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Sample records for radon program microbeam

  1. Radon Research Program, FY 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The scientific information being sought in this program encompasses research designed to determine radon availability and transport outdoors, modeling transport into and within buildings, physics and chemistry of radon and radon progeny, dose response relationships, lung cancer risk, and mechanisms of radon carcinogenesis. The main goal of the DOE/OHER Radon Research Program is to develop information to reduce these uncertainties and thereby provide an improved health risk estimate of exposure to radon and its progeny as well as to provide information useful in radon control strategies. Results generated under the Program were highlighted in a National Research Council report on radon dosimetry. The study concluded that the risk of radon exposure is 30% less in homes than in mines. This program summary of book describes the OHER FY-1991 Radon Research Program. It is the fifth in an annual series of program books designed to provide scientific and research information to the public and to other government agencies on the DOE Radon Research Program

  2. Radon Research Program, FY-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has established a Radon Research Program with the primary objectives of acquiring knowledge necessary to improve estimates of health risks associated with radon exposure and also to improve radon control. Through the Radon Research Program, OHER supports and coordinates the research activities of investigators at facilities all across the nation. From this research, significant advances are being made in our understanding of the health effects of radon. OHER publishes this annual report to provide information to interested researchers and the public about its research activities. This edition of the report summarizes the activities of program researchers during FY90. Chapter 2 of this report describes how risks associated with radon exposure are estimated, what assumptions are made in estimating radon risks for the general public, and how the uncertainties in these assumptions affect the risk estimates. Chapter 3 examines how OHER, through the Radon Research Program, is working to gather information for reducing the uncertainties and improving the risk estimates. Chapter 4 highlights some of the major findings of investigators participating in the Radon Research Program in the past year. And, finally, Chapter 5 discusses the direction in which the program is headed in the future. 20 figs

  3. Radon Research Program, FY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research (DOE/OHER) is the principal federal agency conducting basic research related to indoor radon. The scientific information being sought in this program encompasses research designed to determine radon availability and transport outdoors, modeling transport into and within buildings, physics and chemistry of radon and radon progeny, dose response relationships, lung cancer risk, and mechanisms of radon carcinogenesis. There still remains a significant number of uncertainties in the currently available knowledge that is used to estimate lung cancer risk from exposure to environmental levels of radon and its progeny. The main goal of the DOE/OHER Radon Research Program is to develop information to reduce these uncertainties and thereby provide an improved health risk estimate of exposure to radon and its progeny and to identify and understand biological mechanisms of lung cancer development and required copollutants at low levels of exposure. Information useful in radon control strategies is also provided by the basic science undertaken in this program

  4. American Lung Association's radon public information program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    The American Lung Association (ALA), the nation's oldest voluntary health organization, is dedicated to the conquest of lung disease and the promotion of lung health. The objective of the ALA Radon Public Information Program is to reduce public exposure to elevated indoor radon levels through implementing grassroots-based radon public awareness campaigns by 22 local ALA groups. The program, which is funded by a grant from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was initiated in December 1989; the first phase will continue until May, 1991. Activities of local Lung Associations include distribution of free or reduced-cost radon kits; presenting programs in elementary and secondary schools; presenting information on TV news series and talk shows, and on radio Public Service Announcements and talk shows; presenting articles and feature stories in the print media; holding conferences, workshops, and displays at fairs and other exhibitions; distributing radon fact sheets through libraries and utility company mailings; and distributing videos through video chains and libraries. The local Lung Associations also serve as promoters for the EPA/Advertising Council Radon Public Service Announcement Campaign. We will highlight the activities of the groups in communicating radon health risks to the public; we will describe the results obtained and will attempt to evaluate the merits of the various approaches on the basis of the initial results

  5. National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program. Proficiency report, June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving the objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide the information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under the voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in periodic RCP Proficiency Reports

  6. National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) program. Proficiency report, September 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving this objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide this information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under this voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in the Report

  7. National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program. Proficiency report, January 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving the objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide the information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under the voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in the Report

