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Sample records for ramada inn clemson

  1. Abstracts. 1978 AFOSR Contractors Meeting on Air-Breathing Combustion Dynamics and Kinetics, Ramada Inn-Downtown Dayton, Ohio, 10 - 13 October 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-13

    Combustion in G.D. Smith, C.E. Peters High Speed Flows AEDC/ARO (PO-78-0012) 5:00 ADJOURN 6:30 Social Hour (Cash Bar) Ramada Inn Banquet 12 Oct. 78...which would sustain the instability structures observed in a number of problemA . During the initial phase of the development of the instabilities, the

  2. T R Ramadas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. T R Ramadas. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 4 Issue 7 July 1999 pp 79-82 Research News. The Work of the Fields Medallists: 1998 - Maxim Kontsevich · T R Ramadas · More Details Fulltext PDF ...

  3. Clemson University Wind Turbine Drivetrain Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuten, James Maner [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Haque, Imtiaz [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Rigas, Nikolaos [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2016-03-30

    In November of 2009, Clemson University was awarded a competitive grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to design, build and operate a facility for full-scale, highly accelerated mechanical testing of next-generation wind turbine drivetrain technologies. The primary goal of the project was to design, construct, commission, and operate a state-of-the-art sustainable facility that permits full-scale highly accelerated testing of advanced drivetrain systems for large wind turbines. The secondary goal was to meet the objectives of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, especially in job creation, and provide a positive impact on economically distressed areas in the United States, and preservation and economic recovery in an expeditious manner. The project was executed according to a managed cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy and was an extraordinary success. The resultant new facility is located in North Charleston, SC, providing easy transportation access by rail, road or ship and operates on an open access model such that it is available to the U.S. Wind Industry for research, analysis, and evaluation activities. The 72 m by 97 m facility features two mechanical dynamometer test bays for evaluating the torque and blade dynamic forces experienced by the rotors of wind turbine drivetrains. The dynamometers are rated at 7.5 MW and 15 MW of low speed shaft power and are configured as independent test areas capable of simultaneous operation. All six degrees of freedom, three linear and three rotational, for blade and rotor dynamics are replicated through the combination of a drive motor, speed reduction gearbox and a controllable hydraulic load application unit (LAU). This new LAU setup readily supports accelerated lifetime mechanical testing and load analysis for the entire drivetrain system of the nacelle and easily simulates a wide variety of realistic operating scenarios in a controlled laboratory environment. The development of these

  4. Four bars inn; Four bars inn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiumi, T. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-05-15

    The name Four Bars Inn puns on four drinking bars and four bars on a musical score. It is a public house sited on the busy St. Mary Street, Cardiff, England. During my stay in that town, I often attended the regular jam session that opened at the bar at nine o`clock every Monday evening. A jam session is an event in which any amateur player, and a professional artist occasionally, is allowed to come on the stage freely and to play jazz, the participation fee as low as 300-yen. It is an occasion that provides a friendly meeting of man and woman, young and old, everyone carrying a pint of ale. Senior people happily talking to young ones aged like their grandchildren certainly presents a heart-warming scene, which we scarcely encounter in Japan. The affection that the British entertain toward their domestic furnishings relayed down through many a generation may lead to their respect for senior citizens. I heartily look forward detecting like scenes some day at drinking spots in Japan where the consumption-happy days are over. (NEDO)

  5. Thinlip grey mullet Liza ramada (Mugilidae caught in a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bror Jonsson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Two individuals of thinlip grey mullet Liza ramada were collected in a southern Norwegian brook (58° 22’ N, 8° 37’ E on 12th September 2007. The fish were 8.7 and 9.0 cm in total length, 6 and 7 g in total mass, and most probably in their first year of life. The nearest known spawning area of the species is south of the English Channel, meaning that they had probably moved at least 900 km across the North Sea during their first growth season. To our knowledge, this is the first published observation of the catadromous thinlip grey mullet from a Scandinavian freshwater course.

  6. Identidad y arquitectura. Estudio de 4 ramadas entre Concepción y Cobquecura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Ascui Fernández

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Para introducir este número presentamos un registro que documenta cuatro ramadas, que es el nombre popular para designar a las construcciones que todos los años, en la semana del 18 de Septiembre, se levantan a lo largo de Chile como un rito esencial de las fiestas recordatorias de la Independencia. La denominación de ramadas se explica porque se trata de instalaciones livianas en base a una estructura de madera y cubierta de ramas. Son construcciones elementales y efímeras pero que están cargadas de significado porque se remiten a las fiestas y tradiciones que se mantienen desde el inicio de la vida republicana y recuerdan los vínculos entre la ciudad y el campo. Las ramadas que se analizan en este registro se ubican en la ruta que une a Concepción y Cobquecura, localidad costera situada a 125 km al norte de Concepción. Las ramadas se levantan en todas las ciudades y pueblos de Chile con el objetivo básico de conmemorar la constitución de la Primera Junta de Gobierno, símbolo de la nueva institucionalidad surgida tras la independencia de España. Las ramadas también son el ámbito donde año tras año , casi coincidiendo con el inicio de la primavera, reviven la música y danzas tradicionales, en particular la cueca –baile nacional de origen colonial que representa la conquista amorosa- cuyo ritmo festivo se mezcla con las tropicales cadencias de la cumbia. En las ramadas se celebra bailando y saboreando empanadas, anticuchos, vino y chicha.

  7. Clemson final report: High temperature formulations for SRS soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    This study was undertaken to demonstrate the application of a DC arc melter to in-situ vitrification of SRS soils. The melter that was available at the DOE/Industrial Vitrification Laboratory at Clemson University was equipped with opposing solid electrodes. To simulate field conditions, two hollow electrode configurations were evaluated which allowed fluxes to be injected into the melter while the soils were being vitrified. the first 4 runs utilized pre-blended flux (two runs) and attempted flux injection (two runs). These runs were terminated prematurely due to offgas sampling problems and melt freezing. The remaining four runs utilized a different electrode geometry, and the runs were not interrupted to change out the offgas sampling apparatus. These runs were conducted successfully

  8. Electron transport in wurtzite InN

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    InN transport; mobility; energy and momentum relaxation; impurity scattering. ... future generation solar cell because the nitride alloys can cover the whole ... We apply the ensemble Monte Carlo method to investigate the electron transport in.

  9. The Profile of Romanian Urban Inns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Maria Coroș

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the third of a series of studies dedicated to tourist inns on the Romanian market. The previous papers focused on the identification of the tourist inns that currently function on the domestic market. Further, their potential as rural facilities was highlighted and their authenticity was discussed. The relevance of this research is linked to the fact that in the early 1990s tourist inns were excluded from the lists of lodging and food-serving facilities, ceasing to be officially ranked. Consequently, the inns’ owners were forced to reclassify as other accepted types or, even worse, to function in the shadow economy , without any official ranking. Moreover, the absence of inns on the market and the incoherent development of certain types of lodgings in Romania, have also led to the fact that entrepreneurs and tourists tend to be confused and, sometimes, not able to differentiate one type of accommodation unit from another. The main purpose of this research is to determine the extent to which urban inns can contribute to the authenticity of the Romanian tourism. From a methodological perspective, the paper relies on both official data (collected and processed based on the official Lists of Hospitality Facilities and on the information available on specialized websites. Thorough analyses have been run in order to identify the tourist structures pretending to be inns, to further categorize and discuss them according to various criteria. The main findings and conclusions of this paper reveal that inns have the potential to contribute to the authenticity of Romania’s hospitality industry .

  10. Superconductivity in MBE grown InN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunes, M.; Balkan, N. [School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, CO4 3SQ, Colchester (United Kingdom); Tiras, E.; Ardali, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Anadolu University, Yunus Emre Campus, 26470, Eskisehir (Turkey); Ajagunna, A.O.; Iliopoulos, E.; Georgakilas, A. [Microelectronics Research Group, IESL, FORTH and Physics Department, University of Crete, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2011-05-15

    We present the experimental investigation of superconductivity in unintentionally doped MBE grown InN samples with various InN film thicknesses. A significant change in resistivity was observed at 3.82 K, for an 1080 nm InN layer with carrier concentration n{sub 3D}=1.185x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. However, no significant resistance change was observed in the case of InN samples with carrier density of 1.024x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, 1.38x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, and thicknesses of 2070 and 4700 nm, respectively. The carrier density of all investigated samples was within the range of values between the Mott transition (2x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}) and the superconductivity to metal transition (7x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}). We believe that at lower temperatures ({sup 3}He) which we cannot achieve with our set-up, the phase transition in other samples is likely to be observed. The origin of the observed anisotropic type-II superconductivity is discussed (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. InN layers grown by the HVPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrkin, A.L.; Ivantsov, V.; Usikov, A.; Dmitriev, V.A.; Chambard, G.; Ruterana, P.; Davydov, A.V.; Sundaresan, S.G.; Lutsenko, E.; Mudryi, A.V.; Readinger, E.D.; Chern-Metcalfe, G.D.; Wraback, M.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the properties of high quality HVPE InN and on successful subsequent MBE growth of InN layers with improved characteristics on HVPE InN template substrates. InN layers were grown by HVPE on GaN/sapphire HVPE templates. The (00.2) XRD rocking curve of the best InN layer (RC) had the FWHM of about 375 arc sec, being the narrowest XRD RCs ever reported for HVPE InN. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) revealed that at the GaN/InN interface, the threading dislocations that come from GaN were transmitted into the InN layer. We estimated the dislocation density in HVPE grown InN to be in the low 10 9 cm -2 range. Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) confirmed monocrystalline structure of the InN layers surface. Layers photoluminescence (PL) showed edge emission around 0.8 eV. Hall measured free electron concentration was in the range of 10 19 -10 20 cm -3 and electron mobility was ∝200 cm 2 /V s. MBE growth of InN was performed on the HVPE grown InN template substrate demonstrating the improvement of material quality in the case of homo-epitaxial growth of InN. Demonstration of the high quality HVPE InN materials opens a new way for InN substrate development. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Growth and characterizations of semipolar (1122) InN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, Duc V.; Skuridina, D.; Solopow, S.; Frentrup, M.; Pristovsek, M.; Vogt, P.; Kneissl, M.; Ivaldi, F.; Kret, S.; Szczepańska, A.

    2012-01-01

    We report on metal-organic vapor phase epitaxial growth of (1122) InN on (1122) GaN templates on m-plane (1010) sapphire substrates. The in-plane relationship of the (1122) InN samples is [1123] InN ‖‖[0001] sapphire and [1100] InN ‖‖[1210] sapphire , replicating the in-plane relationship of the (1122) GaN templates. The surface of the (1122) InN samples and the (1122) GaN templates shows an undulation along [1100] InN,GaN , which is attributed to anisotropic diffusion of indium/gallium atoms on the (1122) surfaces. The growth rate of the (1122) InN layers was 3-4 times lower compared to c-plane (0001) InN. High resolution transmission electron microscopy showed a relaxed interface between the (1122) InN layers and the (1122) GaN templates, consistent with x-ray diffraction results. Basal plane stacking faults were found in the (1122) GaN templates but they were terminated at the InN/(1122) GaN interface due to the presence of misfit dislocations along the entire InN/GaN interface. The misfit dislocations were contributed to the fully relaxation and the tilts of the (1122) InN layers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine the polarity of the grown (1122) InN sample, indicating an In-polar (1122) InN. The valence band maximum was determined to be at (1.7 ± 0.1) eV for the (1122) InN sample, comparable to In-polar c-plane InN.

  13. High-quality InN grown on KOH wet etched N-polar InN template by RF-MBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, D.; Araki, T.; Kitagawa, S.; Kurouchi, M.; Nanishi, Y.; Naoi, H.; Na, H.

    2006-01-01

    We have succeeded in dramatically decreasing the density of dislocations in InN by regrowing InN films on micro-facetted N-polar InN templates. The micro-facetted N-polar InN templates were formed by wet etching in a 10 mol/l KOH solution. InN films were regrown on the micro-facetted N-polar InN templates and on flat surface N-polar InN templates for comparison by radio-frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. InN regrown on micro-facetted InN had considerably smaller twist distribution than that grown on the flat InN templates. From transmission electron microscopy observation, it was confirmed that the InN grown on the micro-facetted InN template had much lower density of dislocations than that grown on the flat InN template, and moreover the propagation of edge dislocations was almost completely terminated at the interface between the regrown InN and the micro-facetted InN template. Based on the results, we propose that regrowth of InN on micro-facetted InN templates is an effective way to obtain high-quality InN films. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Mg doped InN and confirmation of free holes in InN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Miller, N.; Mayer, M. A.; Haller, E. E.; Iwamoto, R.; Araki, T.; Nanishi, Y.; Yu, K. M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Ager, J. W. III

    2011-01-01

    We report a systematic investigation on Mg doped InN epilayers grown by radio-frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Electrolyte capacitance voltage (ECV) combined with thermopower measurements find p-type conduction over an Mg concentration range. For InN:Mg in this p-type 'window' the Seebeck coefficients dramatically change their signs from negative to positive when the thickness of undoped InN interlayer decreases to zero. This notable sign change of Seebeck coefficient explains the previous inconsistency between ECV and thermopower results and confirms the existence of mobile holes in the InN:Mg. Taking into account the undoped InN interlayer, the hole density and mobility are extracted.

  15. Formation of InN phase by sequential ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhana Raman, P.; Ravichandran, V.; Nair, K.G.M.; Kesavamoorthy, R.; Kalavathi, S.; Panigrahi, B.K.; Dhara, S.

    2006-01-01

    Formation of InN phase by sequentially implanting nitrogen on indium implanted silica was demonstrated. The growth of embedded InN phase on as-implanted and post-implantation annealed sample was studied using Glancing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction (GIXRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Existence of both cubic and hexagonal phases of InN was observed. Results of irradiation induced ripening of In nanoclusters due to N + ion implantation was also studied. (author)

  16. Synthesis of [100] Wurtzite InN Nanowires and [011] Zinc-Blende InN Nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Nie; Rong, Zhang; Zi-Li, Xie; Xiang-Qiang, Xiu; Bin, Liu; De-Yi, Fu; Qi-Jia, Liu; Ping, Han; Shu-Lin, Gu; Yi, Shi; You-Dou, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    One-dimensional wurtzite InN nanowires and zincblende InN nanorods are prepared by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method on natural cleavage plane (110) of GaAs. The growth direction of InN nanowires is [100], with wurtzite structure. The stable crystal structure of InN is wurtzite (w-InN), zincblende structure (z-InN) is only reported for 2D InN crystals before. However, in this work, the zincblende InN nanorods [011] are synthesized and characterized. The SEM and TEM images show that every nanorod shapes a conical tip, which can be explained by the anisotropy of growth process and the theory of Ehrlich–Schwoebel barrier. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  17. Gonadal disorder in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada, Risso 1827) as a biomarker of environmental stress in surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancioni, Lorenzo; Caprioli, Riccardo; Al-Khafaji, Ayad Hantoosh Dawood; Mancini, Laura; Boglione, Clara; Ciccotti, Eleonora; Cataudella, Stefano

    2015-02-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gonadal alterations in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada) as a biological indicator in assessing aquatic ecosystems health, with particular emphasis to river ecosystems exposed to sewage discharges. For this purpose, the reproductive status and the presence of gonadal alterations were studied in 206 mullets collected from two sites on the low course of the Tiber River, downstream of a large urban sewage treatment plant and in the estuarine area, and from an uncontaminated pond considered as reference site. Intersex and irregularly shaped gonads were observed in 20.8% of the mullets from the most polluted site, and intersex gonads in 10.3% of those from the estuarine area. No alterations were detected in the fish from the reference site, which also showed distinct stages of gonadal development. Conversely, unclear stages of testicular and ovary development were observed in the fish from the two polluted river sites. The results of this study suggest that L. ramada may represent a sentinel species in environmental risk assessment and support the use of gonadal alterations of this species as a bioindicator for extensive monitoring of pollution in lower stretches of rivers and estuarine areas.

  18. Gonadal Disorder in the Thinlip Grey Mullet (Liza ramada, Risso 1827 as a Biomarker of Environmental Stress in Surface Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Tancioni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gonadal alterations in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada as a biological indicator in assessing aquatic ecosystems health, with particular emphasis to river ecosystems exposed to sewage discharges. For this purpose, the reproductive status and the presence of gonadal alterations were studied in 206 mullets collected from two sites on the low course of the Tiber River, downstream of a large urban sewage treatment plant and in the estuarine area, and from an uncontaminated pond considered as reference site. Intersex and irregularly shaped gonads were observed in 20.8% of the mullets from the most polluted site, and intersex gonads in 10.3% of those from the estuarine area. No alterations were detected in the fish from the reference site, which also showed distinct stages of gonadal development. Conversely, unclear stages of testicular and ovary development were observed in the fish from the two polluted river sites. The results of this study suggest that L. ramada may represent a sentinel species in environmental risk assessment and support the use of gonadal alterations of this species as a bioindicator for extensive monitoring of pollution in lower stretches of rivers and estuarine areas.

  19. Feeding ecology of Liza ramada (Risso, 1810) (Pisces, Mugilidae) in a south-western estuary of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, P. R.

    2003-05-01

    The feeding activity of the Liza ramada population inhabiting the Mira estuary (Portugal) is reduced during the winter and summer months. At the beginning of the spawning migration (i.e. November) an increase in the amount of food ingested was noticed. In the upper estuary, the feeding behaviour is independent of the tidal cycle, although there is some evidence of a daily rhythm in the food consumption rate, with a reduction during the night. No significant correlation was found between the quantity of particulate organic matter and the concentration of microalgae present in the stomach contents, and it seems that the bulk of the organic matter ingested by the thin-lipped grey mullets comes from a different origin than planktonic or benthic microalgae. The L. ramada population showed a positive selection for sediment particles between 55 and 250 μm in diameter. In general, the diet composition of this species showed a low diversity of food items. A total of 52 food items were identified in the stomach contents, the Bacillariophyceae being the dominant group. The genera Melosira and Ciclotella were the most common and abundant food items, although the genera Navicula, Nitzschia and Surirella were also classified as preferential food items. It was found that the volume of ploughed sediment that resulted from the feeding activity of the thin-lipped grey mullets, and the correspondent disturbed area increased exponentially with the length of the fish.

  20. Gonadal Disorder in the Thinlip Grey Mullet (Liza ramada, Risso 1827) as a Biomarker of Environmental Stress in Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancioni, Lorenzo; Caprioli, Riccardo; Dawood Al-Khafaji, Ayad Hantoosh; Mancini, Laura; Boglione, Clara; Ciccotti, Eleonora; Cataudella, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gonadal alterations in the thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada) as a biological indicator in assessing aquatic ecosystems health, with particular emphasis to river ecosystems exposed to sewage discharges. For this purpose, the reproductive status and the presence of gonadal alterations were studied in 206 mullets collected from two sites on the low course of the Tiber River, downstream of a large urban sewage treatment plant and in the estuarine area, and from an uncontaminated pond considered as reference site. Intersex and irregularly shaped gonads were observed in 20.8% of the mullets from the most polluted site, and intersex gonads in 10.3% of those from the estuarine area. No alterations were detected in the fish from the reference site, which also showed distinct stages of gonadal development. Conversely, unclear stages of testicular and ovary development were observed in the fish from the two polluted river sites. The results of this study suggest that L. ramada may represent a sentinel species in environmental risk assessment and support the use of gonadal alterations of this species as a bioindicator for extensive monitoring of pollution in lower stretches of rivers and estuarine areas. PMID:25664693

  1. First occurrence of thinlip grey mullet, Liza ramada (Risso, 1827 in the Odra River estuary (NW Poland: genetic identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigiusz Panicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of exotic fish species in the Baltic Sea and its tributaries poses a serious threat for native ichthyofauna, mainly due to the spread of new pathogens. As the accurate identification of species is essential for an effective assessment of changes related to the appearance of non-native species in an aquatic environment, in this paper we tested the usefulness of biometrics and molecular markers in identifying a specimen from the Mugilidae family found in the Odra estuary. The results demonstrated that unambiguous identification of the specimen using biometric features was impossible due to high morphological similarities shared by grey mullets. Unambiguous identification was possible only due to molecular markers, e.g. rhodopsin gene, which helped to identify the collected fish specimen as Liza ramada (Risso, 1827, the first specimen of this species found in the Odra River estuary. The presence of an L. ramada specimen in the Odra River – which could signal the expansion of non-native species into wider ranges – may be linked to climate change or human activity.

  2. High electron mobility InN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R. E.; Li, S. X.; Haller, E. E.; van Genuchten, H. C. M.; Yu, K. M.; Ager, J. W. III; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Walukiewicz, W.; Lu, H.; Schaff, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    Irradiation of InN films with 2 MeV He + ions followed by thermal annealing below 500 deg. C creates films with high electron concentrations and mobilities, as well as strong photoluminescence. Calculations show that electron mobility in irradiated samples is limited by triply charged donor defects. Subsequent thermal annealing removes a fraction of the defects, decreasing the electron concentration. There is a large increase in electron mobility upon annealing; the mobilities approach those of the as-grown films, which have 10 to 100 times smaller electron concentrations. Spatial ordering of the triply charged defects is suggested to cause the unusual increase in electron mobility

  3. Savannah River Site sample and analysis plan for Clemson Technical Center waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagstrom, T.

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this sampling and analysis plan is to determine the chemical, physical and radiological properties of the SRS radioactive Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) liquid waste stream, to verify that it conforms to Waste Acceptance Criteria of the Department of Energy (DOE) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) Incineration Facility. Waste being sent to the ETTP TSCA Incinerator for treatment must be sufficiently characterized to ensure that the waste stream meets the waste acceptance criteria to ensure proper handling, classification, and processing of incoming waste to meet the Waste Storage and Treatment Facility's Operating Permits. This sampling and analysis plan is limited to WSRC container(s) of homogeneous or multiphasic radioactive PCB contaminated liquids generated in association with a treatability study at Clemson Technical Center (CTC) and currently stored at the WSRC Solid Waste Division Mixed Waste Storage Facility (MWSF)

  4. Bandtail characteristics in InN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, W.Z.; Jiang, L.F.; Yang, H.F.; Meng, F.Y.; Ogawa, H.; Guo, Q.X.

    2002-01-01

    The Urbach bandtail characteristics in InN thin films grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on sapphire (0001) substrates have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The bandtail parameter in InN thin films has been obtained by temperature-dependent transmission spectra, with the aid of a detailed calculation of the transmission profile. A bandtail model based on the calculation of density of occupied states and the carrier-phonon interaction has been employed to analyze the temperature-dependent bandtail characteristics. The bandtail parameter is in the range of 90-120 meV in the InN thin film. It is found that the carrier-phonon interaction in InN is weak and the structural disorder contribution (∼90 meV) dominates over the interactive terms. The high structural disorder in InN thin films may relate to the high nonradiative recombination centers

  5. 2nd INNS Conference on Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    Manolopoulos, Yannis; Iliadis, Lazaros; Roy, Asim; Vellasco, Marley

    2017-01-01

    The book offers a timely snapshot of neural network technologies as a significant component of big data analytics platforms. It promotes new advances and research directions in efficient and innovative algorithmic approaches to analyzing big data (e.g. deep networks, nature-inspired and brain-inspired algorithms); implementations on different computing platforms (e.g. neuromorphic, graphics processing units (GPUs), clouds, clusters); and big data analytics applications to solve real-world problems (e.g. weather prediction, transportation, energy management). The book, which reports on the second edition of the INNS Conference on Big Data, held on October 23–25, 2016, in Thessaloniki, Greece, depicts an interesting collaborative adventure of neural networks with big data and other learning technologies.

  6. Infrared reflectance measurement for InN thin film characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, K.; Kugumiya, Y.; Nakagawa, N.; Yamamoto, A.

    2006-01-01

    Infrared reflectance measurements of a series of InN thin films have been performed and attempt to derive carrier concentration and other physical constants for InN thin film characterization. Fitting calculations are performed by use of the dielectric function equation based on phonon-plasmon coupling model. Longitudinal and transverse optical phonon frequencies, plasma frequency and their damping parameters can be derived from fitting. From those results, electrical and phonon properties of InN and characterization of films are discussed. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Improved theoretical model of InN optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira da Silva, A.; Chubaci, J.F.D.; Matsuoka, M.; Freitas, J.A. Jr.; Tischler, J.G.; Baldissera, G.; Persson, C.

    2014-01-01

    The optical properties of InN are investigated theoretically by employing the projector augmented wave (PAW) method within Green's function and the screened Coulomb interaction approximation (GW o ). The calculated results are compared to previously reported calculations which use local density approximation combined with the scissors-operator approximation. The results of the present calculation are compared with reported values of the InN bandgap and with low temperature near infrared luminescence measurements of InN films deposited by a modified Ion Beam Assisted Deposition technique. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. CUEPRA-Clemson University electric power research association: An industry/university partnership for excellence in power engineering education and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girgis, A.A.; Makram, E.B.; Cline, M.L.; Fortson, H.S.

    1993-01-01

    A unique structure for the Clemson University Electric Power Research Association (CUEPRA) has been established to promote electric power system research and to meet the need for a working communication link between the power industry and the academic community. This paper presents the power industries involvement in the power program at Clemson University and the strategic improvements that have been accomplished in research and education

  9. Structural and elastic properties of InN nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quddus, Ehtesham B.; Wilson, Alina; Liu, Jie; Cai, Zhihua; Veereddy, Deepak; Tao, Xinyong; Li, Xiaodong; Koley, Goutam [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Webb, Richard A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and USC Nanocenter, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Structural and elastic properties of InN nanowires (NWs) have been investigated. It was observed that the NWs bend spontaneously or upon meeting an obstacle in their growth path at angles that are multiples of 30 . Lithographically patterned trenches and barriers were found to influence the growth direction of the NWs, which depending on the angle of incidence, grew along the barrier or got deflected from it. Young's modulus of InN NWs, measured by three point bending method using a NW suspended across a trench, was found to be 266 GPa, which is in between the moduli of bulk and thin film InN. Overall, the InN NW properties were found to be very suitable for applications in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and sensors. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Clemson University Science Master's Program in Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure: A program evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sell, Elizabeth Eberhart

    The Clemson University Science Master's Program (SMP) in Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure is a program which aims to link engineering, materials, construction, environment, architecture, business, and public policy to produce graduates with unique holistic perspective and expertise to immediately contribute to the workforce in the area of sustainable and resilient infrastructure. A program evaluation of the SMP has been performed to study the effectiveness of the SMP and identify areas where the goals and vision of the SMP are achieved and areas where improvements can be made. This was completed by analysis of trends within survey responses, review of Master's thesis reports, and review of courses taken. It was found that the SMP has facilitated new interdisciplinary research collaborations of faculty in different concentration areas within the Glenn Department of Civil Engineering, as well as collaboration with faculty in other departments. It is recommended that a course which provides instruction in all eight competency areas be required for all SMP students to provide a comprehensive overview and ensure all students are exposed to concepts of all competency areas. While all stakeholders are satisfied with the program and believe it has been successful thus far, efforts do need to be made as the program moves forward to address and improve some items that have been mentioned as needing improvement. The concerns about concentration courses, internship planning, and advising should be addressed. This evaluation provides benefits to prospective students, current SMP participants, and outside program supporters. The goal of this evaluation is to provide support that the SMP is an effective and worthwhile program for participating students, while attempting to identify any necessary program improvements and provide recommendations for achieving these improvements. This goal has been accomplished.

  11. Kudoa unicapsula n. sp. (Myxosporea: Kudoidae) a parasite of the Mediterranean mullets Liza ramada and L. aurata (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurakhno, V M; Ovcharenko, M O; Holzer, A S; Sarabeev, V L; Balbuena, J A

    2007-11-01

    A new multivalvulid myxozoan parasite, Kudoa unicapsula n. sp., is described from the intestinal mesentery, intestine and pyloric caeca of the thin-lipped grey mullet Liza ramada (Risso 1826) and the golden grey mullet L. aurata (Risso, 1810) from the Mediterranean coastal waters of Spain. It is characterized by the presence of elongated, rice corn-like white cysts of 0.47-0.56 x 0.18-0.38 mm, filled with tetracapsulate, slightly asymmetric spores, rectangular in apical view and tear-shaped in lateral view with four polar capsules of considerably different size and slightly unequal spore valves with rounded edges, overlapping each other on the apex of the spore. One large polar capsule includes a polar filament coiled in two to three turns, and the other three polar capsules, which are very small, posses only a rudimental filament. Both light and electron microscopy data showed that this species differs from all previously described Kudoa spp. with unequal polar capsules. The molecular analysis based on 18S and 28S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid DNA sequence data of K. unicapsula n. sp. indicates a close relationship and thus phylogenetic clustering together with K. trifolia, a myxozoan from the same host and the same geographical location.

  12. InN Quantum Dot Based Infra-Red Photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Arjun; Kumar, Mahesh; Roull, Basanta; Vinoy, K J; Krupanidhj, S B

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembled InN quantum dots (QDs) were grown on Si(111) substrate using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). Single-crystalline wurtzite structure of InN QDs was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The dot densities were varied by varying the indium flux. Variation of dot density was confirmed by FESEM images. Interdigitated electrodes were fabricated using standard lithog- raphy steps to form metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector devices. The devices show strong infrared response. It was found that the samples with higher density of InN QDs showed lower dark current and higher photo current. An explanation was provided for the observations and the experimental results were validated using Silvaco Atlas device simulator.

  13. InN grown by migration enhanced afterglow (MEAglow)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, Kenneth Scott A.; Alexandrov, Dimiter; Terziyska, Penka; Georgiev, Vasil; Georgieva, Dimka; Binsted, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    InN thin films were grown by a new technique, migration enhanced afterglow (MEAglow), a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) form of migration enhanced epitaxy (MEE). Here we describe the apparatus used for this form of film deposition, which includes a scalable hollow cathode nitrogen plasma source. Initial film growth results for InN are also presented including atomic force microscopy (AFM) images that indicate step flow growth with samples having root mean square (RMS) surface roughness of as little as 0.103 nm in some circumstances for film growth on sapphire substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results are also provided for samples with a full width half maximum (FWHM) of the (0002) ω-2θ peak of as little as 290 arcsec. Low pressure conditions that can result in damage to the InN during growth are described. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. InN{0001} polarity by ion scattering spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.; Veal, T.D.; McConville, C.F.; Lu, Hai; Schaff, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    The polarity of a wurtzite InN thin film grown on a c-plane sapphire substrate with GaN and AlN buffer layers has been investigated by co-axial impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (CAICISS). Time of flight (TOF) spectra of He + ions scattered from the surface of the InN film were taken as a function of the incident angles of the primary 3 keV He + ions. From the TOF spectra, the polar angle-dependence of the In scattered intensity was obtained. Comparison of the experimental polar-angle dependence of the In CAICISS signal intensity with simulated results for the various volume ratios of (0001)- and (000 anti 1)-polarity domains indicated that the InN film is approximately 75% In-polarity and 25% N-polarity. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Improvement of InN layers deposited on Si(111) by RF sputtering using a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdueza-Felip, S.; Ibáñez, J.; Monroy, E.; González-Herráez, M.; Artús, L.; Naranjo, F.B.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the influence of a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer on structural and optical properties of wurtzite nanocrystalline InN films deposited on Si(111) substrates by reactive radio-frequency sputtering. The deposition conditions of the InN buffer layer were optimized in terms of morphological and structural quality, leading to films with surface root-mean-square roughness of ∼ 1 nm under low-growth-rate conditions (60 nm/h). The use of the developed InN buffer layer improves the crystalline quality of the subsequent InN thick films deposited at high growth rate (180 nm/h), as confirmed by the narrowing of X-ray diffraction peaks and the increase of the average grain size of the layers. This improvement of the structural quality is further confirmed by Raman scattering spectroscopy measurements. Room temperature PL emission peaking at ∼ 1.58 eV is observed for InN samples grown with the developed buffer layer. The crystal and optical quality obtained for InN films grown on Si(111) using the low-growth-rate InN buffer layer become comparable to high-quality InN films deposited directly on GaN templates by RF sputtering. - Highlights: ► Improved RF-sputtered InN films on Si(111) using a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer. ► Enhanced structural quality confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements. ► Room-temperature photoluminescence emission at 1.58 eV. ► InN films deposited with buffer layer on Si comparable to InN LAYERS on GaN templates.

  16. Improvement of InN layers deposited on Si(111) by RF sputtering using a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdueza-Felip, S., E-mail: sirona.valdueza@depeca.uah.es [Electronics Dept., Polytechnic School, University of Alcala, Madrid-Barcelona Road, km 33.6, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Ibanez, J. [Institut de Ciencies de la Terra Jaume Almera, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), c/Lluis Sole Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Monroy, E. [CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M/NPSC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Gonzalez-Herraez, M. [Electronics Dept., Polytechnic School, University of Alcala, Madrid-Barcelona Road, km 33.6, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Artus, L. [Institut de Ciencies de la Terra Jaume Almera, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), c/Lluis Sole Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Naranjo, F.B. [Electronics Dept., Polytechnic School, University of Alcala, Madrid-Barcelona Road, km 33.6, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-31

    We investigate the influence of a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer on structural and optical properties of wurtzite nanocrystalline InN films deposited on Si(111) substrates by reactive radio-frequency sputtering. The deposition conditions of the InN buffer layer were optimized in terms of morphological and structural quality, leading to films with surface root-mean-square roughness of {approx} 1 nm under low-growth-rate conditions (60 nm/h). The use of the developed InN buffer layer improves the crystalline quality of the subsequent InN thick films deposited at high growth rate (180 nm/h), as confirmed by the narrowing of X-ray diffraction peaks and the increase of the average grain size of the layers. This improvement of the structural quality is further confirmed by Raman scattering spectroscopy measurements. Room temperature PL emission peaking at {approx} 1.58 eV is observed for InN samples grown with the developed buffer layer. The crystal and optical quality obtained for InN films grown on Si(111) using the low-growth-rate InN buffer layer become comparable to high-quality InN films deposited directly on GaN templates by RF sputtering. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved RF-sputtered InN films on Si(111) using a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced structural quality confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Room-temperature photoluminescence emission at 1.58 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer InN films deposited with buffer layer on Si comparable to InN LAYERS on GaN templates.

  17. Double resonance Raman effects in InN nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenech-Amador, N.; Cusco, R.; Artus, L. [Institut Jaume Almera, Consell Superior d' Investigacions Cientifiques (CSIC), Lluis Sole i Sabaris s.n., Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Calarco, R. [Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems, Research Center Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Berlin (Germany); Yamaguchi, T.; Nanishi, Y. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2012-04-15

    We study the excitation wavelength dependence of the Raman spectra of InN nanowires. The E{sub 1}(LO) phonon mode, which is detected in backscattering configuration because of light entering through lateral faces, exhibits an upward frequency shift that can be explained by Martin's double resonance. The E{sub 1} (LO)/E{sub 2}{sup h} intensity ratio increases with the excitation wavelength more rapidly than the A{sub 1}(LO)/E{sub 2}{sup h} ratio measured in InN thin films. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Synthesis of InN nanoparticles by rapid thermal ammonolysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, P.; Sedmidubský, D.; Klimová, K.; Huber, Š.; Brázda, Petr; Mikulics, M.; Jankovský, O.; Sofer, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 12 (2014), "2805-1"-"2805-11" ISSN 1388-0764 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20507S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : InN * nanoparticles * nanocrystals Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.184, year: 2014

  19. Molecular beam epitaxy of InN nanowires on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golam Sarwar, A. T. M.; Carnevale, Santino D.; Kent, Thomas F.; Laskar, Masihhur R.; May, Brelon J.; Myers, Roberto C.

    2015-10-01

    We report on a systematic growth study of the nucleation process of InN nanowires on Si(1 1 1) substrates using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). Samples are grown with various substrate temperatures and III/V ratios. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and photoluminescence are carried out to map out the variation in structural and optical properties versus growth conditions. Statistical averages of areal density, height, and radius are mapped as a function of substrate temperature and III/V ratio. Three different morphological phases are identified on the growth surface: InN, α-In and β-In. Based on SEM image analysis of samples grown at different conditions, the formation mechanism of these phases is proposed. Finally, the growth phase diagram of PAMBE grown InN on Si under N-rich condition is presented, and tapered versus non-tapered growth conditions are identified. It is found that high growth temperature and low III/V ratio plays a critical role in the growth of non-tapered InN nanowires.

  20. Temperature dependence of InN film deposition by an RF plasma-assisted reactive ion beam sputtering deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Mutsukura, Nobuki

    2005-01-01

    Indium nitride (InN) films were deposited on Si(100) substrates using a radiofrequency (RF) plasma-assisted reactive ion beam sputtering deposition technique at various substrate temperatures. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the InN films suggest that the InN films deposited at substrate temperatures up to 370 deg C were cubic crystalline InN; and at 500 deg C, the InN film was hexagonal crystalline InN. In a scanning electron microscope image of the InN film surface, facets of cubic single-crystalline InN grains were clearly observed on the InN film deposited at 370 deg C. The inclusion of metallic indium appeared on the InN film deposited at 500 deg C

  1. Assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution in Mersin Bay (Turkey, northeastern Mediterranean Sea) using Mullus barbatus and Liza ramada as target organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yılmaz, Doruk; Kalay, Mustafa; Dönmez, Erdem; Yılmaz, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    The increasing emphasis on the assessment and monitoring of marine ecosystems has revealed the need to use appropriate biological indicators for these areas. Enzyme activities and histopathology are increasingly being used as indicators of environmental stress since they provide a definite biological end-point of pollutant exposure. As part of an ecotoxicological assessment of Mersin Bay, EROD enzyme activity and histopathological response in selected organs and tissues of two species of fish, Mullus barbatus (red mullet) and Liza ramada (thinlip grey mullet), captured from area were examined. Pollutant (Organochlorines (OC), alkylphenols (APs) and BPA) levels and biomarker responses in tissue samples were evaluated together for their potential to alter the metabolism and cellular aspects in liver and gonad. Elevated induction of EROD activity and histopathological alterations in contaminated samples from Mersin Bay was observed compared to reference site indicating the exposure to potential pollutants. - Highlights: • PCBs, DDTs, APs and BPA were detected in liver tissues of red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada). • Highly induced EROD activity were measured in fish samples from Mersin Bay in comparison to reference fish. • Liver and gonad impairments were observed in samples from contaminated area of Mersin Bay. - Histopathological alterations and induced EROD activities were observed in parallel with elevated tissue concentrations of contaminants in red mullet and thinlip grey mullet.

  2. Evaluation of the Environmental Health Conditions of Qom Hotels & Inns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Farzinnia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesTourism is one of the three major global industries with 4 percent annual economic growth. Qom with roughly 17 million tourists in 2005 was the second religious tourism center in Iran. This study was designed to determine the environmental health criteria of Qom hotels and inns in 2007.MethodsThis descriptive - cross sectional study was carried out based on a standard check list of substance of edible, drinkable, cosmetic and hygienic products law from ministry of health and medical sciences. The checklist included 73 questions which were completed by face to face interviews and sanitary inspections. After analyzing the results of each residential center, the questionnaires were classified into three categories: hygienic (over 80 score, sanitary (40-79 and unacceptable centers (less than 40. The data were presented and analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistical methods such as X 2 and Fisher exact test.ResultsThe percentages of hygienic, sanitary and unacceptable conditions of hotels and inns were 35.5, 54.8 and 9.7, respectively. There was a direct relationship between academic degree of residential managers and the validity of employees health card (P=0.042 ConclusionBased on this the research, the environmental status of Qom hotels and inns was in relatively desirable conditions. Residential places with unacceptable condition were almost located in the old region of the city (e.g. around the Holly Shrine. Due to the structural failures, architectural problems and tremendous cost for repairs, it’s better that their activities be stopped and banned by government. With regard to the high percentage of hotels with sanitary conditions, at least improvements in health conditions accompanied by training and supervision are recommended. Keywords: Environmental Health; Environment and Public Health; Hotel; Inn; Qom, Iran.

  3. Crystallographic deterioration of MOVPE InN during the growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, K.; Nagai, Y.; Houchin, Y.; Hashimoto, A.; Yamamoto, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the crystallographic degradation of MOVPE InN during the growth. Using FWHMs of X-ray rocking curve, tilt ((0002)) and twist ((10-10)) angle distributions are evaluated and effects of the major growth parameters, such as growth temperature, growth time and with/without GaN buffer in the degradation, are revealed. With increasing either thickness of grown InN or growth temperature up to 600 C, the tilt angle distribution is markedly increased, indicating the crystallographic degradation of grown films. The use of a GaN buffer reduces such degradation. Since the twist angle distribution is scarcely changed by such growth parameters, the destruction of InN crystals during growth and annealing is concluded to be anisotropic. The trends of the crystallographic degradation revealed here are in good agreement with those for the electrical and optical degradation previously reported. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Investigations on the structural and optical properties of sphere-shaped indium nitride (InN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagavath, C.; Kumar, J. [Anna University, Crystal Growth Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Nasi, L. [IMEM-CNR, Parma (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Indium nitride (InN) sphere-shaped micro crystals and nano crystals were made using sol-gel method. The crystalline size of the samples were calculated using X-ray diffraction, which were found to increase with the increase of nitridation temperature and time. High resolution-transmission electron microscopy images exhibited the distinct sphere shape of InN with different size of micro and nanometers. The calculated band gap of InN spheres using photo luminescence and UV-visible absorption spectra, was found to be 1.2 eV. Optical phonon modes of InN were determined from micro-Raman studies. (orig.)

  5. Convergence of valence bands for high thermoelectric performance for p-type InN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hai-Zhu; Li, Ruo-Ping; Liu, Jun-Hui; Huang, Ming-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Band engineering to converge the bands to achieve high valley degeneracy is one of effective approaches for designing ideal thermoelectric materials. Convergence of many valleys in the valence band may lead to a high Seebeck coefficient, and induce promising thermoelectric performance of p-type InN. In the current work, we have systematically investigated the electronic structure and thermoelectric performance of wurtzite InN by using the density functional theory combined with semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory. Form the results, it can be found that intrinsic InN has a large Seebeck coefficient (254 μV/K) and the largest value of Z e T is 0.77. The transport properties of p-type InN are better than that of n-type one at the optimum carrier concentration, which mainly due to the large Seebeck coefficient for p-type InN, although the electrical conductivity of n-type InN is larger than that of p-type one. We found that the larger Seebeck coefficient for p-type InN may originate from the large valley degeneracy in the valence band. Moreover, the low minimum lattice thermal conductivity for InN is one key factor to become a good thermoelectric material. Therefore, p-type InN could be a potential material for further applications in the thermoelectric area.

  6. Improvement of the surface morphology of a-plane InN using low-temperature InN buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikata, G.; Hirano, S.; Inoue, T.; Hijikata, Y.; Orihara, M.; Yaguchi, H.; Yoshida, S.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the improvement of the surface morphology of a-plane InN films grown by RF molecular beam epitaxy. By using low-temperature (LT) InN buffer layers, we could successfully obtain InN films with a smooth surface. The full width at half maximum values of the X-ray diffraction (11-20) rocking curve along the [0001]InN direction were 2870 arcsec and 3410 arcsec for a-plane InN samples grown at 500 C with and without LT-InN buffer layers, respectively. Thus, we could improve also the crystalline quality of a-plane InN films by using LT-InN buffer layers. We observed strong polarization anisotropy in the photoluminescence spectra of a-plane InN, which is typical of nonpolar wurtzite III-nitride films. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution in Mersin Bay (Turkey, northeastern Mediterranean Sea) using Mullus barbatus and Liza ramada as target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Doruk; Kalay, Mustafa; Dönmez, Erdem; Yılmaz, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    The increasing emphasis on the assessment and monitoring of marine ecosystems has revealed the need to use appropriate biological indicators for these areas. Enzyme activities and histopathology are increasingly being used as indicators of environmental stress since they provide a definite biological end-point of pollutant exposure. As part of an ecotoxicological assessment of Mersin Bay, EROD enzyme activity and histopathological response in selected organs and tissues of two species of fish, Mullus barbatus (red mullet) and Liza ramada (thinlip grey mullet), captured from area were examined. Pollutant (Organochlorines (OC), alkylphenols (APs) and BPA) levels and biomarker responses in tissue samples were evaluated together for their potential to alter the metabolism and cellular aspects in liver and gonad. Elevated induction of EROD activity and histopathological alterations in contaminated samples from Mersin Bay was observed compared to reference site indicating the exposure to potential pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural anisotropy of nonpolar and semipolar InN epitaxial layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darakchieva, V.; Xie, M.-Y.; Franco, N.; Giuliani, F.; Nunes, B.; Alves, E.; Hsiao, C. L.; Chen, L. C.; Yamaguchi, T.; Takagi, Y.; Kawashima, K.; Nanishi, Y.

    2010-10-01

    We present a detailed study of the structural characteristics of molecular beam epitaxy grown nonpolar InN films with a- and m-plane surface orientations on r-plane sapphire and (100) γ-LiAlO2, respectively, and semipolar (101¯1) InN grown on r-plane sapphire. The on-axis rocking curve (RC) widths were found to exhibit anisotropic dependence on the azimuth angle with minima at InN [0001] for the a-plane films, and maxima at InN [0001] for the m-plane and semipolar films. The different contributions to the RC broadening are analyzed and discussed. The finite size of the crystallites and extended defects are suggested to be the dominant factors determining the RC anisotropy in a-plane InN, while surface roughness and curvature could not play a major role. Furthermore, strategy to reduce the anisotropy and magnitude of the tilt and minimize defect densities in a-plane InN films is suggested. In contrast to the nonpolar films, the semipolar InN was found to contain two domains nucleating on zinc-blende InN(111)A and InN(111)B faces. These two wurtzite domains develop with different growth rates, which was suggested to be a consequence of their different polarity. Both, a- and m-plane InN films have basal stacking fault densities similar or even lower compared to nonpolar InN grown on free-standing GaN substrates, indicating good prospects of heteroepitaxy on foreign substrates for the growth of InN-based devices.

