phenomenon and a novel test loading method for measuring crack growth rates for very small crack depths in aluminium alloy 7050-T7451 (an important aircraft primary structural material. The aim of this work was to firstly generate short- crack constant amplitude growth data and secondly, through the careful manipulation of the applied loading, to achieve a greater understanding of the mechanisms of fatigue crack growth in the material being investigated. A particular focus of this work is the identification of the possible sources of crack growth retardation and closure in these small cracks. Interpreting these results suggests a possible mechanism for why small fatigue crack growth through this material under variable amplitude loading is faster than predicted from models based on constant amplitude data alone.

  11. Random distribution pattern and non-adaptivity of genome size in a highly variable population of Festuca pallens.

    Smarda, Petr; Bures, Petr; Horová, Lucie


    The spatial and statistical distribution of genome sizes and the adaptivity of genome size to some types of habitat, vegetation or microclimatic conditions were investigated in a tetraploid population of Festuca pallens. The population was previously documented to vary highly in genome size and is assumed as a model for the study of the initial stages of genome size differentiation. Using DAPI flow cytometry, samples were measured repeatedly with diploid Festuca pallens as the internal standard. Altogether 172 plants from 57 plots (2.25 m(2)), distributed in contrasting habitats over the whole locality in South Moravia, Czech Republic, were sampled. The differences in DNA content were confirmed by the double peaks of simultaneously measured samples. At maximum, a 1.115-fold difference in genome size was observed. The statistical distribution of genome sizes was found to be continuous and best fits the extreme (Gumbel) distribution with rare occurrences of extremely large genomes (positive-skewed), as it is similar for the log-normal distribution of the whole Angiosperms. Even plants from the same plot frequently varied considerably in genome size and the spatial distribution of genome sizes was generally random and unautocorrelated (P > 0.05). The observed spatial pattern and the overall lack of correlations of genome size with recognized vegetation types or microclimatic conditions indicate the absence of ecological adaptivity of genome size in the studied population. These experimental data on intraspecific genome size variability in Festuca pallens argue for the absence of natural selection and the selective non-significance of genome size in the initial stages of genome size differentiation, and corroborate the current hypothetical model of genome size evolution in Angiosperms (Bennetzen et al., 2005, Annals of Botany 95: 127-132).

  12. Subsidence crack closure: rate, magnitude and sequence

    De Graff, J.V.; Romesburg, H.C.


    Tension cracks are a major surface disturbance resulting from subsidence and differential settlement above underground coal mines. Recent engineering studies of subsidence indicate that cracks may close where tensile stresses causing the cracks are reduced or relaxed. This stress reduction occurs as mining in the area is completed. Crack closure was confirmed by a study in the Wasatch Plateau coal field of central Utah. Cracks occurred in both exposed bedrock and regolith in an area with maximum subsidence of 3 m. Mean closure rate was 0.3 cm per week with individual crack closure rates between 0.2 cm and 1.0 cm per week. The mean crack closure magnitude was 80% with closure magnitudes varying between 31% and 100%. Actual magnitude values ranged from 0.6 cm to 6.5 cm with a mean value of 3.8 cm. Statistical analysis compared width change status among cracks over time. It was found that: 1) a 41% probability existed that a crack would exhibit decreasing width per weekly measurement, 2) closure state sequences seem random over time, and 3) real differences in closure state sequence existed among different cracks. (6 refs.) (In English)

  13. Probabilistic analysis of linear elastic cracked structures


    This paper presents a probabilistic methodology for linear fracture mechanics analysis of cracked structures. The main focus is on probabilistic aspect related to the nature of crack in material. The methodology involves finite element analysis; statistical models for uncertainty in material properties, crack size, fracture toughness and loads; and standard reliability methods for evaluating probabilistic characteristics of linear elastic fracture parameter. The uncertainty in the crack size can have a significant effect on the probability of failure, particularly when the crack size has a large coefficient of variation. Numerical example is presented to show that probabilistic methodology based on Monte Carlo simulation provides accurate estimates of failure probability for use in linear elastic fracture mechanics.

  14. Finite-size scaling in Ising-like systems with quenched random fields: evidence of hyperscaling violation.

    Vink, R L C; Fischer, T; Binder, K


    In systems belonging to the universality class of the random field Ising model, the standard hyperscaling relation between critical exponents does not hold, but is replaced with a modified hyperscaling relation. As a result, standard formulations of finite-size scaling near critical points break down. In this work, the consequences of modified hyperscaling are analyzed in detail. The most striking outcome is that the free-energy cost ΔF of interface formation at the critical point is no longer a universal constant, but instead increases as a power law with system size, ΔF∝L(θ), with θ as the violation of hyperscaling critical exponent and L as the linear extension of the system. This modified behavior facilitates a number of numerical approaches that can be used to locate critical points in random field systems from finite-size simulation data. We test and confirm the approaches on two random field systems in three dimensions, namely, the random field Ising model and the demixing transition in the Widom-Rowlinson fluid with quenched obstacles.

  15. Sample Size Calculation: Inaccurate A Priori Assumptions for Nuisance Parameters Can Greatly Affect the Power of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Elsa Tavernier

    Full Text Available We aimed to examine the extent to which inaccurate assumptions for nuisance parameters used to calculate sample size can affect the power of a randomized controlled trial (RCT. In a simulation study, we separately considered an RCT with continuous, dichotomous or time-to-event outcomes, with associated nuisance parameters of standard deviation, success rate in the control group and survival rate in the control group at some time point, respectively. For each type of outcome, we calculated a required sample size N for a hypothesized treatment effect, an assumed nuisance parameter and a nominal power of 80%. We then assumed a nuisance parameter associated with a relative error at the design stage. For each type of outcome, we randomly drew 10,000 relative errors of the associated nuisance parameter (from empirical distributions derived from a previously published review. Then, retro-fitting the sample size formula, we derived, for the pre-calculated sample size N, the real power of the RCT, taking into account the relative error for the nuisance parameter. In total, 23%, 0% and 18% of RCTs with continuous, binary and time-to-event outcomes, respectively, were underpowered (i.e., the real power was 90%. Even with proper calculation of sample size, a substantial number of trials are underpowered or overpowered because of imprecise knowledge of nuisance parameters. Such findings raise questions about how sample size for RCTs should be determined.

  16. Permeability of cracked p orous solids through p ercolation approach%含随机裂纹网络孔隙材料渗透率的逾渗模型研究

    李乐; 李克非


    This paper investigates the permeability of microcracked porous solids incorporating random crack networks in terms of continuum percolation theory. Main factors of permeability include the geometry of crack networks, permeability of porous matrix, and crack opening. For the two-dimensional random crack networks, a new connectivity factor is defined to take into consideration the spanning cluster of cracks, fractal dimension of networks, and the size of a finite domain. For an infinite domain, the connectivity factor around a percolation threshold observes the scaling law, so this definition of connectivity is proved to be consistent with the percolation concepts. Geometric analysis reveals that the local clustering will not necessarily contribute to the global connectivity of networks. It is also found that too strong a local clustering of cracks will decrease the probability of the global percolation, and this adverse aspect of the local clustering effect has never been reported in the literature. The percolation threshold changes with the crack pattern of networks and the scaling exponents of percolation are not constant but depend on the fractal dimension of the crack networks. On the basis of connectivity and tortuosity of crack networks, the scaling law for permeability is established, K = K0(Km, b)(ρ−ρc)µ, taking into consideration the geometris characteristics through (ρ−ρc)µ, the permeability of porous matrix Km, and the crack opening aperture b. Then the permeability of a solid incorporating random crack networks is solved by finite element methods: all the cracks are idealized as 2-node elements and the matrix is divided into 6-node triangle elements. The fluid is assumed to be incompressible and Newtonian. With these assumptions the effective permeability of numerical samples is evaluated through Darcy’s law. The scaling exponents of the permeability µ obtained numerically are very near to the theoretical values, and the impact of crack

  17. A polymer, random walk model for the size-distribution of large DNA fragments after high linear energy transfer radiation

    Ponomarev, A. L.; Brenner, D.; Hlatky, L. R.; Sachs, R. K.


    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) produced by densely ionizing radiation are not located randomly in the genome: recent data indicate DSB clustering along chromosomes. Stochastic DSB clustering at large scales, from > 100 Mbp down to energy transfer (LET) radiation, are obtained. They are found to be non-linear when the dose becomes so large that there is a significant probability of overlapping or close juxtaposition, along one chromosome, for different DSB clusters from different tracks. The non-linearity is more evident for large fragments than for small. The DNAbreak results furnish an example of the RLC (randomly located clusters) analytic formalism, which generalizes the broken-stick fragment-size distribution of the random-breakage model that is often applied to low-LET data.

  18. The quality of the reported sample size calculations in randomized controlled trials indexed in PubMed.

    Lee, Paul H; Tse, Andy C Y


    There are limited data on the quality of reporting of information essential for replication of the calculation as well as the accuracy of the sample size calculation. We examine the current quality of reporting of the sample size calculation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in PubMed and to examine the variation in reporting across study design, study characteristics, and journal impact factor. We also reviewed the targeted sample size reported in trial registries. We reviewed and analyzed all RCTs published in December 2014 with journals indexed in PubMed. The 2014 Impact Factors for the journals were used as proxies for their quality. Of the 451 analyzed papers, 58.1% reported an a priori sample size calculation. Nearly all papers provided the level of significance (97.7%) and desired power (96.6%), and most of the papers reported the minimum clinically important effect size (73.3%). The median (inter-quartile range) of the percentage difference of the reported and calculated sample size calculation was 0.0% (IQR -4.6%;3.0%). The accuracy of the reported sample size was better for studies published in journals that endorsed the CONSORT statement and journals with an impact factor. A total of 98 papers had provided targeted sample size on trial registries and about two-third of these papers (n=62) reported sample size calculation, but only 25 (40.3%) had no discrepancy with the reported number in the trial registries. The reporting of the sample size calculation in RCTs published in PubMed-indexed journals and trial registries were poor. The CONSORT statement should be more widely endorsed. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fracture mechanics of piezoelectric solids with interface cracks

    Govorukha, Volodymyr; Loboda, Volodymyr; Lapusta, Yuri


    This book provides a comprehensive study of cracks situated at the interface of two piezoelectric materials. It discusses different electric boundary conditions along the crack faces, in particular the cases of electrically permeable, impermeable, partially permeable, and conducting cracks. The book also elaborates on a new technique for the determination of electromechanical fields at the tips of interface cracks in finite sized piezoceramic bodies of arbitrary shape under different load types. It solves scientific problems of solid mechanics in connection with the investigation of electromechanical fields in piezoceramic bodies with interface cracks, and develops calculation models and solution methods for plane fracture mechanical problems for piecewise homogeneous piezoceramic bodies with cracks at the interfaces. It discusses the “open” crack model, which leads to a physically unrealistic oscillating singularity at the crack tips, and the contact zone model for in-plane straight interface cracks betw...

  20. Herd size and sero-prevalence of Salmonella enterica in Danish swine herds: a random-effects model for register data

    Carstensen, Bendix; Christensen, Jette


    The association between herd size and sero-prevalence of Salmonella was assessed in a random-effects model with herd size, county and date of slaughter as fixed effects. A total of 510915 meat-juice samples from 14593 herds located in 13 counties in Denmark was included in the study. A random-eff...

  1. The Effects of Load Ratio on Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth of Aluminum Alloys

    Newman, John Andrew


    The integrity of nearly all engineering structures are threatened by the presence of cracks. Structural failure occurs if a crack larger than a critical size exists. Although most well designed structures initially contain no critical cracks, subcritical cracks can grow to failure under fatigue loading, called fatigue crack growth (FCG). Because it is impossible or impractical to prevent subcritical crack growth in most applications, a damage tolerant design philosophy was developed for cr...

  2. Gear Crack Propagation Investigation


    Reduced weight is a major design goal in aircraft power transmissions. Some gear designs incorporate thin rims to help meet this goal. Thin rims, however, may lead to bending fatigue cracks. These cracks may propagate through a gear tooth or into the gear rim. A crack that propagates through a tooth would probably not be catastrophic, and ample warning of a failure could be possible. On the other hand, a crack that propagates through the rim would be catastrophic. Such cracks could lead to disengagement of a rotor or propeller from an engine, loss of an aircraft, and fatalities. To help create and validate tools for the gear designer, the NASA Lewis Research Center performed in-house analytical and experimental studies to investigate the effect of rim thickness on gear-tooth crack propagation. Our goal was to determine whether cracks grew through gear teeth (benign failure mode) or through gear rims (catastrophic failure mode) for various rim thicknesses. In addition, we investigated the effect of rim thickness on crack propagation life. A finite-element-based computer program simulated gear-tooth crack propagation. The analysis used principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, and quarter-point, triangular elements were used at the crack tip to represent the stress singularity. The program had an automated crack propagation option in which cracks were grown numerically via an automated remeshing scheme. Crack-tip stress-intensity factors were estimated to determine crack-propagation direction. Also, various fatigue crack growth models were used to estimate crack-propagation life. Experiments were performed in Lewis' Spur Gear Fatigue Rig to validate predicted crack propagation results. Gears with various backup ratios were tested to validate crack-path predictions. Also, test gears were installed with special crack-propagation gages in the tooth fillet region to measure bending-fatigue crack growth. From both predictions and tests, gears with backup ratios

  3. The effect of early measles vaccination on thymic size. A randomized study from Guinea-Bissau

    Christensen, Lone Damkjær; Eriksen, Helle Brander; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie


    In low-income countries early measles vaccine (MV) is associated with reduced child mortality which cannot be explained by prevention of measles. A large thymus gland in infancy is also associated with reduced mortality. We hypothesized that early MV is associated with increased thymic size. Within...

  4. A systematic review of reporting in randomized controlled trials in Dermatologic Surgery: Jadad scores, power analysis, and sample size determination.

    Alam, Murad; Rauf, Mutahir; Ali, Sana; Nodzenski, Michael; Minkis, Kira


    Dermatologic surgery is a fruitful research area that has spawned numerous randomized control trials (RCTs). To assess the quality of reporting of randomization, blinding, sample size, and power analysis in RCTs published in the journal Dermatologic Surgery. Randomized control trials published in Dermatologic Surgery between 1995 and 2012 were assessed regarding the quality of trial reporting. Data extraction performed independently by 2 data extractors. Dramatic increases in the numbers of RCTs in dermatologic surgery were noted in successive 5-year periods, from 39 in 1995 to 1999 to 66 in 2000 to 2004 and 131 in 2005 to 2009. The median Jadad score for articles from 1995 to 1999 was 1 and was 2 for articles since 2000. Subjects per study were 20 during 1995 to 1999, 25.5 from 2000 to 2004, and over 30 since 2005. Power analysis with sample size determination was reported in 0 articles during 1995 to 1999; greater than 13% of articles since 2005. Alpha level was specified for 37% of RCTs from 1995 to 1999 and 64% to 70% since 2005. During the last 20 years, the number of RCTs in Dermatologic Surgery has grown rapidly, almost doubling every 5 years, because the number of subjects per study has also increased and the quality of reporting has significantly improved.

  5. Herd size and sero-prevalence of Salmonella enterica in Danish swine herds: a random-effects model for register data

    Carstensen, Bendix; Christensen, Jette


    The association between herd size and sero-prevalence of Salmonella was assessed in a random-effects model with herd size, county and date of slaughter as fixed effects. A total of 510915 meat-juice samples from 14593 herds located in 13 counties in Denmark was included in the study. A random......-effects model was developed from separate models for smaller strata of data from herds with approximately equal sizes. The combined model was analysed and the results reported. Herd size was positively associated with the sere-prevalence of Salmonella enterica, but the size of the association was biologically...

  6. The Development and Evaluation of an Internet-Based Intervention to Increase Awareness about Food Portion Sizes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Poelman, M.P.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.; Vet, de E.W.M.L.; Seidell, J.C.


    Objective To develop a Web-based tool (PortionSize@warenessTool) and to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing awareness of reference serving sizes and factors that may contribute to overeating in response to large portion sizes. Methods A randomized, controlled trial (intervention, n = 167; contr

  7. Sensitivity Analysis of Material Microstructure Effects on Predicted Crack Paths Using Finite Element Simulations

    Jacob, Anaïs; Mehmanparast, Ali


    The effects of microstructure, grain and grain boundary (GB) properties on predicted damage paths and indicative crack propagation direction have been examined for a polycrystalline material using mesoscale finite element simulations. Numerical analyses were carried out on a compact tension specimen geometry containing granular mesh structures with random grain shapes and sizes of average diameter 100μm. Nanoindentation tests were performed to investigate the dependency of mesoscale hardness measurements on the indentation location with respect to grain and GB regions. Finite element results have shown that under tensile loading conditions, the predicted damage paths are very sensitive to the granular mesh structure, GB properties and individual grain properties. Furthermore, finite element results have revealed that the cracking mode (i.e., transgranular/intergranular) and maximum crack deviation angle are strongly dependent on the material microstructures employed in simulations.

  8. Randomized comparison of 3 different-sized biopsy forceps for quality of sampling in Barrett's esophagus.

    Gonzalez, Susana; Yu, Woojin M; Smith, Michael S; Slack, Kristen N; Rotterdam, Heidrun; Abrams, Julian A; Lightdale, Charles J


    Several types of forceps are available for use in sampling Barrett's esophagus (BE). Few data exist with regard to biopsy quality for histologic assessment. To evaluate sampling quality of 3 different forceps in patients with BE. Single-center, randomized clinical trial. Consecutive patients with BE undergoing upper endoscopy. Patients randomized to have biopsy specimens taken with 1 of 3 types of forceps: standard, large capacity, or jumbo. Specimen adequacy was defined a priori as a well-oriented biopsy sample 2 mm or greater in diameter and with at least muscularis mucosa present. A total of 65 patients were enrolled and analyzed (standard forceps, n = 21; large-capacity forceps, n = 21; jumbo forceps, n = 23). Compared with jumbo forceps, a significantly higher proportion of biopsy samples with large-capacity forceps were adequate (37.8% vs 25.2%, P = .002). Of the standard forceps biopsy samples, 31.9% were adequate, which was not significantly different from specimens taken with large-capacity (P = .20) or jumbo (P = .09) forceps. Biopsy specimens taken with jumbo forceps had the largest diameter (median, 3.0 mm vs 2.5 mm [standard] vs 2.8 mm [large capacity]; P = .0001). However, jumbo forceps had the lowest proportion of specimens that were well oriented (overall P = .001). Heterogeneous patient population precluded dysplasia detection analyses. Our results challenge the requirement of jumbo forceps and therapeutic endoscopes to properly perform the Seattle protocol. We found that standard and large-capacity forceps used with standard upper endoscopes produced biopsy samples at least as adequate as those obtained with jumbo forceps and therapeutic endoscopes in patients with BE. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A voxelation-corrected non-stationary 3D cluster-size test based on random field theory.

    Li, Huanjie; Nickerson, Lisa D; Zhao, Xuna; Nichols, Thomas E; Gao, Jia-Hong


    Cluster-size tests (CSTs) based on random field theory (RFT) are commonly adopted to identify significant differences in brain images. However, the use of RFT in CSTs rests on the assumption of uniform smoothness (stationarity). When images are non-stationary, CSTs based on RFT will likely lead to increased false positives in smooth regions and reduced power in rough regions. An adjustment to the cluster size according to the local smoothness at each voxel has been proposed for the standard test based on RFT to address non-stationarity, however, this technique requires images with a large degree of spatial smoothing, large degrees of freedom and high intensity thresholding. Recently, we proposed a voxelation-corrected 3D CST based on Gaussian random field theory that does not place constraints on the degree of spatial smoothness. However, this approach is only applicable to stationary images, requiring further modification to enable use for non-stationary images. In this study, we present modifications of this method to develop a voxelation-corrected non-stationary 3D CST based on RFT. Both simulated and real data were used to compare the voxelation-corrected non-stationary CST to the standard cluster-size adjusted non-stationary CST based on RFT and the voxelation-corrected stationary CST. We found that voxelation-corrected stationary CST is liberal for non-stationary images and the voxelation-corrected non-stationary CST performs better than cluster-size adjusted non-stationary CST based on RFT under low smoothness, low intensity threshold and low degrees of freedom. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. A Novel Read Scheme for Large Size One-Resistor Resistive Random Access Memory Array.

    Zackriya, Mohammed; Kittur, Harish M; Chin, Albert


    The major issue of RRAM is the uneven sneak path that limits the array size. For the first time record large One-Resistor (1R) RRAM array of 128x128 is realized, and the array cells at the worst case still have good Low-/High-Resistive State (LRS/HRS) current difference of 378 nA/16 nA, even without using the selector device. This array has extremely low read current of 9.7 μA due to both low-current RRAM device and circuit interaction, where a novel and simple scheme of a reference point by half selected cell and a differential amplifier (DA) were implemented in the circuit design.

  11. A Novel Read Scheme for Large Size One-Resistor Resistive Random Access Memory Array

    Zackriya, Mohammed; Kittur, Harish M.; Chin, Albert


    The major issue of RRAM is the uneven sneak path that limits the array size. For the first time record large One-Resistor (1R) RRAM array of 128x128 is realized, and the array cells at the worst case still have good Low-/High-Resistive State (LRS/HRS) current difference of 378 nA/16 nA, even without using the selector device. This array has extremely low read current of 9.7 μA due to both low-current RRAM device and circuit interaction, where a novel and simple scheme of a reference point by half selected cell and a differential amplifier (DA) were implemented in the circuit design. PMID:28186147

  12. 裂缝对电渗模型尺寸效应影响的试验研究%Experimental research on influence of cracks on size effect of electro-osmosis model

    温晓贵; 胡平川; 周建; 李一雯; 陶燕丽


    In order to study the size effect, a model experiment on the electro-osmosis combined with loading is designed and conducted. Through the comparison among model experiment on electro-osmosis combined with loading, model experiment on simple electro-osmosis and in-situ experiment on electro-osmosis, it is demonstrated that the large difference of cracks is the main reason why the model experiment on simple electro-osmosis draws an opposite conclusion with the in-situ experiment. The size effect caused by geometric boundary can be eliminated by reasonable loading, which makes the cracks similar to those in the in-situ experiment, so the model experiment on electro-osmosis combined with loading can better simulate the in-situ experiment. As the size effect is eliminated, the main factor influencing the electro-osmosis dewatering is the effective electric field rather than the current density. Among hexagonal, rectangular, and parallel and transposition configurations, the hexagonal configuration which has the maximum area of effective electric field is the most effective and economical, so it is recommended to be employed for electro-osmotic treatment.%通过对电渗-堆载模型试验、单纯电渗模型试验和现场试验的比较发现:裂缝发展的巨大差异是导致单纯电渗模型试验与现场情况差别较大的原因,适当的堆载可消除几何边界引起的尺寸效应,使试验裂缝开展较准确地反映了现场电渗的真实情况,其结果可更好地模拟现场电渗情况;消除尺寸效应后,影响电渗排水效果的主要因素是有效电场面积,电流密度仅为次要影响因素,在梅花形、长方形与平行错位三种布置形式中,有效面积占比最大的梅花形布置效果最优、经济性最好,建议实际工程中采用梅花形布置。

  13. Using pilot data to size a two-arm randomized trial to find a nearly optimal personalized treatment strategy.

    Laber, Eric B; Zhao, Ying-Qi; Regh, Todd; Davidian, Marie; Tsiatis, Anastasios; Stanford, Joseph B; Zeng, Donglin; Song, Rui; Kosorok, Michael R


    A personalized treatment strategy formalizes evidence-based treatment selection by mapping patient information to a recommended treatment. Personalized treatment strategies can produce better patient outcomes while reducing cost and treatment burden. Thus, among clinical and intervention scientists, there is a growing interest in conducting randomized clinical trials when one of the primary aims is estimation of a personalized treatment strategy. However, at present, there are no appropriate sample size formulae to assist in the design of such a trial. Furthermore, because the sampling distribution of the estimated outcome under an estimated optimal treatment strategy can be highly sensitive to small perturbations in the underlying generative model, sample size calculations based on standard (uncorrected) asymptotic approximations or computer simulations may not be reliable. We offer a simple and robust method for powering a single stage, two-armed randomized clinical trial when the primary aim is estimating the optimal single stage personalized treatment strategy. The proposed method is based on inverting a plugin projection confidence interval and is thereby regular and robust to small perturbations of the underlying generative model. The proposed method requires elicitation of two clinically meaningful parameters from clinical scientists and uses data from a small pilot study to estimate nuisance parameters, which are not easily elicited. The method performs well in simulated experiments and is illustrated using data from a pilot study of time to conception and fertility awareness.

  14. Uncertainty Quantification in Fatigue Crack Growth Prognosis

    Shankar Sankararaman


    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to quantify the uncertainty in fatigue crack growth prognosis, applied to structures with complicated geometry and subjected to variable amplitude multi-axial loading. Finite element analysis is used to address the complicated geometry and calculate the stress intensity factors. Multi-modal stress intensity factors due to multi-axial loading are combined to calculate an equivalent stress intensity factor using a characteristic plane approach. Crack growth under variable amplitude loading is modeled using a modified Paris law that includes retardation effects. During cycle-by-cycle integration of the crack growth law, a Gaussian process surrogate model is used to replace the expensive finite element analysis. The effect of different types of uncertainty – physical variability, data uncertainty and modeling errors – on crack growth prediction is investigated. The various sources of uncertainty include, but not limited to, variability in loading conditions, material parameters, experimental data, model uncertainty, etc. Three different types of modeling errors – crack growth model error, discretization error and surrogate model error – are included in analysis. The different types of uncertainty are incorporated into the crack growth prediction methodology to predict the probability distribution of crack size as a function of number of load cycles. The proposed method is illustrated using an application problem, surface cracking in a cylindrical structure.

  15. Modified Dugdale cracks and Fictitious cracks

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang


    (displacement) respectively of material considered. The practical applicability of the two models is limited such that predicted strength sigma_CR must be less than sigma_L/3, which corresponds to an assumption that fictitious cracks are much smaller than real crack lengths considered. The reason......A number of theories are presented in the literature on crack mechanics by which the strength of damaged materials can be predicted. Among these are theories based on the well-known Dugdale model of a crack prevented from spreading by self-created constant cohesive flow stressed acting in local...... Dugdale crack is the same as if it has been weakened by the well-known Griffith crack, namely sigma_CR = (EG_CR/phi)^1/2 where E and 1 are Young's modulus and crack half-length respectively, and G_CR is the so-called critical energy release rate. The physical significance of G_CR, however, is different...

  16. Mitigation strategies for autogenous shrinkage cracking

    Bentz, Dale P.; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede


    , the fundamental parameters contributing to the autogenous shrinkage and resultant early-age cracking of concrete are presented. Basic characteristics of the cement paste that contribute to or control the autogenous shrinkage response include the surface tension of the pore solution, the geometry of the pore...... of early-age cracking due to autogenous shrinkage. Mitigation strategies discussed in this paper include: the addition of shrinkage-reducing admixtures more commonly used to control drying shrinkage, control of the cement particle size distribution, modification of the mineralogical composition......, it should be possible to minimize cracking due to autogenous shrinkage via some combination of the presented approaches....

  17. Burst pressure predictions of pipelines with longitudinal cracks

    Dotta, Fernando; Riggieri, Claudio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Naval e Oceanica


    This study extends a micro mechanics approach based upon the computational cell methodology to model ductile crack extension of longitudinal crack-like defects in a high strength pipeline steel. Laboratory testing of an API 5L X60 steel at room temperature using standard, deep crack C(T) specimens provides the data needed to measure the crack growth resistance curve for the material. In the computational cell model, ductile crack extension occurs through void growth and coalescence (by cell extinction) within a thin layer of material ahead of crack tip. A simple scheme to calibrate material-specific parameters for the cells is also described. A central focus of the paper is the application of the cell methodology to predict experimentally measured burst pressures for pre-cracked pipe specimens with different crack sizes. The experimental program includes longitudinally pre cracked 20'' (508 mm) O.D. pipe specimens with 15.8 mm thickness and varying crack geometries. Plane-strain computations are conducted on detailed finite element models for the pipe specimens to describe crack extension with increased pressure. The numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the cell approach to describe crack growth response and to predict the burst pressure for the tested pipes. (author)

  18. Large-size, high-uniformity, random silver nanowire networks as transparent electrodes for crystalline silicon wafer solar cells.

    Xie, Shouyi; Ouyang, Zi; Jia, Baohua; Gu, Min


    Metal nanowire networks are emerging as next generation transparent electrodes for photovoltaic devices. We demonstrate the application of random silver nanowire networks as the top electrode on crystalline silicon wafer solar cells. The dependence of transmittance and sheet resistance on the surface coverage is measured. Superior optical and electrical properties are observed due to the large-size, highly-uniform nature of these networks. When applying the nanowire networks on the solar cells with an optimized two-step annealing process, we achieved as large as 19% enhancement on the energy conversion efficiency. The detailed analysis reveals that the enhancement is mainly caused by the improved electrical properties of the solar cells due to the silver nanowire networks. Our result reveals that this technology is a promising alternative transparent electrode technology for crystalline silicon wafer solar cells.

  19. The non-random walk of stock prices: the long-term correlation between signs and sizes

    La Spada, G.; Farmer, J. D.; Lillo, F.


    We investigate the random walk of prices by developing a simple model relating the properties of the signs and absolute values of individual price changes to the diffusion rate (volatility) of prices at longer time scales. We show that this benchmark model is unable to reproduce the diffusion properties of real prices. Specifically, we find that for one hour intervals this model consistently over-predicts the volatility of real price series by about 70%, and that this effect becomes stronger as the length of the intervals increases. By selectively shuffling some components of the data while preserving others we are able to show that this discrepancy is caused by a subtle but long-range non-contemporaneous correlation between the signs and sizes of individual returns. We conjecture that this is related to the long-memory of transaction signs and the need to enforce market efficiency.

  20. A randomized controlled trial of a transdiagnostic Internet intervention for individuals with panic and phobias - One size fits all.

    Schröder, Johanna; Jelinek, Lena; Moritz, Steffen


    Many individuals with anxiety disorders do not receive professional treatment. Internet interventions have shown to be effective in the treatment of anxiety. The present randomized controlled trial was designed to examine the effectiveness of a short-term (4-week) Internet intervention in treating panic disorder, agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobias ('ConfID'). We addressed the questions of whether this transdiagnostic program would affect these disorders to varying degrees and whether there would be moderators of effectiveness. Adults who were recruited in online forums for anxiety underwent an online baseline assessment (N = 179) and were randomized either to the intervention group (ConfID) or the control group (care as usual). Online post-assessment took place 4 weeks later. The primary outcome was assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI); the secondary outcomes targeted the disorder-specific symptoms, depression, and somatization. Participants in the intervention group showed a significantly stronger anxiety reduction compared to participants receiving care as usual (small-to-medium effect size between groups in intention-to-treat analysis). The treatment effect was similar for the different disorders and was moderated by participants' attitudes towards Internet interventions. Secondary outcomes yielded effect sizes in the medium range. Moderate treatment adherence, lack of measures beyond online self-reports, and unavailability of long-term results. The study provides further evidence that transdiagnostic Internet interventions are promising in reducing the existing treatment gap in individuals with panic disorder and phobias. Results extend previous findings by showing that significant effects can also be reached by comprehensive short-term programs and that the effects might be moderated by participants' attitudes towards Internet interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Creep crack growth analysis using C{sub t}-parameter for internal circumferential and external axial surface cracks in a pressurized cylinder

    Tun, Nwe Ni; Yang, Hee Seung; Yu, Jong Min; Yoon, Kee Bong [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Creep crack growth at elevated temperatures is a critical consideration in estimating the remaining life of high temperature structural components and in deciding their inspection interval. In this study, creep crack growth analyses for external radial-axial and internal radial-circumferential surface cracks in a pressurized cylinder were conducted by an analytical method. The effect of crack depth and crack length on the variations in Ct and remaining life predictions were investigated for surface cracks with various initial aspect ratios. It was observed that the remaining life of an internal radial-circumferential surface crack was approximately 53 times longer than that of an external radial-axial surface crack for the same crack size and loading conditions with 316 stainless steel material. It was also observed that the variations in remaining life, crack propagations, and the Ct values were considerably sensitive to the crack location and crack depth. Convergence of crack aspect ratio was not observed when the crack depth ratio was increased. Since the method is independent of material properties and location of the crack geometries, it can be extended to various material properties and various locations of the surface crack geometries.

  2. Micro-crack detection in high-performance cementitious materials

    Lura, Pietro; Guang, Ye; Tanaka, Kyoji


    of high-performance cement pastes in silicone moulds that exert minimal external restraint. Cast-in steel rods with varying diameter internally restrain the autogenous shrinkage and lead to crack formation. Dimensions of the steel rods are chosen so that the size of this restraining inclusion resembles...... aggregate size. Gallium intrusion of the cracks and subsequent examination by electron probe micro analysis, EPMA, are used to identify the cracks. The gallium intrusion technique allows controllable impregnation of cracks in the cement paste. A distinct contrast between gallium and the surrounding material...

  3. Deterministic and Probabilistic Investigation on Multiple Crack Interactions in a Semi-Infinite Domain

    Eui-Keun Kim


    Full Text Available The investigation of multiple crack interactions in fracture mechanics is important to predict the safety and reliability of structures. This study aims to investigate the interactions of multiple parallel cracks in a semi-infinite domain in both deterministic and probabilistic ways by using an automated finite element modeling procedure and the Monte Carlo simulation. The stress intensity factor is considered as an indicator of failure and accurately evaluated by using the domain integral technique. The variation of the stress intensity factor according to the position, the length, and the number of cracks is demonstrated. In a probabilistic investigation, the effects of the number of cracks, the random distribution of the crack lengths, and the crack interactions to the failure probability are studied for a semi-infinite domain. The stress redistribution among multiple cracks, the effect of unevenly distributed crack lengths, and the combined effect of crack length uncertainties and a crack shielding effect have been examined.

  4. Elasticity-Driven Backflow of Fluid-Driven Cracks

    Lai, Ching-Yao; Zheng, Zhong; Dressaire, Emilie; Ramon, Guy; Huppert, Herbert E.; Stone, Howard A.


    Fluid-driven cracks are generated by the injection of pressurized fluid into an elastic medium. Once the injection pressure is released, the crack closes up due to elasticity and the fluid in the crack drains out of the crack through an outlet, which we refer to as backflow. We experimentally study the effects of crack size, elasticity of the matrix, and fluid viscosity on the backflow dynamics. During backflow, the volume of liquid remaining in the crack as a function of time exhibits a transition from a fast decay at early times to a power law behavior at late times. Our results at late times can be explained by scaling arguments balancing elastic and viscous stresses in the crack. This work may relate to the environmental issue of flowback in hydraulic fracturing. This work is supported by National Science Foundation via Grant CBET-1509347 and partially supported by Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment at Princeton University.

  5. The Effect of Water on Crack Interaction

    Gaede, O.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.


    While the mechanical coupling between pore fluid and solid phase is relatively well understood, quantitative studies dealing with chemical-mechanical weakening in geological materials are rare. Many classical poroelastic problems can be addressed with the simple law of effective stress. Experimental studies show that the presence of a chemically active fluid can have effects that exceed the predictions of the law of effective stress. These chemical fluid-rock interactions alter the mechanical properties of the solid phase. Especially chemical-mechanical weakening has important ramifications for many areas of applied geosciences ranging from nuclear waste disposal over reservoir enhancement to fault stability. In this study, we model chemically induced changes of the size of the process zone around a crack tip. The knowledge of the process zone size is used to extend existing effective medium approximations of cracked solids. The stress distribution around a crack leads to a chemical potential gradient. This gradient will be a driver for mass diffusion through the solid phase. As an example, mass diffusion is towards the crack tip for a mode I crack. In this case a chemical reaction, that weakens the solid phase, will increase the size of the process zone around the crack tip. We apply our model to the prominent hydrolytic weakening effect observed in the quartz-water system (Griggs and Blacic, 1965). Hydrolytic weakening is generally attributed to water hydrolyzing the strong Si-O bonds of the quartz crystal. The hydrolysis replaces a Si-O-Si bridge with a relatively weak hydrogen bridge between two silanol groups. This enhances dislocation mobility and hence the yield stress is reduced. The plastic process zone around a crack tip is therefore larger in a wet crystal than in a dry crystal. We calculate the size of the process zone by solving this coupled mechanical-chemical problem with the Finite Element code ABAQUS. We consider single crack, collinear crack and

  6. Structural and leakage integrity of tubes affected by circumferential cracking

    Hernalsteen, P. [TRACTEBEL, Brussels (Belgium)


    In this paper the author deals with the notion that circumferential cracks are generally considered unacceptable. He argues for the need to differentiate two facets of such cracks: the issue of the size and growth rate of a crack; and the issue of the structural strength and leakage potential of the tube in the presence of the crack. In this paper the author tries to show that the second point is not a major concern for such cracks. The paper presents data on the structural strength or burst pressure characteristics of steam generator tubes derived from models and data bases of experimental work. He also presents a leak rate model, and compares the performance of circumferential and axial cracks as far as burst strength and leak rate. The final conclusion is that subject to improvement in NDE capabilities (sizing, detection, growth), that Steam Generator Defect Specific Management can be used to allow circumferentially degraded tubes to remain in service.

  7. Inner Crack Detection Method for Cantilever Beams

    Li, Zheng; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yixuan; Su, Xianyue


    In this paper, continuous wavelet transform has been performed to extract the inner crack information from the guided waves in cantilever beams, and the location and size of crack can be detected exactly. Considering its best time-frequency property, Gabor continuous wavelet transform is employed to analyze the complicated flexible wave signals in cantilever beam, which is inspirited by an impact on the free end. Otherwise, in order to enhance the sensitivity of detection for some small cracks, an improved method is discussed. Here, both computational and experimental methods are carried out for comparing the influence of different crack location in beam. Therefore, the method proposed can be expected to expand to a powerful damage detection method in a broad engineering application.

  8. Numerical simulations of material mismatch and ductile crack growth

    Oestby, Erling


    Both the global geometry and inhomogeneities in material properties will influence the fracture behaviour of structures in presence of cracks. In this thesis numerical simulations have been used to investigate how some aspects of both these issues affect the conditions at the crack-tip. The thesis is organised in an introduction chapter, summarising the major findings and conclusions, a review chapter, presenting the main aspects of the developments in the field of fracture mechanics, and three research papers. Paper I considers the effect of mismatch in hardening exponent on the local near-tip stress field for stationary interface cracks in bi-materials under small scale yielding conditions. It is demonstrated that the stress level in the weaker material increases compared to what is found in the homogeneous material for the same globally applied load level, with the effect being of increasing importance as the crack-tip is approached. Although a coupling between the radial and angular dependence of the stress fields exists, the evolving stress field can still be normalised with the applied J. The effect on the increase in stress level can closely be characterised by the difference in hardening exponent, {delta}n, termed the hardening mismatch, and is more or less independent of the absolute level of hardening in the two materials. Paper II and Ill deal with the effects of geometry, specimen size, hardening level and yield stress mismatch in relation to ductile crack growth. The ductile crack growth is simulated through use of the Gurson model. In Paper H the effect of specimen size on the crack growth resistance is investigated for deep cracked bend and shallow cracked tensile specimens. At small amounts of crack growth the effect of specimen size on the crack growth resistance is small, but a more significant effect is found for larger amounts of crack growth. The crack growth resistance decreases in smaller specimens loaded in tension, whereas the opposite is

  9. Effects of Mineral Composition and Microstructure on Crack Resistance of Sintered Ore

    YING Zi-wei; JIANG Mao-fa; XU Li-xian


    Vickers indentation test was used to study the effects of mineral composition and microstructure on crack resistance of sintered ore, and the initiation and propagation of cracks in different minerals contained in sintered ore were examined. The results indicate that the microstructure of calcium ferrites is a major factor influencing crack resistance of sintered ore. Finer grain size of calcium ferrite will lead to higher cracking threshold and better crack resistance of sintered ore. The formation of calcium ferrite with fine grain size during sintering process is favorable for crack resistance of sintered ore.

  10. Recent evaluations of crack-opening-area in circumferentially cracked pipes

    Rahman, S.; Brust, F.; Ghadiali, N.; Wilkowski, G.; Miura, N.


    Leak-before-break (LBB) analyses for circumferentially cracked pipes are currently being conducted in the nuclear industry to justify elimination of pipe whip restraints and jet shields which are present because of the expected dynamic effects from pipe rupture. The application of the LBB methodology frequently requires calculation of leak rates. The leak rates depend on the crack-opening area of the through-wall crack in the pipe. In addition to LBB analyses which assume a hypothetical flaw size, there is also interest in the integrity of actual leaking cracks corresponding to current leakage detection requirements in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.45, or for assessing temporary repair of Class 2 and 3 pipes that have leaks as are being evaluated in ASME Section XI. The objectives of this study were to review, evaluate, and refine current predictive models for performing crack-opening-area analyses of circumferentially cracked pipes. The results from twenty-five full-scale pipe fracture experiments, conducted in the Degraded Piping Program, the International Piping Integrity Research Group Program, and the Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds Program, were used to verify the analytical models. Standard statistical analyses were performed to assess used to verify the analytical models. Standard statistical analyses were performed to assess quantitatively the accuracy of the predictive models. The evaluation also involved finite element analyses for determining the crack-opening profile often needed to perform leak-rate calculations.

  11. Fatigue crack growth rate test using a frequency sweep method

    Xun ZHOU; Xiao-li YU


    Fatigue crack propagation characteristics of a diesel engine crankshaft are studied by measuring the fatigue crack growth rate using a frequency sweep method on a resonant fatigue test rig. Based on the phenomenon that the system frequency will change when the crack becomes large, this method can be directly applied to a complex component or structure. Finite element analyses (FEAs) are performed to calibrate the relation between the frequency change and the crack size, and to obtain the natural frequency of the test rig and the stress intensity factor (SIF) of growing cracks. The crack growth rate i.e. da/dN-AK of each crack size is obtained by combining the testing-time monitored data and FEA results. The results show that the crack growth rate of engine crankshaft, which is a component with complex geometry and special surface treatment, is quite different from that of a pure material. There is an apparent turning point in the Paris's crack partition. The cause of the fatigue crack growth is also dis-cussed.

  12. Pavement crack identification based on automatic threshold iterative method

    Lu, Guofeng; Zhao, Qiancheng; Liao, Jianguo; He, Yongbiao


    Crack detection is an important issue in concrete infrastructure. Firstly, the accuracy of crack geometry parameters measurement is directly affected by the extraction accuracy, the same as the accuracy of the detection system. Due to the properties of unpredictability, randomness and irregularity, it is difficult to establish recognition model of crack. Secondly, various image noise, caused by irregular lighting conditions, dark spots, freckles and bump, exerts an influence on the crack detection accuracy. Peak threshold selection method is improved in this paper, and the processing of enhancement, smoothing and denoising is conducted before iterative threshold selection, which can complete the automatic selection of the threshold value in real time and stability.

  13. Crack layer theory

    Chudnovsky, A.


    A damage parameter is introduced in addition to conventional parameters of continuum mechanics and consider a crack surrounded by an array of microdefects within the continuum mechanics framework. A system consisting of the main crack and surrounding damage is called crack layer (CL). Crack layer propagation is an irreversible process. The general framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes are employed to identify the driving forces (causes) and to derive the constitutive equation of CL propagation, that is, the relationship between the rates of the crack growth and damage dissemination from one side and the conjugated thermodynamic forces from another. The proposed law of CL propagation is in good agreement with the experimental data on fatigue CL propagation in various materials. The theory also elaborates material toughness characterization.

  14. 特大型调心轴承外圈裂纹分析及改进措施%Analysis and countermeasures on cracking of outer ring of extra-large-sized self-aligning bearing

    沈伟毅; 董汉杰; 尤绍军; 李昭昆; 仵永刚; 陈卉珍; 袁新


    对某特大型调心轴承外圈裂纹件的外观、显微组织、断口形貌和材料成分等进行了检验分析,通过加大外圈油槽处圆滑过渡、加大油槽油孔端面倒角等措施优化特大型轴承外圈油槽形状,并通过用石棉绳水玻璃堵外圈油槽油孔,同时采取降低淬火加热温度、提高回火温度等措施改进热处理工艺,有效避免了轴承外圈裂纹的产生,满足了用户的要求。%The appearance, microstructure, fracture morphology and material's chemical composition of a broken outer ring of extra-large-sized self-aligning bearing were detected and analyzed.To meet user's requirements, some countermeasures to avoid cracking of the bearing ring during heat treatment were taken, i.e.optimizing the oil groove's structural shape via designing a transition circular arc on the top of the outer ring's oiling groove and a chamfer at the end of oiling holes;plugging up the outer ring's oil groove and oil holes by asbestos cord with sodium silicate and rationally lowering the austenitizing temperature upon hardening and using appropriate higher tempering temperature.

  15. Effect of crack surface geometry on fatigue crack closure

    Drury, W.J. [P and L Technologies, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Gokhale, A.M. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Antolovich, S.D. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering


    The geometry of crack faces often plays a critical role in reducing crack extension forces when crack closure occurs during fatigue crack growth. Most previous studies of fatigue crack closure are concerned with mechanical measure of closure as related to the crack growth rate; very little attention has been given to the geometry of the crack surfaces. The objective is to identify those aspects of crack surface geometry that are important in the closure process, to develop quantitative fractographic techniques to estimate such attributes in a statistically significant and robust manner, and to correlate them to the physical process of crack closure. For this purpose, fatigue crack propagation experiments were performed on a Ni-base superalloy and crack growth rates and crack closure loads were measured. Digital image profilometry and software-based analysis techniques were used for statistically reliable and detailed quantitative characterization of fatigue crack profiles. It is shown that the dimensionless, scale-independent attributes, such a height-to-width ratio of asperities, fractal dimensions, dimensionless roughness parameters, etc., do not represent the aspects of crack geometry that are of primary importance in the crack closure phenomena. Furthermore, it is shown that the scale-dependent characteristics, such as average asperity height, do represent the aspects of crack geometry that play an interactive role in the closure process. These observations have implications concerning the validity of geometry-dependent, closure-based models for fatigue crack growth.