  8. Community-based radon education programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laquatra, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that in the United States, educational programs about radon gas have been developed and implemented by federal and state government entities and other organizations, including the Cooperative Extension Service and affiliated land grant universities. Approaches have included the production of brochures, pamphlets, workshops for targeted audiences, and consumer telephone hotlines. In a free market for radon mitigation products and services, these efforts can be appropriate for their credibility, lack of bias, and individualized approaches. The purpose of this paper is to report on an educational program about radon undertaken by Cornell Cooperative Extension, including county-based workshops targeted to homeowners, housing professionals, high school teachers, and others. An analysis of survey data from program participants forms the basis for a discussion of the effectiveness of the Cooperative Extension Service in reaching the public about this topic

  9. Interactive house investigation and radon diagnostics computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the interactive computer program called Dungeons and Radon which was developed as part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program's Radon Technology for Mitigators (RTM) course which is currently being offered in the Regional Radon Training Centers (RRTCs). The program was designed by Terry Brennan to be used in training radon mitigation contractors. The Macintosh based program consists of a series of animated, sound and voice enhanced house scenes. The participants choose where and what to investigate and where to perform diagnostic tests in order to gather enough information to design a successful mitigation system

  10. Ten practical lessons for an effective radon risk communication program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Johnson, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    Those responsible for state and local radon programs often express frustration about the small share of homes that have been tested for radon, and the small share of those with high readings that have been mitigated. Several recent studies have examined how well alternative ways of communicating about radon's risk have accomplished the goals of motivating appropriate testing and mitigation. Unfortunately, the results of these studies have not reached practitioners. This paper is for them. It summarizes the practical implications that are most crucial for planning and implementing an effective radon risk communication program--a program that will motivate people to test for radon and mitigate when radon levels are high, without unduly alarming those whose radon levels are low

  11. Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radon-resistant features. These features include gravel and plastic sheeting below the foundation, along with proper sealing ... lower the radon level. Detailed information about radon reduction in your home or building can be found ...

  12. Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program methods and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.; Hoornbeek, J.; Jalbert, P.; Sensintaffar, E.; Hopper, R.

    1991-01-01

    The US EPA developed the voluntary Radon Measurement Proficiency Program in 1986 in response to a Federal and State need for measurement services firms to demonstrate their proficiency with radon measurement methods and devices. Since that time, the program has set basic standards for the radon measurement industry. The program has grown dramatically since its inception. In 1986, fewer than 50 companies participated in the program. By 1989, more than 5,000 companies were participating. Participants represent firms with an analytical capability as well as firms that rely upon another firm for analysis service. Since the beginning of the RMP Program, the Agency has learned a great deal about radon measurement methods and devices. This paper reviews the measurement devices used in the program and what the EPA has learned about them since the program's inception. Performance data from the RMP Program are used to highlight relevant findings

  13. The Department of Energy's radon testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, H.L.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L.; Gammage, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy recently completed an initial survey of indoor radon in its buildings in response to Public Law 100--551, the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988. Other federal agencies have also conducted radon surveys. This paper presents an overview of the results from radon testing of several thousand buildings ranging from 100 m 2 to over 10,000 M 2 in size. In addition, we have examined results from groups of buildings, classified according to ventilation and usage characteristics. So far, there is no apparent difference among building classes. The paper also discusses our proposal for phased radon surveys. We suggest that first-phase results can be used to identify facilities with radon problems. In the second phase, we suggest measurements be made at a much higher sampling density at facilities with radon problems. The results of the second phase are expected to identify all buildings in need of mitigation

  14. The rationale and experiences in implementing New Jersey's radon program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bynum, J.; Klotz, J.; Cahill, M.; Nicholls, G.

    1988-01-01

    The authors discuss how radon data from domestic modeling, mining studies, and animal studies provided a strong basis for New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) to support MJDEP's recommendation to establish a state radon program. The program, described in this report, focuses on promoting intensive testing by state residents followed by prompt remediation for residences with radon levels greater than or equal to four pico curies per liter. NJDOH believes a threshold for radiation carcinogens does not exist. Even at low levels, exposure to radiation is associated with some health risk. Hence, with consideration given to the length of exposure in the home prompt action is warranted until more definitive data suggest otherwise

  15. National radon measurement-proficiency program: Individual proficiency report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    In February 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program to assist the public in identifying organizations capable of providing reliable radon measurement services. In December 1991, EPA announced the new individual proficiency listing category in the RMP Program. Individuals applying for this new listing status must demonstrate knowledge of radon measurement fundamentals by passing a written proficiency examination, maintain affiliation with an RMP listed organization, and meet other program requirements. This report lists those individuals who have met the requirements of the RMP Program as of April 30, 1992. These requirements are designed to provide minimum proficiency criteria for individuals who provide radon measurement services on-site in a residential environment