  9. Structural anisotropy of nonpolar and semipolar InN epitaxial layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darakchieva, V.; Xie, M.-Y.; Franco, N.; Alves, E.; Giuliani, F.; Nunes, B.; Hsiao, C. L.; Chen, L. C.; Yamaguchi, T.; Takagi, Y.; Kawashima, K.; Nanishi, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the structural characteristics of molecular beam epitaxy grown nonpolar InN films with a- and m-plane surface orientations on r-plane sapphire and (100) γ-LiAlO 2 , respectively, and semipolar (1011) InN grown on r-plane sapphire. The on-axis rocking curve (RC) widths were found to exhibit anisotropic dependence on the azimuth angle with minima at InN [0001] for the a-plane films, and maxima at InN [0001] for the m-plane and semipolar films. The different contributions to the RC broadening are analyzed and discussed. The finite size of the crystallites and extended defects are suggested to be the dominant factors determining the RC anisotropy in a-plane InN, while surface roughness and curvature could not play a major role. Furthermore, strategy to reduce the anisotropy and magnitude of the tilt and minimize defect densities in a-plane InN films is suggested. In contrast to the nonpolar films, the semipolar InN was found to contain two domains nucleating on zinc-blende InN(111)A and InN(111)B faces. These two wurtzite domains develop with different growth rates, which was suggested to be a consequence of their different polarity. Both, a- and m-plane InN films have basal stacking fault densities similar or even lower compared to nonpolar InN grown on free-standing GaN substrates, indicating good prospects of heteroepitaxy on foreign substrates for the growth of InN-based devices.

  10. PLAN DE MARKETING PARA EL HOTEL CARRIZAL INN

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Guillermo Félix Mendoza; Danny Daniel Cobeña López; Lisbeth Alexandra Párraga Muñoz; Lorena Carreño Mendoza

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue la elaboración de un plan de marketing para el Hotel Carrizal Inn ubicado en la ciudad de Calceta, provincia de Manabí, Ecuador. Se estructuraron tres fases metodológicas, el diagnóstico situacional, estudio de mercado y plan turístico. En la primera fase se delimitó el área de estudio; además se efectuó un análisis interno y externo, utilizando matrices de diagnóstico como la evaluación de factores internos y externos, matriz de competidores...

  11. Evaluation of threading dislocation densities in In- and N-face InN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallinat, C. S.; Koblmueller, G.; Wu, Feng; Speck, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    The threading dislocation (TD) structure and density has been studied in In- and N-face InN films grown on GaN by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The TD densities were determined by nondestructive x-ray diffraction rocking curve measurements in on-axis symmetric and off-axis skew symmetric geometries and calibrated by transmission electron microscopy measurements. TD densities were dominated by edge-type TDs with screw-component TDs accounting for less than 10% of the total TD density. A significant decrease in edge-type TD density was observed for In-face InN films grown at increasingly higher substrate temperatures. In-face InN films grown with excess In exhibited lower TD densities compared to films grown under N-rich conditions. The edge-type TD density of N-face InN films was independent of substrate temperature due to the higher allowable growth temperatures for N-face InN compared to In-face InN. TD densities in In-face InN also showed a strong dependence on film thickness. Films grown at a thickness of less than 1 μm had higher TD densities compared with films grown thicker than 1 μm. The lowest measured TD density for an In-face InN film was ∼1.5x10 10 /cm 2 for 1 μm thick films.

  12. Growth of InN films on spinel substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitamura, K. [Institute of Industrial Science (IIS), The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Megruro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Ohta, J.; Fujioka, H. [Institute of Industrial Science (IIS), The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Megruro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu-ku, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Oshima, M. [Department of Applied Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2007-10-15

    We have grown InN films on MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}(111) substrates with atomically flat surfaces using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and compared their structural properties with those grown on (Mn,Zn)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}(111) substrates. It has been revealed that InN(0001) films grow on MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}(111) with an in-plane epitaxial relationship of InN[1 anti 100]//MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}[1 anti 10], achieving a lattice mismatch minimum. The InN films exhibited a clear sixfold rotational symmetry, without 30 rotational domains and with a full width at half maximum value of the InN 0002 rocking curve being 17.5 arcmin. Comparison between InN films grown on MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and those on (Mn,Zn)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} led us to conclude that suppression of the interfacial reactions between the InN films and the substrate is inherently important to obtain high quality InN on substrates with a spinel structure. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Effects of film polarities on InN growth by molecular-beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, K.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2003-01-01

    Effects of the film polarity on InN growth were investigated in molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). It was found that N-polarity InN could be grown at higher temperatures than In-polarity one. For the In-polarity films, which were grown on Ga-polar GaN template, the highest growth temperature was limited below 500 deg. C, and the surface morphology and crystal quality tended to be poor mainly because of the tolerated low growth temperature. While for the N-polarity InN films, which were grown on MBE-grown N-polar GaN, the growth temperature could be as high as 600 deg. C. The step-flow-like growth morphology was achieved for the InN films grown with N polarity at 580 deg. C. The resulting full widths of half maximum of x-ray rocking curve around InN (002) and (102) reflections were about 200-250 and 950-1100 arc sec, respectively. The photoluminescence of the InN films peaked at 0.697 eV. The recording Hall mobility of InN film grown in N polarity is 1400 cm 2 /V s with a background carrier concentration of 1.56x10 18 cm -3 at room temperature. For both-polarity films, we found N-rich condition was necessary for the stable InN growth

  14. Direct current magnetron sputtering deposition of InN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xingmin; Hao Yanqing; Zhang Dongping; Fan Ping

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, InN thin films were deposited on Si (1 0 0) and K9 glass by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering. The target was In metal with the purity of 99.999% and the gases were Ar (99.999%) and N 2 (99.999%). The properties of InN thin films were studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the film surface is very rough and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) shows that the film contains In, N and very little O. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering reveal that the film mainly contains hexagonal InN. The four-probe measurement shows that InN film is conductive. The transmission measurement demonstrates that the transmission of InN deposited on K9 glass is as low as 0.5% from 400 nm to 800 nm.

  15. Determination of dislocation densities in InN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardali, Sukru; Tiras, Engin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Anadolu University, Yunus Emre Campus, Eskisehir 26470 (Turkey); Gunes, Mustafa; Balkan, Naci [School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ (United Kingdom); Ajagunna, Adebowale Olufunso; Iliopoulos, Eleftherios; Georgakilas, Alexandros [Microelectronics Research Group, IESL, FORTH and Physics Department, University of Crete, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion-Crete (Greece)

    2012-03-15

    The magneto-transport measurements, carried out at magnetic fields up to 11 T and in the temperature range between 1.8 K and 300 K, are used to investigate the scattering mechanisms in GaN/InN/AlN double heterojunctions. Theoretical modeling is based on a variational approach to solving Boltzmann transport equation. It is found that dislocation scattering is the dominant scattering mechanisms at low temperatures because of the large lattice mismatch with the substrate and hence the high density of dislocations in these material systems. Nevertheless, InN epilayers are characterized by a high background carrier density, probably associated with unwanted impurities. Therefore, we also included in our calculations the ionized impurity scattering. However, the effect of ionized impurity scattering as well as the acoustic phonon scattering, remote- background-ionized impurity scattering, and interface roughness scattering on electron mobility are much smaller than that of dislocation scattering. The dislocation densities, in samples with InN thicknesses of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 {mu}m, are then determined from the best fit to the experimental data for the low-temperature transport mobility (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Influence of Different Interlayers on Growth Mode and Properties of InN by MOVPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ri-Qing, Zhang; Xiang-Lin, Liu; Ting-Ting, Kang; Wei-Guo, Hu; Shao-Yan, Yang; Chun-Mei, Jiao; Qing-Sheng, Zhu

    2008-01-01

    We grow InN epilayers on different interlayers by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) method, and investigate the effect of interlayer on the properties and growth mode of InN films. Three InN samples were deposited on nitrided sapphire, low-temperature InN (LT-InN) and high-temperature GaN (HT-GaN), respectively. The InN layer grown directly on nitrided sapphire owns the narrowest x-ray diffraction rocking curve (XRC) width of 300 arcsec among the three samples, and demonstrates a two-dimensional (2D) step-flow-like lateral growth mode, which is much different from the three-dimensional (3D) pillar-like growth mode of LT-InN and HT-GaN buffered samples. It seems that mismatch tensile strain is helpful for the lateral epitaxy of InN film, whereas compressive strain promotes the vertical growth of InN films

  17. Effects of rapid thermal annealing on the optical and electrical properties of InN epilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, G W; Wu, P F; Liu, Y W; Wang, J S; Shen, J L; Lin, T Y; Pong, P J; Chi, G C; Chang, H J; Chen, Y F; Lee, Y C

    2006-01-01

    We studied the optical and electrical properties of InN epilayers with rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The intensity of the photoluminescence (PL) and the carrier mobility were found to increase as the temperature of RTA was increased. We suggest that the formation of compensating acceptors (indium vacancies) after RTA is responsible for the improvement of the quality in InN. The dependence of the PL emission peak on carrier concentration provides a possible method for estimating the carrier concentration in degenerate InN. (letter to the editor)

  18. SIMS and Raman studies of Mg-doped InN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, V.Yu.; Kitaev, Yu.E.; Smirnov, A.N.; Lundina, E.Y.; Klochikhin, A.A.; Smirnov, M.B.; Lu, Hai; Schaff, William J.; Lee, H.M.; Lin, H.W.; Hong, Y.L.; Gwo, S.

    2008-01-01

    Raman and SIMS studies of Mg-doped InN films with a Mg content from N Mg =3.3 x 10 19 to 5.5 x 10 21 cm -3 are reported. Lattice dynamics of hexagonal InN with substitutional impurities and vacancies has been investigated theoretically and calculated Raman spectra were compared with experimental ones. It is concluded that Raman spectroscopy is a good tool for quantitative characterization of Mg-doped InN. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Anomalous phase transition of InN nanowires under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Shun-Xi; Zhu Hong-Yang; Jiang Jun-Ru; Wu Xiao-Xin; Dong Yun-Xuan; Zhang Jian; Cui Qi-Liang; Yang Da-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Uniform InN nanowires were studied under pressures up to 35.5 GPa by using in situ synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction technique at room temperature. An anomalous phase transition behavior has been discovered. Contrary to the results in the literature, which indicated that InN undergoes a fully reversible phase transition from the wurtzite structure to the rocksalt type structure, the InN nanowires in this study unusually showed a partially irreversible phase transition. The released sample contained the metastable rocksalt phase as well as the starting wurtzite one. The experimental findings of this study also reveal the potentiality of high pressure techniques to synthesize InN nanomaterials with the metastable rocksalt type structure, in addition to the generally obtained zincblende type one. (paper)

  20. InN: Fermi level stabilization by low-energy ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, L.F.J.; Veal, T.D.; McConville, C.F.; Lu, H.; Schaff, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    The near-surface electronic properties of InN have been investigated with high-resolution electron-energy loss spectroscopy. Low-energy (∝400 eV) nitrogen ion bombardment followed by low temperature annealing (<300 C) was found to dramatically increase the n-type conductivity of InN, close to the surface. This is explained in terms of the formation of amphoteric defects from the ion bombardment and annealing combined with the band structure of InN. Low-energy ion bombardment and annealing is shown to result in a damage-induced, donor-like defect-profile instead of the expected electron accumulation for InN. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Catalyst-free growth of InN nanorods by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Hwa; Moon, Dae Young; Park, Jinsub; Nanishi, Yasushi; Yi, Gyu-Chul; Yoon, Euijoon

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated the growth of catalyst-free InN nanostructures including nanorods on (0001) Al 2 O 3 substrates using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. As the growth time increased, growth rate along c-direction increased superlinearly with decreasing c-plane area fractions and increasing side wall areas. It was also found that desorption from the sidewalls of InN nanostructures during the InN nanorods formation was one of essential key parameters of the growth mechanism. We propose a growth model to explain the InN nanostructure evolution by considering the side wall desorption and re-deposition of indium at top c-plane surfaces. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Polarity control and growth mode of InN on yttria-stabilized zirconia (111) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Okubo, Kana; Ohta, Jitsuo; Oshima, Masaharu; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We have found that polarity of epitaxial InN layers has been controlled by choice of a capping material during high-temperature annealing of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) (111) substrates in air. Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has revealed that the amount of segregation of Y atoms to the YSZ surface depended on the capping material of the substrates. In-polar and N-polar InN have been reproducibly grown on Y-segregated and Y-segregation-free YSZ surfaces, respectively. We have also found that the growth of the first monolayer (ML) of N-polar InN proceeds in a step-flow mode which then switches to layer-by-layer mode after the coverage by 1-ML-thick InN. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Two-dimensional electron gas in monolayer InN quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, W.; Wang, G. T.; Dimakis, E.; Moustakas, T. D.; Tsui, D. C.

    2014-01-01

    We report in this letter experimental results that confirm the two-dimensional nature of the electron systems in a superlattice structure of 40 InN quantum wells consisting of one monolayer of InN embedded between 10 nm GaN barriers. The electron density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in these InN quantum wells are 5 × 10 15  cm −2 (or 1.25 × 10 14  cm −2 per InN quantum well, assuming all the quantum wells are connected by diffused indium contacts) and 420 cm 2 /Vs, respectively. Moreover, the diagonal resistance of the 2DES shows virtually no temperature dependence in a wide temperature range, indicating the topological nature of the 2DES

  4. Generation of InN nanocrystals in organic solution through laser ablation of high pressure chemical vapor deposition-grown InN thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkis, Sabri; Alevli, Mustafa; Burzhuev, Salamat; Vural, Hüseyin Avni; Okyay, Ali Kemal; Ortaç, Bülend

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis of colloidal InN nanocrystals (InN-NCs) in organic solution through nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of high pressure chemical vapor deposition-grown InN thin film on GaN/sapphire template substrate. The size, the structural, the optical, and the chemical characteristics of InN-NCs demonstrate that the colloidal InN crystalline nanostructures in ethanol are synthesized with spherical shape within 5.9–25.3, 5.45–34.8, 3.24–36 nm particle-size distributions, increasing the pulse energy value. The colloidal InN-NCs solutions present strong absorption edge tailoring from NIR region to UV region.

  5. Effects of Cp2Mg supply on MOVPE growth behavior of InN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, K.; Sasamoto, K.; Hashimoto, A.; Yamamoto, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report shows the effect of Cp 2 Mg supply on MOVPE growth behavior of InN. At low growth temperature (∝600 C), the formation of adducts occurred, which degenerates the crystal quality. With increasing the growth temperature, the adduct formation was suppressed because the decomposition of Cp 2 Mg was enhanced and thus the incorporation of carbon into the film was suppressed. The use of Cp 2 Mg during InN growth increases the growth rate in the lateral direction. Non-doped InN film grown on GaN buffer has an In-face of the top side. On the other hand, the inversion domains seems to be formed in the highly Mg-doped InN. Tilt distribution decreases from 65 to 30 arcmin with the increase of Cp 2 Mg/TMI molar ratio 0 to 0.06. The donor is produced in highly Mg-doped MOVPE-grown InN (Cp 2 Mg/TMI molar ratio > 0.005). Therefore, the effect of Cp 2 Mg supply on MOVPE growth behavior of InN is found to improve a macro-scale crystal quality but also produces the donor (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. A porous layer: an evidence for the deterioration of MOVPE InN grown at high temperature (∝650 C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, K.; Hashimoto, A.; Yamamoto, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper indicates an evidence for the deterioration of the MOVPE InN during the growth at high temperature (∝650 C). It is noted that the deterioration occurs near the interface and InN film becomes porous layer during the further growth. The porous layer has high electron density. The rate-limiting process of N-face InN decomposition depends on atomic hydrogen. The atomic hydrogen produced by the decomposition of NH 3 is responsible for the deterioration of InN film. The crystal quality of InN improves with decreasing the porous layer which is important for MOVPE InN. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Growth of M-plane (10-10)InN on LiAlO2(100) substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Yusuke; Muto, Daisuke; Araki, Tsutomu; Nanishi, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we report the growth and characterization of M-plane InN films on LiAlO 2 (100) substrates by radio-frequency plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (RF-MBE). InN films were grown at various temperatures and under various V/III ratios on the substrates. Pure M -plane InN films were successfully grown at a high temperature of 450 C and under a slightly In-rich condition, while the incorporation of C-plane phase was observed in M -plane InN films grown at low temperatures of less than 400 C or under a N-rich condition. These indicate that controls of growth temperature and V/III ratio are important for the growth of pure M-plane InN films. The in-plane epitaxial relationships of M -plane InN on LiAlO 2 (100) were[0001] InN //[010] LiAlO 2 and[1-210] InN //[001] LiAlO 2 . A surface electron accumulation layer on the obtained M-plane InN film is also discussed. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. MOVPE of InN films on GaN templates grown on sapphire and silicon(111) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, Muhammad; Arif, Ronald A.; Ee, Yik-Khoon; Tong, Hua; Tansu, Nelson; Higgins, John B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the study of MOVPE of InN on GaN templates grown on sapphire and silicon(111) substrates. Thermodynamic analysis of MOVPE of InN performed using NH 3 as nitrogen source and the experimental findings support the droplet-free epitaxial growth of InN under high V/III ratios of input precursors. At a growth pressure of 500 Torr, the optimum growth temperature and V/III ratio of the InN film are 575-650 C and >3 x 10 5 , respectively. The surface RMS roughness of InN film grown GaN/sapphire template is ∝0.3 nm on 2 μm x 2 μm area, while the RMS roughness of the InN film grown on GaN/Si(111) templates is found as ∝0.7 nm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement reveals the (0002) texture of the InN film on GaN/sapphire template with a FWHM of 281 arcsec of the InN(0002) ω rocking curve. For the film grown on GaN/Si template under identical growth conditions, the XRD measurements show the presence of metallic In, in addition to the (0002) orientation of InN layer. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. MBE-growth, characterization and properties of InN and InGaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanishi, Y.; Saito, Y.; Yamaguchi, T.; Hori, M.; Matsuda, F.; Araki, T.; Suzuki, A.; Miyajima, T.

    2003-01-01

    Recent developments on RF-MBE growth of InN and InGaN and their structural and property characterizations are reviewed. For successful growth of high quality InN, (1) nitridation of the sapphire substrates, (2) two-step growth, (3) precise control of V/III ratio and (4) selection of optimum growth temperature are found to be essential. Characterization using XRD, TEM, EXAFS and Raman scattering have clearly demonstrated that InN films have ideal hexagonal wurtzite structure. It is also found that the film has N-polarity. Studies on optimum growth condition dependence on substrate polarity using C and Si face SiC substrates and Ga and N face free-standing GaN substrates are also demonstrated. The result explains why high-quality InN grown by RF-MBE has N-polarity. PL and CL studies on these well-characterized high-quality InN have shown luminescence peaks at approximately 0.75 eV at 77 K. These values, however, change slightly depending on measurement temperatures and probably on the residual carrier concentrations. InGaN with full compositional range are also successfully grown on sapphire substrates and band gap energies of these alloys are also studied using PL and CL. Based on these results, true band gap energies of InN are discussed. This paper also includes latest study on single crystalline InN growth on Si (111) substrates. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. MBE-growth, characterization and properties of InN and InGaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanishi, Y.; Saito, Y.; Yamaguchi, T.; Hori, M.; Matsuda, F.; Araki, T. [Dept. of Photonics, Ritsumeikan Univ., 1-1-1 Noji-higashi, Kusatsu (Japan); Suzuki, A. [Res. Org. of Sci. and Eng., Ritsumeikan Univ., 1-1-1 Noji-higashi, Kusatsu (Japan); Miyajima, T. [Sony Corp. Core Technology and Network Company, 4-14-1 Asahi, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan)

    2003-11-01

    Recent developments on RF-MBE growth of InN and InGaN and their structural and property characterizations are reviewed. For successful growth of high quality InN, (1) nitridation of the sapphire substrates, (2) two-step growth, (3) precise control of V/III ratio and (4) selection of optimum growth temperature are found to be essential. Characterization using XRD, TEM, EXAFS and Raman scattering have clearly demonstrated that InN films have ideal hexagonal wurtzite structure. It is also found that the film has N-polarity. Studies on optimum growth condition dependence on substrate polarity using C and Si face SiC substrates and Ga and N face free-standing GaN substrates are also demonstrated. The result explains why high-quality InN grown by RF-MBE has N-polarity. PL and CL studies on these well-characterized high-quality InN have shown luminescence peaks at approximately 0.75 eV at 77 K. These values, however, change slightly depending on measurement temperatures and probably on the residual carrier concentrations. InGaN with full compositional range are also successfully grown on sapphire substrates and band gap energies of these alloys are also studied using PL and CL. Based on these results, true band gap energies of InN are discussed. This paper also includes latest study on single crystalline InN growth on Si (111) substrates. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Effect of stress during handling, seawater acclimation, confinement, and induced spawning on plasma ion levels and somatolactin-expressing cells in mature female Liza ramada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Noha A; Hashem, Amal M; Ibrahim, Amal A E; Mousa, Mostafa A

    2012-08-01

    The present experiments were designed to determine the effect of different stress factors; handling, seawater acclimation, confinement, and induced spawning on plasma cortisol, hydro mineral balance as well as changes in size, number and integrated intensity of somatolactin (SL)-expressing cells in Liza ramada mature females confined to fresh water ponds. The plasma levels of cortisol, PO(4)(3-), Na(+), and K(+) were higher, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were lower than controls during transportation without anesthesia. By using clove oil (5 mg L(-1)) as an anesthetic during transportation, the plasma cortisol, PO(4) (3-), Na(+), and K(+) were similar to controls, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were higher. During seawater acclimation, the plasma cortisol and minerals were significantly higher except Na(+) which was lower than controls. In addition, during induction of spawning, the plasma levels of cortisol, PO(4)(3-), Na(+), K(+), and Mg(2+) were significantly higher than controls. The SL-producing cells are located in the pars intermedia (PI) bordering the neurohypophysis. The stress affected the number, size, and immunostaining of SL-expressing cells. During seawater acclimation, the size and the integrated intensity of SL immunoreactivity were lower, but the number of these cells was higher than controls. Furthermore, the number, size, and the integrated intensity of SL immunoreactivity were significantly lower than controls during handling and after spawning, which was opposite to confinement. The response of SL-expressing cells in PI in parallel with changes in cortisol and hydro mineral balance induced by stress support the possible role of SL in the adaptive response of fish to stress. © 2012 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  12. Structure analysis of InN film using extended X-ray absorption fine structure method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Hirata, S. [Core Technology Development Center, Core Technology and Network Company, Sony Corporation, 4-14-1 Asahi-cho, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan); Kudo, Y.; Liu, K.L. [Technology Solutions Center, Sony Corporation, 4-16-1 Okata, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0021 (Japan); Uruga, T.; Honma, T. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Mikazuki-cho, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Saito, Y.; Hori, M.; Nanishi, Y. [Department of Photonics, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    We investigated the local atomic structure around In atoms of MBE-grown InN which has a direct bandgap energy of 0.8 eV, using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) oscillation of In K-edge. The signals from the first-nearest neighbor atoms (N) and second-nearest atoms (In) from In atoms were clearly observed and the atomic bond length of In-N and In-In was estimated to be d{sub In-N}=0.215 nm and d{sub In-In}=0.353 nm, respectively. The In-N bond length of d{sub In-In}=0.353 nm was closed to the a-axis lattice constant of a=0.3536 nm, which was determined using X-ray diffraction measurements. The obtained local atomic structure agreed with the calculated ideal structure. We conclude, therefore, that the InN film with a bandgap energy of 0.8 eV has a high structural symmetry in the range of a few A around In atoms. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Structure analysis of InN film using extended X-ray absorption fine structure method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyajima, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Hirata, S.; Kudo, Y.; Liu, K.L.; Uruga, T.; Honma, T.; Saito, Y.; Hori, M.; Nanishi, Y.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the local atomic structure around In atoms of MBE-grown InN which has a direct bandgap energy of 0.8 eV, using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) oscillation of In K-edge. The signals from the first-nearest neighbor atoms (N) and second-nearest atoms (In) from In atoms were clearly observed and the atomic bond length of In-N and In-In was estimated to be d In-N =0.215 nm and d In-In =0.353 nm, respectively. The In-N bond length of d In-In =0.353 nm was closed to the a-axis lattice constant of a=0.3536 nm, which was determined using X-ray diffraction measurements. The obtained local atomic structure agreed with the calculated ideal structure. We conclude, therefore, that the InN film with a bandgap energy of 0.8 eV has a high structural symmetry in the range of a few A around In atoms. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Transport and mobility properties of wurtzite InN and GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarar, Zeki

    2007-01-01

    The results of an ensemble Monte Carlo model of the electron transport in wurtzite gallium nitride (GaN) and indium nitride (InN) are presented. There is a controversy over the material parameters of InN, therefore the recently reported and the traditionally accepted parameter values for InN are used in simulations and the results are compared. The steady-state and transient electron transport characteristics are analyzed and the valley populations of electrons are determined as a function of electric field. The low-field mobility of electrons is also obtained as a function of temperature and over a wide range of carrier concentrations. It is seen that with the recently published material parameters the peak velocity of carriers in InN increases significantly, while the field at which it is attained decreases. The calculated maximum low field mobility at 300 K in InN with the recent material parameters is about 10000 cm 2 /V s for low carrier concentrations. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Impact of potassium and water on the electronic properties of InN(0001) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, S.; Eisenhardt, A.; Krischok, S.; Himmerlich, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we investigate the interaction of potassium and water with 2 x 2 reconstructed InN(0001) surfaces prepared by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The influence of adsorbate-substrate-interaction on surface properties is characterized in-situ by photoelectron spectroscopy. Potassium exposure leads to a strong reduction in the work function Φ to 1.6 eV revealing a charge transfer from the adsorbate to the InN surface. In parallel, a reduction of the surface downward band bending by 0.2 eV and hence a reduced electron accumulation density is observed. While interaction of water with clean InN(0001)-2 x 2 surfaces induces only minor changes in the surface band bending, water adsorption at potassium covered InN(0001) leads to a reversal of the K-induced reduction in surface band bending and a slight increase of Φ to 2.4 eV. These results show that surrounding water modifies the interaction of potassium with InN(0001) surfaces. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. PLAN DE MARKETING PARA EL HOTEL CARRIZAL INN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Guillermo Félix Mendoza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue la elaboración de un plan de marketing para el Hotel Carrizal Inn ubicado en la ciudad de Calceta, provincia de Manabí, Ecuador. Se estructuraron tres fases metodológicas, el diagnóstico situacional, estudio de mercado y plan turístico. En la primera fase se delimitó el área de estudio; además se efectuó un análisis interno y externo, utilizando matrices de diagnóstico como la evaluación de factores internos y externos, matriz de competidores y matriz de diagnóstico de fortalezas, oportunidades, debilidades y amenazas. En el estudio de mercado se analizaron los componentes de oferta y demanda del hotel, se determinaron algunas fallas en la denominación utilizada, según los criterios para la categorización hotelera manejada por el Ministerio de Turismo. En función del diagnóstico FODA, se generaron estrategias para el posicionamiento y comercialización del hotel. Mediante las encuestas realizadas a los huéspedes se pudo conocer el perfil del visitante que llega al hotel y se elaboró un plan publicitario, en el cual sobresale el logotipo y slogan, tríptico promocional, la promoción en página web y redes sociales. Se establecieron estrategias del mix para minimizar falencias operativas en el hotel. Se concluye que la principal nomenclatura utilizada no concuerda con los parámetros establecidos por el Ministerio de Turismo, por lo que se plantea reestructurar ciertas áreas específicas como la cantidad de habitaciones o cambiar la denominación a hostal.

  17. Growth of cubic InN on r-plane sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimalla, V.; Pezoldt, J.; Ecke, G.; Kosiba, R.; Ambacher, O.; Spiess, L.; Teichert, G.; Lu, H.; Schaff, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    InN has been grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates by plasma-enhanced molecular-beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction investigations have shown that the InN layers consist of a predominant zinc blende (cubic) structure along with a fraction of the wurtzite (hexagonal) phase which content increases with proceeding growth. The lattice constant for zinc blende InN was found to be a=4.986 A. For this unusual growth of a metastable cubic phase on a noncubic substrate an epitaxial relationship was proposed where the metastable zinc blende phase grows directly on the r-plane sapphire while the wurtzite phase arises as the special case of twinning in the cubic structure

  18. Inhomogeneous free-electron distribution in InN nanowires: Photoluminescence excitation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Ruiz, J.; Molina-Sánchez, A.; Garro, N.; García-Cristóbal, A.; Cantarero, A.; Iikawa, F.; Denker, C.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2010-09-01

    Photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra have been measured for a set of self-assembled InN nanowires (NWs) and a high-crystalline quality InN layer grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. The PLE experimental lineshapes have been reproduced by a self-consistent calculation of the absorption in a cylindrical InN NW. The differences in the PLE spectra can be accounted for the inhomogeneous electron distribution within the NWs caused by a bulk donor concentration (ND+) and a two-dimensional density of ionized surface states (Nss+) . For NW radii larger than 30 nm, ND+ and Nss+ modify the absorption edge and the lineshape, respectively, and can be determined from the comparison with the experimental data.

  19. LDA+U and tight-binding electronic structure of InN nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Sánchez, A.; García-Cristóbal, A.; Cantarero, A.; Terentjevs, A.; Cicero, G.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we employ a combined ab initio and tight-binding approach to obtain the electronic and optical properties of hydrogenated Indium nitride (InN) nanowires. We first discuss InN band structure for the wurtzite structure calculated at the LDA+U level and use this information to extract the parameters needed for an empirical tight-binging implementation. These parameters are then employed to calculate the electronic and optical properties of InN nanowires in a diameter range that would not be affordable by ab initio techniques. The reliability of the large nanowires results is assessed by explicitly comparing the electronic structure of a small diameter wire studied both at LDA+U and tight-binding level.

  20. Spectral dependence of third-order nonlinear optical properties in InN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, H.; Lee, M.-T.; Chang, Y.-M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the nonlinear optical properties of InN measured in a wide near-infrared spectral range with the femtosecond Z-scan technique. The above-bandgap nonlinear absorption in InN is found to originate from the saturation of absorption by the band-state-filling and its cross-section increases drastically near the bandgap energy. With below-bandgap excitation, the nonlinear absorption undergoes a transition from saturation absorption (SA) to reverse-SA (RSA), attributed to the competition between SA of band-tail states and two-photon-related RSA. The measured large nonlinear refractive index of the order of 10 −10 cm 2 /W indicates InN as a potential material for all-optical switching and related applications

  1. A control technique of oxygen contamination by Ga beam irradiation in InN MOMBE growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isamoto, K.; Uesaka, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Hashimoto, A.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated about a control technique of oxygen contamination into the InN layers by simultaneous irradiation of Ga beam during RF-MOMBE growth using the combination of the TMIn and the RF-plasma nitrogen sources. Red shifts of the band gap energy and the improvement of the electrical properties have been achieved by the Ga beam irradiation. The suppression mechanism of the oxygen contamination has been discussed from the experimental results of the InN growth by the RF-MOMBE with the Ga beam irradiation. The present results strongly indicate that the simultaneous irradiation of the Ga beam would be useful to suppress the oxygen contamination into the InN layers during the growth. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Anomalous magnetism of superconducting Mg-doped InN film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Chang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the Meissner effect of Mg-doped InN film with superconducting transition onset temperature Tc,onset of 5 K. Mg-doped InN is magnetically ordered and exhibits a simultaneous first-order magnetic and electric transition near 50 K. Its behavior is similar to that of iron-based superconductors. A strong correlation is proposed to exist between structural distortion and superconductivity when Mg is doped into InN. The suppression of magnetic ordering close to Tc by doping is further demonstrated by anisotropic magnetoresistance and M-H measurements. The findings suggest that the superconducting mechanism in the system may not be conventional BCS.

  3. Structure and electronic properties of InN and In-rich group III-nitride alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walukiewicz, W; III, J W Ager; Yu, K M; Liliental-Weber, Z; Wu, J; Li, S X; Jones, R E; Denlinger, J D

    2006-01-01

    The experimental study of InN and In-rich InGaN by a number of structural, optical and electrical methods is reviewed. Recent advances in thin film growth have produced single crystal epitaxial layers of InN which are similar in structural quality to GaN films made under similar conditions and which can have electron concentrations below 1 x 10 18 cm -3 and mobilities exceeding 2000 cm 2 (Vs) -1 . Optical absorption, photoluminescence, photo-modulated reflectance and soft x-ray spectroscopy measurements were used to establish that the room temperature band gap of InN is 0.67 ± 0.05 eV. Experimental measurements of the electron effective mass in InN are presented and interpreted in terms of a non-parabolic conduction band caused by the k · p interaction across the narrow gap. Energetic particle irradiation is shown to be an effective method to control the electron concentration, n, in undoped InN. Optical studies of irradiated InN reveal a large Burstein-Moss shift of the absorption edge with increasing n. Fundamental studies of the energy levels of defects in InN and of electron transport are also reviewed. Finally, the current experimental evidence for p-type activity in Mg-doped InN is evaluated. (topical review)

  4. 4th INNS Symposia Series on Computational Intelligence in Information Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Au, Thien

    2015-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Fourth International Neural Network Symposia series on Computational Intelligence in Information Systems, INNS-CIIS 2014, held in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei in November 2014. INNS-CIIS aims to provide a platform for researchers to exchange the latest ideas and present the most current research advances in general areas related to computational intelligence and its applications in various domains. The 34 revised full papers presented in this book have been carefully reviewed and selected from 72 submissions. They cover a wide range of topics and application areas in computational intelligence and informatics.  

  5. Customer Satisfaction at the Hospitality Industry: Holiday Inn Helsinki-Vantaa Airport

    OpenAIRE

    Eld, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this Bachelor’s Degree thesis was to examine and observe the customer service and especially customer satisfaction in a hotel industry, and Holiday Inn Helsinki-Vantaa Airport was selected to be an example for this survey. This survey and thesis is carried out by the author in collaboration with Holiday Inn Helsinki-Vantaa Airport, which was the commissioner of this Bachelor’s Degree thesis. This hotel was chosen since the author of this thesis did her second internship there...

  6. Radiation defects in InN irradiated with high-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhivul'ko, V.D.; Mudryj, A.V.; Yakushev, M.V.; Martin, R.; Shaff, V.; Lu, Kh.; Gurskij, A.L.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of high energy (6 MeV, fluencies 10 15 – 10 18 cm -2 ) electron irradiation on the fundamental absorption and luminescence properties of InN thin films which were grown on sapphire substrates by molecular bean epitaxial has been studied. It is found that electron irradiation increases the electron concentration and band gap energy E g of InN. The shift of the band gap energy E g is a manifestation of the Burshtein-Mossa effect. (authors)

  7. Temperature dependence of InN growth on (0001) sapphire substrates by atmospheric pressure hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Yoshinao; Adachi, Hirokazu; Otake, Aya; Higashikawa, Yoshihiro; Togashi, Rie; Murakami, Hisashi; Koukitu, Akinori

    2010-01-01

    The temperature dependence of InN growth on (0001) sapphire substrates by atmospheric pressure hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) was investigated. N-polarity single-crystal InN layers were successfully grown at temperatures ranging from 400 to 500 C. The a and c lattice constants of InN layers grown at 450 C or below were slightly larger than those of InN layers grown above 450 C due to oxygen incorporation that also increased the carrier concentration. The optical absorption edge of the InN layer decreased from above 2.0 to 0.76 eV when the growth temperature was increased from 450 to 500 C. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Optical properties of InN nanocolumns: Electron accumulation at InN non-polar surfaces and dependence on the growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura-Ruiz, J.; Cantarero, A. [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia (Spain); Garro, N. [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia (Spain); Fundacio General de la Universitat de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Iikawa, F. [Instituto de Fisica ' ' Gleb Wataghin' ' , UNICAMP, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Denker, C.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A. [IV. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August Universitaet Goettingen (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    InN nanocolumns grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy have been studied by photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE). The PL peak energy was red-shifted with respect to the PLE onset and both energies were higher than the low temperature band-gap reported for InN. PL and PLE experiments for different excitation and detection energies indicated that the PL peaks were homogeneously broadened. This overall phenomenology has been attributed to the effects of an electron accumulation layer present at the non-polar surfaces of the InN nanocolumns. Variations in the growth conditions modify the edge of the PLE spectra and the PL peak energies evidencing that the density of free electrons can be somehow controlled by the growth parameters. It was observed that In-BEP and substrate temperature leading to shorter In diffusion lengths diminished the effects of the electron accumulation layer on the optical properties. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Optical properties of InN nanocolumns: Electron accumulation at InN non-polar surfaces and dependence on the growth conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura-Ruiz, J.; Cantarero, A.; Garro, N.; Iikawa, F.; Denker, C.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2009-01-01

    InN nanocolumns grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy have been studied by photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE). The PL peak energy was red-shifted with respect to the PLE onset and both energies were higher than the low temperature band-gap reported for InN. PL and PLE experiments for different excitation and detection energies indicated that the PL peaks were homogeneously broadened. This overall phenomenology has been attributed to the effects of an electron accumulation layer present at the non-polar surfaces of the InN nanocolumns. Variations in the growth conditions modify the edge of the PLE spectra and the PL peak energies evidencing that the density of free electrons can be somehow controlled by the growth parameters. It was observed that In-BEP and substrate temperature leading to shorter In diffusion lengths diminished the effects of the electron accumulation layer on the optical properties. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Nitridation effects of Si(1 1 1) substrate surface on InN nanorods grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shan [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tan, Jin, E-mail: jintan_cug@163.com [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geomaterials of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Bin; Song, Hao; Wu, Zhengbo; Chen, Xin [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-02-05

    Graphical abstract: The morphology evolution of InN nanorods in samples (g)–(i). The alignment of InN nanorods is improved and the deviation angle distribution narrows down with increase in nitriding time. It suggests that extending the nitriding time can enhance the vertical orientation of InN nanorods. - Highlights: • InN nanorods were grown on surface nitrided Si(1 1 1) substrate using PAMBE system. • Nitridation of substrate surface has a strong effect on morphology of InN nanorods. • InN nanorods cannot be formed with 1 min nitridation of Si(1 1 1) substrate. • Increasing nitriding time will increase optimum growth temperature of InN nanorods. • Increasing nitriding time can enhance vertical orientation of InN nanorods. - Abstract: The InN nanorods were grown on Si(1 1 1) substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) system, with a substrate nitridation process. The effect of nitriding time of Si(1 1 1) substrate on morphology, orientation and growth temperature of InN nanorods was characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The deviation angle of InN nanorods was measured to evaluate the alignment of arrays. The results showed that InN nanorods could not be formed with 1 min nitridation of Si(1 1 1) substrate, but they could be obtained again when the nitriding time was increased to more than 10 min. In order to get aligned InN nanorods, the growth temperature needed to increase with longer nitriding time. The vertical orientation of InN nanorods could be enhanced with increase in nitriding time. The influence of the substrate nitridation on the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of InN nanorods has been investigated.

  11. Auger recombination as the dominant nonradiative recombination channel in InN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, Y.; Lue, X.; Wienold, M.; Ramsteiner, M.; Grahn, H.T.; Brandt, O.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the dependence of the photoluminescence intensity of degenerately doped (6×10 17 -to1×10 20 -cm -3 ) InN films on their threading dislocation density and background doping level. The photoluminescence intensity is found to be not determined by the structural quality of the film but by

  12. Golf Tournament Drives in a Win for the Children’s Inn | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer On September 23, golfers took to the Clustered Spires golf course in Frederick, Md., for a cause. The R&W Club Frederick hosted its inaugural golf tournament, with proceeds benefiting the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Children’s Inn.

  13. Polarity and microstructure in InN thin layers grown by MOVPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwano, N.; Nakahara, Y.; Amano, H.

    2006-01-01

    Microstructures in InN grown on sapphire (0001) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) (111) by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) were analyzed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to clarify the growth process. Special attention was paid to the selectivity of the crystal polarity of InN. The InN thin films grown on sapphire after nitridation has a flat surface while those grown on YSZ has hillocks on the surface. The crystal polarity was determined by comparing the experimentally observed intensity distribution in convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) disks with those simulated by the Broch-wave method. It was found that the InN grown on the sapphire has a nitrogen-polarity and the one on YSZ has a mixture of In- and N-polarities. The effect of surface-nitridation of sapphire on the growth process is also discussed (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Analysis of biaxial strain in InN(0001) epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakis, E.; Domagala, J.; Iliopoulos, E.; Adikimenakis, A.; Georgakilas, A.

    2007-01-01

    The in-plane lattice parameters of InN, GaN and Al 2 O 3 in a InN/GaN/Al 2 O 3 (0001) heterostructure have been measured as a function of temperature in the range of 25-350 C, using high resolution X-ray diffraction. The results reveal that both the GaN and InN crystals follow the in-plane thermal expansion of the Al 2 O 3 substrate's lattice and there is no rearrangement of misfit dislocations at the InN/GaN and GaN/Al 2 O 3 interfaces. It was also found that either compressive or tensile character of residual biaxial strain is possible for the InN films, depending on the two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) growth mode of InN on the GaN(0001) buffer layer. The tensile strain is inherent to the nucleation and coalescence of 3D islands. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Theoretical Investigation on Structural and Electronic Properties of InN Growth on Ce-Stabilized Zirconia (111 Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural and electronic properties of InN on Ce-stabilized zirconia (CeSZ (111 substrates are investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory with GGA + U method. Surface energy calculations indicate that the structure of Ce-segregated surface is more energetically stable than that of Ce-segregation-free surface. Adsorption energies of indium and nitrogen atoms on both Ce-segregated and Ce-segregation-free CeSZ (111 surfaces at the initial growth stage have been studied. The results suggest that the first layer of InN films consists of a nitrogen layer, which leads to epitaxial relationships between InN (0001 // CeSZ (111 and InN [112¯0] // CeSZ [11¯0]. In addition, density of states (DOS analysis revealed that the hybridization effect plays a crucial role in determining the interface structure for the growth of InN on CeSZ (111 surfaces. Furthermore, adsorption energies of indium atoms on the nitrogen layer have also been evaluated in order to investigate the lattice polarity determination for InN films. It was found that an indium atom preferentially adsorbs at the center of three nitrogen atoms stacked on the CeSZ substrate, which results in the formation of In-polarity InN.

  16. Unusual photoluminescence properties of vertically aligned InN nanorods grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, C.H.; Chen, H.Y.; Lin, H.W.; Wu, C.Y.; Gwo, S.; Klochikhin, A.A.; Davydov, V.Yu.

    2007-01-01

    We report the unusual photoluminescence (PL) properties of vertically aligned InN nanorod arrays grown on Si(111) with a Si 3 N 4 buffer layer. The optimum growth conditions of InN nanorods are obtained by controlling the III/V ratio and the growth temperature. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy indicates that individual nanorods are wurtzite InN single crystals with the growth direction along the c-axis. Near-infrared PL from InN nanorods is clearly observed at room temperature. However, in comparison to the PL from InN epitaxial films, the PL from InN nanorods is significantly lower in efficiency and exhibit anomalous temperature dependence. We propose that these unusual PL properties are results of considerable structural disorder (especially for the low-temperature grown InN nanorods) and strong surface electron accumulation effect. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Raman scattering and Rutherford backscattering studies on InN films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yee Ling; Peng Xingyu; Liao, Ying Chieh; Yao Shude; Chen, Li Chyong; Chen, Kuei Hsien; Feng, Zhe Chuan

    2011-01-01

    A series of InN thin films was grown on sapphire substrates via plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) with different nitrogen plasma power. Various characterization techniques, including Hall, photoluminescence, Raman scattering and Rutherford backscattering, have been employed to study these InN films. Good crystalline wurtzite structures have been identified for all PA-MBE grown InN films on sapphire substrate, which have narrower XRD wurtzite (0002) peaks, showed c-axis Raman scattering allowed longitudinal optical (LO) modes of A 1 and E 1 plus E 2 symmetry, and very weak backscattering forbidden transverse optical (TO) modes. The lower plasma power can lead to the lower carrier concentration, to have the InN film close to intrinsic material with the PL emission below 0.70 eV. With increasing the plasma power, high carrier concentration beyond 1 x 10 20 cm -3 can be obtained, keeping good crystalline perfection. Rutherford backscattering confirmed most of InN films keeping stoichiometrical In/N ratios and only with higher plasma power of 400 W leaded to obvious surface effect and interdiffusion between the substrate and InN film.

  18. In induced reconstructions of Si(1 1 1) as superlattice matched epitaxial templates for InN growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuyyalil, Jithesh; Tangi, Malleswararao; Shivaprasad, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► A novel growth method to form InN at low growth temperatures. ► Use of Si reconstruction as a growth template for group III nitrides. ► Band gap variation of InN – Moss–Burstein shift – non-parabolic conduction band for InN. ► Super lattice matching epitaxy of metal induced reconstructions with III–V unit cell. -- Abstract: Indium induced surface reconstructions of Si(1 1 1)-7 × 7 are used as templates to grow high quality InN. We grow InN on Si(1 1 1)-7 × 7, Si(1 1 1)-4 × 1-In and Si(1 1 1)-1 × 1-In reconstructed surfaces and study the quality of the films formed using complementary characterization tools. InN grown on Si(1 1 1)-1 × 1-In reconstruction shows superior film quality with lowest band-edge emission having a narrow full width at half maximum, intense and narrow 0 0 0 2 X-ray diffraction, low surface roughness and carrier concentration an order lower than other samples. We attribute the high quality of the film formed at 300 °C to the integral matching of InN and super lattice dimensions, we also study the reasons for the band gap variation of InN in the literature. Present study demonstrates the proposed Superlattice Matched Epitaxy can be a general approach to grow good quality InN at much lower growth temperature on compatible In induced reconstructions of the Si surface.