  16. Crack status analysis for concrete dams based on measured entropy

    WU BangBin; WU ZhongRu; CHEN Bo; SU HuaiZhi; BAO TengFei; WANG ShaoWei


    The integrity and safety of concrete dams are seriously affected by the existing cracks in dam bodies,and some serious cracks may cause dam failure or disaster.The propagation of cracks in concrete dams is accompanied by changes in energy distribution,which can be represented by changes in the structure's system entropy.Therefore,the entropy theory can be used in analyzing the behavior of dam cracks.Due to the randomness and locality of crack propagation,it is difficult to predict the location of cracks by traditional monitoring methods.To solve this problem,the influence of spatial positions of monitoring points on inspection zones is represented by a weight index,and the weight index is determined by the distance measure method proposed in this paper.Through the weighted linear fusion method,the entropy of multiple monitoring points is obtained for analyzing the behavior of dam cracks in the selected zones.Meanwhile,the catastrophe theory is used as the variation criterion of an entropy sequence in order to predict the instability time of dam cracks.Case studies are put forward on a high arch dam,and the fusion entropy is calculated according to the monitoring data from strain gauges.Results show that the proposed method can effectively predict the occurrence time and location of dam cracks regardless of the layout of monitoring instruments,and it is a new way to analyze the occurrence and propagation of dam cracks.

  17. Fracture mechanics characterisation of medium-size adhesive joint specimens

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, T.K.


    Medium-size specimens (adhesive layer were tested in four point bending to determine their load carrying capacity. Specimens having different thickness were tested. Except for onespecimen, the cracking occurred as cracking...... along the adhesive layer; initially cracking occurred along the adhesive/laminate interface, but after some crack extension the cracking took place inside the laminate (for one specimen the later part of thecracking occurred unstably along the adhesive/ laminate interface). Crack bridging by fibres...

  18. Fatigue crack propagation analysis of plaque rupture.

    Pei, Xuan; Wu, Baijian; Li, Zhi-Yong


    Rupture of atheromatous plaque is the major cause of stroke or heart attack. Considering that the cardiovascular system is a classic fatigue environment, plaque rupture was treated as a chronic fatigue crack growth process in this study. Fracture mechanics theory was introduced to describe the stress status at the crack tip and Paris' law was used to calculate the crack growth rate. The effect of anatomical variation of an idealized plaque cross-section model was investigated. The crack initiation was considered to be either at the maximum circumferential stress location or at any other possible locations around the lumen. Although the crack automatically initialized at the maximum circumferential stress location usually propagated faster than others, it was not necessarily the most critical location where the fatigue life reached its minimum. We found that the fatigue life was minimum for cracks initialized in the following three regions: the midcap zone, the shoulder zone, and the backside zone. The anatomical variation has a significant influence on the fatigue life. Either a decrease in cap thickness or an increase in lipid pool size resulted in a significant decrease in fatigue life. Comparing to the previously used stress analysis, this fatigue model provides some possible explanations of plaque rupture at a low stress level in a pulsatile cardiovascular environment, and the method proposed here may be useful for further investigation of the mechanism of plaque rupture based on in vivo patient data.

  19. Two to five repeated measurements per patient reduced the required sample size considerably in a randomized clinical trial for patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    Smedslund Geir; Zangi Heidi Andersen; Mowinckel Petter; Hagen Kåre Birger


    Abstract Background Patient reported outcomes are accepted as important outcome measures in rheumatology. The fluctuating symptoms in patients with rheumatic diseases have serious implications for sample size in clinical trials. We estimated the effects of measuring the outcome 1-5 times on the sample size required in a two-armed trial. Findings In a randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effects of a mindfulness-based group intervention for patients with inflammatory arthritis (n=71)...

  20. Automatic Detection of Inactive Solar Cell Cracks in Electroluminescence Images

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso


    We propose an algorithm for automatic determination of the electroluminescence (EL) signal threshold level corresponding to inactive solar cell cracks, resulting from their disconnection from the electrical circuit of the cell. The method enables automatic quantification of the cell crack size...

  1. Fatigue crack Behaviour in a High Strength Tool Steel

    Højerslev, Christian; Carstensen, Jesper V.; Brøndsted, Povl


    value of maximally 80% of the yield strength of the steel. The size of this carbide damage zone increases with increasing load amplitude, and the zone is apparently associated with crack nucleation. On fatigue crack propagation plastic deformation of the matrix occurs in a radius of approximately 4...

  2. Fatigue crack growth under variable amplitude loading

    Sidawi, Jihad A.


    Fatigue crack growth tests were conducted on an Fe 510 E C-Mn steel and a submerged arc welded joint from the same material under constant, variable, and random loading amplitudes. Paris-Erdogan's crack growth rate law was tested for the evaluation of m and C using the stress intensity factor K, the J-integral, the effective stress intensity factor K(sub eff), and the root mean square stress intensity factor K(sub rms) fracture mechanics concepts. The effect of retardation and residual stresses resulting from welding was also considered. It was found that all concepts gave good life predictions in all cases.

  3. GPR abilities in investigation of the pavement transversal cracks

    Krysiński, Lech; Sudyka, Jacek


    This paper describes the results of an investigation into the capabilities of the GPR technique within the field of pavement crack diagnostics. Initially, laboratory tests were performed on prototypes simulating idealized cracks. Next, long-term visual observation and repeated GPR scanning were performed, on three roads of semi-rigid construction, several hundreds of meters long and subjected to heavy traffic. Furthermore, a road of rigid construction was tested, having a more than 70-year history of use. In several cases the cracks were probed by drillings, in order to recognize structures responsible for signal generation, or to explain reasons of signal lacking. The main result of this work is a list of GPR indications of cracks, which can be noticed on echograms. It was created through a correlation of the visually-observed cracks with the corresponding echograms, with decimeter accuracy. Several types of GPR responses were classified and linked to possible categories of crack structures, or to processes associated with the presence of cracks (as crumbling, erosion, and lithological alterations). The poor visibility of cracks was also studied, due to small crack size, or to the blurred character of the damaged area, or else to masking effects related to coarse grains in the asphalt mixture. The efficiency of the proposed method for the identification and localization of cracks is higher when a long-term GPR observation is performed.

  4. Experimental study of the relationship between local particle-size distributions and local ordering in random close packing.

    Kurita, Rei


    We experimentally study the structural properties of a sediment of size distributed colloids. By determining each particle size using a size estimation algorithm, we are able to investigate the relationship between local environment and local ordering. Our results show that ordered environments of particles tend to generate where the local particle-size distribution is within 5%. In addition, we show that particles whose size is close to the average size have 12 coordinate neighbors, which matches the coordination number of the fcc and hcp crystals. On the other hand, bcc structures are observed around larger particles. Our results represent experiments to show a size dependence of the specific ordering in colloidal systems.

  5. Localization of Dwell Fatigue Cracks in Ti-6242 Alloy Samples

    Rokhlin, S. I.; Kim, J.-Y.; Xie, B.; Yakovlev, V. A.; Zoofan, B.


    An in-situ ultrasonic guided wave technique is employed for real-time monitoring of crack initiation and evolution during dwell, cyclic fatigue and creep tests of Ti-6242 alloy samples. Ultrasonic signals are acquired continuously during the test at different levels of fatigue load using a high-speed data acquisition system. The initiation time and growth history of primary and multiple secondary cracks are assessed. Localization of the secondary cracks is performed by both the in-situ ultrasonic method and an ultrasonic immersion scanning method which we call "vertical C-scan" (VC scan). The VC scan is developed for imaging small cracks aligned normal to the fatigue sample axis. The fusion of ultrasonic and microradiographic images exhibits good agreement in crack location. Joint use of the three techniques provides location, shape, and size of the secondary cracks.

  6. Quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior and the crack morphology.

    Jingjing Chen

    Full Text Available In this letter, the quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior as well as the circular crack generation on the impacted glass plate within the sandwiched glass sheets are experimentally investigated via high-speed photography system. Results show that the radial crack velocity on the backing glass layer decreases with the crack number under the same impact conditions during large quantities of repeated experiments. Thus, the "energy conversion factor" is suggested to elucidate the physical relation between the cracking number and the crack propagation speed. Besides, the number of radial crack also takes the determinative effect in the crack morphology of the impacted glass plate. This study may shed lights on understanding the cracking and propagation mechanism in laminated glass structures and provide useful tool to explore the impact information on the cracking debris.

  7. Crack initiation and crack growth behavior of carbon and low-alloy steels

    Gavenda, D.J.; Luebbers, P.R.; Chopra, O.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.


    Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. These curves were based on tests of smooth polished specimens at room temperature in air. The effects of reactor coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves, but recent test data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of carbon and low-alloy steels. Under certain loading and environmental conditions, fatigue lives of test specimens may be a factor of {approx}70 shorter than in air. Results of fatigue tests that examine the influence of reactor environment on crack imitation and crack growth of carbon and low-alloy steels are presented. Crack lengths as a function of fatigue cycles were determined in air by a surface replication technique, and in water by block loading that leaves marks on the fracture surface. Decreases in fatigue life of low-alloy steels in high-dissolved-oxygen (DO) water are primarily caused by the effects of environment during early stages of fatigue damage, i.e., growth of short cracks <100 {micro}m in depth. For crack sizes of >100 {micro}m, crack growth rates in high-DO water are higher than in air by one order of magnitude. The effects of LWR environments on growth of short cracks are discussed.

  8. From Planning to Implementation: An Examination of Changes in the Research Design, Sample Size, and Precision of Group Randomized Trials Launched by the Institute of Education Sciences

    Spybrook, Jessaca; Puente, Anne Cullen; Lininger, Monica


    This article examines changes in the research design, sample size, and precision between the planning phase and implementation phase of group randomized trials (GRTs) funded by the Institute of Education Sciences. Thirty-eight GRTs funded between 2002 and 2006 were examined. Three studies revealed changes in the experimental design. Ten studies…

  9. Modelling of Corrosion Cracks

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Modelling of corrosion cracking of reinforced concrete structures is complicated as a great number of uncertain factors are involved. To get a reliable modelling a physical and mechanical understanding of the process behind corrosion in needed.......Modelling of corrosion cracking of reinforced concrete structures is complicated as a great number of uncertain factors are involved. To get a reliable modelling a physical and mechanical understanding of the process behind corrosion in needed....

  10. Crack Identification of Cantilever Plates Based on a Kriging Surrogate Model.

    Gao, Haiyang; Guo, Xinglin; Ouyang, Huajiang; Han, Fang


    This work presents an effective method to identify the tip locations of an internal crack in cantilever plates based on a Kriging surrogate model. Samples of varying crack parameters (tip locations) and their corresponding root mean square (RMS) of random responses are used to construct the initial Kriging surrogate model. Moreover, the pseudo excitation method (PEM) is employed to speed up the spectral analysis. For identifying crack parameters based on the constructed Kriging model, a robust stochastic particle swarm optimization (SPSO) algorithm is adopted for enhancing the global searching ability. To improve the accuracy of the surrogate model without using extensive samples, a small number of samples are first used. Then an optimal point-adding process is carried out to reduce computational cost. Numerical studies of a cantilever plate with an internal crack are performed. The effectiveness and efficiency of this method are demonstrated by the identified results. The effect of initial sampling size on the precision of the identified results is also investigated.

  11. Molecular statics simulation of crack propagation in {alpha}-Fe using EAM potentials

    Shastry, V.; Farkas, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering


    The behavior of mode 1 cracks in {alpha}-Fe is investigated using molecular statics methods with embedded atom (EAM) potentials. A double ended crack of finite size embedded in a cylindrical simulation cell and fixed boundary conditions are prescribed along the periphery of the cell, whereas periodic boundary conditions are imposed parallel to the crack front. The displacement field of the finite crack is represented by that of an equivalent pileup of opening dislocations distributed in a manner consistent with the anisotropy of the crystal and traction free conditions of the crack faces. The crack lies on the {l_brace}110{r_brace} plane and the crack front is located either along <100>< <110> or <111> directions. The crack tip response is rationalized in terms of the surface energy ({gamma}{sub s}) of the cleavage plane and the unstable stacking energies ({gamma}{sub us}) of the slip planes emanating from the crack front.

  12. Critical Percolation Stresses of Random Frank-Read Sources in Micron-Sized Crystals of Superalloys (Preprint)


    tendency for a saturation stress value, most likely because the experimental size-effect data does not include small enough sizes of micron-sized crystals...D, Gumbsch P, Kraft O, Scripta Mater 2008; 58:587. 7) Tang H, Schwarz KW, Espinosa HD, Acta Mater 2007; 55:1607. 8) Zhou C, Biner S, Lesar R

  13. Determination of crack morphology parameters from service failures for leak-rate analyses

    Wilkowski, G.; Ghadiali, N.; Paul, D. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others


    In leak-rate analyses described in the literature, the crack morphology parameters are typically not well agreed upon by different investigators. This paper presents results on a review of crack morphology parameters determined from examination of service induced cracks. Service induced cracks were found to have a much more tortuous flow path than laboratory induced cracks due to crack branching associated with the service induced cracks. Several new parameters such as local and global surface roughnesses, as well as local and global number of turns were identified. The effect of each of these parameters are dependent on the crack-opening displacement. Additionally, the crack path is typically assumed to be straight through the pipe thickness, but the service data show that the flow path can be longer due to the crack following a fusion line, and/or the number of turns, where the number of turns in the past were included as a pressure drop term due to the turns, but not the longer flow path length. These parameters were statistically evaluated for fatigue cracks in air, corrosion-fatigue, IGSCC, and thermal fatigue cracks. A refined version of the SQUIRT leak-rate code was developed to account for these variables. Sample calculations are provided in this paper that show how the crack size can vary for a given leak rate and the statistical variation of the crack morphology parameters.

  14. Analysis of Crack Tip Stress of Transversal Crack on Slab Corner During Vertical-Horizontal Rolling Process by FEM

    YU Hai-liang; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong


    Behavior of transversal crack notched on slab comer during vertical-horizontal rolling process was simula-ted by FEM. The crack tip stress in the whole rolling process was obtained. Influences of the friction coefficient, the initial crack size, the edger roll profile, and the groove fillet radii of grooved edger roll on crack tip stress were ana-lyzed. For vertical rolling, the tension stress appears at crack tip near the slab top surface and the compression stress appears at crack tip near the slab side surface for the flat edger roll; however, the compression stress appears at crack tip near the slab top surface and the tension stress appears at crack tip near the slab side surface in the exit stage for the grooved edger roll. For horizontal rolling, the tension stress appears at crack tip just at the exit stage for the flat edger roll, and the tension stress appears in whole rolling stage; the tension stress value near the slab side surface is much larger than that near the slab top surface for the grooved edger roll.

  15. Crack identification and evolution law in the vibration failure process of loaded coal

    Li, Chengwu; Ai, Dihao; Sun, Xiaoyuan; Xie, Beijing


    To study the characteristics of coal cracks produced in the vibration failure process, we set up a static load and static and dynamic combination load failure test simulation system, prepared with different particle size, formation pressure, and firmness coefficient coal samples. Through static load damage testing of coal samples and then dynamic load (vibration exciter) and static (jack) combination destructive testing, the crack images of coal samples under the load condition were obtained. Combined with digital image processing technology, an algorithm of crack identification with high precision and in real-time is proposed. With the crack features of the coal samples under different load conditions as the research object, we analyzed the distribution of cracks on the surface of the coal samples and the factors influencing crack evolution using the proposed algorithm and a high-resolution industrial camera. Experimental results showed that the major portion of the crack after excitation is located in the rear of the coal sample where the vibration exciter cannot act. Under the same disturbance conditions, crack size and particle size exhibit a positive correlation, while crack size and formation pressure exhibit a negative correlation. Soft coal is more likely to lead to crack evolution than hard coal, and more easily causes instability failure. The experimental results and crack identification algorithm provide a solid basis for the prevention and control of instability and failure of coal and rock mass, and they are helpful in improving the monitoring method of coal and rock dynamic disasters.

  16. Crack identification for rotating machines based on a nonlinear approach

    Cavalini, A. A., Jr.; Sanches, L.; Bachschmid, N.; Steffen, V., Jr.


    In a previous contribution, a crack identification methodology based on a nonlinear approach was proposed. The technique uses external applied diagnostic forces at certain frequencies attaining combinational resonances, together with a pseudo-random optimization code, known as Differential Evolution, in order to characterize the signatures of the crack in the spectral responses of the flexible rotor. The conditions under which combinational resonances appear were determined by using the method of multiple scales. In real conditions, the breathing phenomenon arises from the stress and strain distribution on the cross-sectional area of the crack. This mechanism behavior follows the static and dynamic loads acting on the rotor. Therefore, the breathing crack can be simulated according to the Mayes' model, in which the crack transition from fully opened to fully closed is described by a cosine function. However, many contributions try to represent the crack behavior by machining a small notch on the shaft instead of the fatigue process. In this paper, the open and breathing crack models are compared regarding their dynamic behavior and the efficiency of the proposed identification technique. The additional flexibility introduced by the crack is calculated by using the linear fracture mechanics theory (LFM). The open crack model is based on LFM and the breathing crack model corresponds to the Mayes' model, which combines LFM with a given breathing mechanism. For illustration purposes, a rotor composed by a horizontal flexible shaft, two rigid discs, and two self-aligning ball bearings is used to compose a finite element model of the system. Then, numerical simulation is performed to determine the dynamic behavior of the rotor. Finally, the results of the inverse problem conveyed show that the methodology is a reliable tool that is able to estimate satisfactorily the location and depth of the crack.


    J.B. Nestleroth


    axially oriented volumetric defects. While successful results are presented in this report, circumferential MFL can only detect larger cracks. Even with the field aligned properly, circumferential MFL technology has difficulty detecting cracks on the outside surface that have the potential to grow to failure. Circumferential MFL can be used to detect many corrosion, mechanical damage, and crack defects. However, the detection capabilities and sizing accuracies may not be sufficient for all pipeline threats. Inspection tools that use more sophisticated technologies for detecting and sizing defects may have better performance capabilities, but will likely be expensive to operate. Circumferential MFL will be useful in identifying locations for detailed testing. While performance enhancements may be limited, circumferential MFL inspections will be part of the inspection process for many decades.

  18. Analysis of deterministic and statistical approaches to fatigue crack growth in pressure vessels

    Francisco, Alexandre S.; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. E-mail:


    This work presents three approaches to the fatigue crack growth process in steel pressure vessels as applied to failure probability calculation. In the Thomson's methodology, the crack growth is the term that represents the mechanical behavior which along the time will take the pressure vessel to a structural failure. The first result of failure probability will be obtained considering a deterministic approach, since the crack growth laws are of a deterministic nature. This approach will provide a reference value. Next, two statistical approaches will be performed based on the fact that fatigue crack growth is a random phenomenon. One of them takes into account only the variability of experimental data, proposing a distribution function to represent the failure process. The other, the stochastic approach, considers the random nature of crack growth along time, by performing the randomization of a crack growth law. The solution of this stochastic equation is a transition distribution function fitted to experimental data. (author)

  19. Cessation of environmentally-assisted cracking in a low-alloy steel: Theoretical analysis

    Wire, G.L.


    Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) can cause increases in fatigue crack growth rates of 40 to 100 times the rate in air for low alloy steels. The increased rates can lead to very large predicted crack growth. EAC is activated by a critical level of dissolved sulfides at the crack tip. Sulfide inclusions (MnS) in the steel produce corrosive sulfides in solution following exposure by a growing crack. In stagnant, low oxygen water conditions considered here, diffusion is the dominant mass transport mechanism acting to change the sulfide concentration within the crack. The average crack tip velocity is below the level required to produce the critical crack tip sulfide ion concentration required for EAC. Crack extension analyses also consider the breakthrough of large, hypothetical embedded defects with the attendant large freshly exposed sulfide inventory. Combrade et al. noted that a large inventory of undissolved metallurgical sulfides on crack flanks could trigger EAC, but did not quantify the effects. Diffusion analysis is extended herein to cover breakthrough of embedded defects with large sulfide inventories. The mass transport via diffusion is limited by the sulfide solubility. As a result, deep cracks in high sulfur steels are predicted to retain undissolved sulfides for extended but finite periods of time t{sub diss} which increase with the crack length and the metallurgical sulfide content in the steel. The analysis shows that the duration of EAC is limited to t{sub diss} providing V{sub eac}, the crack tip velocity associated with EAC is less than V{sub In}, the crack tip velocity below which EAC will not occur in an initially sulfide free crack. This condition on V{sub eac} need only be met for a short time following crack cleanup to turn off EAC. The predicted crack extension due to limited duration of EAC is a small fraction of the initial embedded defect size and would not greatly change calculated crack depths.

  20. Analysis of zygapophyseal joint cracking during chiropractic manipulation.

    Reggars, J W; Pollard, H P


    To determine if there is a relationship between the side of head rotation and the side of joint crack during "diversified" rotatory manipulation of the cervical spine. Randomized experimental study. Macquarie University, Centre for Chiropractic, Summer Hill, New South Wales. Fifty asymptomatic subjects were recruited from the students and staff of the above college. Single, unilateral "diversified," high velocity, low amplitude, rotatory thrust technique. Joint crack sound wave analysis of digital audio tape (DAT) recordings, taken from two skin mounted microphones positioned on either side of the cervical spine. All 50 subjects exhibited at least one audible joint crack sound during manipulation. Forty-seven subjects (94%) exhibited cracking on the ipsilateral side to head rotation (95% confidence interval, 83.5% to 98.7%). One subject exhibited joint cracking on the contralateral side only, while two subjects exhibited bilateral joint crack sounds. There was a statistically significant lower rate of exclusively ipsilateral joint cracking in subjects with a history of neck trauma (80% vs. 100%, p = .023). This research suggests that during the "diversified" rotatory manipulation of the cervical spine utilized in this study, there is a higher occurrence of the joint crack on the ipsilateral side to head rotation.

  1. Development of crack shape: LBB methodology for cracked pipes

    Moulin, D.; Chapuliot, S.; Drubay, B. [Commissariat a l Energie Atomique, Gif sur Yvette (France)


    For structures like vessels or pipes containing a fluid, the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) assessment requires to demonstrate that it is possible, during the lifetime of the component, to detect a rate of leakage due to a possible defect, the growth of which would result in a leak before-break of the component. This LBB assessment could be an important contribution to the overall structural integrity argument for many components. The aim of this paper is to review some practices used for LBB assessment and to describe how some new R & D results have been used to provide a simplified approach of fracture mechanics analysis and especially the evaluation of crack shape and size during the lifetime of the component.

  2. SAS Code for Calculating Intraclass Correlation Coefficients and Effect Size Benchmarks for Site-Randomized Education Experiments

    Brandon, Paul R.; Harrison, George M.; Lawton, Brian E.


    When evaluators plan site-randomized experiments, they must conduct the appropriate statistical power analyses. These analyses are most likely to be valid when they are based on data from the jurisdictions in which the studies are to be conducted. In this method note, we provide software code, in the form of a SAS macro, for producing statistical…

  3. Influence of Additives on the Formation of Electrode posits in the Concrete Cracks

    CHU Hongqiang; WANG Peiming


    The electrodeposition method for rehabilitation of the cracked reinforced concrete,based on the electrochemical technique, was presented here. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of additive on the formation of electrodeposits in the concrete cracks. Cracked mortar specimens of size 40 mm × 40 mm × 160 mm were immersed in electrolyte solufions(ZnSO4, MgSO4),and a constant current was applied between the reinforced steel and the external electrode for 15 days.Rate of surface coating, rate of crack closure and rate of crack filling depth were measured and the appearance of eleetrodeposits in the cracks was observed. The experimental results demonstrate that,under the experimental conditions, rate of surface coating and crack filling depth increase, while rate of crack closure decreases as the percengtage of additive increases. In addition, the electrodeposits become more denser and the microstructure varies with additive content, while the compositions of electrodeposits do not change.

  4. How Tough is Human Cortical Bone? In-Situ Measurements on Realistically Short Cracks

    Ritchie, Robert O; Koester, K. J.; Ager III, J. W.; Ritchie, R.O.


    Bone is more difficult to break than to split. Although this is well known, and many studies exist on the behavior of long cracks in bone, there is a need for data on the orientation-dependent crack-growth resistance behavior of human cortical bone which accurately assesses its toughness at appropriate size-scales. Here we use in-situ mechanical testing in the scanning electron microscope and x-ray computed tomography to examine how physiologically-pertinent short (<600 mu m) cracks propagate in both the transverse and longitudinal orientations in cortical bone, using both crack-deflection/twist mechanics and nonlinear-elastic fracture mechanics to determine crack-resistance curves. We find that after only 500 mu m of cracking, the driving force for crack propagation was more than five times higher in the transverse (breaking) direction than in the longitudinal (splitting) direction due to major crack deflections/twists principally at cement sheathes. Indeed, our results show that the true transverse toughness of cortical bone is far higher than previously reported. However, the toughness in the longitudinal orientation, where cracks tend to follow the cement lines, is quite low at these small crack sizes; it is only when cracks become several millimeters in length that bridging mechanisms can develop leading to the (larger-crack) toughnesses generally quoted for bone.

  5. Fracture Mechanics Analyses for Interface Crack Problems - A Review

    Krueger, Ronald; Shivakumar, Kunigal; Raju, Ivatury S.


    Recent developments in fracture mechanics analyses of the interfacial crack problem are reviewed. The intent of the review is to renew the awareness of the oscillatory singularity at the crack tip of a bimaterial interface and the problems that occur when calculating mode mixity using numerical methods such as the finite element method in conjunction with the virtual crack closure technique. Established approaches to overcome the nonconvergence issue of the individual mode strain energy release rates are reviewed. In the recent literature many attempts to overcome the nonconvergence issue have been developed. Among the many approaches found only a few methods hold the promise of providing practical solutions. These are the resin interlayer method, the method that chooses the crack tip element size greater than the oscillation zone, the crack tip element method that is based on plate theory and the crack surface displacement extrapolation method. Each of the methods is validated on a very limited set of simple interface crack problems. However, their utility for a wide range of interfacial crack problems is yet to be established.

  6. Effect of Reiki therapy on pain and anxiety in adults: an in-depth literature review of randomized trials with effect size calculations.

    Thrane, Susan; Cohen, Susan M


    The objective of this study was to calculate the effect of Reiki therapy for pain and anxiety in randomized clinical trials. A systematic search of PubMed, ProQuest, Cochrane, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Web of Science, Global Health, and Medline databases was conducted using the search terms pain, anxiety, and Reiki. The Center for Reiki Research also was examined for articles. Studies that used randomization and a control or usual care group, used Reiki therapy in one arm of the study, were published in 2000 or later in peer-reviewed journals in English, and measured pain or anxiety were included. After removing duplicates, 49 articles were examined and 12 articles received full review. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria: four articles studied cancer patients, one examined post-surgical patients, and two analyzed community dwelling older adults. Effect sizes were calculated for all studies using Cohen's d statistic. Effect sizes for within group differences ranged from d = 0.24 for decrease in anxiety in women undergoing breast biopsy to d = 2.08 for decreased pain in community dwelling adults. The between group differences ranged from d = 0.32 for decrease of pain in a Reiki versus rest intervention for cancer patients to d = 4.5 for decrease in pain in community dwelling adults. Although the number of studies is limited, based on the size Cohen's d statistics calculated in this review, there is evidence to suggest that Reiki therapy may be effective for pain and anxiety. Continued research using Reiki therapy with larger sample sizes, consistently randomized groups, and standardized treatment protocols is recommended.

  7. Random linear network coding for streams with unequally sized packets: Overhead reduction without zero-padded schemes

    Taghouti, Maroua; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk;


    and decoding designs, focused on processing macro-symbols (composed by a number of symbols in the appropriate finite field) instead of full zero-padded packets. Our proposed schemes provide on-the-fly decoding strategies to manage heterogeneous packet sizes without the need for fragmentation or bundling...

  8. Influence of Crack Morphology on Leak Before Break Margins

    Weilin Zang (Inspecta Technology AB, Stockholm (SE))


    The purpose of the project is to evaluate the deterministic LBB-margins for different pipe systems in a Swedish PWR-plant and using different crack morphology parameters. Results: - The influence of crack morphology on Leak Before Break (LBB) margins is studied. The subject of the report is a number of LBB-submittals to SKI where deterministic LBB-margins are reported. These submittals typically uses a surface roughness of 0.0762 mm (300 microinch) and number of turns equal to zero and an in-house code for the leak rate evaluations. The present report has shown that these conditions give the largest LBB-margins both in terms of the quotient between the critical crack length and the leakage crack size and for the leak rate margin. - Crack morphology parameters have a strong influence on the leak rate evaluations. Using the SQUIRT code and more recent recommendations for crack morphology parameters, it is shown that in many cases the evaluated margins, using 1 gpm as the reference leak rate detection limit, are below the safety factor of 2 on crack size and 10 on leak rate, which is generally required for LBB approval. - The effect of including weld residual stresses on the LBB margins is also investigated. It is shown that for the two examples studied, weld residual stresses were important for the small diameter thin wall pipe whereas it was negligible for the large diameter thick wall pipe which had a self-balanced weld residual stress distribution

  9. Finite-Element Analysis of Crack Arrest Properties of Fiber Reinforced Composites Application in Semi-Elliptical Cracked Pipelines

    Wang, Linyuan; Song, Shulei; Deng, Hongbo; Zhong, Kai


    In nowadays, repair method using fiber reinforced composites as the mainstream pipe repair technology, it can provide security for X100 high-grade steel energy long-distance pipelines in engineering. In this paper, analysis of cracked X100 high-grade steel pipe was conducted, simulation analysis was made on structure of pipes and crack arresters (CAs) to obtain the J-integral value in virtue of ANSYS Workbench finite element software and evaluation on crack arrest effects was done through measured elastic-plastic fracture mechanics parameter J-integral and the crack arrest coefficient K, in a bid to summarize effect laws of composite CAs and size of pipes and cracks for repairing CAs. The results indicate that the K value is correlated with laying angle λ, laying length L2/D1, laying thickness T1/T2of CAs, crack depth c/T1 and crack length a/c, and calculate recommended parameters for repairing fiber reinforced composite CAs in terms of two different crack forms.

  10. Analytical Model for Fictitious Crack Propagation in Concrete Beams

    Ulfkjær, J. P.; Krenk, S.; Brincker, Rune

    -displacement curve where the fictitious crack starts to develope, and the point where the real crack starts to grow will always correspond to the same bending moment. Closed from solutions for the maximum size of the fracture zone and the minimum slope on the load-displacement curve is given. The latter result......An analytical model for load-displacement curves of unreinforced notched and un-notched concrete beams is presented. The load displacement-curve is obtained by combining two simple models. The fracture is modelled by a fictitious crack in an elastic layer around the mid-section of the beam. Outside...

  11. Mechanical properties and crack growth behavior of polycrystalline copper using molecular dynamics simulation

    Qiu, Ren-Zheng; Li, Chi-Chen; Fang, Te-Hua


    This study investigated the mechanical properties and crack propagation behavior of polycrystalline copper using a molecular dynamics simulation. The effects of temperature, grain size, and crack length were evaluated in terms of atomic trajectories, slip vectors, common neighbor analysis, the material’s stress-strain diagram and Young’s modulus. The simulation results show that the grain boundary of the material is more easily damaged at high temperatures and that grain boundaries will combine at the crack tip. From the stress-strain diagram, it was observed that the maximum stress increased as the temperature decreased. In contrast, the maximum stress was reduced by increasing the temperature. With regard to the effect of the grain size, when the grain size was too small, the structure of the sample deformed due to the effect of atomic interactions, which caused the grain boundary structure to be disordered in general. However, when the grain size was larger, dislocations appeared and began to move from the tip of the crack, which led to a new dislocation phenomenon. With regards to the effect of the crack length, the tip of the crack did not affect the sample’s material when the crack length was less than 5 nm. However, when the crack length was above 7.5 nm, the grain boundary was damaged, and twinning structures and dislocations appeared on both sides of the crack tip. This is because the tip of the crack was blunt at first before sharpening due to the dislocation effect.

  12. Fatigue Reliability under Random Loads

    Talreja, R.


    , with the application of random loads, the initial homogeneous distribution of strength changes to a two-component distribution, reflecting the two-stage fatigue damage. In the crack initiation stage, the strength increases initially and then decreases, while an abrupt decrease of strength is seen in the crack...... propagation stage. The consequences of this behaviour on the fatigue reliability are discussed....

  13. Fatigue Crack Topography.


    evaluating ciack initiation time and crack propagation, prgram I was used for performing the major fatigue test with the aircraft structure. In...advantage to begin with the end of the fracture, this is especially so in the case of the quantitative evaluation of striations. The overload fracture...Select the Measuring Line for Quantitative Evaluation Actually, the fatigue fracture should be inspected completely from the point of origin to the

  14. Cracking in desiccating soils

    Ledesma Alberto


    Soil shrinkage is produced typically under desiccating conditions. Eventually shrinkage may generate cracks in the soil mass, a phenomenon that is being studied by several researchers, because its prediction is far from being a routine in Soil Mechanics. Within this context, Unsaturated Soil Mechanics provides a promising framework to understand the mechanisms involved. In addition to that, physical modelling of desiccating soils constitutes a good tool to explore the nature of this problem. ...

  15. Utopia Cracks and Polygons


    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-339, 23 April 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a pattern of polygonal cracks and aligned, elliptical pits in western Utopia Planitia. The picture covers an area about 3 km (about 1.9 mi) wide near 44.9oN, 274.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  16. Randomized clinical trial of mast cell inhibition in patients with a medium-sized abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Sillesen, H; Eldrup, N; Hultgren, R


    BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is thought to develop as a result of inflammatory processes in the aortic wall. In particular, mast cells are believed to play a central role. The AORTA trial was undertaken to investigate whether the mast cell inhibitor, pemirolast, could retard...... the growth of medium-sized AAAs. In preclinical and clinical trials, pemirolast has been shown to inhibit antigen-induced allergic reactions. METHODS: Inclusion criteria for the trial were patients with an AAA of 39-49 mm in diameter on ultrasound imaging. Among exclusion criteria were previous aortic....... There was no statistically significant difference in growth between patients receiving placebo and those in the three dose groups of pemirolast. Similarly, there were no differences in adverse events. CONCLUSION: Treatment with pemirolast did not retard the growth of medium-sized AAAs. REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01354184...

  17. Testing University Rankings Statistically: Why this Perhaps is not such a Good Idea after All. Some Reflections on Statistical Power, Effect Size, Random Sampling and Imaginary Populations

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg


    In this paper we discuss and question the use of statistical significance tests in relation to university rankings as recently suggested. We outline the assumptions behind and interpretations of statistical significance tests and relate this to examples from the recent SCImago Institutions Ranking....... By use of statistical power analyses and demonstration of effect sizes, we emphasize that importance of empirical findings lies in “differences that make a difference” and not statistical significance tests per se. Finally we discuss the crucial assumption of randomness and question the presumption...... that randomness is present in the university ranking data. We conclude that the application of statistical significance tests in relation to university rankings, as recently advocated, is problematic and can be misleading....

  18. Two to five repeated measurements per patient reduced the required sample size considerably in a randomized clinical trial for patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    Smedslund Geir


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient reported outcomes are accepted as important outcome measures in rheumatology. The fluctuating symptoms in patients with rheumatic diseases have serious implications for sample size in clinical trials. We estimated the effects of measuring the outcome 1-5 times on the sample size required in a two-armed trial. Findings In a randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effects of a mindfulness-based group intervention for patients with inflammatory arthritis (n=71, the outcome variables Numerical Rating Scales (NRS (pain, fatigue, disease activity, self-care ability, and emotional wellbeing and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20 were measured five times before and after the intervention. For each variable we calculated the necessary sample sizes for obtaining 80% power (α=.05 for one up to five measurements. Two, three, and four measures reduced the required sample sizes by 15%, 21%, and 24%, respectively. With three (and five measures, the required sample size per group was reduced from 56 to 39 (32 for the GHQ-20, from 71 to 60 (55 for pain, 96 to 71 (73 for fatigue, 57 to 51 (48 for disease activity, 59 to 44 (45 for self-care, and 47 to 37 (33 for emotional wellbeing. Conclusions Measuring the outcomes five times rather than once reduced the necessary sample size by an average of 27%. When planning a study, researchers should carefully compare the advantages and disadvantages of increasing sample size versus employing three to five repeated measurements in order to obtain the required statistical power.

  19. An evaluation of the advantages and limitations in simulating indentation cracking with cohesive zone finite elements

    Johanns, K. E.; Lee, J. H.; Gao, Y. F.; Pharr, G. M.


    A cohesive zone model is applied to a finite element (FE) scheme to simulate indentation cracking in brittle materials. Limitations of using the cohesive zone model to study indentation cracking are determined from simulations of a standard fracture toughness specimen and a two-dimensional indentation cracking problem wherein the morphology of the crack and the geometry of the indenter are simplified. It is found that the principles of linear-elastic fracture mechanics can be applied when indentation cracks are long in comparison to the size of the cohesive zone. Vickers and Berkovich pyramidal indentation crack morphologies (3D) are also investigated and found to be controlled by the ratio of elastic modulus to yield strength (E/Y), with median type cracking dominating at low ratios (e.g. E/Y = 10) and Palmqvist type cracking at higher ratios (e.g. E/Y = 100). The results show that cohesive FE simulations of indentation cracking can indeed be used to critically examine the complex relationships between crack morphology, material properties, indenter geometry, and indentation test measurements, provided the crack length is long in comparison to the cohesive zone size.

  20. Fatigue-crack-initiation numerical modelling of a Ni-base powder metallurgy alloy


    A simplified three-dimensional numerical model was presented to simulate the micro-crack nucleation and growth to some predefined dimension(approximately 0.38 mm) on the throat surface of a Ni-base powder metallurgy(PM) specimen.The numerical simulation of micro-crack initiation was based on the Tanaka-Mura micro-crack initiation models,where individual grains of the mesoscopic model were simulated using the Voronoi tessellation.Four improvements were made in the model.(1) Considering crack initiation along with 12 principal slip systems on octahedral slip planes of face centered cubic(FCC) crystal in three-dimensional(3-D) models.(2) Considering the effect of secondary phase precipitate due to impinging slip and dislocation pileup.(3) The Tanaka-Mura theory of fatigue-crack-initiation from notches was applied to simulate the crack initiation from another crack tip.(4) The coalescence of random initiated micro-cracks was simulated once they intersected with each other and a macro-crack was finally formed.The calculated results were in good agreement with the experimental data which verified the rationality of the simulation model.The applicability of the proposed model for treating fatigue-crack-initiation life in engineering structures was preliminarily achieved.%A simplified three-dimensional numerical model was presented to simulate the micro-crack nucleation and growth to some predefined dimension(approximately 0.38 mm) on the throat surface of a Ni-base powder metallurgy(PM) specimen.The numerical simulation of micro-crack initiation was based on the Tanaka-Mura micro-crack initiation models,where individual grains of the mesoscopic model were simulated using the Voronoi tessellation.Four improvements were made in the model.(1) Considering crack initiation along with 12 principal slip systems on octahedral slip planes of face centered cubic(FCC) crystal in three-dimensional(3-D) models.(2) Considering the effect of secondary phase

  1. On Microscopic Mechanisms Which Elongate the Tail of Cluster Size Distributions: An Example of Random Domino Automaton

    Czechowski, Zbigniew


    On the basis of simple cellular automaton, the microscopic mechanisms, which can be responsible for elongation of tails of cluster size distributions, were analyzed. It was shown that only the appropriate forms of rebound function can lead to inverse power tails if densities of the grid are small or moderate. For big densities, correlations between clusters become significant and lead to elongation of tails and flattening of the distribution to a straight line in log-log scale. The microscopic mechanism, given by the rebound function, included in simple 1D RDA can be projected on the geometric mechanism, which favours larger clusters in 2D RDA.

  2. Crack Tip Parameters for Growing Cracks in Linear Viscoelastic Materials

    Brincker, Rune

    intensity factors. In the special case of a constant Poisson ratio only 2 deformation intensity factors are needed. Closed form solutions are given both for a slowly growing crack and for a crack that is suddenly arrested at a point at the crack extension path. Two examples are studied; a stress boundary...... value problem, and a displacement boundary value problem. The results show that the stress intensity factors and the displacement intensity factors do not depend explicitly upon the velocity of the crack tip....

  3. Relationship between localized strain and irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking in an austenitic alloy

    McMurtrey, M.D., E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Was, G.S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Patrick, L.; Farkas, D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)


    Research highlights: {yields} Austenitic steel is more susceptible to intergranular corrosion after irradiation. {yields} Simulation and experiment used to study cracking in irradiated austentic steel. {yields} Cracking occurs at random high angle boundaries normal to the tensile stress. {yields} Cracking at boundaries with high normal stress and inability to accommodate strain. {yields} Boundary type, angle, and Taylor and Schmid factors affect strain accommodation. - Abstract: Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking may be linked to the local slip behavior near grain boundaries that exhibit high susceptibility to cracking. Fe-13Cr-15Ni austenitic steel was irradiated with 2 MeV protons at 360 deg. C to 5 dpa and strained in 288 deg. C simulated BWR conditions. Clusters of grains from the experiment were created in an atomistic simulation and then virtually strained using molecular dynamic simulation techniques. Cracking and grain orientation data were characterized in both the experiment and the simulation. Random high angle boundaries with high surface trace angles with respect to the tensile direction were found to be the most susceptible to cracking. Grain boundary cracking susceptibility was also found to correlate strongly with slip continuity, indicating that the strain accommodation at the boundary is related to cracking resistance. Higher cracking susceptibility was also found at grain boundaries adjacent to grains with low Schmid factor or high Taylor factor. The basic trends reported here are supported by both the experiments and the simulations.

  4. Crack initiation and propagation induced by inclusions in a nickel-base P/M superalloy under fatigue load

    ZENG Yanping; ZHANG Maicang; DONG Jianxin; ZHANG Lina; XIE Xishan


    In situ fatigue tests in special designed SEM were conducted to trace the whole process of crack initiation and propagation till to fracture in nickel-base P/M superalloy seeded inclusions. The experimental results show that non-metallic inclusions can induce crack initiation. When the inclusion size is larger than the critical one, the crack can propagate as the main crack that induces the specimen to fracture. As a result, the LCF life of the specimen decreases.

  5. Process of cracking in reinforced concrete beams (simulation and experiment

    I. N. Shardakov


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical investigations of the mechanisms of crack formation in reinforced concrete beams subjected to quasi-static bending. The boundary-value problem has been formulated in the framework of brittle fracture mechanics and solved using the finite-element method. Numerical simulation of the vibrations of an uncracked beam and a beam with cracks of different size serves to determine the pattern of changes in the spectrum of eigenfrequencies observed during crack evolution. A series of sequential quasi-static 4-point bend tests leading to the formation of cracks in a reinforced concrete beam were performed. At each loading step, the beam was subjected to an impulse load to induce vibrations. Two stages of cracking were detected. During the first stage the nonconservative process of deformation begins to develope, but has not visible signs. The second stage is an active cracking, which is marked by a sharp change in eingenfrequencies. The boundary of a transition from one stage to another is well registered. The vibration behavior was examined for the ordinary concrete beams and the beams strengthened with a carbon-fiber polymer. The obtained results show that the vibrodiagnostic approach is an effective tool for monitoring crack formation and assessing the quality of measures aimed at strengthening concrete structures

  6. Cryptography cracking codes


    While cracking a code might seem like something few of us would encounter in our daily lives, it is actually far more prevalent than we may realize. Anyone who has had personal information taken because of a hacked email account can understand the need for cryptography and the importance of encryption-essentially the need to code information to keep it safe. This detailed volume examines the logic and science behind various ciphers, their real world uses, how codes can be broken, and the use of technology in this oft-overlooked field.

  7. The effect of class size in grades K-3 on adult earnings, employment, and disability status: evidence from a multi-center randomized controlled trial.

    Wilde, Elizabeth Ty; Finn, Jeremy; Johnson, Gretchen; Muennig, Peter


    Early education interventions have been forwarded as a means for reducing social disparities in income and health in adulthood. We explore whether a successful early education intervention, which occurred between 1985 and 1989, improved the employment rates, earnings and health of blacks relative to whites through 2008. We used data from Project STAR (Student Teacher Achievement Ratio), a four-year multi-center randomized controlled trial of reduced class sizes in Tennessee involving 11,601 students. Students were initially randomized within 79 schools to classes with 22-25 or 13-17 students. We linked subject records to Social Security Administration (SSA) earnings and disability data collected between 1997 and 2008-when the majority of subjects were between the ages of 18 and 28. We focused our analysis on annual, rather than cumulative, measures of earnings and employment because educational attainment after high school might reduce earnings through age 23. We considered three or more years of statistically significant positive (or negative) annual impacts to be a meaningful effect. Project STAR improved cognition and high school graduation rates. These benefits were primarily realized among low-income and minority students. These early education benefits did not translate into reduced disability claims in adulthood for treated subjects. However, exposure to small class size increased employment for blacks, and increased earnings for black males (p<0.05). Exposure to small classes also led to an increase in earnings for white males. However, white females exposed to small classes experienced a net decline in earnings and employment across the later years of follow up (p<0.05), offsetting any gains by white males. Exposure to small class size in grades K-3 appears to improve earnings and employment for black males and earnings for white males, while reducing employment and earnings among white females.

  8. The effect of peer-group size on the delivery of feedback in basic life support refresher training: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Cho, Youngsuk; Je, Sangmo; Yoon, Yoo Sang; Roh, Hye Rin; Chang, Chulho; Kang, Hyunggoo; Lim, Taeho


    Students are largely providing feedback to one another when instructor facilitates peer feedback rather than teaching in group training. The number of students in a group affect the learning of students in the group training. We aimed to investigate whether a larger group size increases students' test scores on a post-training test with peer feedback facilitated by instructor after video-guided basic life support (BLS) refresher training. Students' one-rescuer adult BLS skills were assessed by a 2-min checklist-based test 1 year after the initial training. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of student number in a group on BLS refresher training. Participants included 115 final-year medical students undergoing their emergency medicine clerkship. The median number of students was 8 in the large groups and 4 in the standard group. The primary outcome was to examine group differences in post-training test scores after video-guided BLS training. Secondary outcomes included the feedback time, number of feedback topics, and results of end-of-training evaluation questionnaires. Scores on the post-training test increased over three consecutive tests with instructor-led peer feedback, but not differ between large and standard groups. The feedback time was longer and number of feedback topics generated by students were higher in standard groups compared to large groups on the first and second tests. The end-of-training questionnaire revealed that the students in large groups preferred the smaller group size compared to their actual group size. In this BLS refresher training, the instructor-led group feedback increased the test score after tutorial video-guided BLS learning, irrespective of the group size. A smaller group size allowed more participations in peer feedback.