  16. First year evaluation of EPA's radon contractor proficiency (RCP) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a voluntary program to evaluate radon reduction contractors and provide this information to the public, as part of activities mandated by the Indoor Radon Abatement Act (IRAA) of 1988. The Radon Contractor Proficiency Program consists of several elements that collectively help to ensure the proficiency of radon mitigators and give the public greater confidence in their capability. Contractors who participate in the program must pass a written examination, adhere to mitigation guidelines, keep records of work, meet continuing education requirements and pass a re-examination every two years. Upon meeting the program's requirements, mitigators are listed in EPA's National RCP Proficiency Report. The first Report released on May 15, 1990 listed 636 contractors. The second Report, to be release in August, will list 895 contractors, representing an increase of 40 per cent

  17. Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This leaflet in the At-a-Glance Series, describes what radon is, where it is found, why it presents a risk to health, the official advice, and the remedies that are available to reduce radon levels. (author)

  18. Radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigel, F [Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    1978-09-01

    The noble gas radon, formerly called emanation, was discovered a few years after radium. /sup 222/Rn, the longest-lived isotope, has a half-life of 3,82 days. This half life is so short that the experimental techniques available at present (1978) are not sufficient for a characterization of defined radon compounds, even though there are definite indications for the existence of such compounds, and one may expect such radon compounds to be even more stable than the numerous known xenon compounds. - The radon isotopes /sup 219/Rn (Actinon), /sup 220/Rn (Thoron), and /sup 222/Rn (Radon) occur in nature despite their rather short half-lives, because they are continously generated from their mothers /sup 223/Ra, /sup 224/Ra, and /sup 226/Ra, which are in secular equilibrium with long-lived isotopes /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, and /sup 232/Th, and are in turn continously formed from these long-lived isotopes. Since the radon isotopes are gases, they enter the atmosphere and are carried for long distances with air currents. - Because radon is so short-lived, its practical applications are rather limited. For medical applications, small sealed glass tubes filled with radon are used as radiation sources after the radon has decayed, because the whole series of Po-, Bi-, and Pb-isotopes of the radium decay chain are formed, whose penetrating radiation is useful for therapy. When solids are spiked with Ra isotopes, radon is evolved at a constant rate. On heating such solids, phase transitions show up by sudden increased radon evolution (Hahn's emanation method). - On the basis of nuclear theoretical calculations, there is hardly a chance for the discovery of a long-lived radon species. Therefore, major progress in radon chemistry is hardly to be expected in the near future.

  19. Comparative study of radon exposure in Canadian homes and uranium mines - a discussion on the importance of national radon program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jing

    2017-01-01

    The history of lung cancer in uranium miners is well known for over hundreds of years when the disease was referred to as 'miner's disease' or 'mountain sickness'. Radon levels in uranium mines have decreased significantly over the past 30 years as a result of effective radiation protection measures at workplaces. For the most recent 10-year period, the average radon concentrations to underground and surface workers in Canadian uranium mines were 111 and 11 Bq m -3 , respectively. Based on the recent radon survey carried out in roughly 14 000 homes in 121 health regions across Canada and the more recent radon and thoron survey in 33 Canadian cities and 4000 homes, the average radon concentration in Canadian homes is 77 Bq m -3 . This study demonstrates that, nowadays, workers are exposed to radon in underground mines at a comparable radon level to what Canadians are exposed to at home. Since exposure to indoor radon is the main source of natural radiation exposure to the population, it is important for the National Radon Program to further increase radon awareness, and to encourage more Canadians to take appropriate actions to reduce radon exposure. (authors)