  19. Applications of ZnO:Al deposited by RF sputtering to InN low-cost technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, S. [Departamento de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Naranjo, F.B.; Valdueza-Felip, S. [Grupo de Ingenieria Fotonica, Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala Campus Universitario, Madrid (Spain); Abril, O. de [ISOM y Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politenica de Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    InN/ZnO:Al heterostructures deposited at low temperature on different substrates by radio-frequency sputtering were studied. Using ZnO:Al as buffer layer, an improvement in the InN structural properties was achieved. Evaluating ZnO:Al as contact on InN, an Ohmic behaviour for the as-deposited layer on InN was achieved. A specific contact resistance of 2 {omega} cm{sup 2} was measured without any post-deposition treatment. These properties could result very promising for optoelectronic device applications. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Analysis of the local structure of InN with a bandgap energy of 0.8 and 1.9 eV and annealed InN using X-ray absorption fine structure measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, Takao [Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, 4-14-1 Asahi-cho, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan); Kudo, Yoshihiro [Materials Analysis Lab., Sony Corporation, 4-18-1 Okada, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0021 (Japan); Wakahara, Akihiro [Deptm. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi Univ. of Tech., Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Araki, Tsutomu; Nanishi, Yasushi [Deptm. of Photonics, Ritsumeikan Univ., 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    We compared the local structure around In atoms in microwave-excited MOCVD- and MBE-grown InN film which indicates an absorption edge at 1.9 and 0.8 eV, respectively. The co-ordination numbers of the 1st-nearest neighbor N atoms and the 2nd-nearest neighbor In atoms for MBE-grown InN were n(N)=3.9{+-}0.5 and n(In)=12.4{+-}0.9, which are close to the ideal value of n(N)=4 and n(In)=12 for InN without defects, respectively. By thermal annealing, the structure of MBE-grown InN was changed from InN to In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and the absorption edge was changed from 0.8 to 3.5 eV. However, the microwave-excited MOCVD-grown InN had no structure of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and had the reduced co-ordination numbers of the 2nd-nearest neighbor In atoms of n(In)=10.6-11.7. From these results, we conclude that the origin of the 1.9-eV absorption edge of InN is the imperfections (defects) of the In lattice sites of InN, rather than the generation of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which has a bandgap energy of 3.5 eV. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Analysis of the local structure of InN with a bandgap energy of 0.8 and 1.9 eV and annealed InN using X-ray absorption fine structure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyajima, Takao; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Wakahara, Akihiro; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Araki, Tsutomu; Nanishi, Yasushi

    2006-01-01

    We compared the local structure around In atoms in microwave-excited MOCVD- and MBE-grown InN film which indicates an absorption edge at 1.9 and 0.8 eV, respectively. The co-ordination numbers of the 1st-nearest neighbor N atoms and the 2nd-nearest neighbor In atoms for MBE-grown InN were n(N)=3.9±0.5 and n(In)=12.4±0.9, which are close to the ideal value of n(N)=4 and n(In)=12 for InN without defects, respectively. By thermal annealing, the structure of MBE-grown InN was changed from InN to In 2 O 3 , and the absorption edge was changed from 0.8 to 3.5 eV. However, the microwave-excited MOCVD-grown InN had no structure of In 2 O 3 , and had the reduced co-ordination numbers of the 2nd-nearest neighbor In atoms of n(In)=10.6-11.7. From these results, we conclude that the origin of the 1.9-eV absorption edge of InN is the imperfections (defects) of the In lattice sites of InN, rather than the generation of In 2 O 3 , which has a bandgap energy of 3.5 eV. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. High-phase-purity zinc-blende InN on r-plane sapphire substrate with controlled nitridation pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, C.-L.; Wu, C.-T.; Hsu, H.-C.; Hsu, G.-M.; Chen, L.-C.; Liu, T.-W.; Shiao, W.-Y.; Yang, C. C.; Gaellstroem, Andreas; Holtz, Per-Olof; Chen, C.-C.; Chen, K.-H.

    2008-01-01

    High-phase-purity zinc-blende (zb) InN thin film has been grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on r-plane sapphire substrate pretreated with nitridation. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the phase of the InN films changes from wurtzite (w) InN to a mixture of w-InN and zb-InN, to zb-InN with increasing nitridation time. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals an ultrathin crystallized interlayer produced by substrate nitridation, which plays an important role in controlling the InN phase. Photoluminescence emission of zb-InN measured at 20 K shows a peak at a very low energy, 0.636 eV, and an absorption edge at ∼0.62 eV is observed at 2 K, which is the lowest bandgap reported to date among the III-nitride semiconductors

  3. Epitaxial growth of InN on c-plane sapphire by pulsed laser deposition with r.f. nitrogen radical source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, J.; Fujioka, H.; Honke, T.; Oshima, M.

    2004-01-01

    We have grown InN films on c-plane sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with a radio frequency nitrogen radical source for the first time and investigated the effect of the substrate surface nitridation on the structural and electrical properties of InN films with reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), atomic force microscope, the Hall effect measurements and high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). RHEED and HRXRD characterizations revealed that high-quality InN grows epitaxially on sapphire by PLD and its epitaxial relationship is InN (0 0 0 1) parallel sapphire (0 0 0 1) and InN [2 -1 -1 0] parallel sapphire [1 0 -1 0]. The InN crystalline quality and the electron mobility are improved by the substrate nitridation process. The area of the pits at the InN surface is reduced by the substrate nitridation process probably due to the reduction in the interface energy between InN and the substrate. The full width at half maximum of the -1 -1 2 4 X-ray rocking curve for InN grown by the present technique without using any buffer layers was as small as 34.8 arcmin. These results indicate that the present technique is promising for the growth of the high-quality InN films

  4. R&W Club Frederick Raises $1,500 for The Children’s Inn at Annual Golf Tournament | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-four government and contractor employees, along with their friends and family members, took to the Maryland National Golf Club course this fall for a cause. The R&W Club Frederick held its third annual golf tournament at the Middletown, Md., golf course on Sept. 14 to raise funds for The Children’s Inn at NIH, which celebrated its 25th anniversary this year. The Inn

  5. Growth modes of InN (000-1) on GaN buffer layers on sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bing; Kitajima, Takeshi; Chen Dongxue; Leone, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, using atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy, we study the surface morphologies of epitaxial InN films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy with intervening GaN buffer layers on sapphire substrates. On smooth GaN buffer layers, nucleation and evolution of three-dimensional InN islands at various coverages and growth temperatures are investigated. The shapes of the InN islands are observed to be predominantly mesalike with large flat (000-1) tops, which suggests a possible role of indium as a surfactant. Rough GaN buffer layers composed of dense small GaN islands are found to significantly improve uniform InN wetting of the substrates, on which atomically smooth InN films are obtained that show the characteristics of step-flow growth. Scanning tunneling microscopy imaging reveals the defect-mediated surface morphology of smooth InN films, including surface terminations of screw dislocations and a high density of shallow surface pits with depths less than 0.3 nm. The mechanisms of the three-dimensional island size and shape evolution and formation of defects on smooth surfaces are considered

  6. Crystallinity, Surface Morphology, and Photoelectrochemical Effects in Conical InP and InN Nanowires Grown on Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameshwaran, Vijay; Xu, Xiaoqing; Clemens, Bruce

    2016-08-24

    The growth conditions of two types of indium-based III-V nanowires, InP and InN, are tailored such that instead of yielding conventional wire-type morphologies, single-crystal conical structures are formed with an enlarged diameter either near the base or near the tip. By using indium droplets as a growth catalyst, combined with an excess indium supply during growth, "ice cream cone" type structures are formed with a nanowire "cone" and an indium-based "ice cream" droplet on top for both InP and InN. Surface polycrystallinity and annihilation of the catalyst tip of the conical InP nanowires are observed when the indium supply is turned off during the growth process. This growth design technique is extended to create single-crystal InN nanowires with the same morphology. Conical InN nanowires with an enlarged base are obtained through the use of an excess combined Au-In growth catalyst. Electrochemical studies of the InP nanowires on silicon demonstrate a reduction photocurrent as a proof of photovolatic behavior and provide insight as to how the observed surface polycrystallinity and the resulting interface affect these device-level properties. Additionally, a photovoltage is induced in both types of conical InN nanowires on silicon, which is not replicated in epitaxial InN thin films.

  7. MOCVD growth of GaN layer on InN interlayer and relaxation of residual strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keon-Hun; Park, Sung Hyun; Kim, Jong Hack; Kim, Nam Hyuk; Kim, Min Hwa [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Hyunseok [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Daejin University, Pocheon, 487-711 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Euijoon, E-mail: eyoon@snu.ac.k [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 433-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-01

    100 nm InN layer was grown on sapphire c-plane using a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. Low temperature (LT) GaN layer was grown on InN layer to protect InN layer from direct exposure to hydrogen flow during high temperature (HT) GaN growth and/or abrupt decomposition. Subsequently, thick HT GaN layer (2.5 {mu}m thick) was grown at 1000 {sup o}C on LT GaN/InN/sapphire template. Microstructure of epilayer-substrate interface was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From the high angle annular dark field TEM image, the growth of columnar structured LT GaN and HT GaN with good crystallinity was observed. Though thickness of InN interlayer is assumed to be about 100 nm based on growth rate, it was not clearly shown in TEM image due to the InN decomposition. The lattice parameters of GaN layers were measured by XRD measurement, which shows that InN interlayer reduces the compressive strain in GaN layer. The relaxation of compressive strain in GaN layer was also confirmed by photoluminescence (PL) measurement. As shown in the PL spectra, red shift of GaN band edge peak was observed, which indicates the reduction of compressive strain in GaN epilayer.

  8. Conservation of the Sinclair Inn Museum, and the Painted Room Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaftel, A.; Ward, J.

    2017-08-01

    Conservation of the historic 18thC. Sinclair Inn Museum, and of the recently discovered late 18th/early 19thC. unique panoramic wall paintings located in an upstairs room, are co-dependent. This project was carried out with Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI) staff, and Conservator in Private Practice Ann Shaftel. This paper will introduce the Sinclair Inn Museum, outline the CCI murals and building investigations of 2011-15, the mural investigation of 2015-16, which confirmed that the mural extended to all four walls of the function room, now referred to as the Painted Room, and to describe how it has been revealed and conserved to date.

  9. Ab-initio study of Mg-doped InN(0001 surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belabbes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the incorporation of Mg atoms into the InN(0001 surface. Energies and atomic geometries are described within density functional theory, while the electronic structure is investigated by an approximate quasiparticle method that yields a gap value of 0.7 eV for bulk InN. The formation of substitutional Mg is energetically favored in the surface layer. The surface electronic structure is less influenced by Mg-derived states. The Fermi level is pinned by In-derived surface states. With increasing depth of Mg beneath the surface the Fermi-level position moves toward the valence band top, suggesting formation of holes and, hence, p-doping of Mg in bulk-like layers.

  10. An Analysis of Open-Ended Online Reviews about Bed and Breakfast and Inns in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Evans Machado dos Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Researches about User-Generated Content (UGC have gained attention in the fields of Tourism and Hospitality in the last years. This study focus on online reviews about alternative accommodations – B&Bs and Inns. The development of this work was realized applying inductive methods and using an exploratory approach. We collected a sample of 450 online reviews and analyzed them segment by segment, making a total of 4621 segments. We used the Appraisal Theory to assess what attitudes online reviewers are expressing about B&Bs and Inns in Lisbon. We verified that positive appreciation is the most frequent attitude while expressions of affect and judgment are more rare. This study contributes to the academy as it brings a new parameter of analysis of UGC using the Appraisal Theory in the field of Hospitality.

  11. Morphology Controlled Fabrication of InN Nanowires on Brass Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijie Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth of semiconductor nanowires on cheap metal substrates could pave the way to the large-scale manufacture of low-cost nanowire-based devices. In this work, we demonstrated that high density InN nanowires can be directly grown on brass substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. It was found that Zn from the brass substrates is the key factor in the formation of nanowires by restricting the lateral growth of InN. The nanowire morphology is highly dependent on the growth temperature. While at a lower growth temperature, the nanowires and the In droplets have large diameters. At the elevated growth temperature, the lateral sizes of the nanowires and the In droplets are much smaller. Moreover, the nanowire diameter can be controlled in situ by varying the temperature in the growth process. This method is very instructive to the diameter-controlled growth of nanowires of other materials.

  12. Surface acoustic waves and elastic constants of InN epilayers determined by Brillouin scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Rioboo, R.J.; Prieto, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Cusco, R.; Domenech-Amador, N.; Artus, L. [Institut Jaume Almera, Consell Superior d' Investigacions Cientifiques (CSIC), Lluis Sole i Sabaris s.n., Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Yamaguchi, T.; Nanishi, Y. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    The surface acoustic wave velocity in InN has been experimentally determined by means of Brillouin scattering experiments on c - and m -face epilayers. From simulations based on the Green's function formalism we determine the shear elastic constants c{sub 66} and c{sub 44} and propose a complete set of elastic constants for wurtzite InN. The analysis of the sagittal and azimuthal dependence of the surface acoustic wave velocity indicates a slightly different elastic behavior of the m -face sample that basically affects the c{sub 44} elastic constant. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Structural and magnetic properties of Cr and Mn doped InN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ney, A.; Rajaram, R.; Arenholz, E.; Harris, J.S.; Samant, M.; Farrow, R.F.C.; Parkin, S.S.P.

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed magnetic characterization of Cr and Mn doped InN films be means of superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism. The InN:Cr films exhibit ferromagnetic behavior up to 300 K in a doping region from 2% to 8% without detectable phase segregation. The easy axis of magnetization is found to be in the film plane. On the contrary, Mn-doped films show signatures of phase segregation and paramagnetic behavior

  14. "Could I return to my life?" Integrated Narrative Nursing Model in Education (INNE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, Giovanna; Foà, Chiara; Cosentino, Chiara; Sulla, Francesco; Sollami, Alfonso; Taffurelli, Chiara

    2018-03-28

    The Integrated Narrative Nursing Model (INNM) is an approach that integrates the qualitative methodology typical of the human sciences, with the quantitative methodology more often associated with the natural sciences. This complex model, which combines a focus on narrative with quantitative measures, has recently been effectively applied to the assessment of chronic patients. In this study, the model is applied to the planning phase of education (Integrated Narrative Nursing Education, INNE), and proves to be a valid instrument for the promotion of the current educational paradigm that is centered on the engagement of both the patient and the caregiver in their own path of care. The aim of this study is therefore to describe the nurse's strategy in the planning of an educational intervention by using the INNE model. The case of a 70-year-old woman with pulmonary neoplasm is described at her first admission to Hospice. Each step conducted by the reference nurse, who uses INNE to record the nurse-patient narrative and collect subsequent questionnaires in order to create a shared educational plan, is also described. The information collected was submitted, starting from a grounded methodology to the following four levels of analysis: I. Needs Assessment, II. Narrative Diagnosis, III. Quantitative Outcome, IV. Integrated Outcome. Step IV, which is derived from the integration of all levels of analysis, allows a nurse to define, even graphically, the conceptual map of a patient's needs, resources and perspectives, in a completely tailored manner. The INNE model offers a valid methodological support for the professional who intends to educate the patient through an inter-subjective and engaged pathway, between the professional, their patient and the socio-relational context. It is a matter of adopting a complex vision that combines processes and methods that require a steady scientific basis and advanced methodological expertise with active listening and empathy

  15. Ultrafast Carrier Relaxation in InN Nanowires Grown by Reactive Vapor Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zervos Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have studied femtosecond carrier dynamics in InN nanowires grown by reactive vapor transport. Transient differential absorption measurements have been employed to investigate the relaxation dynamics of photogenerated carriers near and above the optical absorption edge of InN NWs where an interplay of state filling, photoinduced absorption, and band-gap renormalization have been observed. The interface between states filled by free carriers intrinsic to the InN NWs and empty states has been determined to be at 1.35 eV using CW optical transmission measurements. Transient absorption measurements determined the absorption edge at higher energy due to the additional injected photogenerated carriers following femtosecond pulse excitation. The non-degenerate white light pump-probe measurements revealed that relaxation of the photogenerated carriers occurs on a single picosecond timescale which appears to be carrier density dependent. This fast relaxation is attributed to the capture of the photogenerated carriers by defect/surface related states. Furthermore, intensity dependent measurements revealed fast energy transfer from the hot photogenerated carriers to the lattice with the onset of increased temperature occurring at approximately 2 ps after pulse excitation.

  16. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF InN PARTICLES OBTAINED BY RF MAGNETRON SPUTTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bernal Correa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available InN layers were prepared by magnetron sputtering, in a mixed atmosphere of argon and nitrogen on Si substrates (100, Si (111, and glass. The substrate temperature Ts was varied (300-500 oC in order to correlate it with the optical, structural, and morphological properties of the layers. X-ray results have revealed a presence of hexagonal InN type wurtzite in each of the layers in addition to oxides of indium (InxOy attributed to different factors. Dependence was evident on the crystalline quality of each layer according to Ts. The optical absorption coefficient and the band gap were determined from the absorbance and transmittance spectra obtained by UV/Vis. Vibration modes associated with the semiconductor InN and InxOy were identified by Raman microscopy. The morphology of the layers and the grain size was analyzed from SEM micrographs where it was determined the formation of particulates  ~ 0.5 mm and ~ 50 nm of different geometries.

  17. Inhomogeneous electron distribution in InN nanowires: Influence on the optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina-Sanchez, A.; Garro, N.; Garcia-Cristobal, A.; Cantarero, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales, Universidad de Valencia (Spain); Segura-Ruiz, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Experiments Div., Grenoble (France); Iikawa, F. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin - Unicamp, CP 6165, Campinas (Brazil); Denker, C.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A. [IV. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August Universitaet Goettingen (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    In this work, we study theoretically and experimentally the influence of the surface electron accumulation on the optical properties of InN nanowires. For this purpose, the photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectra have been measured for a set of self-assembled InN NWs grown under different conditions. The photoluminescence excitation experimental lineshapes have been reproduced by a self-consistent calculation of the absorption in a cylindrical InN nanowires. With the self-consistent model we can explore how the optical absorption depends on nanowires radius and doping concentration. Our model solves the Schroedinger equation for a cylindrical nanowire of infinite length, assuming a parabolic conduction band. The columnar geometry introduces effects in both the electron density and in the self-consistent conduction band profile, with no equivalence in planar layer. On the other hand, the differences in the photoluminescence excitation spectra are related to the inhomogeneous electron distribution inside the nanowires, caused by a bulk donor concentration and a two-dimensional density of ionized surface states. For nanowire radii larger than 30 nm, such concentrations modify the absorption edge and the lineshape, respectively, and can be determined from the comparison with the experimental data (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Effective electron mass and phonon modes in n-type hexagonal InN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasic, A.; Schubert, M.; Saito, Y.; Nanishi, Y.; Wagner, G.

    2002-03-01

    Infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry and micro-Raman scattering are used to study vibrational and electronic properties of high-quality hexagonal InN. The 0.22-μm-thick highly n-conductive InN film was grown on c-plane sapphire by radio-frequency molecular-beam epitaxy. Combining our results from the ellipsometry data analysis with Hall-effect measurements, the isotropically averaged effective electron mass in InN is determined as 0.14m0. The resonantly excited zone center E1 (TO) phonon mode is observed at 477 cm-1 in the ellipsometry spectra. Despite the high electron concentration in the film, a strong Raman mode occurs in the spectral range of the unscreened A1(LO) phonon. Because an extended carrier-depleted region at the sample surface can be excluded from the ellipsometry-model analysis, we assign this mode to the lower branch of the large-wave-vector LO-phonon-plasmon coupled modes arising from nonconserving wave-vector scattering processes. The spectral position of this mode at 590 cm-1 constitutes a lower limit for the unscreened A1(LO) phonon frequency.

  19. Effect of indium accumulation on the characteristics of a-plane InN epi-films under different growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Yun-Yo [Institute of Photonics, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Man-Fang, E-mail: mfhuang@cc.ncue.edu.tw [Institute of Photonics, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiang, Yu-Chia [Institute of Photonics, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan, ROC (China); Fan, Jenn-Chyuan [Department of Electronic Engineering, Nan Kai University of Technology, Nantou, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-08-31

    This study investigated the influence of indium accumulation happened on the surface of a-plane InN grown under different growth conditions. Three different growth rates with N/In ratio from stoichiometric to N-rich were used to grow a-plane InN epifilms on GaN-buffered r-plane sapphires by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. When a-plane InN was grown above 500 °C with a high growth rate, abnormally high in-situ reflectivity was found during a-plane InN growth, which was resulted from indium accumulation on surface owing to In-N bonding difficulty on certain crystal faces of a-plane InN surface. Even using excess N-flux, indium accumulation could still be found in initial growth and formed 3-dimension-like patterns on a-plane InN surface which resulted in rough surface morphology. By reducing growth rate, surface roughness was improved because indium atoms could have more time to migrate to suitable position. Nonetheless, basal stacking fault density and crystal anisotropic property were not affected by growth rate. - Highlights: • High growth temperature could cause indium accumulation on a-plane InN surface. • Indium accumulation on a-plane InN surface causes rough surface. • Low growth rate improves surface morphology but not crystal quality.

  20. Adsorption of gas molecules on graphene-like InN monolayer: A first-principle study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiang; Yang, Qun [Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, 541004 Guilin (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology & Systems, Education Ministry of China, Chongqing University and College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, 400044 Chongqing (China); Meng, Ruishen [Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, 541004 Guilin (China); Tan, Chunjian [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology & Systems, Education Ministry of China, Chongqing University and College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, 400044 Chongqing (China); Liang, Qiuhua [Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, 541004 Guilin (China); Jiang, Junke [Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, 541004 Guilin (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology & Systems, Education Ministry of China, Chongqing University and College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, 400044 Chongqing (China); Ye, Huaiyu [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology & Systems, Education Ministry of China, Chongqing University and College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, 400044 Chongqing (China); Chen, Xianping, E-mail: xianpingchen@cqu.edu.cn [Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, 541004 Guilin (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology & Systems, Education Ministry of China, Chongqing University and College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, 400044 Chongqing (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • A comprehensive adsorption mechanism of InN monolayer is theoretical studied to distinguish the physic/chemi-sorption. • Different adsorption sites for different gases are systematically discussed. • The influence (enhanced or weakened) of external electric field to InN-gas system is well investigated. • The influences of gas adsorption to the optical properties (work function and light adsorption ability) of InN monolayer are also researched. - Abstract: Using first-principles calculation within density functional theory (DFT), we study the gas (CO, NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, NO{sub 2}, NO, SO{sub 2}) adsorption properties on the surface of single-layer indium nitride (InN). Four different adsorption sites (Bridge, In, N, Hollow) are chosen to explore the most sensitive adsorption site. On the basis of the adsorption energy, band gap and charge transfer, we find that the most energetic favourable site is changeable between In site and N site for different gases. Moreover, our results reveal that InN is sensitive to NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and NO{sub 2}, by a physisorption or a chemisorption nature. We also perform a perpendicular electric field to the system and find that the applied electric field has a significant effect for the adsorption process. Besides, we also observed the desorption effects on NH{sub 3} adsorbed at the hollow site of InN when the electric field applied. In addition, the optical properties of InN monolayer affected by different gases are also discussed. Most of the gas adsorptions will cause the inhibition of light adsorption while the others can reduce the work function or enhance the adsorption ability in visible region. Our theoretical results indicate that monolayer InN is a promising candidate for gas sensing applications.

  1. Growth and properties of InN, InGaN, and InN/InGaN quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoi, H.; Na, H. [Center for Promotion of the COE Program, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Kurouchi, M.; Muto, D.; Takado, S.; Araki, T.; Nanishi, Y. [Dept. of Photonics, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Miyajima, T. [Optoelectronics Laboratory, Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, 4-14-1 Asahi, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan)

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes our recent progress on InN, In-rich In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N, and InN/In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N quantum wells (QWs) grown by radio-frequency plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. Among the essential growth sequences to obtain high-quality InN, the nitridation process of (0001) sapphire substrates was reexamined. It was found that the lower-temperature and longer-period nitridation-process was very effective in improving crystalline quality of InN films. We succeeded in dramatically improving c -axis orientation of InN films without deteriorating their a -axis orientation by nitridating the substrates at a relatively low-temperature of 300 C for a relatively long period of 2 h. The full widths at half maximum (FWHMs) of (0002) X-ray rocking curves as narrow as 1 arcmin were obtained from only 400 nm thick InN films. These FWHMs are the narrowest value ever reported for InN and moreover approximately a twentieth part of the values obtained from our conventional InN films with a similar thickness, which were grown via the conventional nitridation process carried out at 550 C for 1 h. Furthermore interference fringes in X-ray diffraction ({omega}-2{theta} scan) were observed from these improved InN films. These high crystalline quality InN layers have been employed as a template for the growth of In-rich In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N layers (0.70{<=}x{<=}0.94). The resultant In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N layers have shown dramatic improvements in not only the surface morphology but also both the a- and c-axis orientations. By employing In{sub 0.8}Ga{sub 0.2}N layers of improved quality as the bottom barrier layer, InN/In{sub 0.8}Ga{sub 0.2}N multiple quantum well (MQW) and single quantum well (SQW) structures with different well widths were fabricated. Clear satellite peaks of X-ray diffraction were observed from these MQW structures. Both of these SQW and MQW structures have exhibited a blue shift of the photoluminescence peak energy with decreasing well width

  2. Molecular beam epitaxy of InN layers on Sapphire, GaN and indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denker, Christian; Landgraf, Boris; Schuhmann, Henning; Malindretos, Joerg; Seibt, Michael; Rizzi, Angela [IV. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany); Segura-Ruiz, Jaime; Gomez-Gomez, Maribel; Cantarero, Andres [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, Paterna (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Among the group-III nitrides semiconductors, InN is the one with the narrowest gap (0.67 eV), lowest effective electron mass and highest peak drift velocity. It is therefore a very interesting material for several applications, in particular semiconductor solar cells. Furthermore, the high electron affinity makes it suitable also as electrode material for organic solar cells. InN layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on MOCVD GaN templates, on bare c-plane sapphire and on polycrystalline indium tin oxide. On all substrates the III-V ratio as well as the substrate temperature was varied. A RHEED analysis of InN growth on GaN showed a relatively sharp transition from N-rich and columnar growth to In-rich growth with droplet formation by increasing the In flux impinging on the surface. The InN layers on single crystalline substrates were characterized by SEM, AFM, XRD, PL and Raman. The InN layers on ITO were mainly analyzed with respect to the surface morphology with SEM. HRTEM in cross section gives insight into the structure of the interface to the ITO substrate.

  3. A comparative study on MOVPE InN grown on Ga- and N-polarity bulk GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.J.; Miwa, H.; Hashimoto, A.; Yamamoto, A.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of substrate polarity on the growth of InN film by MOVPE was investigated using bulk GaN as a substrate. Single-crystalline In- and N-polarity InN films were obtained on Ga- and N-polarity GaN substrate, respectively. Significant difference of the morphologies between the In- and N-polarity InN films was found. For the In-polarity InN film, the morphology was similar to that grown on sapphire substrate. The film surface was consisted of grains with small facets. In contrast, for the N-polarity InN film, the surface was consisted of large hexagonal shape crystal grains with flat surface. The grain size was about 2 μm in diameter on the average, and two-dimensional growth was enhanced obviously for each crystal grain. The influence of the growth temperature on the morphology, polarity, and optical property was also investigated. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. In-situ SiN{sub x}/InN structures for InN field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zervos, Ch., E-mail: hzervos@physics.uoc.gr; Georgakilas, A. [Microelectronics Research Group (MRG), Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas - FORTH, P.O. Box 1385, GR-70013 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Adikimenakis, A.; Kostopoulos, A.; Kayambaki, M.; Tsagaraki, K.; Konstantinidis, G. [Microelectronics Research Group (MRG), Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas - FORTH, P.O. Box 1385, GR-70013 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Beleniotis, P. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2016-04-04

    Critical aspects of InN channel field-effect transistors (FETs) have been investigated. SiN{sub x} dielectric layers were deposited in-situ, in the molecular beam epitaxy system, on the surface of 2 nm InN layers grown on GaN (0001) buffer layers. Metal-insulator-semiconductor Ni/SiN{sub x}/InN capacitors were analyzed by capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage measurements and were used as gates in InN FET transistors (MISFETs). Comparison of the experimental C-V results with self-consistent Schrödinger-Poisson calculations indicates the presence of a positive charge at the SiN{sub x}/InN interface of Q{sub if} ≈ 4.4 – 4.8 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2}, assuming complete InN strain relaxation. Operation of InN MISFETs was demonstrated, but their performance was limited by a catastrophic breakdown at drain-source voltages above 2.5–3.0 V, the low electron mobility, and high series resistances of the structures.

  5. HOUSE DUST MITE CONTAMINATION IN HOTELS AND INNS IN BANDAR ABBAS, SOUTH OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soleimani, J. Rafinejad

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available House dust mites have been shown to be strongly associated with allergic respiratory diseases such as, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis in the world. The climatic conditions of Bandar-Abbas, which is located in a coastal area and has a humid subtropical climate, provide a suitable place to proliferate mites. The aim of this study was to determine the contamination rate and analyze the house dust mite fauna in hotels and inns in Bandar-Abbas that had not been investigated previously. In this study 6 hotels and 6 inns were selected randomly in six areas of Bandar-Abbas. Two dust samples were collected from each place with a vacuum cleaner. One square meter of carpets and mattresses were vacuumed for a period of 1 min. Then the samples were cleared in lactic acid and then mites were mounted in Hoyer's medium for study and identification. A total of 2644 mites were collected and identified. The major mite family was Pyroglyphidae (98%. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was the most frequent and most numerous species recorded, occurring in 91% of samples examined and forming 88% of the Pyroglyphidae and 86% of the total mite populations. The family Cheyletidae was less commonly found with Cheyletus malaccensis (2%. Most of the mites were isolated from the carpets (57.5%, and a smaller number from mattresses (42.5%. Mites were present in 96% of the dust samples. Results revealed that all inns and 83% of hotels were contaminated by more than one species of mite and 34% of them had a population of more than 100 mites /g dust. This rate of contamination can be a major risk factor in asthma and other respiratory allergic diseases

  6. Local lattice environment of indium in GaN, AlN, and InN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, J.

    2007-01-01

    After an introduction to the physical properties of the nitrides, their preparation, and the state of studies on the implantation in the nitrides the experimental method (PAC) applied in this thesis and the data analysis are presented. The next chapter describes then the applied materials and the sample preparation. The following chapters contain the PAC measurements on the annealing behaviout of GaN, AlN, and InN after the implantation as well as dose- and temperature dependent PAC studies. Finally the most important results are summarized

  7. Minibaaritoiminnan kehittäminen Holiday Inn Helsinki-Vantaa Airportissa

    OpenAIRE

    Raunio, Reijo

    2009-01-01

    Tämä tutkimustyyppinen opinnäytetyö käsittelee Restel Oy:n operoiman Holiday Inn Helsinki-Vantaa Airportin minibaaritoiminnan kehittämistä. Työn on tarkoitus toimia hotellin johdon apuvälineenä pohdittaessa toimenpiteitä, joilla voitaisiin tehostaa minibaaritoiminnan tuottoja ja parantaa sen kannattavuutta. Koska kannattavuuden käsitteen avaamiselle syntyy näin ollen olennainen tarve, se saa pääroolin viitekehyksessä. Kannattavuuden osalta käsitellään paitsi sen yleistä määrittelyä myös ...

  8. Growth of InN on 6H-SiC by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, April S.; Kim, Tong-Ho; Choi, Soojeong; Wu, Pae; Morse, Michael [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, 128 Hudson Hall, Durham, NC (United States); Losurdo, Maria; Giangregorio, Maria M.; Bruno, Giovanni [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR and INSTM UdR Bari, via Orabona, 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Moto, Akihiro [Innovation Core SEI, Inc., 3235 Kifer Road, Santa Clara, CA 95051 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    We have investigated the growth of InN films by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on the Si-face of 6H-SiC(0001). Growth is performed under In-rich conditions using a two-step process consisting of the deposition of a thin, low-temperature 350 C InN buffer layer, followed by the subsequent deposition of the InN epitaxial layer at 450 C. The effect of buffer annealing is investigated. The structural and optical evolution of the growing layer has been monitored in real time using RHEED and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Structural, morphological, electrical and optic properties are discussed. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Near-infrared InN quantum dots on high-In composition InGaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto Rodriguez, Paul E. D.; Gomez, Victor J.; Kumar, Praveen; Calleja, Enrique; Noetzel, Richard [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectronicos y Microtecnologia (ISOM), Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-04-01

    We report the growth of InN quantum dots (QDs) on thick InGaN layers with high In composition (>50%) by molecular beam epitaxy. Optimized growth conditions are identified for the InGaN layers at reduced growth temperature and increased active N flux resulting in minimized phase separation and defect generation. The InN QDs grown on top of the optimized InGaN layer exhibit small size, high density, and photoluminescence up to room temperature. The InN/InGaN QDs reveal excellent potential for intermediate band solar cells with the InGaN and InN QD bandgap energies tuned to the best match of absorption to the solar spectrum.

  10. A Dance Class, a Drag King, & the Pedagogical Possibilities of Performative Hip-Hop: An Interview with Carmen Morrison & Alex U. Inn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeldt-Aultman, Scott M.; Morrison, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Alex U. Inn is the co-founder and one of the two MCs of the hip-hop drag king group, Momma's Boyz. Momma's Boyz celebrated their tenth anniversary in 2014. Carmen Morrison is the offstage name of Alex U. Inn, though "Carmen" now goes by Alex offstage, as well. Within this interview, the names "Carmen" and "Alex" are…

  11. Investigation of InN layers grown by MOCVD using analytical and high resolution TEM: The structure, band gap, role of the buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruterana, P.; Abouzaid, M.; Gloux, F.; Maciej, W.; Doualan, J.L.; Drago, M.; Schmidtling, T.; Pohl, U.W.; Richter, W.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we investigate the microstructure of InN layers grown by MOCVD on different buffer layers using TEM (InN, GaN). The large mismatch between the various lattices (InN, sapphire or GaN) leads to particular interface structures. Our local analysis allows to show that at atomic scale, the material has the InN lattice parameters and that no metallic In precipitates are present, meaning that the PL emission below 0.8 eV is a genuine property of the InN semiconductor. It is also shown that the N polar layers, which exhibit a 2D growth, have poorer PL emission than In polar layers. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Quasi-two-dimensional superconductivity in wurtzite-structured InN films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, D.C.; Cheng, J.H.; Lo, Y.Y.; Du, C.H.; Chiu, A.P.; Chang, P.H.; Chang, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    C-axis oriented InN films with wurtzite structure were grown on sapphire(0001) substrate by MOCVD method. Superconductivity with transition onset temperature T c,onset around 3.5 K has been characterized by magnetotransport measurements in fields up to 9 Tesla for films with carrier concentration in the range of 1 x 10 19 cm -3 to 7 x 10 20 cm -3 . Among them, the film with a nitridation buffer layer has the highest zero-resistance temperature T c0 of 2 K. The normal-state magnetoresistance follows Kohler's rule ΔR/R∝(H/R) 2 , indicating that there is a single species of charge carrier with single scattering time at all points on the Fermi surface. The extrapolated value of zero-temperature upper critical field H c2 ab (0) and H c2 c (0) is estimated to be 5900 G and 2800 G, respectively, giving rise to the anisotropy parameter γ about 2.1. The angular dependence of the upper critical field is in good agreement with the behavior predicted by Lawrence-Doniach model in the two-dimensional (2D) limit strongly suggesting that the InN film is a quasi-2D superconductor. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Characterization of as-grown and adsorbate-covered N-polar InN surfaces using in situ photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhardt, Anja; Himmerlich, Marcel; Krischok, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The surface electronic properties and adsorption behaviour of as-grown and oxidized N-polar InN films are characterized by photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, UPS). The epitaxial growth of the InN layers was performed by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on GaN/6H-SiC(000-1). After growth and in situ characterization the InN surfaces were exposed to molecular oxygen to evaluate the adsorption behaviour of O 2 on N-polar InN and to study its impact on the surface electronic properties of the III-nitride material. The results are compared with studies on In-polar InN on GaN/sapphire templates. The as-grown N-polar InN surface exhibits a pronounced surface state at a binding energy of ∝1.6 eV. The valence band minimum lies about 0.8-1.0 eV below the surface Fermi level. Additionally, the XPS core level binding energies for InN(000-1) are reduced compared to InN(0001) films, indicating different surface band bending for clean N-polar and In-polar InN, respectively. The interaction of molecular oxygen with the InN(000-1) surface leads to a downward band bending by 0.1 eV compared to the initial state. Additional adsorption of species from the residual gas of the UHV chamber increases the surface downward band bending. Furthermore two pronounced oxygen related states with an energy distance of ∝5 eV could be detected in the valence band region. The adsorbed oxygen results in an additional component in the N1s core level spectra, which is interpreted as formation of NO x bonds. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Growth of vertically oriented InN nanorods from In-rich conditions on unintentionally patterned sapphire substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terziyska, Penka T., E-mail: pterziy1@lakeheadu.ca [Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, ON P7B 5E1 (Canada); Butcher, Kenneth Scott A. [Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, ON P7B 5E1 (Canada); MEAglow Ltd., Box 398, 2400 Nipigon Road, Thunder Bay, ON P7C4W1 (Canada); Rafailov, Peter [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Alexandrov, Dimiter [Semiconductor Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, ON P7B 5E1 (Canada); MEAglow Ltd., Box 398, 2400 Nipigon Road, Thunder Bay, ON P7C4W1 (Canada)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Vertical InN nanorods are grown on selective areas of sapphire substrates. • In metal droplets nucleate on the sharp needle apexes on the selective areas. • The preferred orientation and the growth direction of the nanorods are (0 0 0 1). • The nanorods grow from the supersaturated indium melt on their tops. - Abstract: Vertically oriented InN nanorods were grown on selective areas of unintentionally patterned c-oriented sapphire substrates exhibiting sharp needles that preferentially accommodate In-metal liquid droplets, using Migration Enhanced Afterglow (MEAglow) growth technique. We point out that the formation of AlN needles on selected areas can be reproduced intentionally by over-nitridation of unmasked areas of sapphire substrates. The liquid indium droplets serve as a self-catalyst and the nanorods grow from the supersaturated indium melt in the droplet in a vertical direction. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate the presence of hexagonal InN only, with preferred orientation along (0 0 0 1) crystal axis, and very good crystalline quality. The room temperature Raman spectrum shows the presence of the A{sub 1}(TO), E{sub 2}(high) and A{sub 1}(LO) phonon modes of the hexagonal InN.

  15. Generation of ultra-small InN nanocrystals by pulsed laser ablation of suspension in organic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kursungoez, Canan; Uzcengiz Simsek, Elif; Ortac, Buelend; Tuzakli, Refik

    2017-01-01

    Nanostructures of InN have been extensively investigated since nano-size provides a number of advantages allowing applications in nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. It is quite important to obtain pure InN nanocrystals (InN-NCs) to reveal the characteristic features, which gain interest in the literature. Here, we proposed a new approach for the synthesis of ultra-small hexagonal InN-NCs by using suspension of micron-sized InN powder in ethanol with pulsed laser ablation method. The liquid environment, laser energy and ablation time were optimized and a post-synthesis treatment, centrifugation, was performed to achieve InN-NCs with the smallest size. Besides, the micron-sized InN powder suspension, as a starting material, enabled us to obtain InN-NCs having diameters smaller than 5 nm. We also presented a detailed characterization of InN-NCs and demonstrated that the formation mechanism mainly depends on the fragmentation due to laser irradiation of the suspension. (orig.)

  16. The structural evolution of InN nanorods to microstructures on Si (111) by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anyebe, E A; Zhuang, Q; Kesaria, M; Krier, A

    2014-01-01

    We report the catalyst free growth of wurtzite InN nanorods (NRs) and microislands on bare Si (111) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy at various temperatures. The morphological evolution from NRs to three dimensional (3D) islands as a function of growth temperature is investigated. A combination of tapered, non-tapered, and pyramidal InN NRs are observed at 490 °C, whereas the InN evolves to faceted microislands with an increase in growth temperature to 540 °C and further developed to indented and smooth hemispherical structures at extremely high temperatures (630 °C). The evolution from NRs to microislands with increase in growth temperature is attributed to the lowering of the surface free energy of the growing crystals with disproportionate growth velocities along different growth fronts. The preferential adsorption of In atoms on the (0001) c-plane and (10-10) m-plane promotes the growth of NRs at relatively low growth temperature and 3D microislands at higher temperatures. The growth rate imbalance along different planes facilitates the development of facets on 3D microislands. A strong correlation between the morphological and structural properties of the 3D films is established. XRD studies reveal that the NRs and the faceted microislands are crystalline, whereas the hemispherical microislands grown at extremely high growth temperature contain In adlayers. Finally, photoluminescent emissions were observed at ∼0.75 eV from the InN NRs. (paper)

  17. First-principles study of Mg incorporation at wurtzite InN (0 0 0 1) and (0001-bar) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, S.F.; Qu, X.P.; Fan, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we investigate the energetics of Mg adsorption and incorporation at the InN(0 0 0 1) and InN(0001-bar) surfaces by the method of total energy plane-wave expansions with ultra-soft pseudo potential technology based on the density functional theory (DFT) in the generalized approximation (GGA). It is found that for a 1/4 monolayer (ML) coverage of the InN(0 0 0 1) surface, Mg atoms preferentially adsorb at the bridge sites and T4 sites, but they are unstable when compared with Mg incorporated in the first three layers. For a 1/4 ML coverage of the InN(0001-bar) surface, Mg atoms preferentially adsorb at the H3 sites with the formation energy of -3.49 (eV/(2x2) supercell), which is lower than that of the T4 sites, and the formation energy increases with increasing magnesium coverage. Further study shows that the formation energy for Mg atom is lower than that of In atom, which indicates that magnesium adsorption is more favorable in these conditions.

  18. Generation of ultra-small InN nanocrystals by pulsed laser ablation of suspension in organic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kursungoez, Canan; Uzcengiz Simsek, Elif; Ortac, Buelend [Bilkent University, Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department, UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Ankara (Turkey); Bilkent University, Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Ankara (Turkey); Tuzakli, Refik [Bilkent University, Materials Science and Nanotechnology Department, UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Ankara (Turkey)

    2017-03-15

    Nanostructures of InN have been extensively investigated since nano-size provides a number of advantages allowing applications in nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. It is quite important to obtain pure InN nanocrystals (InN-NCs) to reveal the characteristic features, which gain interest in the literature. Here, we proposed a new approach for the synthesis of ultra-small hexagonal InN-NCs by using suspension of micron-sized InN powder in ethanol with pulsed laser ablation method. The liquid environment, laser energy and ablation time were optimized and a post-synthesis treatment, centrifugation, was performed to achieve InN-NCs with the smallest size. Besides, the micron-sized InN powder suspension, as a starting material, enabled us to obtain InN-NCs having diameters smaller than 5 nm. We also presented a detailed characterization of InN-NCs and demonstrated that the formation mechanism mainly depends on the fragmentation due to laser irradiation of the suspension. (orig.)

  19. Preliminary Depositional and Provenance Records of Mesozoic Basin Evolution and Cenozoic Shortening in the High Andes, La Ramada Fold-Thrust Belt, Southern-Central Andes (32-33°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackaman-Lofland, C.; Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.; Constenius, K. N.; McKenzie, R.; Alvarado, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Argentinian Andes define key examples of retroarc shortening and basin evolution above a zone of active subduction. The La Ramada fold-thrust belt (RFTB) in the High Andes provides insights into the relative influence and temporal records of diverse convergent margin processes (e.g. flat-slab subduction, convergent wedge dynamics, structural inversion). The RFTB contains Mesozoic extensional basin strata deformed by later Andean shortening. New detrital zircon U-Pb analyses of Mesozoic rift sediments reveal: (1) a dominant Permo-Triassic age signature (220-280 Ma) associated with proximal sources of effective basement (Choiyoi Group) during Triassic synrift deposition; (2) upsection younging of maximum depositional ages from Late Triassic through Early Cretaceous (230 to 100 Ma) with the increasing influence of western Andean arc sources; and (3) a significant Late Cretaceous influx of Paleozoic (~350-550 Ma) and Proterozoic (~650-1300 Ma) populations during the earliest shift from back-arc post-extensional subsidence to upper-plate shortening. The Cenozoic detrital record of the Manantiales foreland basin (between the Frontal Cordillera and Precordillera) records RFTB deformation prior to flat-slab subduction. A Permo-Triassic Choiyoi age signature dominates the Miocene succession, consistent with sources in the proximal Espinacito range. Subordinate Mesozoic (~80-250 Ma) to Proterozoic (~850-1800 Ma) U-Pb populations record exhumation of the Andean magmatic arc and recycling of different structural levels in the RFTB during thrusting/inversion of Mesozoic rift basin strata and subjacent Paleozoic units. Whereas maximum depositional ages of sampled Manantiales units cluster at 18-20 Ma, the Estancia Uspallata basin (~50 km to the south) shows consistent upsection younging of Cenozoic populations attributed to proximal volcanic centers. Ongoing work will apply low-temperature thermochronology to pinpoint basin accumulation histories and thrust timing.

  20. Solar hot water system installed at Quality Inn, Key West, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Quality Inn, Key West, Florida, which consists of four buildings is described. Three buildings are low-rise, two-story buildings containing 100 rooms. The fourth is a four-story building with 48 rooms. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the energy required for the domestic hot water system. The solar system consists of approximately 1400 square feet of flat plate collector, two 500 gallon storage tanks, a circulating pump, and a controller. Operation of the system was begun in April 1978, and has continued to date with only three minor interruptions for pump repair. In the first year of operation, it was determined that the use of the solar facility resulted in forty percent fuel savings.

  1. Photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy of MBE-grown InN nanocolumns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura-Ruiz, J.; Cantarero, A.; Garro, N.; Denker, C.; Werner, F.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2008-01-01

    InN nanocolumns grown under different conditions by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on p-Si (111) substrates are studied by micro-Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. The nanocolumns are free of strain and have an improved crystal quality as shown by the frequency and linewidth of the nonpolar E 2 h mode. Uncoupled polar modes coexist with a couple LO phonon-plasmon mode and are sensitive to the nanocolumn morphology. Variations in the growth conditions also modify the PL spectra significantly. An increase in the PL energy also involves a reduction of the integrated intensity and an increase of the PL linewidth. This overall phenomenology highlights the role of the surface accumulation layer in these nanostructures. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy of MBE-grown InN nanocolumns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura-Ruiz, J.; Cantarero, A. [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, PO Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Garro, N. [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, PO Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Fundacio General de la Universitat de Valencia, University of Valencia, PO Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Denker, C.; Werner, F.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A. [IV. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August Universitaet Goettingen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    InN nanocolumns grown under different conditions by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on p-Si (111) substrates are studied by micro-Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies. The nanocolumns are free of strain and have an improved crystal quality as shown by the frequency and linewidth of the nonpolar E{sub 2}{sup h} mode. Uncoupled polar modes coexist with a couple LO phonon-plasmon mode and are sensitive to the nanocolumn morphology. Variations in the growth conditions also modify the PL spectra significantly. An increase in the PL energy also involves a reduction of the integrated intensity and an increase of the PL linewidth. This overall phenomenology highlights the role of the surface accumulation layer in these nanostructures. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Optical studies of MBE-grown InN nanocolumns: Evidence of surface electron accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Ruiz, J.; Garro, N.; Cantarero, A.; Denker, C.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2009-03-01

    Vertically self-aligned InN nanocolumns have been investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Different nanocolumn morphologies corresponding to different molecular beam epitaxy growth conditions have been studied. Raman spectra revealed strain-free nanocolumns with high crystalline quality for the full set of samples studied. Longitudinal optical modes both uncoupled and coupled to an electron plasma coexist in the Raman spectra pointing to the existence of two distinctive regions in the nanocolumn: a surface layer of degenerated electrons and a nondegenerated inner core. The characteristics of the low-temperature photoluminescence and its dependence on temperature and excitation power can be explained by a model considering localized holes recombining with degenerated electrons close to the nonpolar surface. The differences observed in the optical response of different samples showing similar crystalline quality have been attributed to the variation in the electron accumulation layer with the growth conditions.