  9. On non-singular GRADELA crack fields

    Elias C. Aifantis


    Full Text Available A brief account is provided on crack-tip solutions that have recently been published in the literature by employing the so-called GRADELA model and its variants. The GRADELA model is a simple gradient elasticity theory involving one internal length in addition to the two Lame' constants, in an effort to eliminate elastic singularities and discontinuities and to interpret elastic size effects. The non-singular strains and non-singular (but sometimes singular or even hypersingular stresses derived this way under different boundary conditions differ from each other and their physical meaning in not clear. This is discussed which focus on the form and physical meaning of non-singular solutions for crack-tip stresses and strains that are possible to obtain within the GRADELA model and its extensions.

  10. Crack path and fracture surface modifications in cement composites

    Sajjad Ahmad


    Full Text Available There is a tremendous increase in the use of high strength and high performance self-consolidating cementitious composites due to their superior workability and mechanical strengths. Cement composites are quasi-brittle in nature and possess extremely low tensile strength as compared to their compressive strength. Due to the low tensile strength capacity, cracks develop in cementitious composites due to the drying shrinkage, plastic settlements and/or stress concentrations (due to external restrains and/or applied stresses etc. These cracks developed at the nanoscale may grow rapidly due to the applied stresses and join together to form micro and macro cracks. The growth of cracks from nanoscale to micro and macro scale is very rapid and may lead to sudden failure of the cement composites. The present paper reports the modifications in the crack growth pattern of the high performance cement composites to achieve enhanced ductility and toughness. The objective was accomplished by the incorporation of the micro sized inert particulates in the cement composite matrix. The results indicate that the incorporation of micro sized inert particles acted as the obstacles in the growth of the cracks thus improving the ductility and the energy absorption capacity of the self-consolidating cementitious composites.

  11. Multiaxial mixed-mode cracking - small crack initiation and propagation

    Freitas, M. de; Reis, L.; Li Bin [Lisbon Univ. (Portugal). ICEMS - Inst. of Material and Surface Science and Engineering


    Both the fatigue crack path and fatigue life of CK45 steel and 42CrMo4 steel under various multiaxial loading paths are studied in this paper. The replica method was applied to monitor the crack initiation and small crack growth, the fractographic analyses were carried out on the fracture surface and the crack initiation angle was measured. The effects of non-proportional loading on both the crack path and fatigue life were studied, and the flattening of asperities on the crack surface due to compressive normal stress was also observed. An improved model is proposed based on correcting the strain range parameter of the ASME code approach, taking into account the additional hardening caused by the non-proportional loading path, which can improve the predictions of the fatigue lives for various non-proportional loading paths and provide an easy way to overcome the drawbacks of the current ASME code approach for non-proportional fatigue. Based on these corrected strain range parameters, a strain intensity factor range is used to correlate with the experimental results of small crack growth rates. It is concluded that the orientation of the early crack growth can be predicted well by the critical damage plane, but the fatigue life can not be predicted accurately using only the parameters on the critical plane, since the damage on all the planes contributes to fatigue damage as stated by the integral approaches. (orig.)

  12. Evolution of a Directional Wave Spectrum in a 3D Marginal Ice Zone with Random Floe Size Distribution

    Montiel, F.; Squire, V. A.


    A new ocean wave/sea-ice interaction model is proposed that simulates how a directional wave spectrum evolves as it travels through a realistic marginal ice zone (MIZ), where wave/ice dynamics are entirely governed by coherent conservative wave scattering effects. Field experiments conducted by Wadhams et al. (1986) in the Greenland Sea generated important data on wave attenuation in the MIZ and, particularly, on whether the wave spectrum spreads directionally or collimates with distance from the ice edge. The data suggest that angular isotropy, arising from multiple scattering by ice floes, occurs close to the edge and thenceforth dominates wave propagation throughout the MIZ. Although several attempts have been made to replicate this finding theoretically, including by the use of numerical models, none have confronted this problem in a 3D MIZ with fully randomised floe distribution properties. We construct such a model by subdividing the discontinuous ice cover into adjacent infinite slabs of finite width parallel to the ice edge. Each slab contains an arbitrary (but finite) number of circular ice floes with randomly distributed properties. Ice floes are modeled as thin elastic plates with uniform thickness and finite draught. We consider a directional wave spectrum with harmonic time dependence incident on the MIZ from the open ocean, defined as a continuous superposition of plane waves traveling at different angles. The scattering problem within each slab is then solved using Graf's interaction theory for an arbitrary incident directional plane wave spectrum. Using an appropriate integral representation of the Hankel function of the first kind (see Cincotti et al., 1993), we map the outgoing circular wave field from each floe on the slab boundaries into a directional spectrum of plane waves, which characterizes the slab reflected and transmitted fields. Discretizing the angular spectrum, we can obtain a scattering matrix for each slab. Standard recursive

  13. Hybrid fiber reinforcement and crack formation in Cementitious Composite Materials

    Pereira, E.B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, J.A.O.


    reinforcement systems. The research described in this paper shows that the multi-scale conception of cracking and the use of hybrid fiber reinforcements do not necessarily result in an improved tensile behavior of the composite. Particular material design requirements may nevertheless justify the use of hybrid......The use of different types of fibers simultaneously for reinforcing cementitious matrices is motivated by the concept of a multi-scale nature of the crack propagation process. Fibers with different geometrical and mechanical properties are used to bridge cracks of different sizes from the micro......- to the macroscale. In this study, the performance of different fiber reinforced cementitious composites is assessed in terms of their tensile stress-crack opening behavior. The results obtained from this investigation allow a direct quantitative comparison of the behavior obtained from the different fiber...

  14. Kibble-Zurek Mechanism in Microscopic Acoustic Cracking Noises

    Ghaffari, H O; Xia, K; Young, R P


    The fast evolution of microstructure is key to understanding crackling phenomena. It has been proposed that formation of a nonlinear zone around a moving crack tip controls the crack tip velocity. Progress in understanding the physics of this critical zone has been limited due to the lack of hard data describing the detailed complex physical processes that occur within. For the first time, we show that the signature of the non-linear elastic zone around a microscopic dynamic crack maps directly to generic phases of acoustic noises, supporting the formation of a strongly weak zone [2-3,5] near the moving crack tips. We additionally show that the rate of traversing to non-linear zone controls the rate of weakening, i.e. speed of global rupture propagation. We measure the power-law dependence of nonlinear zone size on the traversing rate, and show that our observations are in agreement with the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) .

  15. Catalytic cracking of lignites

    Seitz, M.; Nowak, S.; Naegler, T.; Zimmermann, J. [Hochschule Merseburg (Germany); Welscher, J.; Schwieger, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany); Hahn, T. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany)


    A most important factor for the chemical industry is the availability of cheap raw materials. As the oil price of crude oil is rising alternative feedstocks like coal are coming into focus. This work, the catalytic cracking of lignite is part of the alliance ibi (innovative Braunkohlenintegration) to use lignite as a raw material to produce chemicals. With this new one step process without an input of external hydrogen, mostly propylene, butenes and aromatics and char are formed. The product yield depends on manifold process parameters. The use of acid catalysts (zeolites like MFI) shows the highest amount of the desired products. Hydrogen rich lignites with a molar H/C ratio of > 1 are to be favoured. Due to primary cracking and secondary reactions the ratio between catalyst and lignite, temperature and residence time are the most important parameter to control the product distribution. Experiments at 500 C in a discontinuous rotary kiln reactor show yields up to 32 wt-% of hydrocarbons per lignite (maf - moisture and ash free) and 43 wt-% char, which can be gasified. Particularly, the yields of propylene and butenes as main products can be enhanced four times to about 8 wt-% by the use of catalysts while the tar yield decreases. In order to develop this innovative process catalyst systems fixed on beads were developed for an easy separation and regeneration of the used catalyst from the formed char. (orig.)

  16. Probability distribution of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk on the finite-size fully-connected lattice

    Turban, L


    The probability distribution of the number $s$ of distinct sites visited up to time $t$ by a random walk on the fully-connected lattice with $N$ sites is first obtained by solving the eigenvalue problem associated with the discrete master equation. Then, using generating function techniques, we compute the joint probability distribution of $s$ and $r$, where $r$ is the number of sites visited only once up to time $t$. Mean values, variances and covariance are deduced from the generating functions and their finite-size-scaling behaviour is studied. Introducing properly centered and scaled variables $u$ and $v$ for $r$ and $s$ and working in the scaling limit ($t\\to\\infty$, $N\\to\\infty$ with $w=t/N$ fixed) the joint probability density of $u$ and $v$ is shown to be a bivariate Gaussian density. It follows that the fluctuations of $r$ and $s$ around their mean values in a finite-size system are Gaussian in the scaling limit. The same type of finite-size scaling is expected to hold on periodic lattices above the ...

  17. Sample size determinations for group-based randomized clinical trials with different levels of data hierarchy between experimental and control arms.

    Heo, Moonseong; Litwin, Alain H; Blackstock, Oni; Kim, Namhee; Arnsten, Julia H


    We derived sample size formulae for detecting main effects in group-based randomized clinical trials with different levels of data hierarchy between experimental and control arms. Such designs are necessary when experimental interventions need to be administered to groups of subjects whereas control conditions need to be administered to individual subjects. This type of trial, often referred to as a partially nested or partially clustered design, has been implemented for management of chronic diseases such as diabetes and is beginning to emerge more commonly in wider clinical settings. Depending on the research setting, the level of hierarchy of data structure for the experimental arm can be three or two, whereas that for the control arm is two or one. Such different levels of data hierarchy assume correlation structures of outcomes that are different between arms, regardless of whether research settings require two or three level data structure for the experimental arm. Therefore, the different correlations should be taken into account for statistical modeling and for sample size determinations. To this end, we considered mixed-effects linear models with different correlation structures between experimental and control arms to theoretically derive and empirically validate the sample size formulae with simulation studies.

  18. Micro-CT assessment of dentinal micro-cracks after root canal filling procedures.

    De-Deus, G; Belladonna, F G; Silva, E J N L; Souza, E M; Carvalhal, J C A; Perez, R; Lopes, R T; Versiani, M A


    To evaluate the frequency of dentinal micro-cracks after root canal filling procedures with GuttaCore (GC), cold lateral compaction (CLC) and warm vertical compaction (WVC) techniques in mandibular molars using micro-computed tomographic analysis. Thirty mesial roots of mandibular molars, with a type II Vertucci's canal configuration, were prepared to working length with a Reciproc R40 instrument and randomly assigned to one of the three experimental groups (n = 10), according to the technique used for root filling: GC, CLC or WVC. The GC group was filled with a size 40 GC obturator, whilst CLC and WVC groups used conventional gutta-percha cones. AH Plus sealer was used in all groups. The specimens were scanned at an isotropic resolution of 14.25 μm before and after root canal preparation and after root filling. Then, all pre- and postoperative cross-sectional images of the roots (n = 41 660) were screened to identify the presence of dentinal defects. Overall, 30.75% (n = 12 810) of the pre- + post-filling images displayed dentinal defects. In the GC, CLC and WVC groups, dentinal micro-cracks were observed in 18.68% (n = 2510), 15.99% (n = 2389) and 11.34% (n = 1506) of the cross-sectional images, respectively. All micro-cracks identified in the post-filling scans were also observed in the corresponding post-preparation images. Root fillings in all techniques did not induce the development of new dentinal micro-cracks. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    H.Q. Zhang; H.Y. Zhao; Y.H. Zhang; L.H. Li; X.A. Zhang


    Fatigue crack growth behaviors in electron beam weldments of a nickel-base superalloy are studied. The objective of this paper is to discuss effects of the inhomogeneity of mechanical performance on fatigue crack growth (FCG) rate and crack path deviation (CPD). The base metal served in a turbine disk of aerospace engine was selected to fabricate bead-on-plate weldments by using electron beam welding. Some wedge-type opening loading specimens, notched in three different zone of weld metal, HAZ and base metal, were employed and performed fatigue crack growth tests at 650℃. The results show that the fatigue crack growth of electron beam welded joints is instable due to the influence of mechanical heterogeneities. Owing to the crack deviation at the weld metal and hcat-affected-zone (HAZ), the effective growth driving force at the tip of fatigue crack was reduced with the reduction of the effective stress intensity factor (SIF) which finally causes fatigue crack rate decrease. Fatigue crack was strongly affected by size and the symmetrical characteristics of the plastic zone at the crack tip, which means that the integrity of the welded structure containing the fatigue crack mainly depended on the toughness of the low strength zone.

  20. STAC -- a new Swedish code for statistical analysis of cracks in SG-tubes

    Poern, K. [Poern Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden)


    Steam generator (SG) tubes in pressurized water reactor plants are exposed to various types of degradation processes, among which stress corrosion cracking in particular has been observed. To be able to evaluate the safety importance of such cracking of SG-tubes one has to have a good and empirically founded knowledge about the scope and the size of the cracks as well as the rate of their continuous growth. The basis of experience is to a large extent constituted of the annually performed SG-inspections and crack sizing procedures. On the basis of this experience one can estimate the distribution of existing crack lengths, and modify this distribution with regard to maintenance (plugging) and the predicted rate of crack propagation. Finally, one can calculate the rupture probability of SG-tubes as a function of a given critical crack length. On account of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate an introductory study has been performed in order to get a survey of what has been done elsewhere in this field. The study resulted in a proposal of a computerizable model to be able to estimate the distribution of true cracks, to modify this distribution due to the crack growth and to compute the probability of tube rupture. The model has now been implemented in a compute code, called STAC (STatistical Analysis of Cracks). This paper is aimed to give a brief outline of the model to facilitate the understanding of the possibilities and limitations associated with the model.

  1. Transient stress intensity factors for edge and corner cracks in quench-test specimens

    Emery, A. F.; Kobayashi, A. S.


    The transient temperature and stress fields in a quenched rectangular bar were computed and used to determine the stress intensity factors for midside and corner-edge cracks. The stress intensity factors, KI, are presented as a function of time, flaw size, and aspect ratio. The variations of KI along the crack edge are given and the self-limiting growth of the crack depth is discussed in relation to the nonlimited surface growth.

  2. Experiences on IGSCC crack manufacturing

    Veron, P. [Equipos Nucleares, S.A., Maliano (Spain)


    The author presents his experience in manufacturing IGSCC realistic defects, mainly in INCONEL 600 MA Steam Generator Tubes. From that experience he extracts some knowledge about this cracking (influence of chemistry in the environment, stress state, crack growth rate, and occurrence in laboratory condition of break before leak).



    Hydrogen transfer is an important secondary reaction of catalytic cracking reactions, which affects product yield distribution and product quality. It is an exothermic reaction with low activation energy around 43.3 kJ/mol. Catalyst properties and operation parameters in catalytic cracking greatly influence the hydrogen transfer reaction. Satisfactory results are expected through careful selection of proper catalysts and operation conditions.

  4. Shear crack formation and propagation in reinforced Engineered Cementitious Composites

    Paegle, Ieva; Fischer, Gregor


    capacity of beams loaded primarily in shear. The experimental program consists of ECC with short randomly distributed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber beams with different stirrup arrangements and conventional reinforced concrete (R/C) counterparts for comparison. The shear crack formation mechanism of ECC...


    Werner Nagel


    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of random tessellations that reflect several features of crack pattern. There are already several theoretical results derivedwhich indicate that thismodel can be an appropriate referencemodel. Some potential applications are presented in a tentative statistical study.

  6. Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior of Rubber-toughened Epoxy Resin


    Fatigue crack propagation (FCP) behaviors of mass fraction 15% CTBN (carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile), 15% Qishi toughening-agent toughened anhydride-cured epoxy resins (EP), and pure anhydride-cured EP were measured. The results showed that the two main toughening mechanisms, localized shear yielding and void plastics growth, which occurred near the threshold region because the rubber size is much less than the plastics size at the crack front, improved the near threshold FCP behavior and increased the threshold. The stable FCP behavior was obviously improved with the FCP rates decreased to less than 21%.

  7. All-arthroscopic versus mini-open repair of small or moderate-sized rotator cuff tears: A protocol for a randomized trial [NCT00128076

    Razmjou Helen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotator cuff tears are the most common source of shoulder pain and disability. Only poor quality studies have compared mini-open to arthroscopic repair, leaving surgeons with inadequate evidence to support optimal, minimally-invasive repair. Methods/Design This randomized, multi-centre, national trial will determine whether an arthroscopic or mini-open repair provides better quality of life for patients with small or moderate-sized rotator cuff tears. A national consensus meeting of investigators in the Joint Orthopaedic Initiative for National Trials of the Shoulder (JOINTS Canada identified this question as the top priority for shoulder surgeons across Canada. The primary outcome measure is a valid quality-of-life scale (Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC that addresses 5 domains of health affected by rotator cuff disease. Secondary outcomes will assess rotator cuff functionality (ROM, strength, Constant score, secondary dimensions of health (general health status (SF-12 and work limitations, and repair integrity (MRI. Outcomes are measured at baseline, at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months post-operatively by blinded research assistants and musculoskeletal radiologists. Patients (n = 250 with small or medium-sized cuff tears identified by clinical examination and MRI who meet eligibility criteria will be recruited. This sample size will provide 80% power to statistically detect a clinically important difference of 20% in WORC scores between procedures after controlling for baseline WORC score (α = 0.05. A central methods centre will manage randomization, data management, and monitoring under supervision of experienced epidemiologists. Surgeons will participate in either conventional or expertise-based designs according to defined criteria to avoid biases from differential surgeon expertise. Mini-open or all-arthroscopic repair procedures will be performed according to a standardized protocol. Central Adjudication (of cases

  8. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy on gestational age and size at birth: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Mexico.

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stein, Aryeh D; Parra-Cabrera, Socorro; Wang, Meng; Imhoff-Kunsch, Beth; Juárez-Márquez, Sergio; Rivera, Juan; Martorell, Reynaldo


    The need for omega-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), during pregnancy has received much attention, but evidence of effects on birth outcomes is limited. To evaluate whether prenatal DHA supplementation increases gestational age and birth size. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Cuernavaca, Mexico. We randomly assigned 1,094 pregnant women (18 to 35 years of age; median DHA dietary intake, 55 mg/day) to 400 mg/day of algal DHA or placebo from 18 to 22 weeks of gestation through delivery. Birth outcomes (968 live births and 5 stillbirths) were ascertained from hospital records within 24 hours of delivery. Intention-to-treat analysis showed no differences between the control and DHA group (all p > .05) in mean gestational age (39.1 + 1.7 and 39.0 +/- 1.9 weeks, respectively), weight (3.20 + 0.47 and 3.21 +/- 0.45 kg, respectively), length (50.3 +/- 2.7 and 50.3 +/- 2.3 cm, respectively) and head circumference (34.3 +/- 1.8 and 34.3 +/- 1.5 cm, respectively) at birth. Offspring of supplemented primigravidae (n = 370) were heavier (difference, 99.4 g; 95% CI, 5.5 to 193.4) and had larger head circumferences (difference, 0.5 cm; 95% CI, 0.1 to 0.9) than controls; the differences in multigravidae (n = 603) were -53.3 g (95% CI, -126.8 to 20.2) and -0.2 cm (95% CI, -0.4 to 0.1), respectively (p size in a population where dietary DHA intakes are very low. Benefits of the intervention on infant health and neurodevelopment are under study.

  9. Reliability Analysis for Fatigue Long Crack Growth Component under Random Load%随机载荷下疲劳长裂纹扩展构件可靠性分析

    杨智; 董华玉; 黄松华


    Conventional methods have some insufficiencies for reliability analysis of fatigue long crack growth component.Assuming the load-range course was a stochastic process,the crack growth length and corresponding strength were obtained based on Paris formula.Then the dynamic reliability of component was obtained based on loading-strength interference model and implemented based on Monte Carlo simu-lation method.Finally an apply case was given assuming the loading process was Gamma process,which demonstrated the feasibility of the method.%对于随机载荷下疲劳长裂纹扩展构件可靠性分析,传统方法存在一些不足。在假设载荷加载历程服从某随机过程的情况下,利用Paris公式,得到了历次加载的裂纹扩展长度及相应的强度指标;然后利用载荷-强度干涉模型,得到了构件的动态可靠度,并基于蒙特卡罗仿真方法,介绍了其具体的实现过程;最后,在假设载荷加载历程服从Gamma过程情况下,通过应用实例验证了该方法的有效性。

  10. Analyzing indirect effects in cluster randomized trials. The effect of estimation method, number of groups and group sizes on accuracy and power.

    Joop eHox


    Full Text Available Cluster randomized trials assess the effect of an intervention that is carried out at the group or cluster level. Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour is often used to model the effect of the intervention as an indirect effect mediated in turn by attitude, norms and behavioural intention. Structural equation modelling (SEM is the technique of choice to estimate indirect effects and their significance. However, this is a large sample technique, and its application in a cluster randomized trial assumes a relatively large number of clusters. In practice, the number of clusters in these studies tends to be relatively small, e.g. much less than fifty. This study uses simulation methods to find the lowest number of clusters needed when multilevel SEM is used to estimate the indirect effect. Maximum likelihood estimation is compared to Bayesian analysis, with the central quality criteria being accuracy of the point estimate and the confidence interval. We also investigate the power of the test for the indirect effect. We conclude that Bayes estimation works well with much smaller cluster level sample sizes such as 20 cases than maximum likelihood estimation; although the bias is larger the coverage is much better. When only 5 to 10 clusters are available per treatment condition even with Bayesian estimation problems occur.

  11. Cracking-assisted fabrication of nanoscale patterns for micro/nanotechnological applications.

    Kim, Minseok; Kim, Dong-Joo; Ha, Dogyeong; Kim, Taesung


    Cracks are frequently observed in daily life, but they are rarely welcome and are considered as a material failure mode. Interestingly, cracks cause critical problems in various micro/nanofabrication processes such as colloidal assembly, thin film deposition, and even standard photolithography because they are hard to avoid or control. However, increasing attention has been given recently to control and use cracks as a facile, low-cost strategy for producing highly ordered nanopatterns. Specifically, cracking is the breakage of molecular bonds and occurs simultaneously over a large area, enabling fabrication of nanoscale patterns at both high resolution and high throughput, which are difficult to obtain simultaneously using conventional nanofabrication techniques. In this review, we discuss various cracking-assisted nanofabrication techniques, referred to as crack lithography, and summarize the fabrication principles, procedures, and characteristics of the crack patterns such as their position, direction, and dimensions. First, we categorize crack lithography techniques into three technical development levels according to the directional freedom of the crack patterns: randomly oriented, unidirectional, or multidirectional. Then, we describe a wide range of novel practical devices fabricated by crack lithography, including bioassay platforms, nanofluidic devices, nanowire sensors, and even biomimetic mechanosensors.

  12. Oil Price Forecasting Using Crack Spread Futures and Oil Exchange Traded Funds

    Hankyeung Choi


    Full Text Available Given the emerging consensus from previous studies that crude oil and refined product (as well as crack spread prices are cointegrated, this study examines the link between the crude oil spot and crack spread derivatives markets. Specifically, the usefulness of the two crack spread derivatives products (namely, crack spread futures and the ETF crack spread for modeling and forecasting daily OPEC crude oil spot prices is evaluated. Based on the results of a structural break test, the sample is divided into pre-crisis, crisis, and post-crisis periods. We find a unidirectional relationship from the two crack spread derivatives markets to the crude oil spot market during the post-crisis period. In terms of forecasting performance, the forecasting models based on crack spread futures and the ETF crack spread outperform the Random Walk Model (RWM, both in-sample and out-of-sample. In addition, on average, the results suggest that information from the ETF crack spread market contributes more to the forecasting models than information from the crack spread futures market.

  13. Cracking-assisted fabrication of nanoscale patterns for micro/nanotechnological applications

    Kim, Minseok; Kim, Dong-Joo; Ha, Dogyeong; Kim, Taesung


    Cracks are frequently observed in daily life, but they are rarely welcome and are considered as a material failure mode. Interestingly, cracks cause critical problems in various micro/nanofabrication processes such as colloidal assembly, thin film deposition, and even standard photolithography because they are hard to avoid or control. However, increasing attention has been given recently to control and use cracks as a facile, low-cost strategy for producing highly ordered nanopatterns. Specifically, cracking is the breakage of molecular bonds and occurs simultaneously over a large area, enabling fabrication of nanoscale patterns at both high resolution and high throughput, which are difficult to obtain simultaneously using conventional nanofabrication techniques. In this review, we discuss various cracking-assisted nanofabrication techniques, referred to as crack lithography, and summarize the fabrication principles, procedures, and characteristics of the crack patterns such as their position, direction, and dimensions. First, we categorize crack lithography techniques into three technical development levels according to the directional freedom of the crack patterns: randomly oriented, unidirectional, or multidirectional. Then, we describe a wide range of novel practical devices fabricated by crack lithography, including bioassay platforms, nanofluidic devices, nanowire sensors, and even biomimetic mechanosensors.

  14. Cracks in Polymer Spherulites: Phenomenological Mechanisms in Correlation with Ring Bands

    Eamor M. Woo


    Full Text Available This article reviews possible mechanisms of various crack forms and their likely correlations with interior crystal lamellae and discontinuous interfaces in spherulites. Complex yet periodically repetitive patterns of cracks in spherulites are beyond attributions via differences in thermal expansion coefficients, which would cause random and irregular cracks in the contract direction only. Cracks in brittle polymers such as poly(l-lactic acid (PLLA, or poly(4-hydroxyl butyrate (PHB, or more ductile polymers such as poly(trimethylene terephthalate (PTT are examined and illustrated, although for focus and demonstration, more discussions are spent on PLLA. The cracks can take many shapes that bear extremely striking similarity to the ring-band or lamellar patterns in the same spherulites. Crack patterns may differ significantly between the ring-banded and ringless spherulites, suggesting that the cracks may be partially shaped and governed by interfaces of lamellae and how the lamellar crystals assemble themselves in spherulites. Similarly, with some exceptions, most of the cracks patterns in PHB or PTT are also highly guided by the lamellar assembly in either ring-banded spherulites or ringless spherulites. Some exceptions of cracks in spherulites deviating from the apparent crystal birefringence patterns do exist; nevertheless, discontinuous interfaces in the initial lamellae neat the nuclei center might be hidden by top crystal over-layers of the spherulites, which might govern crack propagation.

  15. A consistent partly cracked XFEM element for cohesive crack growth

    Asferg, Jesper L.; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Nielsen, Leif Otto


    capable of modelling variations in the discontinuous displacement field on both sides of the crack and hence also capable of modelling the case where equal stresses are present on each side of the crack. The enrichment was implemented for the 3-node constant strain triangle (CST) and a standard algorithm...... was used to solve the non-linear equations. The performance of the element is illustrated by modelling fracture mechanical benchmark tests. Investigations were carried out on the performance of the element for different crack lengths within one element. The results are compared with previously obtained...

  16. Crack propagation through adhesive interface in glass driven by dynamic loading

    Park, Hwun

    spreading branched cracks increases in specimens having smaller width in dimension. The reflected waves from boundaries reaches cracks earlier because of the short traveling distance in the direction transverse to the cracks. These reflected waves interact with the crack and cause change of the branching shape. The fluctuation of stress intensity factors were observed with methods of caustics. A dark circular shadow at the ends of crack tips represents the stress intensity. The primary crack propagating early and carrying main load from the projectile can be switched if it stops at interface. Then, other cracks begin to receive the intensive load and are eventually extended to the second glass through the adhesive layer while other cracks still stay at the interface. The crack initiation, propagation and its interaction with interfaces were simulated with peridynamics. Peridynamics is a mathematical reformulation of continuum model by integrating pairwise penitential functions between two particles. These bond-based mechanics can represent discontinuity in peridynamics while traditional continuum mechanics cannot handle the discontinuity. The results from peridynamics show good agreements with experimental results in terms of the crack speeds and the branching shapes. Although the dimension of adhesive layers was not modeled exactly because of limitation of grid spacing, the resistance from interface to prevent crack propagation was shown in analogue with experimental results. The size of horizon where particle deformation and failure are computed, affect the interaction of cracks with interfaces.

  17. Assessment of cracks in lateral supports of the magnet system of Wendelstein 7-X

    Fellinger, Joris, E-mail: [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Bykov, Victor; Schauer, Felix [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)


    Highlights: ► Stress intensity factor comparison between analytical, FEM, XFEM and BEM methods. ► Evaluation of fatigue crack growth rate test data at 7 K on welded cast steel. ► Operational limits for Wendelstein 7-X w.r.t. crack growth in welded magnet system. -- Abstract: The superconducting coils of the magnet system of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) are bolted onto a central support ring and interconnected with five so-called lateral support elements (LSEs) per half module. After welding of the LSE hollow boxes to the coil cases cracks were found in the vicinity of the welds that could potentially limit the allowed number N of electromagnetic (EM) load cycles of the machine. In response to the appearance of first cracks during assembly, the stress intensity factor (SIF) of theoretical cracks of various sizes in potentially critical position and orientation were predicted in a fast approach. For each crack size, N was based on the SIF, derived from beam theory, and on Paris’ law parameters determined in fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) tests, thus leading to tolerable maximal crack sizes and distances between cracks. It was proved that the actual crack dimensions remained below these values or turned out to be only superficial. Afterwards, (extended) finite element method (XFEM and FEM) and boundary element method (BEM) models were developed to project the SIF of most critical tolerated cracks, considering new FCGR tests and the local stress state in more detail. N appeared highly sensitive to the assumptions which were therefore critically reviewed. Finally, the limit for load combinations of different amplitudes was determined using Miner's rule. As a result it was shown that the predefined number of W7-X operation cycles is not jeopardized by any of the detected cracks.

  18. Optimal production lot size and reorder point of a two-stage supply chain while random demand is sensitive with sales teams' initiatives

    Sankar Sana, Shib


    The paper develops a production-inventory model of a two-stage supply chain consisting of one manufacturer and one retailer to study production lot size/order quantity, reorder point sales teams' initiatives where demand of the end customers is dependent on random variable and sales teams' initiatives simultaneously. The manufacturer produces the order quantity of the retailer at one lot in which the procurement cost per unit quantity follows a realistic convex function of production lot size. In the chain, the cost of sales team's initiatives/promotion efforts and wholesale price of the manufacturer are negotiated at the points such that their optimum profits reached nearer to their target profits. This study suggests to the management of firms to determine the optimal order quantity/production quantity, reorder point and sales teams' initiatives/promotional effort in order to achieve their maximum profits. An analytical method is applied to determine the optimal values of the decision variables. Finally, numerical examples with its graphical presentation and sensitivity analysis of the key parameters are presented to illustrate more insights of the model.

  19. Biogenic Cracks in Porous Rock

    Hemmerle, A.; Hartung, J.; Hallatschek, O.; Goehring, L.; Herminghaus, S.


    Microorganisms growing on and inside porous rock may fracture it by various processes. Some of the mechanisms of biofouling and bioweathering are today identified and partially understood but most emphasis is on chemical weathering, while mechanical contributions have been neglected. However, as demonstrated by the perseverance of a seed germinating and cracking up a concrete block, the turgor pressure of living organisms can be very significant. Here, we present results of a systematic study of the effects of the mechanical forces of growing microbial populations on the weathering of porous media. We designed a model porous medium made of glass beads held together by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a curable polymer. The rheological properties of the porous medium, whose shape and size are tunable, can be controlled by the ratio of crosslinker to base used in the PDMS (see Fig. 1). Glass and PDMS being inert to most chemicals, we are able to focus on the mechanical processes of biodeterioration, excluding any chemical weathering. Inspired by recent measurements of the high pressure (~0.5 Mpa) exerted by a growing population of yeasts trapped in a microfluidic device, we show that yeast cells can be cultured homogeneously within porous medium until saturation of the porous space. We investigate then the effects of such an inner pressure on the mechanical properties of the sample. Using the same model system, we study also the complex interplay between biofilms and porous media. We focus in particular on the effects of pore size on the penetration of the biofilm within the porous sample, and on the resulting deformations of the matrix, opening new perspectives into the understanding of life in complex geometry. Figure 1. Left : cell culture growing in a model porous medium. The white spheres represent the grains, bonds are displayed in grey, and microbes in green. Right: microscopy picture of glass beads linked by PDMS bridges, scale bar: 100 μm.

  20. Fatigue crack propagation in self-assembling nanocomposites

    Klingler, Andreas; Wetzel, Bernd


    Self-assembling block-copolymers allow the easy manufacturing of nanocomposites due to the thermodynamically driven in situ formation of nanosized phases in thermosetting resins during the curing process. Complex mechanical dispersion processes can be avoided. The current study investigates the effect of a block-copolymer on the fatigue crack propagation resistance of a cycloaliphatic amine cured epoxy resin. It was found that a small amount of MAM triblock-copolymer significantly increases the resistance to fatigue crack propagation of epoxy. Crack growth rate and the Paris law exponent for fatigue-crack growth were considerably reduced from m=15.5 of the neat epoxy to m=8.1 of the nanocomposite. To identify the related reinforcing and fracture mechanisms structural analyses of the fractured surfaces were performed by scanning electron microscope. Characteristic features were identified to be deformation, debonding and fracture of the nano-phases as well as crack pinning. However, the highest resistance against fatigue crack propagation was achieved in a bi-continuous microstructure that consisted of an epoxy-rich phase with embedded submicron sized MAM inclusions, and which was surrounded by a block-copolymer-rich phase that showed rupture and plastic deformation.

  1. Influence of asphalt on fatigue crack monitoring in steel bridge decks using guided waves

    Pahlavan, P.L.; De Soares Silva e Melo Mota, M.; Blacquière, G.


    Asphalt materials generally exhibit temperature-dependent properties, which can influence the performance of fatigue crack inspection and monitoring systems for bridge deck structures. For a non-intrusive fatigue crack sizing methodology applied to steel decks using ultrasonic guided waves, the effe

  2. Influence of asphalt on fatigue crack monitoring in steel bridge decks using guided waves

    Pahlavan, P.L.; De Soares Silva e Melo Mota, M.; Blacquière, G.


    Asphalt materials generally exhibit temperature-dependent properties, which can influence the performance of fatigue crack inspection and monitoring systems for bridge deck structures. For a non-intrusive fatigue crack sizing methodology applied to steel decks using ultrasonic guided waves, the

  3. Performance of various modified binders in road trials and under simulated crack movement in the laboratory

    Rust, FC


    Full Text Available crack movement from a knowledge of block sizes and structural parameters such as basin of deflection and an example of this is shown. It is also shown that these models can be used to predict the decrease in crack movement due to the overlaying of a...

  4. Crack Length Detection by Digital Image Processing

    Lyngbye, Janus; Brincker, Rune


    It is described how digital image processing is used for measuring the length of fatigue cracks. The system is installed in a Personal Computer equipped with image processing hardware and performs automated measuring on plane metal specimens used in fatigue testing. Normally one can not achieve...... a resolution better then that of the image processing equipment. To overcome this problem an extrapolation technique is used resulting in a better resolution. The system was tested on a specimen loaded with different loads. The error σa was less than 0.031 mm, which is of the same size as human measuring...

  5. Crack Detection by Digital Image Processing

    Lyngbye, Janus; Brincker, Rune

    It is described how digital image processing is used for measuring the length of fatigue cracks. The system is installed in a Personal, Computer equipped with image processing hardware and performs automated measuring on plane metal specimens used in fatigue testing. Normally one can not achieve...... a resolution better than that of the image processing equipment. To overcome this problem an extrapolation technique is used resulting in a better resolution. The system was tested on a specimen loaded with different loads. The error σa was less than 0.031 mm, which is of the same size as human measuring...

  6. Probabilistic Analysis of Crack Width

    J. Marková


    Full Text Available Probabilistic analysis of crack width of a reinforced concrete element is based on the formulas accepted in Eurocode 2 and European Model Code 90. Obtained values of reliability index b seem to be satisfactory for the reinforced concrete slab that fulfils requirements for the crack width specified in Eurocode 2. However, the reliability of the slab seems to be insufficient when the European Model Code 90 is considered; reliability index is less than recommended value 1.5 for serviceability limit states indicated in Eurocode 1. Analysis of sensitivity factors of basic variables enables to find out variables significantly affecting the total crack width.

  7. Analysis of Crack Arrest Toughness.


    vload(m) vp tn(m) Vertical Source Load (kN) on wedge HY80 Finite Element 0.0122 0.0099 3.81x10 -4 144 Steel Calculations Experiment 0.0122 --- 3.74x10-4...curve, are bona fide measures of the fracture arrest capability of tough ductile steels . The second is that the J-values represent the crack driving...fibrous mode of crack extension. (b) A new test method for studying fast fracture and arrest in tough steels . (c) Measurements of fast fracture and crack

  8. A computational algorithm for crack determination: The multiple crack case

    Bryan, Kurt; Vogelius, Michael


    An algorithm for recovering a collection of linear cracks in a homogeneous electrical conductor from boundary measurements of voltages induced by specified current fluxes is developed. The technique is a variation of Newton's method and is based on taking weighted averages of the boundary data. The method also adaptively changes the applied current flux at each iteration to maintain maximum sensitivity to the estimated locations of the cracks.

  9. A method for detecting crack wave arrival time and crack localization in a tunnel by using moving window technique

    Choi, Young Chul; Park, Tae Jin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Source localization in a dispersive medium has been carried out based on the time-of-arrival-differences (TOADs) method: a triangulation method and a circle intersection technique. Recent signal processing advances have led to calculation TOAD using a joint time-frequency analysis of the signal, where a short-time Fourier transform(STFT) and wavelet transform can be included as popular algorithms. The time-frequency analysis method is able to provide various information and more reliable results such as seismic-attenuation estimation, dispersive characteristics, a wave mode analysis, and temporal energy distribution of signals compared with previous methods. These algorithms, however, have their own limitations for signal processing. In this paper, the effective use of proposed algorithm in detecting crack wave arrival time and source localization in rock masses suggest that the evaluation and real-time monitoring on the intensity of damages related to the tunnels or other underground facilities is possible. Calculation of variances resulted from moving windows as a function of their size differentiates the signature from noise and from crack signal, which lead us to determine the crack wave arrival time. Then, the source localization is determined to be where the variance of crack wave velocities from real and virtual crack localization becomes a minimum. To validate our algorithm, we have performed experiments at the tunnel, which resulted in successful determination of the wave arrival time and crack localization.

  10. Characterization of a soft elastomeric capacitive strain sensor for fatigue crack monitoring

    Kong, Xiangxiong; Li, Jian; Laflamme, Simon; Bennett, Caroline; Matamoros, Adolfo


    Fatigue cracks have been one of the major factors for the deterioration of steel bridges. In order to maintain structural integrity, monitoring fatigue crack activities such as crack initiation and propagation is critical to prevent catastrophic failure of steel bridges due to the accumulation of fatigue damage. Measuring the strain change under cracking is an effective way of monitoring fatigue cracks. However, traditional strain sensors such as metal foil gauges are not able to capture crack development due to their small size, limited measurement range, and high failure rate under harsh environmental conditions. Recently, a newly developed soft elastomeric capacitive sensor has great promise to overcome these limitations. In this paper, crack detection capability of the capacitive sensor is demonstrated through Finite Element (FE) analysis. A nonlinear FE model of a standard ASTM compact tension specimen is created which is calibrated to experimental data to simulate its response under fatigue loading, with the goal to 1) depict the strain distribution of the specimen under the large area covered by the capacitive sensor due to cracking; 2) characterize the relationship between capacitance change and crack width; 3) quantify the minimum required resolution of data acquisition system for detecting the fatigue cracks. The minimum resolution serves as a basis for the development of a dedicated wireless data acquisition system for the capacitive strain sensor.

  11. Study on stress intensity factors for crack on involute spur gear tooth

    Jian Cai


    Full Text Available Investigating the stress intensity factors has a great importance to predict the fatigue damage for the involute spur gears. The aim of this article is to reveal the variation laws of stress intensity factors for crack on the involute spur gear tooth. For this purpose, a three-dimensional finite element model for calculating the stress intensity factors of the involute spur gear containing a surface crack is established using the finite element code ABAQUS. Based on the established three-dimensional finite element model, the influences of several parameters, such as torque, friction coefficient, crack depth, crack initial location, and crack size, on mode I, mode II, and mode III stress intensity factors are investigated numerically. The results of the study provide valuable guidelines for enhanced understanding of stress intensity factors for the crack on the involute spur gear tooth.

  12. Statistical estimation of service cracks and maintenance cost for aircraft structures

    Yang, J.-N.


    A method is developed for the statistical estimation of the number of cracks to be repaired in service as well as the repair and the maintenance costs. The present approach accounts for the statistical distribution of the initial crack size, the statistical nature of the NDI technique used for detecting the crack, and the renewal process for the crack propagation of repaired cracks. The mean and the standard deviation of the cumulative number of cracks to be repaired are computed as a function of service time. The statistics of the costs of repair and maintenance, expressed in terms of the percentage of the cost of replacement, are estimated as a function of service time. The results of the present study provide relevant information for the decision of fleet management, the estimation of life cycle cost, and procurement specifications. The present study is essential to the design and cost optimization of aircraft structures.

  13. Control of serpentinisation rate by reaction-induced cracking

    Malvoisin, Benjamin; Brantut, Nicolas; Kaczmarek, Mary-Alix


    Serpentinisation of mantle rocks requires the generation and maintenance of transport pathways for water. The solid volume increase during serpentinisation can lead to stress build-up and trigger cracking, which ease fluid penetration into the rock. The quantitative effect of this reaction-induced cracking mechanism on reactive surface generation is poorly constrained, thus hampering our ability to predict serpentinisation rate in geological environments. Here we use a combined approach with numerical modelling and observations in natural samples to provide estimates of serpentinisation rate at mid-ocean ridges. We develop a micromechanical model to quantify the propagation of serpentinisation-induced cracks in olivine. The maximum crystallisation pressure deduced from thermodynamic calculations reaches several hundreds of megapascals but does not necessary lead to crack propagation if the olivine grain is subjected to high compressive stresses. The micromechanical model is then coupled to a simple geometrical model to predict reactive surface area formation during grain splitting, and thus bulk reaction rate. Our model reproduces quantitatively experimental kinetic data and the typical mesh texture formed during serpentinisation. We also compare the model results with olivine grain size distribution data obtained on natural serpentinised peridotites from the Marum ophiolite and the Papuan ultramafic belt (Papua New Guinea). The natural serpentinised peridotites show an increase of the number of olivine grains for a decrease of the mean grain size by one order of magnitude as reaction progresses from 5 to 40%. These results are in agreement with our model predictions, suggesting that reaction-induced cracking controls the serpentinisation rate. We use our model to estimate that, at mid-ocean ridges, serpentinisation occurs up to 12 km depth and reaction-induced cracking reduces the characteristic time of serpentinisation by one order of magnitude, down to values

  14. Detection of Cracks in Concrete Structure Using Microwave Imaging Technique

    E. A. Jiya


    Full Text Available Cracks in concrete or cement based materials present a great threat to any civil structures; they are very dangerous and have caused a lot of destruction and damage. Even small cracks that look insignificant can grow and may eventually lead to severe structural failure. Besides manual inspection that is ineffective and time-consuming, several nondestructive evaluation techniques have been used for crack detection such as ultrasonic technique, vibration technique, and strain-based technique; however, some of the sensors used are either too large in size or limited in resolution. A high resolution microwave imaging technique with ultrawideband signal for crack detection in concrete structures is proposed. A combination of the delay-and-sum beamformer with full-view mounted antennas constitutes the image reconstruction algorithm. Various anomaly scenarios in cement bricks were simulated using FDTD, constructed, and measured in the lab. The reconstructed images showed a high similarity between the simulation and the experiment with a resolution of λ/14 which enables a detection of cracks as small as 5 mm in size.

  15. Cracks in Utopia


    Many of the craters found on the northern plains of Mars have been partly filled or buried by some material (possibly sediment). The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image presented here (MOC2-136b, above left) shows a high-resolution view of a tiny portion of the floor of one of these northern plains craters. The crater, located in Utopia Planitia at 44oN, 258oW, is shown on the right (MOC2-136a)with a small white box to indicate the location of the MOC image. The MOC image reveals that the material covering the floor of this crater is cracked and pitted. The origin and source of material that has been deposited in this crater is unknown.The MOC image was acquired in June 1999 and covers an area only 1.1 kilometers (0.7 miles) wide at a resolution of 1.8 meters (6 feet) per pixel. The context picture is a mosaic of Viking 2 orbiter images 010B53 and 010B55, taken in 1976. Both images are illuminated from the left. Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  16. Peridynamic model for fatigue cracking.

    Silling, Stewart Andrew; Abe Askari (Boeing)


    The peridynamic theory is an extension of traditional solid mechanics in which the field equations can be applied on discontinuities, such as growing cracks. This paper proposes a bond damage model within peridynamics to treat the nucleation and growth of cracks due to cyclic loading. Bond damage occurs according to the evolution of a variable called the "remaining life" of each bond that changes over time according to the cyclic strain in the bond. It is shown that the model reproduces the main features of S-N data for typical materials and also reproduces the Paris law for fatigue crack growth. Extensions of the model account for the effects of loading spectrum, fatigue limit, and variable load ratio. A three-dimensional example illustrates the nucleation and growth of a helical fatigue crack in the torsion of an aluminum alloy rod.

  17. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by...

  18. The crack growth mechanism in asphaltic mixes

    Jacobs, .M.M.J.; Hopman, P.C.; Molenaar, A.A.A.


    The crack growth mechanism in asphalt concrete (Ac) mixes is studied. In cyclic tests on several asphaltic mixes crack growth is measured, both with crack foils and with cOD-gauges. It is found that crack growth in asphaltic mixes is described by three processes which are parallel in time: cohesive

  19. Fiber Sensing of Micro -Crack


    Optical fiber sensors are used for sensing micro-cracking in composite and metal materials in aerospace applications. The sensing mechanism is based on the detection of acoustic emission signals, which are known to emanate from micro-cracks when they grow under further loading. The sensor head consists of a fiber Bragg grating that is capable of detecting acoustic emission signals generated by pencil lead breaking, of frequencies up to 200 kHz.

  20. Scaling properties of crack branching and brittle fragmentation

    Uvarov S.


    Full Text Available The present study is focused on the correlation of scaling properties of crack branching and brittle fragmentation with damage accumulation and a change in the fracture mechanism. The experimental results obtained from the glass fragmentation tests indicate that the size distribution of fragments has a fractal character and is described by a power law.

  1. On crack initiation in notched, cross-plied polymer matrix composites

    Yang, Q. D.; Schesser, D.; Niess, M.; Wright, P.; Mavrogordato, M. N.; Sinclair, I.; Spearing, S. M.; Cox, B. N.