  20. Reconstruction of national distribution of indoor radon concentration in Russia using results of regional indoor radon measurement programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmoshenko, I.; Malinovsky, G.; Vasilyev, A.; Zhukovsky, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is a reconstruction of the national distribution and estimation of the arithmetic average indoor radon concentration in Russia using the data of official annual 4-DOZ reports. Annual 4-DOZ reports summarize results of radiation measurements in 83 regions of Russian Federation. Information on more than 400 000 indoor radon measurements includes the average indoor radon isotopes equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) and number of measurements by regions and by three main types of houses: wooden, one-storey non-wooden, and multi-storey non-wooden houses. To reconstruct the national distribution, all-Russian model sample was generated by integration of sub-samples created using the results of each annual regional program of indoor radon measurements in each type of buildings. According to indoor radon concentration distribution reconstruction, all-Russian average indoor radon concentration is 48 Bq/m"3. Average indoor radon concentration by region ranges from 12 to 207 Bq/m"3. The 95-th percentile of the distribution is reached at indoor radon concentration 160 Bq/m"3. - Highlights: • Reconstruction of indoor radon concentration distribution in Russia was carried out. • Data of official annual 4-DOZ reports were used. • All-Russian average indoor radon concentration is 48 Bq/m"3. • The 95-th percentile is 160 Bq/m"3.

  1. The US radon problem, policy, program and industry: achievements, challenges and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angell, W. J.

    2008-01-01

    US radon research, policy and programs have stalled since their start in the late 1980's and early 1990's. In 2005, more homes had radon above the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Reference Level than anytime in history since more homes were added to the housing stock that had indoor radon concentrations exceeding 150 Bq m -3 than had been mitigated. Funding for the US radon program has declined two-thirds from 1997 to 2007. Despite impressive goals for radon reduction, EPA lacks sound progress indicators especially in new construction radon control systems. School radon reduction has been at a standstill since the early 1990's. There has been no significant radon risk reduction in low-income sectors of the population. There is need for effective partnerships between the public and private sectors of the US radon professional communities as well as with the international programs and professionals. (authors)

  2. Environmental Assessment for moving the Pacific Northwest Laboratory radon generators from Life Sciences Laboratory II, Richland North Area, to Life Sciences Laboratory I, 300 Area, and their continued use in physical and biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, I.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) radon generators are a core resource of the overall U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Radon Research Program and are administratively controlled within the ''Radon Hazards in Homes'' project. This project primarily focuses on radon exposures of animals and addresses the major biologic effects and factors influencing risks of indoor radon exposures. For example, the ''Mechanisms of Radon Injury'' and ''In vivo/In vitro Radon-Induced Cellular Damage'' projects specifically address the cytogenetic and DNA damage produced by radon exposure as part of a larger effort to understand radon carcinogenesis. Several other ongoing PNL projects, namely: ''Biological Effectiveness of Radon Alpha Particles: A Microbeam Study of Dose Rate Effects,'' ''Laser Measurements of Pb-210,'' ''Radon Transport Modeling in Soils,'' ''Oncogenes in Radiation Carcinogenesis,'' ''Mutation of DNA Targets,'' ''Dosimetry of Radon Progeny,'' and ''Aerosol Technology Development'' also use the radon exposure facilities in the conduct of their work. While most, but not all, studies in the PNL Radon Research Program are funded through DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research, PNL also has ongoing collaborative radon studies with investigators worldwide; many of these use the radon exposure facilities. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide for relocation of the radon generators to a DOE-owned facility and to continue to provide a controlled source of radon-222 for continued use in physical and biological research

  3. National Radon Contractor Proficiency Program. Proficiency report, October 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The report lists those individual contractors in the United States who have met the requirements of the Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program as of August 18, 1990. These requirements are designed to provide minimum proficiency criteria for individuals who design and supervise the installation of radon mitigation systems in buildings. (Some States have more stringent requirements as part of their radon certification programs. The States should be consulted directly for details on their programs; see Section 5 for a list of State radon contacts). The RCP Program measures the proficiency of an individual contractor, not their company. Therefore, users of the report who select a mitigation firm should ensure that the services are provided by the listed contractor. The National RCP Program does not accredit mitigation contractors, nor does it certify, recommend, or endorse participating companies. Only the listed contractor, not their company of affilation, are deemed proficient. The inclusion of a contractor in the report should not be interpreted as a certification or accreditation of the individual or affiliated company

  4. Continuous, environmental radon monitoring program at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, N.; Sorensen, C.D.; Tung, C.H.; Orchard, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    A continuous, environmental radon monitoring program has been established in support of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The monitoring program is to characterize the natural radon emissions at the YMP site, to understand the existing radon concentrations in the environmental background, and to assess and control the potential work exposure. Based upon a study of the monitoring results, this paper presents a preliminary understanding of the magnitudes, characteristics, and exposure levels of radon at the YMP site