  4. Magnetic-field and temperature dependence of the energy gap in InN nanobelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Aravind

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present tunneling measurements on an InN nanobelt which shows signatures of superconductivity. Superconducting transition takes place at temperature of 1.3K and the critical magnetic field is measured to be about 5.5kGs. The energy gap extrapolated to absolute temperature is about 110μeV. As the magnetic field is decreased to cross the critical magnetic field, the device shows a huge zero-bias magnetoresistance ratio of about 400%. This is attributed to the suppression of quasiparticle subgap tunneling in the presence of superconductivity. The measured magnetic-field and temperature dependence of the superconducting gap agree well with the reported dependences for conventional metallic superconductors.

  5. Observation of Significant enhancement in the efficiency of a DSSC by InN nanoparticles over TiO 2-nanoparticle films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsai-Te; Raghunath, P.; Lu, Yun-Fang; Liu, Yu-Chang; Chiou, Chwei-Huawn; Lin, M. C.

    2011-06-01

    We have studied the effect of InN deposited over TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) films on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using N3 dye with I/I3- electrolyte. A 10-20% increase in efficiency was observed for InN deposited, N3 sensitized 5-8.5 μm thick TiO2 films as compared to similar non-treated films. The deposition of InN was carried out in the temperature range of 573-723 K organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD). Spectral shifts and DFT calculations with a model anchoring group (R‧COOH) both suggest binding of the N3 dye directly to both InN and the InN/TiO2 sites.

  6. Investigation of the near-surface structures of polar InN films by chemical-state-discriminated hard X-ray photoelectron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, A. L.; Yamashita, Y.; Kobata, M.; Yoshikawa, H.; Sakata, O.; Kobayashi, K.; Matsushita, T.; Píš, I.; Imura, M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Nanishi, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Near-surface structures of polar InN films were investigated by laboratory-based hard X-ray photoelectron diffraction (HXPD) with chemical-state-discrimination. HXPD patterns from In 3d 5/2 and N 1s core levels of the In-polar and N-polar InN films were different from each other and compared with the simulation results using a multiple-scattering cluster model. It was found that the near-surface structure of the In-polar InN film was close to the ideal wurtzite structure. On the other hand, on the N-polar InN film, defects-rich surface was formed. In addition, the existence of the In-polar domains was observed in the HXPD patterns.

  7. Observation of complete oxidation of InN to In2O3 in air at elevated temperatures by using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ik-Jae; Yu, Chung-Jong; Hur, Tae-Bong; Kim, Hyung-Kook; Kim, Chae-Ok; Kim, Jae-Yong

    2006-01-01

    We present here an X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of a polycrystalline InN film on sapphire. The InN was completely oxidized to bixbyite in air after annealing at high temperatures. The analysis of the X-ray diffraction data demonstrated that the oxidation process started around 450 .deg. C. The high-resolution XPS data showed the In3d peaks and the N1s main peak located near 396.4 eV for the InN films. After oxidation, the N1s peak had completely disappeared while the In3d peaks had not changed. These results strongly indicate that the oxidation transformed the structure of InN film to In 2 O 3 .

  8. Role of dislocations and carrier concentration in limiting the electron mobility of InN films grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangi, Malleswararao; De, Arpan; Shivaprasad, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    We report the molecular beam epitaxy growth of device quality InN films on GaN epilayer and nano-wall network (NWN) templates deposited on c-sapphire by varying the film thickness up to 1 μm. The careful experiments are directed towards obtaining high mobility InN layers having a low band gap with improved crystal quality. The dislocation density is quantified by using high resolution X-ray diffraction rocking curve broadening values of symmetric and asymmetric reflections, respectively. We observe that the dislocation density of the InN films grown on GaN NWN is less than that of the films grown on the GaN epilayer. This is attributed to the nanoepitaxial lateral overlayer growth (ELOG) process, where the presence of voids at the interface of InN/GaN NWN prevents the propagation of dislocation lines into the InN epilayers, thereby causing less defects in the overgrown InN films. Thus, this new adaptation of the nano-ELOG growth process enables us to prepare InN layers with high electron mobility. The obtained electron mobility of 2121 cm2/Vs for 1 μm thick InN/GaN NWN is comparable with the literature values of similar thickness InN films. Furthermore, in order to understand the reasons that limit electron mobility, the charge neutrality condition is employed to study the variation of electron mobility as a function of dislocation density and carrier concentration. Overall, this study provides a route to attaining improved crystal quality and electronic properties of InN films.

  9. Epitaxial growth of high purity cubic InN films on MgO substrates using HfN buffer layers by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, R.; Ohta, J.; Shimomoto, K.; Fujii, T.; Okamoto, K.; Aoyama, A.; Nakano, T.; Kobayashi, A.; Fujioka, H.; Oshima, M.

    2009-01-01

    Cubic InN films have been grown on MgO substrates with HfN buffer layers by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). It has been found that the use of HfN (100) buffer layers allows us to grow cubic InN (100) films with an in-plane epitaxial relationship of [001] InN //[001] HfN //[001] MgO . X-ray diffraction and electron back-scattered diffraction measurements have revealed that the phase purity of the cubic InN films was as high as 99%, which can be attributed to the use of HfN buffer layers and the enhanced surface migration of the film precursors by the use of PLD. - Graphical abstract: Cubic InN films have been grown on MgO substrates with HfN buffer layers by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). It has been revealed that the phase purity of the cubic InN films was as high as 99 %, which can be attributed to the use of HfN buffer layers and the enhanced surface migration of the film precursors by the use of PLD.

  10. Photomodulated reflectance study on optical property of InN thin films grown by reactive gas-timing rf magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porntheeraphat, S.; Nukeaw, J.

    2008-01-01

    The photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the band-gap energy (E g ) of indium nitride (InN) thin films grown by rf magnetron sputtering. A novel reactive gas-timing technique applied for the sputtering process has been successfully employed to grow InN thin films without neither substrate heating nor post annealing. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns exhibit strong peaks in the orientation along (0 0 2) and (1 0 1) planes, corresponding to the polycrystalline hexagonal-InN structure. The band-gap transition energy of InN was determined by fitting the PR spectra to a theoretical line shape. The PR results show the band-gap energy at 1.18 eV for hexagonal-InN thin films deposited at the rf powers of 100 and 200 W. The high rf sputtering powers in combination with the gas-timing technique should lead to a high concentration of highly excited nitrogen ions in the plasma, which enables the formation of InN without substrate heating. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) measurements further reveal traces of oxygen in these InN films. This should explain the elevated band-gap energy, in reference to the band-gap value of 0.7 eV for pristine InN films

  11. Electrical properties of cubic InN and GaN epitaxial layers as a function of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.R.L.; Chitta, V.A.; Abramof, E.

    2000-01-01

    Carrier concentration and mobility were measured for intrinsic cubic InN and GaN, and for Si-doped cubic GaN as a function of temperature. Metallic n-type conductivity was found for the InN, while background p-type conductivity was observed for the intrinsic GaN layer. Doping the cubic GaN with Si two regimes were observed. For low Si-doping concentrations, the samples remain p-type. Increasing the Si-doping level, the background acceptors are compensated and the samples became highly degenerated n-type. From the carrier concentration dependence on temperature, the activation energy of the donor and acceptor levels was determined. Attempts were made to determine the scattering mechanisms responsible for the behavior of the mobility as a function of temperature

  12. A trade-off relation between tilt and twist angle fluctuations in InN grown by RF-MBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, A.; Iwao, K.; Yamamoto, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the InN growth on sapphire substrates, it is difficult to control both of tilt and twist angle fluctuations at same time. It is necessary to understand initial growth stage such as the role of nitridation process to improve the mosaicity. Low-temperature nitridation technique brings the drastically improvement of the tilt angle fluctuation, although the twist angle fluctuation becomes worse. Such experimental results strongly indicate that there is some trade-off relation between the tilt and the twist angle fluctuations as a function of the nitridation condition such as the nitridation time. In this paper, we discuss about such trade-off relation in the direct growth of InN on the nitridation sapphire substrates and also propose a simple model of initial nitridation process to explain it. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Kinetics of self-assembled InN quantum dots grown on Si (111) by plasma-assisted MBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mahesh; Roul, Basanta; Bhat, Thirumaleshwara N.; Rajpalke, Mohana K.; Sinha, Neeraj; Kalghatgi, A. T.; Krupanidhi, S. B.

    2011-01-01

    One of the scientific challenges of growing InN quantum dots (QDs), using Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), is to understand the fundamental processes that control the morphology and distribution of QDs. A systematic manipulation of the morphology, optical emission, and structural properties of InN/Si (111) QDs is demonstrated by changing the growth kinetics parameters such as flux rate and growth time. Due to the large lattice mismatch, between InN and Si (∼8%), the dots formed from the Strannski–Krastanow (S–K) growth mode are dislocated. Despite the variations in strain (residual) and the shape, both the dot size and pair separation distribution show the scaling behavior. We observed that the distribution of dot sizes, for samples grown under varying conditions, follow the scaling function.

  14. R&W Club Frederick Hosts Second Annual Golf Tourney for The Children’s Inn | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer On Sept. 8, more than 40 NCI at Frederick and Leidos Biomedical Research employees, along with family and friends, swapped work clothes for golf gear at Maryland National Golf Club in Middletown. The golfers didn’t just play for fun; they participated in the second annual R&W Club Frederick Golf Tournament to support The Children’s Inn

  15. R&W Club Frederick Hosts 4th Annual Golf Tournament Benefiting The Children’s Inn at NIH | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R&W Club Frederick’s 4th Annual Golf Tournament to benefit the Children’s Inn at NIH teed off on time despite cloudy weather and scattered showers. Employees from NCI at Frederick, the main NIH campus, and Leidos Biomed, along with family and friends, came to enjoy an afternoon at the beautiful Maryland National Golf Club in Middletown and to support a wonderful charity.

  16. X-ray diffraction study of A- plane non-polar InN epilayer grown by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Matthieu; Briot, Olivier; Gil, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    Strong polarisation-induced electric fields in C-plane oriented nitrides semiconductor layers reduce the performance of devices. Eliminating the polarization fields can be achieved by growing nitrides along non polar direction. We have grown non polar A-plane oriented InN on R-plane (1‾102) nitridated sapphire substrate by MOCVD. We have studied the structural anisotropy observed in these layers by analyzing High Resolution XRay Diffraction rocking curve (RC) experiments as a function of the in-plane beam orientation. A-plane InN epilayer have a unique epitaxial relationship on R-Plane sapphire and show a strong structural anisotropy. Full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the InN(11‾20) XRD RC values are contained between 44 and 81 Arcmin. FWHM is smaller when the diffraction occurs along the [0001] and the largest FWHM values, of the (11‾20) RC, are obtained when the diffraction occurs along the [1‾100] in-plane direction. Atomic Force Microscopy imaging revealed morphologies with well organized crystallites. The grains are structured along a unique crystallographic orientation of InN, leading to larger domains in this direction. This structural anisotropy can be, in first approximation, attributed to the difference in the domain sizes observed. XRD reciprocal space mappings (RSM) were performed in asymmetrical configuration on (13‾40) and (2‾202) diffraction plane. RSM are measured with a beam orientation corresponding to a maximal and a minimal width of the (11‾20) Rocking curves, respectively. A simple theoretical model is exposed to interpret the RSM. We concluded that the dominant contribution to the anisotropy is due to the scattering coherence length anisotropy present in our samples.

  17. High-surface-quality nanocrystalline InN layers deposited on GaN templates by RF sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdueza-Felip, Sirona; Naranjo, Fernando B.; Gonzalez-Herraez, Miguel [Grupo de Ingenieria Fotonica, Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala, Campus Universitario, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Lahourcade, Lise; Monroy, Eva [Equipe mixte CEA-CNRS-UJF, Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs, INAC/SP2M/PSC, CEA-Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Fernandez, Susana [Departamento de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    We report a detailed study of the effect of deposition parameters on optical, structural, and morphological properties of InN films grown by reactive radio-frequency (RF) sputtering on GaN-on-sapphire templates in a pure nitrogen atmosphere. Deposition parameters under study are substrate temperature, RF power, and sputtering pressure. Wurtzite crystallographic structure with c-axis preferred growth orientation is confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. For the optimized deposition conditions, namely at a substrate temperature of 450 C and RF power of 30 W, InN films present a root-mean-square surface roughness as low as {proportional_to}0.4 nm, comparable to the underlying substrate. The apparent optical bandgap is estimated at 720 nm (1.7 eV) in all cases. However, the InN absorption band tail is strongly influenced by the sputtering pressure due to a change in the species of the plasma. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Vertically integrated (Ga, In)N nanostructures for future single photon emitters operating in the telecommunication wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winden, A; Mikulics, M; Grützmacher, D; Hardtdegen, H

    2013-01-01

    Important technological steps are discussed and realized for future room-temperature operation of III-nitride single photon emitters. First, the growth technology of positioned single pyramidal InN nanostructures capped by Mg-doped GaN is presented. The optimization of their optical characteristics towards narrowband emission in the telecommunication wavelength range is demonstrated. In addition, a device concept and technology was developed so that the nanostructures became singularly addressable. It was found that the nanopyramids emit in the telecommunication wavelength range if their size is chosen appropriately. A p-GaN contacting layer was successfully produced as a cap to the InN pyramids and the top p-contact was achievable using an intrinsically conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS, allowing a 25% increase in light transmittance compared to standard Ni/Au contact technology. Single nanopyramids were successfully integrated into a high-frequency device layout. These decisive technology steps provide a promising route to electrically driven and room-temperature operating InN based single photon emitters in the telecommunication wavelength range. (paper)

  19. A Sub-ppm Acetone Gas Sensor for Diabetes Detection Using 10 nm Thick Ultrathin InN FETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Kun-Wei; Hsu, Ming-Che; Chang, Yuh-Hwa; Gwo, Shangjr; Yeh, J. Andrew

    2012-01-01

    An indium nitride (InN) gas sensor of 10 nm in thickness has achieved detection limit of 0.4 ppm acetone. The sensor has a size of 1 mm by 2.5 mm, while its sensing area is 0.25 mm by 2 mm. Detection of such a low acetone concentration in exhaled breath could enable early diagnosis of diabetes for portable physiological applications. The ultrathin InN epilayer extensively enhances sensing sensitivity due to its strong electron accumulation on roughly 5–10 nm deep layers from the surface. Platinum as catalyst can increase output current signals by 2.5-fold (94 vs. 37.5 μA) as well as reduce response time by 8.4-fold (150 vs. 1,260 s) in comparison with bare InN. More, the effect of 3% oxygen consumption due to breath inhalation and exhalation on 2.4 ppm acetone gas detection was investigated, indicating that such an acetone concentration can be analyzed in air. PMID:22969342

  20. High temperature electron cyclotron resonance etching of GaN, InN, and AlN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shul, R.J.; Kilcoyne, S.P.; Hagerott Crawford, M.; Parmeter, J.E.; Vartuli, C.B.; Abernathy, C.R.; Pearton, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance etch rates for GaN, InN, and AlN are reported as a function of temperature for Cl 2 /H 2 /CH 4 /Ar and Cl 2 /H 2 /Ar plasmas. Using Cl 2 /H 2 /CH 4 /Ar plasma chemistry, GaN etch rates remain relatively constant from 30 to 125 degree C and then increase to a maximum of 2340 A/min at 170 degree C. The InN etch rate decreases monotonically from 30 to 150 degree C and then rapidly increases to a maximum of 2300 A/min at 170 degree C. This is the highest etch rate reported for this material. The AlN etch rate decreases throughout the temperature range studied with a maximum of 960 A/min at 30 degree C. When CH 4 is removed from the plasma chemistry, the GaN and InN etch rates are slightly lower, with less dramatic changes with temperature. The surface composition of the III--V nitrides remains unchanged after exposure to the Cl 2 /H 2 /CH 4 /Ar plasma over the temperatures studied

  1. Molten Salt-Based Growth of Bulk GaN and InN for Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldrip, Karen Elizabeth [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Power Sources Technology Dept.; Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Sciences Dept.; Kerley, Thomas M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Sciences Dept.

    2006-09-01

    An atmospheric pressure approach to growth of bulk group III-nitrides is outlined. Native III-nitride substrates for optoelectronic and high power, high frequency electronics are desirable to enhance performance and reliability of these devices; currently, these materials are available in research quantities only for GaN, and are unavailable in the case of InN. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the reactions associated with traditional crystal growth techniques place these activities on the extreme edges of experimental physics. The technique described herein relies on the production of the nitride precursor (N3-) by chemical and/or electrochemical methods in a molten halide salt. This nitride ion is then reacted with group III metals in such a manner as to form the bulk nitride material. The work performed during the period of funding (July 2004-September 2005) focused on the initial measurement of the solubility of GaN in molten LiCl as a function of temperature, the construction of electrochemical cells, the modification of a commercial glove box (required for handling very hygroscopic LiCl), and on securing intellectual property for the technique.

  2. Hole transport and photoluminescence in Mg-doped InN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.; Ager III, J. W.; Smith III, H. M.; Mayer, M. A.; Yu, K. M.; Haller, E. E.; Walukiewicz, W.; Schaff, W. J.; Gallinat, C.; Koblmuller, G.; Speck, J. S.

    2010-03-24

    Hole conductivity and photoluminescence were studied in Mg-doped InN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Because surface electron accumulation interferes with carrier type determination by electrical measurements, the nature of the majority carriers in the bulk of the films was determined using thermopower measurements. Mg concentrations in a"window" from ca. 3 x 1017 to 1 x 1019 cm-3 produce hole-conducting, p-type films as evidenced by a positive Seebeck coecient. This conclusion is supported by electrolyte-based capacitance voltage measurements and by changes in the overall mobility observed by Hall effect, both of which are consistent with a change from surface accumulation on an n-type film to surface inversion on a p-type film. The observed Seebeck coefficients are understood in terms of a parallel conduction model with contributions from surface and bulk regions. In partially compensated films with Mg concentrations below the window region, two peaks are observed in photoluminescence at 672 meV and at 603 meV. They are attributed to band-to-band and band-to-acceptor transitions, respectively, and an acceptor binding energy of ~;;70 meV is deduced. In hole-conducting films with Mg concentrations in the window region, no photoluminescence is observed; this is attributed to electron trapping by deep states which are empty for Fermi levels close to the valence band edge.

  3. Retrospective forecasts of the upcoming winter season snow accumulation in the Inn headwaters (European Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Kristian; Hanzer, Florian; Stoll, Elena; Scaife, Adam A.; MacLachlan, Craig; Schöber, Johannes; Huttenlau, Matthias; Achleitner, Stefan; Strasser, Ulrich

    2018-02-01

    This article presents analyses of retrospective seasonal forecasts of snow accumulation. Re-forecasts with 4 months' lead time from two coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (NCEP CFSv2 and MetOffice GloSea5) drive the Alpine Water balance and Runoff Estimation model (AWARE) in order to predict mid-winter snow accumulation in the Inn headwaters. As snowpack is hydrological storage that evolves during the winter season, it is strongly dependent on precipitation totals of the previous months. Climate model (CM) predictions of precipitation totals integrated from November to February (NDJF) compare reasonably well with observations. Even though predictions for precipitation may not be significantly more skilful than for temperature, the predictive skill achieved for precipitation is retained in subsequent water balance simulations when snow water equivalent (SWE) in February is considered. Given the AWARE simulations driven by observed meteorological fields as a benchmark for SWE analyses, the correlation achieved using GloSea5-AWARE SWE predictions is r = 0.57. The tendency of SWE anomalies (i.e. the sign of anomalies) is correctly predicted in 11 of 13 years. For CFSv2-AWARE, the corresponding values are r = 0.28 and 7 of 13 years. The results suggest that some seasonal prediction of hydrological model storage tendencies in parts of Europe is possible.

  4. Distribution of air pollutants in the Inn Valley atmosphere during high concentration events in winter 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnitzhofer, R.; Norman, M; Dunkl, J.; Wistaler, A.; Hansel, A.; Neininger, B.; Gohm, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The goal of the INNOX field campaign, which took place during January and February 2006 near the town of Schwaz, was to obtain a three-dimensional picture of the spatial distribution of air pollutants in the Inn Valley during wintertime. For this purpose continuous ground based measurements and, on six chosen days, vertical profiles within the lowest 200 m above ground level (AGL) of the valley atmosphere of certain VOCs (benzene, toluene, etc.) and CO were performed using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry instrument (PTR-MS). For the soundings a 200-m long teflon line was fixed on a tethered balloon through which the air was sucked to the PTR-MS instrument and to a CO analyser. Next to the inlet on the tethered balloon meteorological data, such as air temperature, pressure, wind, were measured as well. Above the lowest 200 m AGL a research aircraft from MetAir AG (Switzerland), equipped with various instruments for in-situ measurements of air pollutants and meteorological data, was operated. A typical flight pattern consisted of five vertical cross sections between about 150 to 2500 m AGL and lasted about three hours. Altogether 25 hours of aircraft measurements were carried out on six different days. The combination of low-level balloon measurements and upper-level aircraft observations yields vertical profiles of various parameters which cover the whole valley atmosphere. Preliminary results which show strong vertical but also horizontal gradients of air pollutant concentrations will be presented. (author)

  5. Evaluation of testing strategies for the radiation tolerant ATLAS n **+-in-n pixel sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Klaiber Lodewigs, Jonas M

    2003-01-01

    The development of particle tracker systems for high fluence environments in new high-energy physics experiments raises new challenges for the development, manufacturing and reliable testing of radiation tolerant components. The ATLAS pixel detector for use at the LHC, CERN, is designed to cover an active sensor area of 1.8 m**2 with 1.1 multiplied by 10 **8 read-out channels usable for a particle fluence up to 10 **1**5 cm**-**2 (1 MeV neutron equivalent) and an ionization dose up to 500 kGy of mainly charged hadron radiation. To cope with such a harsh environment the ATLAS Pixel Collaboration has developed a radiation hard n **+-in-n silicon pixel cell design with a standard cell size of 50 multiplied by 400 mum**2. Using this design on an oxygenated silicon substrate, sensor production has started in 2001. This contribution describes results gained during the development of testing procedures of the ATLAS pixel sensor and evaluates quality assurance procedures regarding their relevance for detector operati...

  6. Optical characterization of free electron concentration in heteroepitaxial InN layers using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and a 2 × 2 transfer-matrix algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsidis, C. C.; Ajagunna, A. O.; Georgakilas, A.

    2013-01-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been implemented as a non-destructive, non-invasive, tool for the optical characterization of a set of c-plane InN single heteroepitaxial layers spanning a wide range of thicknesses (30–2000 nm). The c-plane (0001) InN epilayers were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) on GaN(0001) buffer layers which had been grown on Al 2 O 3 (0001) substrates. It is shown that for arbitrary multilayers with homogeneous anisotropic layers having their principal axes coincident with the laboratory coordinates, a 2 × 2 matrix algebra based on a general transfer-matrix method (GTMM) is adequate to interpret their optical response. Analysis of optical reflectance in the far and mid infrared spectral range has been found capable to discriminate between the bulk, the surface and interface contributions of free carriers in the InN epilayers revealing the existence of electron accumulation layers with carrier concentrations in mid 10 19 cm −3 at both the InN surface and the InN/GaN interface. The spectra could be fitted with a three-layer model, determining the different electron concentration and mobility values of the bulk and of the surface and the interface electron accumulation layers in the InN films. The variation of these values with increasing InN thickness could be also sensitively detected by the optical measurements. The comparison between the optically determined drift mobility and the Hall mobility of the thickest sample reveals a value of r H = 1.49 for the Hall factor of InN at a carrier concentration of 1.11 × 10 19 cm −3 at 300°Κ.

  7. The influence of growth temperature and input V/III ratio on the initial nucleation and material properties of InN on GaN by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H; Jiang, D S; Zhu, J J; Zhao, D G; Liu, Z S; Wang, Y T; Zhang, S M; Yang, H

    2009-01-01

    The effects of growth temperature and V/III ratio on the InN initial nucleation of islands on the GaN (0 0 0 1) surface were investigated. It is found that InN nuclei density increases with decreasing growth temperature between 375 and 525 °C. At lower growth temperatures, InN thin films take the form of small and closely packed islands with diameters of less than 100 nm, whereas at elevated temperatures the InN islands can grow larger and well separated, approaching an equilibrium hexagonal shape due to enhanced surface diffusion of adatoms. At a given growth temperature of 500 °C, a controllable density and size of separated InN islands can be achieved by adjusting the V/III ratio. The larger islands lead to fewer defects when they are coalesced. Comparatively, the electrical properties of the films grown under higher V/III ratio are improved

  8. Beaulieu-Boycott-Innes syndrome: an intellectual disability syndrome with characteristic facies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Jillian; Jenkinson, Allan; Magee, Alex; Ennis, Sean; Monavari, Ahmad; Green, Andrew; Lynch, Sally A; Crushell, Ellen; Hughes, Joanne

    2016-10-01

    We report a female child from an Irish Traveller family presenting with severe intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, renal anomalies, dental caries and cyclical vomiting. Current health issues include global developmental delay, mild concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, dental malocclusion and caries and a single duplex left kidney. The proband and her mother also have multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. Whole-exome sequencing was performed to identify the underlying genetic cause. DNA from the proband was enriched with the Agilent Sure Select v5 Exon array and sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq. Rare homozygous variants were prioritized. Whole-exome sequencing identified three linked homozygous missense variants in THOC6 (c.298T>A, p.Trp100Arg; c.700G>C, p.Val234Leu; c.824G>A, p.Gly275Asp) as the likely cause of this child's intellectual disability syndrome, resulting in a molecular diagnosis of Beaulieu-Boycott-Innes syndrome (BBIS). This is the first report of BBIS in Europe. BBIS has been reported previously in two Hutterite families and one Saudi family. A review of all patients to date shows a relatively homogenous phenotype. Core clinical features include low birth weight with subsequent growth failure, short stature, intellectual disability with language delay, characteristic facies, renal anomalies and dental malocclusion with caries. Some patients also have cardiac defects. All patients show characteristic dysmorphic facial features including a tall forehead with high anterior hairline and deep-set eyes with upslanting palpebral fissures. The coexistence of intellectual disability together with these characteristic facies should provide a diagnostic clue for BBIS during patient evaluation.

  9. El desafío de la comunicación gerencial, optimizando a la empresa del siglo XXI. Casos de análisis: corporación hotelera “Cayuga Sustainable Hospitality” y Hotel Ramada Herradura (2007-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Abarca Amador, Ethel; Benach Sánchez, Fernando; Rodríguez Vargas, Fedra

    2013-01-01

    El presente proyecto final de graduación tuvo por tema de investigación: “Las Herramientas de Comunicación Gerencial (coaching gerencial, indagación apreciativa, programación neurolingüística y “world café”) y por título: “El desafío de la comunicación gerencial, optimizando a la empresa del siglo XXI. Casos de análisis: “Corporación Hotelera Cayuga Sustainable Hospitality” y “Hotel Ramada Herradura”. Surgió por el interés de los suscritos, de analizar y escudriñar, ¿Cómo los cambios generado...

  10. Local lattice environment of indium in GaN, AlN, and InN; Lokale Gitterumgebung von Indium in GaN, AlN und InN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, J

    2007-12-20

    After an introduction to the physical properties of the nitrides, their preparation, and the state of studies on the implantation in the nitrides the experimental method (PAC) applied in this thesis and the data analysis are presented. The next chapter describes then the applied materials and the sample preparation. The following chapters contain the PAC measurements on the annealing behaviout of GaN, AlN, and InN after the implantation as well as dose- and temperature dependent PAC studies. Finally the most important results are summarized.

  11. Systematic study on dynamic atomic layer epitaxy of InN on/in +c-GaN matrix and fabrication of fine-structure InN/GaN quantum wells: Role of high growth temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Akihiko; Kusakabe, Kazuhide; Hashimoto, Naoki; Hwang, Eun-Sook; Imai, Daichi; Itoi, Takaomi

    2016-12-01

    The growth kinetics and properties of nominally 1-ML (monolayer)-thick InN wells on/in +c-GaN matrix fabricated using dynamic atomic layer epitaxy (D-ALEp) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were systematically studied, with particular attention given to the effects of growth temperature. Attention was also given to how and where the ˜1-ML-thick InN layers were frozen or embedded on/in the +c-GaN matrix. The D-ALEp of InN on GaN was a two-stage process; in the 1st stage, an "In+N" bilayer/monolayer was formed on the GaN surface, while in the 2nd, this was capped by a GaN barrier layer. Each process was monitored in-situ using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The target growth temperature was above 620 °C and much higher than the upper critical epitaxy temperature of InN (˜500 °C). The "In+N" bilayer/monolayer tended to be an incommensurate phase, and the growth of InN layers was possible only when they were capped with a GaN layer. The InN layers could be coherently inserted into the GaN matrix under self-organizing and self-limiting epitaxy modes. The growth temperature was the most dominant growth parameter on both the growth process and the structure of the InN layers. Reflecting the inherent growth behavior of D-ALEp grown InN on/in +c-GaN at high growth temperature, the embedded InN layers in the GaN matrix were basically not full-ML in coverage, and the thickness of sheet-island-like InN layers was essentially either 1-ML or 2-ML. It was found that these InN layers tended to be frozen at the step edges on the GaN and around screw-type threading dislocations. The InN wells formed type-I band line-up heterostructures with GaN barriers, with exciton localization energies of about 300 and 500 meV at 15 K for the 1-ML and 2-ML InN wells, respectively.

  12. Theoretical investigation on structural stability of InN thin films on 3C-SiC(0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takumi; Akiyama, Toru; Nakamura, Kohji; Ito, Tomonori

    2008-01-01

    The structural stability of InN thin films on 3C-SiC(0 0 1) substrate is systematically investigated based on an empirical interatomic potential, which incorporates electrostatic energy due to covalent bond charges and ionic charges. The calculated energy differences among coherently grown 3C-InN(0 0 1), 3C-InN(0 0 1) with misfit dislocations (MDs), and 2H-InN(0 0 0 1) imply that the coherently grown 3C-InN(0 0 1) is stable when the film thickness is less than 7 monolayers (MLs) while 2H-InN(0 0 0 1) is stabilized for the thickness beyond 8 MLs. This is because InN layers in 2H-InN(0 0 0 1) are fully relaxed by one MD. The analysis of atomic configuration at the 3C-InN(0 0 1)/3C-SiC(0 0 1) interfaces reveals that the coordination number of interfacial atoms is quite different from that in the bulk region. Thus, 3C-InN(0 0 1) with MDs on 3C-SiC(0 0 1) is always metastable over entire range of film thickness, consistent with the successful fabrication of 2H-InN(0 0 0 1) on 3C-SiC(0 0 1) by the molecular beam epitaxy. These results suggest that the mismatch in atomic arrangements at the interface crucially affects the structural stability of InN thin films on 3C-SiC(0 0 1) substrate

  13. Understanding and optimization of InN and high indium containing InGaN alloys by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuna, Oecal

    2013-01-01

    Among the III-nitride semiconductors (Ga,Al,In)N, InN is the most attractive one due to having the narrowest bandgap of 0.64 eV. The revision in the bandgap of InN makes the InGaN more important since one can cover the whole solar spectrum by only changing In composition in an InGaN layer. The comparison of quality of InN and InGaN layers grown using a metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) methods indicate that growth with MOCVD is the more challenging, again due to the high dissociation temperature of NH 3 relative to the low decomposition temperature of InN (560-570 C). However, there is significant interest in developing an MOCVD process for InN and InGaN growth since MOCVD technology is the technology currently in use for commercial fabrication of group III nitride thin films. This thesis is therefore focused on a study of MOCVD growth of n- and p-type InN and In-rich InGaN films with the goal of providing new information on the influence of growth conditions on the film properties. Initially, a detailed investigation of MOCVD of InN is given. It is shown that MOCVD growth parameters (growth temperature and V/III ratio) have impacts on the layer properties such as In droplet formation on the surface as well as on its electrical and optical properties. PAS is employed for point defect analyzation. It is shown that In vacancies isolated by nitrogen vacancies are the dominant vacancy-type positron traps in InN. A decrease in the N vacancy concentration in InN is observed as a result of the growth temperature increase from 500 to 550 C. This is an indication of a reduction of N vacancy concentration by enhancing NH 3 dissociation at high growth temperature. Results obtained from optical techniques (Raman and PL) are used to estimate the free carrier concentrations in InN. Electrical characterizations are also carried out using Hall measurements. Carrier concentration values obtained by these three techniques revealed a

  14. Polarized infrared reflectance studies for wurtzite InN epilayers on Si(111) grown by molecular beam expitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, P.K.; Lee, S.C.; Ng, S.S.; Hassan, Z.; Abu Hassan, H.; Chen, W.L.

    2011-01-01

    Room temperature polarized infrared reflectance technique is employed to study the optical properties of wurtzite InN epilayers on Si(111) grown by molecular beam expitaxy. The reflection spectra are compared to the calculated spectra generated based on the anisotropic dielectric function model. Good agreement between the measured and calculated spectra is obtained. From the fit of the experimental curve, the reststrahlen parameters at the center of Brillouin zone, the carrier concentration and mobility as well as the epilayers thicknesses are determined. The values of the carrier concentration and mobility are in good agreement with the results obtained from the Hall effects measurements.

  15. Effects of GaN capping on the structural and the optical properties of InN nanostructures grown by using MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yuanping; Cho, Yonghoon; Wang, Hui; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Shuming; Yang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    InN nanostructures with and without GaN capping layers were grown by using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Morphological, structural, and optical properties were systematically studied by using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL). XRD results show that an InGaN structure is formed for the sample with a GaN capping layer, which will reduce the quality and the IR PL emission of the InN. The lower emission peak at ∼0.7 eV was theoretically fitted and assigned as the band edge emission of InN. Temperature-dependent PL shows a good quantum efficiency for the sample without a GaN capping layers; this corresponds to a lower density of dislocations and a small activation energy.

  16. Formation of InN atomic-size wires by simple N adsorption on the In/Si(111)–(4 × 1) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero-Sánchez, J.; Takeuchi, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • N atoms on the surface form bonds with two In atoms and one Si atom. • Surface formation energy calculations show two stable structures with formation of InN atomic-size wires. • Projected density of states shows a tendency to form In−N and Si−N bonds on the surface. • Charge density corroborates the covalent character of the In−N bonds. - Abstract: We have carried out first principles total energy calculations to study the formation of InN atomic-size wires on the In/Si(111)–(4 × 1) surface. In its most favorable adsorption site, a single N atom forms InN arrangements. The deposit of 0.25 monolayers (MLs) of N atoms, result in the breaking of one of the original In chains and the formation of an InN atomic size wire. Increasing the coverage up to 0.5 ML of N atoms results in the formation of two of those wires. Calculated surface formation energies show that for N-poor conditions the most stable configuration is the original In/Si(111)–(4 × 1) surface with no N atoms. Increasing the N content, and in a reduced range of chemical potential, the formation of an InN wire is energetically favorable. Instead, from intermediate to N-rich conditions, two InN atomic wires are more stable. Projected density of states calculations have shown a trend to form covalent bonds between the In−p and N−p orbitals in these stable models.

  17. Structural and nanomechanical properties of InN films grown on Si(1 0 0) by femtosecond pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, M A; Mamun, M A; Elmustafa, A A; Elsayed-Ali, H E

    2013-01-01

    The structural and nanomechanical properties of InN films grown on Si(1 0 0) using femtosecond pulsed laser deposition were studied for different growth conditions. Atomic nitrogen was generated by either thermal cracking or laser-induced breakdown (LIB) of ammonia. Optical emission spectroscopy was conducted on the laser plasma and used to observe atomic nitrogen formation. An indium buffer layer was initially grown on the Si substrate at low temperature. The surface structure and morphology were investigated by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction, ex situ atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the initial buffer indium layers were terminated with the In(2 × 1) structure and had a smooth surface. With increased coverage, the growth mode developed from two-dimensional layers to three-dimensional islands. At room temperature (RT), formation of submicrometre islands resulted in mixed crystal structure of In and InN. As the substrate temperature was increased to 250–350 °C, the crystal structure was found to be dominated by fewer In and more InN, with only InN formed at 350 °C. The XRD patterns show that the grown InN films have wurtzite crystal structure. The film hardness near the surface was observed to increase from less than 1 GPa, characteristic of In for the sample grown at RT using the thermal cracker, to a hardness of 11 GPa at 30 nm from surface, characteristic of InN for samples grown at 350 °C by LIB. The hardness at deep indents reaches the hardness of the Si substrate of ∼12 GPa. (paper)

  18. Identifying Sustainable Design Opportunities in Tribal Hotels and Casinos: Mescalero Inn of the Mountain Gods Hotel and Casino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Diana [Univ. of Illinois, Springfield, IL (United States); Martino, Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials, Devices, & Energy Technologies; Begay, Sandra K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Materials, Devices, & Energy Technologies

    2016-10-01

    The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, passed by Congress on October 17, 1988 provided tribes with the Federal statute to pursue gaming activities on tribal lands. Many Native communities contribute to larger regional economies and tourism industries. These casino facilities often include resort-style hotel amenities. Not surprisingly, they are also large consumers of energy, operating 24 hours a day and 7 days a week. Tribes with hotels and casinos can implement sustainable design features and not only receive economic gain, but also environmental and community benefits. The intention of this paper is to identify sustainable design opportunities at the Inn of the Mountain Gods Hotel and Casino. This research stems from previous work the researcher conducted and subsequently published for the Illinois Green Business Association. First, the paper reviews what sustainable design is and points of interest when considering sustainable construction. Next, the paper explores the precedents set by the Blue Lake Rancheria, Rincon Band of Luiseno Indians, and the Forest County Potawatomi Tribe. Then, the research examines areas to collect baseline information and identify opportunities in sustainable design for the Mescalero Apache Tribe, Inn of the Mountain Gods Hotel and Casino located in New Mexico. Lastly, the work explores the resources and funding options available to the tribe.

  19. Phase mapping of aging process in InN nanostructures: oxygen incorporation and the role of the zinc blende phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, D; Lozano, J G; Herrera, M; Morales, F M; GarcIa, R; Ruffenach, S; Briot, O

    2010-01-01

    Uncapped InN nanostructures undergo a deleterious natural aging process at ambient conditions by oxygen incorporation. The phases involved in this process and their localization is mapped by transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-related techniques. The parent wurtzite InN (InN-w) phase disappears from the surface and gradually forms a highly textured cubic layer that completely wraps up a InN-w nucleus which still remains from the original single-crystalline quantum dots. The good reticular relationships between the different crystals generate low misfit strains and explain the apparent easiness for phase transformations at room temperature and pressure conditions, but also disable the classical methods to identify phases and grains from TEM images. The application of the geometrical phase algorithm in order to form numerical moire mappings and RGB multilayered image reconstructions allows us to discern among the different phases and grains formed inside these nanostructures. Samples aged for shorter times reveal the presence of metastable InN:O zinc blende (zb) volumes, which act as the intermediate phase between the initial InN-w and the most stable cubic In 2 O 3 end phase. These cubic phases are highly twinned with a proportion of 50:50 between both orientations. We suggest that the existence of the intermediate InN:O-zb phase should be seriously considered to understand the reason for the widely scattered reported fundamental properties of thought to be InN-w, as its bandgap or superconductivity.

  20. Heteroepitaxial growth of In-face InN on GaN (0001) by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakis, E.; Iliopoulos, E.; Tsagaraki, K.; Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph.; Georgakilas, A.

    2005-01-01

    The thermodynamic aspects of indium-face InN growth by radio frequency plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy (rf-MBE) and the nucleation of InN on gallium-face GaN (0001) surface were investigated. The rates of InN decomposition and indium desorption from the surface were measured in situ using reflected high-energy electron diffraction and the rf-MBE 'growth window' of In-face InN (0001) was identified. It is shown that sustainable growth can be achieved only when the arrival rate of active nitrogen species on the surface is higher than the arrival rate of indium atoms. The maximum substrate temperature permitting InN growth as a function of the active nitrogen flux was determined. The growth mode of InN on Ga-face GaN (0001) surface was investigated by reflected high-energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. It was found to be of the Volmer-Weber-type for substrate temperatures less than 350 deg. C and of the Stranski-Krastanov for substrate temperatures between 350 and 520 deg. C. The number of monolayers of initial two-dimensional growth, in the case of Stranski-Krastanov mode, varies monotonically with substrate temperature, from 2 ML at 400 deg. C to about 12 ML at 500 deg. C. The evolution and coalescence of nucleated islands were also investigated as a function of substrate temperature. It was found that at higher temperature their coalescence is inhibited leading to porous-columnar InN thin films, which exhibit growth rates higher than the nominal value. Therefore, in order to achieve continuous InN layers on GaN (0001) a two-step growth approach is introduced. In that approach, InN is nucleated at low temperatures on GaN and the growth continues until full coalescence of the nucleated islands. Subsequently, this nucleation layer is overgrown at higher substrate temperature in order to achieve high-quality continuous films. The InN films grown by the two-step method were investigated by x-ray diffraction, Hall-effect measurements, and

  1. Network of vertically c-oriented prismatic InN nanowalls grown on c-GaN/sapphire template by chemical vapor deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barick, B. K.; Saroj, Rajendra Kumar; Prasad, Nivedita; Sutar, D. S.; Dhar, S.

    2018-05-01

    Networks of vertically c-oriented prism shaped InN nanowalls, are grown on c-GaN/sapphire templates using a CVD technique, where pure indium and ammonia are used as metal and nitrogen precursors. A systematic study of the growth, structural and electronic properties of these samples shows a preferential growth of the islands along [ 1 1 2 bar 0 ] and [0 0 0 1] directions leading to the formation of such a network structure, where the vertically [0 0 0 1] oriented tapered walls are laterally align along one of the three [ 1 1 2 bar 0 ] directions. Inclined facets of these walls are identified as semipolar (1 1 2 bar 2) -planes of wurtzite InN. Onset of absorption for these samples is observed to be higher than the band gap of InN suggesting a high background carrier concentration in this material. Study of the valence band edge through XPS indicates the formation of positive depletion regions below the surface of the side facets [(1 1 2 bar 2) -planes] of the walls. This is in contrast with the observation for c-plane InN epilayers, where electron accumulation is often reported below the top surface.

  2. Growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN)_1/(GaN)_1_–_2_0 short-period superlattices on +c-GaN template in dynamic atomic layer epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusakabe, Kazuhide; Hashimoto, Naoki; Wang, Ke; Imai, Daichi; Itoi, Takaomi; Yoshikawa, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    The growth kinetics and structural perfection of (InN)_1/(GaN)_1_–_2_0 short-period superlattices (SPSs) were investigated with their application to ordered alloys in mind. The SPSs were grown on +c-GaN template at 650 °C by dynamic atomic layer epitaxy in conventional plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It was found that coherent structured InN/GaN SPSs could be fabricated when the thickness of the GaN barrier was 4 ML or above. Below 3 ML, the formation of SPSs was quite difficult owing to the increased strain in the SPS structure caused by the use of GaN as a template. The effective or average In composition of the (InN)_1/(GaN)_4 SPSs was around 10%, and the corresponding InN coverage in the ∼1 ML-thick InN wells was 50%. It was found that the effective InN coverage in ∼1 ML-thick InN wells could be varied with the growth conditions. In fact, the effective In composition could be increased up to 13.5%, i.e., the corresponding effective InN coverage was about 68%, by improving the capping/freezing speed by increasing the growth rate of the GaN barrier layer.

  3. Electronic and thermoelectric properties of InN studied using ab initio density functional theory and Boltzmann transport calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, P. D., E-mail: pdborges@gmail.com, E-mail: lscolfaro@txstate.edu; Scolfaro, L., E-mail: pdborges@gmail.com, E-mail: lscolfaro@txstate.edu [Department of Physics, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States)

    2014-12-14

    The thermoelectric properties of indium nitride in the most stable wurtzite phase (w-InN) as a function of electron and hole concentrations and temperature were studied by solving the semiclassical Boltzmann transport equations in conjunction with ab initio electronic structure calculations, within Density Functional Theory. Based on maximally localized Wannier function basis set and the ab initio band energies, results for the Seebeck coefficient are presented and compared with available experimental data for n-type as well as p-type systems. Also, theoretical results for electric conductivity and power factor are presented. Most cases showed good agreement between the calculated properties and experimental data for w-InN unintentionally and p-type doped with magnesium. Our predictions for temperature and concentration dependences of electrical conductivity and power factor revealed a promising use of InN for intermediate and high temperature thermoelectric applications. The rigid band approach and constant scattering time approximation were utilized in the calculations.

  4. Structural and electronic properties of InN nanowire network grown by vapor-liquid-solid method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Barick

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth of InN nanowires have been carried out on quartz substrates at different temperatures by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS technique using different thicknesses of Au catalyst layer. It has been found that a narrow window of Au layer thickness and growth temperature leads to multi-nucleation, in which each site acts as the origin of several nanowires. In this multi-nucleation regime, several tens of micrometer long wires with diameter as small as 20 nm are found to grow along [ 11 2 ̄ 0 ] direction (a-plane to form a dense network. Structural and electronic properties of these wires are studied. As grown nanowires show degenerate n-type behavior. Furthermore, x-ray photoemission study reveals an accumulation of electrons on the surface of these nanowires. Interestingly, the wire network shows persistence of photoconductivity for several hours after switching off the photoexcitation.