    The physics of crack initiation in a polymer matrix composite are investigated by varying the modeling choices made in simulations and comparing the resulting predictions with high-resolution in situ images of cracks. Experimental data were acquired using synchrotron-radiation computed tomography (SRCT) at a resolution on the order of 1 μm, which provides detailed measurement of the location, shape, and size of small cracks, as well as the crack opening and shear displacements. These data prove sufficient to discriminate among competing physical descriptions of crack initiation. Simulations are executed with a high-fidelity formulation, the augmented finite element method (A-FEM), which permits consideration of coupled damage mechanisms, including both discrete cracks and fine-scale continuum damage. The discrete cracks are assumed to be nonlinear fracture events, governed by reasonably general mixed-mode cohesive laws. Crack initiation is described in terms of strength parameters within the cohesive laws, so that the cohesive law provides a unified model for crack initiation and growth. Whereas the cracks investigated are typically 1 mm or less in length, the fine-scale continuum damage refers to irreversible matrix deformation occurring over gauge lengths extending down to the fiber diameter (0.007 mm). We find that the location and far-field stress for crack initiation are predicted accurately only if the variations of local stress within plies and in the presence of stress concentrators (notches, etc.) are explicitly computed and used in initiation criteria; stress redistribution due to matrix nonlinearity that occurs prior to crack initiation is accounted for; and a mixed-mode criterion is used for crack initiation. If these factors are not all considered, which is the case for commonly used failure criteria, predictions of the location and far-field stress for initiation are not accurate.

  2. Snow instability evaluation in skier-triggered snow slab avalanches: combining failure initiation and crack propagation

    Gaume, Johan; Reuter, Benjamin


    Dry-snow slab avalanches start with a local failure in a weak snowpack layer buried below cohesive snow slab layers. If the size of the failed zone exceeds a critical size, rapid crack propagation occurs possibly followed by slab release if the slope is steep enough. The probability of skier-triggering a slab avalanche is generally characterized by classical stability indices that do not account for crack propagation. In this study, we propose a new model to evaluate the conditions for the onset of crack propagation in skier-triggered slab avalanches. For a given weak layer, the critical crack length characterizing crack propagation propensity was compared to the size of the area where the skier-induced stress exceeds the shear strength of the weak layer. The ratio between both length scales yields a stability criterion combining the processes of failure initiation and crack propagation. The critical crack length was calculated from a recently developed model based on numerical simulations. The skier-induced stress was computed from analytical solutions and finite element simulations to account for slab layering. A detailed sensitivity analysis was performed for simplified snow profiles to characterize the influence of snowpack properties and slab layering on crack propagation propensity. Finally, we applied our approach for manually observed snow profiles and compared our results to rutschblock stability tests.

  3. Engineering the crack path by controlling the microstructure

    Srivastava, A.; Osovski, S.; Needleman, A.


    We explore the possibility of engineering the crack path by controlling a material's microstructure in order to increase its crack growth resistance. Attention is confined to a specific type of microstructure that is encountered in a variety of structural metals and alloys - second phase particles distributed in a ductile matrix. The type of controlled microstructure modeled is characterized by various sinusoidal distributions of particles with fixed mean particle spacing. Three dimensional, finite deformation small scale yielding calculations of mode I crack growth are carried out for such controlled microstructures using an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a progressively cavitating solid. The results show that appropriately engineered sinusoidal distributions of particles can give fracture toughness values 2 to 3 times greater than a random distribution of particles with the same mean particle spacing. Tearing modulus values can be increased by a factor of 1.5 to 2. The greatest crack growth resistance generally occurs when the amplitude and the wavelength of the sinusoidal distribution are increased together. When the amplitude and the wavelength of the sinusoidal distribution do not increase together the crack can jump from one crest (or trough) to the next crest (or trough) which tends to reduce the crack growth resistance. Fracture surface roughness statistics are also calculated. In contrast to the essentially universal value for random distributions of particles, the value of the computed Hurst exponent is found to depend on the amplitude and the wavelength of the sinusoidal profile. A correlation is found between the computed fracture toughness values and values of characteristic length scales of the fracture surface roughness.

  4. Efficient numerical methods for the random-field Ising model: Finite-size scaling, reweighting extrapolation, and computation of response functions.

    Fytas, Nikolaos G; Martín-Mayor, Víctor


    It was recently shown [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 227201 (2013)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.110.227201] that the critical behavior of the random-field Ising model in three dimensions is ruled by a single universality class. This conclusion was reached only after a proper taming of the large scaling corrections of the model by applying a combined approach of various techniques, coming from the zero- and positive-temperature toolboxes of statistical physics. In the present contribution we provide a detailed description of this combined scheme, explaining in detail the zero-temperature numerical scheme and developing the generalized fluctuation-dissipation formula that allowed us to compute connected and disconnected correlation functions of the model. We discuss the error evolution of our method and we illustrate the infinite limit-size extrapolation of several observables within phenomenological renormalization. We present an extension of the quotients method that allows us to obtain estimates of the critical exponent α of the specific heat of the model via the scaling of the bond energy and we discuss the self-averaging properties of the system and the algorithmic aspects of the maximum-flow algorithm used.

  5. Scaling relationships between sizes of nucleation regions and eventual sizes of microearthquakes

    Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Furumoto, Muneyoshi


    We investigate the initial rupture process of microearthquakes to reveal relationships between nucleation region sizes and eventual earthquake sizes. In order to obtain high quality waveform data, we installed a trigger recording system with a sampling frequency of 10 kHz at the base of a deep borehole at the Nojima Fault, Japan. We analyze waveform data of 31 events around the borehole, with seismic moment ranging from 4.2 × 10 9 Nm to 7.1 × 10 11 Nm. We use both a circular crack model with an accelerating rupture velocity (SK model) [Sato, T., Kanamori, H., 1999. Beginning of earthquakes modeled with the Griffith's fracture criterion, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 89, 80-93.], which generates a slow initial phase of velocity pulse, and a circular crack model with a constant rupture velocity (SH model) [Sato, T, Hirasawa, T., 1973. Body wave spectra from propagating shear cracks, J. Phys. Earth, 21, 415-431.], which generates a ramp-like velocity pulse. Source parameters of these two models are estimated by waveform inversion of the first half cycle of the observed velocity pulse applying both a grid search and a non-linear least squares method. 14 of 31 events are never reproduced by the SH model with a constant Q operator. But SK model with a constant Q operator provides a size of the pre-existing crack, corresponding to the size of the nucleation regions, and a size of the eventual crack. We recognize that (i) the eventual seismic moment is approximately scaled as the cube of the size of pre-existing cracks, (ii) the eventual seismic moment is scaled as the cube of the size of eventual cracks, and (iii) the size of eventual cracks is roughly proportional to the size of pre-existing cracks. We, thus, conclude that the size of eventual earthquakes is controlled by the size of the nucleation regions.

  6. Modal Analysis for Crack Detection in Small Wind Turbine Blades

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Skov, Jonas falk; Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens


    The aim of the present paper is to evaluate structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques based on modal analysis for crack detection in small wind turbine blades. A finite element (FE) model calibrated to measured modal parameters will be introduced to cracks with different sizes along one edge...... of the blade. Changes in modal parameters from the FE model are compared with data obtained from experimental tests. These comparisons will be used to validate the FE model and subsequently discuss the usability of SHM techniques based on modal parameters for condition monitoring of wind turbine blades....

  7. Fracture resistance on aggregate bridging crack in concrete

    ZHANG Xiufang; XU Shilang


    Fracture toughening exhibited in quasi-brittle materials such as concrete is often mainly related to the action of aggregate bridging,which leads to the presence of a fracture process zone ahead of stress-free cracks in such materials.In this investigation,the fracture resistance induced by aggregate bridging,denoted by GI-bridging,is the primary focus.In order to quantitatively determine it,a general analytical formula is firstly developed,based on the definition of fracture energy by Hillerborg.After this,we further present the calculated procedures of determining this fracture resistance from the recorded load vs.crack opening displacement curve.Then,both numerical simulations and fracture experiments are performed on concrete three-point bending beams.Utilizing the obtained load against crack opening displacement curve,the value of GI-bridging at any crack extension as well as the change of GI-bridging with the crack extension is examined.It is found that GI-bridging will firstly increase with the development of crack and then stay constant once the initial crack tip opening displacement reaches the characteristic crack opening displacement w0.The effects of material strength and specimen depth on this fracture resistance are also investigated.The results reveal that the values of GI-bridging of different specimens at any crack propagation are strongly associated with the values of fracture energy of specimens.If the values of fracture energy between different specimens are comparable,the differences between GI-bridging are ignored.Instead,if values of fracture energy are different,the GI-bridging will be different.This shows that for specimens with different strengths,GI-bridging will change greatly whereas for specimens that are different in depth,whether GI-bridging exhibits size effect depends on whether the fracture energy of specimens considered in the calculation of GI-bridging is assumed to be a size-dependent material parameter.

  8. The Characterization of Crack-Like Defects Using Ultrasonic Images

    Zhang, J.; Velichko, A.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Wilcox, P. D.


    The use of ultrasonic arrays to image and size crack-like defects is an important area in non-destructive evaluation. The features in the ultrasonic data from a crack-like defect provide information about the size and orientation angle of the defect. In this paper, the characteristics of a crack-like defect were measured from its scattering coefficient matrix, when the angular coverage of measurement includes the specular regions of its scattering matrix. Alternatively, the imaged features for a large crack-like defect (its length more than two wavelengths) were directly used to characterize the defect through a rectangular box fitting approach. An efficient hybrid model was used to generate the full matrix of array data from samples with a defect and for a specified inspection configuration. This hybrid model combines far-field scattering coefficient matrix for defects with a ray based forward model. This model offers the potential to compile a look-up table through which defects can be classified and then sized. Good agreement was achieved between simulation and experimental results hence validating this model based approach.

  9. Residual stress in glass: indentation crack and fractography approaches.

    Anunmana, Chuchai; Anusavice, Kenneth J; Mecholsky, John J


    To test the hypothesis that the indentation crack technique can determine surface residual stresses that are not statistically significantly different from those determined from the analytical procedure using surface cracks, the four-point flexure test, and fracture surface analysis. Soda-lime-silica glass bar specimens (4 mm x 2.3 mm x 28 mm) were prepared and annealed at 650 degrees C for 30 min before testing. The fracture toughness values of the glass bars were determined from 12 specimens based on induced surface cracks, four-point flexure, and fractographic analysis. To determine the residual stress from the indentation technique, 18 specimens were indented under 19.6N load using a Vickers microhardness indenter. Crack lengths were measured within 1 min and 24h after indentation, and the measured crack lengths were compared with the mean crack lengths of annealed specimens. Residual stress was calculated from an equation developed for the indentation technique. All specimens were fractured in a four-point flexure fixture and the residual stress was calculated from the strength and measured crack sizes on the fracture surfaces. The results show that there was no significant difference between the residual stresses calculated from the two techniques. However, the differences in mean residual stresses calculated within 1 min compared with those calculated after 24h were statistically significant (p=0.003). This study compared the indentation technique with the fractographic analysis method for determining the residual stress in the surface of soda-lime-silica glass. The indentation method may be useful for estimating residual stress in glass.

  10. Edge Effect on Crack Patterns in Thermally Sprayed Ceramic Splats

    Chen, Lin; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu


    To explore the edge effect on intrasplat cracking of thermally sprayed ceramic splats, crack patterns of splats were experimentally observed and investigated through mechanical analysis. Both the polycrystalline splats and single-crystal splats showed obvious edge effects, i.e., preferential cracking orientation and differences in domain size between center fragments and edge fragments. In addition, substrate/interface delamination on the periphery was clearly observed for single-crystal splats. Mechanical analysis of edge effect was also carried out, and it was found that both singular normal stress in the substrate and huge peeling stress and shear stress at the interface were induced. Moreover, effective relief of tensile stress in splats is discussed. The good correspondence between experimental observations and mechanical analysis is elaborated. The edge effect can be used to tailor the pattern morphology and shed further light on coating structure design and optimization.

  11. Stochastic modeling of thermal fatigue crack growth

    Radu, Vasile


    The book describes a systematic stochastic modeling approach for assessing thermal-fatigue crack-growth in mixing tees, based on the power spectral density of temperature fluctuation at the inner pipe surface. It shows the development of a frequency-temperature response function in the framework of single-input, single-output (SISO) methodology from random noise/signal theory under sinusoidal input. The frequency response of stress intensity factor (SIF) is obtained by a polynomial fitting procedure of thermal stress profiles at various instants of time. The method, which takes into account the variability of material properties, and has been implemented in a real-world application, estimates the probabilities of failure by considering a limit state function and Monte Carlo analysis, which are based on the proposed stochastic model. Written in a comprehensive and accessible style, this book presents a new and effective method for assessing thermal fatigue crack, and it is intended as a concise and practice-or...

  12. Standard test method for measurement of creep crack growth times in metals

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers the determination of creep crack growth (CCG) in metals at elevated temperatures using pre-cracked specimens subjected to static or quasi-static loading conditions. The time (CCI), t0.2 to an initial crack extension δai = 0.2 mm from the onset of first applied force and creep crack growth rate, ˙a or da/dt is expressed in terms of the magnitude of creep crack growth relating parameters, C* or K. With C* defined as the steady state determination of the crack tip stresses derived in principal from C*(t) and Ct (1-14). The crack growth derived in this manner is identified as a material property which can be used in modeling and life assessment methods (15-25). 1.1.1 The choice of the crack growth correlating parameter C*, C*(t), Ct, or K depends on the material creep properties, geometry and size of the specimen. Two types of material behavior are generally observed during creep crack growth tests; creep-ductile (1-14) and creep-brittle (26-37). In creep ductile materials, where cr...

  13. Fatigue crack growth behavior of the simulated HAZ of 800 MPa grade high-performance steel

    Kim, Sanghoon [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Donghwan; Kim, Tae-Won [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jongkwan [Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, 75-9, Youngcheon, Dongtan, Hwaseong, Gyeonggi-do 445-813 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Changhee, E-mail: [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)


    Research highlights: {yields} Fatigue crack resistances of HSB800 base steel and HAZs: Base steel > FGHAZ > CGHAZ > ICCGHAZ. {yields} In the case of ICCGHAZ, fatigue cracks are rapidly initiated and propagated through massive M-A constituents. {yields} Fatigue crack growth rate of CGHAZ was faster than that of FGHAZ, mainly due to the coarsened prior austenite grain and martensite packet. - Abstract: The present study focuses on the fatigue properties in the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) of 800 MPa grade high-performance steel, which is commonly used in bridges and buildings. Single- and multi-pass HAZs were simulated by the Gleeble system. Fatigue properties were estimated using a crack propagation test under a 0.3 stress ratio and 0.1 load frequencies. The microstructures and fracture surfaces were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the crack propagation test showed that the fatigue crack growth rate of coarse-grained HAZ (CGHAZ) was faster than fine-grained HAZ (FGHAZ), although both regions have identical fully martensite microstructures, because FGHAZ has smaller prior austenite grain and martensite packet sizes, which can act as effective barriers to crack propagation. The fatigue crack growth rate of intercritically reheated CGHAZ (ICCGHAZ) was the fastest among local zones in the HAZ, due to rapid crack initiation and propagation via the massive martensite-austenite (M-A) constituent.


    Z.X.Wu; X.C.Wu


    The progressive fatigue damage of a material is closely related to the whole populationof cracks on the surface of an un-notched specimen.In order to understand whichparameter is a more useful indicator of fatigue damage,rotatory bending fatigue testswere carried out using smooth specimens of medium-carbon steel.The behavior ofshort crack propagation during fatigue was examined and a new parameter "totalcrack area" was suggested.The aim of this paper is to extend the research on fatiguedamage in the already studied steel and to study how these damage parameters arecorrelated with the process of fatigue damage in order to evaluate the effectiveness ofdamage detection methods.

  15. Thresholds of time dependent intergranular crack growth in a nickel disc alloy Alloy 720Li

    Li Hangyue


    Full Text Available At high temperatures in air, introducing a dwell period at the peak stress of fatigue cycles promotes time dependent intergranular crack growth which can increase crack growth rates by upto a few orders of magnitude from the rates of transgranular fatigue crack growth in superalloys. It is expected that time dependent intergranular crack growth in nickel-based superalloys may not occur below a critical mechanical driving force, ΔKth−IG, analogous to a fatigue threshold (ΔKth and a critical temperature, Tth. In this study, dwell fatigue crack growth tests have been carefully designed and conducted on Alloy 720Li to examine such thresholds. Unlike a fatigue threshold, the threshold stress intensity factor range for intergranular crack growth is observed to be highly sensitive to microstructure, dwell time and test procedure. The near threshold crack growth behaviour is made complex by the interactions between grain boundary oxidation embrittlement and crack tip stress relaxation. In general, lower ΔKth−IG values are associated with finer grain size and/or shorter dwell times. Often a load increasing procedure promotes stress relaxation and tends to lead to higher ΔKth−IG. When there is limited stress relaxation at the crack tip, similar ΔKth−IG values are measured with load increasing and load shedding procedures. They are generally higher than the fatigue threshold (ΔKth despite faster crack growth rates (da/dN in the stable crack growth regime. Time dependent intergranular crack growth cannot be activated below a temperature of 500 ∘C.

  16. Crack Detection in Single-Crystalline Silicon Wafer Using Laser Generated Lamb Wave

    Min-Kyoo Song


    Full Text Available In the semiconductor industry, with increasing requirements for high performance, high capacity, high reliability, and compact components, the crack has been one of the most critical issues in accordance with the growing requirement of the wafer-thinning in recent years. Previous researchers presented the crack detection on the silicon wafers with the air-coupled ultrasonic method successfully. However, the high impedance mismatching will be the problem in the industrial field. In this paper, in order to detect the crack, we propose a laser generated Lamb wave method which is not only noncontact, but also reliable for the measurement. The laser-ultrasonic generator and the laser-interferometer are used as a transmitter and a receiver, respectively. We firstly verified the identification of S0 and A0 lamb wave modes and then conducted the crack detection under the thermoelastic regime. The experimental results showed that S0 and A0 modes of lamb wave were clearly generated and detected, and in the case of the crack detection, the estimated crack size by 6 dB drop method was almost equal to the actual crack size. So, the proposed method is expected to make it possible to detect the crack in the silicon wafer in the industrial fields.

  17. Nanomechanical modeling of a (100)[001] crack in a single crystal bcc iron cantilever beam

    Skogsrud, Jørn; Jørum, Marie; Thaulow, Christian


    An atomistic model of a fully 3D, nano-sized, pre-cracked cantilever beam has been made and MD simulations have been performed to deflect the beam and initiate crack growth. The crucial process zone in front of the crack has been investigated with respect to linear elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics and plastic deformation mechanisms such as dislocations and twinning. The effect of crack geometry and loading rate has been studied. Two crack geometries were compared, one atomically sharp and one blunted. The sharper crack was shown to lead to a cleaner crack extension on (110)-planes, while the rounded crack showed extension along the initial (100)-plane in accordance with experiments on micro-sized 3 wt% Si α-Fe cantilevers. The effect of strain rate was also investigated, and it was found that lower strain rate correlated better with experimental observations. However, the strain rate used is still several magnitudes higher than for experiments, limiting the usefulness of strain rate observations for predicting behavior in experiments. A brief post-deformation comparison between simulations and SEM-images of focused ion beam-fabricated micro-cantilevers was also done, showing possible signs of similar deformation mechanisms and dislocation systems between them.

  18. Simulating the effect of slab features on vapor intrusion of crack entry.

    Yao, Yijun; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M


    In vapor intrusion screening models, a most widely employed assumption in simulating the entry of contaminant into a building is that of a crack in the building foundation slab. Some modelers employed a perimeter crack hypothesis while others chose not to identify the crack type. However, few studies have systematically investigated the influence on vapor intrusion predictions of slab crack features, such as the shape and distribution of slab cracks and related to this overall building foundation footprint size. In this paper, predictions from a three-dimensional model of vapor intrusion are used to compare the contaminant mass flow rates into buildings with different foundation slab crack features. The simulations show that the contaminant mass flow rate into the building does not change much for different assumed slab crack shapes and locations, and the foundation footprint size does not play a significant role in determining contaminant mass flow rate through a unit area of crack. Moreover, the simulation helped reveal the distribution of subslab contaminant soil vapor concentration beneath the foundation, and the results suggest that in most cases involving no biodegradation, the variation in subslab concentration should not exceed an order of magnitude, and is often significantly less than this.

  19. Quantitative assessment of similarity between randomly acquired characteristics on high quality exemplars and crime scene impressions via analysis of feature size and shape.

    Richetelli, Nicole; Nobel, Madonna; Bodziak, William J; Speir, Jacqueline A


    Forensic footwear evidence can prove invaluable to the resolution of a criminal investigation. Naturally, the value of a comparison varies with the rarity of the evidence, which is a function of both manufactured as well as randomly acquired characteristics (RACs). When focused specifically on the latter of these two types of features, empirical evidence demonstrates high discriminating power for the differentiation of known match and known non-match samples when presented with exemplars of high quality and exhibiting a sufficient number of clear and complex RACs. However, given the dynamic and unpredictable nature of the media, substrate, and deposition process encountered during the commission of a crime, RACs on crime scene prints are expected to exhibit a large range of variability in terms of reproducibility, clarity, and quality. Although the pattern recognition skill of the expert examiner is adept at recognizing and evaluating this type of natural variation, there is little research to suggest that objective and numerical metrics can globally process this variation when presented with RACs from degraded crime scene quality prints. As such, the goal of this study was to mathematically compare the loss and similarity of RACs in high quality exemplars versus crime-scene-like quality impressions as a function of RAC shape, perimeter, area, and common source. Results indicate that the unpredictable conditions associated with crime scene print production promotes RAC loss that varies between 33% and 100% with an average of 85%, and that when the entire outsole is taken as a constellation of features (or a RAC map), 64% of the crime-scene-like impressions exhibited 10 or fewer RACs, resulting in a 0.72 probability of stochastic dominance. Given this, individual RAC description and correspondence were further explored using five simple, but objective, numerical metrics of similarity. Statistically significant differences in similarity scores for RAC shape and size


    邹剑; 陈进; 蒲亚鹏


    The dynamic equation of cracked rotor in rotational frame was modelled, the numerical simulation solutions of the cracked rotor and the uncracked rotor were obtained. By the wavelet transform, the time-frequency properties of the cracked rotor and the uncracked rotor were discussed, the difference of the time-frequency properties between the cracked rotor and the uncracked rotor was compared. A new detection algorithm using wavelet transform to identify crack was proposed. The experiments verify the availability and validity of the wavelet transform in identification of crack.

  1. Review of Environmentally Assisted Cracking

    Sadananda, K.; Vasudevan, A. K.


    Many efforts have been made in the past by several researchers to arrive at some unifying principles governing the embrittlement phenomena. An inescapable conclusion reached by all these efforts was that the behavior is very complex. Hence, recognizing the complexity of material/environment behavior, we focus our attention here only in extracting some similarities in the experimental trends to arrive at some generic principles of behavior. Crack nucleation and growth are examined under static load in the presence of internal and external environments. Stress concentration, either pre-existing or in-situ generated, appears to be a requirement for embrittlement. A chemical stress concentration factor is defined for a given material/environment system as the ratio of failure stress with and without the damaging chemical environment. All factors that affect the buildup of the required stress concentration, such as planarity of slip, stacking fault energy, etc., also affect the stress-corrosion behavior. The chemical stress concentration factor is coupled with the mechanical stress concentration factor. In addition, generic features for all systems appear to be (a) an existence of a threshold stress as a function of concentration of the damaging environment and flow properties of the material, and (b) an existence of a limiting threshold as a function of concentration, indicative of a damage saturation for that environment. Kinetics of crack growth also depends on concentration and the mode of crack growth. In general, environment appears to enhance crack tip ductility on one side by the reduction of energy for dislocation nucleation and glide, and to reduce cohesive energy for cleavage, on the other. These two opposing factors are coupled to provide environmentally induced crack nucleation and growth. The relative ratio of these two opposing factors depends on concentration and flow properties, thereby affecting limiting thresholds. The limiting concentration or

  2. PortionControl@HOME: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Effect of a Multi-Component Portion Size Intervention on Portion Control Behavior and Body Mass Index

    Poelman, M.P.; Vet, de E.; Velema, E.; Boer, de M.R.; Seidell, J.C.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.


    Background Food portion sizes influence energy intake. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine effectiveness of the “PortionControl@HOME” intervention on body mass index and portion control behavior. Methods A randomized controlled trial among 278 overweight and obese participants was cond

  3. Cracking and corrosion recovery boiler

    Suik, H. [Tallinn Technical University, Horizon Pulp and Paper, Tallinn (Estonia)


    The corrosion of heat surfaces and the cracking the drums are the main problems of the recovery boiler. These phenomena have been appeared during long-term operation of boiler `Mitsubishi - 315` erected at 1964. Depth of the crack is depending on the number of shutdowns and on operation time. Corrosion intensity of different heat surfaces is varying depend on the metal temperature and the conditions at place of positioning of tube. The lowest intensity of corrosion is on the bank tubes and the greatest is on the tubes of the second stage superheater and on the tubes at the openings of air ports. (orig.) 5 refs.

  4. Modified Dugdale crack models - some easy crack relations

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang


    are assumed to be self created by local materials flow. The strength sigma_CR predictid by the Dugdale model is sigma_CR =(E Gamma_CR/phi1)^½ where E and 1 are Young’s modulus and crack half-length respectively of the material considered. The so-called critical strain energy rate is Gamma_CR = sigma......_Ldelta_CR where sigma_L is strength, and at the same time constant flow stress, of the uncracked material while delta_CR is flow limit (displacement).Obviously predictions by the Dugdale model are most reliable for materials with stress-strain relations where flow can actually be described (or well approximated......) by a constant flow stress (sigma_L). A number of materials, however, do not at all exhibit this kind of flow. Such materials are considered in this paper by Modified Dugdale crack models which apply for any cohesive stress distribution in crack front areas. Formally modified Dugdale crack models exhibit...

  5. a Feasibility Study on Use of Generic Mobile Laser Scanning System for Detecting Asphalt Pavement Cracks

    Chen, Xinqu; Li, Jonathan


    This study aims to automatically detect pavement cracks on urban roads by employing the 3D point clouds acquired by a mobile laser scanning (MLS) system. Our method consists of four steps: ground point filtering, high-pass convolution, matched filtering, and noise removal. First, a voxel-based upward growing method is applied to construct Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the road surface. Then, a high-pass filter convolutes the DTM to detect local elevation changes that may embed cracking information. Next, a two-step matched filter is applied to extract crack features. Lastly, a noise removal process is conducted to refine the results. Instead of using MLS intensity, this study takes advantages of the MLS elevation information to perform automated crack detection from large-volume, mixed-density, unstructured MLS point clouds. Four types of cracks including longitudinal, transvers, random, and alligator cracks are detected. Our results demonstrated that the proposed method works well with the RIEGL VMX-450 point clouds and can detect cracks in moderate-to-severe severity (13 - 25 mm) within a 200 m by 30 m urban road segment located in Kingston, Ontario, at one time. Due to the resolution capability, small cracks with slight severity remain unclear in the MLS point cloud.


    X. Chen


    Full Text Available This study aims to automatically detect pavement cracks on urban roads by employing the 3D point clouds acquired by a mobile laser scanning (MLS system. Our method consists of four steps: ground point filtering, high-pass convolution, matched filtering, and noise removal. First, a voxel-based upward growing method is applied to construct Digital Terrain Model (DTM of the road surface. Then, a high-pass filter convolutes the DTM to detect local elevation changes that may embed cracking information. Next, a two-step matched filter is applied to extract crack features. Lastly, a noise removal process is conducted to refine the results. Instead of using MLS intensity, this study takes advantages of the MLS elevation information to perform automated crack detection from large-volume, mixed-density, unstructured MLS point clouds. Four types of cracks including longitudinal, transvers, random, and alligator cracks are detected. Our results demonstrated that the proposed method works well with the RIEGL VMX-450 point clouds and can detect cracks in moderate-to-severe severity (13 - 25 mm within a 200 m by 30 m urban road segment located in Kingston, Ontario, at one time. Due to the resolution capability, small cracks with slight severity remain unclear in the MLS point cloud.




    Experimental results indicate that propagation paths of cracks in geomaterials are often irregular, producing rough fracture surfaces which are fractal. A formula is derived for the fractal kinematics of crack propagation in geomaterials. The formula correlates the dynamic and static fracture toughnesses with crack velocity, crack length and a microstructural parameter, and allows the fractal dimension to be obtained. From the equations for estimating crack velocity and fractal dimension it can be shown that the measured crack velocity, Vo , should be much smaller than the fractal crack velocity, V. It can also be shown that the fractal dimension of the crack propagation path can be calculated directly from Vo and from the fracture toughness.

  8. Interacting Cracks in an Environmentally Assisted Fracture

    Levandovsky, Artem; Balazs, Anna


    We perform the study of environmentally assisted fracture within the framework of a lattice model. Formation of an ensemble of environmentally assisted microcracks, their coalescence and formation of crack ``avalanches'' lead to a very rich dynamical picture. Under specific condition crack healing can occur due to cohesive forces, which hold material together and tend to pull atoms together even if they are separated by a crack over several lattice units. We investigate the dynamical interplay between crack formation, arrest, healing and re-cracking. The goal here is to provide an understanding of the conditions leading to the phenomena of crack healing that happens along with the crack formation. We study the morphology of crack patterns with the intentions to establish a way to enhance the healing property of a material sample.

  9. Valorization by thermal cracking over silica of polyolefins dissolved in LCO

    Arandes, Jose M.; Erena, Javier; Bilbao, Javier [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Azkoiti, Miren J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Plaza de la Casilla 3, 48012 Bilbao (Spain); Lopez-Valerio, Danilo [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Apartado 5595, Managua (Nicaragua)


    A study has been made of the cracking of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) (which are the main components of post-consumer plastic wastes) dissolved in the Light Cycle Oil (LCO) product stream of a commercial Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) unit. The cracking has been carried out on a mesoporous silica (pore size between 3 and 30 nm) in the 723-823 K range. This strategy for upgrading plastics and solvents together avoids heat transfer limitations and other problems inherent to the cracking of solid plastics. The polyolefins are transformed mainly into the components that make up the pool of gasoline (C{sub 5}-C{sub 12}). Furthermore, the incorporation of polyolefins has a synergistic effect on the cracking of LCO and causes a major decrease in the content of aromatics of the pool of gasoline and an increase in the content of olefins, paraffins and i-paraffins.

  10. Nominally brittle cracks in inhomogeneous solids: From microstructural disorder to continuum-level scale

    Jonathan eBarés


    Full Text Available We analyze the intermittent dynamics of cracks in heterogeneous brittle materials and the roughness of the resulting fracture surfaces by investigating theoretically and numerically crack propagation in an elastic solid of spatially-distributed toughness. The crack motion split up into discrete jumps, avalanches, displaying scale-free statistical features characterized by universal exponents. Conversely, the ranges of scales are non-universal and the mean avalanche size and duration depend on the loading microstructure and specimen parameters according to scaling laws which are uncovered. The crack surfaces are found to be logarithmically rough. Their selection by the fracture parameters is formulated in term of scaling laws on the structure functions measured on one-dimensional roughness profiles taken parallel and perpendicular to the direction of crack growth.

  11. Crack and flip phacoemulsification technique.

    Fine, I H; Maloney, W F; Dillman, D M


    The crack and flip phacoemulsification technique combines the advantages of circumferential division of the nucleus and nucleofactis techniques. As such, it adds safety and control to the procedure. We describe each of the surgical maneuvers, including machine settings, and explain the rationale for maneuvers and machine settings.

  12. China Cracks Down Internet Piracy


      National Copyright Administration of China carried out a special operation to crack down on behaviors involving network infringement and piracy from September to December in 2005 ,according to the speech of Yan Xiaohong,Deputy Commissioner of National Copyright Administration on the Press Conference of the State Council.Now the relevant conditions are as follows:……

  13. China Cracks Down Internet Piracy


    @@ National Copyright Administration of China carried out a special operation to crack down on behaviors involving network infringement and piracy from September to December in 2005 ,according to the speech of Yan Xiaohong,Deputy Commissioner of National Copyright Administration on the Press Conference of the State Council.Now the relevant conditions are as follows:



    The hydrothermal cracking of heavy oils, such as Canadian oil sand bitumen and Arabian heavy vacuum residue, as well as their model compound were performed over sulfided Ni/Al2O3 and NiMo/Al2O3 catalysts under 663~703 K and 6.0~8.0 MPa of hydrogen pressure in a batch autoclave reactor. According to the reaction mechanism of hydrothermal cracking, a small amount of free redical initiators, such as di-tert-peroxide, sulfur, etc., was added into the feed to generate free redicals at lower temperature, and obviously showed promotional effect on the conversion of hydrocarbons. The reaction mechanisms of hydrothermal cracking as well as the enhancing effect of initiators were studied by a probe reaction with 1-phenyldodecane as a model compound. The hydrothermal cracking of hydrocarbon proceeded via free redical mechanism and hydrogenating quench. The initiators might easily generate free redicals under reaction temperature, these redicals might abstract H from hydrocarbon molecule and reasonably initiate the chain reactions, therefore, promote the conversion of hydrocarbon even at lower reaction temperature.

  15. Confining crack propagation in defective graphene.

    López-Polín, Guillermo; Gómez-Herrero, Julio; Gómez-Navarro, Cristina


    Crack propagation in graphene is essential to understand mechanical failure in 2D materials. We report a systematic study of crack propagation in graphene as a function of defect content. Nanoindentations and subsequent images of graphene membranes with controlled induced defects show that while tears in pristine graphene span microns length, crack propagation is strongly reduced in the presence of defects. Accordingly, graphene oxide exhibits minor crack propagation. Our work suggests controlled defect creation as an approach to avoid catastrophic failure in graphene.

  16. Correction to the crack extension direction in numerical modelling of mixed mode crack paths

    Lucht, Tore; Aliabadi, M.H.


    In order to avoid introduction of an error when a local crack-growth criterion is used in an incremental crack growth formulation, each straight crack extension would have to be infinitesimal or have its direction corrected. In this paper a new procedure to correct the crack extension direction i...

  17. Mesh sensitivity effects on fatigue crack growth by crack-tip blunting and re-sharpening

    Tvergaard, Viggo


    Crack-tip blunting under tensile loads and re-sharpening of the crack-tip during unloading is one of the basic mechanisms for fatigue crack growth in ductile metals. Based on an elastic–perfectly plastic material model, crack growth computations have been continued up to 700 full cycles by using...

  18. Fatigue crack growth from a cracked elastic particle into a ductile matrix

    Groh, S.; Olarnrithinun, S.; Curtin, W. A.; Needleman, A.; Deshpande, V. S.; Van der Giessen, E.


    The monotonic and cyclic crack growth rate of cracks is strongly influenced by the microstructure. Here, the growth of cracks emanating from pre-cracked micron-scale elastic particles and growing into single crystals is investigated, with a focus on the effects of (i) plastic confinement due to the

  19. Unified nano-mechanics based probabilistic theory of quasibrittle and brittle structures: I. Strength, static crack growth, lifetime and scaling

    Le, Jia-Liang; Bažant, Zdeněk P.; Bazant, Martin Z.


    Engineering structures must be designed for an extremely low failure probability such as 10 -6, which is beyond the means of direct verification by histogram testing. This is not a problem for brittle or ductile materials because the type of probability distribution of structural strength is fixed and known, making it possible to predict the tail probabilities from the mean and variance. It is a problem, though, for quasibrittle materials for which the type of strength distribution transitions from Gaussian to Weibullian as the structure size increases. These are heterogeneous materials with brittle constituents, characterized by material inhomogeneities that are not negligible compared to the structure size. Examples include concrete, fiber composites, coarse-grained or toughened ceramics, rocks, sea ice, rigid foams and bone, as well as many materials used in nano- and microscale devices. This study presents a unified theory of strength and lifetime for such materials, based on activation energy controlled random jumps of the nano-crack front, and on the nano-macro multiscale transition of tail probabilities. Part I of this study deals with the case of monotonic and sustained (or creep) loading, and Part II with fatigue (or cyclic) loading. On the scale of the representative volume element of material, the probability distribution of strength has a Gaussian core onto which a remote Weibull tail is grafted at failure probability of the order of 10 -3. With increasing structure size, the Weibull tail penetrates into the Gaussian core. The probability distribution of static (creep) lifetime is related to the strength distribution by the power law for the static crack growth rate, for which a physical justification is given. The present theory yields a simple relation between the exponent of this law and the Weibull moduli for strength and lifetime. The benefit is that the lifetime distribution can be predicted from short-time tests of the mean size effect on

  20. Twisting cracks in Bouligand structures.

    Suksangpanya, Nobphadon; Yaraghi, Nicholas A; Kisailus, David; Zavattieri, Pablo


    The Bouligand structure, which is found in many biological materials, is a hierarchical architecture that features uniaxial fiber layers assembled periodically into a helicoidal pattern. Many studies have highlighted the high damage-resistant performance of natural and biomimetic Bouligand structures. One particular species that utilizes the Bouligand structure to achieve outstanding mechanical performance is the smashing Mantis Shrimp, Odontodactylus Scyllarus (or stomatopod). The mantis shrimp generates high speed, high acceleration blows using its raptorial appendage to defeat highly armored preys. The load-bearing part of this appendage, the dactyl club, contains an interior region [16] that consists of a Bouligand structure. This region is capable of developing a significant amount of nested twisting microcracks without exhibiting catastrophic failure. The development and propagation of these microcracks are a source of energy dissipation and stress relaxation that ultimately contributes to the remarkable damage tolerance properties of the dactyl club. We develop a theoretical model to provide additional insights into the local stress intensity factors at the crack front of twisting cracks formed within the Bouligand structure. Our results reveal that changes in the local fracture mode at the crack front leads to a reduction of the local strain energy release rate, hence, increasing the necessary applied energy release rate to propagate the crack, which is quantified by the local toughening factor. Ancillary 3D simulations of the asymptotic crack front field were carried out using a J-integral to validate the theoretical values of the energy release rate and the local stress intensity factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The crystal structure of paramagnetic copper(II) oxalate (CuC₂O₄): formation and thermal decomposition of randomly stacked anisotropic nano-sized crystallites.

    Christensen, Axel Nørlund; Lebech, Bente; Andersen, Niels Hessel; Grivel, Jean-Claude


    Synthetic copper(II) oxalate, CuC2O4, was obtained in a precipitation reaction between a copper(II) solution and an aqueous solution of oxalic acid. The product was identified from its conventional X-ray powder patterns which match that of the copper mineral Moolooite reported to have the composition CuC2O4·0.44H2O. Time resolved in situ investigations of the thermal decomposition of copper(II) oxalate using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction showed that in air the compound converts to Cu2O at 215 °C and oxidizes to CuO at 345 °C. Thermo gravimetric analysis performed in an inert Ar-gas reveals that the material contains no crystal water and reduces to pure Cu at 295 °C. Magnetic susceptibility measurements in the temperature range from 2 K to 300 K show intriguing paramagnetic behaviour with no sign of magnetic order down to 2 K. A crystal structure investigation is made based on powder diffraction data using one neutron diffraction pattern obtained at 5 K (λ = 1.5949(1) Å) combined with one conventional and two synchrotron X-ray diffraction patterns obtained at ambient temperature using λ = 1.54056, 1.0981 and λ = 0.50483(1) Å, respectively. Based on the X-ray synchrotron data the resulting crystal structure is described in the monoclinic space group P2₁/c (#14) in the P12₁/n1 setting with unit cell parameters a = 5.9598(1) Å, b = 5.6089(1) Å, c = 5.1138 (1) Å, β = 115.320(1)°. The composition is CuC2O4 with atomic coordinates determined by FullProf refinement of the neutron diffraction data. The crystal structure consists of a random stacking of CuC2O4 micro-crystallites where half the Cu-atoms are placed at (2a) and the other half at (2b) positions with the corresponding oxalate molecules centred around the corresponding (2b) and (2a) site positions, respectively. The diffraction patterns obtained for both kinds of radiation show considerable broadening of several Bragg peaks caused by highly anisotropic microstructural size and strain

  2. Fatigue crack growth simulations of 3-D linear elastic cracks under thermal load by XFEM

    Himanshu PATHAK[1; Akhilendra SINGH[2; I.V. SINGH[3; S. K. YADAV[3


    This paper deals with the fatigue crack growth simulations of three-dimensional linear elastic cracks by XFEM under cyclic thermal load. Both temperature and displacement approximations are extrinsically enriched by Heaviside and crack front enrichment functions. Crack growth is modelled by successive linear extensions, and the end points of these linear extensions are joined by cubic spline segments to obtain a modified crack front. Different crack geometries such as planer, non-planer and arbitrary spline shape cracks are simulated under thermal shock, adiabatic and isothermal loads to reveal the sturdiness and versatility of the XFEM approach.

  3. Standard test method for measurement of fatigue crack growth rates

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers the determination of fatigue crack growth rates from near-threshold to Kmax controlled instability. Results are expressed in terms of the crack-tip stress-intensity factor range (ΔK), defined by the theory of linear elasticity. 1.2 Several different test procedures are provided, the optimum test procedure being primarily dependent on the magnitude of the fatigue crack growth rate to be measured. 1.3 Materials that can be tested by this test method are not limited by thickness or by strength so long as specimens are of sufficient thickness to preclude buckling and of sufficient planar size to remain predominantly elastic during testing. 1.4 A range of specimen sizes with proportional planar dimensions is provided, but size is variable to be adjusted for yield strength and applied force. Specimen thickness may be varied independent of planar size. 1.5 The details of the various specimens and test configurations are shown in Annex A1-Annex A3. Specimen configurations other than t...

  4. Crack formation under an electric field in droplets of laponite gel: memory effect and scaling relations.

    Khatun, Tajkera; Dutta, Tapati; Tarafdar, Sujata


    When a colloidal gel dries through evaporation, cracks are usually formed, which often reveal underlying processes at work during desiccation. Desiccating colloid droplets of a few hundred microliters size show interesting effects of pattern formation and cracking which makes this an active subject of current research. Because aqueous gels of clay are known to be strongly affected by an electric field, one may expect crack patterns to exhibit a field effect. In the present study we allow droplets of laponite gel to dry under a radial electric field. This gives rise to highly reproducible patterns of cracks, which depend on the strength, direction, and time of exposure to the electric field. For a continuously applied DC voltage, cracks always appear on dissipation of a certain constant amount of energy. If the field is switched off before cracks appear, the observed results are shown to obey a number of empirical scaling relations, which enable us to predict the time of appearance and the number of cracks under specified conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the surface between the macroscopic cracks show the presence of microcracks, which are wider and more numerous when no electric field is applied. The microcracks are reduced in the presence of stronger fields.

  5. lnvestigation of Patch Coatings lnfluence on the Stress lntensity Factor for Surface Cracks

    Lambertsen, Søren Heide; Jepsen, Michael S.; Damkilde, Lars


    to damp the free end of the crack, which will reduce the stress intensity factor and subsequently reduce the crack growth. The considered patch consists of a surface layer of 0.2 mm two component adhesive Epoxy, 3M DP 460. The models described in this work contains five different crack sizes with a patch......In this paper, it is investigated how a surface layer of epoxy glue will affect the crack propagation of a surface crack. The intension is to reduce or even stop the crack propagation by means of patch layer coating. When adding a patch layer to the surface with small cracks, the layer will attempt...... layer on the surface. The stress intensity factor is computed by means of the J-integral and the FE-model is setup with a nonlinear material model to establish the upper boundary for the patch stress capacity. A reduction of the stress intensity factor of approximately 2 % and a reduction of the crack...

  6. Corrosion fatigue behavior of fastening hole structure and virtual crack propagation tests

    Youhong Zhang; Xinlong Chang; Guozhi Lv; Hui Wang; Zhong Li; Yueliang Cheng


    The fatigue crack propagation behavior of the LY12CZ aluminum alloy fastener involving a central hole in air or in 3.5wt% NaC1 solution was investigated. The experimental results indicated that the corrosion fatigue crack growth rate decreased with the increasing loading frequency, and in a corrosive environment, the crack growth rate was slightly larger than that in air.Based on the experimental results, the virtual corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were investigated and the stochastic process method and the AFGROW simulation method were presented. The normal process and lognormal process were considered for the stochastic process method based on the numerically fitted Paris equation. The distribution of crack size and the corresponding prob-abilistic model of crack length distribution for a given number of cycles can be found by integrating the stochastic process over time.Using the AFGROW software, the virtual simulation was carried out to analyze the corrosion fatigue crack growth behavior and the predicted crack growth curve was in good agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Quasi-static crack tip fields in rate-sensitive FCC single crystals

    P Biswas; R Narasimhan


    In this work, the effects of loading rate, material rate sensitivity and constraint level on quasi-static crack tip fields in a FCC single crystal are studied. Finite element simulations are performed within a mode I, plane strain modified boundary layer framework by prescribing the two term $(K −T)$ elastic crack tip field as remote boundary conditions. The material is assumed to obey a rate-dependent crystal plasticity theory. The orientation of the single crystal is chosen so that the crack surface coincides with the crystallographic (010) plane and the crack front lies along $[10\\bar{1}]$ direction. Solutions corresponding to different stress intensity rates $\\dot{K}$, -stress values and strain rate exponents are obtained. The results show that the stress levels ahead of the crack tip increase with $\\dot{K}$ which is accompanied by gradual shrinking of the plastic zone size. However, the nature of the shear band patterns around the crack tip is not affected by the loading rate. Further, it is found that while positive -stress enhances the opening and hydrostatic stress levels ahead of crack tip, they are considerably reduced with imposition of negative -stress. Also, negative -stress promotes formation of shear bands in the forward sector ahead of the crack tip and suppresses them behind the tip.

  8. Photoelastic studies of crack propagation and crack arrest. [Homalite 100

    Irwin, G.R.; Dally, J.W.; Kobayashi, T.; Fourney, W.L.; Etheridge, J.M.