  5. Navy radon assessment and mitigation program: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This final report encompasses the events from the beginning of the Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program to the closure of the program on October 31, 1994. Included in the report are discussions of the phases of the program including screening, assessment, mitigation, and post-mitigation. The primary discussion involves screening and assessment. The report addresses recommendations made to the Naval Facilities Engineering Command by the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and the final decisions that were made. Special emphasis is placed on quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), since QA/QC was given top priority during the implementation of this program. Included in the discussion on QA/QC are ana overview of the measurement process, positive and negative controls, replicated measurements, and application of chamber exposures to data calibration. The report concludes with a discussion of testing considerations for naval facilities and radon mitigation considerations for the Department of the Navy

  6. Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmen, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery that radon enters into residential and commercial structures and produces adverse health consequences to occupants thereof has raised issues for the real estate profession in connection with transactions involving affected structures. The legal responsibilities of real estate professionals in relation to such structures have not yet been clearly defined. Moreover, consistent and reliable testing methods and results, clear identification of circumstances where testing is necessary, and consensus as to health risks suggested by various radon levels have yet to be achieved. When these legal and technical questions are clarified, real estate buyer and sellers as well as agents and brokers will be greatly benefited

  7. A summary of EPA radon chamber tests and results for rounds 3 and 4 of the National Radon Measurement Proficiency Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.M.; Sensintaffar, E.L.

    1993-02-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (ORIA) established the National Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program in 1986. Through this voluntary program, participants can demonstrate their ability to measure radon and/or radon decay products by submitting their detection devices to a blind test in a designated radon chamber. In this report, two EPA radon and radon decay products test chambers (chambers A and C) located at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory in Montgomery, Alabama are described. These chambers were used to expose detectors submitted for testing in Round 4 of the National Radon Measurement Proficiency Program and are used routinely for calibration purposes. Also described are the measurement and calibration procedures which were used to establish the official target values for radon and radon decay products concentrations during RMP Round 4 testing. The results for RMP Round 3 (conducted at the US DOE Environmental Measurements Laboratory radon chamber in New York) and RMP Round 4 (conducted in the two NAREL chambers) are discussed and compared. Following Round 4, the NAREL staff analyzed the collective performance for each measurement method tested in these rounds and found that all methods agreed with the target values within expected limits except for RPISU's and charcoal adsorbers. After analyzing the RMP4 results, NAREL staff spent several months evaluating the difference in charcoal adsorber response between Round 3 and 4 by performing radon chamber tests using EPA 4-inch, open-faced charcoal adsorbers

  8. RECOMMENDED FOUNDATION FILL MATERIALS CONSTRUCTION STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes the technical basis for a recommended foundation fill materials standard for new construction houses in Florida. he radon-control construction standard was developed by the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). ill material standards are formulated for: (1)...

  9. Use of RAMARN meters within the Radon Program of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holecek, J.; Otahal, P.; Bercikova, M.; Slovak, J.

    2017-01-01

    The RAMARN system, produced by the National Institute for Nuclear Chemical and Biological Protection, is designed for the time integral determination of radon concentration. During it production, the properties of the solid state nuclear track detector with sensitive layer Kodak LR 115 were used. This detector is placed in a polypropylene diffusion chamber and exposed for 2 to 14 months. During exposure, the polymeric cellulose nitrate, which forms a sensitive layer of the detector through the alpha particles, is being damaged. The damage is visualized by etching in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. After the etching, the damage is seen as white tracks in the red background. In the process of evaluation, the determination of the number of tracks per unit area is determined using a conversion factor established by cooperation with the Authorized Metrology Center K 113 for the radon concentration and equilibrium equivalent radon concentration calibration. The systems are regularly verified by the Authorized Metrology Center. The RAMARN systems are also involved in interlaboratory comparative measurements abroad. The easy construction and high reliability of the systems allowed their use in the Radon Program of the Czech Republic. The Radon Program of the Czech Republic from 2010 to 2019 - The Action Plan builds on the results of the Radon Program of the Czech Republic, which was approved for the period from 2000 to 2009 by Government Resolution No. 538 of 31 May 1999, supplemented by Government Resolution No. 970 of 7 October 2002. It was prepared in accordance with the valid legal regulation of the Czech Republic in the field of radiation protection and took into account the current trends in the EU member states. The Czech Action Plan includes an Intelligence Strategy, anti-radon prevention, regulation of the existing radon exposure and Expert scientific and technical support to achieve the goals of the Action plan. More than 110,000 RAMARN systems, of which the