  5. Structural and electronic properties of InN nanowire network grown by vapor-liquid-solid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barick, B. K.; Rodríguez-Fernández, Carlos; Cantarero, Andres; Dhar, S.

    2015-05-01

    Growth of InN nanowires have been carried out on quartz substrates at different temperatures by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) technique using different thicknesses of Au catalyst layer. It has been found that a narrow window of Au layer thickness and growth temperature leads to multi-nucleation, in which each site acts as the origin of several nanowires. In this multi-nucleation regime, several tens of micrometer long wires with diameter as small as 20 nm are found to grow along [ 11 2 ¯ 0 ] direction (a-plane) to form a dense network. Structural and electronic properties of these wires are studied. As grown nanowires show degenerate n-type behavior. Furthermore, x-ray photoemission study reveals an accumulation of electrons on the surface of these nanowires. Interestingly, the wire network shows persistence of photoconductivity for several hours after switching off the photoexcitation.

  6. Structural and electronic properties of InN nanowire network grown by vapor-liquid-solid method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barick, B. K., E-mail: bkbarick@gmail.com, E-mail: subho-dh@yahoo.co.in; Dhar, S., E-mail: bkbarick@gmail.com, E-mail: subho-dh@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Mumbai-400076 (India); Rodríguez-Fernández, Carlos; Cantarero, Andres [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, PO Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    Growth of InN nanowires have been carried out on quartz substrates at different temperatures by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) technique using different thicknesses of Au catalyst layer. It has been found that a narrow window of Au layer thickness and growth temperature leads to multi-nucleation, in which each site acts as the origin of several nanowires. In this multi-nucleation regime, several tens of micrometer long wires with diameter as small as 20 nm are found to grow along [112{sup -}0] direction (a-plane) to form a dense network. Structural and electronic properties of these wires are studied. As grown nanowires show degenerate n-type behavior. Furthermore, x-ray photoemission study reveals an accumulation of electrons on the surface of these nanowires. Interestingly, the wire network shows persistence of photoconductivity for several hours after switching off the photoexcitation.

  7. Growth of high-quality hexagonal InN on 3C-SiC (001) by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaguchi, Hiroyuki; Hijikata, Yasuto; Yoshida, Sadafumi; Kitamura, Yoshihiro; Nishida, Kenji; Iwahashi, Yohei

    2005-01-01

    We have grown hexagonal InN (h-InN) films on 3C-SiC (001) substrates by RF-N 2 plasma molecular beam epitaxy taking account of small lattice mismatch between h-InN (10-10) and 3C-SiC (110). It was found from X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements that h-InN grows with h-InN (0001) vertical stroke vertical stroke 3C-SiC (001) and h-InN (1-100) vertical stroke vertical stroke 3C-SiC (110). XRD measurements also revealed that the h-InN epitaxial layers grown on 3C-SiC (001) are composed of single domain. Strong and sharp photoluminescence from the h-InN was clearly observed at around 0.69 eV. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Understanding and optimization of InN and high indium containing InGaN alloys by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuna, Oecal

    2013-07-18

    Among the III-nitride semiconductors (Ga,Al,In)N, InN is the most attractive one due to having the narrowest bandgap of 0.64 eV. The revision in the bandgap of InN makes the InGaN more important since one can cover the whole solar spectrum by only changing In composition in an InGaN layer. The comparison of quality of InN and InGaN layers grown using a metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) methods indicate that growth with MOCVD is the more challenging, again due to the high dissociation temperature of NH{sub 3} relative to the low decomposition temperature of InN (560-570 C). However, there is significant interest in developing an MOCVD process for InN and InGaN growth since MOCVD technology is the technology currently in use for commercial fabrication of group III nitride thin films. This thesis is therefore focused on a study of MOCVD growth of n- and p-type InN and In-rich InGaN films with the goal of providing new information on the influence of growth conditions on the film properties. Initially, a detailed investigation of MOCVD of InN is given. It is shown that MOCVD growth parameters (growth temperature and V/III ratio) have impacts on the layer properties such as In droplet formation on the surface as well as on its electrical and optical properties. PAS is employed for point defect analyzation. It is shown that In vacancies isolated by nitrogen vacancies are the dominant vacancy-type positron traps in InN. A decrease in the N vacancy concentration in InN is observed as a result of the growth temperature increase from 500 to 550 C. This is an indication of a reduction of N vacancy concentration by enhancing NH{sub 3} dissociation at high growth temperature. Results obtained from optical techniques (Raman and PL) are used to estimate the free carrier concentrations in InN. Electrical characterizations are also carried out using Hall measurements. Carrier concentration values obtained by these three techniques

  9. Determination of the Mg occupation site in MOCVD- and MBE-grown Mg-doped InN using X-ray absorption fine-structure measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, Takao; Uemura, Shigeaki; Kudo, Yoshihiro [Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa (Japan); Kitajima, Yoshinori [Photon Factory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yamamoto, Akio [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Muto, Daisuke; Nanishi, Yasushi [Department of Photonics, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    We analyzed the atomic structure around Mg atoms in MOCVD- and MBE-grown Mg-doped InN using Mg K-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) measurements. Our experimental data closely fit to the simulated data in which Mg atoms occupy the substitutional sites of In atoms. From this result, we conclude that Mg atoms essentially occupy not N atoms sites but In atoms sites, meaning that Mg atoms can act as acceptors in InN. We believe that observations of p-type conductivity are prevented by problems such as carrier compensation and electron accumulation at the surface. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. High-quality InN films on MgO (100) substrates: The key role of 30° in-plane rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compeán García, V. D.; López Luna, E.; Rodríguez, A. G.; Vidal, M. A. [Coordinación para la Innovación y Aplicación de la Ciencia y Tecnología (CIACyT), Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí (UASLP), Álvaro Obregón 64, 78000 San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Orozco Hinostroza, I. E. [Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, Camino a la Presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, 78216 San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Escobosa Echavarría, A. [Electric Engineering Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-05-12

    High crystalline layers of InN were grown on MgO(100) substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. Good quality films were obtained by means of an in-plane rotation process induced by the annealing of an InN buffer layer to minimize the misfit between InN and MgO. In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction showed linear streaky patterns along the [011{sup ¯}0] azimuth and a superimposed diffraction along the [112{sup ¯}0] azimuth, which correspond to a 30° α-InN film rotation. This rotation reduces the mismatch at the MgO/InN interface from 19.5% to less than 3.5%, increasing the structural quality, which was analyzed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Only the (0002) c plane diffraction of α-InN was observed and was centered at 2θ = 31.4°. Raman spectroscopy showed two modes corresponding to the hexagonal phase: E1(LO) at 591 cm{sup −1} and E2(high) at 488 cm{sup −1}. Hall effect measurements showed a carrier density of 9 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} and an electron Hall mobility of 340 cm{sup 2}/(V s) for a film thickness of 140 nm.

  11. In-situ cyclic pulse annealing of InN on AlN/Si during IR-lamp-heated MBE growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Akira; Bungi, Yu; Araki, Tsutomu; Nanishi, Yasushi; Mori, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Harima, Hiroshi

    2009-05-01

    To improve crystal quality of InN, an in-situ cyclic rapid pulse annealing during growth was carried out using infrared-lamp-heated molecular beam epitaxy. A cycle of 4 min growth of InN at 400 °C and 3 s pulse annealing at a higher temperature was repeated 15 times on AlN on Si substrate. Annealing temperatures were 550, 590, 620, and 660 °C. The back of Si was directly heated by lamp irradiation through a quartz rod. A total InN film thickness was about 200 nm. With increasing annealing temperature up to 620 °C, crystal grain size by scanning electron microscope showed a tendency to increase, while widths of X-ray diffraction rocking curve of (0 0 0 2) reflection and E 2 (high) mode peak of Raman scattering spectra decreased. A peak of In (1 0 1) appeared in X-ray diffraction by annealing higher than 590 °C, and In droplets were found on the surface by annealing at 660 °C.

  12. Strong band edge luminescence from InN films grown on Si substrates by electron cyclotron resonance-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yodo, Tokuo; Yona, Hiroaki; Ando, Hironori; Nosei, Daiki; Harada, Yoshiyuki

    2002-01-01

    We observed strong band edge luminescence at 8.5-200 K from 200-880 nm thick InN films grown on 10 nm thick InN buffer layers on Si(001) and Si(111) substrates by electron cyclotron resonance-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The InN film on the Si(001) substrate exhibited strong band edge photoluminescence (PL) emission at 1.814 eV at 8.5 K, tentatively assigned as donor to acceptor pair [DAP (α-InN)] emission from wurtzite-InN (α-InN) crystal grains, while those on Si(111) showed other stronger band edge PL emissions at 1.880, 2.081 and 2.156 eV, tentatively assigned as donor bound exciton [D 0 X(α-InN)] from α-InN grains, DAP (β-InN) and D 0 X (β-InN) emissions from zinc blende-InN (β-InN) grains, respectively

  13. High-quality InN films on MgO (100) substrates: The key role of 30° in-plane rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compeán García, V. D.; López Luna, E.; Rodríguez, A. G.; Vidal, M. A.; Orozco Hinostroza, I. E.; Escobosa Echavarría, A.

    2014-01-01

    High crystalline layers of InN were grown on MgO(100) substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. Good quality films were obtained by means of an in-plane rotation process induced by the annealing of an InN buffer layer to minimize the misfit between InN and MgO. In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction showed linear streaky patterns along the [011 ¯ 0] azimuth and a superimposed diffraction along the [112 ¯ 0] azimuth, which correspond to a 30° α-InN film rotation. This rotation reduces the mismatch at the MgO/InN interface from 19.5% to less than 3.5%, increasing the structural quality, which was analyzed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Only the (0002) c plane diffraction of α-InN was observed and was centered at 2θ = 31.4°. Raman spectroscopy showed two modes corresponding to the hexagonal phase: E1(LO) at 591 cm −1 and E2(high) at 488 cm −1 . Hall effect measurements showed a carrier density of 9 × 10 18  cm −3 and an electron Hall mobility of 340 cm 2 /(V s) for a film thickness of 140 nm

  14. Enhanced light scattering of the forbidden longitudinal optical phonon mode studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy on single InN nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer-Nolte, E O; Stoica, T; Gotschke, T; Limbach, F A; Gruetzmacher, D; Calarco, R; Sutter, E; Sutter, P

    2010-01-01

    In the literature, there are controversies on the interpretation of the appearance in InN Raman spectra of a strong scattering peak in the energy region of the unscreened longitudinal optical (LO) phonons, although a shift caused by the phonon-plasmon interaction is expected for the high conductance observed in this material. Most measurements on light scattering are performed on ensembles of InN nanowires (NWs). However, it is important to investigate the behavior of individual nanowires and here we report on micro-Raman measurements on single nanowires. When changing the polarization direction of the incident light from parallel to perpendicular to the wire, the expected reduction of the Raman scattering was observed for transversal optical (TO) and E 2 phonon scattering modes, while a strong symmetry-forbidden LO mode was observed independently on the laser polarization direction. Single Mg- and Si-doped crystalline InN nanowires were also investigated. Magnesium doping results in a sharpening of the Raman peaks, while silicon doping leads to an asymmetric broadening of the LO peak. The results can be explained based on the influence of the high electron concentration with a strong contribution of the surface accumulation layer and the associated internal electric field.

  15. Enhanced Light Scattering of the Forbidden longitudinal Optical Phonon Mode Studied by Micro-Raman Spectroscopy on Single InN nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, E.; Schafer-Nolte, E.O.; Stoica, T.; Gotschke, T.; Limbach, F.A.; Sutter, P.; Grutzmacher, D.; Calarco, R.

    2010-01-01

    In the literature, there are controversies on the interpretation of the appearance in InN Raman spectra of a strong scattering peak in the energy region of the unscreened longitudinal optical (LO) phonons, although a shift caused by the phonon-plasmon interaction is expected for the high conductance observed in this material. Most measurements on light scattering are performed on ensembles of InN nanowires (NWs). However, it is important to investigate the behavior of individual nanowires and here we report on micro-Raman measurements on single nanowires. When changing the polarization direction of the incident light from parallel to perpendicular to the wire, the expected reduction of the Raman scattering was observed for transversal optical (TO) and E2 phonon scattering modes, while a strong symmetry-forbidden LO mode was observed independently on the laser polarization direction. Single Mg- and Si-doped crystalline InN nanowires were also investigated. Magnesium doping results in a sharpening of the Raman peaks, while silicon doping leads to an asymmetric broadening of the LO peak. The results can be explained based on the influence of the high electron concentration with a strong contribution of the surface accumulation layer and the associated internal electric field.

  16. Enhanced light scattering of the forbidden longitudinal optical phonon mode studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy on single InN nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer-Nolte, E O; Stoica, T; Gotschke, T; Limbach, F A; Sutter, E; Sutter, P; Grützmacher, D; Calarco, R

    2010-08-06

    In the literature, there are controversies on the interpretation of the appearance in InN Raman spectra of a strong scattering peak in the energy region of the unscreened longitudinal optical (LO) phonons, although a shift caused by the phonon-plasmon interaction is expected for the high conductance observed in this material. Most measurements on light scattering are performed on ensembles of InN nanowires (NWs). However, it is important to investigate the behavior of individual nanowires and here we report on micro-Raman measurements on single nanowires. When changing the polarization direction of the incident light from parallel to perpendicular to the wire, the expected reduction of the Raman scattering was observed for transversal optical (TO) and E(2) phonon scattering modes, while a strong symmetry-forbidden LO mode was observed independently on the laser polarization direction. Single Mg- and Si-doped crystalline InN nanowires were also investigated. Magnesium doping results in a sharpening of the Raman peaks, while silicon doping leads to an asymmetric broadening of the LO peak. The results can be explained based on the influence of the high electron concentration with a strong contribution of the surface accumulation layer and the associated internal electric field.

  17. An Overview of the Geological and Geotechnical Aspects of the New Railway Line in the Lower Inn Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Stefan; Poscher, Gerhard; Sedlacek, Christoph

    The new railway line in the lower Inn-valley is part of the Brenner railway axis from Munich to Verona (feeder north). The first section between the villages of Kundl and Radfeld, west of Wörgl, and the village of Baumkirchen, east of Innsbruck, will become one of the biggest infrastructure projects ever built in Austria, with a length of approx. 43 km and an underground portion of approx. 80%. The article gives an overview of the various geologic formations - hard rock sections in the valley slopes, different water-saturated gravel and sand formations in the valley floor and geotechnically difficult conditions in sediments of Quaternary terraces. It also describes the methodology of the soil reconnaissance using groundwater models for hydrogeologic estimations, core drillings for evaluating geologic models and describes the experiences gained from the five approx. 7.5 km long reconnaissance tunnels for geotechnical and hydrogeological testing. The results of the soil reconnaissance were used to plan different construction methods, such as excavation in soft rock under a jet grouting roof and compressed-air, as well as mechanised shield with fluid support.

  18. Validation of a simple distributed sediment delivery approach in selected sub-basins of the River Inn catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lucas; Kittlaus, Steffen; Scherer, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    For large areas without highly detailed data the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is widely used to quantify soil loss. The problem though is usually the quantification of actual sediment influx into the rivers. As the USLE provides long-term mean soil loss rates, it is often combined with spatially lumped models to estimate the sediment delivery ratio (SDR). But it gets difficult with spatially lumped approaches in large catchment areas where the geographical properties have a wide variance. In this study we developed a simple but spatially distributed approach to quantify the sediment delivery ratio by considering the characteristics of the flow paths in the catchments. The sediment delivery ratio was determined using an empirical approach considering the slope, morphology and land use properties along the flow path as an estimation of travel time of the eroded particles. The model was tested against suspended solids measurements in selected sub-basins of the River Inn catchment area in Germany and Austria, ranging from the high alpine south to the Molasse basin in the northern part.

  19. Real-time growth study of plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy of InN films by synchrotron x-ray methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nepal, Neeraj [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375; Anderson, Virginia R. [American Society for Engineering Education, 1818 N Street NW, Washington, DC 20036; Johnson, Scooter D. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375; Downey, Brian P. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375; Meyer, David J. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375; DeMasi, Alexander [Physics Department, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215; Robinson, Zachary R. [Department of Physics, SUNY College at Brockport, 350 New Campus Dr, Brockport, New York 14420; Ludwig, Karl F. [Physics Department, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215; Eddy, Charles R. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375

    2017-03-13

    The temporal evolution of high quality indium nitride (InN) growth by plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxy (ALEp) on a-plane sapphire at 200 and 248 °C was probed by synchrotron x-ray methods. The growth was carried out in a thin film growth facility installed at beamline X21 of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory and at beamline G3 of the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Cornell University. Measurements of grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) during the initial cycles of growth revealed a broadening and scattering near the diffuse specular rod and the development of scattering intensities due to half unit cell thick nucleation islands in the Yoneda wing with correlation length scale of 7.1 and 8.2 nm, at growth temperatures (Tg) of 200 and 248 °C, respectively. At about 1.1 nm (two unit cells) of growth thickness nucleation islands coarsen, grow, and the intensity of correlated scattering peak increased at the correlation length scale of 8.0 and 8.7 nm for Tg = 200 and 248 °C, respectively. The correlated peaks at both growth temperatures can be fitted with a single peak Lorentzian function, which support single mode growth. Post-growth in situ x-ray reflectivity measurements indicate a growth rate of ~0.36 Å/cycle consistent with the growth rate previously reported for self-limited InN growth in a commercial ALEp reactor. Consistent with the in situ GISAXS study, ex situ atomic force microscopy power spectral density measurements also indicate single mode growth. Electrical characterization of the resulting film revealed an electron mobility of 50 cm2/V s for a 5.6 nm thick InN film on a-plane sapphire, which is higher than the previously reported mobility of much thicker InN films grown at higher temperature by molecular beam epitaxy directly on sapphire. These early results indicated that in situ synchrotron x-ray study of the epitaxial growth kinetics of InN films is a very powerful method to

  20. Influences of residual oxygen impurities, cubic indium oxide grains and indium oxy-nitride alloy grains in hexagonal InN crystalline films grown on Si(111) substrates by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yodo, T.; Nakamura, T.; Kouyama, T.; Harada, Y.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the influences of residual oxygen (O) impurities, cubic indium oxide (β-In 2 O 3 ) grains and indium oxy-nitride (InON) alloy grains in 200 nm-thick hexagonal (α)-InN crystalline films grown on Si(111) substrates by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Although β-In 2 O 3 grains with wide band-gap energy were formed in In film by N 2 annealing, they were not easily formed in N 2 -annealed InN films. Even if they were not detected in N 2 -annealed InN films, the as-grown films still contained residual O impurities with concentrations of less than 0.5% ([O]≤0.5%). Although [O]∝1% could be estimated by investigating In 2 O 3 grains formed in N 2 -annealed InN films, [O]≤0.5% could not be measured by it. However, we found that they can be qualitatively measured by investigating In 2 O 3 grains formed by H 2 annealing with higher reactivity with InN and O 2 , using X-ray diffraction and PL spectroscopy. In this paper, we discuss the formation mechanism of InON alloy grains in InN films. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. A new perspective on soil erosion: exploring a thermodynamic approach in a small area of the River Inn catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lucas; Scherer, Ulrike; Zehe, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion modeling has always struggled with compensating for the difference in time and spatial scale between model, data and the actual processes involved. This is especially the case with non-event based long-term models based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), yet USLE based soil erosion models are among the most common and widely used for they have rather low data requirements and can be applied to large areas. But the majority of mass from soil erosion is eroded within short periods of times during heavy rain events, often within minutes or hours. Advancements of the USLE (eg. the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation, MUSLE) allow for a daily time step, but still apply the same empirical methods derived from the USLE. And to improve the actual quantification of sediment input into rivers soil erosion models are often combined with a Sediment Delivery Ratio (SDR) to get results within the range of measurements. This is still a viable approach for many applications, yet it leaves much to be desired in terms of understanding and reproducing the processes behind soil erosion and sediment input into rivers. That's why, instead of refining and retuning the existing methods, we explore a more comprehensive, physically consistent description on soil erosion. The idea is to describe soil erosion as a dissipative process (Kleidon et al., 2013) and test it in a small sub-basin of the River Inn catchment area in the pre-Alpine foothills. We then compare the results to sediment load measurements from the sub-basin and discuss the advantages and issues with the application of such an approach.

  2. Influence of defects on the absorption edge of InN thin films: The band gap value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, J. S.; Danylyuk, Y. V.; Haddad, D.; Naik, V. M.; Naik, R.; Auner, G. W.

    2007-07-01

    We investigate the optical-absorption spectra of InN thin films whose electron density varies from ˜1017tõ1021cm-3 . The low-density films are grown by molecular-beam-epitaxy deposition while highly degenerate films are grown by plasma-source molecular-beam epitaxy. The optical-absorption edge is found to increase from 0.61to1.90eV as the carrier density of the films is increased from low to high density. Since films are polycrystalline and contain various types of defects, we discuss the band gap values by studying the influence of electron degeneracy, electron-electron, electron-ionized impurities, and electron-LO-phonon interaction self-energies on the spectral absorption coefficients of these films. The quasiparticle self-energies of the valence and conduction bands are calculated using dielectric screening within the random-phase approximation. Using one-particle Green’s function analysis, we self-consistently determine the chemical potential for films by coupling equations for the chemical potential and the single-particle scattering rate calculated within the effective-mass approximation for the electron scatterings from ionized impurities and LO phonons. By subtracting the influence of self-energies and chemical potential from the optical-absorption edge energy, we estimate the intrinsic band gap values for the films. We also determine the variations in the calculated band gap values due to the variations in the electron effective mass and static dielectric constant. For the lowest-density film, the estimated band gap energy is ˜0.59eV , while for the highest-density film, it varies from ˜0.60tõ0.68eV depending on the values of electron effective mass and dielectric constant.

  3. High energy ion irradiated III-N semiconductors (AlN, GaN, InN): study of point defect and extended defect creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sall, Mamour

    2013-01-01

    Nitride semiconductors III N (AlN, GaN, InN) have interesting properties for micro-and opto-electronic applications. In use, they may be subjected to different types of radiation in a wide range of energy. In AlN, initially considered insensitive to electronic excitations (Se), we have demonstrated a novel type of synergy between Se and nuclear collisions (Sn) for the creation of defects absorbing at 4.7 eV. In addition, another effect of Se is highlighted in AlN: climb of screw dislocations under the influence of Se, at high fluence. In GaN, two mechanisms can explain the creation of defects absorbing at 2.8 eV: a synergy between Se and Sn, or a creation only due to Sn but with a strong effect of the size of displacement cascades. The study, by TEM, of the effects of Se in the three materials, exhibits behaviors highly dependent on the material while they all belong to the same family with the same atomic structure. Under monoatomic ion irradiations (velocity between 0.4 and 5 MeV/u), while discontinuous tracks are observed in GaN and InN, no track is observed in AlN with the highest electronic stopping power (33 keV/nm). Only fullerene clusters produce tracks in AlN. The inelastic thermal spike model was used to calculate the energies required to produce track in AlN, GaN and InN, they are 4.2 eV/atom, 1.5 eV/atom and 0.8 eV/atom, respectively. This sensitivity difference according to Se, also occurs at high fluence. (author)

  4. Sensibilidad postratamiento de blanquamiento dental con la solución de McInnes en pacientes con fluorosis dental grado TF4

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Balseca, Jenny Carolina

    2017-01-01

    The dental sensibility is one of the problems caused by multiple factors, one of them is the posttreatment sensibility to the dental clearance, nevertheless it is the most used method at present in the persons who has dental fluorosis with the purpose of improving the color of the tooth and the esthetics, in the present investigation there was studied the behavior of the application of solution of McInnes in this type of teeth by relation to the sensibility Objective: To evaluate the degree o...

  5. Proposal and achievement of novel structure InN/GaN multiple quantum wells consisting of 1 ML and fractional monolayer InN wells inserted in GaN matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, A.; Che, S. B.; Yamaguchi, W.; Saito, H.; Wang, X. Q.; Ishitani, Y.; Hwang, E. S.

    2007-01-01

    The authors propose and demonstrate the fabrication of InN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) consisting of 1 ML and fractional monolayer InN well insertion in GaN matrix under In-polarity growth regime. Since the critical thickness of InN epitaxy on GaN is about 1 ML and the growth temperature for 1 ML InN insertion can be remarkably higher, the proposed MQW structure can avoid/reduce generation of misfit dislocation, resulting in higher quality MQW-structure nature in principle than former InN-based MQWs. The proposed InN/GaN MQWs are potentially applicable to room temperature operating excitonic devices working in short-wavelength visible colors

  6. Valence-band discontinuities of wurtzite GaN, AlN, and InN heterojunctions measured by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Botchkarev, A.; Rockett, A.; Morkoc, H.

    1996-01-01

    The valence-band discontinuities at various wurtzite GaN, AlN, and InN heterojunctions were measured by means of x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. A significant forward endash backward asymmetry was observed in the InN/GaN endash GaN/InN and InN/AlN endash AlN/InN heterojunctions. The asymmetry was understood as a piezoelectric strain effect. We report the valence band discontinuities for InN/GaN=1.05±0.25 eV, GaN/AlN=0.70±0.24 eV, and InN/AlN=1.81±0.20 eV, all in the standard type I lineup. These values obey transitivity to within the experimental accuracy. Tables of photoemission core level binding energies are reported for wurtzite GaN, AlN, and InN. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. Annual Review of BPA-Funded Projects in Natural and Artificial Propagation of Salmonids, March 27-29, 1985, Holiday Inn Airport, Portland, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-04-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Division of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) hosted a meeting for contractors to present the results of fiscal year 1984 research conducted to implement the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program. The meeting focused on those projects specifically related to natural and artificial propagation of salmonids. The presentations were held at the Holiday Inn Airport in Portland, Oregon, on March 27-29, 1985. This document contains abstracts of the presentations from that meeting. Section 1 contains abstracts on artificial propagation, fish health, and downstream migration, and Section 2 contains abstracts on natural propagation and habitat improvement. The abstracts are indexed by BPA Project Number and by Fish and Wildlife Program Measure. The registered attendees at the meeting are listed alphabetically in Appendix A and by affiliation in Appendix B.

  8. Structural and electronic properties of InN epitaxial layer grown on c-plane sapphire by chemical vapor deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barick, Barun Kumar, E-mail: bkbarick@gmail.com; Prasad, Nivedita; Saroj, Rajendra Kumar; Dhar, Subhabrata [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-09-15

    Growth of InN epilayers on c-plane sapphire substrate by chemical vapor deposition technique using pure indium metal and ammonia as precursors has been systematically explored. It has been found that [0001] oriented indium nitride epitaxial layers with smooth surface morphology can be grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by optimizing the growth conditions. Bandgap of the film is observed to be Burstein–Moss shifted likely to be due to high background electron concentration. It has been found that the concentration of this unintentional doping decreases with the increase in the growth temperature and the ammonia flux. Epitaxial quality on the other hand deteriorates as the growth temperature increases. Moreover, the morphology of the deposited layer has been found to change from flat top islands to faceted mounds as the flow rate of ammonia increases. This phenomenon is expected to be related to the difference in surface termination character at low and high ammonia flow rates.

  9. Electrical transport in GaN and InN nanowires; Elektrischer Transport in GaN- und InN-Nanodraehten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Thomas Fabian

    2008-12-19

    This thesis discusses the analysis of the electrical transport in GaN and InN nanowires at room temperature and deep temperatures. From those measurements two different transport models for those two in matter of the band banding completely different materials have been found. In the investigation of the GaN nanowires the main focus was the electrical transport in dependence of the diameter and the n-doping. With the use of IV-measurements on those MBE grown nanowires with different diameters at dark and under UV illumination as well as the decay of the persistent photocurrent, it was possible to find an for GaN untypical behaviour. The electrical transport in those wires is extremely diameter dependent. The dark current shows space charged limited current. With the help of those cognitions a diameter dependent transport model could be found. The transport phenomena in those wires is based on the diameter depending band bending at the edge of the wires caused by the Fermi level pinning inside the forbidden band. This model can be fit to the data with the three parameter doping, fermi level pinning and wire diameter. On the base of those effects a method to determine the doping concentration inside those wires without field effect measurements and contact resistance has been developed. The defect structure inside those wires has been analysed with the help of spectral photoluminescence measurements. Here several defect bands have been found and it was possible with help of several contacts on one single wire to determine different defect regions along the wire and to explain them by the lattice mismatch between nanowire and substrate. Further temperature depending measurements and investigations on Schottky contacted wires as well as on GaN wires with AlN tunnel structures complete the work on GaN. The electrical characterisation on a large scale of undoped and doped InN nanowires shows linear growth of the dark current with the diameter up to wires of around 100 nm

  10. Study of Stark Effect in n-doped 1.55 μm InN0.92yP1-1.92yBiy/InP MQWs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilel, C.; Chakir, K.; Rebey, A.; Alrowaili, Z. A.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of an applied electric field on electronic band structure and optical absorption properties of n-doped InN0.92y P1-1.92y Bi y /InP multiple quantum wells (MQWs) was theoretically studied using a self-consistent calculation combined with the 16-band anti-crossing model. The incorporation of N and Bi atoms into an InP host matrix leads to rapid reduction of the band gap energy covering a large infrared range. The optimization of the well parameters, such as the well/barrier widths, N/Bi compositions and doping density, allowed us to obtain InN0.92y P1-1.92y Bi y /InP MQWs operating at the wavelength 1.55 μm. Application of the electric field causes a red-shift of the fundamental transition energy T 1 accompanied by a significant change in the spatial distribution of confined electron density. The Stark effect on the absorption coefficient of n-doped InN0.92y P1-1.92y Bi y /InP MQWs was investigated. The Bi composition of these MQWs was adjusted for each electric field value in order to maintain the wavelength emission at 1.55 μm.

  11. Development of ZnO:Al-based transparent contacts deposited at low-temperature by RF-sputtering on InN layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, S. [Departamento de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Naranjo, F.B.; Valdueza-Felip, S. [Grupo de Ingenieria Fotonica, Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala Campus Universitario, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Abril, O. de [ISOM and Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politenica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-03-15

    Nitride semiconductors (Al,Ga,In)N attain material properties that make them suitable for photovoltaic and optoelectronics devices to be used in hard environments. These properties include an energy gap continuously tuneable within the energy range of the solar spectrum, a high radiation resistance and thermal stability. The developing of efficient devices requires contacts with low resistivity and high transmittance in visible region. ZnO:Al (AZO) emerges as a feasible candidate for transparent contact to nitride semiconductors, taking advantage of its low resistivity, high transparency in visible wavelengths and a very low lattice mismatch with respect to nitride semiconductors. This work presents a study of the applications of AZO films deposited at low-temperature by RF magnetron sputtering as transparent contact for InN layers. The optimization of AZO conditions deposition lead to the obtaining of contacts which shows an ohmic behaviour for the as-deposited layer, regardless the thickness of the ZnO:Al contact layer. Specific contact resistances of 1.6 {omega}.cm{sup 2} were achieved for the contact with 90 nm thick ZnO:Al layer without any post-deposition treatment (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Design and analysis of InN - In0.25Ga0.75N single quantum well laser for short distance communication wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polash, Md. Mobarak Hossain; Alam, M. Shah; Biswas, Saumya

    2018-03-01

    A single quantum well semiconductor laser based on wurtzite-nitride is designed and analyzed for short distance communication wavelength (at around 1300 nm). The laser structure has 12 Å well layer of InN, 15 Å barrier layer of In0.25Ga0.75N, and 54 Å separate confinement heterostructure layer of GaN. To calculate the electronic characteristics of the structure, a self-consistent method is used where Hamiltonian with effective mass approximation is solved for conduction band while six-bands Hamiltonian matrix with k · p formalism including the polarization effect, valence-band mixing effect, and strain effect is solved for valence band. The interband optical transition elements, optical gain, differential gain, radiative current density, spontaneous emission rate, and threshold characteristics have been calculated. The wave function overlap integral is found to be 45.93% for TE-polarized structure. Also, the spontaneous emission rate is found to be 6.57 × 1027 s - 1 cm - 3 eV - 1 at 1288.21 nm with the carrier density of 5 × 1019 cm - 3. Furthermore, the radiative current density and the radiative recombination rate are found to be 121.92 A cm - 2 and 6.35 × 1027 s - 1 cm - 3, respectively, while the TE-polarized optical gain of the structure is 3872.1 cm - 1 at 1301.7 nm.

  13. Clemson Apparel Research Demonstration Contract. Years 6 and 7

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kernodle, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this contract is to develop and demonstrate modern technologies and management practices that optimize the performance of the Department of Defense's Clothing and Textiles (C&T) supply chain...

  14. Clemson Apparel Research. Years 4 and 5 Demonstration Contract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kernodle, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this contract is to develop and demonstrate modern technologies and management practices that optimize the performance of the Department of Defense's Clothing and Textile's supply chain...

  15. Osoba niepełnosprawna - inne rodzicielstwo, inne braterstwo?

    OpenAIRE

    Stelter, Żaneta

    2012-01-01

    Urodzenie dziecka niepełnosprawnego, to wydarzenie, które ma wpływ na jakość życia rodziny. W artykule przedstawiono w jaki sposób niepełnosprawność dziecka określa sytuację życiową pozostałych członków rodziny. Opisano specyfikę realizacji ról rodzicielskich w rodzinie z dzieckiem niepełnosprawnym oraz przeanalizowano sytuacje psychospołeczną zdrowego rodzeństwa.

  16. International Atomic Energy Agency specialists meeting on experience in ageing, maintenance, and modernization of instrumentation and control systems for improving nuclear power plant availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the Specialist's Meeting on Experience in Aging, Maintenance and Modernization of Instrumentation and Control Systems for Improving Nuclear Power Plant Availability that was held at the Ramada Inn in Rockville, Maryland on May 5--7, 1993. The Meeting was presented in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the International Atomic Energy Agency. There were approximately 65 participants from 13 countries at the Meeting. Individual reports have been cataloged separately

  17. Det er fullt her inne!

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Simen Formo

    2018-01-01

    Program og foto. Teaterforestilling vist 12., 13., 14., 16.-18. april 2018 på Seilduken Scene 6 Bacheloroppgave i regi, fra Teaterhøgskolen, med regi av Simen F.H.. Et avgangsprosjekt, med skuespillerne Ina Svenningdal, Sindre Hansen, Sarah Francesca Brænne, Brede Fristad, William Greni Arnø, Lars Halvor Andreassen. Bandet Elon Musk deltar, og kleskolleksjon lanseres av Alva Brosten / Hijacked. Foto: S. Hutton?

  18. India Basin 900 Innes Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower Walnut Creek Restoration Project will restore and enhance coastal wetlands along southern shoreline of Suisun Bay from Suisun Bay upstream along Walnut Creek, improving habitat quality, diversity, and connectivity along three miles of creek channel.

  19. Low Temperature Growth of In2O3and InN Nanocrystals on Si(111 via Chemical Vapour Deposition Based on the Sublimation of NH4Cl in In

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsokkou Demetra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Indium oxide (In2O3 nanocrystals (NCs have been obtained via atmospheric pressure, chemical vapour deposition (APCVD on Si(111 via the direct oxidation of In with Ar:10% O2at 1000 °C but also at temperatures as low as 500 °C by the sublimation of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl which is incorporated into the In under a gas flow of nitrogen (N2. Similarly InN NCs have also been obtained using sublimation of NH4Cl in a gas flow of NH3. During oxidation of In under a flow of O2the transfer of In into the gas stream is inhibited by the formation of In2O3around the In powder which breaks up only at high temperatures, i.e.T > 900 °C, thereby releasing In into the gas stream which can then react with O2leading to a high yield formation of isolated 500 nm In2O3octahedrons but also chains of these nanostructures. No such NCs were obtained by direct oxidation forT G < 900 °C. The incorporation of NH4Cl in the In leads to the sublimation of NH4Cl into NH3and HCl at around 338 °C which in turn produces an efficient dispersion and transfer of the whole In into the gas stream of N2where it reacts with HCl forming primarily InCl. The latter adsorbs onto the Si(111 where it reacts with H2O and O2leading to the formation of In2O3nanopyramids on Si(111. The rest of the InCl is carried downstream, where it solidifies at lower temperatures, and rapidly breaks down into metallic In upon exposure to H2O in the air. Upon carrying out the reaction of In with NH4Cl at 600 °C under NH3as opposed to N2, we obtain InN nanoparticles on Si(111 with an average diameter of 300 nm.

  20. Reproductive cycles of Mugil cephalus, Liza ramada and Liza aurata (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartulović, V; Dulčić, J; Matić-Skoko, S; Glamuzina, B

    2011-06-01

    The reproductive cycles of three mullet species from the Eastern Adriatic coast were described using several biological parameters (gonado-somatic index, oocyte diameter and sex ratio) to improve knowledge about their reproduction. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. International Atomic Energy Agency specialists meeting on experience in ageing, maintenance, and modernization of instrumentation and control systems for improving nuclear power plant availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the Specialist`s Meeting on Experience in Aging, Maintenance and Modernization of Instrumentation and Control Systems for Improving Nuclear Power Plant Availability that was held at the Ramada Inn in Rockville, Maryland on May 5--7, 1993. The Meeting was presented in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the International Atomic Energy Agency. There were approximately 65 participants from 13 countries at the Meeting. Individual reports have been cataloged separately.

  2. Hotel Stouffer's Atlanta Inn. - Georgia (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heery, -

    1976-04-01

    Full Text Available On a large 4-storey base structure rises a long, rather narrow 27-story tower. The 37,000 m2 of the hotel are distributed in the following manner: 525 hotel rooms, special suites, convention hall, meeting rooms; three restaurants with different interior decorations; ball room; cafeterias, shops; swimming-pools; additional installations that correspond to this hotel category. A chapter of great importance in the construction of the hotel was the interior planning and design. Different colour schemes, special furniture and a most varied selection of decorative and functional elements have been used. The materials and design of the exterior have been chosen with utmost care, whereby a contrast, though not a clash, with the adjacent buildings has been achieved. The hotel is completed with a 1,000-car parking deck, situated across the street and connected with the hotel by means of an over Street bridge.Está constituido por una amplia base de cuatro plantas, sobre la que se eleva una alta y esbelta torre de 27 plantas. En sus 37.000 m2 de superficie total se distribuyen: 525 habitaciones para clientes, incluyendo suites de categorías distintas; gran salón de congresos y salas de juntas y reuniones; tres restaurantes con distintas ambientaciones; sala de baile; cafeterías, tiendas; piscinas; y toda una serie de servicios propios de un hotel de esta categoría. Un capítulo de gran importancia en la construcción del hotel fue la ambientación interior, conseguida con diferentes esquemas de color, mobiliario especial y los más variados elementos decorativos y funcionales. El exterior también fue muy cuidado, empleándose materiales y diseños que contrastan, sin desentonar, con los edificios vecinos. El hotel se completa con un aparcamiento cubierto, de 1.000 plazas, situado al otro lado de la calle, y al que se une mediante un puente elevado.

  3. TTP SR1-6-WT-31, Milestone C.3-2 Annual Report on Clemson/INEEL Melter Work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1999-10-20

    This work is performed in collaboration with RL37WT31-C and ID77WT31-B. During the first two years of radioactive operation of the DWPF process, several areas for improvement in melter design have been identified. The continuing scope of this task is to address performance limitations and deficiencies identified by the user. SRS will design and test several configurations of the melter pour spout and associated equipment to improve consistency of performance and recommend design improvements.

  4. TTP SR1-6-WT-31, Milestone C.3-2 Annual Report on Clemson/INEEL Melter Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    This work is performed in collaboration with RL37WT31-C and ID77WT31-B. During the first two years of radioactive operation of the DWPF process, several areas for improvement in melter design have been identified. The continuing scope of this task is to address performance limitations and deficiencies identified by the user. SRS will design and test several configurations of the melter pour spout and associated equipment to improve consistency of performance and recommend design improvements

  5. Preliminary Effects of Prescribed Burning and Thinning as Fuel Reduction Treatments on the Piedmont Soils of the Clemson Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor B. Shelburne; M. Forbes Boyle; Darren J. Lione; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2004-01-01

    This study is a component of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate (NFFS) Study which is an integrated national network of long-term interdisciplinary research to facilitate broad applicability of fuel impacts. This part of the NFFS study in the Piedmont of South Carolina studied three ways of reducing fuel loads (prescribed burning, thinning, and the two in combination...

  6. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Clemson University. Sector: Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  7. Pemilihan Akun Media Sosial INSTAGRAM oleh HOLIDAY INN Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng Jayanti Satyadewi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of information technology in the hospitality institute is very important to be adopted in order to improve the quality of service to prospective customers.  The purpose of this study was to determine the communication planning, through the process of share, optimize, manage, and engage in @holidayinnbandung Instagram. The research method is descriptive qualitative research methods and the foundation of the concept is The Circular Model of SOME. The results showed, the planning of communication via Instagram @holidayinnbandung is quite optimal, sharing process of Instagram selection motivated by the successful use of hash tags by international IHG. Optimizing the planning process starting from the promo to be made by optimizing the content is done by looking at the aspects of a photo and caption. Engagement process planning is done using the brand influencers and create content that is attractive to be able to entertain and interact with the followers.

  8. J. B. S. Haldane: the John Innes years

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SARAH WILMOT

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... ber of J. Ramsay MacDonald's new Economic Advisory. Council. Hall offered to ... were being left unfilled until the books could be balanced. The income available to ...... Harvard University Press, Cambridge,. Mass. Lawrence ...

  9. Lipodystrophy syndrome in HIV-infected children on HAART | Innes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipodystrophy syndrome (LD) is common in HIV-infected children, particularly those taking didanosine, stavudine or zidovudine. Lipo-atrophy in particular causes major stigmatisation and interferes with adherence. In addition, LD may have significant long-term health consequences, particularly cardiovascular. Since the ...

  10. Places in Time: The Inns and Outhouses of Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Rhetoric is often about "good guys" and "bad guys." Even more basically, it concerns who is in and who is out, what is included and what is excluded, who is placed inside and who outside a cultural community, a political movement, a professional organization. These ins and outs concern both the commonplaces of rhetoric and the rhetoric of …

  11. Energy conservation system for inns, hotels, and motels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.J.; Mendoza, L.; Sodaro, D.

    1982-02-16

    The present invention provides a system for reducing the unproductive consumption of energy by equipment primarily intended to be operated during the presence of a person or thing in the area of operation of the equipment. The system renders the equipment operable during the time a person or thing is present within the area of operation and for a short period of time immediately thereafter. Except for the short period of time immediately after the person or thing exits the area of operation, the system renders the equipment inoperable during the time the person or thing is absent from the area of operation. Maintaining the equipment operable during the short period of time after the person or thing exits the area of operation reduces deleterious recycling which would otherwise occur in the event the area of operation were reentered within the short period of time. The system comprises detecting means for providing a presencedetected signal when a person or thing is present within the area of operation and an absence-detected signal otherwise. The system also comprises delay means responsive to said detecting means for providing a delay signal for a short period of time after the detecting means starts providing the absence-detected signal. The detecting means and delay means are coupled to output means which provides an enabling signal when any of the presence-detected signal and the delay signal are present and a disabling signal otherwise.

  12. Do reactions to volcanic eruptions give insight into crisis management: An example from Icelandair Gefa viðbrögð við eldgosi innsýn í krísustjórnun: Dæmi frá Icelandair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regína Ásdísardóttir

    2013-06-01

    essarar greinar er að skoða hvort og hvernig raundæmi frá Icelandair, þar sem viðbrögð félagsins eru rakin þegar truflanir vegna gossins voru mestar, gefi innsýn í krísustjórnun. Um könnunarrannsókn er að ræða og tilgangurinn er að átta sig á ýmsum breytum og áhrifaþáttum krísustjórnunar og draga fram áhugaverðar spurningar til frekari skoðunar. Gerð er grein fyrir hugtökunum krísa og krísustjórnun, atburðarás og viðbrögð Icelandair eru rakin, og niðurstöður dregnar saman í svörum við rannsóknarspurningunum sem lagðar eru fram. Helstu niðurstöður eru í fyrsta lagi að skilgreina má ástandið sem skapaðist hjá Icelandair í kjölfar gossins sem krísuástand. Í öðru lagi að krísuteymi, upplýsingamiðlun og samstarf við hagsmunaaðila hafi verið veigamiklir þættir í viðbrögðum félagsins. Í þriðja lagi að viðbrögð Icelandair hafi vegna sérstöðu krísunnar verið byggð á reynslu og þekkingu félagsins og að framvinda athafna hafi verið um margt sjálfsprottin.

  13. 78 FR 55071 - PacifiCorp Energy; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ..., 2013, 9:00 a.m. (PST). Location: Ramada Medford, 2250 Biddle Road, Medford, OR 97504. Phone Number...). Location: Ramada Medford, 2250 Biddle Road, Medford, OR 97504. Phone Number: (541) 779-3141. Scoping...

  14. Re-evaluation of microscopic and integral cross-section data for important dosimetry reactions. Re-evaluation of the excitation functions for the 24Mg(n,p)24Na, 32S(n,p)32P, 60Ni(n,p)60m+gCo, 63Cu(n,2n)62Cu, 65Cu(n,2n)64Cu, 64Zn(n,p)64Cu, 115In(n,2n)114mIn, 127I(n,2n)126I, 197Au(n,2n)196Au and 199Hg(n,n')199mHg reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotarev, K.I.

    2008-08-01

    Re-evaluations of cross sections and their associated covariance matrices have been carried out for ten dosimetry reactions: - excitation functions for the 63 Cu(n,2n) 62 Cu, 65 Cu(n,2n) 64 Cu, 64 Zn(n,p) 64 Cu, 115 In(n,2n) 114m In and 199 Hg(n,n') 199m Hg reactions were re-evaluated over the neutron energy range from threshold to 20 MeV; - excitation functions for the 24 Mg(n,p) 24 Na, 32 S(n,p) 32 P and 60 Ni(n,p) 60m+g Co were reevaluated in the energy range from threshold to 21 MeV; - excitation functions for the 127 I(n,2n) 126 I and 197 Au(n,2n) 196 Au reactions were reevaluated in the energy range from threshold to 32 and 40 MeV, respectively. Benchmark calculations performed for 235 U thermal fission and 252 Cf spontaneous fission neutron spectra show that the integral cross sections derived from the newly evaluated excitation functions exhibit improved agreement with related experimental data when compared with the equivalent data from the IRDF-2002 library. (author)

  15. TTP SR1-6-WT-31, Milestone C.3-2 annual report on Clemson/INEEL melter work. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1999-12-17

    This work is performed in collaboration with RL37WT31-C and ID77WT31-B. During the first two years of radioactive operation of the DWPF process, several areas for improvement in melter design have been identified. The continuing scope of this task is to address performance limitations and deficiencies identified by the user. SRS will design and test several configurations of the melter pour spout and associated equipment to improve consistency of performance and recommend design improvements.