    This report describes the third year effort on research programs dealing with the characterization of dynamic aspects of fracture. The results included in this report are (1) verification of the BCL one-dimensional computer code; (2) determination of a-dot--K relationship from modified compact-tension specimen of Homalite 100; (3) verification of the MRL procedure for K/sub Ia/ measurement with machine-loaded C-DCB specimen of Homalite 100; (4) influence of adhesive toughness, adhesive thickness, and toughness of the arrest section on crack behavior in duplex specimens of both the M-CT and R-DCB types; (5) crack propagation in a thermally stressed ring specimen; and (6) development of a two-dimensional finite-difference code to predict fracture behavior in specimens of rectangular geometry under various a-dot vs K relationships. 118 figures, 53 tables.

  9. Finite element analysis of vessels to study changes in natural frequencies due to cracks

    Choubey, A. [ITMME Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Sehgal, D.K. [ITMME Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Tandon, N. [ITMME Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)]. E-mail:


    When significant damage occurs in structures, there is a change in stiffness, which in turn affects the natural frequency. To study this, a study was conducted to analyse the effect of cracks on natural frequencies in two vessel structures. Finite element analysis has been used to obtain the dynamic characteristics of intact and damaged vessels for the first eight modes of these structures. Two kinds of vessel, boilers and storage tanks, were chosen and through-thickness cracks were analysed. Different cases were examined by changing the size and locations of cracks with the help of a FEM (Finite element model). Natural frequencies and mode shapes were analysed. The natural frequencies for different modes have been used as input pattern of ANN (artificial neural network) model. The output of the ANN model is a crack size for a particular location. It was found that as the crack size increased, natural frequency changed to a large extent, but the frequency was not reduced in the same manner for every position of damage for the same size of crack. It was also found that the reduction in natural frequencies depends upon the mode shapes of the structures.

  10. Preparation and Healing of Cracks in Al2O3-MgAION Composite

    YANG Daoyuan; ZHU Kai; WU Juan


    The Al2O3-MgAION specimens with dimensions of φ20 mm×10 mm and 3 mm×4 mm×36 mm were pre-pared using corundum grains ( w( Al2O3) >98% , par-ticle size: 3-1 mm, ≤1 mm, ≤85 μm and ≤3 μm, respectively) and MgAION (particle size ≤ 2 μm ) as starting materials, PVA as binder, designing 3 formula-tions containing aggregate and 4 special formulations without aggregate, pressing under 150 Mpa and keep-ing for 5 s, firing at 1 500 ℃ for 2 h in nitrogen under normal pressure, and the cracks were prepared on the specimens by thermal shock method (air cooling at 1 100 ℃ for 10 cycles) and by Vickers method (29.4, 49.0 and 98.0 N, keeping for 25 s) , then holding at 1 100 ℃ and 1 550 ℃ for 6 h in nitrogen atmosphere for cracks healing, respectively. The influences of crack prefabricated method, grain composition, pressure of Vickers and pressure holding time on the shape and di-mension of cracks were studied. Effects of healing tem-perature on healing degree and MOR of specimens were investigated and the crack healing rate was calculated. The results showed that: (1) the cracks of MgAION specimens prepared by thermal shock method under nor-real pressure were of irregular shape and uncertain length; (2) the cracks prepared by Vickers method was approximate diamond-shape without slender cracks emit-ting from every vertex angle; but if composite specimens were fabricated by particles of several microns, the crack size, shape and its site, especially that obtained under 98.0 N for 25 s, could be controlled exactly under a Vickers hardometer, which made the crack healing re-search easy to conduct; (3) after healing treatment at 1 100 ℃ or 1 500 ℃, the cracks became shallower and smaller even disappeared, the strength of the specimen was recovered finally; (4) a formulation for crack heal-ing rate expressed by the cracked capacity was: V/ t = 1/3 C2v(1+ctg θ) Cv/ t.

  11. Inhibiting Corrosion Cracking: Crack Tip Chemistry and Physics.


    5 5. Swuzary 113 Rferences 114 wl NO 4L iv . List of Figuring 1. Microipette pulling machine . 29 2. Anodic polarization of 7075-T6 Al alloy in dilute...environment has a strong effect on microplastic behavior at the tip of a fatigue crack. Stolz and Pelloux suggest that nitrate ion competes with chloride...Crystalline Na2 N 20 29H20 precipitates when the filtrate is placed in a vacunm desiccator over sulfuric acid. The filtered precipitate is washed

  12. Crack branching in carbon steel. Fracture mechanisms

    Syromyatnikova, A. S.; Alekseev, A. A.; Levin, A. I.; Lyglaev, A. V.


    The fracture surfaces of pressure vessels made of carbon steel that form during crack branching propagation are examined by fractography. Crack branching is found to occur at a crack velocity higher than a certain critical value V > V c . In this case, the material volume that is involved in fracture and depends on the elastoplastic properties of the material and the sample width has no time to dissipate the energy released upon crack motion via the damage mechanisms intrinsic in the material under given deformation conditions (in our case, via cracking according to intragranular cleavage).

  13. Strength of Cracked Reinforced Concrete Disks

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter


    The paper deals with models, based on the theory of plasticity, to be used in strength assessments of reinforced concrete disks suffering from different kinds of cracking. Based on the assumption that the sliding strength of concrete is reduced in sections where cracks are located, solutions...... for the shear strength of disks with initial cracks and disks suffering from isotropic cracking are presented. Furthermore, in the case of isotropicly cracked disks subjected to arbitrary in-plane loading, a general yield condition is derived....


    Karin Kocúrová


    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of a damaged part, which was designed for use in a mechanical clutch of a car. The crack in the part was found during the production inspection. The aim of metallographic and fractography analyses of the fracture surfaces was to discover the reasons for the crack. The reason for creating the crack was the formation of smaller cracks in the production during pressing process of the semiproduct. These cracks even grew after the following thermochemical treatment. The fracture was initiated during the straightening process of quenched part.

  15. Micromechanics of Size Effect in Failure Due to Distributed Cracking


    into Eq. 1. Then, substituting Eq. 4 for (YN , we obtain (Fig.8b): B fu yr Kd fal Klc= - / +P = Ki (5) Ic cn in which K if is a constant expressed as...Maciriaux Solides", Dunod- Bordas , Paris, 1985. 26. Krajcinovic, P., and Fonseka, G. U.. "The Continuous Damage Theory of Brittle Materials", ASME J. of...Lemaitre and J. L Chaboche. Micanique des Matiriaux Solides. Dunod- Bordas . Paris. 1985. 42. R. L’Hermite and J.3J. Grimu ’Etude expenimentales, recentes

  16. The Investigation of Reducing PAHs Emission from Coal Pyrolysis by Gaseous Catalytic Cracking

    Yulong Wang


    Full Text Available The catalytic cracking method of PAHs for the pyrolysis gaseous products is proposed to control their pollution to the environment. In this study, the Py-GC-MS is used to investigate in situ the catalytic effect of CaO and Fe2O3 on the 16 PAHs from Pingshuo coal pyrolysis under different catalytic temperatures and catalyst particle sizes. The results demonstrate that Fe2O3 is effective than that of CaO for catalytic cracking of 16 PAHs and that their catalytic temperature corresponding to the maximum PAHs cracking rates is different. The PAHs cracking rate is up to 60.59% for Fe2O3 at 600°C and is 52.88% at 700°C for CaO. The catalytic temperature and particle size of the catalysts have a significant effect on PAHs cracking rate and CaO will lose the capability of decreasing 16 PAHs when the temperature is higher than 900°C. The possible cracking process of 16 PAHs is deduced by elaborately analyzing the cracking effect of the two catalysts on 16 different species of PAHs.

  17. Alternating grain orientation and weld solidification cracking

    Kou, S.; Le, Y.


    A new mechanism for reducing weld solidification cracking was proposed, based on the concept of the crack path and resistance to crack propagation, and its effectiveness was verified in magnetically oscillated GTA welds of a rather crack susceptible material 2014 aluminum alloy. This mechanism, i.e., alternating grain orientation, was most pronounced in welds made with transverse arc oscillation of low frequency and high amplitude, and solidification cracking was dramatically reduced in these welds. The effect of the arc oscillation pattern, amplitude, and frequency on the formation of alternating columnar grains and the reduction of solidification cracking in GTA welds of 2014 aluminum alloy was examined and explained. The present study demonstrated for the first time that columnar grains can, in fact, be very effective in reducing solidification cracking, provided that they are oriented favorably.

  18. Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy. Part 3: Modeling of crack tip hydrogen damage

    Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.


    Environmental fatigue crack propagation rates and microscopic damage modes in Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 (Parts 1 and 2) are described by a crack tip process zone model based on hydrogen embrittlement. Da/dN sub ENV equates to discontinuous crack advance over a distance, delta a, determined by dislocation transport of dissolved hydrogen at plastic strains above a critical value; and to the number of load cycles, delta N, required to hydrogenate process zone trap sites that fracture according to a local hydrogen concentration-tensile stress criterion. Transgranular (100) cracking occurs for process zones smaller than the subgrain size, and due to lattice decohesion or hydride formation. Intersubgranular cracking dominates when the process zone encompasses one or more subgrains so that dislocation transport provides hydrogen to strong boundary trapping sites. Multi-sloped log da/dN-log delta K behavior is produced by process zone plastic strain-hydrogen-microstructure interactions, and is determined by the DK dependent rates and proportions of each parallel cracking mode. Absolute values of the exponents and the preexponential coefficients are not predictable; however, fractographic measurements theta sub i coupled with fatigue crack propagation data for alloy 2090 established that the process zone model correctly describes fatigue crack propagation kinetics. Crack surface films hinder hydrogen uptake and reduce da/dN and alter the proportions of each fatigue crack propagation mode.

  19. Experimental and numerical modelling of ductile crack propagation in large-scale shell structures

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Törnquist, R.


    for steel and aluminium plates, mainly as curves showing the critical element deformation versus the shell element size. These derived crack propagation criteria are then validated against a separate set of experiments considering centre crack specimens (CCS) which have a different crack-tip constraint...... is in general good and it is believed that the presented results and experimental-numerical calibration procedure can be of use in practical finite-element simulations of collision and grounding events with the use of shell elements. As discussed, the paper provides a clean framework for further development...

  20. Normalizing effect on fatigue crack propagation at the heat-affected zone of AISI 4140 steel shielded metal arc weldings

    B. Vargas-Arista


    Full Text Available The fractography and mechanical behaviour of fatigue crack propagation in the heat-affected zone (HAZ of AISI 4140 steel welded using the shielded metal arc process was analysed. Different austenitic grain size was obtained by normalizing performed at 1200 °C for 5 and 10 hours after welding. Three point bending fatigue tests on pre-cracked specimens along the HAZ revealed that coarse grains promoted an increase in fatigue crack growth rate, hence causing a reduction in both fracture toughness and critical crack length, and a transgranular brittle final fracture with an area fraction of dimple zones connecting cleavage facets. A fractographic analysis proved that as the normalizing time increased the crack length decreased. The increase in the river patterns on the fatigue crack propagation in zone II was also evidenced and final brittle fracture because of transgranular quasicleavage was observed. Larger grains induced a deterioration of the fatigue resistance of the HAZ.

  1. Ultrasonic inspection reliability for intergranular stress corrosion cracks

    Heasler, P G; Taylor, T T; Spanner, J C; Doctor, S R; Deffenbaugh, J D [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)


    A pipe inspection round robin entitled Mini-Round Robin'' was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory from May 1985 through October 1985. The research was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research under a program entitled Evaluation and Improvement of NDE Reliability for Inservice Inspection of Light Water Reactors.'' The Mini-Round Robin (MRR) measured the intergranular stress corrosion (GSC) crack detection and sizing capabilities of inservice inspection (ISI) inspectors that had passed the requirements of IEB 83-02 and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) sizing training course. The MRR data base was compared with an earlier Pipe Inspection Round Robin (PIRR) that had measured the performance of inservice inspection prior to 1982. Comparison of the MRR and PIRR data bases indicates no significant change in the inspection capability for detecting IGSCC. Also, when comparing detection of long and short cracks, no difference in detection capability was measured. An improvement in the ability to differentiate between shallow and deeper IGSCC was found when the MRR sizing capability was compared with an earlier sizing round robin conducted by the EPRI. In addition to the pipe inspection round robin, a human factors study was conducted in conjunction with the Mini-Round Robin. The most important result of the human factors study is that the Relative Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves provide a better methodology for describing inspector performance than only probability of detection (POD) or single-point crack/no crack data. 6 refs., 55 figs., 18 tabs.

  2. Evaluation method for ductile crack propagation in pre-strained plates; Yohizumizai no ensei kiretsu denpa hyokaho

    Ueda, Y.; Murakawa, H. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Welding Research Inst.; Tanigawa, M. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan)


    In order to investigate an effect of the plastic deformation, which was generated on ship side outer platings subjected to collision load before crack initiation, on the crack propagation behavior, crack propagation experiments using pre-strained specimens and simulation analysis by means of FEM method were carried out, to discuss about the practical simulation analysis method. As a result of the crack propagation experiments using pre-strained center notched plate specimens, a phenomenon where the crack is apt to propagate due to the pre-strains was confirmed, and measured data of crack tip opening angles were obtained. A method was proposed, in which the critical crack tip opening angle values are corrected by considering the difference between the crack shapes obtained from the FEM analysis model and actually measured, and its effectiveness was confirmed. The finite element size effect was also examined. A method using an equivalent plastic strain as the crack propagation condition was shown to determine the relationship between the element size and the critical value of equivalent plastic strain. 5 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Biaxial Fatigue Cracking from Notch


    Leevers (reference 11) noticed that the variation in  from 0 to 2 has little effect on the da/dN in PVC ( polyvinyl - chloride ), but reduces the da/dN...under biaxial rotating and bending. Ahmad (reference 2) formulated a model for the biaxial fatigue crack growth in aggressive environment, outlined by...1962, Vol. 90, pp. 238-239. 20. ASM Handbook , Vol. 12 Fractography: 1992, p. 430, 438. 21. Metals Handbook , Vol. 9 Fractography and Atlas of

  4. The Growth of Small Corrosion Fatigue Cracks in Alloy 7075

    Piascik, Robert S.


    The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small (greater than 35 micrometers) surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 7075 is established. The early stage of crack growth is studied by performing in situ long focal length microscope (500×) crack length measurements in laboratory air and 1% sodium chloride (NaCl) environments. To quantify the "small crack effect" in the corrosive environment, the corrosion fatigue crack propagation behavior of small cracks is compared to long through-the-thickness cracks grown under identical experimental conditions. In salt water, long crack constant K(sub max) growth rates are similar to small crack da/dN.

  5. Crack Growth Monitoring in Harsh Environments by Electric Potential Measurements

    Lloyd, Wilson Randolph; Reuter, Walter Graham; Weinberg, David Michael


    Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique applicable is many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.

  6. Fatigue cracks in Eurofer 97 steel: Part II. Comparison of small and long fatigue crack growth

    Kruml, T.; Hutař, P.; Náhlík, L.; Seitl, S.; Polák, J.


    The fatigue crack growth rate in the Eurofer 97 steel at room temperature was measured by two different methodologies. Small crack growth data were obtained using cylindrical specimens with a shallow notch and no artificial crack starters. The growth of semicircular cracks of length between 10-2000 μm was followed in symmetrical cycling with constant strain amplitude ( R ɛ = -1). Long crack data were measured using standard CT specimen and ASTM methodology, i.e. R = 0.1. The growth of cracks having the length in the range of 10-30 mm was measured. It is shown that the crack growth rates of both types of cracks are in a very good agreement if J-integral representation is used and usual assumptions of the crack closure effects are taken into account.

  7. Fatigue cracks in Eurofer 97 steel: Part II. Comparison of small and long fatigue crack growth

    Kruml, T., E-mail: [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, CZ 61662 Brno (Czech Republic); Hutar, P.; Nahlik, L.; Seitl, S.; Polak, J. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, CZ 61662 Brno (Czech Republic)


    The fatigue crack growth rate in the Eurofer 97 steel at room temperature was measured by two different methodologies. Small crack growth data were obtained using cylindrical specimens with a shallow notch and no artificial crack starters. The growth of semicircular cracks of length between 10-2000 {mu}m was followed in symmetrical cycling with constant strain amplitude (R{sub {epsilon}} = -1). Long crack data were measured using standard CT specimen and ASTM methodology, i.e. R = 0.1. The growth of cracks having the length in the range of 10-30 mm was measured. It is shown that the crack growth rates of both types of cracks are in a very good agreement if J-integral representation is used and usual assumptions of the crack closure effects are taken into account.

  8. Experimental testing and evaluation of cracks defects in line pipe

    Hosseini, Ali; Cronin, Duane; Plumtree, Alan [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Kania, Richard [TransCanada Pipelines, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    Aging pipelines may show environmental or stress-induced cracking or similar defects. Several assessment methods are currently used for crack-like defects, as well as numerical modeling approaches. All have been used successfully, but unknown factors are the degree of conservatism and sensitivity to the various input parameters. To fill this knowledge gap, a series of full-scale burst tests was undertaken and successfully completed on end-capped, seam-welded pipe specimens having a 20-inch diameter and 5.7-mm wall thickness. The purpose was to study the failure behaviour of axial surface crack flaws and determine if the Level 3 FAD approach, NG-18 method and CorLAS can be applied to predict failure. The aspect of the fracture surface showed that the cause of failure of the pipe sections was ductile tearing, as expected in view of the material and crack sizes. It was found that the most accurate predictions were obtained with Level 3 FAD (J approach, using the cylinder equations) and CorLAS.

  9. Random-effects linear modeling and sample size tables for two special crossover designs of average bioequivalence studies: the four-period, two-sequence, two-formulation and six-period, three-sequence, three-formulation designs.

    Diaz, Francisco J; Berg, Michel J; Krebill, Ron; Welty, Timothy; Gidal, Barry E; Alloway, Rita; Privitera, Michael


    Due to concern and debate in the epilepsy medical community and to the current interest of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in revising approaches to the approval of generic drugs, the FDA is currently supporting ongoing bioequivalence studies of antiepileptic drugs, the EQUIGEN studies. During the design of these crossover studies, the researchers could not find commercial or non-commercial statistical software that quickly allowed computation of sample sizes for their designs, particularly software implementing the FDA requirement of using random-effects linear models for the analyses of bioequivalence studies. This article presents tables for sample-size evaluations of average bioequivalence studies based on the two crossover designs used in the EQUIGEN studies: the four-period, two-sequence, two-formulation design, and the six-period, three-sequence, three-formulation design. Sample-size computations assume that random-effects linear models are used in bioequivalence analyses with crossover designs. Random-effects linear models have been traditionally viewed by many pharmacologists and clinical researchers as just mathematical devices to analyze repeated-measures data. In contrast, a modern view of these models attributes an important mathematical role in theoretical formulations in personalized medicine to them, because these models not only have parameters that represent average patients, but also have parameters that represent individual patients. Moreover, the notation and language of random-effects linear models have evolved over the years. Thus, another goal of this article is to provide a presentation of the statistical modeling of data from bioequivalence studies that highlights the modern view of these models, with special emphasis on power analyses and sample-size computations.

  10. Fracture analysis for a penny-shaped crack problem of a superconducting cylinder in a parallel magnetic field

    Gao, S.W. [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043 (China); Feng, W.J., E-mail: [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043 (China); Fang, X.Q. [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043 (China); Zhang, G.L. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043 (China)


    Highlights: • A penny-shaped crack problem of a superconducting cylinder is investigated. • The effects of crack on flux density in the cylinder are taken into account. • The ERR in both the ZFC and FC processes are obtained and numerical calculated. • The FC process is easier to enhance crack propagation than the ZFC process. For the FC process, the maximal field has important effects on crack propagation. - Abstract: In this work, the penny-shaped crack problem is investigated for an infinite long superconducting cylinder under electromagnetic forces. The distributions of magnetic flux density in the superconducting cylinder are obtained analytically for both the zero-field cooling (ZFC) and the field cooling (FC) activation processes, where the magnetically impermeable crack surface condition and the Bean model outside the crack region are adopted. Based on the finite element method (FEM), the stress intensity factor (SIF) and energy release rate (ERR) at the crack tips in the process of field descent are further numerically calculated. Numerical results obtained show that according to the maximal energy release rate criterion, the FC process is generally easier to enhance crack initiation and propagation than the ZFC activation process. On the other hand, for the FC activation process, the larger the maximal applied magnetic field, more likely the crack propagates. Additionally, crack size has important and slightly different effects on the crack extension forces for the ZFC and FC cases. Thus, all of the activation processes, the applied field and the diameter of the penny-shaped crack have significant effects on the intensity analysis and design of superconducting materials.

  11. Analysis of stress corrosion cracking in alloy 718 following commercial reactor exposure

    Leonard, Keith J.; Gussev, Maxim N.; Stevens, Jacqueline N.; Busby, Jeremy T.


    Alloy 718 is generally considered a highly corrosion-resistant material but can still be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The combination of factors leading to SCC susceptibility in the alloy is not always clear enough. In the present work, alloy 718 leaf spring (LS) materials that suffered stress corrosion damage during two 24-month cycles in pressurized water reactor service, operated to >45 MWd/mtU burn-up, was investigated. Compared to archival samples fabricated through the same processing conditions, little microstructural and property changes occurred in the material with in-service irradiation, contrary to high dose rate laboratory-based experiments reported in literature. Though the lack of delta phase formation along grain boundaries would suggest a more SCC resistant microstructure, grain boundary cracking in the material was extensive. Crack propagation routes were explored through focused ion beam milling of specimens near the crack tip for transmission electron microscopy as well as in polished plan view and cross-sectional samples for electron backscatter diffraction analysis. It has been shown in this study that cracks propagated mainly along random high-angle grain boundaries, with the material around cracks displaying a high local density of dislocations. The slip lines were produced through the local deformation of the leaf spring material above their yield strength. The cause for local SCC appears to be related to oxidation of both slip lines and grain boundaries, which under the high in-service stresses resulted in crack development in the material.

  12. Evaluation of enamel micro-cracks characteristics after removal of metal brackets in adult patients.

    Dumbryte, Irma; Linkeviciene, Laura; Malinauskas, Mangirdas; Linkevicius, Tomas; Peciuliene, Vytaute; Tikuisis, Kristupas


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare enamel micro-crack characteristics of adult patients before and after removal of metal brackets. After the examination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), 45 extracted human teeth were divided into three groups of equal size: group 1, the teeth having enamel micro-cracks, group 2, the teeth without initial enamel micro-cracks, and group 3, control group to study the effect of dehydration on existing micro-cracks or formation of new ones. For all the teeth in groups 1 and 2, the same bonding and debonding procedures of metal brackets were conducted. The length and width of the longest enamel micro-crack were measured for all the teeth before and after removal of metal brackets. The changes in the location of the micro-cracks were also evaluated. In group 3, teeth were subjected to the same analysis but not bonded. The mean overall width of micro-cracks after removal of metal brackets was 3.82 μm greater than before bonding procedure (P micro-cracks in first zone (cervical third) and third zone (occlusal third) after debonding procedure (P micro-cracks were found in 6 of 15 (40 per cent) examined teeth. Greatest changes in the width of enamel micro-cracks after debonding procedure appear in the cervical third of the tooth. On the basis of this result, the dentist must pay extra care and attention to this specific area of enamel during removal of metal brackets in adult patients.

  13. Crossing grain boundaries in metals by slip bands, cleavage and fatigue cracks.

    Pineau, André


    The size and the character (low and large angle, special boundaries, tilt and twist boundaries, twins) of the grain boundaries (GBs) in polycrystalline materials influence their strength and their fracture toughness. Recent studies devoted to nanocrystalline (NC) materials have shown a deviation from the Hall-Petch law. Special GBs formed by Σ3 twins in face-centred cubic metals are also known to have a strong effect on the mechanical behaviour of these metals, in particular their work-hardening rate. Grain orientation influences also crack path, the fracture toughness of body-centred cubic (BCC) metals and the fatigue crack growth rate of microstructurally short cracks. This paper deals both with slip transfer at GBs and with the interactions between propagating cracks with GBs. In the analysis of slip transfer, the emphasis is placed on twin boundaries (TBs) for which the dislocation reactions during slip transfer are analysed theoretically, experimentally and using the results of atomic molecular simulations published in the literature. It is shown that in a number of situations this transfer leads to a normal motion of the TB owing to the displacement of partial dislocations along the TB. This motion can generate a de-twinning effect observed in particular in NC metals. Crack propagation across GBs is also considered. It is shown that cleavage crack path behaviour in BCC metals is largely dependent on the twist component of the GBs. A mechanism for the propagation of these twisted cracks involving a segmentation of the crack front and the existence of intergranular parts is discussed and verified for a pressure vessel steel. A similar segmentation seems to occur for short fatigue cracks although, quite surprisingly, this crossing mechanism for fatigue cracks does not seem to have been examined in very much detail in the literature. Metallurgical methods used to improve the strength of the materials, via grain boundaries, are briefly discussed.

  14. Crack propagation in fracture mechanical graded structures

    B. Schramm


    Full Text Available The focus of manufacturing is more and more on innovative and application-oriented products considering lightweight construction. Hence, especially functional graded materials come to the fore. Due to the application-matched functional material gradation different local demands such as absorbability, abrasion and fatigue of structures are met. However, the material gradation can also have a remarkable influence on the crack propagation behavior. Therefore, this paper examines how the crack propagation behavior changes when a crack grows through regions which are characterized by different fracture mechanical material properties (e.g. different threshold values KI,th, different fracture toughness KIC. In particular, the emphasis of this paper is on the beginning of stable crack propagation, the crack velocity, the crack propagation direction as well as on the occurrence of unstable crack growth under static as well as cyclic loading. In this context, the developed TSSR-concept is presented which allows the prediction of crack propagation in fracture mechanical graded structures considering the loading situation (Mode I, Mode II and plane Mixed Mode and the material gradation. In addition, results of experimental investigations for a mode I loading situation and numerical simulations of crack growth in such graded structures confirm the theoretical findings and clarify the influence of the material gradation on the crack propagation behavior.

  15. Validação psicométrica do Cocaine Craving Questionnaire-Brief - Versão Brasileira Adaptada para o Crack para dependentes hospitalizados

    Renata Brasil Araujo; Maria da Graça Tanori de Castro; Rosemeri Siqueira Pedroso; Paola Lucena dos Santos; Letícia Leite; Marcelo Rossoni da Rocha; Ana Cecília Petta Roselli Marques


    Background: The craving is a very important factor in the treatment of drug addiction. Objective: Validate the Cocaine Craving Questionnaire-Brief - Brazilian Crack Adapted Version. Method: Subjects enrolled in this experimental study were randomized into groups: experimental for this group was shown an image of a subject using crack (G1) and control (G2) for this group no pictures were shown. The sample was composed of 109 subjects (G1 = 50 and G2 = 59), males, crack/cocaine dependent inpati...

  16. Analyzing indirect effects in cluster randomized trials : The effect of estimation method, number of groups and group sizes on accuracy and power

    Hox, Joop J.; Moerbeek, Mirjam; Kluytmans, Anouck; van de Schoot, Rens


    Cluster randomized trials assess the effect of an intervention that is carried out at the group or cluster level. Ajzen's theory of planned behavior is often used to model the effect of the intervention as an indirect effect mediated in turn by attitude, norms and behavioral intention. Structural

  17. Characterization of fracture patterns and hygric properties for moisture flow modelling in cracked concrete

    Rouchier, Simon; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten


    Several years after their installation, building materials such as concrete present signs of ageing in the form of fractures covering a wide range of sizes, from microscopic to macroscopic cracks. All sizes of fractures can have a strong influence on heat and moisture flow in the building envelop...

  18. Online Bridge Crack Monitoring with Smart Film

    Benniu Zhang


    Full Text Available Smart film crack monitoring method, which can be used for detecting initiation, length, width, shape, location, and propagation of cracks on real bridges, is proposed. Firstly, the fabrication of the smart film is developed. Then the feasibility of the method is analyzed and verified by the mechanical sensing character of the smart film under the two conditions of normal strain and crack initiation. Meanwhile, the coupling interference between parallel enameled wires of the smart film is discussed, and then low-frequency detecting signal and the custom communication protocol are used to decrease interference. On this basis, crack monitoring system with smart film is designed, where the collected crack data is sent to the remote monitoring center and the cracks are simulated and recurred. Finally, the monitoring system is applied to six bridges, and the effects are discussed.

  19. Crack Propagation in Bamboo's Hierarchical Cellular Structure

    Habibi, Meisam K.; Lu, Yang


    Bamboo, as a natural hierarchical cellular material, exhibits remarkable mechanical properties including excellent flexibility and fracture toughness. As far as bamboo as a functionally graded bio-composite is concerned, the interactions of different constituents (bamboo fibers; parenchyma cells; and vessels.) alongside their corresponding interfacial areas with a developed crack should be of high significance. Here, by using multi-scale mechanical characterizations coupled with advanced environmental electron microscopy (ESEM), we unambiguously show that fibers' interfacial areas along with parenchyma cells' boundaries were preferred routes for crack growth in both radial and longitudinal directions. Irrespective of the honeycomb structure of fibers along with cellular configuration of parenchyma ground, the hollow vessels within bamboo culm affected the crack propagation too, by crack deflection or crack-tip energy dissipation. It is expected that the tortuous crack propagation mode exhibited in the present study could be applicable to other cellular natural materials as well.

  20. Air flow through smooth and rough cracks

    Kula, H.-G.; Sharples, S. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Building Science


    A series of laboratory experiments are described which investigated the effect of surface roughness on the air flow characteristics of simple, straight-through, no-bend cracks with smooth and rough internal surfaces. The crack thicknesses used in the study were 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0mm. The crack lengths, in the direction of flow, were 50.8mm and 76.2mm. For the rough cracks the roughness was simulated with two different grades of commercially available energy-cloth (grade 60 and 100). The experimental results were satisfactorily fitted to a quadratic relationship between {Delta}p and Q of the form {Delta}p = AQ + BQ{sup 2} for both the smooth and rough crack data. The effect of roughness on the reduction of air flowing through a crack is also discussed. (author)

  1. Crack problem in a long cylindrical superconductor

    Yong, Hua-Dong; Zhou, You-He; Zeng, Jun


    In this work, the general problem of a center crack in a long cylindrical superconductor is studied. The dependence of the stress intensity factor on the parameters, including the crack length and the applied field, is investigated. We presented a simple model in which the effect of the crack on the critical current is taken into account. It is assumed that the crack forms a perfect barrier to the flow of current. The Bean model and the Kim model are considered for the critical state. Based on the complex potential and boundary collocation methods, the stress intensity factor under the magnetic field is obtained for a long cylindrical superconductor containing a central crack. The results show that the crack length and the applied field have significant effects on the fracture behavior of the superconductor.

  2. Numerical Study of Corrosion Crack Opening

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Svensson, Staffan


    for the corrosion crack opening. Experiments and theoretical analysis by a numerical method, FEM, support that the relation between the reduction of the reinforcement bar diameter due to corrosion and the corresponding increase in crack width for a given time interval, measured on the surface of a concrete specimen...... is proportional. More recently, the constant of proportionality, the so-called crack-corrosion index, has been studied further with respect to its dependence on the diameter of the reinforcement and the concrete cover. In the present paper the above-mentioned work is presented and extended with more realistic 3D......-models of the cracked concrete beam. The crack-corrosion index is evaluated for a variation of different parameters, i.e. bar diameter, concrete cover, crack length and type of corrosion product. This paper is an extended version of a paper by Thoft-Christensen et al. (2005) presented at the IFIP WG 7.5 Conference...

  3. Coarse-grained picture of Brownian motion in water: Role of size and interaction distance range on the nature of randomness.

    Hanasaki, Itsuo; Nagura, Ryo; Kawano, Satoyuki


    The Brownian motion of a particle in a fluid is often described by the linear Langevin equation, in which it is assumed that the mass of the particle is sufficiently large compared to the surrounding fluid molecules. This assumption leads to a diffusion coefficient that is independent of the particle mass. The Stokes-Einstein equation indicates that the diffusion coefficient depends solely on the particle size, but the concept of size can be ambiguous when close to the molecular scale. We first examine the Brownian motion of simple model particles based on short-range interactions in water by the molecular dynamics method and show that the diffusion coefficient can vary with mass when this mass is comparable to that of the solvent molecules, and that this effect is evident when the solute particle size is sufficiently small. We then examine the properties of a water molecule considered as a solute in the bulk solvent consisting of the remainder of the water. A comparison with simple solute models is used to clarify the role of force fields. The long-range Coulomb interaction between water molecules is found to lead to a Gaussian force distribution in spite of a mass ratio and nominal size ratio of unity, such that solutes with short-range interactions exhibit non-Gaussian force distribution. Thus, the range of the interaction distance determines the effective size even if it does not represent the volume excluded by the repulsive force field.

  4. DBEM crack propagation for nonlinear fracture problems

    R. Citarella


    Full Text Available A three-dimensional crack propagation simulation is performed by the Dual Boundary Element Method (DBEM. The Stress Intensity Factors (SIFs along the front of a semi elliptical crack, initiated from the external surface of a hollow axle, are calculated for bending and press fit loading separately and for a combination of them. In correspondence of the latter loading condition, a crack propagation is also simulated, with the crack growth rates calculated using the NASGRO3 formula, calibrated for the material under analysis (steel ASTM A469. The J-integral and COD approaches are selected for SIFs calculation in DBEM environment, where the crack path is assessed by the minimum strain energy density criterion (MSED. In correspondence of the initial crack scenario, SIFs along the crack front are also calculated by the Finite Element (FE code ZENCRACK, using COD, in order to provide, by a cross comparison with DBEM, an assessment on the level of accuracy obtained. Due to the symmetry of the bending problem a pure mode I crack propagation is realised with no kinking of the propagating crack whereas for press fit loading the crack propagation becomes mixed mode. The crack growth analysis is nonlinear because of normal gap elements used to model the press fit condition with added friction, and is developed in an iterative-incremental procedure. From the analysis of the SIFs results related to the initial cracked configuration, it is possible to assess the impact of the press fit condition when superimposed to the bending load case.

  5. Modeling crack growth during Li insertion in storage particles using a fracture phase field approach

    Klinsmann, Markus; Rosato, Daniele; Kamlah, Marc; McMeeking, Robert M.


    Fracture of storage particles is considered to be one of the major reasons for capacity fade and increasing power loss in many commercial lithium ion batteries. The appearance of fracture and cracks in the particles is commonly ascribed to mechanical stress, which evolves from inhomogeneous swelling and shrinkage of the material when lithium is inserted or extracted. Here, a coupled model of lithium diffusion, mechanical stress and crack growth using a phase field method is applied to investigate how the formation of cracks depends on the size of the particle and the presence or absence of an initial crack, as well as the applied flux at the boundary. The model shows great versatility in that it is free of constraints with respect to particle geometry, dimension or crack path and allows simultaneous observation of the evolution of lithium diffusion and crack growth. In this work, we focus on the insertion process. In particular, we demonstrate the presence of intricate fracture phenomena, such as, crack branching or complete breakage of storage particles within just a single half cycle of lithium insertion, a phenomenon that was only speculated about before.

  6. Guided wave-based identification of multiple cracks in beams using a Bayesian approach

    He, Shuai; Ng, Ching-Tai


    A guided wave damage identification method using a model-based approach is proposed to identify multiple cracks in beam-like structures. The guided wave propagation is simulated using spectral finite element method and a crack element is proposed to take into account the mode conversion effect. The Bayesian model class selection algorithm is employed to determine the crack number and then the Bayesian statistical framework is used to identify the crack parameters and the associated uncertainties. In order to improve the efficiency and ensure the reliability of identification, the Transitional Markov Chain Monte Carlo (TMCMC) method is implemented in the Bayesian approach. A series of numerical case studies are carried out to assess the performance of the proposed method, in which the sensitivity of different guided wave modes and effect of different levels of measurement noise in identifying different numbers of cracks is studied in detail. The proposed method is also experimentally verified using guided wave data obtained from laser vibrometer. The results show that the proposed method is able to accurately identify the number, locations and sizes of the cracks, and also quantify the associated uncertainties. In addition the proposed method is robust under measurement noise and different situations of the cracks.

  7. Crack identification through scan-tuning of vibration characteristics using piezoelectric materials

    Zhao, Shengjie; Wu, Nan; Wang, Quan


    This research develops a frequency-based methodology with a scan vibration tuning process for crack identification in beam-type structures coupled with piezoelectric materials. Piezoelectric sensor and actuator patches are mounted on the surface of the host beam synchronously to generate feedback excitations for a tuning process by applying a feedback voltage output from the piezoelectric sensors. The feedback excitations can adjust the stiffness at local section of the beam covered by piezoelectric patches so as to tune its natural vibration mode shapes to amplify the natural frequency change due to the existence of the crack. Piezoelectric patches located at different positions of the beam are activated one by one to realize the scan-tuning process. The crack is identified since the natural frequency change is magnified by the piezoelectric sensor and actuator located at the crack position. Theoretical and finite element models of the scan-tuned beam structures coupled with piezoelectric materials are established. From simulation results, the crack existence and location can be effectively detected through the scan-tuning process with 25% natural frequency change due to a crack located at the middle of the beam. Further parameter studies are conducted to study the effects of the crack location and size on the detection sensitivity.

  8. Fatigue and fracture assessment of cracks in steel elements using acoustic emission

    Nemati, Navid; Metrovich, Brian; Nanni, Antonio


    Single edge notches provide a very well defined load and fatigue crack size and shape environment for estimation of the stress intensity factor K, which is not found in welded elements. ASTM SE(T) specimens do not appear to provide ideal boundary conditions for proper recording of acoustic wave propagation and crack growth behavior observed in steel bridges, but do provide standard fatigue crack growth rate data. A modified versions of the SE(T) specimen has been examined to provide small scale specimens with improved acoustic emission(AE) characteristics while still maintaining accuracy of fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN) versus stress intensity factor (ΔK). The specimens intend to represent a steel beam flange subjected to pure tension, with a surface crack growing transverse to a uniform stress field. Fatigue test is conducted at low R ratio. Analytical and numerical studies of stress intensity factor are developed for single edge notch test specimens consistent with the experimental program. ABAQUS finite element software is utilized for stress analysis of crack tips. Analytical, experimental and numerical analysis were compared to assess the abilities of AE to capture a growing crack.

  9. Fatigue Crack Closure Analysis Using Digital Image Correlation

    Leser, William P.; Newman, John A.; Johnston, William M.


    Fatigue crack closure during crack growth testing is analyzed in order to evaluate the critieria of ASTM Standard E647 for measurement of fatigue crack growth rates. Of specific concern is remote closure, which occurs away from the crack tip and is a product of the load history during crack-driving-force-reduction fatigue crack growth testing. Crack closure behavior is characterized using relative displacements determined from a series of high-magnification digital images acquired as the crack is loaded. Changes in the relative displacements of features on opposite sides of the crack are used to generate crack closure data as a function of crack wake position. For the results presented in this paper, remote closure did not affect fatigue crack growth rate measurements when ASTM Standard E647 was strictly followed and only became a problem when testing parameters (e.g., load shed rate, initial crack driving force, etc.) greatly exceeded the guidelines of the accepted standard.

  10. Crack

    ... rate, breathing rate, blood pressure , and body temperature decreased appetite and less need for sleep feelings of restlessness, ... effects include: gangrene in the bowels resulting from decreased blood ... chest pain reduced appetite, plus health problems associated with not eating a ...



    En este trabajo de tesis presentamos dos experimentos en que trayectorias de fracturas sumamente reproducibles son obtenidas en láminas delgadas frágiles. En ambos casos, a partir de configuraciones iniciales sumamente simples y pequeñas, las trayectorias obtenidas son espirales logarítmicas de gran tamao. Nuestro primer experimento consiste en un crack que se inicia desde un corte recto hecho en una lámina delgada y que es forzado a propagarse por medio de empujar con un objeto sólido....

  12. Fatigue Crack Closure - A Review


    gauge along the crack line. They used CCT speci- mens of high tensile strength steel ( HY80 ). The measured value of U was found to be a minimum at the...ultrasonic surface wave technique on 12.5mm thick specimens of 2024-T851, 2024-T351, Al 2219, Ti-6AI-4V and 17-4 PH steel . Most of the results were...medium and high strength steels . Exami- nation of the fracture surfaces suggested that raising the mean stress in low fracture toughness steels could

  13. Expansive Soil Crack Depth under Cumulative Damage

    Bei-xiao Shi


    Full Text Available The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil.

  14. Nonlinear modal method of crack localization

    Ostrovsky, Lev; Sutin, Alexander; Lebedev, Andrey


    A simple scheme for crack localization is discussed that is relevant to nonlinear modal tomography based on the cross-modulation of two signals at different frequencies. The scheme is illustrated by a theoretical model, in which a thin plate or bar with a single crack is excited by a strong low-frequency wave and a high-frequency probing wave (ultrasound). The crack is assumed to be small relative to all wavelengths. Nonlinear scattering from the crack is studied using a general matrix approach as well as simplified models allowing one to find the nonlinear part of crack volume variations under the given stress and then the combinational wave components in the tested material. The nonlinear response strongly depends on the crack position with respect to the peaks or nodes of the corresponding interacting signals which can be used for determination of the crack position. Juxtaposing various resonant modes interacting at the crack it is possible to retrieve both crack location and orientation. Some aspects of inverse problem solutions are also discussed, and preliminary experimental results are presented.

  15. Wettability Induced Crack Dynamics and Morphology

    Ghosh, Udita Uday; Bhandari, Aditya Bikram; Chakraborty, Suman; DasGupta, Sunando


    Substrate wettability alteration induced control over crack formation process in thin colloidal films has been addressed in the present study. Colloidal nanosuspension (53nm, mean particle diameter) droplets have been subjected to natural drying to outline the effects of substrate surface energies over the dry-out characteristics with emphasis on crack dynamics, crack morphology and underlying particle arrangements. Experimental findings indicate that number of cracks formed decreases with increase in substrate hydrophobicity. These physical phenomena have been explained based on the magnitude of stress dissipation incurred by the substrate. DLVO predictions are also found to be in tune with the reported experimental investigations.

  16. Crack depth determination with inductive thermography

    Oswald-Tranta, B.; Schmidt, R.


    Castings, forgings and other steel products are nowadays usually tested with magnetic particle inspection, in order to detect surface cracks. An alternative method is active thermography with inductive heating, which is quicker, it can be well automated and as in this paper presented, even the depth of a crack can be estimated. The induced eddy current, due to its very small penetration depth in ferro-magnetic materials, flows around a surface crack, heating this selectively. The surface temperature is recorded during and after the short inductive heating pulse with an infrared camera. Using Fourier transformation the whole IR image sequence is evaluated and the phase image is processed to detect surface cracks. The level and the local distribution of the phase around a crack correspond to its depth. Analytical calculations were used to model the signal distribution around cracks with different depth and a relationship has been derived between the depth of a crack and its phase value. Additionally, also the influence of the heating pulse duration has been investigated. Samples with artificial and with natural cracks have been tested. Results are presented comparing the calculated and measured phase values depending on the crack depth. Keywords: inductive heating, eddy current, infrared

  17. Fatigue crack growth detect, assess, avoid

    Richard, Hans Albert


    This book offers a concise introduction to fatigue crack growth, based on practical examples. It discusses the essential concepts of fracture mechanics, fatigue crack growth under constant and variable amplitude loading and the determination of the fracture-mechanical material parameters. The book also introduces the analytical and numerical simulation of fatigue crack growth as well as crack initiation. It concludes with a detailed description of several practical case studies and some exercises. The target group includes graduate students, researchers at universities and practicing engineers.

  18. Investigations of Low Temperature Time Dependent Cracking

    Van der Sluys, W A; Robitz, E S; Young, B A; Bloom, J


    The objective of this project was to investigate metallurgical and mechanical phenomena associated with time dependent cracking of cold bent carbon steel piping at temperatures between 327 C and 360 C. Boiler piping failures have demonstrated that understanding the fundamental metallurgical and mechanical parameters controlling these failures is insufficient to eliminate it from the field. The results of the project consisted of the development of a testing methodology to reproduce low temperature time dependent cracking in laboratory specimens. This methodology was used to evaluate the cracking resistance of candidate heats in order to identify the factors that enhance cracking sensitivity. The resultant data was integrated into current available life prediction tools.

  19. Cracking of open traffic rigid pavement

    Niken Chatarina


    Full Text Available The research is done by observing the growth of real structure cracking in Natar, Lampung, Indonesia compared to C. Niken’s et al research and literature study. The rigid pavement was done with open traffic system. There are two main crack types on Natar rigid pavement: cracks cross the road, and cracks spreads on rigid pavement surface. The observation of cracks was analyzed by analyzing material, casting, curing, loading and shrinkage mechanism. The relationship between these analysis and shrinkage mechanism was studied in concrete micro structure. Open traffic make hydration process occur under vibration; therefore, fresh concrete was compressed and tensioned alternately since beginning. High temperature together with compression, cement dissociation, the growth of Ca2+ at very early age leads abnormal swelling. No prevention from outside water movement leads hydration process occur with limited water which caused spreads fine cracks. Limited water improves shrinkage and plastic phase becomes shorter; therefore, rigid pavement can’t accommodate the abnormal swelling and shrinking alternately and creates the spread of cracks. Discontinuing casting the concrete makes both mix under different condition, the first is shrink and the second is swell and creates weak line on the border; so, the cracks appear as cracks across the road.

  20. Crack spacing of unsaturated soils in the critical state

    SUN JiChao; WANG GuangQian; SUN QiCheng


    The cracking mechanism of unsaturated soils due to evaporation is poorly understood, and the magnitude of crack spacing is usually hard to estimate. In this work, cracks were postulated to occur suc-cedently rather than simultaneously, that is, secondary cracks appear after primary cracks as evaporation continues. Formulae of the secondary crack spacing and secondary trend crack spacing were then derived after stress analysis. The calculated spacing values were consistent with the published experimental data. Meanwhile, the effect of the Poisson ratio on the crack spacing was analyzed, which showed that the magnitude of crack spacing was proportional to the Poisson ratio in the range of [0.30,0.35].

  1. On the application of cohesive crack modeling in cementitious materials

    Stang, Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes; Poulsen, Peter Noe;


    Cohesive crack models-in particular the Fictitious Crack Model - are applied routinely in the analysis of crack propagation in concrete and mortar. Bridged crack models-where cohesive stresses are assumed to exist together with a stress singularity at the crack tip-on the other hand, are used....... Further, a quantitative condition is established indicating when a bridged crack model can be approximated with a cohesive crack model with smooth crack closure in terms of the ratio between the energy dissipation associated with the crack tip and the process zone....