  10. National Radon Contractor Proficiency Program. Proficiency report: Supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The report, a supplement to the RCP Proficiency Report, will further assist governmental officials in providing advice to the public on the selection of proficient radon mitigation contractors. These reports list 1,123 contractors who have met the requirements of the RCP Program as of December 15, 1990. The Proficiency Report provides information on each contractor's name, RCP identification number, company name, address, phone number, and geographic service area. The report provides two additional tables, indexed by company name and by RCP identification number. The report is intended to help users quickly identify a proficient contractor if only the company name is known, or to verify which contractor is associated with a particular ID number

  11. Managing Radon in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA recommends testing all schools for radon. As part of an effective IAQ management program, schools can take simple steps to test for radon and reduce risks to occupants if high radon levels are found.

  12. Radiological Programs- Ambient Radon at the Yucca Mountain Site (SCPB:NA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRW

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the ambient radon monitoring activities conducted by the Radiological/Environmental Field Programs Department of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M and O), Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Office. Overall, outdoor radon concentrations measured at the Yucca Mountain site were within the range of those reported for other areas in Nevada and the continental United States. Though there was some evidence of trends with time at some monitoring sites, regional atmospheric radon concentrations to date, do not appear to have changed significantly since the inception of site characterization activities. A preliminary dose assessment yielded an estimated annual effective dose equivalent of 134 mrem based on a continuous exposure to the average ambient radon concentration measured at the Yucca Mountain site. Concentrations were measured using two types of systems, passive electret ion chambers (EIC) and continuous radon monitors (CRM). The EICs produced time-averaged radon concentration data and the CRMs were used to study radon fluctuations over time. Between 1991 and 1995, the mean radon concentration at the site, as measured by EICs placed one meter above ground level, was 0.32 ± 0.15 pCi L -1 . Radon concentrations varied between monitoring locations and between years. Station NF38, located near the North Portal of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), exhibited the highest overall average radon concentration at 0.55 pCi L -1 (1992 to 1995). Concentrations appear to cycle diurnally, generally peaking in the early morning hours and being lowest in the afternoon. The data also suggested that radon concentrations may fluctuate seasonally. The work accomplished between 1991 and 1995, established radon levels in the general area surrounding Yucca Mountain. It is recommended that further work focus directly on those locations that have the greatest potential for influencing ambient radon levels

  13. The Amsterdam proton microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, A.J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the work presented in this thesis is to develop a microbeam setup such that small beam spot sizes can be produced routinely, and to investigate the capabilities of the setup for micro-PIXE analysis. The development and performance of the Amsterdam proton microbeam setup are described. The capabilities of the setup for micro-PIXE are shown with an investigation into the presence of trace elements in human hair. (Auth.)

  14. RECOMMENDED HVAC STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report contains the recommended language for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) section of the "Florida Code for Radon-resistant Construction and Mitigation." t deals with elements of construction that relate to the HVAC of houses. ts primary intent is to p...

  15. Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program: Work/quality assurance project plan screening phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    In 1987, the military services of the United States were tasked to take appropriate action to establish an indoor radon assessment and mitigation program. As a result, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFACENGCOM) was assigned the responsibility of identifying potential hazards to personnel from exposure to naturally occurring radon gas and prioritizing corrective actions and to coordinating these actions with the major claimants. NAVRAMP is based upon current US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. The program has been separated into four phases. The screening phase will concentrate on evaluating radon levels, based on statistical samples, in those buildings that have been determined to be at most at risk to elevated levels of radon, such as base housing, schools, day-care centers, hospitals, brigs, Base Officer Quarters, and Base Enlisted Quarters. During the assessment phase, every building that contains personnel for over 4 h/day will be evaluated. Mitigation work will be accomplished by Navy or Navy-contracted personnel. HAZWRAP services during the mitigation phase will consist of determining the extent of reduction in radon levels after the mitigation effort. 7 refs., 11 figs