  16. TTP SR1-6-WT-31, Milestone C.3-2 annual report on Clemson/INEEL melter work. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    This work is performed in collaboration with RL37WT31-C and ID77WT31-B. During the first two years of radioactive operation of the DWPF process, several areas for improvement in melter design have been identified. The continuing scope of this task is to address performance limitations and deficiencies identified by the user. SRS will design and test several configurations of the melter pour spout and associated equipment to improve consistency of performance and recommend design improvements

  17. Post-impact fatigue of cross-plied, through-the-thickness reinforced carbon/epoxy composites. M.S. Thesis - Clemson Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdinak, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the post-impact fatigue response of integrally woven carbon/epoxy composites was conducted. Five different through-the-thickness (TTT) reinforcing fibers were used in an experimental textile process that produced an integrally woven (0/90/0/90/0/90/0/90/0)(sub T) ply layup with 21K AS4 carbon tow fiber. The resin was Hercules 3501-6, and the five TTT reinforcing fibers were Kevlar, Toray carbon, AS4 carbon, glass, and IM6 carbon. The purpose of this investigation was to study the post-impact fatigue response of these material systems and to identify the optimum TTT fiber. Samples were impacted with one half inch diameter aluminum balls with an average velocity of 543 ft/sec. Post-impact static compression and constant amplitude tension-compression fatigue tests were conducted. Fatigue tests were conducted with a loading ratio of R=-5, and frequency of 4 Hz. Damage growth was monitored using x-radiographic and sectioning techniques and by examining the stress-strain response (across the impact site) throughout the fatigue tests. The static compressive stress versus far-field strain response was nearly linear for all material groups. All the samples had a transverse shear failure mode. The average compressive modulus (from far-field strain) was about 10 Msi. The average post-impact static compressive strength was about 35.5 Ksi. The IM6 carbon sample had a strength of over 40 Ksi, more than 16 percent stronger than average. There was considerable scatter in the S-N data. However, the IM6 carbon samples clearly had the best fatigue response. The response of the other materials, while worse than IM6 carbon, could not be ranked definitively. The initial damage zones caused by the impact loading and damage growth from fatigue loading were similar for all five TTT reinforcing materials. The initial damage zones were circular and consisted of delaminations, matrix cracks and ply cracks. Post-impact fatigue loading caused delamination growth, ply cracking and fiber bundle failures, typically 45 deg from impact load direction. During the initial 97 percent of fatigue life, delaminations, ply cracks and fiber bundle failures primarily grew at and near the impact site. During the final 3 percent of life, damage grew rapidly transverse to the loading direction as a through-the-thickness transverse shear failure. The stress-strain response was typically linear during the initial 50 percent of life, and stiffness dropped about 20 percent during this period. During the next 47 percent of life, stiffness dropped about 34 percent, and the stress-strain response was no longer linear. The stiffness decreased about 23 percent during the final 3 percent of life. These trends were typical of all the materials tested. Therefore, by monitoring stiffness loss, fatigue failure could be accurately anticipated.

  18. Dgroup: DG01664 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available /INN) D06070 ... Tenecteplase (USAN/INN) ... D05412 ... Monteplase (INN); Monteplase (genetical recombination) (JAN...) ... D05410 ... Pamiteplase (INN); Pamiteplase (genetical recombination) (JAN) D0825...6 ... Nateplase (INN) D03695 ... Desmoteplase (USAN/INN) D04665 ... Lanoteplase (USAN/INN); Lanoteplase (genetical re...combination) (JAN) D09814 ... Silteplase (INN); Silteplase (genetical recombination) (JAN) D09823 ... Duteplase (INN); Duteplase (genetica... DG01664 DGroup Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) -teplase ... D02837 ... Alteplase (USP/INN); Alteplase (geneti

  19. The Children's Inn at NIH - Three Stories | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kristal is currently studying to become a certified school nurse. "I identify with others who must overcome adversity," ... with their own adversities. I love being a school nurse and helping children be successful in the school ...

  20. Structure and energetics of InN and GaN dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimová, Lucia; Tzeli, Demeter; Urban, Miroslav; Černušák, Ivan; Theodorakopoulos, Giannoula; Petsalakis, Ioannis D.

    2008-06-01

    Large-scale mapping of various dimers of indium nitride and gallium nitride in singlet and triplet electronic states is reported. Second-order perturbation theory with Møller-Plesset partitioning of the Hamiltonian (MP2) and coupled-cluster with single and double excitations corrected for the triple excitations (CCSD(T)) are used for the geometry determinations and evaluation of excitation and dissociation energies. For gallium and nitrogen we have used the singly augmented correlation-consistent triple-zeta basis set (aug-cc-pVTZ), for indium we have used the aug-cc-pVTZ-pseudopotential basis set. The dissociation energies are corrected for basis set superposition error (BBSE) including geometrical relaxation of the monomers. We compare and discuss the similarities and dissimilarities in the structural patterns and energetics of both groups of isomers, including the effect of the BSSE. Our computations show that there are not only different ground states for In 2N 2 and Ga 2N 2 but also different numbers of stable stationary points on their potential energy surface. We compare our results with the molecular data published so far for these systems.

  1. Structure and energetics of InN and GaN dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simova, Lucia; Tzeli, Demeter; Urban, Miroslav; Cernusak, Ivan; Theodorakopoulos, Giannoula; Petsalakis, Ioannis D.

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale mapping of various dimers of indium nitride and gallium nitride in singlet and triplet electronic states is reported. Second-order perturbation theory with Moller-Plesset partitioning of the Hamiltonian (MP2) and coupled-cluster with single and double excitations corrected for the triple excitations (CCSD(T)) are used for the geometry determinations and evaluation of excitation and dissociation energies. For gallium and nitrogen we have used the singly augmented correlation-consistent triple-zeta basis set (aug-cc-pVTZ), for indium we have used the aug-cc-pVTZ-pseudopotential basis set. The dissociation energies are corrected for basis set superposition error (BBSE) including geometrical relaxation of the monomers. We compare and discuss the similarities and dissimilarities in the structural patterns and energetics of both groups of isomers, including the effect of the BSSE. Our computations show that there are not only different ground states for In 2 N 2 and Ga 2 N 2 but also different numbers of stable stationary points on their potential energy surface. We compare our results with the molecular data published so far for these systems

  2. Neurosteroidy : účinné modulátory NMDA receptorů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cais, Ondřej; Adamusová, Eva; Kořínek, Miroslav; Borovská, Jiřina; Vyklický ml., Ladislav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2009), s. 148-151 ISSN 1211-7579 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neuro steroids * glutamate receptors * ion channels Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  3. Bridge Town Old Inn at the junction of the Awbeg Mill and the Blackwater

    OpenAIRE

    Brocas, Henry (Irish painter, draftsman, and engraver, 1766-1838)

    1997-01-01

    Bridgetown Abbey, seen in this drawing in ruins, was a 13th century Augustinian monastery of the priors of St. Victor. Its ruins may be viewed in Castletownroche, County Cork, Ireland near where the River Awbeg meets the Blackwater. (en.wikipedia.org)

  4. Nadwrażliwość na aspirynę i inne niesteroidowe leki przeciwzapalne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Grzelewska-Rzymowska

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Wyróżnia się dwa rodzaje nadwrażliwości na kwas acetylosalicylowy (ASA: oskrzelowy i pokrzywkowy. Rodzaj pierwszy dotyczy chorych na astmę, u których ASA wywołuje napady duszności i objawy pozaoskrzelowe, takie jak wodnisty katar nosa, zaczerwienienie twarzy, szyi i klatki piersiowej, łzawienie. Opisano także obrzęk krtani, spadek ciśnienia tętniczego krwi, a nawet zgony. Pokrzywkowa postać nadwrażliwości na ASA dotyczy głównie chorych na przewlekłą pokrzywkę. ASA-astma i ASA-pokrzywka występują w każdym wieku, ale głównie dotyczą kobiet (70% badanych w wieku 30-50 lat. U części tych chorych występują cechy atopii. Charakterys­‑ tyczną cechą ASA-astmy są polipy nosa, często powiązane w przewlekłym zapaleniem zatok. Stwierdza się je u około 80% chorych na ASA-astmę. Polipy nosa mają charakter nawrotowy. Błona śluzowa nosa chorych na ASA-astmę jest nacieczona T-limfocytami, eozynofilami, komórkami tucznymi i makrofagami, większość komórek wykazuje ekspresję mRNA dla IL-5. Błona śluzowa oskrzeli również jest nacieczona eozynofilami będącymi bogatym źródłem leukotrienu C4, który prawdopodobnie bierze udział w patomechanizmie nadreaktywności na ASA. Przebieg kliniczny ASA-astmy u większości chorych jest ciężki, ale kontrolę astmy można uzyskać dzięki stosowaniu wziewnych glikokortykosteroidów i długo działających β2-agonistów. Objawy nadwrażliwości wywołuje większość niesteroidowych leków przeciwzapalnych. U chorych na astmę jest to duszność, a u chorych na pokrzywkę – wysiewy skórne. Objawy te są wywoływane przez indometacynę, kwas mefenamowy i flufenamowy, ibuprofen, fenylbutazon, naproksen, diflunisal i zomepirak. Natomiast dobrze tolerowane przez chorych na ASA-astmę są paracetamol, chlorochina, benzydamina, kwas salicylowy i dekstropropoksyfen. Nadwrażliwość na ASA ujawnia się na podstawie wywiadu i doustnych testów prowokacyjnych ze wzrastającymi dawkami ASA podawanymi w odstępach 24-godzinnych. Ponadto stosuje się też testy prowokacyjne z lizynową pochodną ASA stosowną donosowo lub wziewnie. Testy te są bezpieczniejsze niż test doustny, ale mniej czułe. Testy prowokacyjne powinny być wykonywane tylko z ASA. U chorych na ASA-astmę i ASA-pokrzywkę, podając co 24 godziny wzrastające dawki ASA, można wytworzyć stan tolerancji na 600 mg ASA. Patomechanizm ASA-astmy i ASA-pokrzywki wiązany jest z hamowaniem cyklooksygenazy – enzymu zaangażowanego w syntezę prostaglandyn, prostacykliny i tromboksanu.

  5. Project EXCEL: Holiday Inn at Union Square, Housekeeping Department. Safety and Security, Module 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Career Resources Development Center, Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    Project EXCEL is a federally-funded workplace literacy program involving hotel enterprises in the San Francisco (California) Bay area. Its focus is on identification and instruction of literacy skills essential to job success for limited-English-proficient (LEP) workers. Training is intended to enable employees to understand written work orders,…

  6. Long-term oxidization and phase transition of InN nanotextures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražic Goran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The long-term (6 months oxidization of hcp-InN (wurtzite, InN-w nanostructures (crystalline/amorphous synthesized on Si [100] substrates is analyzed. The densely packed layers of InN-w nanostructures (5-40 nm are shown to be oxidized by atmospheric oxygen via the formation of an intermediate amorphous In-O x -N y (indium oxynitride phase to a final bi-phase hcp-InN/bcc-In2O3 nanotexture. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction are used to identify amorphous In-O x -N y oxynitride phase. When the oxidized area exceeds the critical size of 5 nm, the amorphous In-O x -N y phase eventually undergoes phase transition via a slow chemical reaction of atomic oxygen with the indium atoms, forming a single bcc In2O3 phase.

  7. Wartime Christmases in five countries in World War II | Rose-Innes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 25, No 2 (1995) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file ...

  8. A survey of domestic species of Basidiomycetes fungi for the presence of lectins inn their carpophores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Końska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary investigations were conducted to determine the presence of active lectins in carpophores of fungi from the class Basidiomycetes, collected from natural localities in southern and south-eastern Poland. The degree of agglutination activity (expressed as the titre of agglutination of aqueous extracts was determined at room temperature (18-20°C and at +4°C in respect to human and animal erythrocytes suspended in physiological saline, part of which were additionally treated with proteolytic enzymes. From among the 104 tested species, extracts from 41 of them showed agglutination activity, among which 18 were high. In six cases, specific activity against human ABH group antigens was found. Extracts from 5 species agglutinated only animal erythrocytes, with pigeon erythrocytes being exceptionally sensitive to the lectins. Extracts from two species had distinctly higher agglutination activity at 4°C, which suggests that lectins of the "cold" agglutinin type are present in these species. Analysis of extracts from caps and stems showed that caps had a higher lectin content.

  9. Clarté des idées innées ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøsler, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    Der gives en analyse af begreberne 'evidens' og 'medfødte idéer' hos Descartes og Locke samt hos de franske oplysningsfilosoffer.......Der gives en analyse af begreberne 'evidens' og 'medfødte idéer' hos Descartes og Locke samt hos de franske oplysningsfilosoffer....

  10. The Place Where Hope Lives: The Children's Inn Comforts Kids and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Md., is unique in the United States. Its philosophy is that families make a difference in the ... Gahl: Dr. William Gahl (right) of the National Human Genome Research Institute meets with Lanna (left), Channing's ...

  11. Układ odpornościowy a inne systemy poznawcze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uri Hershberg

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the following pages we propose a theory on cognitive systems and the com-mon strategies of perception, which are at the basis of their function. We demon-strate that these strategies are easily seen to be in place in known cognitive sys-tems such as vision and language. Furthermore we show that taking these strat-egies into consideration implies a new outlook on immune function calling for a new appraisal of the immune system as a cognitive system.

  12. Rôle des mitochondries dans les voies immunitaires innées | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Institution. The Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning/McGill University ... Deciphering the Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms Underlying Auditory Learning ... Profiling eIF2a-Dependent Translation in Synaptic Plasticity and Memory.

  13. Dgroup: DG01707 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gen activator (t-PA) ... D02837 ... Alteplase (USP/INN); Alteplase (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... D02947 ... Ani...streplase (USAN/INN) ... D05721 ... Reteplase (USAN/INN) ... D06070 ... Tenecteplase (USAN/INN) ... D05412 ... Monteplase (INN); Monteplase (genetic...al recombination) (JAN) ... D05410 ... Pamiteplase (INN); Pamiteplase (genetica... ... Lanoteplase (USAN/INN); Lanoteplase (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... D09814 ... Silteplase (INN); Silteplase (genetica...l recombination) (JAN) ... D09823 ... Duteplase (INN); Duteplase (genetical re

  14. Dgroup: DG01554 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01554 DGroup 5-Nitrofuran antiprotozoal nifur- ... D00830 ... Furazolidone (USP/INN) D... Nifuroxime (INN) D04714 ... Levofuraltadone (USAN/INN) D05165 ... Nifursemizone (USAN/INN) D05166 ... Nifursol (USAN) Antiparasitic ... Antiprotozoals ...

  15. Dgroup: DG01635 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00896 ... Efavirenz (JAN/INN) ... D01615 ... Dexamethasone palmitate (JAN) ... D01832 ... Moda...finil (JAN/USAN/INN) ... D03012 ... Avasimibe (USAN/INN) D03215 ... Armodafinil (USAN/INN) ... D03669 ... Deferasir

  16. Dgroup: DG01439 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ine (JAN/USAN/INN) ... D05134 ... Nelarabine (JAN/USAN/INN); Nelzarabine (USAN) ... DG00686 ... Cytarabine ... D00168 ... ...tabine hydrochloride (JAN) D04134 ... Fazarabine (USAN/INN) D04233 ... Flurocitabine (USAN/INN) D06100 ... Tezacitabi

  17. Dgroup: DG01958 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available USP) ... D03546 ... Clofarabine (JAN/USAN/INN) ... D05134 ... Nelarabine (JAN/USAN/INN); Nelzarabine (USAN) ... DG...Enocitabine (JAN/INN) ... D01651 ... Ancitabine hydrochloride (JAN) ... D04134 ... Fazarabine (USAN/INN) ... D04233 ... Flu

  18. Dgroup: DG02018 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 03546 ... Clofarabine (JAN/USAN/INN) ... D05134 ... Nelarabine (JAN/USAN/INN); Nelzarabine (USAN) ... DG00686 ... C... ... D01651 ... Ancitabine hydrochloride (JAN) ... D04134 ... Fazarabine (USAN/INN) ... D04233 ... Flurocitabine (USAN/INN)

  19. Dgroup: DG01493 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available utide, -natide ... D04121 ... Exenatide (JAN/USAN/INN) ... D06404 ... Liraglutide (USAN/INN); Liraglutide (genetical r...ecombination) (JAN) ... D09729 ... Lixisenatide (JAN/INN) ... D08843 ... Albiglutide (USAN); Albiglutide (genetical ...recombination) (JAN) ... D09889 ... Dulaglutide (USAN/INN); Dulaglutide (genetical re...combination) (JAN) ... D09723 ... Taspoglutide (USAN/INN) D10025 ... Semaglutide (USAN/INN); Semaglutide (genetical

  20. An exploration of the impact of information technology on China’s hotel industry : A case study of Hanting Inn

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of information technology, digital technology and e-commerce are playing an important role in the tourism industry, and modern information systems represent a major future direction for tourism development. Given this situation, the hotel industry in the 21st century is likely to undergo great change in the face of a common trend. Based on this trend, network marketing has become an important marketing tool for the hotel industry. Network marketing uses the Int...

  1. Účinná lítost v trestním právu

    OpenAIRE

    MOLZEROVÁ, Šárka

    2015-01-01

    The topic of this diploma work is an effective repentance in criminal law. Effective repetance is one of the reasons for extinction of punishability .The goal of a lawgiver is to motivate offender to prevent or restify damaging consequence. The law provides exact conditiones for extintion of a crime. The begining of my diploma work is focused on a historical development of extinction of criminal laibility by effective repentance. In the next part of this work there are defined conditions of e...

  2. Evaluations of parameters peculiar to the third group nitrides: BN, AIN, GaN and InN

    CERN Document Server

    Davydov, S Y

    2002-01-01

    The estimations of dielectric, optical electrooptical, magnetic and phonon characteristics of XN (X = B, Al, Ga, In) crystals are obtained by means of simple methods using both quantum mechanics and semiempirical approaches. The values of deformation potentials and magnetic susceptibility these nitrides are defined. The calculation results are compared with experimental data and data obtained by other authors

  3. Améliorer l'immunité innée des macrophages par la modulation des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les maladies causées par une infection guérissent le plus souvent grâce à une réaction immunitaire déclenchée par des cellules pour éliminer les agents étrangers. Ces cellules comprennent les macrophages, le principal type de cellule qui élimine les agents infectieux au cours d'un processus appelé phagocytose, ...

  4. Population exposure due to nuclear medical diagnosis and therapy in the Munich and Rottal/Inn regions in 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, C.

    1983-01-01

    The cases are systematically evaluated with a view to the number of examinations, applied activities, gonadal doses and genetically significant dose. sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate was applied in more than 50% of the cases. 131 I-iodide examinations were carried out only in Munich. sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate and sup(99m)Tc-methylen disphosphonate account for 3/4 of the total GSD. Of the organ examinations, bone scintiscanning contributes most to the GSD. The Munich region has the highest total GSD value (0.907 mrem). (DG) [de

  5. Turismo comunitario en favelas: Un estudio del Favela Inn Hostel, Chapéu Mangueira - Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues da Silva, Diego; Corbari, Sandra Dalila; Cioce Sampaio, Carlos Alberto; Jurema Grimm, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Resulta necesario pensar un nuevo modelo de desarrollo que resalte las cuestiones económicas, pero también los aspectos sociales y la integración hombre-naturaleza. El turismo de base comunitaria se configura como una alternativa de trabajo e ingreso y como promotor del desarrollo sustentable. Mayormente es implementado junto a las comunidades tradicionales, híbridas y autóctonas en zonas costeras y rurales. En este contexto surge la pregunta de investigación: ¿Si el turismo de base comunitar...

  6. 1979 SIGNUM meeting on numerical ordinary differential equations. [University Inn, Champaign, IL, April 3-5, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skeel, R. D. [ed.

    1979-04-01

    This report gives a summary of the papers presented at the meeting. It consists of all working papers distributed at the conference and all working papers received too late for distribution. In addition, abstracts and/or summaries are included where practical for those talks and workshop sessions that did not generate papers. This document should be a useful reference to very current research in ODEs. These papers are preliminary versions of papers that will be submitted for publication. One paper in this volume has been cited in ERA, and can be located by reference to the entry CONF-790403-- in the Report Number Index.

  7. Dgroup: DG01501 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available N) ... D03077 ... Benazeprilat (USAN/INN) D03440 ... Ceronapril (USAN/INN) D03756 ... Indolapril hydrochloride (USAN) ... (USAN) ... D00383 ... Trandolapril (JAN/INN) ... DG00342 ... Spirapril ... D08529 ... Spirapril (INN) ... D03765 ... Spirapril ...USAN); Cilazapril hydrate (JP17) ... DG00341 ... Fosinopril ... D07992 ... Fosinopril (INN) ... D00622 ... Fosinopril sodium

  8. Dgroup: DG01457 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fine granules (JP17); Ifenprodil tartrate tablets (JP17) ... DG00320 ... Labetalol ... D08106 ... Labetalol (INN) ... D0...zide (JP17/USP/INN) ... D00561 ... Sertindole (USAN/INN) D01674 ... Naftopidil (JP17/INN); Naftopidil tablets (JP17...); Naftopidil orally disintegrating tablets (JP17) ... D01965 ... Silodosin (JP17/INN) ... D02995 ... Asenapine male

  9. Dgroup: DG01645 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available done (INN) ... D08122 ... Levomethadone hydrochloride DG01015 ... Hydroxychloroquine ... D08050 ... Hydroxychloroquine (INN) ... D02114 ... Hydroxychloroq...uine sulfate (JAN/USP) ... DG01021 ... Halofantrine ... D08033 ... Halofantrine (INN) ... D02485

  10. Dgroup: DG01642 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7/USAN/INN); Fluconazole capsules (JP17) ... D01429 ... Fosfluconazole (JAN/INN) ... DG00375 ... Terbinafine ... D02375 ... Terbinafine... (USAN/INN) ... D02219 ... Terbinafine hydrochloride (JP17/USP) ... DG00441 ... Diclofenac ... D07816 ... Dicl

  11. Dgroup: DG01466 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available granules (JP17); Ifenprodil tartrate tablets (JP17) ... DG00320 ... Labetalol ... D08106 ... Labetalol (INN) ... D... ... D00561 ... Sertindole (USAN/INN) ... D01674 ... Naftopidil (JP17/INN); Naftopidil tablets (JP17); Naftopidil orally disintegrating tablet

  12. Dgroup: DG02000 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AN/INN) DG01828 ... Deleobuvir ... D10554 ... Deleobuvir (USAN/INN) ... D10622 ... Deleobuvir sodium (JAN/USAN) D10477 ... Mericitabine (USAN/INN) Antiviral ... Treatment of hepatitis C NS5B polymerase ...

  13. Toxicity study of diethyl phthalate on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... It is known to be a contaminant of fresh water and marine ecosystem. Therefore .... and 150 μg/L) corresponding to the treatments were made. Water ...... herbicide (atrazine) in Juvenile grey mullet Liza ramada: An ultra-.

  14. Mullet fry (Mugilidae in coastal waters of Montenegro, their spatial distribution and migration phenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mićković B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Three localities, representing three distinct coastal areas, were investigated: 1. the mouth of the Sutorina River; 2. the mouth of the Jaška River; 3. the mouth of the Bojana River (right branch. Regarding the composition of young mullet assemblages, Lisa saliens, Lisa ramada and Lisa aurata were dominant at the first locality; L. aurata and Chelon labrosus at the second; and at the third L. ramada was clearly dominant, Mugil cephalus occupied the subdominant position, while L. aurata was absent. The seasons of the first appearance of migratory fry were October, April, November, October and July, for M. cephalus, C. labrosus, L. ramada, L. aurata and L. saliens, respectively. Migratory periods varied from 2 (C. labrosus to 7 (L. ramada months.

  15. Dgroup: DG01709 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available omiparin (USAN); Semuloparin (USAN); Heparin (BAN) ... D02112 ... Heparin sodium (JP17/USP/INN); Parnaparin sodium... (INN) ... D04427 ... Heparin calcium (JP17); Nadroparin calcium (INN) ... D03674 ... Enoxaparin sodium (JAN/USAN/...INN) ... D04977 ... Parnaparin sodium (JP17) ... D02980 ... Ardeparin sodium (USAN/INN) ... D03337 ... Reviparin sodiu...m (JAN) ... D03353 ... Dalteparin sodium (JAN/USAN/INN) ... D03673 ... Deligoparin sodium... (USAN/INN) ... D06398 ... Tinzaparin sodium (USAN) ... D09860 ... Adomiparin sodium (USAN); Semuloparin sodium (USAN/INN); Ardeparin sodium

  16. Dgroup: DG01456 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... D07461 ... Apraclonidine (INN) ... D01008 ... Apraclonidine hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... DG01318 ... Detomidine ... D07795 ... Detomidine... (INN) ... D03702 ... Detomidine hydrochloride (USAN) ... DG0132

  17. The Relation between the two Phenomenological Categories Initiation and Sacrifice as Exemplified by the Norse Myth of Óðinn on the Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Peter Schjødt

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Many articles have been devoted to the Old Norse myth which relates how Odin was hanging from a tree for nine nights without being offered food or drink. The question we are going to investigate here is, as mentioned, whether we are facing a sacrifice or an initiation. Both possibilities have been proposed, and some scholars have even believed that the strophes deal with an exemplary myth which has served directly as a model for some ritual.

  18. Francis Bacon czyli Diego Velázquez na fotelu dentystycznym - malarskie i inne cytaty jako "dodatek" do rozpraszającego się życia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieukerken, A.

    2014-01-01

    "Francis Bacon or Diego Velázquez in a dentist’s chair" - pictorial and other kinds of quotations as an addition to a disintegrating life The mature poetry of Tadeusz Różewicz seems to be at odds with both modernist and postmodern literary tenets. It undeniably makes abundant use of intertextuality

  19. Problematika příčinné souvislosti ve sporech o náhradu škody na zdraví

    OpenAIRE

    Troup, Matyáš

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the issue of causation in personal injury claims. The reason for my research is the fact that there have been an increasing numbers of cases where injured persons asked for some kind of compensation in the past years. The problem of causation is the most crucial and sensitive in such conflict. This thesis consists four chapters, each of them dealing with different aspects of causation in compensation for personal injury claims. Chapter one introduces t...

  20. Um siðferðis- og skapgerðarmenntun: á óformlegt nám erindi inn í skóla?

    OpenAIRE

    Pálsdóttir, Kolbrún Þ.

    2017-01-01

    Þessi grein varpar ljósi á siðferðis- og skapgerðarmenntun innan skóla og stöðu slíkrar menntunar á Íslandi. Margt bendir til þess að þó að fræðimenn hafi á síðustu árum varpað ljósi á mikilvægi þess að efla siðferðilega dómgreind nemenda, sem og félags- og tilfinningaþroska þeirra, verði sá þáttur skólastarfsins iðulega útundan. Innleiðingu á lífsleikni sem námsgrein í grunn- og framhaldsskóla má skoða sem einn þátt í þeirri viðleitni að efla siðferðismenntun og heildstæða sýn...

  1. Problematika prokazování příčinné souvislosti v medicínsko-právních sporech

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Adam; Doležal, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 152, č. 6 (2013), s. 577-588 ISSN 0231-6625 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP408/12/2574 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : causal nexus * medical law * tort law Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  2. Proceedings of the Navy Symposium on Aeroballistics (10th) Held at the Sheraton Motor Inn, Fredericksburg, Virginia on 15-16-17 July 1975. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-17

    crtcUtrm Cmai~d-IBody Combination in Supersonic Flow cr~C.Uor wix 4 cody crnimpu’-er progra~i waj appliod. the crciform ca1r-body cornhina~ion shown in -z...on Aeroballistics ft Vol.1I ’ i 1: PAPER NO. 6 I L WING PLATFORM STUDIES FOR A SPAN-CONSTRAINED MISSILE L. S. JERNELL W. C. SAWYER PAPER WITHDRAWN Li

  3. Problematika příčinné souvislosti při wrongful birth a wrongful life žalobách

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2013), s. 58-67 ISSN 1804-8137 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP408/12/2574 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : wrongful life * wrongful birth * wrongful conception Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://www.ilaw.cas.cz/medlawjournal/index.php/medlawjournal/article/view/59

  4. Kafr:účinná látka s neznámým mechanizmem působení

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maršáková, Lenka; Vlachová, Viktorie

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2012), s. 16-22 ISSN 1212-0634 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0081 Grant - others:Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 25409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : vanilloid receptor * camphor * transient receptor potential Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  5. Časně eneolitická výšinná lokalita na Okrouhlíku v Praze-Libni

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobeš, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2016), s. 15-31 ISSN 0231-6390 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Early Eneolithic * hilltop settlement * Okrouhlík Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  6. Proceedings from the Annual Army Environmental R&D Symposium (16th) Held 23-25 June 1992 at Fort Magruder Inn and Conference Center, Williamsburg, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    photoactivity. The second prong was to evaluate the perovskite materials to utilize the lattice oxygen for the oxidation step and was found unsuccessful...Loalized 0 Distributed (*24) WowK damage to ACM. Q Yes 0 NO 0 Lca -Hzed 0 Distributed (25) Proximity (P) of ACM to repaWrromzine mainm uin A. Friable

  7. The Effects of Shielded Metal Arc Welding (Smaw) Welding On The Mechanical Characteristics With Heating Treatment inn S45c Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawar; Abbas, Hammada; Yusran Aminy, Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    Steel material has been used mainly for making tooling, automotive components, other household needs, power generators to frame buildings and bridges. This study aimed (1) to analyze the mechanical Characteristics of S45C steel with and without heating treatments, and (2) to analyze the temperature of heating treatment which could result in the maximal strength of S45C steel after the welding process. The research was conducted in the laboratory of mechanical engineering study program, Departement of mechanical Engineering, Christian university of indonesia paulus, makassar. The method used materials, instruments, and the dimensions determination of specimen based on the proposed testing standard, Next, was to determine the mechanical caracteristics of the S45C steel wich had been welded and heated.The tensile specimens, the hardness specimen, the impact specimen, and microstructures of which,each of the 3 specimens was the specimens was the specimen without treatment, the spesimen with the welding wthout heating and the specimen of 150°C, 250° C, 300° C. The research results indicated that the treatment process of 150°C, 250°C and 300°C produced the changes of mechanic charateristics with the tensile strength of 42 kgf/mm2 when the temperature had reached 300°C, but at the temperature 300°C, the its toughness would decrease to Hi = 0.836 j/m2 and its hardness would increase to 40.83 at the temperature of 300°C. The value of the maximum strengs was reached at the heating temperature of 300°C for the tensile strength and the hardness, while at the temperature of 300°C its impact value would decrease.

  8. Quantum spin Hall effect and topological phase transition in InN x Bi y Sb1-x-y /InSb quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhigang; Bose, Sumanta; Fan, Weijun; Zhang, Dao Hua; Zhang, Yan Yang; Shen Li, Shu

    2017-07-01

    Quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, a fundamentally new quantum state of matter and topological phase transitions are characteristics of a kind of electronic material, popularly referred to as topological insulators (TIs). TIs are similar to ordinary insulator in terms of their bulk bandgap, but have gapless conducting edge-states that are topologically protected. These edge-states are facilitated by the time-reversal symmetry and they are robust against nonmagnetic impurity scattering. Recently, the quest for new materials exhibiting non-trivial topological state of matter has been of great research interest, as TIs find applications in new electronics and spintronics and quantum-computing devices. Here, we propose and demonstrate as a proof-of-concept that QSH effect and topological phase transitions can be realized in {{InN}}x{{Bi}}y{{Sb}}1-x-y/InSb semiconductor quantum wells (QWs). The simultaneous incorporation of nitrogen and bismuth in InSb is instrumental in lowering the bandgap, while inducing opposite kinds of strain to attain a near-lattice-matching conducive for lattice growth. Phase diagram for bandgap shows that as we increase the QW thickness, at a critical thickness, the electronic bandstructure switches from a normal to an inverted type. We confirm that such transition are topological phase transitions between a traditional insulator and a TI exhibiting QSH effect—by demonstrating the topologically protected edge-states using the bandstructure, edge-localized distribution of the wavefunctions and edge-state spin-momentum locking phenomenon, presence of non-zero conductance in spite of the Fermi energy lying in the bandgap window, crossover points of Landau levels in the zero-mode indicating topological band inversion in the absence of any magnetic field and presence of large Rashba spin-splitting, which is essential for spin-manipulation in TIs.

  9. Dgroup: DG01620 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01620 DGroup Tamoxifene-type antineoplastic -ifen(e) ... DG00734 ... Tamoxifen ... D08559 ... Tam...oxifen (INN) ... D00966 ... Tamoxifen citrate (JP17/USP) ... DG00735 ... Toremifene ... D08620 ... Toremifene (INN) ... D0...USAN/INN) D09380 ... Sivifene (USAN/INN) Other ... DG01619 ... Clomifene and tamoxifen derivative ... Antiestrogens or e

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. Dgroup: DG01491 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available copolamine butylbromide (JP17) ... D01463 ... Diponium bromide (JAN/INN) D01491 ... Butropium bromide (JP17/INN) ... ...ide (JP17/INN) D01875 ... Tiquizium bromide (JAN/INN) ... D01929 ... Tiotropium bromide ...hydrate (JAN) ... D01946 ... Oxitropium bromide (JAN/INN) D01976 ... N-Methylscopolamine methylsulfate (JAN) ... D02212 ... Ipratropium... bromide (USAN); Ipratropium bromide hydrate (JP17) ... D02417 ... Flutropium bromide (JAN) D025...N/USAN/INN) ... D08838 ... Acotiamide hydrochloride (USAN); Acotiamide hydrochloride hydrate (JAN) ... D09402 ... Darotropium bromide (USAN/INN) Neuropsychiatric agent ...

  12. Solid Freeform Fabrication Proceedings -1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-11

    with a Coordinate Measuring Machine Irenee Tyvaerf, Georges Fader, Emannuelle Rouhaud", "Universite de Technologie de Troyes , bClemson University...de Troyes , France Prof. Georges Fadel, Clemson University Prof. Emannuelle Rouhaud, Universite de Technologie de Troyes , France Abstract Industries

  13. Dgroup: DG01458 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01458 DGroup Carbapenem -penem DG01458.gif DG00591 ... Meropenem ... D08185 ... Meropenem (INN) ... D02222 ... Meropene...m (USP); Meropenem hydrate (JP17) ... DG00592 ... Ertapenem ... D07908 ... Ertapenem (INN) ... D04049 ... Ertapene...m sodium (USAN) ... DG00593 ... Doripenem ... D03895 ... Doripenem (USAN/INN) ... D01836 ... Doripenem hydr...ate (JAN) ... DG01212 ... Imipenem ... D04515 ... Imipenem (INN) ... D00206 ... Imipenem (USP); Imipene...m hydrate (JP17) D01048 ... Panipenem (JP17/INN) D01057 ... Biapenem (JAN/USAN/INN) ... D01058 ... Lenapenem hyd

  14. Dgroup: DG01716 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01716 DGroup Drugs for alcohol dependence ... DG00996 ... Acamprosate ... D07058 ... Acamprosate (INN) ... D02780 ... Acamprosate calcium (JAN/USAN) ... DG00997 ... Naltrexone ... D05113 ... Naltrexone (USAN/INN) ... D02095 ... Naltrexone hydrochloride (USP) ... DG00998 ... Nalmefene ... D05111 ... Nalmefene (USAN/INN) ... D02104 ... Nalmefene hydrochloride ... D10812 ... Nalmefene hydrochloride hydrate (JAN) DG01756 ... Ondelopran ... D10143 ... Ondelopran (USAN/INN) ... D10144 ... Ondelopran hydrochloride (USAN) D00123 ... Cyanamide (JP17) ... D00131 ... Disulfiram (JP17/USP/INN) ... D03288 ... Calcium carbimide (INN) Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs for addictive disorder ATC code: N07BB Drugs of addictive disorder ...

  15. Continuous osteological characters in the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships of the six Euro-Mediterranean mullet species (Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antović, Ivanka

    2013-09-01

    Sixty-three continuous osteological characters (18 skull continuous characters and the total length of neurocranium, 45 continuous characters of 15 elements of the viscerodermal skeleton) were analyzed and included in the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships of the six Euro-Mediterranean mullet species from the South Adriatic Sea: Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758; Liza saliens Risso, 1810; Liza aurata Risso, 1810; Liza ramada Risso, 1826; Chelon labrosus Risso, 1826 and Oedalechilus labeo Cuvier, 1829. The study reveals that Sphyraenidae was separated clearly from Mugilidae, C. labrosus and three Liza species form a common cluster (L. ramada and L. saliens being the closest), while O. labeo and M. cephalus cluster together.

  16. Dgroup: DG01718 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01718 DGroup Drugs for addictive disorder ... DG01715 ... Drugs for nicotine dependence ... DG00994 ... Nicotine ... D03365 ... Nicotine (USP) ... D05156 ... Nicotine bitartrate (USAN) ... D05157 ... Nicotine polacrilex (USAN) ... DG00995 ... Varenicline ... D08669 ... Varenicline (INN) ... D06282 ... Varenicline tartrate (JAN/USAN) ... DG01716 ... Drugs for alcohol dependence ... DG00996 ... Acamprosate ... D07058 ... Acamprosate (INN) ... D02780 ... Acamprosate calcium (JAN/USAN) ... DG00997 ... Naltrexone ... D05113 ... Naltrexone (USAN/INN) ... D02095 ... Naltrexone hydrochloride (USP) ... DG00998 ... Nalmefene ... D05111 ... Nalmefene (USAN/INN) ... D02104 ... Nalmefene hydrochloride ... D10812 ... Nalmefene hydrochloride hydrate (JAN) ... DG01756 ... Ondelopran ... D10143 ... Ondelopran (USAN/INN) ... D10144 ... Ondelopran hydrochloride (USAN) ... D00123 ... Cyanamide (JP17) ... D00131 ... Disulfiram (JP17/USP/INN) ... D03288 ... Calcium carbimide (INN) DG01717 ... Drugs for opioid dependence ... DG00820 ... Buprenorphine ... D07132 ... Buprenorphine (JAN/INN) ... D00836 ... Buprenorphine hydrochloride (JP17/USP) ... DG00999 ... Methadone ... D08195 ... Methadone (BAN) ... D02102 ... Methadone hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... DG01000 ... Levacetylmethadol ... D04716 ... Levomethadyl acetate (USAN); Levacetylmethadol (INN) ... D00840 ... Levomethadyl acetate hydrochloride (USAN) ... DG01001 ... Lofexidine ... D08141 ... Lofexidine (INN) ... D04765 ... Lofexidine hydrochloride (USAN) ... DG01002 ... Levomethadone ... D08121 ... Levomethadone (INN) ... D08122 ... Levomethadone hydrochloride ... DG01003 ... Diamorphine ... D07286 ... Diamorphine (BAN) ... D07810 ... Diacetylmorphine hydrochloride ... D10250 ... Buprenorphine - naloxone mixt ... DG01151 ... Nalorphine ... D08247 ... Nalorphine (INN) ... D08248 ... Nalorphine hydrochloride (USP) ... DG01155 ... Naloxone ... D08249 ... Naloxone (INN) ... D01340 ... Naloxone hydrochloride (JP17/USP

  17. Dgroup: DG01613 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01613 DGroup Xantine-type antiparkinsonian agent -fylline ... D02964 ... Apaxifylline ...(USAN/INN) D04641 ... Istradefylline (JAN/USAN/INN) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01967 ... Antiparkinson agent ...

  18. Dgroup: DG01683 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available /INN) D05739 ... Rivoglitazone (USAN/INN) Antidiabetic agent ... DG01685 ... Insulin sensitizer ... DG01795 ... PPAR gamma... agonist Other ... DG01733 ... PPAR agonist Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ATC code: A10BG Antidiabetic

  19. Dgroup: DG01794 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rtugliflozin (USAN/INN) D10669 ... Sotagliflozin (USAN/INN) Antidiabetic agent Uncla...ssified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ATC code: A10BK Antidiabetics SLC5A2 (SGLT2) [HSA:6524] [KO:K14382] ...

  20. Novel transformation-based response prediction of shear building ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences ... structural response of multi-storey shear buildings subject to earthquake motion. The INN is first ... China has been presented by Xie et al. (2011). ... research works have been done using INN in other fields.

  1. Dgroup: DG01573 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ate semisodium (INN) ... D00710 ... Valproate sodium (USAN); Sodium valproate (JP17) ... D08667 ... Calcium valproate DG01006 ... Flunar...izine ... D07971 ... Flunarizine (INN) ... D01303 ... Flunarizine hydrochloride (JAN/USAN) DG01382 ... E

  2. HOTEL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Holiday Inn Central Plaza Beijing Tyrone Tang is the newly appointed general manager of Holiday Inn Central Plaza, Beijing.Tang joined IHGin2002.He was transferred from the position of operations manager.

  3. Dgroup: DG01639 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available amine ... D07984 ... Fluvoxamine (INN) ... D00824 ... Fluvoxamine maleate (JP17/USAN) ... DG00947 ... Escitalopram ... D07913 ... Escitalopram... (INN) ... D02567 ... Escitalopram oxalate (JAN/USAN) ... DG00951 ... Mianserin

  4. Dgroup: DG01970 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ylphenidate (USAN/INN) ... D01296 ... Methylphenidate hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... DG00970 ... Atomoxetine... ... D07473 ... Atomoxetine (USP/INN) ... D02574 ... Atomoxetine hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... DG00972 ... De

  5. Dgroup: DG01644 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available xetine ... D07473 ... Atomoxetine (USP/INN) ... D02574 ... Atomoxetine...0967 ... Dexamfetamine ... D03740 ... Dextroamphetamine (USAN); Dexamfetamine (INN) ... D02078 ... Dextroamphetamine sulfate (USP) ... DG00970 ... Atomo

  6. Dgroup: DG01675 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aine ... D01152 ... Oxethazaine (JP17/USAN); Oxetacaine (INN) ... D08311 ... Oxetacaine hydrochloride ... DG00801 ... Bupivacaine ... D07552 ... Bupiva...caine (USAN/INN) ... D01450 ... Bupivacaine hydrochloride (USP); Bupivacaine hydrochl

  7. Dgroup: DG01673 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P17/USAN); Oxetacaine (INN) ... D08311 ... Oxetacaine hydrochloride DG00801 ... Bupivacaine ... D07552 ... Bupivacaine (USAN/INN) ... D01450 ... Bup...ivacaine hydrochloride (USP); Bupivacaine hydrochloride hydrate (JP17) ... DG00802 ...

  8. 78 FR 29374 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Amended; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ....m. to June 6, 2013, 05:00 p.m., Hilton Garden Inn Durham Southpoint Hotel, 7007 Fayetteville Road... meeting location from the Hilton Garden Inn Durham Southpoint Hotel to the DoubleTree by Hilton Hotel. The...

  9. Dgroup: DG01358 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01358 Chemical ... DGroup Trastuzumab ... D03257 ... Trastuzumab (INN); Trastuzumab (genetica...l recombination) (JAN) ... D09980 ... Trastuzumab emtansine (USAN/INN); Trastuzumab emtansine (genetical re

  10. Dgroup: DG01789 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) DG01442 ... Tedizolid ... D09685 ... Tedizolid (USAN/INN) ... D09686 ... Tedizolid phosphate (JAN/USAN) ... D10167 ... Sutezolid (USAN/INN) Antibacterial ... Antibiotics 50S ribosomal subunit ...

  11. Dgroup: DG01975 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 91 ... Enprostil (JAN/USAN/INN) D01451 ... Scopolamine butylbromide (JP17) ... DG02008 ... Gastric mucosal protectant ... DG00025 ... Sucralfate... ... C07314 ... Sucralfate ... D00446 ... Sucralfate (USP/INN); Sucralfate

  12. Dgroup: DG01704 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05454 ... Phenmetrazine hydrochloride (USP) D07114 ... Etilamfetamine (INN) D07115 ... Clobenzorex (INN) Other ... DG01706 ... Antiobesity ... DG01705 ... Anoretic ATC code: A08AA Anoretics ...

  13. Dgroup: DG01967 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available de (INN) ... D00502 ... Pergolide mesylate (USP); Pergolide mesilate (JAN) ... D07836 ... Dihydroergocryptine mesilate DG00862 ... Ropini...role ... D08489 ... Ropinirole (USAN/INN) ... D00784 ... Ropinirole hydrochlo

  14. Dgroup: DG01655 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 130 ... Apraclonidine ... D07461 ... Apraclonidine (INN) ... D01008 ... Apraclonidine hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... DG01318 ... Detomidine ... D07795 ... Detomi...dine (INN) ... D03702 ... Detomidine hydrochloride (USAN) DG01320 ... Medetomidine ... D08165 ...