  2. Mode Ⅰ Plane Crack Interacting with an Interfacial Crack Along a Circular Inhomogeneity

    WANG Rui; MA Jian-jun; LIU Zheng-guang


    The elastic interaction of the mode Ⅰ plane crack with an interfacial crack along a circular inhomogeneity is dealt with. The dislocation density and the stress intensity factors (SIFs) of the mode I plane crack are obtained numerically. A new kind of dislocation equilibrium equation about the plane crack is applied. The influence of some material parameters on the dislocation density and SIFs are analyzed.

  3. K{sub I}-T estimation for embedded flaws in pipes - Part II: Circumferentially oriented cracks

    Qian Xudong, E-mail: [Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Singapore, 1 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)


    This paper, in parallel to the investigation on axially embedded cracks reported in the companion paper, presents a numerical study on the linear-elastic K{sub I} and T-stress values over the front of elliptical cracks circumferentially embedded in the wall of a pipe/cylindrical structure, under a uniform pressure applied on the inner surface of the pipe. The numerical procedure employs the interaction-integral approach to compute the linear-elastic stress-intensity factor (SIF) K{sub I} and T-stress values for embedded cracks with practical sizes at different locations in the wall of the pipe. The parametric study covers a wide range of geometric parameters for embedded cracks in the pipe, including: the wall thickness to the inner radius ratio (t/R{sub i}), the crack depth over the wall thickness ratio (a/t), the crack aspect ratio (a/c) and the ratio of the distance from the centerline of the crack to the outer surface of the pipe over the pipe wall thickness (e{sub M}/t). The parametric investigation identifies a significant effect of the remaining ligament length on both the T-stress and K{sub I} values at the crack-front location (denoted by point O) nearest to the outer surface of the pipe and at the crack-front location (denoted by point I) nearest to the inner surface of the pipe. The numerical investigation establishes the database to derive approximate functions from a nonlinear curve-fitting procedure to predict the T-stress and K{sub I} values at three critical front locations of the circumferentially embedded crack in a pipe: points O, I and M. The proposed T-stress and K{sub I} functions utilize a combined second-order polynomial and a power-law expression, which presents a close agreement with the T-stress and K{sub I} values computed from the very detailed finite element models. The comparison between the circumferentially embedded crack and the axially embedded crack indicates that both the T-stress and K{sub I} values at crack-front points O and

  4. Detection of Through-Deck Type Fatigue Cracks in Steel Bridges by Self-Reference Lock-in Thermography

    Tamakoshi T.


    Full Text Available A new remote nondestructive inspection technique, based on thermoelastic temperature measurement by infrared thermography, is developed for detection and evaluation of fatigue cracks propagating from welded joints in steel bridges. Fatigue cracks are detected from localized high thermoelastic temperature change at crack tips due to stress singularity under variable loading from traffics on the bridge. Selfreference lock-in data processing technique is developed for the improvement of signal/noise ratio in the crack detection process. The technique makes it possible to perform correlation processing without an external reference signal. It is very difficult to detect through-deck type fatigue cracks in steel decks by the conventional NDT technique, since they are not open to the inspection. In this paper, self-reference lock-in thermography is applied for detection of through-deck type fatigue cracks. Experiments are carried out to steel deck sample, which simulates an actual steel bridge, during crack propagation test. It is found that significant stress concentration zone can be observed near the crack front, which enabled us to detect through-deck type fatigue cracks and to estimate its size.

  5. Study of a flight monitor for jet engine disk cracks using the critical length criterion of fracture mechanics

    Barranger, J. P.


    A disk crack detector is discussed which is intended to operate while in flight. The crack detector monitors the disk rim for radial surface cracks emanating from the blade root interface. An eddy current type sensor with a remotely located capacitance-resistance bridge and signal analyzer is able to detect reliably a simulated crack 1/8 in. long. The sensor was tested at rim velocities of 600 fps and at 1000 F. Fracture mechanics is used to calculate the critical crack length. Knowledge of the crack growth rate permits the calculation of the number of stress cycles remaining for the detected crack to grow to critical size. A plot is presented of the remaining life as a function of the critical crack length and the operating stress. It is shown that for a disk of Inconel 718 a through-the-thickness crack operating under a rim stress of 50 kpsi has a critical length of 0.7-in. and a remaining life of 130 flights.



    An alternative technique for crack detection in a Timoshenko beam based on the first anti-resonant frequency is presented in this paper. Unlike the natural frequency, the anti-resonant frequency is a local parameter rather than a global parameter of structures, thus the proposed technique can be used to locate the structural defects. An impedance analysis of a cracked beam stimulated by a harmonic force based on the Timoshenko beam formulation is investigated. In order to characterize the local discontinuity due to cracks, a rotational spring model based on fracture mechanics is proposed to model the crack. Subsequently, the proposed method is verified by a numerical example of a simply-supported beam with a crack. The effect of the crack size on the anti-resonant frequency is investigated. The position of the crack of the simply-supported beam is also determined by the anti-resonance technique. The proposed technique is further applied to the "contaminated" anti-resonant frequency to detect crack damage, which is obtained by adding 1-3% noise to the calculated data. It is found that the proposed technique is effective and free from the environment noise. Finally, an experimental study is performed, which further verifies the validity of the proposed crack identification technique.

  7. Fracture analysis for a penny-shaped crack problem of a superconducting cylinder in a parallel magnetic field

    Gao, S. W.; Feng, W. J.; Fang, X. Q.; Zhang, G. L.


    In this work, the penny-shaped crack problem is investigated for an infinite long superconducting cylinder under electromagnetic forces. The distributions of magnetic flux density in the superconducting cylinder are obtained analytically for both the zero-field cooling (ZFC) and the field cooling (FC) activation processes, where the magnetically impermeable crack surface condition and the Bean model outside the crack region are adopted. Based on the finite element method (FEM), the stress intensity factor (SIF) and energy release rate (ERR) at the crack tips in the process of field descent are further numerically calculated. Numerical results obtained show that according to the maximal energy release rate criterion, the FC process is generally easier to enhance crack initiation and propagation than the ZFC activation process. On the other hand, for the FC activation process, the larger the maximal applied magnetic field, more likely the crack propagates. Additionally, crack size has important and slightly different effects on the crack extension forces for the ZFC and FC cases. Thus, all of the activation processes, the applied field and the diameter of the penny-shaped crack have significant effects on the intensity analysis and design of superconducting materials.

  8. The concept of the average stress in the fracture process zone for the search of the crack path

    Yu.G. Matvienko


    Full Text Available The concept of the average stress has been employed to propose the maximum average tangential stress (MATS criterion for predicting the direction of fracture angle. This criterion states that a crack grows when the maximum average tangential stress in the fracture process zone ahead of the crack tip reaches its critical value and the crack growth direction coincides with the direction of the maximum average tangential stress along a constant radius around the crack tip. The tangential stress is described by the singular and nonsingular (T-stress terms in the Williams series solution. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed MATS criterion, this criterion is directly applied to experiments reported in the literature for the mixed mode I/II crack growth behavior of Guiting limestone. The predicted directions of fracture angle are consistent with the experimental data. The concept of the average stress has been also employed to predict the surface crack path under rolling-sliding contact loading. The proposed model considers the size and orientation of the initial crack, normal and tangential loading due to rolling–sliding contact as well as the influence of fluid trapped inside the crack by a hydraulic pressure mechanism. The MATS criterion is directly applied to equivalent contact model for surface crack growth on a gear tooth flank.

  9. Extended propagation model for interfacial crack in composite material structure

    闫相桥; 冯希金


    An interfacial crack is a common damage in a composite material structure . An extended propaga-tion model has been established for an interfacial crack to study the dependence of crack growth on the relativesizes of energy release rates at left and right crack tips and the properties of interfacial material characterize thegrowth of interfacial crack better.

  10. Coupled FEM-DBEM method to assess crack growth in magnet system of Wendelstein 7-X

    R. Citarella


    Full Text Available The fivefold symmetric modular stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X is currently under construction in Greifswald, Germany. The superconducting coils of the magnet system are bolted onto a central support ring and interconnected with five so-called lateral support elements (LSEs per half module. After welding of the LSE hollow boxes to the coil cases, cracks were found in the vicinity of the welds that could potentially limit the allowed number N of electromagnetic (EM load cycles of the machine. In response to the appearance of first cracks during assembly, the Stress Intensity Factors (SIFs were calculated and corresponding crack growth rates of theoretical semi-circular cracks of measured sizes in potentially critical position and orientation were predicted using Paris’ law, whose parameters were calibrated in fatigue tests at cryogenic temperature. In this paper the Dual Boundary Element Method (DBEM is applied in a coupled FEM-DBEM approach to analyze the propagation of multiple cracks with different shapes. For this purpose, the crack path is assessed with the Minimum Strain Energy density criterion and SIFs are calculated by the J-integral approach. The Finite Element Method (FEM is adopted to model, using the commercial codes Ansys or Abaqus;, the overall component whereas the submodel analysis, in the volume surrounding the cracked area, is performed by FEM (“FEM-FEM approach” or alternatively by DBEM (“FEM-DBEM approach”. The “FEM-FEM approach” considers a FEM submodel, that is extracted from the FEM global model; the latter provide the boundary conditions for the submodel. Such approach is affected by some restrictions in the crack propagation phase, whereas, with the “FEM-DBEM approach”, the crack propagation simulation is straightforward. In this case the submodel is created in a DBEM environment with boundary conditions provided by the global FEM analysis; then the crack is introduced and a crack propagation analysis

  11. Modified boundary layer analysis for a mode III crack problem

    Beom, Hyeon Gyu; Kim, Yu Hwan; Cho, Chong Du; Kim, Chang Boo [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    A modified boundary layer problem of a semi-infinite crack in an elastic-perfectly plastic material under a Mode III load is analyzed. The analytic solution of elastic fields is derived by using complex function theory. It is found that the size and the shape of the plastic zone near the crack tip depend on the elastic T-stress given on the remote boundary. A method for determining higher order singular solutions of elastic fields is also proposed. In order to determine the higher order singular solutions of the elastic fields, Williams expansion of the solution is used. Higher order terms in the Williams expansion are obtained through simple mathematical manipulation. The coefficients of each term in the Williams expansion are also calculated numerically with the J-based mutual integral

  12. Analytical Model for Fictitious Crack Propagation in Concrete Beams

    Ulfkjær, J. P.; Krenk, Steen; Brincker, Rune


    An analytical model for load-displacement curves of concrete beams is presented. The load-displacement curve is obtained by combining two simple models. The fracture is modeled by a fictitious crack in an elastic layer around the midsection of the beam. Outside the elastic layer the deformations ...... starts to grow correspond to the same bending moment. Closed-form solutions for the maximum size of the fracture zone and the minimum slope on the load-displacement curve are given.......An analytical model for load-displacement curves of concrete beams is presented. The load-displacement curve is obtained by combining two simple models. The fracture is modeled by a fictitious crack in an elastic layer around the midsection of the beam. Outside the elastic layer the deformations...

  13. Chloride Penetration through Cracks in High-Performance Concrete and Surface Treatment System for Crack Healing

    In-Seok Yoon


    Full Text Available For enhancing the service life of concrete structures, it is very important to minimize crack at surface. Even if these cracks are very small, the problem is to which extend these cracks may jeopardize the durability of these decks. It was proposed that crack depth corresponding with critical crack width from the surface is a crucial factor in view of durability design of concrete structures. It was necessary to deal with chloride penetration through microcracks characterized with the mixing features of concrete. This study is devoted to examine the effect of high strength concrete and reinforcement of steel fiber on chloride penetration through cracks. High strength concrete is regarded as an excellent barrier to resist chloride penetration. However, durability performance of cracked high strength concrete was reduced seriously up to that of ordinary cracked concrete. Steel fiber reinforcement is effective to reduce chloride penetration through cracks because steel fiber reinforcement can lead to reduce crack depth significantly. Meanwhile, surface treatment systems are put on the surface of the concrete in order to seal the concrete. The key-issue is to which extend a sealing is able to ensure that chloride-induced corrosion can be prevented. As a result, penetrant cannot cure cracks, however, coating and combined treatment can prevent chloride from flowing in concrete with maximum crack width of 0.06 mm and 0.08 mm, respectively.

  14. On fatigue crack growth in ductile materials by crack-tip blunting

    Tvergaard, Viggo


    One of the basic mechanisms for fatigue crack growth in ductile metals is that depending on crack-tip blunting under tensile loads and re-sharpening of the crack-tip during unloading. In a standard numerical analysis accounting for finite strains it is not possible to follow this process during...

  15. Crack modelling and detection in Timoshenko FGM beam under transverse vibration using frequency contour and response surface model with GA

    Banerjee, Amit; Panigrahi, Brajesh; Pohit, G.


    In the present work, dynamic response of cracked Timoshenko beam with functionally graded material properties are obtained by a numerical technique using Ritz approximation. In order to verify the applicability and performance of the formulation, comparisons of the present numerical method with three-dimensional FEM models are made. Crack is assumed to be transverse and open throughout the vibration cycle. Two different crack detection techniques have been proposed. Results obtained by the numerical technique are used in both of the crack detection techniques. In the first technique, the frequency contours with respect to crack location and size are plotted and the intersection of contours of different modes helps in the prediction of crack location and size. In the second technique, crack is modelled using response surface methodology (RSM). The sum of the squared errors between the numerical and RSM regression model natural frequencies is used as the objective function. This objective function is minimised using genetic algorithm optimisation technique. Both the crack detection techniques and the numerical analysis have shown good agreement with each other.


    YANG Yong-yu; LIU Xin-wei; YANG Fan


    The curve of relationship between fatigue crack growth rate and the stress strength factor amplitude represented an important fatigue property in designing of damage tolerance limits and predicting life of metallic component parts. In order to have a morereasonable use of testing data, samples from population were stratified suggested by the stratified random sample model (SRAM). The data in each stratum corresponded to the same experiment conditions. A suitable weight was assigned to each stratified sample according to the actual working states of the pressure vessel, so that the estimation of fatigue crack growth rate equation was more accurate for practice. An empirical study shows that the SRAM estimation by using fatigue crack growth rate data from different stoves is obviously better than the estimation from simple random sample model.

  17. Stress distribution and effective stress intensity factor of a blunt crack after dislocation emission


    The stress fields induced by a dislocation and its image dislocations around a narrow elliptic void are formulated. Based on the solution, the stress distribution and effective stress intensity factor of a blunt (elliptic) crack were calculated under mode I constant loading. The results show that a dislocation-free zone (DFZ) is formed after dislocation emission. There exists a second stress peak in the DFZ except a stress peak at the blunt crack tip. With an increase in the applied stress intensity factor KIa or the friction stress τf of the material, the DFZ size and the peak stress at the crack tip decrease, but the peak stress in the DFZ and the effective stress intensity factor KIf presiding at the crack tip increase. Because of dislocation shielding effects, shielding ratio KIa/KIf increases with increasing KIa}, but it decreases with increasing τf.


    Zhu Youli; Ro(z)niatowski K; Kurzydlowski K; Huang Yuanlin; Xu Binshi


    It has been postulated that, with tensile loading conditions, micro-cracks on thin hard film act as stress concentrators enhancing plastic deformation of the substrate material in their vicinity. Under favorable conditions the localized plastic flow near the cracks may turn into macroscopic plastic strain thus affects the plasticity behaviors of the substrate. This phenomenon is analyzed quantitatively with finite element method with special attention focused on the analysis and discussion of the effects of plastic work hardening rate, film thickness and crack depth on maximum plastic strain, critical loading stress and the size of the local plastic deformation zone. Results show that micro-cracks on thin hard film have unnegligible effects on the plasticity behaviors of the substrate material under tensile loading.

  19. Stress distribution and effective stress intensity factor of a blunt crack after dislocation emission

    钱才富; 乔利杰; 褚武扬


    The stress fields induced by a dislocation and its image dislocations around a narrow elliptic void are formulated. Based on the solution, the stress distribution and effective stress intensity factor of a blunt (elliptic) crack were calculated under mode I constant loading. The results show that a dislocation-free zone (DFZ) is formed after dislocation emission. There exists a second stress peak in the DFZ except a stress peak at the blunt crack tip. With an increase in the applied stress intensity factor Kla or the friction stress T, of the material, the DFZ size and the peak stress at the crack tip decrease, but the peak stress in the DFZ and the effective stress intensity factor Klf presiding at the crack tip increase. Because of dislocation shielding effects, shielding ratio Kla/Klf increases with increasing Kla, but it decreases with increasing Tf.

  20. Estimation of Crack Growth Properties of High Strength Metallic Materials by a Novel Technique

    P R Sadananda Rao


    Full Text Available This research work proposes a novel technique based on fracture mechanics approach for the quick determination of fatigue crack growth rate and threshold stress intensity factor range (ΔKth of metallic materials using circumferentially cracked round bar (CCRBspecimen geometry. The literature survey indicates that the fatigue crack growth rate data generated using ASTM E-647 standard test specimens were strongly dependent on specimen size and its configuration. Also the standard test procedure is more cumbersome and time consuming requires costly instrumentation. Aluminum 2014T6 alloy is used as the test specimen because of its wide applicationin automobiles and aero plane industry. It is found that the test procedure is simple, reliable, less time consuming and uses simple instrumentation. The obtained fatigue crack growth rate is found to be very close to the values obtained by using standard specimens. This methodology can be widely applied in industries for rapid determination of ΔKth any metallic materials.

  1. Characteristics of Welding Crack Defects and Failure Mode in Resistance Spot Welding of DP780 Steel

    Xiao-pei WANG; Yong-qiang ZHANG; Jian-bin JU; Jian-qiang ZHANG; Jian-wei YANG


    The mechanical properties of welded joints in resistance spot welding of DP780 steel were tested,and three dif-ferent types of welding cracks in welded joints were investigated by optical microscopy,scanning electron microscopy and electron back-scattered diffraction.Finally,the failure mode of the welded joints in shear tensile test was dis-cussed.It is found the shear tensile strength of welded joints can be greatly improved by adding preheating current or tempering current.The surface crack in welded joint is intergranular fracture,while the inner crack in welded joint is transgranular fracture,and the surface crack on the edge of the electrode imprint can be improved by adding prehea-ting current or tempering current.The traditional failure mode criterion advised by American Welding Society is no longer suitable for DP780 spot welds and the critical nugget size suggested by Pouranvari is overestimated.

  2. A Creaking and Cracking Comet

    Faurschou Hviid, Stubbe; Hüttig, Christian; Groussin, Olivier; Mottola, Stefano; Keller, Horst Uwe; OSIRIS Team


    Since the middle of 2014 the OSIRIS cameras on the ESA Rosetta mission have been monitoring the evolution of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as it passed through perihelion. During the perihelion passage several change events have been observed on the nucleus surface. For example existing large scale cracks have expanded and new large scale cracks have been created. Also several large scale "wave pattern" like change events have been observed in the Imhotep and Hapi regions. These are events not directly correlated with any normal visible cometary activity. One interpretation is that these are events likely caused by "seismic" activity. The seismic activity is created by the self-gravity stress of the non-spherical comet nucleus and stress created by the non-gravitational forces acting on the comet. The non-gravitational forces are changing the rotation period of the comet (~20min/perihelion passage) which induces a changing mechanical stress pattern through the perihelion passage. Also the diurnal cycle with its changing activity pattern is causing a periodic wobble in the stress pattern that can act as a trigger for a comet quake. The stress pattern has been modeled using a finite element model that includes self-gravity, the comet spin and the non-gravitational forces based on a cometary activity model. This paper will discuss what can be learned about the comet nucleus structure and about the cometary material properties from these events and from the FEM model.

  3. What can cracked polymer do

    Jiao, Kexin; Zhou, Chuanhong; Kohli, Punit; Poudel, Anish; Chu, Tsuchin


    Buckling, delamination, and cracking are very well known phenomenon observed in most thin films. They were theoretically explained by the existence of mechanical instability due to the residue stress generated when a thin film is deposited on substrates or undergoing environmental stimulus. Buckled structures at micro- or nano-scale have been of great interests and have been used extensively in many applications including particles self-assembling, surface wettability modification, and micro-electronic device fabrication. However, peeling of a layer from a substrate due to delamination or fractures on a thin film due to cracking is mostly taken as an undesirable result. Therefore, strategies are inspired for preventing or removing these often undesired structures. We found that after being heated above its decomposition temperature and then cooled to room temperature, a PDMS thin film showed micro-fibers of 100 μm width and up to 1.5 cm in length. By studying the formation mechanism, control of the dimensions and of the growth pattern on a substrate for PDMS micro-fibers were realized. Giving credit to their high flexibility and optical transparency, a PDMS micro-fiber were utilized in high resolution near field imaging achieved by attaching a micro-lens on the fiber. Interestingly, a surface covered by PDMS micro-fibers will turn from superhydrophobic into superhydrophilic by further heating providing potential applications in surface wettability modification. In future, we will investigate and simulate the growth of PDMS micro-fiber and look for more possible applications.

  4. Effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin on HDL cholesterol, particle size, and cholesterol efflux capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Fadini, Gian Paolo; Bonora, Benedetta Maria; Zatti, Giancarlo; Vitturi, Nicola; Iori, Elisabetta; Marescotti, Maria Cristina; Albiero, Mattia; Avogaro, Angelo


    Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) reduce glucose levels, body weight, and blood pressure, possibly resulting in cardiovascular protection. In phase III trials, SGLT2i were shown to increase HDL cholesterol. We aimed to evaluate whether the SGLT2i dapagliflozin affects HDL function in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Thirty-three type 2 diabetic patients were randomized to receive dapagliflozin 10 mg or placebo for 12 weeks on top of their glucose lowering medications. The primary end-point was the change in cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) from macrophages at study end versus baseline. Secondary endpoints were changes in: distribution of HDL subfractions, lipid profile, activity of enzymes that mediate HDL antioxidant properties (PON1 and ARE) and cholesterol metabolism (CETP), HbA1c, body weight and composition. Thirty-one patients completed the study, n = 16 in the placebo group and n = 15 in the dapagliflozin group. Patients randomized to dapagliflozin were older and had lower adiposity indexes, although these differences disappeared after correction for multiple testing. Therapy with dapagliflozin reduced HbA1c by 0.9% and body weight by 3.1 kg, mainly attributable to reduction of body water and lean mass. As compared to placebo, dapagliflozin reduced CEC (-6.7 ± 2.4 versus 0.3 ± 1.8%; p = 0.043), but this effect was no longer significant after adjusting for age and BMI. No change was detected in HDL cholesterol, HDL subfractions, activity of PON1, ARE, and CETP. Despite improvements in glucose control and reduction in body weight, therapy with dapagliflozin exerted no significant effect on HDL cholesterol levels and HDL functionality. Trial registration EudraCT 2014-004270-42; NCT02327039.

  5. Effect of sample size on multi-parametric prediction of tissue outcome in acute ischemic stroke using a random forest classifier

    Forkert, Nils Daniel; Fiehler, Jens


    The tissue outcome prediction in acute ischemic stroke patients is highly relevant for clinical and research purposes. It has been shown that the combined analysis of diffusion and perfusion MRI datasets using high-level machine learning techniques leads to an improved prediction of final infarction compared to single perfusion parameter thresholding. However, most high-level classifiers require a previous training and, until now, it is ambiguous how many subjects are required for this, which is the focus of this work. 23 MRI datasets of acute stroke patients with known tissue outcome were used in this work. Relative values of diffusion and perfusion parameters as well as the binary tissue outcome were extracted on a voxel-by- voxel level for all patients and used for training of a random forest classifier. The number of patients used for training set definition was iteratively and randomly reduced from using all 22 other patients to only one other patient. Thus, 22 tissue outcome predictions were generated for each patient using the trained random forest classifiers and compared to the known tissue outcome using the Dice coefficient. Overall, a logarithmic relation between the number of patients used for training set definition and tissue outcome prediction accuracy was found. Quantitatively, a mean Dice coefficient of 0.45 was found for the prediction using the training set consisting of the voxel information from only one other patient, which increases to 0.53 if using all other patients (n=22). Based on extrapolation, 50-100 patients appear to be a reasonable tradeoff between tissue outcome prediction accuracy and effort required for data acquisition and preparation.

  6. Lifetime prediction for the subsurface crack propagation using three-dimensional dynamic FEA model

    Yin, Yuan; Chen, Yun-Xia; Liu, Le


    The subsurface crack propagation is one of the major interests for gear system research. The subsurface crack propagation lifetime is the number of cycles remaining for a spall to appear, which can be obtained through either stress intensity factor or accumulated plastic strain analysis. In this paper, the heavy loads are applied to the gear system. When choosing stress intensity factor, the high compressive stress suppresses Mode I stress intensities and severely reduces Mode II stress intensities in the heavily loaded lubricated contacts. Such that, the accumulated plastic strain is selected to calculate the subsurface crack propagation lifetime from the three-dimensional FEA model through ANSYS Workbench transient analysis. The three-dimensional gear FEA dynamic model with the subsurface crack is built through dividing the gears into several small elements. The calculation of the total cycles of the elements is proposed based on the time-varying accumulated plastic strain, which then will be used to calculate the subsurface crack propagation lifetime. During this process, the demonstration from a subsurface crack to a spall can be uncovered. In addition, different sizes of the elements around the subsurface crack are compared in this paper. The influences of the frictional coefficient and external torque on the crack propagation lifetime are also discussed. The results show that the lifetime of crack propagation decreases significantly when the external load T increasing from 100 N m to 150 N m. Given from the distributions of the accumulated plastic strain, the lifetime shares no significant difference when the frictional coefficient f ranging in 0.04-0.06.

  7. Infarct size, left ventricular function, and prognosis in women compared to men after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: results from an individual patient-level pooled analysis of 10 randomized trials.

    Kosmidou, Ioanna; Redfors, Björn; Selker, Harry P; Thiele, Holger; Patel, Manesh R; Udelson, James E; Magnus Ohman, E; Eitel, Ingo; Granger, Christopher B; Maehara, Akiko; Kirtane, Ajay; Généreux, Philippe; Jenkins, Paul L; Ben-Yehuda, Ori; Mintz, Gary S; Stone, Gregg W


    Studies have reported less favourable outcomes in women compared with men after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Whether sex-specific differences in the magnitude or prognostic impact of infarct size or post-infarction cardiac function explain this finding is unknown. We pooled patient-level data from 10 randomized primary PCI trials in which infarct size was measured within 1 month (median 4 days) by either cardiac magnetic resonance imaging or technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomography. We assessed the association between sex, infarct size, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and the composite rate of death or heart failure (HF) hospitalization within 1 year. Of 2632 patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI, 587 (22.3%) were women. Women were older than men and had a longer delay between symptom onset and reperfusion. Infarct size did not significantly differ between women and men, and women had higher LVEF. Nonetheless, women had a higher 1-year rate of death or HF hospitalization compared to men, and while infarct size was a strong independent predictor of 1-year death or HF hospitalization (P size or LVEF on the risk of death or HF hospitalization. In this large-scale, individual patient-level pooled analysis of patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI, women had a higher 1-year rate of death or HF hospitalization compared to men, a finding not explained by sex-specific differences in the magnitude or prognostic impact of infarct size or by differences in post-infarction cardiac function.

  8. Fatigue crack detection on structural steel members by using ultrasound excited thermography = Erkennung von Ermüdungsrissen in Stahlbauteilen durch ultraschallangeregte Thermografie


    Ultrasound excitation of structural steel members leads to localised energy dissipation at existent fatigue cracks and thus allows for thermographic flaw detection. Essential effects on the defect-selective heating, such as flaw size, plate thickness, crack mouth opening or static preload, are systematically investigated. Laser vibrometry measurements of the crack edges, theoretical modelling of frictional heating and numerical simulations contribute to the understanding of the involved physics.

  9. Characterization of crack growth under combined loading

    Feldman, A.; Smith, F. W.; Holston, A., Jr.


    Room-temperature static and cyclic tests were made on 21 aluminum plates in the shape of a 91.4x91.4-cm Maltese cross with 45 deg flaws to develop crack growth and fracture toughness data under mixed-mode conditions. During cyclic testing, it was impossible to maintain a high proportion of shear-mode deformation on the crack tips. Cracks either branched or turned. Under static loading, cracks remained straight if shear stress intensity exceeded normal stress intensity. Mixed-mode crack growth rate data compared reasonably well with published single-mode data, and measured crack displacements agreed with the straight and branched crack analyses. Values of critical strain energy release rate at fracture for pure shear were approximately 50% higher than for pure normal opening, and there was a large reduction in normal stress intensity at fracture in the presence of high shear stress intensity. Net section stresses were well into the inelastic range when fracture occurred under high shear on the cracks.

  10. Locating a leaking crack by safe stimulation

    Coleman, C.E.; Sagat, S. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.); Shek, G.K.; Graham, D.B.; Durand, M.A. (Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada))


    A few Zr-2.5 Nb alloy pressure tubes in CANDU nuclear reactors have leaked through cracks that have grown by delayed hydride cracking (DHC). In some instances, tubes contained confirmed leaks that were leaking at a rate too low for precise identification of the leaking channel. Controlled stimulation of DHC can be used to help locate these leaks by extending the crack and increasing the leak rate without approaching crack instability. In the event of a leak being detected, a plant operator can gain time for leak location by a heating and unloading manoeuvre that will arrest crack growth and increase the critical crack length. This manoeuvre increases the safety margin against tube rupture. If required, the operator can then stimulate cracking in a controlled manner to aid in leak identification. Sequences of temperature and load manoeuvres for safe crack stimulation have been found by laboratory tests on dry specimens and the efficacy of the process has been demonstrated, partly in a power reactor, and partly in a full-scale simulation of a leaking pressure tube. (author).

  11. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip

    Henderson, Linda


    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  12. Crack propagation directions in unfilled resins.

    Baran, G; Sadeghipour, K; Jayaraman, S; Silage, D; Paul, D; Boberick, K


    Posterior composite restorative materials undergo accelerated wear in the occlusal contact area, primarily through a fatigue mechanism. To facilitate the timely development of new and improved materials, a predictive wear model is desirable. The objective of this study was to develop a finite element model enabling investigators to predict crack propagation directions in resins used as the matrix material in composites, and to verify these predictions by observing cracks formed during the pin-on-disc wear of a 60:40 BISGMA:TEGDMA resin and an EBPADMA resin. Laser confocal scanning microscopy was used to measure crack locations. Finite element studies were done by means of ABAQUS software, modeling a cylinder sliding on a material with pre-existing surface-breaking cracks. Variables included modulus, cylinder/material friction coefficient, crack face friction, and yield behavior. Experimental results were surprising, since most crack directions were opposite previously published observations. The majority of surface cracks, though initially orthogonal to the surface, changed direction to run 20 to 30 degrees from the horizontal in the direction of indenter movement. Finite element modeling established the importance of subsurface shear stresses, since calculations provided evidence that cracks propagate in the direction of maximum K(II)(theta), in the same direction as the motion of the indenter, and at an angle of approximately 20 degrees. These findings provide the foundation for a predictive model of sliding wear in unfilled glassy resins.

  13. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip

    Henderson, Linda


    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  14. Investigation of Cracked Lithium Hydride Reactor Vessels

    bird, e.l.; mustaleski, t.m.


    Visual examination of lithium hydride reactor vessels revealed cracks that were adjacent to welds, most of which were circumferentially located in the bottom portion of the vessels. Sections were cut from the vessels containing these cracks and examined by use of the metallograph, scanning electron microscope, and microprobe to determine the cause of cracking. Most of the cracks originated on the outer surface just outside the weld fusion line in the base material and propagated along grain boundaries. Crack depths of those examined sections ranged from {approximately}300 to 500 {micro}m. Other cracks were reported to have reached a maximum depth of 1/8 in. The primary cause of cracking was the creation of high tensile stresses associated with the differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the filler metal and the base metal during operation of the vessel in a thermally cyclic environment. This failure mechanism could be described as creep-type fatigue, whereby crack propagation may have been aided by the presence of brittle chromium carbides along the grain boundaries, which indicates a slightly sensitized microstructure.

  15. Fracture Mechanical Markov Chain Crack Growth Model

    Gansted, L.; Brincker, Rune; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard


    On the basis of the B-model developed in [J. L. Bogdanoff and F. Kozin, Probabilistic Models of Cumulative Damage. John Wiley, New York (1985)] a new numerical model incorporating the physical knowledge of fatigue crack propagation is developed. The model is based on the assumption that the crack...

  16. Solute transport in cracking clay soils

    Bronswijk, J.J.B.; Ritsema, C.J.; Oostindie, K.; Hamminga, P.


    A bromide tracer applied to a cracked clay soil was adsorbed in the soil matrix close to the soil surface. Upon subsequent precipitation, a small part of the bromide dissolved and flowed rapidly through cracks to the subsoil and the groundwater. As a result, the groundwater and the drain discharge

  17. Strength of Cracked Reinforced Concrete Disks

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter


    The paper deals with models, based on the theory of plasticity, to be used in strength assessments of reinforced concrete disks suffering from different kinds of cracking. Based on the assumption that the sliding strength of concrete is reduced in sections where cracks are located, solutions...

  18. Corrosion and Cracking of Reinforced Concrete

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Modelling of the deterioration of reinforced concrete has in recent years changed from being a deterministic modelling based on experience to be stochastic modelling based on sound and consistent physical, chemical and mechanical principles. In this paper is presented a brief review of modern mod...... for time to initial corrosion, time to initial cracking, and time to a given crack width may be obtained....

  19. Three-dimensional effects of microstructures on short fatigue crack growth in an Al-Li 8090 alloy

    Wen, Wei; Zhai, Tongguang


    Al-Li 8090 alloy specimens were fatigued using a self-aligning four-point bend rig at R = 0.1 and room temperature, in air, under constant maximum stress control. The crystallographic characteristics of fatigue crack initiation and early growth were studied using EBSD. It was found that the growth behaviour of a short crack were controlled by the twist (α) and tilt (β) components of crack plane deflection across each of the first 20 grain boundaries along the crack path, and that the α angle at the first grain boundary encountered by a micro-crack was critical in determining whether the crack could become propagating or non-propagating. In addition to the orientations of the two neighbouring grains, the tilt of their boundary could also affect α across the boundary. A minimum α-map for a vertical micro-crack was calculated to evaluate the resistance to crack growth into a neighbouring grain with a random orientation. Such an α-map is of value in alloy design against fatigue damage by optimising texture components in the alloys.

  20. Crack spacing threshold of double cracks propagation for large-module rack

    赵铁柱; 石端伟; 姚哲皓; 毛宏勇; 程术潇; 彭惠


    Large-module rack of the Three Gorges shiplift is manufactured by casting and machining, which is unable to avoid slag inclusions and surface cracks. To ensure its safety in the future service, studying on crack propagation rule and the residual life estimation method of large-module rack is of great significance. The possible crack distribution forms of the rack in the Three Gorges shiplift were studied. By applying moving load on the model in FRANC3D and ANSYS, quantitative analyses of interference effects on double cracks in both collinear and offset conditions were conducted. The variation rule of the stress intensity factor (SIF) influence factor,RK, of double collinear cracks changing with crack spacing ratio,RS, was researched. The horizontal and vertical crack spacing threshold of double cracks within the design life of the shiplift were obtained, which are 24 and 4 times as large as half of initial crack length,c0, respectively. The crack growth rates along the length and depth directions in the process of coalescence on double collinear cracks were also studied.

  1. Unsaturated Seepage Analysis of Cracked Soil including Development Process of Cracks

    Ling Cao


    Full Text Available Cracks in soil provide preferential pathways for water flow and their morphological parameters significantly affect the hydraulic conductivity of the soil. To study the hydraulic properties of cracks, the dynamic development of cracks in the expansive soil during drying and wetting has been measured in the laboratory. The test results enable the development of the relationships between the cracks morphological parameters and the water content. In this study, the fractal model has been used to predict the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC of the cracked soil, including the developmental process of the cracks. The cracked expansive soil has been considered as a crack-pore medium. A dual media flow model has been developed to simulate the seepage characteristics of the cracked expansive soil. The variations in pore water pressure at different part of the model are quite different due to the impact of the cracks. This study proves that seepage characteristics can be better predicted if the impact of cracks is taken into account.

  2. Strain rate effects in stress corrosion cracking

    Parkins, R.N. (Newcastle upon Tyne Univ. (UK). Dept. of Metallurgy and Engineering Materials)


    Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) was initially developed as a rapid, ad hoc laboratory method for assessing the propensity for metals an environments to promote stress corrosion cracking. It is now clear, however, that there are good theoretical reasons why strain rate, as opposed to stress per se, will often be the controlling parameter in determining whether or not cracks are nucleated and, if so, are propagated. The synergistic effects of the time dependence of corrosion-related reactions and microplastic strain provide the basis for mechanistic understanding of stress corrosion cracking in high-pressure pipelines and other structures. However, while this may be readily comprehended in the context of laboratory slow strain tests, its extension to service situations may be less apparent. Laboratory work involving realistic stressing conditions, including low-frequency cyclic loading, shows that strain or creep rates give good correlation with thresholds for cracking and with crack growth kinetics.

  3. Crack front propagation by kink formation

    Roesch, Frohmut; Trebin, Hans-Rainer [Universitaet Stuttgart, Institut fuer Theoretische und Angewandte Physik, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany)


    In a brittle material a travelling crack generates an upper and a lower fracture surface, which meet at a one-dimensional crack front. From a macroscopic point of view there is no reason why this curve should deviate from a straight line, contrary to the atomistic point of view, where a crack propagates by successive rupture of cohesive bonds. We investigate fracture of the C15 NbCr{sub 2} Friauf-laves phase on an atomic level by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The numerical experiments highlight that crack fronts in general do not form a straight line and propagate by kink-pair formation at low loads (EPL 87 (2009) 66004). This mechanism should be relevant for crack propagation in any ordered brittle solid.

  4. XFEM for Thermal Crack of Massive Concrete

    Guowei Liu


    Full Text Available Thermal cracking of massive concrete structures occurs as a result of stresses caused by hydration in real environment conditions. The extended finite element method that combines thermal fields and creep is used in this study to analyze the thermal cracking of massive concrete structures. The temperature field is accurately simulated through an equivalent equation of heat conduction that considers the effect of a cooling pipe system. The time-dependent creep behavior of massive concrete is determined by the viscoelastic constitutive model with Prony series. Based on the degree of hydration, we consider the main properties related to cracking evolving with time. Numerical simulations of a real massive concrete structure are conducted. Results show that the developed method is efficient for numerical calculations of thermal cracks on massive concrete. Further analyses indicate that a cooling system and appropriate heat preservation measures can efficiently prevent the occurrence of thermal cracks.

  5. The geometry of soil crack networks

    Chertkov, V Y


    The subject of this work is the modification and specification of an approach to detail the estimation of soil crack network characteristics. The modification aims at accounting for the corrected soil crack volume based on the corrected shrinkage geometry factor compared to known estimates of crack volume and shrinkage geometry factor. The mode of the correction relies on recent results of the soil reference shrinkage curve. The main exposition follows the preliminary brief review of available approaches to dealing with the geometry of soil crack networks and gives a preliminary brief summary of the approach to be modified and specified. To validate and illustrate the modified approach the latter is used in the analysis of available data on soil cracking in a lysimeter.

  6. Field cracking performance of airfield rigid pavements

    Yusuf Mehta


    Full Text Available This paper discusses cracking in airport pavements as studied in Construction Cycle 6 of testing carried out at the National Airport Pavement Testing Facility by the Federal Aviation Administration. Pavements of three different flexural strengths as well as two different subgrades, a soft bituminous layer and a more rigid layer known as econocrete, were tested. In addition to this, cracking near two types of isolated transition joints, a reinforced edge joint and a thickened edge joint, was considered. The pavement sections were tested using a moving load simulating that of an aircraft. It has been determined that the degree of cracking was reduced as the flexural strength of the pavement was increased and that fewer cracks formed over the econocrete base than over the bituminous base. In addition, the thickened edge transition joint was more effective in preventing cracking at the edges compared to the reinforced edge joint.

  7. Crack Growth in Concrete Gravity Dams Based on Discrete Crack Method

    A. R. Lohrasbi


    Full Text Available Seepage is the most parameter in water management safety and in stable agricultural. This seepage is passed through the cracks that are present to some degree in hydraulic structures. They may exist as basic defects in the constituent materials or may be induced in construction or during service life. To avoid such failure in concrete dams, safety would be an important factor. Over-design carries heavy penalty in terms of excess weight. So the fracture mechanics theory is a principal necessity of evaluating the stability of such crack propagation. For the process of crack propagation analysis in concrete structures, there are two general models: discrete crack and smeared crack. This study surveys the crack propagation in concrete gravity dams based on discrete crack methods. Moreover, we use a program provided specifically for this purpose.

  8. Crack shape developments and leak rates for circumferential complex-cracked pipes

    Brickstad, B.; Bergman, M. [SAQ Inspection Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden)


    A computerized procedure has been developed that predicts the growth of an initial circumferential surface crack through a pipe and further on to failure. The crack growth mechanism can either be fatigue or stress corrosion. Consideration is taken to complex crack shapes and for the through-wall cracks, crack opening areas and leak rates are also calculated. The procedure is based on a large number of three-dimensional finite element calculations of cracked pipes. The results from these calculations are stored in a database from which the PC-program, denoted LBBPIPE, reads all necessary information. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis is presented for cracked pipes subjected to both stress corrosion and vibration fatigue.

  9. Fully plastic crack opening analyses of complex-cracked pipes for Ramberg-Osgood materials

    Jeong, Jae Uk; Choi, Jae Boong [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Nam Su [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Jae [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The plastic influence functions for calculating fully plastic Crack opening displacement (COD) of complex-cracked pipes were newly proposed based on systematic 3-dimensional (3-D) elastic-plastic Finite element (FE) analyses using Ramberg-Osgood (R-O) relation, where global bending moment, axial tension and internal pressure are considered separately as a loading condition. Then, crack opening analyses were performed based on GE/EPRI concept by using the new plastic influence functions for complex-cracked pipes made of SA376 TP304 stainless steel, and the predicted CODs were compared with FE results based on deformation plasticity theory of tensile material behavior. From the comparison, the confidence of the proposed fully plastic crack opening solutions for complex-cracked pipes was gained. Therefore, the proposed engineering scheme for COD estimation using the new plastic influence functions can be utilized to estimate leak rate of a complex-cracked pipe for R-O material.

  10. General forms of elastic-plastic matching equations for mode-Ⅲ cracks near crack line

    Zhi-jian YI; Chao-hua ZHAO; Qing-guo YANG; Kai PENG; Zong-ming HUANG


    Crack line analysis is an effective way to solve elastic-plastic crack problems.Application of the method does not need the traditional small-scale yielding conditions and can obtain sufficiently accurate solutions near the crack line. To address mode-Ⅲ crack problems under the perfect elastic-plastic condition,matching procedures of the crack line analysis method are summarized and refined to give general forms and formulation steps of plastic field,elastic-plastic boundary,and elastic-plastic matching equations near the crack line. The research unifies mode-Ⅲ crack problems under different conditions into a problem of determining four integral constants with four matching equations.An example is given to verify correctness,conciseness,and generality of the procedure.

  11. Randomized trial of 5 dollars versus 10 dollars monetary incentives, envelope size, and candy to increase physician response rates to mailed questionnaires.

    Halpern, Scott D; Ubel, Peter A; Berlin, Jesse A; Asch, David A


    The validity of the results of mailed surveys is often threatened by nonresponse bias, which is made more likely when response rates are low. However, the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of several strategies to increase response rates are uncertain. To assess three strategies to increase response rates to mailed physician surveys: including a 10 dollars versus a 5 dollars cash incentive in the initial mailing, including a mint candy or not, and using a large versus small outgoing envelope. Using a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design, a randomized trial of these strategies was conducted in a survey of 1200 physicians randomly selected from the American Medical Association's Master File. Including a 10 dollars incentive yielded a significantly higher response rate (60.5% vs. 52.8%) (P = 0.009). The mailing and incentive costs per completed response were 12.24 dollars (95% CI, 11.75 dollars, 13.64 dollars) in the 5 dollars group and 18.48 dollars (95% CI, 17.77 dollars, 20.69 dollars) in the 10 dollars group. Each additional response obtained in the 10 dollars group came at an incremental cost of 61.26 dollars (95% CI, 36.98 dollars, 200.80 dollars). Neither inclusion of a mint nor use of a large envelope influenced the response rate. Investigators may increase response rates by including more money in the initial questionnaire packet, but there may be diminishing returns to serial increments in incentives greater than 5 dollars. Including smaller incentives in more questionnaires may maximize total responses.

  12. Investigating Reaction-Driven Cracking

    Kelemen, P. B.; Hirth, G.; Savage, H. M.


    Many metamorphic reactions lead to large volume changes, and potentially to reaction-driven cracking [1,2]. Large-scale hydration of mantle peridotite to produce serpentine or talc is invoked to explain the rheology of plate boundaries, the nature of earthquakes, and the seismic properties of slow-spread ocean crust and the 'mantle wedge' above subduction zones. Carbonation of peridotite may be an important sink in the global carbon cycle. Zones of 100% magnesite + quartz replacing peridotite, up to 200 m thick, formed where oceanic mantle was thrust over carbonate-bearing metasediments in Oman. Talc + carbonate is an important component of the matrix in subduction mélanges at Santa Catalina Island , California, and the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt, Japan. Engineered systems to emulate natural mineral carbonation could provide relatively inexpensive CO2 capture and storage [3]. More generally, engineered reaction-driven cracking could supplement or replace hydraulic fracture in geothermal systems, solution mining, and extraction of tight oil and gas. The controls on reaction-driven cracking are poorly understood. Hydration and carbonation reactions can be self-limiting, since they potentially reduce permeability and armor reactive surfaces [4]. Also, in some cases, hydration or carbonation may take place at constant volume. Small changes in volume due to precipitation of solid products increases stress, destabilizing solid reactants, until precipitation and dissolution rates become equal at a steady state stress [5]. In a third case, volume change due to precipitation of solid products causes brittle failure. This has been invoked on qualitative grounds to explain, e.g., complete serpentinization of mantle peridotite [6]. Below ~ 300°C, the available potential energy for hydration and carbonation of olivine could produce stresses of 100's of MPa [2], sufficient to fracture rocks to 10 km depth or more, causing brittle failure below the steady state stress required

  13. Cracks assessment using ultrasonic technology

    Martinez, Maria Pia; Tomasella, Marcelo [OLDELVAL S.A. Oleoductos del Valle, Rio Negro (Argentina). Pipeline Integrity Dept.