  16. Retrofit and preoccupancy radon mitigation program for homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibach, M.T.; Gallagher, J.H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A requirement was levied on a Maryland builder by the FHA to demonstrate acceptable radon levels in his homes before they would be approved for loans. This paper describes the use of products shown by appropriate tests to be effective radon barriers to meet this requirement. The sheet goods can be used in exterior and interior applications on foundation walls. The other is applied to the interior floors and/or walls of the basement area. Product installation procedures are straightforward and relatively simple. Problems encountered were routine and concerned primarily the complete sealing of floor and wall penetrations, window openings, sealing the top of the wall under the sill plate, and the location and mounting of permanent fixtures on walls and floors. Also discussed are methods of repairing ruptures of the seal, warranties to protect the homeowner, support systems and costs. Conclusions are that effective reductions in radon levels can be achieved by the application of sealants during the construction of new homes or as a retrofit to existing structures

  17. Overview of current radon and radon daughter research at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a brief summary of radon and radon daughter research at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The radon and radon daughter research program has two broad goals: (1) the study of sources of radon and its subsequent transport into houses, and (2) research on the behavior of radon daughters in indoor environments. Additional research effort is directed to several auxiliary areas, including development of instrumentation and monitoring techniques, studies of indoor air movement, and measurement and control of indoor particulate concentrations

  18. Microbeam facility at NIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yukio; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    Radiation biophysics or microdosimetry has suggested radiation effect mechanism. Full understanding of it has not yet been obtained. There are vast variety of events in physical, chemical and biological processes from at the time of irradiation to biological endpoints. Analysis of RBE-LET relation for biological endpoints like survival, mutation and transformation in cultured mammalian cells is still the leading subject to study the physical processes. The biological and repair processes have been studied phenomenologically through dose rate effect or fractionation experiment. Human genome project has accelerated biological sciences as a whole taking methodology of the molecular biology, where the mechanism is explained by molecules involved. We have thus to know entity and its (biological) function in every single process. Molecular biological approach in radiation biology has started and revealed several proteins being involved in the repair processes. Quantitative relation between phenomenological data like cell survivals and molecular processes, however, has been little known yet. A promising approach to fill this gap should be the study by microbeam, which enables us to see, for example, a deletion in chromosomal level by a single particle traverse of cell nucleus and may suggest possible molecular processes. Under this motivation we started feasibility study on installation of a microbeam port in our Tandem accelerator (5.1 MeV 4 He 2+ ). We have planned to adopt a lens focusing and a scanning system developed (by the Oxford microbeam Ltd) for the existing micro PIXE system in NIRS, which has basically achieved irradiation to a cell within a position resolution of 2 micrometer. There are two practical requirements, i.e. precise positioning and faster irradiation. These are described including research subjects planned. (author)

  19. U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, L.E.; Petty, J.L. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics.

  20. U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez, L.E.; Petty, J.L. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics

  1. The future of the radon program in the Czech Republic : the problems and challenges from the regulatory point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, Karla

    2008-01-01

    Recently the radon program in the Czech Republic is running under the governmental resolution adopted in 1999 for 10 years. During the 2008 year a new national strategy for the further long term management of the radon issue should be proposed to the government. Taking into account the experience from the preceding years and particularly the effectiveness of the running radon program the proposal which is now in preparation is more focused to the prevention in new houses and to the more qualified, understandable information distribution within the population. The current initiatives of E U concerning the natural exposure regulation within the recast process of the European legislation related to the radiation protection are also reflected as far as possible at the moment. The principal points of the decision making process and the highlights of the proposal for a new national radon program in the Czech Republic are given in the paper. (author)

  2. Computations of concentration of radon and its decay products against time. Computer program; Obliczanie koncentracji radonu i jego produktow rozpadu w funkcji czasu. Program komputerowy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaj, B. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    This research is aimed to develop a device for continuous monitoring of radon in the air, by measuring alpha activity of radon and its short lived decay products. The influence of alpha activity variation of radon and its daughters on the measured results is of importance and requires a knowledge of this variation with time. Employing the measurement of alpha radiation of radon and of its short lived decay products, require knowledge of radon concentration variation and its decay products against the time. A computer program in Turbo Pascal language was therefore developed performing the computations employing the known relations involved, the program being adapted for IBM PC computers. The presented program enables computation of activity of {sup 222}Rn and its daughter products: {sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Pb, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Po every 1 min within the period of 0-255 min for any state of radiation equilibrium between the radon and its daughter products. The program permits also to compute alpha activity of {sup 222}Rn + {sup 218}Po + {sup 214}Po against time and the total alpha activity at selected interval of time. The results of computations are stored on the computer hard disk in ASCII format and are used a graphic program e.g. by DrawPerfect program to make diagrams. Equations employed for computation of the alpha activity of radon and its decay products as well as the description of program functions are given. (author). 2 refs, 4 figs.