  15. Dgroup: DG01495 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n (USAN/INN) ... D00626 ... Candesartan cilexetil (JP17/USAN) ... D00627 ... Telmisartan (JP17/USAN/INN); Telmisartan tablet...N); Olmesartan medoxomil tablets (JP17) ... DG00351 ... Azilsartan ... D08864 ... Azilsarta

  16. Dgroup: DG01720 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available P17); Cyclophosphamide tablets (JP17) ... DG01514 ... Palifosfamide ... D09364 ... Palifosfamide (USAN/INN) ... D10373 ... P...yclophosphamide ... D07760 ... Cyclophosphamide (INN) ... D00287 ... Cyclophosphamide (USP); Cyclophosphamide hydrate (J

  17. Dgroup: DG01567 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available am (JP17/USP/INN) ... D00280 ... Clonazepam (JP17/USP/INN); Clonazepam fine granules (JP17); Clonazepam tablets ...N); Etizolam fine granules (JP17); Etizolam tablets (JP17) ... D01593 ... Nimetazepam

  18. Dgroup: DG01703 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AN) DG01610 ... Xanthine-type cardiotonics ... D07151 ... Cafedrine (BAN) ... D07155 ... Theodrenaline (INN) ... D07933 ... Etofy... ... Ciclafrine hydrochloride (USAN) ... D07150 ... Gepefrine (INN) ... D07151 ... Cafedrine (BA

  19. Dgroup: DG00177 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00177 Chemical ... DGroup Erythropoietin ... D03231 ... Epoetin alfa (USAN/INN); Epoetin... alfa (genetical recombination) (JP17) ... D03232 ... Epoetin beta (USAN/INN); Epoetin beta (genetical recombina...tion) (JP17) ... D04032 ... Epoetin delta (USAN) D09737 ... Epoetin kappa (INN); Epoetin kappa (genetical recombination) (Epoet...in alfa biosimilar 1) (JAN) ... D09998 ... Epoetin beta pegol (genetical ...recombination) (JAN) ... D10000 ... Epoetin epsilon (INN); Epoetin epsilon (genetical recombination) (JAN) D10846 ... Epoet

  20. Dgroup: DG01936 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01936 DGroup TNF inhibitor ... D00742 ... Etanercept (USAN/INN); Etanercept (genetica...l recombination) (JAN); Etanercept (genetical recombination) [etanercept biosimilar 1] (JAN) ... D02598 ... Infl...iximab (USAN/INN); Infliximab (genetical recombination) (JAN); Infliximab (genetical recombination) [Inflixi...mab biosimilar1] (JAN); Infliximab (genetical recombination) [Infliximab biosimil...ar2] (JAN) ... D07436 ... Afelimomab (INN) D02597 ... Adalimumab (USAN/INN); Adalimumab (genetical recombination) (

  1. Dgroup: DG01636 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available analogue, fast-acting ... D04477 ... Insulin lispro (USP/INN); Insulin lispro (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... ... ... D04475 ... Insulin aspart (USAN/INN); Insulin aspart (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... D04540 ... Insulin glu...lisine (USAN/INN); Insulin glulisine (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... DG01797 ... Insulin analogue, long-acting ... D03250 ... Insulin glargine (USAN/INN); Insulin glargine (genetical recombinat...ion) (JP17); Insulin glargine (genetical recombination) injection (JP17); Insulin glargine (genetical recomb

  2. Dgroup: DG01801 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Insulin lispro (USP/INN); Insulin lispro (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... D04475 ... Insulin aspart (USAN/INN); Insulin aspart (genet...ical recombination) (JAN) ... D04540 ... Insulin glulisine (USAN/INN); Insulin glulisine (genetica...250 ... Insulin glargine (USAN/INN); Insulin glargine (genetical recombination) (JP17); Insulin glargine (genetica...l recombination) injection (JP17); Insulin glargine (genetical recombination [Insulin glargin biosimilar ...1] (JAN); Insulin glargine (genetical recombination) [Insulin glargin biosimilar

  3. Dgroup: DG01592 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e (INN) ... D00633 ... Dopamine hydrochloride (JP17/USP) ... DG00801 ... Bupivacaine ... D07552 ... Bupivacaine (USAN/INN) ... D01450 ... Bupivacaine... hydrochloride (USP); Bupivacaine hydrochloride hydrate (JP17) ... D00059 ... Levodopa (JP17/USP/INN) ... Cardiovascular agent ...

  4. Dgroup: DG01754 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... Taranabant (USAN/INN) D09349 ... Ibipinabant (USAN/INN) D10314 ... Giminabant (USAN/INN) Other ... DG01706 ... Antiobesity... ... DG01705 ... Anoretic ATC code: A08AX Antiobesity agents CNR1 [HSA:1268] [KO:K04277] ...

  5. A Query System Implementation Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiser, Judith N.; Neil, M. Elizabeth

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Administrative Programming Services of Clemson University investigated products available in user-friendly retrieval systems. The test of INTELLECT, a natural language query system written by Artifical Intelligence Corporation, is described. (Author/MLW)

  6. 78 FR 70529 - Notice of Availability for the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding No Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... FONSI for transferring the land and real estate at the Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) in Clemson.../property rights to the University. The Quit Claim Deed will incorporate any use restrictions identified by...

  7. Making It Better: Research, Assessment, and Recursive Learning Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookover, Robert; Timmerman, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    This article provides case study examples of how assessment efforts led to and have been enhanced by the creation of integrated curriculum delivery models in parks, recreation, and tourism programs at Clemson University and the University of Utah.

  8. Spider-mediated flux of PCBs from contaminated sediments to terrestrial ecosystems and potential risks to arachnivorous birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated aquatic insect utilization and PCB exposure in riparian spiders at the Lake Hartwell superfund site (Clemson, SC , USA). We sampled sediments, adult chironomids, terrestrial insects, riparian spiders (Tetragnathidae, Araneidae, and Mecynogea lemniscata), and upla...

  9. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maxim Konfsevich. TR Ramadas. BOOK REVIEWS. 83 Organic Chemistry: The Name Game - Modern. Coined Terms and their Origins. UdayMaifra. 84 The Trail of Genetic Detedives. Vani Brahmachari. 87 Intuitive Topology. Parameswaran Sankaran. 88 Watching· the Weather. J Srinivasan. 90 Watching the Urdverse.

  10. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | News

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Work of the Fields Medallists: 1998 - Maxim Kontsevich · T R Ramadas · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 83-84 Book Review. Organic Chemistry: The Name Game – Modern Coined Terms and their Origins · Uday Maitra · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 84-86 Book Review. The Trail of Genetic Detectives · Vani Brahmachari.

  11. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Olusoji

    Christian. Islam. 107 (63.3 %). 75(57.7%). 62 (36.7%). 55 (42.3%). Tribes. Yoruba. Igbo. Hausa ..... Abu-Heiji A al Chalabi H, el Iloubani N Abruptio placentae: risk ... Johana Weiss, MD, & Ramada S. Smith, MD, Critical. Care Obstetircs inb ...

  12. Využití vysoce účinné iontové chromatografie ve farmaceutické analýze organických aniontů a kationtů

    OpenAIRE

    Čujová, Sabína

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is focused on application of ion chromatography in pharmaceutical analyses of organic ions. Ion chromatography is increasingly used in the field of pharmaceutical analysis. This includes the analysis of impurities and metabolites. In the first part of this thesis, ion chromatography is compared with common separation techniques used in pharmacy, such as gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. In the second part development and validation of methods of ion chr...

  13. Dialogue inter-règne entre Pseudomonas aeruginosa et les cellules de l'immunité innée. Rôle de la production de L-kynurénine par les bactéries

    OpenAIRE

    Genestet , Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is responsible for persistent infections in cystic fibrosis patients, suggesting an ability to circumvent innate immune defenses. Many host cells produce kynurenine, which is known to control immune system homeostasis. Interestingly this bacterium uses the kynurenine pathway to catabolize tryptophan. In addition, preliminary results of our laboratory showed that during acute pulmonary infection in mice with a strain of P. aeruginosa which does not produce kynurenine, th...

  14. Wir können doch nicht 400 Mitarbeiter/innen schulen! Erstellung und Evaluierung eines E-Learning-Kurses für die Weiterbildung von Bibliotheksmitarbeiter/inne/n

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Zemanek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nach Abschaltung des Online-Katalogs im Jahr 2016 wurde das bis dahin gleichzeitig zur Verfügung stehende Discovery-Tool Primo (an der Universitätsbibliothek Wien u:search genannt zum zentralen öffentlich zugänglichen Suchwerkzeug der Universitätsbibliothek Wien. Um das Wissen der Bibliotheksmitarbeiter/innen in Bezug auf u:search zu verbessern, sollte ein geeignetes Weiterbildungsangebot entwickelt werden. Auf Grund der hohen Anzahl an Mitarbeiter/innen wurde entschieden, einen nachhaltigen, orts- und zeitunabhängig nutzbaren Online-Kurs auf der Lernplattform der Universität Wien, Moodle, zu entwickeln. Der in der Folge für die Bibliotheksmitarbeiter/innen entwickelte Kurs besteht aus einem Tutorial mit mehreren Lernmodulen, die Wissen zu u:search im Selbststudium vermitteln sollen, sowie einem kleinen Quiz und Übungen, mit denen man sein Wissen testen kann. Zusätzlich gibt es für die am Kurs Teilnehmenden noch die Möglichkeit, Fragen zum Kurs zu stellen und verbales Feedback zu geben. Die Evaluierung des Kurses erfolgte, indem eine Online-Befragung der Bibliotheksmitarbeiter/innen mit LimeSurvey durchgeführt und die Zugriffsstatistiken des Kurses sowie die Resultate der Selbsttests ausgewertet wurden. After switching off the online catalogue in 2016, the Discovery tool Primo (which at the University Library Vienna is called u:search became the central public search tool of the University Library of Vienna. In order to improve the library staff´s knowledge of u: search, a further training had to be developed. Considering the high number of employees, it was decided to develop a sustainable online course on the learning platform of the University of Vienna, Moodle, which could be used irrespective of time and location. The course, developed for the library staff, consists of a tutorial with several learning modules for self-study, as well as a little quiz and exercises which can be used to test participants’ knowledge. In addition, there is an option to ask questions about the course and give verbal feedback. The course was evaluated by conducting an online survey of the library staff with LimeSurvey and analyzing the access statistics of the course as well as the results of the test.

  15. Is there really no room at the inn? The innkeeper only has one double room, who will he give it to? The disabled person, the pregnant woman or the homosexual couple?

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The Equality Act 2010 provides protection from discrimination to certain individuals who have protected characteristics such as disability; sex; sexual orientation; race and religion or belief. There are 9 protected characteristics covered by the Equality Act 2010 and the level of protection afforded to each characteristic varies. Hierarchy of discrimination rights arguably already exists because of the variation of level of protection afforded to each characteristic by the Equality Act 2010....

  16. Důvěra českých občanů v orgány činné v trestním řízení

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 6 (2014), s. 143-148 ISSN 1213-5313 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010012 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : trust in police and courts * dimensions of trust * ESS R 5 Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  17. Multicenter Phase II Study Evaluating Two Cycles of Docetaxel, Cisplatin and Cetuximab as Induction Regimen Prior to Surgery in Chemotherapy-Naive Patients with NSCLC Stage IB-IIIA (INN06-Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Hilbe

    Full Text Available Different strategies for neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early stage NSCLC have already been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of a chemoimmunotherapy when limited to two cycles.Between 01/2007 and 03/2010 41 patients with primarily resectable NSCLC stage IB to IIIA were included. Treatment consisted of two cycles cisplatin (40 mg/m2 d1+2 and docetaxel (75 mg/m2 d1 q3 weeks, accompanied by the administration of cetuximab (400 mg/m2 d1, then 250 mg weekly. The primary endpoint was radiological response according to RECIST.40 patients were evaluable for toxicity, 39 for response. The main grade 3/4 toxicities were: neutropenia 25%, leucopenia 11%, febrile neutropenia 6%, nausea 8% and rash 8%. 20 patients achieved a partial response, 17 a stable disease, 2 were not evaluable. 37 patients (95% underwent surgery and in three of them a complete pathological response was achieved. At a median follow-up of 44.2 months, 41% of the patients had died, median progression-free survival was 22.5 months.Two cycles of cisplatin/ docetaxel/ cetuximab showed promising efficacy in the neoadjuvant treatment of early-stage NSCLC and rapid operation was possible in 95% of patients. Toxicities were manageable and as expected.EU Clinical Trials Register; Eudract-Nr: 2006-004639-31.

  18. High-pressure CVD Growth of InN and Indium-rich Group III-nitride Compound Semiconductors for Novel Mid- and Far-infrared Detectors and Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    conditions. The TMI and trimethylgallium ( TMG ) precursors are injected simultaneously c) growth surface response via PARS signal The link between...ternary or quaternary alloys such as InGaN or InGaAlN is illustrated in Fig. 10. Here, the injection of the metal precursors, TMI and TMG , are separated...digital InGaN alloy formation, for the control of phase segregations, as well as to adjust the injection parameter to the different TMI and TMG growth

  19. Ligninolytické enzymy jako účinné nástroje pro biodegradaci obtížně rozložitelných organopolutantů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šušla, Martin; Svobodová, Kateřina

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 10 (2006), s. 889-895 ISSN 0009-2770 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : ligninperoxidase * mangan-dependent peroxidase * lacase Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.431, year: 2006

  20. Bory v reliktním ekosystému nížinné tajgy na Dokesku - využití, péče a ochrana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sádlo, Jiří; Petřík, Petr; Boublík, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2012), s. 8-11 ISSN 1210-258X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00050801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : pine forest * forestry * conservation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  1. Climate strategy: Agriculture. A follow-up of knowledge report 'Better agronomy' and other relevant reports of climate and agriculture; Klimastrategi: jordbruk. En oppfoelging av kunnskapsrapporten 'Bedre agronomi' og andre relevante rapporter inn klima og jordbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    From the preface: This report takes a 5-10-year perspective of research priorities in agriculture related climate research and includes research to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and adaptation of food production to climate change.(eb)

  2. Breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices in the first 6 months of life among Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants: the InnBaKost survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Sellen, Daniel; Mosdøl, Annhild; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-03-01

    To examine breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices during the first 6 months of life among Norwegian infants of Somali and Iraqi family origin. A cross-sectional survey was performed during March 2013-February 2014. Data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ adapted from the second Norwegian national dietary survey among infants in 2006-2007. Somali-born and Iraqi-born mothers living in eastern Norway were invited to participate. One hundred and seven mothers/infants of Somali origin and eighty mothers/infants of Iraqi origin participated. Breast-feeding was almost universally initiated after birth. Only 7 % of Norwegian-Somali and 10 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants were exclusively breast-fed at 4 months of age. By 1 month of age, water had been introduced to 30 % of Norwegian-Somali and 26 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants, and infant formula to 44 % and 34 %, respectively. Fifty-four per cent of Norwegian-Somali and 68 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants had been introduced to solid or semi-solid foods at 4 months of age. Breast-feeding at 6 months of age was more common among Norwegian-Somali infants (79 %) compared with Norwegian-Iraqi infants (58 %; P=0·001). Multivariate analyses indicated no significant factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding at 3·5 months of age. Factors positively associated with breast-feeding at 6 months were country of origin (Somalia) and parity (>2). Breast-feeding initiation was common among Iraqi-born and Somali-born mothers, but the exclusive breast-feeding period was shorter than recommended in both groups. The study suggests that there is a need for new culture-specific approaches to support exclusive breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices among foreign-born mothers living in Norway.

  3. Energy: allocation or chaos. Remarks by Malcolm Rowan, Deputy Minister of Energy, to the Ontario Electric League's annual meeting and technical conference, at the Wheels Inn, Chatham, February 10, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This paper focuses on two kinds of allocations. The first is an allocation of energy as between customers when there is a shortage, in other words, rationing. The second is an allocation of markets as between suppliers of different energy sources so that each supplier is guaranteed or apportioned in some way a share of the total energy market. In some respects, there could be an element of rationing involved in this form of allocation as well, if individuals are told they can use only so much of one type of energy and not more in order to guarantee other forms of energy a share of the market. Mr. Rowan's remarks are directed primarily to the Ontario scene. He feels that if a shortage of supplies does occur, it will be short-lived and temporary, barring the disaster scenario which would envisage a complete breakdown in world trade. The government of Ontario is urging the Federal government to adopt as a national objective crude oil self-sufficiency by not later than 1995. Mr. Rowan then deals with the allocation that divides up the energy market as between energy sources, an outgrowth of the competitive system. After thoroughly examining both allocation views, he feels neither view is correct. Neither is appropriate by itself if Ontario is to have a balanced, secure supply of energy and a reasonably non-directive economy. (MCW)

  4. Zamowy białoruskie oraz inne teksty ludowego lekarowania jako dowód na przenikanie się języków i kultur na obszarze byłego Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Szcześniak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Belorussian zamowy and other folk medicine texts as evidence for linguistic and cultural permeation in the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania This paper presents the lexical material stored in the Belorussian zamowy: names of holidays, prayers, designations of the sacred and clergy portaits, as well as names and nationalities. The documentation, coming from two sets of Belorussian zamowy (addresses given in references, shows clearly that these texts – which usually come with a classic construction, important for those telling them – preserved traces of multilingualism, different religions and dialects, as well as the information about the nationalities residing in the area. Some lexemes (or groups of lexemes mix two or three languages. What is more, it often occurs that literary language and the standard variety (Polish are mixed with Belorussian dialects, which stems from the historical circumstances the area studied. Such information could be preserved in zamowy because słowa or szepty (as they were called had strictly defined structure, and had to include certain lexemes that always came in the same pre-defined order.   Белорусские заговоры и другие тексты народного лечения как свидетельство взаимопроникновения языков на территории бывшего Великого княжества Литовского Статья представляет лексический материал, содержащийся в белoрусских заговорах, который касается названий праздников, молитв, определений изображений святых и священников, а также имен святых и национальностей. Документация, почерпнутая из двух книг белoрусских заговоров, выходные данные которых содержит перечень использованной литературы, с яркостью показала, что в данных текстах (отличающихся, как правило, классической композицией, существенной для тех, кто их произносил сохранилсь следы многоязычия, разных религий и диалектов, а также информация относительно национальности проживающих на данной территории. Некоторые лексемы (или сочетания лексем содержат следы смешения двух или даже трех языков, или общелитературного языка (польского с белoрусским диалектом, что – по мнению автора – вытекает из прошлого исследуемого пространства. В загово рах моглa сохраниться вся указаннaя информация, так как данные единицы (слова, шепоты, как их принято определять, помимо прочего отличались определенным построением и набором определенных лексем с их четкой последовательностью.

  5. Dgroup: DG01752 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (USAN/INN); Interferon alfa-2a (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... D02745 ... Interferon alfa-2b (USAN); Interferon alfa-2b (genetica... Interferon alfa-n3 (USAN) DG01751 ... Interferon beta ... D00746 ... Interferon beta-1b (USAN/INN); Interferon beta-1b (genetica...D00747 ... Interferon gamma-1b (USAN/INN) ... D03357 ... Interferon gamma-1a (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... D...08805 ... Interferon gamma-n1 (JAN) D02744 ... Interferon alfacon-1 (USAN/INN); Interferon alfacon-1 (genetical re...combination) (JAN) D02747 ... Peginterferon alfa-2a (USAN/INN); Peginterferon alfa-2a (genetica

  6. Electron transport properties of indium oxide - indium nitride metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.Y.; Hauguth, S.; Polyakov, V.; Schwierz, F.; Cimalla, V.; Kups, T.; Himmerlich, M.; Schaefer, J.A.; Krischok, S.; Ambacher, O.; Morales, F.M.; Lozano, J.G.; Gonzalez, D.; Lebedev, V.

    2008-01-01

    The structural, chemical and electron transport properties of In 2 O 3 /InN heterostructures and oxidized InN epilayers are reported. It is shown that the accumulation of electrons at the InN surface can be manipulated by the formation of a thin surface oxide layer. The epitaxial In 2 O 3 /InN heterojunctions show an increase in the electron concentration due to the increasing band banding at the heterointerface. The oxidation of InN results in improved transport properties and in a reduction of the sheet carrier concentration of the InN epilayer very likely caused by a passivation of surface donors. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Development of Advanced Ill-Nitride Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-24

    tant to note that growth conditions have little effect on In- vacancy concentration as determined by positron annihilation spectroscopy .27 The In... applications in de- vices. These limitations are in part caused by an electron accumulation layer at the InN surface due to surface Fermi level pinning in the...conduction band,1 restricting the fabrica- tion of p-type InN layers.2 To facilitate pure p-type InN and drive research toward device applications

  8. Dgroup: DG01584 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01584 DGroup Estrogen receptor agonist -estr- ... DG00461 ... Ethinylestradiol ... D00554... ... Ethinyl estradiol (USP); Ethinylestradiol (JP17/INN) ... D07928 ... Ethinylestradiol propanesulfonate DG00462 ... Estradiol ... D00105 ... Estr...adiol (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01413 ... Estradiol valerate (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01617 ... Estrad...iol dipropionate (JAN) ... D01953 ... Estradiol benzoate (JP17) ... D04061 ... Estradiol a...cetate (USAN) ... D04063 ... Estradiol cypionate (USP) ... D04064 ... Estradiol enanthate (USAN) ... D04065 ... Estradio

  9. Dgroup: DG01781 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available grastim (USAN/INN); Filgrastim (genetical recombination) (JP17); Filgrastim (genetical recombination) [Filgr...astim biosimilar 1] (JAN); Filgrastim (genetical recombination) [Filgrastim biosimilar 2] (JAN); Filgrastim (genetica...USAN/INN); Lenograstim (genetical recombination) (JP17) ... D06889 ... Pegfilgrastim (INN); Pegfilgrastim (genetica...l recombination) (JAN) ... D10242 ... Lipegfilgrastim (USAN) D03245 ... Nartograstim (genetical recombination) (...l recombination) [Filgrastim biosimilar3] (JAN) ... D03247 ... Lenograstim (

  10. Dgroup: DG01797 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ical recombination) (JP17); Insulin glargine (genetical recombination) injection (J...P17); Insulin glargine (genetical recombination [Insulin glargin biosimilar 1] (JAN); Insulin glargine (genetica...mir (USAN/INN); Insulin detemir (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... D09727 ... Insulin degludec (USAN/INN); Insulin degludec (genetica... DG01797 DGroup Insulin analogue, long-acting ... D03250 ... Insulin glargine (USAN/INN); Insulin glargine (genet

  11. Dgroup: DG01753 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) ... D03235 ... Filgrastim (USAN/INN); Filgrastim (genetical recombination) (JP17); Filgrastim (gene...tical recombination) [Filgrastim biosimilar 1] (JAN); Filgrastim (genetical recombi...nation) [Filgrastim biosimilar 2] (JAN); Filgrastim (genetical recombination) [Fi...lgrastim biosimilar3] (JAN) ... D03247 ... Lenograstim (USAN/INN); Lenograstim (genetical recombination) (JP17)... ... D06889 ... Pegfilgrastim (INN); Pegfilgrastim (genetical recombination) (JAN) ... D10242 ... Lipegfilgrastim

  12. Bilimsel Toplantı Duyuruları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adli Tıp Uzmanları Derneği ATUD

    2006-12-01

    @forensicmi.com www.forensicmi.com VILAdli Bilimler Sempozyumu Çocuk İstismarı ve İhmaline Güncel Yaklaşımlar 24-27 Mayıs 2007, Gaziantep İletişim: Dr.Aysun BARANSEL ISIR Gaziantep Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Adli Tıp A.D. Tel: 0 342 360 60 60 /76181 E-posta: aybaransel@yahoo.com Web: www.atud.org.tr Examination of Tire Impression and tire Track Evidence Course 7-11 May To be held at the Ramada Inn in Jacksonville, FL. CONTACT: William J. Bodziak 38 Sabal Bend Palm Coast, FL 32137 (386 447-3567 Fax: (386 447-3568 wbodziak@earthlink.net Basic Facial Reconstruction Sculpture Workshop 7-11 May To be held at Scottsdale Artists School in Scottsdale, AZ. CONTACT: Betty Pat. Gatliff SKULLpture Lab 1026 Leslie Lane Norman, OK 73069-4501 (405 321-8706 Prosecutors' Conference 14-16 May To be held at the Tides Inn in Irvington, VA. Martha M. Allen Program Support Coordinator The Virginia Institute of Forensic Science and Medicine mallen@vifsm.org www.vifsm.org ENFSI Annual Meeting 2007 May 30 - June 02, 2007 Riga, Latvia Further information: Web: www.enfsi.org The 2007 Techno Security Conference 3-6 June2007, USA Further information: Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Tel: (843 8280828 Web: www.techsec.com/html/Techno2007.html 8th International Interlock Symposium (IIS. International Council on Alcohol, Drugs, and Traffic Safety (ICADTS, The International Association of Forensic Toxicologists (TIAFT 26-30 August 2007,Seattle, USA Further information: E-mail:T2007@wsp. wa.gov. Web: http ://www.icadts2007.org/ Modern Developments in Handwriting Examination 20-22 September 2007, Vilnius, Lithuania Further information: E-mail: g.barkauskaite@ltec.lt Tel: +37052638574 Web: http://www.ltec.lt/en/conference.php Modern Developments in Handwriting Examination 20-22, September 2007 VILNIUS, LITHUANIA g.barkauskaite@ltec.lt or call +37052638574 Metropolitan Laboratory Conference Centre Trace and Transfer 7 September 2007 One Day Conference Convenors: Callum Sutherland and Anna-Marie O’Connor

  13. Dgroup: DG01986 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01986 DGroup Estrogen ... DG00461 ... Ethinylestradiol ... D00554 ... Ethinyl estradiol (US...P); Ethinylestradiol (JP17/INN) ... D07928 ... Ethinylestradiol propanesulfonate DG00462 ... Estradiol ... D00105 ... Estr...adiol (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01413 ... Estradiol valerate (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01617 ... Estradiol dipropionate (JAN) ... D01953 ... Estr...adiol benzoate (JP17) ... D04061 ... Estradiol acetate (USAN) ... D04063 ... Estr...adiol cypionate (USP) ... D04064 ... Estradiol enanthate (USAN) ... D04065 ... Estradiol undecylate (USAN/INN) ... D07918 ... Estr

  14. Dgroup: DG01685 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01685 DGroup Insulin sensitizer ... DG01684 ... Biguanide antidiabetic ... DG00112 ... Phen...litazar (USAN/INN) ... D09350 ... Indeglitazar (USAN) Antidiabetic agent ... Antidiabetics ...

  15. Dicty_cDB: VSB521 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available efqslkmklml*iyy*mksqkvlkscalavvplmksvs rkfisvmilhsstfikrf*lyqlinklmlvkml*phntfyhl*lqspklemfmlptlqvp elavslll...ESVRARWAYKVPGSMIQNLLGM KHGAPNKHHIILIKKLLGY*inn*kk Frame B: ---hqamkp*wklsri*kprtt

  16. Drug: D02994 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02994 Drug Rituximab (USAN/INN); Rituximab (genetical recombination) (JAN); Ritux...imab (genetical recombination) [Rituximab biosimilar 1] (JAN); Rituxan (TN) ... Therapeutic category: 429

  17. Drug: D06120 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06120 Drug Thyrotropin alfa (USAN/INN); Thyrotropin alfa (genetical recombination...) (JAN); Thyrotropin human alfa (genetical recombination); Thyrogen (TN) ... Therapeutic category: 7990 A

  18. Dgroup: DG01579 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3047 ... Bacitracin methylene disalicylate (USP) ... D03048 ... Bacitracin zinc (USP) D02927 ... Amphomycin (USAN) D10380 ... Surotomycin (USAN/INN) Antibacterial ... Antibiotics ...

  19. Environmental test program for superconducting materials and devices. Mid-Term Report, May 1990 - Jun. 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haertling, G.; Randolph, H.; Hsi, Chi-Shiung; Verbelyi, D.

    1991-07-01

    This report is divided into two parts. The first dealing with work involved with Clemson University and the second with the results from Westinghouse/Savannah River. Both areas of work involved low noise, low thermal conductivity superconducting grounding links used in the NASA-sponsored Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) Project. Clemson prepared the links from YBa2Cu3O(7-x) superconductor tape that was mounted on a printed circuit board and encapsulated with epoxy resin. The Clemson program includes temperature vs. resistance, liquid nitrogen immersion, water immersion, thermal cycling, humidity, and radiation testing. The evaluation of the links under a long term environmental test program is described. The Savannah River program includes gamma irradiation, vibration, and long-term evaluation. The progress made in these evaluations is discussed

  20. Environmental test program for superconducting materials and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haertling, Gene; Randolph, Henry; Hsi, Chi-Shiung; Verbelyi, Darren

    1991-01-01

    This report is divided into two parts. The first dealing with work involved with Clemson University and the second with the results from Westinghouse/Savannah River. Both areas of work involved low noise, low thermal conductivity superconducting grounding links used in the NASA-sponsored Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) Project. Clemson prepared the links from YBa2Cu3O(7-x) superconductor tape that was mounted on a printed circuit board and encapsulated with epoxy resin. The Clemson program includes temperature vs. resistance, liquid nitrogen immersion, water immersion, thermal cycling, humidity, and radiation testing. The evaluation of the links under a long term environmental test program is described. The Savannah River program includes gamma irradiation, vibration, and long-term evaluation. The progress made in these evaluations is discussed.

  1. Insect community structure and function in Upper Three Runs, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, J.C.; English, W.R. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Entomology; Looney, B.B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-07-08

    A project to document the insect species in the upper reaches of Upper Three Runs at the Savannah River site was recently completed. This research was supported by the US Department of Energy under the National Environmental Research Park Program. The work was performed by the Department of Entomology at Clemson University in clemson, SC, by John C. Morse (principal investigator), William R. English and their colleagues. The major output from this study was the dissertation of Dr. William R. English entitled ``Ecosystem Dynamics of a South Carolina Sandhills Stream.`` He investigated selected environmental resources and determined their dynamics and the dynamics of the aquatic invertebrate community structure in response to them.

  2. Dgroup: DG01630 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01630 DGroup beta-Estrogen receptor agonist -berel ... D06631 ... Prinaberel (USAN/INN...) D09899 ... Erteberel (USAN/INN) Other ... DG01584 ... Estrogen receptor agonist ... NR3A2 (ESR2) [HSA:2100] [KO:K08551] ...

  3. 78 FR 34349 - Schedules for Atlantic Shark Identification Workshops and Protected Species Safe Handling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ...; Kenner, LA; Charleston, SC; and Corpus Christi, TX. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION for further details on... Inn & Suites, 3312 Vista Drive, Rosenberg, TX 77471. 3. September 12, 2013, 12 p.m.-4 p.m., Holiday..., Kenner, LA 70062. 5. September 10, 2013, 9 a.m.-5 p.m., Holiday Inn, 301 Savannah Highway, Charleston, SC...

  4. 75 FR 65263 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation; Withdrawal of Proposed Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ...'' or ``Act'') as ``an inn, hotel, motel, or other place of lodging, except for an establishment located... interpretive rule to interpret ``public accommodations facility'' in the VGB Act as ``an inn, hotel, motel, or... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1450 Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act...

  5. Lodging in Boulder and Louisville, Colorado | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadership Community Education Center Economic Impact Environment, Health, & Safety Sustainability Energy : 720-587-3014 Comfort Inn 1196 W. Dillon Road Louisville, CO 80027 Phone: 303-604-0181 Courtyard by Marriott 948 West Dillon Road Louisville, CO 303-604-0007 Hampton Inn 912 W. Dillon Road Louisville, CO

  6. Something of Value: How Franchise Sellers Make Training Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Gladys

    1975-01-01

    Training can be the most important benefit included in the purchase of a franchise. Several of these training programs used by franchise sellers (Castro Convertibles, Roto-Rooter, H and R Block, Dunhill Personnel Systems Inc., Carvel, Holiday Inns, Sheraton Inns Inc., McDonald's) are discussed. (Author/BP)

  7. Dgroup: DG00410 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00410 Chemical ... DGroup Methylprednisolone ... D00407 ... Methylprednisolone (JP17/USP.../INN) ... D00751 ... Methylprednisolone sodium succinate (JAN/USP) ... D00979 ... Methylprednisolone acetate (JAN/US...P) ... D05000 ... Methylprednisolone hemisuccinate (USP); Methylprednisolone succinate (JP17) D05001 ... Methylprednisolo...ne sodium phosphate (USAN) D05002 ... Methylprednisolone suleptanate (USAN/INN) D07203 ... Methylprednisol

  8. HOTEL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Holiday Inn Beijing Focus Square Holiday Inn Beijing Focus Square is the newest and tallest international mid-scale hotel at Wangjing’s famous business hub which is within walking distance of many multinational companies and surrounded by a variety of dining and shopping outlets.

  9. HOTEL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Holiday Inn Chang An West Beijing On March 28,Conformity Assessment Services Co.under China Certification and Inspection Group held a grand ceremony to award certificates to Holiday Inn Chang An West Beijing,which has successfully passed the four managem

  10. 78 FR 36748 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Scoping Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    .... ADDRESSES: The scoping meetings will be held in Puerto Rico and in the U.S. Virgin Islands. See....--Holiday Inn Ponce & Tropical Casino, 3315 Ponce By Pass, Ponce, Puerto Rico. July 10, 2013-7 p.m.--Mayag[uuml]ez Holiday Inn, 2701 Hostos Avenue, Mayag[uuml]ez, Puerto Rico. July 11, 2013-7 p.m.--Asociaci...

  11. Dgroup: DG01746 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 48 ... Loop diuretic ... Loop diuretics, sulfonamide SLC12A1 (NKCC2) [HSA:6557] [KO:K14425] SLC12A2 (NKCC1) [HSA:6558] [KO:K10951] ... ...P17/USP/INN) ... D01634 ... Piretanide (JAN/USAN/INN) Cardiovascular agent ... DG01690 ... Sulfonamide diuretic ... DG017

  12. 76 FR 12340 - Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ...: Tuesday, March 22, 2011, Hilton St. Petersburg Carillon Parkway, 950 Lake Carillon Drive, St. Petersburg...., Key West, FL, telephone: (305) 295-5000; Monday, March 28, 2011, Hilton Garden Inn, 4535 Williams Blvd., Kenner, LA, telephone: (504) 712-0504 Tuesday, March 29, 2011, Hilton Garden Inn, 14108 Airport Rd...

  13. The Place Where Hope Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inn at NIH comforts kids and their families. Children need the comfort and security of their families—especially when they are being treated for a life-threatening illness far from home. The Children's Inn is a private, non-profit, family-centered ...

  14. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Present paper uses powerful technique of interval neural network (INN) to simulate and estimate structural response of multi-storey shear buildings subject to earthquake motion. The INN is first trained for a real earthquake data, viz., the ground acceleration as input and the numerically generated responses of different ...

  15. Business Case Analysis: Increasing Air Force Dining Hall Use as an Alternative to Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    work on 3 new food stations at the Sierra Inn, as well as a daily buffet line. They introduced a new deli, grill, and salad bar as well as a “Just4U...courses, starches, and vegetables, it is not uncommon for the Sierra Inn to offer six to eight main courses, a sandwich bar, soup and salad bar, and

  16. The electronic band structures of InNxAs1-x, InNxSb1-x and InAsxSb1-x alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, Rezek; Katircioglu, Senay

    2009-01-01

    The band gap bowings of InN x As 1-x , InN x Sb 1-x , and InAs x Sb 1-x alloys defined by the optimized lattice constants are investigated using empirical tight binding (ETB) method. The present ETB energy parameters which take the nearest neighbor interactions into account with sp 3 d 2 basis are determined to be sufficient to provide a typical feature for the band gap bowings of the alloys. The band gap bowing parameter is found to be relatively large in both InN x As 1-x and InN x Sb 1-x compared to InAs x Sb 1-x alloys. Moreover, the variation of the fundamental band gaps of InN x Sb 1-x alloys is sharper than that of InN x As 1-x alloys for small concentrations of N. Besides, a small amount of nitrogen is determined to be more effective in InN x Sb 1-x than in InN x As 1-x alloys to decrease the corresponding effective masses of the electrons around Γ points

  17. Regulering, ikke kriminalisering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, Stian Skår; Sieberg, Katri K.

    2007-01-01

    Kriminalisering av horekunder vil føre til at markedet for seksuelle tjenester skyves inn i det skjulte.  Skjer dette, kan kostnadene bli høye.......Kriminalisering av horekunder vil føre til at markedet for seksuelle tjenester skyves inn i det skjulte.  Skjer dette, kan kostnadene bli høye....

  18. En ny flugt ind i skoven

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarder, Jon Helt

    2008-01-01

    Thure Erik Lund: IND. (Inn). Oversat fra norsk af Sara Koch. 192 sider, 199 kr. Gyldendal. UDKOMMER I DAG. Fire stjerner......Thure Erik Lund: IND. (Inn). Oversat fra norsk af Sara Koch. 192 sider, 199 kr. Gyldendal. UDKOMMER I DAG. Fire stjerner...

  19. Dgroup: DG01430 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01430 Chemical ... DGroup Paclitaxel ... D00491 ... Paclitaxel (JAN/USP/INN) ... D05333 ... Paclitax...el poliglumex (USAN/INN) ... Antineoplastics, taxane TUBB [HSA:10381 10382 10383 203068 347688 347733 7280 81027 84617] [KO:K07375] ...

  20. 77 FR 36396 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... viewing or submitting material to the docket, call Renee V. Wright, Program Manager, Docket Operations... Fireworks. South Bay off Snapper Inn Restaurant, Oakdale, NY. 5. North Bay 4th of July Fireworks... p.m. Location: A point on the Connetquot River off Snapper Inn Restaurant, Oakdale, NY in...

  1. Dgroup: DG01455 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 212 ... Norepinephrine ... D00076 ... Noradrenaline (JP17); Norepinephrine (INN) ... D05206 ... Norepinephrine bitartr...USP); Isoprenaline sulfate (JAN) ... D02150 ... l-Isoprenaline hydrochloride (JP17) ... DG00212 ... Norepinephrine ... D00076 ... Noradrenaline...DG00212 ... Norepinephrine ... D00076 ... Noradrenaline (JP17); Norepinephrine (INN) ...

  2. Cross-Cultural and Global Interdependency Development in STEM Undergraduate Students: Results from Singapore Study Abroad Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexis, Frank; Casco, M.; Martin, J.; Zhang, G.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of study abroad programs is to educate and train future global leaders. This article examines the effectiveness of Clemson University's Singapore Study Abroad program in meeting this goal by exposing students to global perspectives of science technology, engineering and math (STEM) research and learning through an international summer…

  3. 75 FR 31812 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Atlantic Ocean. Applicant: Carol Johnston, Auburn, Alabama, TE178666 The applicant requests authorization... the Indiana bat in Kentucky. Applicant: Susan Loeb, U.S. Forest Service, Clemson, South Carolina... bat in the following locations: Cherokee National Forest and Great Smoky Mountains National Park...

  4. Merit-Based Scholarships and Student Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Julian, Rey

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-one states offer merit scholarships that require students to maintain a minimum grade point average (GPA). Using a comprehensive administrative database from Clemson University, this study estimates the relationship between the incentives created by a South Carolina merit scholarship (LIFE) and students' academic performance. I hypothesize…

  5. Geology Museum-Based Learning in Soil Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, E. A.; Tennant, C. H.; Post, C. J.; Cicimurri, C.; Cicimurri, D.

    2013-01-01

    Museums provide unique learning opportunities in soil science. The Bob Campbell Geology Museum in Clemson, SC, features an exhibit of minerals and rocks common in the state and in its geologic history. We developed a hands-on laboratory exercise utilizing an exhibit that gives college students an opportunity to visualize regional minerals and…

  6. Response of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) varieties to NPK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to determine the response of three okra varieties to four NPK fertilizers. The okra varieties; V35 (in the pot experiment and Clemson spineless in the field trial), Jokoso, and Sologo formed the main plot treatments and four NPK fertilizer rates: no fertilizer (control), 30 +15 +15, 60 +30 ...

  7. Anti-nutrient components of guinea grass ( Panicum maximum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... A true measure of forage quality is animal ... The anti-nutritional contents of a pasture could be ... nutrient factors in P. maximum; (2) assess the effect of nitrogen ..... 3. http://www.clemson.edu/Fairfield/local/news/quality.

  8. Smart Home Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Annabelle

    2017-07-12

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of NREL's smart home hardware-in-the-loop testing. It was presented at the Fourth International Workshop on Grid Simulator Testing of Energy Systems and Wind Turbine Powertrains, held April 25-26, 2017, hosted by NREL and Clemson University at the Energy Systems Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado.

  9. Research-Based Strategies and Best Practices for Dropout Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smink, Jay

    2009-01-01

    The National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been at the forefront of identifying model dropout prevention programs and promoting the use of best practices to increase the graduation rates in schools since 1986. The structure for these varied interventions and solutions takes the form of effective strategies, model…

  10. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  11. Organising South African industry-university partnership ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article purposes to propose a model for organising industry-university partnership programmes for viability. The proposed model draws on the work of Stafford Beer in his Viable System Model (Clemson 1984). The research paradigm stems from the fields of cybernetics and system thinking. The IUPP concept is in line ...

  12. Advanced GIS Exercise: Performing Error Analysis in ArcGIS ModelBuilder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Steven T.; Post, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of Geographic Information Systems is quickly becoming an integral part of the natural resource professionals' skill set. With the growing need of professionals with these skills, we created an advanced geographic information systems (GIS) exercise for students at Clemson University to introduce them to the concept of error analysis,…

  13. Цигулка, гъдулка… i inne nazwy ‘skrzypiec’ w języku bułgarskim (w porównaniu z pozostałymi językami słowiańskimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Rusek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Цигулка, гъдулка… and other names for ‘violin, fiddle’ in Bulgarian (in comparison to other Slavonic languages This paper analyses names for ‘violin’ in Bulgarian, examined against a Slavonic background. A broader approach has been taken to these names, because the article concerns not only the “classic” violin, but also the folk instruments (fiddles, which have different names in Bulgarian (and other Slavonic languages: цигулка, гъдулка, гусла, кемане, лаута, виолина, гънилка, виулица. These names are described from the semantic, derivational and etymological point of view. The noun цигулка, the basic name of ‘violin’, occurs only in Bulgarian and it is unknown in other Slavonic languages, although there are documented derivatives in Serbo-Croatian. The noun кемане ‘violin’, from Turkish, also occurs in Macedonian and Serbo-Croatian and other languages belonging to the Balkan league. The second part of the papers is devoted to the names for ‘violin’ in other Slavonic languages. Some names, extant only in some of the Slavonic languages, are derived from an onomatopoeic stem (Bulg. цигулка, Pol. skrzypce, East-Slavonic скрипка. Most of the Slavonic languages have a noun derived from gǫsli, a Common Slavic ancestor, but in some Slavonic languages (Czech, Slovak, and Sorabic this word now means the classic violin, while in others it means ‘fiddle’ (comp. Pol. gęśle, Bulg. гусла, and in the Eastern Slavonic languages and Old Church Slavonic it means a ‘plucked string instrument’ ‘a kind of lute’. In Serbo-Croatian it means both the classic violin and primitive fiddle. Polabian has its own name form ‘violin’ gigléikia, which comes from German.

  14. Uplatnění PETL při řešení některých složitých kauz v oblasti příčinné souvislosti v medicínskoprávních sporech

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, Adam; Doležal, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, 7-8 (2013), s. 242-248 ISSN 1211-4405 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP408/12/2574 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : medical law * causality * medico-legal disputes Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  15. Gelled composition procedures for hydraulic degradation of a subterrestrial formation and for displacing petroleum in such a formation by use of the composition. Gelert sammensetning, fremgangsmaate til hydraulisk oppbrytning av en underjordisk formasjon ved bruk av sammensetningen og fremgangsmaate til fortrengning av olje inne i en underjordisk formasjon ved bruk av sammensetningen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, B L

    1984-09-17

    This is a claim for a gelled compositions suitable as fracture fluids and water diversion agents comprising water, a polymeric viscosifier an aldehyde component, and at least one phenolic component such as resorcinol, catechol, and the like, as well as selected oxidized phenolic materials such as 1,4-benzoquinone of natural or synthetic origin and natural and modified tannins. The gelled compositions can additionally contain gel stabilizers and chemical buffering agents. Claim: Gelled composition suitable as fracture fluids and water diversion agents consisting essentially of: (A) Water, (B) A water-thickening amount of a water-dispersible polymer selected from the group consisting of cellulose ethers, polyacrylamides, and bipolysaccharides or heteropolysaccharides produced by the action of bacteria of the genus xanthomonas upon carbohydrate, (C) A small, but effective amount in the range of 0.02 to 2 weight percent, of at least one aldehyde component selected from the group consisting of aliphatic monoaldhydes having from one to about 10 carbon atoms per molecule, glyoxal, glutaraldehyde, and terepththaldehyde, and (D) A small, but effective amount in the range of 0.005 to 2 weight percent of at least one phenolic compound selected from the group consisting of phenol, catechol, resorcinol, phloroglucinol, pyrogallol, 4,4'-diphenyl, 1,3 dihydroxynapthalene, 1,4-benzoquinone, hydroquinone, quinhydrone, and quebracho which amounts of aldehyde (C) and phenolic compound (D) are sufficient to cause gelation of an aqueous dispersion of polymer (B) and formsaid gelled composition. 5 drawings, 11 tables.

  16. Nové doklady osídlení výšinných poloh na Karlovarsku - polykulturní lokality Orlík a Šibeniční vrch u obce Valeč v Čechách

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prekop, F.; Krištuf, P.; Peksa, V.; Kočár, Petr; Eigner, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 12 (2017), s. 41-67 ISSN 1804-2953 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : hillside archaeology * Karlovy Vary region (Czech Republic) * archaeobotany Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  17. Gestión, valoración y transferencia de tecnología y conocimiento de la cartera de proyectos de innovación, en el marco del programa Innóvate Perú - FIDECOM en una universidad peruana : un caso de estudio

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya Blua, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    La reciente tendencia a que las universidades y empresas peruanas hayan empezado a relacionarse con el fin de promover la investigación aplicada y la competitividad, respectivamente, ha generado una importante cartera de proyectos de innovación en ciencia y tecnología, que se encuentran en ejecución o que finalizaron, a nivel nacional. Este acercamiento surge a partir de la puesta en marcha de los Fondos de Investigación y Desarrollo para la Competitividad – FIDECOM, en el a...

  18. An InN/InGaN Quantum Dot Electrochemical Biosensor for Clinical Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Zaman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Low-dimensional InN/InGaN quantum dots (QDs are demonstrated for realizing highly sensitive and efficient potentiometric biosensors owing to their unique electronic properties. The InN QDs are biochemically functionalized. The fabricated biosensor exhibits high sensitivity of 97 mV/decade with fast output response within two seconds for the detection of cholesterol in the logarithmic concentration range of 1 × 10−6 M to 1 × 10−3 M. The selectivity and reusability of the biosensor are excellent and it shows negligible response to common interferents such as uric acid and ascorbic acid. We also compare the biosensing properties of the InN QDs with those of an InN thin film having the same surface properties, i.e., high density of surface donor states, but different morphology and electronic properties. The sensitivity of the InN QDs-based biosensor is twice that of the InN thin film-based biosensor, the EMF is three times larger, and the response time is five times shorter. A bare InGaN layer does not produce a stable response. Hence, the superior biosensing properties of the InN QDs are governed by their unique surface properties together with the zero-dimensional electronic properties. Altogether, the InN QDs-based biosensor reveals great potential for clinical diagnosis applications.