    The goal of Oldelval Integrity Program is to prevent ruptures and leaks, developing strategies for a better handling of the integrity of our pipelines. In order to achieve it we have studied and modeled each process that involved in the integrity pipeline. Those processes are mainly based on defects reported by an internal inspection tool and supplied with field inspection and monitoring data. Years of evaluation, study and the continuous effort overturned towards a phenomenon that worries to the industry, as it is the SCC. Since 1998 up to 2004 SCC was included in the integrity program with some preventive maintenance programs. The accomplishment of the inspection based on ultrasound tools, is the culmination of years of evaluation and investigations supported by field digs and materials susceptibility. This paper describes Oldelval's results with ultrasonic crack detection tool, and how it can be reliably to detect SCC. (author)

  14. Assessment of an Impulse GPR Antenna Abilities in Investigation of Transversal Cracks of the Bituminous Pavement

    Krysiński, L.; Sudyka, J.


    generation or to explain reasons of lacking signal. The three field cases represent different types of bituminous pavement and different degrees of cracking process progress, what showed first of all a large diversity GPR responses types and existence of specific masking effect related possibly to large-size granulation of the asphalt mixture. These examples show that the strong signals are frequently related to advanced deterioration in lower, older layers and confirm difficulty of cracks detection in a new cover. But on other hand long term observation showed that numerous new cracks appear on the surface in places, where some structural singularities were noticed earlier inside the new construction.

  15. Evaluation Value of Three Methods in the Diagnosis of Dentin Cracks Caused by Apical Resection

    Abdollah Ghorbanzadeh


    Full Text Available Objective: To compare three various methods in the diagnosis of dentinal cracks formed in the apical third after root resection.Materials and Methods: One hundred extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected. The root canals were prepared with step-back technique. Then 3mm from the apical end of all roots was cut perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth. The apical end of each root was evaluated to make sure there were no cracks. Fifty specimens were randomly chosen and connected to an apparatus especially designed for application of force (50-60N by a universal testing machine for crack formation. The cracked (no=50 and non-cracked (no=50 specimens were examined by three methods of fiber optic transillumination, methylene blue staining and combination of the two. Sensitivity and specificity of the methods were evaluated. The most suitable method for detecting cracks was determined using Youden index. To compare agreement between studied methods with the gold standard, kappa statistics and odds ratio of McNemar were utilized.Results: The sensitivity of transillumination, staining and the combination method were 82.0, 50.0 and 90.0%, respectively. The staining technique had the lowest sensitivity and the highest specificity. Both transillumination and the combination method had Youden index of 0.56, but the combination method diagnosed truly cracked samples more than the other techniques.Conclusion: The efficacy of transillumination in identification of apical root-end cracks undetectable by unaided vision was similar to the combination method. However, the efficacy of 2% methylene blue without transillumination was significantly lower than the other two methodologies.

  16. Fatigue crack growth from narrow-band Gaussian spectrum loading in 6063 aluminum alloy

    Veers, P.S.; Van Den Avyle, J.A.


    Constant amplitude and narrow-band Gaussian loadings are applied to extruded 6063 aluminum crack-growth specimens in an effort to characterize the effective stress intensity levels during random loading. Crack-growth rates are determined for constant amplitude loadings at stress ratios (R) of 0.09, 0.3 and 0.5, and for a variable amplitude loading simulated to match a narrow-band Gaussian spectrum. Crack-opening stress levels measured by the compliance method during the constant amplitude loading are found to differ substantially for -T5 and -T6 heat treatments due to a change from intergranular to transgranular crack growth. Crack-opening load ratios correlate well with the maximum applied stress intensity factor, K{sub max}, for the -T5 material. The K{sub max} dependence leads to an effective halving of the crack-growth exponent. Calculated variable amplitude lives are much shorter when this correlation is taken into account (an acceleration effect) and show a greater difference between loading blocks condensed by racetrack filtering at threshold levels of two and four standard deviations, similar to what was observed in the tests. Crack-opening-load measurements in one specimen with the narrow-band Gaussian (variable amplitude) loading failed to detect any closure. A substantial difference in the closure behavior of nominally identical R = .3 tests indicates that closure may occur irregularly in the extruded aluminum. Calculated crack-growth lives, assuming no closure in the variable amplitude tests, are much shorter than the test results. Including closure in the variable amplitude loadings greatly improves the predictions. 14 refs., 16 figs.

  17. Initiation and propagation life distributions of fatigue cracks and the life evaluation in high cycle fatigue of ADI; ADI zai no ko cycle hiro kiretsu hassei shinten jumyo bunpu tokusei to jumyo hyoka

    Ochi, Y.; Ishii, A. [University of Electro Communications, Tokyo (Japan); Ogata, T. [Hitachi Metals, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kubota, M. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Rotating bending fatigue tests were carried out on austempered ductile cast iron (ADI) in order to investigate the statistical properties of life distributions of crack initiation and propagation, and also the evaluation of fatigue life. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The size of crack initiation sites of the material was represented by a Weibull distribution without regarding to the kinds of crack initiation sites such as microshrinkage and graphite grain. The crack initiation life scattered widely, but the scatter became much smaller as soon as the cracks grew. (2) The crack propagation life Nac which was defined as the minimum crack propagation rate showed lower scatter than the crack initation life. (3) The fatigue life of the material was evaluated well by Nac and the propagation rate after Nac. It was clear that the fatigue life of ductile cast iron was goverened by the scatter of Nac. 8 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Three-Dimensional Gear Crack Propagation Studied

    Lewicki, David G.


    Gears used in current helicopters and turboprops are designed for light weight, high margins of safety, and high reliability. However, unexpected gear failures may occur even with adequate tooth design. To design an extremely safe system, the designer must ask and address the question, "What happens when a failure occurs?" With gear-tooth bending fatigue, tooth or rim fractures may occur. A crack that propagates through a rim will be catastrophic, leading to disengagement of the rotor or propeller, loss of an aircraft, and possible fatalities. This failure mode should be avoided. A crack that propagates through a tooth may or may not be catastrophic, depending on the design and operating conditions. Also, early warning of this failure mode may be possible because of advances in modern diagnostic systems. One concept proposed to address bending fatigue fracture from a safety aspect is a splittooth gear design. The prime objective of this design would be to control crack propagation in a desired direction such that at least half of the tooth would remain operational should a bending failure occur. A study at the NASA Lewis Research Center analytically validated the crack-propagation failsafe characteristics of a split-tooth gear. It used a specially developed three-dimensional crack analysis program that was based on boundary element modeling and principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics. Crack shapes as well as the crack-propagation life were predicted on the basis of the calculated stress intensity factors, mixed-mode crack-propagation trajectory theories, and fatigue crack-growth theories. The preceding figures show the effect of the location of initial cracks on crack propagation. Initial cracks in the fillet of the teeth produced stress intensity factors of greater magnitude (and thus, greater crack growth rates) than those in the root or groove areas of the teeth. Crack growth was simulated in a case study to evaluate crack-propagation paths. Tooth

  19. Crack stability analysis of low alloy steel primary coolant pipe

    Tanaka, T.; Kameyama, M. [Kansai Electric Power Company, Osaka (Japan); Urabe, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago (Japan)] [and others


    At present, cast duplex stainless steel has been used for the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan and joints of dissimilar material have been applied for welding to reactor vessels and steam generators. For the primary coolant piping of the next APWR plants, application of low alloy steel that results in designing main loops with the same material is being studied. It means that there is no need to weld low alloy steel with stainless steel and that makes it possible to reduce the welding length. Attenuation of Ultra Sonic Wave Intensity is lower for low alloy steel than for stainless steel and they have advantageous inspection characteristics. In addition to that, the thermal expansion rate is smaller for low alloy steel than for stainless steel. In consideration of the above features of low alloy steel, the overall reliability of primary coolant piping is expected to be improved. Therefore, for the evaluation of crack stability of low alloy steel piping to be applied for primary loops, elastic-plastic future mechanics analysis was performed by means of a three-dimensioned FEM. The evaluation results for the low alloy steel pipings show that cracks will not grow into unstable fractures under maximum design load conditions, even when such a circumferential crack is assumed to be 6 times the size of the wall thickness.

  20. Crack Offset Measurement With the Projected Laser Target Device


    The device and associated analysis methodology summarized in this report were developed for the purpose of estimating the size of discontinuities in the surface of the foam that covers the Space Shuttle External Tank. These surface offsets are thought to be due to subsurface cracks in the foam insulation. The mathematical analysis and procedure described here provide a method to quantity the dimensions of the crack offset in a direction perpendicular to the surface, making use of the projected laser target device (PLTD) tool and a laser line projector. The keys to the construction and use of the PLTD are the following geometrical design requirements: Laser dots are on a square grid: length on a side. Laser beams are perpendicular to projected surface. Beams are parallel out to the distance being projected. The PLTD can be used to (1) calibrate fixed cameras of unknown magnification and orientation (far-field solution); (2) provide equivalent calibration to multiple cameras, previously achieved only by the use of known target points, for example, in 3.D foreign-object debris tracking on a fixed launch platform; (3) compute scaling for conventional 2.D images, and depth of field for 3.D images (near-field solution); and (4) in conjunction with a laser line projector, achieve accurate measurements of surface discontinuity (cracks) in a direction perpendicular to the surface.

  1. Catalytic Cracking of Palm Oil Over Zeolite Catalysts: Statistical Approach

    F. A. A. Twaiq and S. Bhatia


    Full Text Available The catalytic cracking of palm oil was conducted in a fixed bed micro-reactor over HZSM-5, zeolite ? and ultrastable Y (USY zeolite catalysts. The objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of cracking reaction variables such as temperature, weight hourly space velocity, catalyst pore size and type of palm oil feed of different molecular weight on the conversion, yield of hydrocarbons in gasoline boiling range and BTX aromatics in the organic liquid product.  Statistical Design of Experiment (DOE with 24 full factorial design was used in experimentation at the first stage.  The nonlinear model and Response Surface Methodology (RSM were utilized in the second stage of experimentation to obtain the optimum values of the variables for maximum yields of hydrocarbons in gasoline boiling range and aromatics.  The HZSM-5 showed the best performance amongst the three catalysts tested.  At 623 K and WHSV of 1 h-1, the highest experimental yields of gasoline and aromatics were 28.3 wt.% and 27 wt.%, respectively over the HZSM-5 catalyst.  For the same catalyst, the statistical model predicted that the optimum yield of gasoline was 28.1 wt.% at WHSV of 1.75 h-1 and 623 K.  The predicted optimum yield of gasoline was 25.5 wt.% at 623 K and WHSV of 1 h-1.KEY WORDS: Catalytic Cracking, Palm Oil, Zeolite, Design Of Experiment, Response Surface Methodology.

  2. Crack initiation and propagation behavior of WC particles reinforced Fe-based metal matrix composite produced by laser melting deposition

    Wang, Jiandong; Li, Liqun; Tao, Wang


    It is generally believed that cracks in metal matrix composites (MMC) parts manufacturing are crucial to the reliable material properties, especially for the reinforcement particles with high volume fraction. In this paper, WC particles (WCp) reinforced Fe-based metal matrix composites (WCp/Fe) were manufactured by laser melting deposition (LMD) technology to investigate the characteristics of cracks formation. The section morphology of composites were analyzed by optical microscope (OM), and microstructure of WCp, matrix and interface were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in order to study the crack initiation and propagation behavior under different laser process conditions. The temperature of materials during the laser melting deposition was detected by the infrared thermometer. The results showed that the cracks often appeared after five layers laser deposition in this experiment. The cracks crossed through WC particles rather than the interface, so the strength of interface obtained by the LMD was relatively large. When the thermal stress induced by high temperature gradient during LMD and the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between WC and matrix was larger than yield strength of WC, the cracks would initiate inside WC particle. Cracks mostly propagated along the eutectic phases whose brittleness was very large. The obtained thin interface was beneficial to transmitting the stress from particle to matrix. The influence of volume fraction of particles, laser power and scanning speed on cracks were investigated. This paper investigated the influence of WC particles size on cracks systematically, and the smallest size of cracked WC in different laser processing parameters was also researched.

  3. Crack detection in a beam with an arbitrary number of transverse cracks using genetic algorithms

    Khaji, N. [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehrjoo, M. [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this paper, a crack detection approach is presented for detecting depth and location of cracks in beam-like structures. For this purpose, a new beam element with an arbitrary number of embedded transverse edge cracks, in arbitrary positions of beam element with any depth, is derived. The components of the stiffness matrix for the cracked element are computed using the conjugate beam concept and Betti's theorem, and finally represented in closed-form expressions. The proposed beam element is efficiently employed for solving forward problem (i.e., to gain precise natural frequencies and mode shapes of the beam knowing the cracks' characteristics). To validate the proposed element, results obtained by new element are compared with two-dimensional (2D) finite element results and available experimental measurements. Moreover, by knowing the natural frequencies and mode shapes, an inverse problem is established in which the location and depth of cracks are determined. In the inverse approach, an optimization problem based on the new finite element and genetic algorithms (GAs) is solved to search the solution. It is shown that the present algorithm is able to identify various crack configurations in a cracked beam. The proposed approach is verified through a cracked beam containing various cracks with different depths.

  4. Identification of cracks in thick beams with a cracked beam element model

    Hou, Chuanchuan; Lu, Yong


    The effect of a crack on the vibration of a beam is a classical problem, and various models have been proposed, ranging from the basic stiffness reduction method to the more sophisticated model involving formulation based on the additional flexibility due to a crack. However, in the damage identification or finite element model updating applications, it is still common practice to employ a simple stiffness reduction factor to represent a crack in the identification process, whereas the use of a more realistic crack model is rather limited. In this paper, the issues with the simple stiffness reduction method, particularly concerning thick beams, are highlighted along with a review of several other crack models. A robust finite element model updating procedure is then presented for the detection of cracks in beams. The description of the crack parameters is based on the cracked beam flexibility formulated by means of the fracture mechanics, and it takes into consideration of shear deformation and coupling between translational and longitudinal vibrations, and thus is particularly suitable for thick beams. The identification procedure employs a global searching technique using Genetic Algorithms, and there is no restriction on the location, severity and the number of cracks to be identified. The procedure is verified to yield satisfactory identification for practically any configurations of cracks in a beam.

  5. Subcritical crack growth in two titanium alloys.

    Williams, D. N.


    Measurement of subcritical crack growth during static loading of precracked titanium alloys in salt water using samples too thin for plane strain loading to predominate was examined as a method for determining the critical stress intensity for crack propagation in salt water. Significant internal crack growth followed by arrest was found at quite low stress intensities, but crack growth rates were relatively low. Assuming these techniques provided a reliable measurement of the critical stress intensity, the value for annealed Ti-4Al-1.5Mo-0.5V alloy was apparently about 35 ksi-in. to the 1/2 power, while that for annealed Ti-4Al-3Mo-1V was below 45 ksi-in. to the 1/2 power. Crack growth was also observed in tests conducted in both alloys in an air environment. At 65 ksi-in. to the 1/2 power, the extent of crack growth was greater in air than in salt water. Ti-4Al-3Mo-1V showed arrested crack growth in air at a stress intensity of 45 ksi-in. to the 1/2 power.

  6. Self-healing of cracks formed in Silicon-Aluminum anodes electrochemically cycled at high lithiation rates

    Bhattacharya, Sandeep; Alpas, Ahmet T.


    Lithiation-induced volume changes in Si result in fracture and fragmentation of Si anodes in Li-ion batteries. This paper reports the self-healing behaviour of cracks observed in micron-sized Si particles dispersed in a ductile Al matrix of a Si-Al electrode electrochemically cycled vs. Li/Li+ using a high lithiation rate of 15.6 C. Cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy revealed that an amorphous layer with a depth up to ∼100 nm was formed at the surface of Si particles. In-situ optical microscopy performed during electrochemical experiments revealed development of cracks in Si particles as the voltage decreased to 0.02 V during lithiation. Self-healing of cracks in Si particles occurred in two steps: i) arresting of the crack growth at the Si/Al interface as the surrounding Al matrix had a higher fracture toughness and thus acted as a barrier to crack propagation, and ii) closure of cracks due to compressive stresses applied to the crack faces by the amorphous zones formed on each side of the crack paths.

  7. The effect of endodontic procedures on apical crack initiation and propagation ex vivo.

    Adorno, C G; Yoshioka, T; Jindan, P; Kobayashi, C; Suda, H


    To evaluate the potential effects of endodontic procedures (instrumentation and filling) on crack initiation and propagation in apical dentine. Forty extracted single-rooted premolars with two canals were selected, 1.5 mm of the apex was ground perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth and the surface polished. The specimens were divided into 4 groups. The buccal canals of groups A, B and C were enlarged to size 40 with manual K-files. Group A was filled with gutta-percha using lateral condensation and vertical compaction without sealer. Group B was filled with the same method as group A except only lateral condensation was used. Group C was left unfilled, while group D was left unprepared and unfilled. Images of the resected surface were taken after resection (baseline), after canal preparation, after filling and after 4-week storage. The images were then inspected for cracks originating from the canal. A significant effect of preparation on crack initiation (P  0.05) or 4-week storage on crack initiation (P > 0.05) was found (logistic regression). Fisher's exact test revealed a significant effect of filling on crack propagation (P propagation (P > 0.05). Root canal procedures can potentially initiate and propagate cracks from within the root canal in the apical region. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Restraint of fatigue crack growth by wedge effects of fine particles

    Takahashi, I; Kotani, N


    Presents some experimental results which demonstrate restraint of fatigue crack growth in an Al-Mg alloy by wedge effects of fine particles. Fatigue test specimens were machined from a JIS A5083P-O Al-Mg alloy plate of 5 mm thickness and an EDM starter notch was introduced to each specimen. Three kinds of fine particles were prepared as the materials to be wedged into the fatigue cracks, i.e. magnetic particles and two kinds of alumina particles having different mean particle sizes of 47.3 mu m and 15.2 mu m. Particles of each kind were suspended in an oil to form a paste, which was applied on the specimen surface covering the notch zone prior to the fatigue tests. In order to make some fracture mechanics approaches, in situ observations of fatigue cracks were performed for the two cases using a CCD microscope, with a magnification of *1000. The crack length and the crack opening displacement (COD) at the notch root, delta , were measured. The crack retardation effect continues almost through the entire lifet...

  9. Detection of Steel Fatigue Cracks with Strain Sensing Sheets Based on Large Area Electronics

    Yao Yao


    Full Text Available Reliable early-stage damage detection requires continuous monitoring over large areas of structure, and with sensors of high spatial resolution. Technologies based on Large Area Electronics (LAE can enable direct sensing and can be scaled to the level required for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM of civil structures and infrastructure. Sensing sheets based on LAE contain dense arrangements of thin-film strain sensors, associated electronics and various control circuits deposited and integrated on a flexible polyimide substrate that can cover large areas of structures. This paper presents the development stage of a prototype strain sensing sheet based on LAE for crack detection and localization. Two types of sensing-sheet arrangements with size 6 × 6 inch (152 × 152 mm were designed and manufactured, one with a very dense arrangement of sensors and the other with a less dense arrangement of sensors. The sensing sheets were bonded to steel plates, which had a notch on the boundary, so the fatigue cracks could be generated under cyclic loading. The sensors within the sensing sheet that were close to the notch tip successfully detected the initialization of fatigue crack and localized the damage on the plate. The sensors that were away from the crack successfully detected the propagation of fatigue cracks based on the time history of the measured strain. The results of the tests have validated the general principles of the proposed sensing sheets for crack detection and identified advantages and challenges of the two tested designs.

  10. Detection of steel fatigue cracks with strain sensing sheets based on large area electronics.

    Yao, Yao; Glisic, Branko


    Reliable early-stage damage detection requires continuous monitoring over large areas of structure, and with sensors of high spatial resolution. Technologies based on Large Area Electronics (LAE) can enable direct sensing and can be scaled to the level required for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of civil structures and infrastructure. Sensing sheets based on LAE contain dense arrangements of thin-film strain sensors, associated electronics and various control circuits deposited and integrated on a flexible polyimide substrate that can cover large areas of structures. This paper presents the development stage of a prototype strain sensing sheet based on LAE for crack detection and localization. Two types of sensing-sheet arrangements with size 6 × 6 inch (152 × 152 mm) were designed and manufactured, one with a very dense arrangement of sensors and the other with a less dense arrangement of sensors. The sensing sheets were bonded to steel plates, which had a notch on the boundary, so the fatigue cracks could be generated under cyclic loading. The sensors within the sensing sheet that were close to the notch tip successfully detected the initialization of fatigue crack and localized the damage on the plate. The sensors that were away from the crack successfully detected the propagation of fatigue cracks based on the time history of the measured strain. The results of the tests have validated the general principles of the proposed sensing sheets for crack detection and identified advantages and challenges of the two tested designs.

  11. Snow fracture in relation to slab avalanche release: critical state for the onset of crack propagation

    Gaume, Johan; van Herwijnen, Alec; Chambon, Guillaume; Wever, Nander; Schweizer, Jürg


    The failure of a weak snow layer buried below cohesive slab layers is a necessary, but insufficient, condition for the release of a dry-snow slab avalanche. The size of the crack in the weak layer must also exceed a critical length to propagate across a slope. In contrast to pioneering shear-based approaches, recent developments account for weak layer collapse and allow for better explaining typical observations of remote triggering from low-angle terrain. However, these new models predict a critical length for crack propagation that is almost independent of slope angle, a rather surprising and counterintuitive result. Based on discrete element simulations we propose a new analytical expression for the critical crack length. This new model reconciles past approaches by considering for the first time the complex interplay between slab elasticity and the mechanical behavior of the weak layer including its structural collapse. The crack begins to propagate when the stress induced by slab loading and deformation at the crack tip exceeds the limit given by the failure envelope of the weak layer. The model can reproduce crack propagation on low-angle terrain and the decrease in critical length with increasing slope angle as modeled in numerical experiments. The good agreement of our new model with extensive field data and the ease of implementation in the snow cover model SNOWPACK opens a promising prospect for improving avalanche forecasting.

  12. On the tensile strength of a fiberreinforced ceramic composite containing a crack-like flaw

    Budiansky, Bernard; Cui, Yingqing Lawrence


    T HE TENSILE STRENGTH of a fiber-reinforced ceramic composite containing a through-the-fiber flaw in the form of a sharp crack is studied. The strength of a brittle unreinforced ceramic containing a sharp crack of length 2 a0, subjected to uniaxial load in the direction normal to the crack plane, is given by linear elastic fracture mechanics as σ s = Km/√π a0, where km is the fracture toughness of the material. However, for a fiber-reinforced ceramic, the strength can only be determined on the basis of a full analysis of crack growth in the matrix and the failure of crack-bridging fibers. The tensile strength of a flawed ceramic material that is reinforced by fibers aligned in the direction perpendicular to the flaw surfaces is studied in this paper. Crack-bridging fibers are assumed to slip relative to the matrix when a critical interface shear stress is reached. The orthotropy of the composite produced by the presence of aligned fibers is rigorously accounted for in the analysis. The dependence of the composite tensile strength on fiber tensile strength, matrix toughness, flaw-size and frictional shear stress at the fiber-matrix interface is determined and described in terms of a universal set of non-dimensional parameters.

  13. Evaluation of magnetic flux leakage signals on fatigue crack growth of mild steel

    M.I.M Ahmad


    Full Text Available In engineering applications, analysis of crack growth life is useful in situations where an unexpected crack has been found in a component of a machine, vehicle, or structure. The objective of this research is to investigate the correlation curve of magnetic flux leakage, Hp(y signals by evaluating their critical value point with respect to step size. Moreover, the relation of fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN toward the stress intensity range, ΔK and Hp(y in metal components is also discussed in this paper. The tension-tension fatigue test was conducted with the metal magnetic memory scanning device and crack opening displacement (COD gauges in 10 Hz (testing frequency by applying a load for 3.0-5.0 kN respectively. As a result, the correlation curve of Hp(y was built with the R-Squared values in the range of 0.99 and one mathematical model has been developed for estimation analysis. The sigmoidal shape curve was plotted on the graph of da/dN versus ΔK and also with Hp(y. Thus, for validation, the linear relation is represented between ΔK and Hp(y that present a good approach for magnetic parameter to be developed in the fatigue crack growth analysis. Therefore, the magnetic method has greater capability to analyze the fatigue crack propagation life in a real application.

  14. Effect of BaSO4 on the fatigue crack propagation rate of PMMA bone cement.

    Molino, L N; Topoleski, L D


    To determine the effect of BaSO4 on the fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN = C(delta K)n, of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement, radiopaque bone cement, radiolucent bone cement, and commercial PMMA (Plexiglas) were tested using a methodology based on ASTM E647. The crack growth rate of radiopaque bone cement was one order of magnitude less than that of radiolucent. Fractographic analysis showed that the regions of rapid catastrophic fracture were smooth for all materials tested. The radiopaque fatigue surface was rough and characterized by ragged-edged stacked plateaus, a morphology consistent with the model of crack propagation through the interbead matrix. Voids were visible in the interbead matrix on the order of the size of BaSO4 particles. The fatigue surface of radiolucent bone cement was relatively smooth, a morphology consistent with crack propagation through both the PMMA beads and interbead matrix. Fatigue striations were visible, and their spacing correlated well with crack propagation rates. The striations indicated an increased crack growth rate through the PMMA beads.

  15. Crack growth monitoring at CFRP bond lines

    Rahammer, M.; Adebahr, W.; Sachse, R.; Gröninger, S.; Kreutzbruck, M.


    With the growing need for lightweight technologies in aerospace and automotive industries, fibre-reinforced plastics, especially carbon-fibre (CFRP), are used with a continuously increasing annual growth rate. A promising joining technique for composites is adhesive bonding. While rivet holes destroy the fibres and cause stress concentration, adhesive bond lines distribute the load evenly. Today bonding is only used in secondary structures due to a lack of knowledge with regard to long-term predictability. In all industries, numerical simulation plays a critical part in the development process of new materials and structures, while it plays a vital role when it comes to CFRP adhesive bondings conducing the predictability of life time and damage tolerance. The critical issue with adhesive bondings is crack growth. In a dynamic tensile stress testing machine we dynamically load bonded CFRP coupon specimen and measure the growth rate of an artificially started crack in order to feed the models with the results. We also investigate the effect of mechanical crack stopping features. For observation of the bond line, we apply two non-contact NDT techniques: Air-coupled ultrasound in slanted transmission mode and active lockin-thermography evaluated at load frequencies. Both methods give promising results for detecting the current crack front location. While the ultrasonic technique provides a slightly higher accuracy, thermography has the advantage of true online monitoring, because the measurements are made while the cyclic load is being applied. The NDT methods are compared to visual inspection of the crack front at the specimen flanks and show high congruence. Furthermore, the effect of crack stopping features within the specimen on the crack growth is investigated. The results show, that not all crack fronts are perfectly horizontal, but all of them eventually come to a halt in the crack stopping feature vicinity.

  16. Particle size reduction of propellants by cryocycling

    Whinnery, L.; Griffiths, S.; Lipkin, J. [and others


    Repeated exposure of a propellant to liquid nitrogen causes thermal stress gradients within the material resulting in cracking and particle size reduction. This process is termed cryocycling. The authors conducted a feasibility study, combining experiments on both inert and live propellants with three modeling approaches. These models provided optimized cycle times, predicted ultimate particle size, and allowed crack behavior to be explored. Process safety evaluations conducted separately indicated that cryocycling does not increase the sensitivity of the propellants examined. The results of this study suggest that cryocycling is a promising technology for the demilitarization of tactical rocket motors.

  17. Plastic analysis of the crack problem in two-dimensional decagonal Al-Ni-Co quasicrystalline materials of point group 10,(10)

    Li Wu; Fan Tian You


    The fundamental plastic nature of the quasicrystalline materials remains an open problem due to its essential complicacy. By developing the proposed generalized cohesive force model, the plastic deformation of crack in point group 10,10 decagonal quasicrystals is analysed strictly and systematically. The crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) and the size of the plastic zone around the crack tip are determined exactly. The quantity of the crack tip opening displacement can be used as a parameter of nonlinear fracture mechanics of quasicrystalline material. In addition, the present work may provide a way for the plastic analysis of quasicrystals.

  18. Slow crack growth in spinel in water

    Schwantes, S.; Elber, W.


    Magnesium aluminate spinel was tested in a water environment at room temperature to establish its slow crack-growth behavior. Ring specimens with artificial flaws on the outside surface were loaded hydraulically on the inside surface. The time to failure was measured. Various precracking techniques were evaluated and multiple precracks were used to minimize the scatter in the static fatigue tests. Statistical analysis techniques were developed to determine the strength and crack velocities for a single flaw. Slow crack-growth rupture was observed at stress intensities as low as 70 percent of K sub c. A strengthening effect was observed in specimens that had survived long-time static fatigue tests.

  19. Prediction of Crack Growth in Aqueous Environments.


    Impedance for the Propagation of a Crack Through HY80 Steel in 3.5Z NaCl Solution at 25*C Under Sinusoidal Loading Condi t ions...THE PROPAGATION OF A CRACK THROUGH HY80 STEEL IN 3.5% NaCI SOLUTION AT 25°C UNDER SINUSOIDAL LOADING CONDITIONS 49 and the properties of greatest...VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME FOR A CRACK GROWN AT CONSTANT CURRENT IN HY80 STEEL Initial conditions CI in Table 5. 66 400 UJ x v> l/> L. 0

  20. NASA-Langley Research Center's participation in a round-robin comparison between some current crack-propagation prediction methods

    Hudson, C. M.; Lewis, P. E.


    A round-robin study was conducted which evaluated and compared different methods currently in practice for predicting crack growth in surface-cracked specimens. This report describes the prediction methods used by the Fracture Mechanics Engineering Section, at NASA-Langley Research Center, and presents a comparison between predicted crack growth and crack growth observed in laboratory experiments. For tests at higher stress levels, the correlation between predicted and experimentally determined crack growth was generally quite good. For tests at lower stress levels, the predicted number of cycles to reach a given crack length was consistently higher than the experimentally determined number of cycles. This consistent overestimation of the number of cycles could have resulted from a lack of definition of crack-growth data at low values of the stress intensity range. Generally, the predicted critical flaw sizes were smaller than the experimentally determined critical flaw sizes. This underestimation probably resulted from using plane-strain fracture toughness values to predict failure rather than the more appropriate values based on maximum load.

  1. Interfacial Crack Arrest in Sandwich Panels with Embedded Crack Stoppers Subjected to Fatigue Loading

    Martakos, G.; Andreasen, J. H.; Berggreen, C.; Thomsen, O. T.


    A novel crack arresting device has been implemented in sandwich panels and tested using a special rig to apply out-of-plane loading on the sandwich panel face-sheets. Fatigue crack propagation was induced in the face-core interface of the sandwich panels which met the crack arrester. The effect of the embedded crack arresters was evaluated in terms of the achieved enhancement of the damage tolerance of the tested sandwich panels. A finite element (FE) model of the experimental setup was used for predicting propagation rates and direction of the crack growth. The FE simulation was based on the adoption of linear fracture mechanics and a fatigue propagation law (i.e. Paris law) to predict the residual fatigue life-time and behaviour of the test specimens. Finally, a comparison between the experimental results and the numerical simulations was made to validate the numerical predictions as well as the overall performance of the crack arresters.

  2. Interfacial Crack Arrest in Sandwich Panels with Embedded Crack Stoppers Subjected to Fatigue Loading

    Martakos, G.; Andreasen, J. H.; Berggreen, C.; Thomsen, O. T.


    A novel crack arresting device has been implemented in sandwich panels and tested using a special rig to apply out-of-plane loading on the sandwich panel face-sheets. Fatigue crack propagation was induced in the face-core interface of the sandwich panels which met the crack arrester. The effect of the embedded crack arresters was evaluated in terms of the achieved enhancement of the damage tolerance of the tested sandwich panels. A finite element (FE) model of the experimental setup was used for predicting propagation rates and direction of the crack growth. The FE simulation was based on the adoption of linear fracture mechanics and a fatigue propagation law (i.e. Paris law) to predict the residual fatigue life-time and behaviour of the test specimens. Finally, a comparison between the experimental results and the numerical simulations was made to validate the numerical predictions as well as the overall performance of the crack arresters.

  3. Coalescence judgment criteria for the interaction between two close surface cracks by WES2805 and its safety margin for brittle fracture assessment

    Tomoya Kawabata


    Full Text Available It is important to consider the interaction between multiple cracks in evaluating the reliability of a structure. In this study, the stress intensity factor (K value is evaluated using the finite element method for interacting surface cracks. Although there are an infinite number of possible conditions of the locations and sizes of two close cracks, the cracks shall be located parallel to each other and have the same dimensions for simplification in this study. The K values on the crack front are calculated under various aspect ratios and relative locations. When there is a strong interaction (ΔKmax ≥ 10%, fracture analysis is generally performed after the coalescence of the two cracks by the FFS standard. As a result of the investigation of the critical condition of the positional parameters for coalescence, judgement criteria were introduced in WES2805 with some simplification. It was revealed that the coalescence process in WES2805 provides a safety margin.

  4. Calculation Model of Equivalent Strength for Induced Crack Based on Double-K Fracture Theory and Its Optimizing Setting in RCC Arch Dam

    ZHANG Xiaogang; SONG Yupu; WU Zhimin


    By means of fracture testing on roller-compacted concrete (RCC) three-point bending beams with two different specimen sizes, the P-CMOD complete curve for RCC was gained. Furthermore, by applying double-K fracture theory, KiniⅠC,KunⅠC, as well as the critical effective crack length and the critical crack tip opening displacement, were evaluated. Based on the double-K fracture parameters above, the calculation model of equivalent strength for induced crack was established, thus the calculation method on its initiation, stable propagation and unstable fracture was ascertained. Moreover, the finite element simulation analysis of stress field in ShaPai arch dam and the on-site observational splaying points of induced crack at different altitudes validated the reliability of the model. Finally, crack inducer's optimal setting in RCC arch dam was studied. It improves the design level of induced crack in RCC arch dam and satisfies the necessity of engineering practice.

  5. Effect of Concrete Cracks on Dynamic Characteristics of Powerhouse for Giant-Scale Hydrostation

    TIAN Ziain; ZHANG Yunliang; MA Zhenvue; CHEN Jing


    With the increase of capacity and size of the hydro-generator unit, the spiral case be-comes a more super-giant hydraulic structure with very high hid value, where H and D denote water head and maximum intake diameter of spiral case, respectively. Due to the induced lower stiffness by the more giant size and adverse operation conditions, dynamic performances of the powerhouse and the supporting structure for the giant units have become more important and attracted much attention. If the manner of steel spiral case embedded directly in concrete is adopted, on some locations of the concrete surrounding the spiral case, distributed and concentrated cracks will emerge due to high tensile stress. Although the concrete is reinforced well to control the maximum crack width, definitely these cracks will reduce the local and entire stiffness of the powerhouse.Under dynamic loads such as hydraulic forces including water pressure pulsation in flow passage acting on the structure, effect of the cracks on the dynamic characteristics of the local members and entire structure needs to be evaluated. However, research on this subject is few in hydroelectric engineering. In this paper, Three-Gorge Project was taken as an example to evaluate effect of such cracks on natural frequencies and the vibration responses of the powerhouse under hydraulic and earthquake forces in detail. Results show that cracks only reduce the local structural stiffness greatly but have little effect on the entire powerhouse especially the superstructure; vibrations of powerhouse with cracks in concrete surrounding the spiral case are still under the design limits.Results in this paper have been verified by practice of Three-Gorge Project.

  6. Environmental fatigue of an Al-Li-Cu alloy. Part 2: Microscopic hydrogen cracking processes

    Piascik, Robert S.; Gangloff, Richard P.


    Based on a fractographic analysis of fatigue crack propagation (FCP) in Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090 stressed in a variety of inert and embrittling environments, microscopic crack paths are identified and correlated with intrinsic da/dN-delta K kinetics. FCP rates in 2090 are accelerated by hydrogen producing environments (pure water vapor, moist air, and aqueous NaCl), as defined in Part 1. For these cases, subgrain boundary fatigue cracking (SGC) dominates for delta K values where the crack tip process zone, a significant fraction of the cyclic plastic zone, is sufficiently large to envelop 5 micron subgrains in the unrecrystallized microstructure. SGC may be due to strong hydrogen trapping at T1 precipitates concentrated at sub-boundaries. At low delta K, the plastic zone diameter is smaller than the subgrain size and FCP progresses along (100) planes due to either local lattice decohesion or aluminum-lithium hydride cracking. For inert environments (vacuum, helium, and oxygen), or at high delta K where the hydrogen effect on da/dN is small, FCP is along (111) slip planes; this mode does not transition with increasing delta K and plastic zone size. The SGC and (100) crystallographic cracking modes, and the governing influence of the crack tip process zone volume (delta K), support hydrogen embrittlement rather than a surface film rupture and anodic dissolution mechanism for environmental FCP. Multi-sloped log da/dN-log delta K behavior is produced by changes in process zone hydrogen-microstructure interactions, and not by purely micromechanical-microstructure interactions, in contradiction to microstructural distance-based fatigue models.

  7. Detection of submicron scale cracks and other surface anomalies using positron emission tomography

    Cowan, Thomas E.; Howell, Richard H.; Colmenares, Carlos A.


    Detection of submicron scale cracks and other mechanical and chemical surface anomalies using PET. This surface technique has sufficient sensitivity to detect single voids or pits of sub-millimeter size and single cracks or fissures of millimeter size; and single cracks or fissures of millimeter-scale length, micrometer-scale depth, and nanometer-scale length, micrometer-scale depth, and nanometer-scale width. This technique can also be applied to detect surface regions of differing chemical reactivity. It may be utilized in a scanning or survey mode to simultaneously detect such mechanical or chemical features over large interior or exterior surface areas of parts as large as about 50 cm in diameter. The technique involves exposing a surface to short-lived radioactive gas for a time period, removing the excess gas to leave a partial monolayer, determining the location and shape of the cracks, voids, porous regions, etc., and calculating the width, depth, and length thereof. Detection of 0.01 mm deep cracks using a 3 mm detector resolution has been accomplished using this technique.

  8. Prediction of Crack for Drilling Process on Alumina Using Neural Network and Taguchi Method

    Kingsun Lee


    Full Text Available This study analyzes a variety of significant drilling conditions on aluminum oxide (with L18 orthogonal array using a diamond drill. The drilling parameters evaluated are spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut, and diamond abrasive size. An orthogonal array, signal-to-noise (S/N ratio, and analysis of variance (ANOVA are employed to analyze the effects of these drilling parameters. The results were confirmed by experiments, which indicated that the selected drilling parameters effectively reduce the crack. The neural network is applied to establish a model based on the relationship between input parameters (spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut, and diamond abrasive size and output parameter (cracking area percentage. The neural network can predict individual crack in terms of input parameters, which provides faster and more automated model synthesis. Accurate prediction of crack ensures that poor drilling parameters are not suitable for machining products, avoiding the fabrication of poor-quality products. Confirmation experiments showed that neural network precisely predicted the cracking area percentage in drilling of alumina.

  9. Steady-state propagation of a Mode III crack in couple stress elastic materials

    Mishuris, G; Radi, E


    This paper is concerned with the problem of a semi-infinite crack steadily propagating in an elastic solid with microstructures subject to antiplane loading applied on the crack surfaces. The loading is moving with the same constant velocity as that of the crack tip. We assume subsonic regime, that is the crack velocity is smaller than the shear wave velocity. The material behaviour is described by the indeterminate theory of couple stress elasticity developed by Koiter. This constitutive model includes the characteristic lengths in bending and torsion and thus it is able to account for the underlying microstructure of the material as well as for the strong size effects arising at small scales and observed when the representative scale of the deformation field becomes comparable with the length scale of the microstructure, such as the grain size in a polycrystalline or granular aggregate. The present analysis confirms and extends earlier results on the static case by including the effects of crack velocity an...

  10. On Cracking of Charged Anisotropic Polytropes

    Azam, M


    Recently in \\cite{34}, the role of electromagnetic field on the cracking of spherical polytropes has been investigated without perturbing charge parameter explicitly. In this study, we have examined the occurrence of cracking of anisotropic spherical polytropes through perturbing parameters like anisotropic pressure, energy density and charge. We consider two different types of polytropes in this study. We discuss the occurrence of cracking in two different ways $(i)$ by perturbing polytropic constant, anisotropy and charge parameter $(ii)$ by perturbing polytropic index, anisotropy and charge parameter for each case. We conclude that cracking appears for a wide range of parameters in both cases. Also, our results are reduced to \\cite{33} in the absence of charge.

  11. Struggling with Fitzgerald's "Crack-Up" Essays.

    Fulcher, James


    Ponders F. Scott Fitzgerald's essays about his "crack-up" and relates them to the many complex aspects of the struggles of a teacher using post-structural literary theory and teaching two-year college students. (SR)

  12. Initiating, growing and cracking of hydrogen blisters

    REN Xuechong; SHAN Guangbin; CHU Wuyang; SU Yanjing; GAO Kewei; QIAO Lijie; JIANG Bo; CHEN Gang; CUI Yinhui


    The growing process of a hydrogen blister in a wheel steel was observed in situ with an optical microscope, and the fracture surfaces formed from broken blisters on a wheel steel and bulk metallic glass were investigated. The initiating, growing, cracking and breaking of hydrogen blisters are as follows. Supersaturated vacancies can increase greatly during charging and gather together into a vacancy cluster (small cavity). Hydrogen atoms become hydrogen molecules in the vacancy cluster and hydrogen molecules can stabilize the vacancy cluster. The small cavity becomes the nucleus of hydrogen blister. The blister will grow with entering of vacancies and hydrogen atoms. With increasing hydrogen pressure, plastic deformation occurs first, the hydrogen blister near the surface extrudes, and then cracks initiate along the wall of the blister with further increasing hydrogen pressure. A cracked blister can grow further through propagating of cracks until it breaks.

  13. Dynamic Strain and Crack Monitoring Sensor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research proposes to develop a new automated vehicle health monitoring sensor system capable of measuring loads and detecting crack, corrosion, and...

  14. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Crack Depth and Crack Opening On the Girder

    Md. Kamrul Hassan


    Full Text Available In order to identify the effect of crack depth and opening on the girder, finite element method (FEM has been used in this paper. In FE analysis, six nodded two dimensional plane elements (PLANE-2 are considered. Each node has two degree of freedom such as UX and UY. For the plane elements, a plane stress width/thickness option is chosen. For analytical model of crack of the concrete bridge girder, crack opening was increased from 0.2 mm to 1mm at an interval 0.2 mm and crack depth also increased from 30 mm to 150 mm at an interval 30 mm. The models were discreatized by a triangular mesh and convergence test was executed to obtain satisfactory results from the Plane-2 element. From the numerical result, it is seen that the principal stress become a higher with increased the crack depth and also crack opening with respect to load increasing. But the crack depth at 90 mm and crack opening at 0.6 mm, it has more effect on the girder because the stress concentration is higher than other crack depth and opening.

  15. Calculation of the crack tip opening displacement of a crack lying in a subsurface layer

    Higashida, Y.; Kamada, K.


    Crack tip opening displacement of a crack lying parallel to a free surface is calculated by counting the number of dislocations emitted into the plastic zone from a crack tip. A discrete dislocation model was used to simulate the crack, while varying the strength of dislocations so as to satisfy the boundary condition. The result coincides numerically with the predictions made in a previous paper, in which the stress intensity factor appearing in a theory of bulk materials was replaced with the one which includes the surface correction.

  16. Crack Closure Effects on Fatigue Crack Propagation Rates: Application of a Proposed Theoretical Model

    José A. F. O. Correia


    Full Text Available Structural design taking into account fatigue damage requires a thorough knowledge of the behaviour of materials. In addition to the monotonic behaviour of the materials, it is also important to assess their cyclic response and fatigue crack propagation behaviour under constant and variable amplitude loading. Materials whenever subjected to fatigue cracking may exhibit mean stress effects as well as crack closure effects. In this paper, a theoretical model based on the same initial assumptions of the analytical models proposed by Hudak and Davidson and Ellyin is proposed to estimate the influence of the crack closure effects. This proposal based further on Walker’s propagation law was applied to the P355NL1 steel using an inverse analysis (back-extrapolation of experimental fatigue crack propagation results. Based on this proposed model it is possible to estimate the crack opening stress intensity factor, Kop, the relationship between U=ΔKeff/ΔK quantity and the stress intensity factor, the crack length, and the stress ratio. This allows the evaluation of the influence of the crack closure effects for different stress ratio levels, in the fatigue crack propagation rates. Finally, a good agreement is found between the proposed theoretical model and the analytical models presented in the literature.

  17. Hydration Process and Crack Tendency of Concrete Based on Resistivity and Restrained Shrinkage Crack

    MUAZU Bawa Samaila; WEI Xiaosheng; WANG Lei


    Hydration process, crack potential and setting time of concrete grade C30, C40 and C50 were monitored by using a non-contact electrical resistivity apparatus, a novel plastic ring mould and penetration resistance methods, respectively. The results show the highest resistivity of C30 at the early stage until a point when C50 accelerated and overtook the others. It has been experimentally conifrmed that the crossing point of C30 and C50 corresponds to the ifnal setting time of C50. From resistivity derivative curve, four different stages were observed upon which the hydration process is classiifed; these are dissolution, induction, acceleration and deceleration periods. Consequently, restrained shrinkage crack and setting time results demonstrated that C50 set and cracked the earliest. The cracking time of all the samples occurred within a reasonable experimental period thus the novel plastic ring is a convenient method for predicting concrete’s crack potential. The highest inlfection time (ti) obtained from resistivity curve and the ifnal setting time (tf) were used with crack time (tc) in coming up with mathematical models for the prediction of concrete’s cracking age for the range of concrete grade considered. Finally, an ANSYS numerical simulation supports the experimental ifndings in terms of the earliest crack age of C50 and the crack location.

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation of propagating cracks

    Mullins, M.


    Steady state crack propagation is investigated numerically using a model consisting of 236 free atoms in two (010) planes of bcc alpha iron. The continuum region is modeled using the finite element method with 175 nodes and 288 elements. The model shows clear (010) plane fracture to the edge of the discrete region at moderate loads. Analysis of the results obtained indicates that models of this type can provide realistic simulation of steady state crack propagation.