  19. Attitudes of physicians and pharmacists towards International Non-proprietary Name prescribing in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bever, Elien; Elseviers, Monique; Plovie, Marijke; Vandeputte, Lieselot; Van Bortel, Luc; Vander Stichele, Robert

    2015-03-01

    International Non-proprietary Name (INN) prescribing is the use of the name of the active ingredient(s) instead of the brand name for prescribing. In Belgium, INN prescribing began in 2005 and a major policy change occurred in 2012. The aim was to explore the opinions of Dutch-speaking general practitioners (GPs) and pharmacists. An electronic questionnaire with 39 five-point Likert scale statements and one open question was administered in 2013. Multivariate analysis was performed with multiple linear regression on a sum score for benefit statements and for drawback statements. Answers to the open question were qualitatively analysed. We received 745 valid responses with a representable sample for both subgroups. Participants perceived the motives to introduce INN prescribing as purely economic (to reduce pharmaceutical expenditures for the government and the patient). Participants accepted the concept of INN prescribing, but 88% stressed the importance of guaranteed treatment continuity, especially in older, chronic patients, to prevent patient confusion, medication non-adherence and erroneous drug use. In conclusion, the current way in which INN prescribing is applied in Belgium leads to many concerns among primary health professionals about patient confusion and medication adherence. Slightly adapting the current concept of INN prescribing to these concerns can turn INN prescribing into one of the major policies in Belgium to reduce pharmaceutical expenditures and to stimulate rational drug prescribing. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  20. An InN/InGaN Quantum Dot Electrochemical Biosensor for Clinical Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, Naveed ul Hassan; Gómez, Victor J.; Rodriguez, Paul E.D. Soto; Kumar, Praveen; Zaman, Saima; Willander, Magnus; Nötzel, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Low-dimensional InN/InGaN quantum dots (QDs) are demonstrated for realizing highly sensitive and efficient potentiometric biosensors owing to their unique electronic properties. The InN QDs are biochemically functionalized. The fabricated biosensor exhibits high sensitivity of 97 mV/decade with fast output response within two seconds for the detection of cholesterol in the logarithmic concentration range of 1 × 10−6 M to 1 × 10−3 M. The selectivity and reusability of the biosensor are excellent and it shows negligible response to common interferents such as uric acid and ascorbic acid. We also compare the biosensing properties of the InN QDs with those of an InN thin film having the same surface properties, i.e., high density of surface donor states, but different morphology and electronic properties. The sensitivity of the InN QDs-based biosensor is twice that of the InN thin film-based biosensor, the EMF is three times larger, and the response time is five times shorter. A bare InGaN layer does not produce a stable response. Hence, the superior biosensing properties of the InN QDs are governed by their unique surface properties together with the zero-dimensional electronic properties. Altogether, the InN QDs-based biosensor reveals great potential for clinical diagnosis applications. PMID:24132228

  1. Changes to International Nonproprietary Names for antibody therapeutics 2017 and beyond: of mice, men and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parren, Paul W H I; Carter, Paul J; Plückthun, Andreas

    Active pharmaceutical substances require an International Nonproprietary Name (INN) assigned by the World Health Organization (WHO) to obtain market authorization as a medicinal product. INNs are selected to represent a unique, generic name for a drug enabling unambiguous identification by stakeholders worldwide. INNs may be requested after initiating clinical development of an investigational drug. Pharmaceutical classes are indicated by a common stem or suffix. Currently, INNs for monoclonal antibody-based drugs are recognized by the suffix, -mab, preceded by a source infix such as -xi- (chimeric), -zu- (humanized) or -u- (human) designating the species from which the antibody was derived. However, many technological advances have made it increasingly difficult to accurately capture an antibody's source in its name. In 2014, the WHO and the United States Adopted Names (USAN) Council approached this challenge by implementing changes to antibody source infix definitions. Unfortunately, gaps and ambiguities in the definitions and procedures resulted in inconsistent source category assignments and widespread confusion. The Antibody Society, extensively supported by academic and industry scientists, voiced concerns leading to constructive dialog during scheduled consultations with WHO and USAN Council representatives. In June 2017, the WHO announced that use of the source infix will be discontinued for new antibody INNs effective immediately. We fully support this change as it better aligns antibody INNs with current and foreseeable future innovations in antibody therapeutics. Here we review the changes implemented. Additionally, we analyzed antibody INNs recently assigned under the previous 2014 definitions and provide recommendations for further alignment.

  2. Dgroup: DG00462 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00462 Chemical ... DGroup Estradiol ... D00105 ... Estradiol (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01413 ... Estr...adiol valerate (JAN/USP/INN) ... D01617 ... Estradiol dipropionate (JAN) ... D01953 ... Estradiol benzoate (JP17) D04061 ... Estr...adiol acetate (USAN) ... D04063 ... Estradiol cypionate (USP) ... D04064 ... Estradiol enanthate (USAN) D04065 ... Estr...adiol undecylate (USAN/INN) D07918 ... Estradiol hemihydrate D07919 ... Estr...adiol 17 beta-hemisuccinate Other ... DG01584 ... Estrogen receptor agonist ... DG01986 ... Estrogen Cyp substrate ... DG0

  3. Dgroup: DG01152 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01152 Chemical ... DGroup Edetate ... D00052 ... Edetic acid (NF/INN) D00571 ... Edetate calcium disodium... anhydrous (USP) D01802 ... Edetate disodium (USP); Disodium edetate hydrate (JP17) D03943 ... Edetate calcium disodium... (USP); Calcium sodium edetate hydrate (JP17); Sodium calcium edetate (INN) ... D03944 ... Ed...etate dipotassium (USAN) D03945 ... Disodium edetate D03946 ... Edetate sodium (USAN) D03947 ... Edetate trisodium... (USAN) D07934 ... Edetate calcium disodium D07935 ... Dicobalt edetate (INN) Other ... DG01692 ... Chelator ATC code: V03AB03 Antidotes, Chelating agents ...

  4. VIKOR Method for Interval Neutrosophic Multiple Attribute Group Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Han Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will extend the VIKOR (VIsekriterijumska optimizacija i KOmpromisno Resenje method to multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM with interval neutrosophic numbers (INNs. Firstly, the basic concepts of INNs are briefly presented. The method first aggregates all individual decision-makers’ assessment information based on an interval neutrosophic weighted averaging (INWA operator, and then employs the extended classical VIKOR method to solve MAGDM problems with INNs. The validity and stability of this method are verified by example analysis and sensitivity analysis, and its superiority is illustrated by a comparison with the existing methods.

  5. Concept of restaurant reservations information system

    OpenAIRE

    Štok, Janez

    2016-01-01

    In our home place we have only one inn. It's occupied mostly from Italian guests. Times are changing and buying power of Italians has declining since world financial collapse. Some fellow villagers has got an idea to rent some rooms for tourists. Inn is popular choice among guests, because is in walking distance of rooms. There is a problem with knowledge of languages, with that in mind owner of inn decided to contact me and explain the problem. There is need to create some sort of Android ap...

  6. Dgroup: DG01600 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01600 DGroup Bisphosphonate -dronic acid, -dronate ... DG00780 ... Etidronic acid ... D02373 ... Etidron...ic acid (USAN/INN) ... D00314 ... Etidronate disodium (JP17/USP) ... DG00781 ... Clodronic acid ... D03545 ... Clodron...ic acid (USAN/INN) ... D03544 ... Clodronate disodium (USAN); Sodium clodronate hydrate (JAN) ... D07720 ... Clodron...ic acid disodium salt DG00782 ... Pamidronic acid ... D07281 ... Pamidronic acid (INN) ... D00941 ... Pamidron...ate disodium (USAN); Pamidronate disodium hydrate (JAN) ... DG00783 ... Alendronic acid ... D07119 ... Alendron

  7. Proceedings of the Conference and Symposium Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    This proceedings contains articles of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting, 2013. It was held on Nov.20-22, 2013 Ramada Plaza Hotel in Suwon, Korea and subject of the Korean Association for Radiation Protection Fall Meeting 2013. This proceedings is comprised of 7 sessions. The main topic titles of session are as follows: Medical treatment and Biology 1, Measurement and Analysis 1, Radiation protection1, Medical treatment and Biology 2, Measurement and Analysis 2, Radiation protection 2, Radiation protection 3.

  8. Estudo da flamabilidade e resistência à chama de compósito de poliéster insaturado e fibra da folha do abacaxizeiro (PALF)

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Luciene Mendes

    2011-01-01

    Na presente pesquisa foram desenvolvidos compósitos com fibras da folha do abacaxizeiro (PALF - Pineapple Leaf Fiber), utilizando resina de poliéster insaturado como matriz, incorporando retardante de chama em diferentes composições. As fibras da folha do abacaxizeiro foram obtidas na ramada 4 do município de Ielmo Marinho no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. A resina de poliéster insaturado e o catalisador foram comprados no comércio. O retardante de chama de alumina trihidratada (hidróxido de ...

  9. From Patrons to Chefs, a History of Women in Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Whitaker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available American women have long been involved in public eating places. In Early America a common pattern was set as wives partnered with husbands in operating dining rooms in taverns and inns – and then carried on alone.

  10. 75 FR 12519 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Beddown of Training F-35A Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ..., at Buena High School Cafeteria, 5225 Buena School Road, Sierra Vista, Arizona; Holloman Air Force... Mexico; Wednesday, April 14, 2010 at La Quinta Inn and Suites, 200 E 19th Street, Roswell, New Mexico...

  11. Isoseismals for the Kutch earthquake of 26th January 2001

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    2001-01-26

    Jan 26, 2001 ... of schools, hospitals, community inns and govern- ment offices. The survey ... Failure of columns occurred at ground storey level in most multistoreyed ... Acknowledgements. Professor and Head, Department of Earthquake.

  12. Dgroup: DG01732 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (USAN/INN) D09350 ... Indeglitazar (USAN) Antidiabetic agent ... DG01685 ... Insulin sens...itizer ... DG01795 ... PPAR gamma agonist Other ... DG01733 ... PPAR agonist ... Antidiabetics, PPAR agonist NR1C1 (PPARA)

  13. Drug: D04966 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04966 Drug Metformin (USAN/INN) ... C4H11N5 D04966.gif ... Antidiabetic agent ... DG0168...5 ... Insulin sensitizer ... DG01684 ... Biguanide antidiabetic Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ... DG01684 ... Biguanide antidiabetic

  14. Drug: D00595 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00595 Drug Buformin (USAN/INN) ... C6H15N5 D00595.gif ... Antidiabetic agent ... DG01685... ... Insulin sensitizer ... DG01684 ... Biguanide antidiabetic Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ... DG01684 ... Biguanide antidiabetic

  15. Dgroup: DG01735 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available glinide (JP17/USAN/INN) ... D01854 ... Mitiglinide calcium hydrate (JP17) ... Antidiabetic agent Unclassified ... DG02044 ... Hypoglycemics ... Antidiabetics ABCC8 (SUR1) [HSA:6833] [KO:K05032] ...

  16. 77 FR 10539 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Research Special Emphasis Panel; RFA DE12-004 & 005 Functional Restoration of Salivary Glands. Date: March... Garden Inn, 7301 Waverly St., Bethesda, MD 20814. Contact Person: Marilyn Moore-Hoon, Ph.D., Scientific...

  17. Drug: D08098 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08098 Drug Ketamine (INN); Tekam (TN) ... C13H16ClNO D08098.gif ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anestheti...cs ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG01498 ... NMDA rece

  18. InN-based heterojunction photodetector with extended infrared response

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Lung-Hsing; Kuo, Chien-Ting; Huang, Jhih-Kai; Hsu, Shun-Chieh; Lee, Hsin-Ying; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Lee, Po-Tsung; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Hwang, Yi-Chia; Su, Chen-Feng; He, Jr-Hau; Lin, Shih-Yen; Cheng, Yuh-Jen; Lin, Chien-Chung

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Optical Society of America. The combination of ZnO, InN, and GaN epitaxial layers is explored to provide long wavelength photodetection capability in the GaN based materials. Growth temperature optimization was performed to obtain the best quality of InN epitaxial layer in the MOCVD system. The temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) can provide the information about thermal quenching in the InN PL transitions and at least two nonradiative processes can be observed. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy are applied to confirm the inclusion of indium and the formation of InN layer. The band alignment of such system shows a typical double heterojunction, which is preferred in optoelectronic device operation. The photodetector manufactured by this ZnO/GaN/InN layer can exhibit extended long-wavelength quantum efficiency, as high as 3.55%, and very strong photocurrent response under solar simulator illumination.

  19. 76 FR 24463 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Inn Hotel, 6530 Isla Verde Avenue, Carolina, Puerto Rico 00979. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... (OFL) vs. Acceptable Biological Catch (ABC) and legal implications of each. b. Role of SSC and how...

  20. Synovial fluid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  1. Chemical Reactions at Surfaces. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freud, Hans-Joachim [Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany). Fritz-Haber-Inst.

    2003-02-21

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Chemical Reactions at Surfaces was held at Holiday Inn, Ventura, California, 2/16-21/03. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  2. Dgroup: DG01182 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01182 Chemical ... DGroup Gadopentetic acid ... D08006 ... Gadopentetic acid (INN) D01707 ... Gadopen...tetate dimeglumine (JAN/USP) ... D09795 ... Meglumine gadopentetate (JAN) ... ATC code: V08CA01 Contrast medium for NMR-tomography ...

  3. Dgroup: DG00637 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00637 Chemical ... DGroup Micafungin ... D08218 ... Micafungin (INN) D02465 ... Micafungin ...sodium (JAN/USAN) ... D11010 ... Micafungin sodium hydrate (JAN) ... ATC code: J02AX05 Antibiotics ...

  4. Dicty_cDB: VSI646 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available vwsm*snisgi*kafkricniy irsc*h**tkwssnskrn*kcsyilflqkws*siriqwcq*snskkysrskqiifc*inn ctknatn*inkkkkiixkxfxli*kk--- ---HGSDQINNLY*kmsx...lhgvvhveqylrylksfqtnl*hl hsfmltlin*vviq**kklevflhsiftemelkyqnsvvpmkql*evl*kqtnnflln** lykkcnklnk*KKKNNSQIXXF...NLKKK--- ---HGSDQINNLY*kmsxvihisxnexlxxhlqaexlvidfsaawcgpcxxxxpxfekls nefxtftfvhvdidklsghpivkxixsvptfyfyxnga

  5. Dicty_cDB: VHN654 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available *snisgi*kafkricniy irsc*h**tkwssnskrn*kcsyilflhkws*siriqwcq*snskkysrskqiifc*inn ctknatn*INKKKKIIXKLFYLIYXLKKK--- ---QINNLY*kmsx...**kklevflhsift*melkyqnsvvpmkql*evl*kqtnnflln**l ykkcnklnk*kkknnsqiilfnlxfkkk--- ---QINNLY*kmsxvihisfnexldkxl

  6. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YNL152W, YMR032W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YNL152W INN1 Essential protein that associates with the contractile actomyosin ring... Bait description Essential protein that associates with the contractile actomyosin ring, required for ingre

  7. Dgroup: DG00591 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00591 Chemical ... DGroup Meropenem ... D08185 ... Meropenem (INN) D02222 ... Meropenem (USP); Meropene...n group ... DG01458 ... Carbapenem ATC code: J01DH02 beta-Lactam antibiotics, carbapenem penicillin binding protein ...

  8. Dgroup: DG01486 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01486 DGroup Penem -penem DG01486.gif DG00594 ... Faropenem ... D01839 ... Faropenem sodi...um hydrate (JP17) ... D08919 ... Faropenem medoxomil (USAN) DG01213 ... Sulopenem ... D05969 ... Sulopenem (USAN/INN) ... D09672 ... Sulopene

  9. Dgroup: DG02570 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02570 Chemical ... DGroup Tebipenem ... D09598 ... Tebipenem pivoxil (JAN/INN) ... Anti...bacterial, Cell wall biosynthesis inhibitor beta-Lactam, Carbapenem penicillin binding protein ...

  10. 78 FR 60297 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ..., Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Leonid V. Tsap, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Center for Scientific...: Residence Inn Bethesda, 7335 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814. Contact Person: Patrick K Lai, Ph.D...

  11. 77 FR 27742 - Notice of Public Meetings for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement/Overseas Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ..., VA; 5. June 12, 2012 (Tuesday) at Hampton Inn and Suites Swansboro, 215 Old Hammock Road, Swansboro... 32202. 14. Kill Devil Hills Branch Library, Main Library, 400 Mustian Street, Kill Devil Hills, NC 27948...

  12. Dgroup: DG01946 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nofibrate - pravastatin mixt D10857 ... Fenofibrate - simvastatin mist D10385 ... Ezetimibe - atorvastatin mixt ... ... D08488 ... Amlodipine besilate - atorvastatin calcium mixt ... D01291 ... Nicomol (JP17/INN) ... D01892 ... Icosapent

  13. InN-based heterojunction photodetector with extended infrared response

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Lung-Hsing

    2015-11-21

    © 2015 Optical Society of America. The combination of ZnO, InN, and GaN epitaxial layers is explored to provide long wavelength photodetection capability in the GaN based materials. Growth temperature optimization was performed to obtain the best quality of InN epitaxial layer in the MOCVD system. The temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) can provide the information about thermal quenching in the InN PL transitions and at least two nonradiative processes can be observed. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy are applied to confirm the inclusion of indium and the formation of InN layer. The band alignment of such system shows a typical double heterojunction, which is preferred in optoelectronic device operation. The photodetector manufactured by this ZnO/GaN/InN layer can exhibit extended long-wavelength quantum efficiency, as high as 3.55%, and very strong photocurrent response under solar simulator illumination.

  14. Dgroup: DG02651 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ody Monoclonal antibody IL2RA (CD25) [HSA:3559] [KO:K05068] ... ... DG02651 Chemical ... DGroup Daclizumab ... D03639 ... Daclizumab (USAN/INN) ... Immunosuppressant, Anti-CD25 antib

  15. Dgroup: DG02722 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available stic, TRAIL receptor 1 antibody Agonistic monoclonal antibody TNFRSF10A (TRAILR1, CD261) [HSA:8797] [KO:K04722] ... ... DG02722 Chemical ... DGroup Mapatumumab ... D04858 ... Mapatumumab (USAN/INN) ... Antineopla

  16. Dgroup: DG02667 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02667 Chemical ... DGroup Teplizumab ... D09013 ... Teplizumab (USAN/INN) ... Antidiabetic, Anti-CD3 antibody... Monoclonal antibody CD3 [HSA:915 916 917] [KO:K06450 K06451 K06452] ...

  17. Dgroup: DG02662 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02662 Chemical ... DGroup Apolizumab ... D02967 ... Apolizumab (USAN/INN) ... Antineoplastic, Anti-HLA-DR antibody... Monoclonal antibody HLA-DRB [HSA:3123 3125 3126 3127] [KO:K06752] ...

  18. Dgroup: DG02668 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02668 Chemical ... DGroup Visilizumab ... D06314 ... Visilizumab (USAN/INN) ... Immunosuppressant, Anti-CD3 antibod...y Monoclonal antibody CD3 [HSA:915 916 917] [KO:K06450 K06451 K06452] ...

  19. Dgroup: DG02658 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02658 Chemical ... DGroup Cysteamine Mercaptamine ... D03634 ... Cysteamine (USAN); Merc...aptamine (INN) D03635 ... Cysteamine hydrochloride (USAN) ... D10468 ... Cysteamine bitartrate (JAN) ... Cystine concentration-lowering agent ...

  20. Mitmekesine, mitmel viisil kesine / Ly Lestberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lestberg, Ly, 1965-

    2004-01-01

    Arvustus: Robbe-Grillet, Alain. Džinn : punane auk ebaühtlaste sillutuskivide vahel : moodsa aja lugemik = Djinn : un trou rouge entre les pavés disjoints / Heli Alliku tõlge. [Tallinn] : Valgus, 2004. (Homo ludens)

  1. [Raamat] / Tarmo Rajamets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajamets, Tarmo, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    Tutvustus: Robbe-Grillet, Alain. Džinn : punane auk ebaühtlaste sillutuskivide vahel : moodsa aja lugemik = Djinn : un trou rouge entre les pavés disjoints / Heli Alliku tõlge. [Tallinn] : Valgus, 2004. (Homo ludens)

  2. Dgroup: DG00694 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00694 Chemical ... DGroup Docetaxel ... D07866 ... Docetaxel (JAN/INN) ... D02165 ... Docetaxel (USAN); Doc...etaxel hydrate (JP17); Docetaxel injection (JP17); Docetaxel for injection (JP17) ... Cyp subs

  3. Dgroup: DG01771 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01771 Chemical ... DGroup Docusate ... D00305 ... Docusate sodium (USP); Sodium dioctyl ...sulfosuccinate (INN); Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (JAN) ... D03885 ... Docusate calcium (USP) D03886 ... Docusate

  4. Dgroup: DG00760 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00760 Chemical ... DGroup Glucosamine ... D04334 ... Glucosamine (USAN/INN) D08022 ... Glucosa...mine hydrochloride D08023 ... Glucosamine sulfate ... ATC code: M01AX05 Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, Antirheumatics ...

  5. Dgroup: DG01612 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne ... D07944 ... Fenetylline (INN) ... D04147 ... Fenethylline hydrochloride (USAN) DG00974 ... Caffeine ... D00528 ... Caffeine... (USP); Anhydrous caffeine (JP17) ... D01453 ... Caffeine hydrate (JP17) ... D07603 ... Caffeine citrate (USP) ...

  6. Dgroup: DG01892 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tine (INN) ... D01179 ... Duloxetine hydrochloride (JAN/USAN) ... DG00974 ... Caffeine ... D00528 ... Caffeine (USP); Anhydr...ous caffeine (JP17) ... D01453 ... Caffeine hydrate (JP17) ... D07603 ... Caffeine citrate (USP) ... DG00982 ... Tacri

  7. 75 FR 65261 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Public Accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... Condominium Ass'n, 2005 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 41601 (November 22, 2005) (condominium buildings may be covered as... characteristics normally associated with a hotel, motel, or inn); Thompson v. Sand Cliffs Owners Ass'n, Inc., 1998...

  8. Dgroup: DG01917 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available anib phosphate (JAN) DG01357 ... Varlitinib ... D09689 ... Varlitinib (USAN/INN) ... D09690 ... Varlitinib tosylate (USAN) DG01361 ... Crenolan...ib ... D10102 ... Crenolanib (USAN) ... D10103 ... Crenolanib besylate (USAN) DG01363 ... Toceranib ... D0850

  9. Dgroup: DG01918 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available litinib ... D09689 ... Varlitinib (USAN/INN) ... D09690 ... Varlitinib tosylate (USAN) ... DG01361 ... Crenolanib ... D10102 ... Crenolan...ib (USAN) ... D10103 ... Crenolanib besylate (USAN) ... DG01363 ... Toceranib ... D085

  10. Dgroup: DG02612 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02612 Chemical ... DGroup Rituximab ... D02994 ... Rituximab (USAN/INN); Rituximab (gene...tical recombination) (JAN); Rituximab (genetical recombination) [Rituximab biosimilar 1] (JAN) ... ATC code:

  11. Dgroup: DG02379 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02379 Chemical ... DGroup Brinzolamide ... D00652 ... Brinzolamide (JAN/USP/INN) ... ATC code: S01EC04 Antiglauco...ma, Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor CA2 [HSA:760] [KO:K18245] ...

  12. Dgroup: DG02648 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02648 Chemical ... DGroup Infliximab ... D02598 ... Infliximab (USAN/INN); Infliximab (genetica...l recombination) (JAN); Infliximab (genetical recombination) [Infliximab biosimilar1] (JAN); Infliximab (genetica

  13. Dgroup: DG01750 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tical recombination) (JAN) D02745 ... Interferon alfa-2b (USAN); Interferon alfa-2b (genetica... DG01750 Chemical ... DGroup Interferon alpha ... D00745 ... Interferon alfa-2a (USAN/INN); Interferon alfa-2a (gene

  14. Pop / Tauno Maarpuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maarpuu, Tauno

    2006-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: The Fiery Furnaces "Bitter Tea", Ian Gillan "Gillan's Inn", Feeder "The Singels", Phoenix "It's Never Been Like That", Elvis Costello & Allen Toussaint "The River in Reverse", Erinevad esitajad "The New Gold Standard", Erinevad esitajad "R2 Live Vol. 1"

  15. Second public meeting of Governor Kaine's Independent Virginia Tech Incident Review Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The second public meeting of Governor Kaine's Independent Virginia Tech Incident Review Panel will convene on Monday, May 21, at The Inn at Virginia Tech and Skelton Conference Center Latham Ballroom, 901 Prices Fork Road in Blacksburg.

  16. Dgroup: DG02008 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02008 DGroup Gastric mucosal protectant ... DG00025 ... Sucralfate ... C07314 ... Sucralfate ... D00446 ... Sucralfate... (USP/INN); Sucralfate hydrate (JP17) ... D00177 ... Methylmethionine sulfonium chloride (J

  17. Drug: D05817 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05817 Drug Seletracetam (USAN/INN) ... C10H14F2N2O2 D05817.gif ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02038 ... Piracetam... antiepileptics Chemical group: DG02506 ... Piracetam derivative Treatment of epilepsy

  18. Dgroup: DG01196 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01196 Chemical ... DGroup Samarium (153Sm) lexidronam ... D08504 ... Samarium (153Sm) lexidron...am (INN) D05795 ... Samarium Sm 153 lexidronam pentasodium (USAN); Samarium (153Sm) lexidronam sodium (JA

  19. Aed, imelise rahu paik / Merilen Mentaal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mentaal, Merilen, 1972-

    2008-01-01

    Chelsea Flower Show 2008 võistelnud aedadest. Kujundajateks Philip Nash, Andy Sturgeon, Buono Gazerwitz, Trevor Tooth, Philip Nixon, Thomas Hoblyn, Robert Myers, Tom Stuart-Smith, Yvonne Innes ja Olivia Harrison. 11 värv. ill

  20. Sociální a společenské aspekty hostinského prostoru

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Altman, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2013), s. 139-152 ISSN 0862-1209 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : public houses and inns * regular guests * social relations Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  1. Drug: D07623 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 01942 ... Iminobenzyl antipsychotic Chemical group: DG01312 ... Tricyclic antidepressant, Iminodibenzyl derivativ... D07623 Drug Carpipramine (INN) ... C28H38N4O D07623.gif ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG

  2. Drug: D06551 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06551 Drug Afimoxifene (USAN/INN); Tamogel (TN) ... C26H29NO2 D06551.gif ... Other ... DG01619 ... Clomifene and tam...oxifen derivative ... DG01620 ... Tamoxifene-type antineoplastic ... Selective estrogen r

  3. Drug: D07282 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07282 Drug Alfaxalone (INN) ... C21H32O3 D07282.gif ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG02030 ... Anesthetics... ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ... DG02027 ... General anesthetics ATC code: N01AX05 ... Steroid ...

  4. Dgroup: DG02388 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02388 Chemical ... DGroup Diazepam ... D00293 ... Diazepam (JP17/USP/INN) ... ATC code: ...N05BA01 Antianxiety, Minor tranquilizer, Sedative-hypnotic Benzodiazepine derivative GABRA/GABRB/GABRD/GABRE

  5. Alpha-mangostin attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implicated in autoimmune diseases because of ... Inflammation then induces joint disease and synovial damage ..... Anti-inflammatory and lysosomal stability actions of. Cleome ... McInnes IB, Schett G. The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

  6. Drug: D05522 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05522 Drug Pixantrone (USAN/INN); Pixuvri (TN) ... C17H19N5O2 D05522.gif ... Antineoplastic ... DG01727 ... Anthraqu...inone antineoplastic Other ... DG01529 ... Topoisomerase inhibitor ... DG01527 ... Topoisomera

  7. Drug: D08224 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08224 Drug Mitoxantrone (INN); Misostol (TN) ... C22H28N4O6 D08224.gif ... Antineoplastic ... DG01727 ... Anthraquin...one antineoplastic Other ... DG01529 ... Topoisomerase inhibitor ... DG01527 ... Topoisomerase

  8. Light-Emitting Diodes: Research, Manufacturing, and Applications III

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schubert, E

    1999-01-01

    .... Red LEDs with an emission wavelength of 680 nm which emission energy was smaller than the band-gap energy of InN were fabricated mainly resulting from the piezoelectric field due to the strain...

  9. 40 CFR 79.66 - Neuropathology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for vascular perfusion may be found in the text by Zeman and Innes (1963), Hayat (1970), and Spencer..., and necrosis) and tissue changes (e.g., gliosis, leukocytic infiltration, and cystic formation) shall...

  10. Dgroup: DG02469 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02469 Chemical ... DGroup Naftopidil ... D01674 ... Naftopidil (JP17/INN); Naftopidil tablet...s (JP17); Naftopidil orally disintegrating tablets (JP17) ... Antidysuria, alpha1-Adrenergic receptor a

  11. MEG source localization using invariance of noise space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junpeng Zhang

    Full Text Available We propose INvariance of Noise (INN space as a novel method for source localization of magnetoencephalography (MEG data. The method is based on the fact that modulations of source strengths across time change the energy in signal subspace but leave the noise subspace invariant. We compare INN with classical MUSIC, RAP-MUSIC, and beamformer approaches using simulated data while varying signal-to-noise ratios as well as distance and temporal correlation between two sources. We also demonstrate the utility of INN with actual auditory evoked MEG responses in eight subjects. In all cases, INN performed well, especially when the sources were closely spaced, highly correlated, or one source was considerably stronger than the other.

  12. Drug: D00107 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00107 Drug Tacrolimus (USAN/INN); Tacrolimus hydrate (JP17); Prograf (TN); Protopic... liver transplant [DS:H00083] Organ rejection in heart transplant [DS:H00083] Atopic dermatitis [DS:H01358

  13. "Bioneeride" Lisa Kiviristi ja John Ivanko ökohotell kogub USAs tuntust / Dagmar Lamp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamp, Dagmar

    2006-01-01

    Eesti juurtega Kivirist ja tema elukaaslane Ivanko peavad bed & breakfast-tüüpi hotelli Inn Serendipity, mis kasutab täielikult taastuvenergiat, kogu nende hotellindus põhineb mahepõllumajandusel ja taaskasutamisel

  14. Dgroup: DG00980 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00980 Chemical ... DGroup Nizofenone ... D08280 ... Nizofenone (INN) D01465 ... Nizofenone fumarate (JAN) Neuropsych...iatric agent ... DG01972 ... Nootropic ATC code: N06BX10 Nervous system stimulant ...

  15. Dgroup: DG00872 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00872 Chemical ... DGroup Cyamemazine ... D07307 ... Cyamemazine (INN) D07756 ... Cyamemazine tartrate Neuropsychiat...ric agent ... DG01905 ... Phenothiazine antipsychotics ATC code: N05AA06 Phenothiazine antipsychotics ...

  16. Dgroup: DG00887 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00887 Chemical ... DGroup Melperone ... D07309 ... Melperone (INN) D08172 ... Melperone hydrochloride Neuropsychiatr...ic agent ... DG01940 ... Butyrophenone derivative ATC code: N05AD03 Butyrophenone antipsychotics ...

  17. Dgroup: DG01339 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available il citrate (USAN) Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01564 ... Opioid receptor agonist ... DG01563 ... mu-Opioid receptor ago... DG01339 Chemical ... DGroup Carfentanil ... D07620 ... Carfentanil (INN) D03405 ... Carfentan

  18. Dgroup: DG00979 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00979 Chemical ... DGroup Pirisudanol ... D07347 ... Pirisudanol (INN) D08390 ... Pirisudanol dimaleate Neuropsychia...tric agent ... DG01972 ... Nootropic ATC code: N06BX08 Nervous system stimulant ...

  19. Dgroup: DG00901 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hloride (JP17) ... Neuropsychiatric agent ... DG01941 ... Benzamide antipsychotic ... DG01478 ... Dopamine antagonist ... D... DG00901 Chemical ... DGroup Tiapride ... D08590 ... Tiapride (INN) D01522 ... Tiapride hydroc

  20. Dgroup: DG00823 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00823 Chemical ... DGroup Tilidine ... D08597 ... Tilidine (INN) D06147 ... Tilidine hydrochloride (USAN) Neuropsych...iatric agent ... DG01564 ... Opioid receptor agonist ... DG01563 ... mu-Opioid receptor agonis

  1. Dgroup: DG01987 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01987 Chemical ... DGroup Eglumegad Eglumetad ... D08908 ... Eglumegad (INN) D03966 ... Eglumetad (USAN) ... Antianxie...ty, Smoking cessation ajunct GRM2 [HSA:2912] [KO:K04605] ...

  2. Dgroup: DG02007 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02007 DGroup Antianxiety, carbamate derivatives ... D00376 ... Meprobamate (JAN/USP/I...NN) ... D07317 ... Emylcamate (INN) D01807 ... Mebutamate (JAN/USAN) Neuropsychiatric agent ... Antianxiety ...

  3. Dgroup: DG01186 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01186 Chemical ... DGroup Gadobenic acid ... D08018 ... Gadobenic acid (INN) D04283 ... Gadobe...nate dimeglumine (USAN); Meglumine gadobenate (JAN) ... ATC code: V08CA08 Non-ionic Contrast medium for NMR-tomography ...

  4. Drug: D00330 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00330 Drug Flurbiprofen (JP17/USP/INN); Ansaid (TN) ... C15H13FO2 D00330.gif ... Anti...-inflammatory ... DG01908 ... Antiinflammatory drug, propionic acid derivatives ... DG01504 ... Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAI

  5. Curing Children's Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Madelen, after chemotherapy. Her parents, father José and mother Julia, say, "Nobody wants to be in this ... friends easily, even with the shyest kids. They love to play together at The Children's Inn at ...

  6. Dgroup: DG02590 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG02590 Chemical ... DGroup Laropiprant ... D08940 ... Laropiprant (INN/USAN) ... Anti-atherosclerotic, Antidyslipide...mia, Prostaglandin D2 receptor antagonist Target: PTGDR [HSA:5729] [KO:K04332] ...

  7. Dgroup: DG01727 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01727 DGroup Anthraquinone antineoplastic -antrone DG01727.gif DG00701 ... Mitoxantrone ... D08224 ... Mitoxantron...e (INN) ... D02166 ... Mitoxantrone hydrochloride (JAN/USP) ... DG00704 ... Pixantrone ... D05522 ... Pixantron...e (USAN/INN) ... D09654 ... Pixantrone dimaleate (USAN) D02894 ... Ametantrone acetate (USAN) D04685 ... Ledoxantron...e trihydrochloride (USAN) D04783 ... Losoxantrone hydrochloride (USAN) D05510 ... Piroxantron...e hydrochloride (USAN) D06059 ... Teloxantrone hydrochloride (USAN) D06190 ... Topixantrone (USAN/IN

  8. Cultural diversity in hospitality management : how to improve cultural diversity workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Korjala, Veera

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor´s thesis investigates cultural diversity in the hospitality management. It aims at presenting effective ways to improve cultural diversity in a workplace. This study was commissioned by JW Marriott San Antonio Hill Country Resort & Spa in Texas, USA and three hotels in Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA: Atherton Hotel, Hampton Inn & Suites and Residence Inn. The bachelor´s thesis incorporates culture theories and their applications to the workplace. Additionally, it focuses on cultural d...

  9. Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The solar hot water system installed at LaQuinta Motor Inn Inc., at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The Inn is a three-story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

  10. Study of High Quality Indium Nitride Films Grown on Si(100 Substrate by RF-MOMBE with GZO and AlN Buffer Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wurtzite structure InN films were prepared on Si(100 substrates using radio-frequency metal-organic molecular beam epitaxy (RF-MOMBE system. Ga-doped ZnO (GZO and Amorphous AlN (a-AlN film were used as buffer layers for InN films growth. Structural, surface morphology and optical properties of InN films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and photoluminescence (PL. XRD results indicated that all InN films exhibited preferred growth orientation along the c-axis with different intermediate buffers. TEM images exhibit the InN/GZO growth by two-dimensional mode and thickness about 900 nm. Also, the InN films can be obtained by growth rate about ~1.8 μm/h. Optical properties indicated that the band gap of InN/GZO is about 0.79 eV. These results indicate that the control of buffer layer is essential for engineering the growth of InN on silicon wafer.

  11. InN-based layers grown by modified HVPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrkin, A.; Usikov, A.; Soukhoveev, V.; Kovalenkov, O.; Ivantsov, V.; Dmitriev, V.; Collins, C.; Readinger, E.; Shmidt, N.; Davydov, V.; Nikishin, S.; Kuryatkov, V.; Song, D.; Rosenbladt, D.; Holtz, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This paper contains results on InN and InGaN growth by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) on various substrates including sapphire and GaN/sapphire, AlGaN/sapphire, and AlN/sapphire templates. The growth processes are carried out at atmospheric pressure in a hot wall reactor in the temperature range from 500 to 750 and ordm;C. Continuous InN layers are grown on GaN/sapphire template substrates. Textured InN layers are deposited on AlN/sapphire and AlGaN/sapphire templates. Arrays of nano-crystalline InN rods with various shapes are grown directly on sapphire substrates. X-ray diffraction rocking curves for the (002)InN reflection have the full width at half maximum (FWHM) as narrow as 270 arcsec for the nano-rods and 460 arcsec for the continuous layers. In x Ga 1-x N layers with InN content up to 10 mol.% are grown on GaN/sapphire templates. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. DelPhiForce web server: electrostatic forces and energy calculations and visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Jia, Zhe; Peng, Yunhui; Chakravorty, Arghya; Sun, Lexuan; Alexov, Emil

    2017-11-15

    Electrostatic force is an essential component of the total force acting between atoms and macromolecules. Therefore, accurate calculations of electrostatic forces are crucial for revealing the mechanisms of many biological processes. We developed a DelPhiForce web server to calculate and visualize the electrostatic forces at molecular level. DelPhiForce web server enables modeling of electrostatic forces on individual atoms, residues, domains and molecules, and generates an output that can be visualized by VMD software. Here we demonstrate the usage of the server for various biological problems including protein-cofactor, domain-domain, protein-protein, protein-DNA and protein-RNA interactions. The DelPhiForce web server is available at: http://compbio.clemson.edu/delphi-force. delphi@clemson.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. POCA Update: An NSF PAARE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Donald K.; Brittain, S. D.; Cash, J. L.; Hartmann, D. H.; Howell, S. B.; King, J. R.; Leising, M. D.; Mayo, E. A.; Mighell, K. J.; Smith, D. M., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the status of "A Partnership in Observational and Computational Astronomy (POCA)” under the NSF's "Partnerships in Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Education (PAARE)" program. This partnership includes South Carolina State University (a Historically Black College/University), Clemson University (a Ph.D. granting institution) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. We have reached the midpoint of this 5-year award and discuss the successes, challenges and obstacles encountered to date. Included is a summary of our summer REU program, the POCA graduate fellowship program, faculty research capacity building, outreach activities, increased use of NSF facilities and shared resources. Additional POCA research presentations by the authors are described elsewhere in these proceedings. Support for this work was provided by the NSF PAARE program to South Carolina State University under award AST-0750814 as well as resources and support provided by Clemson University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory.

  14. Pilot scale vitrification studies on hazardous and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennert, D.M.; Overcamp, T.J.; Compton, K.L.; Sargent, T.N. Jr.; Resce, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the Department of Energy has committed extensive resources to the development of technologies suitable for the stabilization of high level radioactive waste. The objective of this work is to produce a vitreous wasteform capable of retaining the radioactive fractions in a leach resistant form. In an effort to further the development of technologies based within the DOE Complex, the DOE is making efforts to promote technical transfer initiatives that will bring these technologies to the private sector. To this end, the Department of Energy through the Savannah River Site is working with Clemson University's Environmental Systems Engineering Department to establish a laboratory dedicated to vitrification research. The laboratory is part of a cooperative effort between Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Clemson University, and their industrial partners EnVitCo, Inc., and Stir Melter, Inc

  15. Partnering with a local concrete block manufacturing plant to improve quality of construction materials in Haiti’s Central Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Gordon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a successful ongoing partnership between Clemson Engineers for Developing Countries (CEDC and a concrete masonry unit (CMU manufacturing plant in rural Haiti. The infrastructure destruction and resulting loss of life of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti highlighted the need for improved building materials and codes. This partnership has helped to improve the strength of CMUs in the plant, both creating a safer local built environment and expanding the economic opportunities for this plant. Using samples of aggregate and cement from the site in Haiti, students in Clemson performed experiments to optimise the CMU mix design and made other suggestions to improve efficiency and quality of their product. Consistency continues to be a challenge for the CMU plant, and this paper also describes proposed procedures to help the plant implement quality control and quality assurance plans.

  16. Genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationships in grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae) based on PCR-RFLP analysis of mtDNA segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasotiropoulos, V; Klossa-Kilia, E; Kilias, G; Alahiotis, S

    2002-04-01

    The genetic differentiation and phylogenetic relationships among five species of the Mugilidae family (Mugil cephalus, Chelon labrosus, Liza aurata, Liza ramada, and Liza saliens) were investigated at the mtDNA level, on samples taken from Messolongi lagoon-Greece. RFLP analysis of three PCR-amplified mtDNA gene segments (12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and CO I) was used. Ten, eight, and nine restriction enzymes were found to have at least one recognition site at 12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and CO I genes, respectively. Several fragment patterns were revealed to be species-specific, and thus they could be useful in species taxonomy as diagnostic markers, as well as for further evolutionary studies. Seven different haplotypes were detected. The greatest amount of genetic differentiation was observed at the interspecific level, while little variation was revealed at the intraspecific level. The highest values of nucleotide sequence divergence were observed between M. cephalus and all the other species, while the lowest was found between C. labrosus and L. saliens. Dendrograms obtained by the three different methods (UPGMA, Neighbor-Joining, and Dollo parsimony), were found to exhibit in all cases the same topology. According to this, the most distinct species is M. cephalus, while the other species are clustered in two separate groups, thefirst one containing L. aurata and L. ramada, the other L. saliens and C. labrosus. This last clustering makes the monophyletic origin of the genus Liza questionable.

  17. PREVALENCE OF ANISAKID NEMATODE LARVAE INFECTING SOME MARINE FISHES FROM THE LIBYAN COAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Hamed H; Bowashi, Salem Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    This study examined eight hundred ninety six marine fishes belonging to nine different fish species; Synodus saurus; Merluccius merluccius; Trachurus mediterraneus; Serranus cabrilla; Mullus surmuletus; Diplodus annularis; Spicara maena; Siganus rirulatus and Liza ramada. The fishes were bought from fish markets at five different sites on Libyan coast, from January to December 2013, for study the anisakids larvae among them. The results showed that 344/896 fishes (38.4%) were infected with Anisakids larvae. S. saurus was the highly infected (80.9%), followed by T mediterraneus (77.5%) but, S. cabrilla, S. maena, M merluccius, M surmuletus, and D. annularis were least anisakid infected showed rates of 58.2%, 53.8%, 43.7%, 36.7% & 3.6%, respectively. No parasites were in S. rirulatus and L, ramada. Ten species of Anisakids larvae was detected during the present study. Two Pseudoterranova sp. Larvae, two types of Anisakis larvae, Anisakis simplex larva and Anisakis sp. Larva, two types of Contracaecum sp. Larvae and four Hysterothylacium larvae. Females showed higher prevalence than males. The number of anisakid larvae varied according to body length and weight of infected fish, without significant difference between prevalence and seasons, but, a significant difference was between prevalence and regions.

  18. South Carolina DOE/EPSCOR Research Implementation Proposal Cooperative Agreement. Final Report for October 15, 2000 - October 15, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Zee, John W.

    2003-01-15

    The final report includes resumes of faculty hired under this cooperative agreement to illustrate the increase in infrastructure and the quality of research performed in the Departments of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry at the University of South Carolina and the Department of Chemistry at Clemson University. In addition, this agreement initiated research that has resulted in the nation's first NSF Industry/University Cooperative Research Center for Fuel Cells and a summary of this Center is included.

  19. The SC State NSF PAARE Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Donald; Ajello, Marco; Brittain, Sean; Cash, Jennifer; Fogle, Bryan; Hartmann, Dieter; Ho, Shirley; Howell, Steve; King, Jeremy; Leising, Mark; Smith, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    We report on the activities of our NSF PAARE program during Year 3 of the project. Our partnership under this award includes South Carolina State University (a Historically Black College/University), Clemson University (a Ph.D. granting institution) and individual investigators at NASA Ames and elsewhere. Our partnership with the Citizen CATE Experiment and involvement in the total solar eclipse which passed through our campus on August 21, 2017, will be discussed. The PAARE project continues to strengthen our partnership with Clemson. We are close to completing a memorandum of agreement between the two institutions that will allow for the seamless transfer of an undergraduate from SC State to Clemson’s graduate program in physics and astronomy. Additionally, we have worked together under the Citizen CATE project and through other research activities. SC State is a member of the National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) and participates through its faculty and undergraduates, one of whom (Wesley Red) is reporting on his summer internship at this conference. We also served as the state coordinator for South Carolina for the Citizen CATE Experiment. The August 21st path of totality crossed through our campus and the campus of our partner Clemson University. Additional colleges, universities and citizen scientist groups partnered with us to provide 7 sites of coverage across South Carolina from the foothills of the Appalachian mountains to the Atlantic Ocean near the site of departure of the shadow from the continental U.S. Support for this work includes our NSF PAARE award AST-1358913 as well as resources and support provided by Clemson University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. CATE work has been supported by NASA SMD award NNX16AB92A to the National Solar Observatory. Additional details can be found at: http://physics.scsu.edu

  20. Advances in treatment methods for uranium contaminated soil and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Water and soil contaminated with actinides, such as uranium and plutonium, are an environmental concern at most U.S. Department of Energy sites, as well as other locations in the world. Remediation actions are on going at many sites, and plans for cleanup are underway at other locations. This paper will review work underway at Clemson University in the area of treatment and remediation of soil and water contaminated with actinide elements. (author)