  19. Fatigue Crack Initiation Analysis in 1060 Steel

    L. Gyansah


    Full Text Available This study investigates initiation of small cracks on dumble-shaped plate type specimens of 1060steel at the load ratio of R = 0 under varied cyclic stress amplitudes between 0.6 and 1.0 of yield stress usingthe Instron machine (model: 8501. Sinusoidal wave of a frequency of 10 Hz was used in the experiment. Theexperiment was conducted at a room temperature of 23ºC. Each test for different applied stress ranges wascarried out for 2×104 cycles. Microstructure and fractography of the fractured specimen were also analyzed.Nucleations of cracks were observed at Ferrite-Ferrite G rain Boundary (FFGB as well as inside Ferrite GrainBody (FGB, but the FFGB location was preferred. Results show that the average length of FFGB cracks isfound larger than that of the average length of cracks initiated inside FGB at the same cyclic loading conditions.The formation of slip band inside grain body, slip band impingement at grain boundary and elastic-plasticincompatibility synergistically have significant influence on fatigue crack initiation in 1060 steel. Additionally,the formation of irregular voids inside slip bands, initiation and growth of small voids at grain boundary andthe subsequent joining of these with other voids were seen as specific characteristics of 1060 steel. It was alsoestablished that cracks nucleate both at grain boundary and inside grain body in 1060 steel in the investigateddomain of 0.6 to 1.0Fy.It was further established that the orientation of the grain body cracks at low stress levelis greater than 45º and the average angle of orientation of these cracks increases like that of grain boundarycracks with increased magnitude of stress range.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulation of propagating cracks

    Mullins, M.


    Steady state crack propagation is investigated numerically using a model consisting of 236 free atoms in two (010) planes of bcc alpha iron. The continuum region is modeled using the finite element method with 175 nodes and 288 elements. The model shows clear (010) plane fracture to the edge of the discrete region at moderate loads. Analysis of the results obtained indicates that models of this type can provide realistic simulation of steady state crack propagation.

  1. Hot-cracking studies of Inconel 718 weld- heat-affected zones

    Thompson, E. G.


    Hot ductility tests, gas-tungsten-arc fillerless fusion tests, and circle patch-weld-restraint tests were conducted on Inconel 718 to better understand and correlate the weldability /resistance to hot cracking/ of the alloy. A correlation of the test results with composition, heat-treat condition, grain size, and microstructure was made.

  2. A New Probability of Detection Model for Updating Crack Distribution of Offshore Structures

    李典庆; 张圣坤; 唐文勇


    There exists model uncertainty of probability of detection for inspecting ship structures with nondestructive inspection techniques. Based on a comparison of several existing probability of detection (POD) models, a new probability of detection model is proposed for the updating of crack size distribution. Furthermore, the theoretical derivation shows that most existing probability of detection models are special cases of the new probability of detection model. The least square method is adopted for determining the values of parameters in the new POD model. This new model is also compared with other existing probability of detection models. The results indicate that the new probability of detection model can fit the inspection data better. This new probability of detection model is then applied to the analysis of the problem of crack size updating for offshore structures. The Bayesian updating method is used to analyze the effect of probability of detection models on the posterior distribution of a crack size. The results show that different probabilities of detection models generate different posterior distributions of a crack size for offshore structures.

  3. Atomistic observation of a crack tip approaching coherent twin boundaries.

    Liu, L; Wang, J; Gong, S K; Mao, S X


    Coherent twin boundaries (CTBs) in nano-twinned materials could improve crack resistance. However, the role of the CTBs during crack penetration has never been explored at atomic scale. Our in situ observation on nano-twinned Ag under a high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) reveals the dynamic processes of a crack penetration across the CTBs, which involve alternated crack tip blunting, crack deflection, twinning/detwinning and slip transmission across the CTBs. The alternated blunting processes are related to the emission of different types of dislocations at the crack tip and vary with the distance of the crack tip from the CTBs.

  4. Crack shape analysis of PWSCC in S/G tubings

    Park, I. K. [Sunmon Univ., Chonan (Korea, Republic of)


    Crack shape of PWSCC was analyzed, based on the fractured pulled-out S/G tubings of Ulchin-1 steam generator. The shape of the cracks in kiss roll transitions was elliptical shape for short cracks, and car shape for long cracks with flat crack front. The bulging was observed under the inner wall after shot-peening. Crack shape change after shot-peening was resulted from the crack growth restraint in axial direction due to compressive residual stresses on the primary side surface.

  5. Thermally activated processes of fatigue crack growth in steels

    Tanaka, Masaki; Fujii, Atsushi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Higashida, Kenji


    Fatigue crack growth rates in steels at high and low temperatures have been investigated using Paris curves. The fatigue crack growth rates at high temperatures are quite different from those at low temperatures. Arrhenius plots between fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN) and test temperatures at constant stress intensity factor range (ΔKI) indicate a difference of the rate-controlling process for fatigue crack growth with temperature. Slip deformation at the crack tip governs fatigue crack growth at high temperatures, while hydrogen diffusion is associated with crack growth at low temperatures.

  6. Aluminum alloy weldability. Identification of weld solidification cracking mechanisms through novel experimental technique and model development

    Coniglio, Nicolas


    solidification range, refinement in grain size from 63 to 51 {mu}m, centerline columnar grains disappearance, and decreased cooling rate from 113 to 89 C/s. Moreover, in order to make direct comparison with literature, castings of controlled mixtures of alloys 6060 and 4043 were also investigated, thereby simulating weld metal composition under controlled cooling conditions. Castings showed a different trend than welds with small increases in silicon content (i.e. increase in 4043 filler dilution) resulting in huge effect on microstructure, no effect on liquidus temperature, drop in solidus temperature from 577 C to 509 C, increase in quantity of interdendritic constituent from 2% to 14%, and different phase formation. Binary {beta}-Al{sub 5}FeSi, Mg{sub 2}Si, and Si phases are replaced with ternary {beta}-Al{sub 5}FeSi, {pi}-Al{sub 8}FeMg{sub 3}Si{sub 6}, and a low melting quaternary eutectic involving Mg{sub 2}Si, {pi}, and Si. Also, variation of the cooling conditions in castings revealed the existence of a critical cooling rate, above which the solidification path and microstructure undergo a major change. Cracking Model. Implementing the critical conditions for cracking into the Rappaz- Drezet-Gremaud (RDG) model revealed a pressure drop in the interdendritic liquid on the order of 10{sup -1} atm, originating primarily from straining conditions. Since, according to literature, a minimum of 1,760 atm is required to fracture pure aluminum liquid (theoretical), this demonstrates that cavitation as a liquid fracture mechanism is not likely to occur, even when accounting for dissolved hydrogen gas. Instead, a porosity-based crack initiation model has been developed based upon pore stability criteria, assuming that gas pores expand from pre-existing nuclei. Crack initiation is taken to occur when stable pores form within the coherent dendrite region, critical to crack initiation being weld metal hydrogen content. Following initiation, a mass-balance approach developed by Braccini

  7. Electromagnetic pulsed thermography for natural cracks inspection

    Gao, Yunlai; Tian, Gui Yun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Haitao; Gao, Bin; Woo, Wai Lok; Li, Kongjing


    Emerging integrated sensing and monitoring of material degradation and cracks are increasingly required for characterizing the structural integrity and safety of infrastructure. However, most conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods are based on single modality sensing which is not adequate to evaluate structural integrity and natural cracks. This paper proposed electromagnetic pulsed thermography for fast and comprehensive defect characterization. It hybrids multiple physical phenomena i.e. magnetic flux leakage, induced eddy current and induction heating linking to physics as well as signal processing algorithms to provide abundant information of material properties and defects. New features are proposed using 1st derivation that reflects multiphysics spatial and temporal behaviors to enhance the detection of cracks with different orientations. Promising results that robust to lift-off changes and invariant features for artificial and natural cracks detection have been demonstrated that the proposed method significantly improves defect detectability. It opens up multiphysics sensing and integrated NDE with potential impact for natural understanding and better quantitative evaluation of natural cracks including stress corrosion crack (SCC) and rolling contact fatigue (RCF).

  8. Nonlinear modal methods for crack localization

    Sutin, Alexander; Ostrovsky, Lev; Lebedev, Andrey


    A nonlinear method for locating defects in solid materials is discussed that is relevant to nonlinear modal tomography based on the signal cross-modulation. The scheme is illustrated by a theoretical model in which a thin plate or bar with a single crack is excited by a strong low-frequency wave and a high-frequency probing wave (ultrasound). A crack is considered as a small contact-type defect which does not perturb the modal structure of sound in linear approximation but creates combinational-frequency components whose amplitudes depend on their closeness to a resonance and crack position. Using different crack models, including the hysteretic ones, the nonlinear part of its volume variations under the given stress and then the combinational wave components in the bar can be determined. Evidently, their amplitude depends strongly on the crack position with respect to the peaks or nodes of the corresponding linear signals which can be used for localization of the crack position. Exciting the sample by sweeping ultrasound frequencies through several resonances (modes) reduces the ambiguity in the localization. Some aspects of inverse problem solution are also discussed, and preliminary experimental results are presented.

  9. Electromagnetic pulsed thermography for natural cracks inspection

    Gao, Yunlai; Tian, Gui Yun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Haitao; Gao, Bin; Woo, Wai Lok; Li, Kongjing


    Emerging integrated sensing and monitoring of material degradation and cracks are increasingly required for characterizing the structural integrity and safety of infrastructure. However, most conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods are based on single modality sensing which is not adequate to evaluate structural integrity and natural cracks. This paper proposed electromagnetic pulsed thermography for fast and comprehensive defect characterization. It hybrids multiple physical phenomena i.e. magnetic flux leakage, induced eddy current and induction heating linking to physics as well as signal processing algorithms to provide abundant information of material properties and defects. New features are proposed using 1st derivation that reflects multiphysics spatial and temporal behaviors to enhance the detection of cracks with different orientations. Promising results that robust to lift-off changes and invariant features for artificial and natural cracks detection have been demonstrated that the proposed method significantly improves defect detectability. It opens up multiphysics sensing and integrated NDE with potential impact for natural understanding and better quantitative evaluation of natural cracks including stress corrosion crack (SCC) and rolling contact fatigue (RCF). PMID:28169361

  10. Dynamic behaviour of a rotating cracked beam

    Yashar, Ahmed; Ghandchi-Tehrani, Maryam; Ferguson, Neil


    This paper presents a new approach to investigate and analyse the vibrational behaviour of cracked rotating cantilever beams, which can for example represent helicopter or wind turbine blades. The analytical Hamiltonian method is used in modelling the rotating beam and two numerical methods, the Rayleigh-Ritz and FEM, are used to study the natural frequencies and the mode shapes of the intact rotating beams. Subsequently, a crack is introduced into the FE model and simulations are performed to identify the modal characteristics for an open cracked rotating beam. The effect of various parameters such as non-dimensional rotating speed, hub ratio and slenderness ratio are investigated for both the intact and the cracked rotating beam, and in both directions of chordwise and flapwise motion. The veering phenomena in the natural frequencies as a function of the rotational speed and the buckling speed are considered with respect to the slenderness ratio. In addition, the mode shapes obtained for the flapwise vibration are compared using the modal assurance criterion (MAC). Finally, a new three dimensional design chart is produced, showing the effect of crack location and depth on the natural frequencies of the rotating beam. This chart will be subsequently important in identifying crack defects in rotating blades.

  11. Protection of brittle film against cracking

    Musil, J.; Sklenka, J.; Čerstvý, R.


    This article reports on the protection of the brittle Zrsbnd Sisbnd O film against cracking in bending by the highly elastic top film (over-layer). In experiments the Zrsbnd Sisbnd O films with different elemental composition and structure were used. Both the brittle and highly elastic films were prepared by magnetron sputtering using a dual magnetron. The brittle film easily cracks in bending. On the other hand, the highly elastic film exhibits enhanced resistance to cracking in bending. Main characteristic parameters of both the brittle and highly elastic films are given. Special attention is devoted to the effect of the structure (crystalline, amorphous) of both the brittle and highly elastic top film on the resistance of cracking of the brittle film. It was found that (1) both the X-ray amorphous and crystalline brittle films easily crack in bending, (2) the highly elastic film can have either X-ray amorphous or crystalline structure and (3) both the X-ray amorphous and crystalline, highly elastic top films perfectly protect the brittle films against cracking in bending. The structure, mechanical properties and optical transparency of the brittle and highly elastic sputtered Zrsbnd Sisbnd O films are described in detail. At the end of this article, the principle of the low-temperature formation of the highly elastic films is also explained.

  12. Influence of Al on the fatigue crack growth behavior of Fe–22Mn–(3Al)–0.6C TWIP steels

    Ma, Penghui [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Qian, Lihe, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Meng, Jiangying [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Liu, Shuai; Zhang, Fucheng [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip Rolling, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)


    The influence of Al on fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior of the high-Mn austenitic twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel was investigated by conducting FCG tests on Fe–22Mn–0Al–0.6C and Fe–22Mn–3Al–0.6C TWIP steels (hereafter, referred to as 0Al and 3Al TWIP steel, respectively). The FCG tests were performed at stress ratio of 0.1 under the control of stress intensity factor range using three-point bending specimens. Excepting that the traditional two-dimensional (2D) observation methods (optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopes) were used to observe the crack paths, fracture surfaces and microstructure features, a high-resolution synchrotron X-ray computed tomography was also applied to observe the three-dimensional (3-D) crack morphology. The results indicate that the FCG resistance of the 0Al TWIP steel is superior to that of 3Al TWIP steel in the near threshold regime. Observed from the 2D crack paths and 3D crack morphologies, it can be found that the crack surface roughness and crack deflection of the 0Al steel are greater than those of 3Al steel. It is suggested that the degree of roughness-induced crack closure decreases with the addition of Al. And the 0Al steel shows much larger plastic zone sizes ahead of the crack tip than the 3Al steel, suggesting that plasticity-induced crack closure may also play an important role in decreasing the FCG rate in the 0Al steel. By excluding the crack closure effects, the 0Al steel still exhibits a higher effective crack growth threshold value than the 3Al steel; this is considered to be due to the higher planarity of slip in the 0Al steel than in the 3Al steel, and the mechanical twins generated in the 0Al steel reduce the stress concentration at crack tip.

  13. 一种复杂载荷作用下船舶结构疲劳裂纹扩展预报方法%A procedure to predict fatigue crack growth of ship structures under complex loading condition

    张鼎; 黄小平; 崔维成


    Storm model proposed by Tomita and coworkers is a simplified random loading model for fatigue strength assessment of ship structures. The time dependent random wave loading can be expressed by the storm model. The basic characteristics of storm model and short-term distribution situation of wave-induced stress are described. Storm model is combined with a unique crack growth rate curve and SIF calculation e-quations for surface crack in the weld toe, and the procedure to predict the fatigue crack growth behavior of ship structures under complex loading conditions is discussed. Weight function is used to calculate SIF of surface crack under given residual stress distribution. Fatigue crack growth behavior of surface crack at weld toe of butt welded joint in ship hull under storm wave loading condition is predicted. The results show that the size and order of storms, the initial size of crack and residual stress have significant effect oncrack growth behavior. Reasonable storm model parameters and initial crack size are very important for fa-tigue life prediction of ship structures.%风暴模型是Tomita等提出的用来评估船舶结构疲劳强度的一种随机波浪载荷简化模型,它能表达波浪载荷是与时间相关的随机过程。文中介绍了风暴模型及波浪诱导应力短期分布的基本特征。将风暴模型和裂纹扩展率单一曲线模型及焊趾表面裂纹应力强度因子的计算方法结合起来,探讨了复杂载荷作用下船舶结构疲劳裂纹扩展预报方法。并用权函数法计算了给定残余应力分布的表面裂纹应力强度因子。预报了对接焊接接头焊趾处表面裂纹在风暴波浪载荷作用下的疲劳裂纹扩展行为,结果表明风暴的大小、顺序,初始裂纹尺寸及残余应力对裂纹扩展行为影响明显。合理的风暴模型参数及初始裂纹尺寸的确定对船舶结构的疲劳寿命预报是非常重要的。

  14. Interaction of Matrix Cracking and Delamination in Cross-ply Laminates: Simulations with Stochastic Cohesive Zone Elements

    Khokhar, Zahid R.; Ashcroft, Ian A.; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.


    Two main damage mechanisms of laminates—matrix cracking and inter-ply delaminationare closely linked together (Joshi and Sun 1). This paper is focussed on interaction between matrix cracking and delamination failure mechanisms in CFRP cross-ply laminates under quasi-static tensile loading. In the first part of the work, a transverse crack is introduced in 90o layers of the cross-ply laminate [01/904/01], and the stresses and strains that arise due to tensile loading are analyzed. In the second part, the cohesive zone modelling approach where the constitutive behaviour of the cohesive elements is governed by traction-displacement relationship is employed to deal with the problem of delamination initiation from the matrix crack introduced in the 90o layers of the laminate specimen. Additionally, the effect of microstructural randomness, exhibited by CFRP laminates on the damage behaviour of these laminates is also accounted for in simulations. This effect is studied in numerical finite-element simulations by introducing stochastic cohesive zone elements. The proposed damage modelling effectively simulated the interaction between the matrix crack and delamination and the variations in the stresses, damage and crack lengths of the laminate specimen due to the microstructural randomness.

  15. The Effects of Shot and Laser Peening on Fatigue Life and Crack Growth in 2024 Aluminum Alloy and 4340 Steel

    Everett, R. A., Jr.; Matthews, W. T.; Prabhakaran, R.; Newman, J. C., Jr.; Dubberly, M. J.


    Fatigue and crack growth tests have been conducted on 4340 steel and 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, respectively, to assess the effects of shot peening on fatigue life and the effects of shot and laser peening on crack growth. Two current programs involving fixed and rotary-wing aircraft will not be using shot peened structures. Since the shot peening compressive residual stress depth is usually less than the 0.05-inch initial damage tolerance crack size, it is believed by some that shot peening should have no beneficial effects toward retarding crack growth. In this study cracks were initiated from an electronic-discharged machining flaw which was cycled to produce a fatigue crack of approximately 0.05-inches in length and then the specimens were peened. Test results showed that after peening the crack growth rates were noticeably slower when the cracks were fairly short for both the shot and laser peened specimens resulting in a crack growth life that was a factor of 2 to 4 times greater than the results of the average unpeened test. Once the cracks reached a length of approximately 0.1-inches the growth rates were about the same for the peened and unpeened specimens. Fatigue tests on 4340 steel showed that the endurance limit of a test specimen with a 0.002-inch-deep machining-like scratch was reduced by approximately 40 percent. However, if the "scratched" specimen was shot peened after inserting the scratch, the fatigue life returned to almost 100 percent of the unflawed specimens original fatigue life.

  16. Stress corrosion cracking of copper canisters

    King, Fraser (Integrity Corrosion Consulting Limited (Canada)); Newman, Roger (Univ. of Toronto (Canada))


    A critical review is presented of the possibility of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of copper canisters in a deep geological repository in the Fennoscandian Shield. Each of the four main mechanisms proposed for the SCC of pure copper are reviewed and the required conditions for cracking compared with the expected environmental and mechanical loading conditions within the repository. Other possible mechanisms are also considered, as are recent studies specifically directed towards the SCC of copper canisters. The aim of the review is to determine if and when during the evolution of the repository environment copper canisters might be susceptible to SCC. Mechanisms that require a degree of oxidation or dissolution are only possible whilst oxidant is present in the repository and then only if other environmental and mechanical loading conditions are satisfied. These constraints are found to limit the period during which the canisters could be susceptible to cracking via film rupture (slip dissolution) or tarnish rupture mechanisms to the first few years after deposition of the canisters, at which time there will be insufficient SCC agent (ammonia, acetate, or nitrite) to support cracking. During the anaerobic phase, the supply of sulphide ions to the free surface will be transport limited by diffusion through the highly compacted bentonite. Therefore, no HS. will enter the crack and cracking by either of these mechanisms during the long term anaerobic phase is not feasible. Cracking via the film-induced cleavage mechanism requires a surface film of specific properties, most often associated with a nano porous structure. Slow rates of dissolution characteristic of processes in the repository will tend to coarsen any nano porous layer. Under some circumstances, a cuprous oxide film could support film-induced cleavage, but there is no evidence that this mechanism would operate in the presence of sulphide during the long-term anaerobic period because copper sulphide

  17. Standard test method for determining plane-strain crack-arrest fracture toughness, kIa, of ferritic steels

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method employs a side-grooved, crack-line-wedge-loaded specimen to obtain a rapid run-arrest segment of flat-tensile separation with a nearly straight crack front. This test method provides a static analysis determination of the stress intensity factor at a short time after crack arrest. The estimate is denoted Ka. When certain size requirements are met, the test result provides an estimate, termed KIa, of the plane-strain crack-arrest toughness of the material. 1.2 The specimen size requirements, discussed later, provide for in-plane dimensions large enough to allow the specimen to be modeled by linear elastic analysis. For conditions of plane-strain, a minimum specimen thickness is also required. Both requirements depend upon the crack arrest toughness and the yield strength of the material. A range of specimen sizes may therefore be needed, as specified in this test method. 1.3 If the specimen does not exhibit rapid crack propagation and arrest, Ka cannot be determined. 1.4 The values stat...

  18. Effect of service exposure on fatigue crack propagation of Inconel 718 turbine disc material at elevated temperatures

    Jeong, Dae-Ho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, RECAPT, Gyeongsang National University, Chinju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Myung-Je [Korea Aerospace Industry, Sacheon (Korea, Republic of); Goto, Masahiro [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Oita University, Oita (Japan); Lee, Hong-Chul [Republic of Korea Air Force (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sangshik, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, RECAPT, Gyeongsang National University, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, the fatigue crack propagation behavior of Inconel 718 turbine disc with different service times from 0 to 4229 h was investigated at 738 and 823 K. No notable change in microstructural features, other than the increase in grain size, was observed with increasing service time. With increasing service time from 0 to 4229 h, the fatigue crack propagation rates tended to increase, while the ΔK{sub th} value decreased, in low ΔK regime and lower Paris' regime at both testing temperatures. The fractographic observation using a scanning electron microscope suggested that the elevated temperature fatigue crack propagation mechanism of Inconel 718 changed from crystallographic cleavage mechanism to striation mechanism in the low ΔK regime, depending on the grain size. The fatigue crack propagation mechanism is proposed for the crack propagating through small and large grains in the low ΔK regime, and the fatigue crack propagation behavior of Inconel 718 with different service times at elevated temperatures is discussed. - Highlights: • The specimens were prepared from the Inconel 718 turbine disc used for 0 to 4229 h. • FCP rates were measured at 738 and 823 K. • The ΔK{sub th} values decreased with increasing service time. • The FCP behavior showed a strong correlation with the grain size of used turbine disc.


    Khanna Deepa


    Full Text Available Walnuts grow on large trees, known for their beauty, timber and tasty edible nuts. There are many varieties of walnuts that vary in hardiness, nut size and thickness of the nut shell. When it comes to their health benefits, Walnuts definitely are not hard nuts to crack. They contain free radical scavenging compounds like ellagic acid, juglone and certain phytosterols that support the immune system and appear to have anti-cancer properties. Walnuts have higher contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids including α-Linolenic acid, than do other nuts which may give walnuts additional anti-atherogenic and cosmetic value. It was found in clinical trials that walnut consumption in the amount of two to three servings per day consistently decreased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Linolenic acid and Linoleic acids present abundantly in walnuts are crucial for maintaining skin functions such as regulation of transepidermal water loss and anti- inflammatory action. The beneficial action of walnut oil on skin is known for centuries and is widely used in cosmetic industry. The walnut oil is a component of dry skin creams, anti-wrinkle and anti-ageing products as it possesses moisturizing property as well as free radical scavenging capacity. Besides, they also exhibit anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-stress, anti-ageing and Hepatoprotective activities. “Walnuts are better than cookies, french fries or potato chips, when you need a snack” as they provide rich nutrients. In the light of above, we thought it worthwhile to compile an up-to-date review article on Walnuts covering its synonyms, phytoconstituents, phytopharmacology and medicinal uses.

  20. Probabilistic Lifetime Assessment of Marine Reinforced Concrete with Steel Corrosion and Cover Cracking

    LU Chun-hua; JIN Wei-liang; LIU Rong-gui


    In order to study the durability behavior of marine reinforced concrete structure suffering from chloride attack, the structural service life is assumed to be divided into three critical stages, which can be characterized by steel corrosion and cover cracking. For each stage, a calculated model used to predict the lifetime is developed. Based on the definition of durability limit state, a probabilistic lifetime model and its time-dependent reliability analytical method are proposed considering the random natures of influencing factors. Then, the probabilistic lifetime prediction models are applied to a bridge pier located in the Hangzhou Bay with Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that the time to corrosion initiation to follows a lognonnal distribution, while that the time from corrosion initiation to cover cracking t and the time for crack to develop from hairline crack to a limit crack width t can be described by Weibull distributions. With the permitted failure probability of 5.0%, it is also observed that the structural durability lifetime mainly depends on the durability life to and that the percentage of participation of tbe life t to the total service life grows from 61.5% to 83.6% when the cover thickness increases from 40 mm to 80 mm. Therefore, for any part of the marine RC bridge, the lifetime predictions and maintenance efforts should also be directed toward controlling the stage of corrosion initiation induced by chloride ion.

  1. Baseline-free fatigue crack detection based on spectral correlation and nonlinear wave modulation

    Liu, Peipei; Sohn, Hoon; Yang, Suyoung; Lim, Hyung Jin


    By generating ultrasonic waves at two different frequencies onto a cracked structure, modulations due to crack-induced nonlinearity can be observed in the corresponding ultrasonic response. This nonlinear wave modulation phenomenon has been widely studied and proven capable of detecting a fatigue crack at a very early stage. However, under field conditions, other exogenous vibrations exist and the modulation components can be buried under ambient noises, making it difficult to extract the modulation components simply by using a spectral density function. In this study, the nonlinear modulation components in the ultrasonic response were extracted using a spectral correlation function (the double Fourier transform) with respect to time and time lag of a signal’s autocorrelation. Using spectral correlation, noise or interference, which is spectrally overlapped with the nonlinear modulation components in the ultrasonic response, can be effectively removed or reduced. Only the nonlinear modulation components are accentuated at specific coordinates of the spectral correlation plot. A damage feature is defined by comparing the spectral correlation value between nonlinear modulation components with other spectral correlation values among randomly selected frequencies. Then, by analyzing the statistical characteristics of the multiple damage feature values obtained from different input frequency combinations, fatigue cracks can be detected without relying on baseline data obtained from the pristine condition of the target structure. In the end, an experimental test was conducted on aluminum plates with a real fatigue crack and the test signals were contaminated by simulated noises with varying signal-to-noise ratios. The results validated the proposed technique.

  2. Estimation of leak rate through circumferential cracks in pipes in nuclear power plants

    Jai Hak Park


    Full Text Available The leak before break (LBB concept is widely used in designing pipe lines in nuclear power plants. According to the concept, the amount of leaking liquid from a pipe should be more than the minimum detectable leak rate of a leak detection system before catastrophic failure occurs. Therefore, accurate estimation of the leak rate is important to evaluate the validity of the LBB concept in pipe line design. In this paper, a program was developed to estimate the leak rate through circumferential cracks in pipes in nuclear power plants using the Henry–Fauske flow model and modified Henry–Fauske flow model. By using the developed program, the leak rate was calculated for a circumferential crack in a sample pipe, and the effect of the flow model on the leak rate was examined. Treating the crack morphology parameters as random variables, the statistical behavior of the leak rate was also examined. As a result, it was found that the crack morphology parameters have a strong effect on the leak rate and the statistical behavior of the leak rate can be simulated using normally distributed crack morphology parameters.

  3. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors.

    Chopra, O. K.; Chung, H. M.; Clark, R. W.; Gruber, E. E.; Shack, W. J.; Soppet, W. K.; Strain, R. V.


    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) from January to December 2002. Topics that have been investigated include: (a) environmental effects on fatigue crack initiation in carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic stainless steels (SSs), (b) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic SSs in BWRs, (c) evaluation of causes and mechanisms of irradiation-assisted cracking of austenitic SS in PWRs, and (d) cracking in Ni-alloys and welds. A critical review of the ASME Code fatigue design margins and an assessment of the conservation in the current choice of design margins are presented. The existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data have been evaluated to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic SSs. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on fatigue crack initiation in these materials in air and LWR environments. Crack growth tests were performed in BWR environments on SSs irradiated to 0.9 and 2.0 x 10{sup 21} n x cm{sup -2}. The crack growth rates (CGRs) of the irradiated steels are a factor of {approx}5 higher than the disposition curve proposed in NUREG-0313 for thermally sensitized materials. The CGRs decreased by an order of magnitude in low-dissolved oxygen (DO) environments. Slow-strain-rate tensile (SSRT) tests were conducted in high-purity 289 C water on steels irradiated to {approx}3 dpa. The bulk S content correlated well with the susceptibility to intergranular SCC in 289 C water. The IASCC susceptibility of SSs that contain >0.003 wt. % S increased drastically. bend tests in inert environments at 23 C were conducted on broken pieces of SSRT specimens and on unirradiated specimens of the same materials after hydrogen charging. The results of the tests and a review of other data in the literature

  4. Evaluation method of cracking resistance of lightweight aggregate concrete

    季韬; 张彬彬; 陈永波; 庄一舟


    The cracking behavior of lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) was investigated by mechanical analysis, SEM and cracking-resistant test where a shrinkage-restrained ring with a clapboard was used. The relationship between the ceramsite type and the cracking resistance of LWAC was built up and compared with that of normal-weight coarse aggregate concrete (NWAC). A new method was proposed to evaluate the cracking resistance of concrete, where the concepts of cracking coefficient ζt(t) and the evaluation index Acr(t) were proposed, and the development of micro-cracks and damage accumulation were recognized. For the concrete with an ascending cracking coefficient curve, the larger Acr(t) is, the lower cracking resistance of concrete is. For the concrete with a descending cracking coefficient curve, the larger Acr(t) is, the stronger the cracking resistance of concrete is. The evaluation results show that in the case of that all the three types of coarse aggregates in concrete are pre-soaked for 24 h, NWAC has the lowest cracking resistance, followed by the LWAC with lower water absorption capacity ceramsite and the LWAC with higher water absorption capacity ceramsite has the strongest cracking resistance. The proposed method has obvious advantages over the cracking age method, because it can evaluate the cracking behavior of concrete even if the concrete has not an observable crack.

  5. Influence of Particulate Reinforcement and Equal-Channel Angular Pressing on Fatigue Crack Growth of an Aluminum Alloy

    Lisa Köhler


    Full Text Available The fatigue crack growth behavior of unreinforced and particulate reinforced Al 2017 alloy, manufactured by powder metallurgy and additional equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP, is investigated. The reinforcement was done with 5 vol % Al2O3 particles with a size fraction of 0.2–2 µm. Our study presents the characterization of these materials by electron microscopy, tensile testing, and fatigue crack growth measurements. Whereas particulate reinforcement leads to a drastic decrease of the grain size, the influence of ECAP processing on the grain size is minor. Both reinforced conditions, with and without additional ECAP processing, exhibit reduced fatigue crack growth thresholds as compared to the matrix material. These results can be ascribed to the well-known effect of the grain size on the crack growth, since crack deflection and closure are directly affected. Despite their small grain size, the thresholds of both reinforced conditions depend strongly on the load ratio: tests at high load ratios reduce the fatigue threshold significantly. It is suggested that the strength of the particle-matrix-interface becomes the critical factor here and that the particle fracture at the interfaces dominates the failure behavior.

  6. Validation of New Crack Monitoring Technique for Victoria Class High-Pressure Air Bottles


    external variations in strain than with a thinner wall for a given crack depth. The thickness of the bottle in the area of the neck where the...with the crack size. Ten elements were used through the wall thickness. A solid cap was used at the flange neck . The material properties that were used...the test specimen was modelled (one-half of the length and one-half of the circumference ) in order to take advantage of symmetry. Symmetry was enforced



    The special subject"research on life prediction technology of important in-service pressure vessels" mainly analyzes the failure mechanism of large-sized important and critical in-service pressure vessels under the action of working medium and investigates safety assessment and life prediction technology with a view to enhance the operation reliability of in-service pressure vessels in China. Based on a series of accident investigation and test & measuring research, the cause of cracking of catalytic regenerator is analyzed and the in-line non-destructive examination method and failure prevention measures for the cracking of catalytic regenerator are proposed.

  8. Inclined defects and their effect on the fatigue limit and small crack growth

    Roiko Andrew


    Full Text Available Small FIB (Focused Ion Beam milled notches were introduced in quenched and tempered 34CrNiMo6 steel to monitor initiation and growth of cracks in situ. The effect of the defects on the fatigue limit is discussed in terms of the √area model. Notches with projected √area of 30 to 56 μm normal to the applied stress were inclined by 0, 45, and 60 degrees. The effect of size and inclination on the small crack growth as well as the fatigue limit is discussed.

  9. Firebox modeling of SRT cracking heaters

    Sundaram, K.M.; Albano, J.V. [ABB Lummus Crest Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States)


    Thermal cracking of hydrocarbons remains the most economically attractive route for the production of ethylene. The heat for the endothermic cracking reaction is supplied in high capacity fired heaters which are designed specifically to have high selectivity to olefins. In the cracking process, coke is deposited within the tubes of the radiant coil. The rate of coke deposition in a cracking furnace is a function not only of process conditions but of other factors as well. High tube metal temperatures in certain areas of the coil or hot spots can cause locally high coking rate leading to partial blockage of the tubes and consequently, short runs. The small diameter tubes used in modern high selectivity heaters are more sensitive than older large tube designs. The occurrence of these hot zones is a strong function of fireside conditions. For satisfactory performance, the heat flux profile in a cracking heater must be maintained as uniform as possible. In addition, it is important to minimize the variation of process temperatures entering the various cracking coils. These fireside variables are not only a function of the type of burners, excess air, type of fuel(s) and distribution of air and fuel but depend significantly on the air and flue gas flow patterns associated with the firebox, i.e., the firebox aerodynamics. Poor aerodynamics can adversely affect firing patterns and hence heat flux profiles in commercial furnaces. A variety of modeling techniques have been used to evaluate the firebox aerodynamics of Lummus, Short Residence Time, cracking heaters. These include flow visualization, physical cold flow modeling, and computational techniques. These approaches are discussed in this paper.

  10. Crack propagation modeling using Peridynamic theory

    Hafezi, M. H.; Alebrahim, R.; Kundu, T.


    Crack propagation and branching are modeled using nonlocal peridynamic theory. One major advantage of this nonlocal theory based analysis tool is the unifying approach towards material behavior modeling - irrespective of whether the crack is formed in the material or not. No separate damage law is needed for crack initiation and propagation. This theory overcomes the weaknesses of existing continuum mechanics based numerical tools (e.g. FEM, XFEM etc.) for identifying fracture modes and does not require any simplifying assumptions. Cracks grow autonomously and not necessarily along a prescribed path. However, in some special situations such as in case of ductile fracture, the damage evolution and failure depend on parameters characterizing the local stress state instead of peridynamic damage modeling technique developed for brittle fracture. For brittle fracture modeling the bond is simply broken when the failure criterion is satisfied. This simulation helps us to design more reliable modeling tool for crack propagation and branching in both brittle and ductile materials. Peridynamic analysis has been found to be very demanding computationally, particularly for real-world structures (e.g. vehicles, aircrafts, etc.). It also requires a very expensive visualization process. The goal of this paper is to bring awareness to researchers the impact of this cutting-edge simulation tool for a better understanding of the cracked material response. A computer code has been developed to implement the peridynamic theory based modeling tool for two-dimensional analysis. A good agreement between our predictions and previously published results is observed. Some interesting new results that have not been reported earlier by others are also obtained and presented in this paper. The final objective of this investigation is to increase the mechanics knowledge of self-similar and self-affine cracks.


    C.F.Lee; L.T.Hsiao


    In this paper, the FEM with the incremental endochronic cyclic plasticity (EndoFEM) and the rc controlled node-released strategy are employed to study the fatigue crack opened/closed load (Pop) of A1 2024-T3 CCT specimens provided by Mageed and Pandey under several crack lengths and the constant amplitude with various load ratio (R). After statisfactory results are achieved by comparisons of computed Pop values and cited experimental data, the simulations will be extended to the crack lengths with significant bending effect due to short ligaments or high peak (Pmax) or high positive or very low negative R cyclic loads. Through these simulations, the complete map of Pop/Pmax vs. Kmax and R can be constructed and thereafter its correspondant empirical formulae can be proposed. Using these formulae and selecting the traditional fatigue crack growth parameter ΔKeff, the A1 2024-T3 fatigue crack growth rate da/dN vs. ΔK and R data, provided by Hiroshi and Schijve, can be employed to proposed empirical formulae of da/dN vs. ΔKeff and R. After integration, fatigue-crack-growth length a vs. N curves computed by EndoFEM can be obtained. The results are agreed very well with the existing experimental curves. According to the above procedures of simulation and steps of comparions with experiment, this paper may provides an integrate methodology of numerical simulation in the studies of fatigue crack growth for academic and industrial researches and design analysis.


    Langton, C.


    Concrete containment structures and cement-based fills and waste forms are used at the Savannah River Site to enhance the performance of shallow land disposal systems designed for containment of low-level radioactive waste. Understanding and measuring transport through cracked concrete is important for describing the initial condition of radioactive waste containment structures at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and for predicting performance of these structures over time. This report transmits the results of a literature review on transport through cracked concrete which was performed by Professor Jason Weiss, Purdue University per SRR0000678 (RFP-RQ00001029-WY). This review complements the NRC-sponsored literature review and assessment of factors relevant to performance of grouted systems for radioactive waste disposal. This review was performed by The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX, and The University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Scotland and was focused on tank closure. The objective of the literature review on transport through cracked concrete was to identify information in the open literature which can be applied to SRS transport models for cementitious containment structures, fills, and waste forms. In addition, the literature review was intended to: (1) Provide a framework for describing and classifying cracks in containment structures and cementitious materials used in radioactive waste disposal, (2) Document the state of knowledge and research related to transport through cracks in concrete for various exposure conditions, (3) Provide information or methodology for answering several specific questions related to cracking and transport in concrete, and (4) Provide information that can be used to design experiments on transport through cracked samples and actual structures.

  13. Crack Growth Monitoring by Embedded Optical Fibre Bragg Grating Sensors: Fibre Reinforced Plastic Crack Growing Detection

    Pereira, Gilmar Ferreira; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard; McGugan, Malcolm


    This article presents a novel method to asses a crack growing/damage event in fibre reinforced plastic, or adhesive using Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors embedded in a host material. Different features of the crack mechanism that induce a change in the FBG response were identified. Double Canti...

  14. Hydrocarbon cracking selectivities with a dual zeolite fluid cracking catalyst containing REY and ZSM-5

    Rajagopalan, K.; Young, G.W. (W.R. Grace and Company, Columbia, MD (USA))


    Synthetic Y faujasite zeolites have been used commercially as cracking catalysts for the past two decades, and more recently dual zeolite fluid cracking catalysts, containing faujasite and ZSM-5 were discovered to increase the octane number of the gasoline during catalytic cracking of gas oil. This concept, where ZSM-5 constitutes only a small fraction (about 1 wt %) of the cracking catalyst, has been tested commercially in Europe and in the United States. Cracking of paraffinic and olefinic hydrocarbons by ZSM-5 catalysts has been studied by several investigators over a range of temperatures (350 to 540{degree}C) and using nearly pure ZSM-5 as the catalyst. The mechanism of octane number enhancement with the dual zeolite catalyst was investigated by examining the effect on product selectivity of addition of 1 wt % ZSM-5 to a cracking catalyst composition during catalytic cracking of a commercial gas oil at 500{degree}C. Changes in composition of the product gasoline (paraffins, olefins, naphthenes and aromatics) caused by ZSM-5 were measured. Since commercial cracking catalysts undergo continuous high temperature regeneration in the presence of steam, the effect of hydrothermal treatment of ZSM-5 was also investigated.

  15. Evolving fracture patterns: columnar joints, mud cracks, and polygonal terrain

    Goehring, L.


    Contraction cracks can form captivating patterns, such as the artistic craquelure sometimes found in pottery glazes, to the cracks in dried mud, or the polygonal networks covering the polar regions of Earth and Mars. Two types are frequently encountered: those with irregular rectilinear patterns, such as that formed by an homogeneous slurry when dried (or cooled) uniformly, and more regular hexagonal patterns, such as those typified by columnar joints. Once cracks start to form in a thin contracting layer, they will sequentially break the layer into smaller and smaller pieces. A rectilinear crack pattern encodes information about the order of cracks, as later cracks tend to intersect with earlier cracks at right angles. In this manner they relieve the stresses perpendicular to the pre-existing crack. In a hexagonal pattern, in contrast, the angles between all cracks at a vertex are near 120°. In this presentation it will be shown how both types of pattern can arise from identical forces, and that a rectilinear, T-junction dominated pattern will develop into to a hexagonal pattern, with Y-junctions, if allowed to. Such an evolution can be explained as the result of three conditions: (1) if cracks advance through space, or heal and recur, that the previous positions of a crack tip acts as a line of weakness, guiding the next iteration of cracking; (2) that the order of opening of cracks can change in each iteration; and (3) that crack tips curve to maximise the local strain energy release rate. The ordering of crack patterns are seen in a number of systems: columnar joints in starch and lava; desiccation cracks in clays that are repeatedly wetted and dried; cracks in eroding gypsum-cemented sand layers; and the cracks in permafrost known as polygonal terrain. These patterns will each be briefly explored, in turn, and shown to obey the above principles of crack pattern evolution.

  16. Quenched effective population size

    Sagitov, Serik; Vatutin, Vladimir


    We study the genealogy of a geographically - or otherwise - structured version of the Wright-Fisher population model with fast migration. The new feature is that migration probabilities may change in a random fashion. Applying Takahashi's results on Markov chains with random transition matrices, we establish convergence to the Kingman coalescent, as the population size goes to infinity. This brings a novel formula for the coalescent effective population size (EPS). We call it a quenched EPS to emphasize the key feature of our model - random environment. The quenched EPS is compared with an annealed (mean-field) EPS which describes the case of constant migration probabilities obtained by averaging the random migration probabilities over possible environments.


    R. Daud


    Full Text Available Shielding interaction effects of two parallel edge cracks in finite thickness plates subjected to remote tension load is analyzed using a developed finite element analysis program. In the present study, the crack interaction limit is evaluated based on the fitness of service (FFS code, and focus is given to the weak crack interaction region as the crack interval exceeds the length of cracks (b > a. Crack interaction factors are evaluated based on stress intensity factors (SIFs for Mode I SIFs using a displacement extrapolation technique. Parametric studies involved a wide range of crack-to-width (0.05 ≤ a/W ≤ 0.5 and crack interval ratios (b/a > 1. For validation, crack interaction factors are compared with single edge crack SIFs as a state of zero interaction. Within the considered range of parameters, the proposed numerical evaluation used to predict the crack interaction factor reduces the error of existing analytical solution from 1.92% to 0.97% at higher a/W. In reference to FFS codes, the small discrepancy in the prediction of the crack interaction factor validates the reliability of the numerical model to predict crack interaction limits under shielding interaction effects. In conclusion, the numerical model gave a successful prediction in estimating the crack interaction limit, which can be used as a reference for the shielding orientation of other cracks.

  18. Evaluation of Stress Intensity Factors for Multiple Cracked Circular Disks Under Crack Surface Tractions with SBFEM

    LIU Jun-yu; LIN Gao; LI Xiao-chuan; XU Feng-lin


    Stress intensity factors (SIFs) for the cracked circular disks under different distributing surface tractions are evaluated with the scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM).In the SBFEM,the analytical advantage of the solution in the radial direction allows SIFs to be directly determined from its definition,therefore no special crack-tip treatment is necessary.Furthermore anisotropic material behavior can be treated easily.Different distributions of surface tractions are considered for the center and double-edge-cracked disks.The benchmark examples are modeled and an excellent agreement between the results in the present study and those in published literature is found.It shows that SBFEM is effective and possesses high accuracy.The SIFs of the cracked orthotropic material circular disks subjected to different surface tractions are also evaluated.The technique of substructure is applied to handle the multiple cracks problem.

  19. Failure analysis of corrosion cracking and simulated testing for a fluid catalytic cracking unit

    Hua Chen; Xiaogang Li; Chaofang Dong; Ming Li; Jinwen Yang


    The failure of a fluid catalysis and cracking unit (FCCU) in a Chinese refinery was investigated by using nondestructive detection methods, fracture surface examination, hardness measurement, chemical composition and corrosion products analysis. The results showed that the failure was caused by the dew point nitrate stress corrosion cracking. For a long operation period, the wall temperature of the regenerator in the FCCU was below the fume dew point. As a result, an acid fume NOx-SOx-H2O medium presented on the surface, resulting in stress corrosion cracking of the component with high residual stress. In order to confirm the relative conclusion, simulated testing was conducted in laboratory, and the results showed similar cracking characteristics. Finally, some suggestions have been made to prevent the stress corrosion cracking of an FCCU from re-occurring in the future.

  20. Snow fracture: From micro-cracking to global failure

    Capelli, Achille; Reiweger, Ingrid; Schweizer, Jürg


    Slab avalanches are caused by a crack forming and propagating in a weak layer within the snow cover, which eventually causes the detachment of the overlying cohesive slab. The gradual damage process leading to the nucleation of the initial failure is still not entirely understood. Therefore, we studied the damage process preceding snow failure by analyzing the acoustic emissions (AE) generated by bond failure or micro-cracking. The AE allow studying the ongoing progressive failure in a non-destructive way. We performed fully load-controlled failure experiments on snow samples presenting a weak layer and recorded the generated AE. The size and frequency of the generated AE increased before failure revealing an acceleration of the damage process with increased size and frequency of damage and/or microscopic cracks. The AE energy was power-law distributed and the exponent (b-value) decreased approaching failure. The waiting time followed an exponential distribution with increasing exponential coefficient λ before failure. The decrease of the b-value and the increase of λ correspond to a change in the event distribution statistics indicating a transition from homogeneously distributed uncorrelated damage producing mostly small AE to localized damage, which cause larger correlated events which leads to brittle failure. We observed brittle failure for the fast experiment and a more ductile behavior for the slow experiments. This rate dependence was reflected also in the AE signature. In the slow experiments the b value and λ were almost constant, and the energy rate increase was moderate indicating that the damage process was in a stable state - suggesting the damage and healing processes to be balanced. On a shorter time scale, however, the AE parameters varied indicating that the damage process was not steady but consisted of a sum of small bursts. We assume that the bursts may have been generated by cascades of correlated micro-cracks caused by localization of