  3. Radon reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than 1 pCi/l. This paper reports that these reductions were achieved using 3.5 mil cross laminated or 10 mil high density polyethylene plastic as a barrier without sealing to the foundation or support piers, solid and/or perforated plastic pipe and mechanical fans. Wind turbines were found to be ineffective at reducing concentrations to acceptable levels. Homeowners themselves installed all materials

  4. 6th International Microbeam Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr Kevin M. Prise

    2004-01-01

    The extended abstracts which are submitted here present a summary of the proceedings of the 6th International Workshop/12th LH Gray Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held at St. Catherine's College, University of Oxford, UK on March, 29th-31st, 2003. In 1993 the 4th LH Gray Workshop entitled ''Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response'' was held at the Gray Cancer Institute in Northwood. This was organized by Prof BD Michael, Dr M. Folkard and Dr KM Prise and brought together 40 participants interested in developing and applying new microbeam technology to problems in radiation biology (1). The workshop was an undoubted success and has spawned a series of subsequent workshops every two years. In the past, these workshops have been highly successful in bringing together groups interested in developing and applying micro-irradiation techniques to the study of cell and tissue damage by ionizing radiations. Following the first microbeam workshop, there has been a rapid growth in the number of centres developing radiobiology microbeams, or planning to do so and there are currently 15-20 worldwide. Much of the recent research using microbeams has used them to study low-dose effects and ''non-targeted'' responses such bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. The goal of the 6th workshop was to build on our knowledge of the development of microbeam approaches and the application to radiation biology in the future with the meeting stretching over a 3 day period. Over 80 participants reviewed the current state of radiobiology microbeam research worldwide and reported on new technological developments both in the fields of physics and biology.

  5. New Jersey's residential radon remediation program - methods and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluta, T.A.; Cosolita, F.J.; Rothfuss, E.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a remedial action program to decontaminate over 200 residential properties, 12 typical properties were selected and a demonstration program was initiated in the spring of 1985. The residences selected represented a range of contamination levels and configurations and differing architectural styles representative of the age of construction. The physical limitations of the sites and the overall nature of a decontamination project in active residential communities imposed a number of severe restrictions on work methods and equipment. Regulations governing transportation and disposal set virtually zero defect standards for the condition of containers. The intrusive nature of the work in residential neighborhoods required continual interaction with local residents, public officials and citizen task forces. Media coverage was very high. Numerous briefings were held to allay fears and promote public understanding. Numerous issues ranging in content from public health and safety to engineering and construction methods arose during the remedial action program. These issues were resolved by a multi-disciplined management team which was knowledgeable in public administration, radiation physics, and engineering design and construction. This paper discusses the nature of the problem, the methods applied to resolve the problem and the experience gained as a result of a remedial action program

  6. Radon mapping - Santa Barbara and Ventura counties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill, R.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1990, the Department of Conservation''s Division of Mines and Geology (DMG) has provided geologic information and conducted several research projects on geology and radon for the California Department of Health Services (DHS) Radon Program. This article provides a brief overview of radon''s occurrence and impact on human health, and summarizes a recent DMG project for DHS that used geologic, geochemical, and indoor radon measurement data to produce detailed radon potential zone maps for Santa Barbara and Ventura counties

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of public education and incentive programs for controlling radon in the home. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierma, T.J.; Swartzman, D.

    1988-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness in Illinois of five radon public education and incentive program options. Programs evaluated included (1) no program, (2) a toll-free hotline and information packet, (3) free short-term monitors, (4) free confirmatory monitors, and (5) low-interest loans. Existing literature and expert opinion were used to estimate program costs and public responses under the various programs. Computer simulation, with Monte Carlo sampling, was used for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. The cost-effectiveness model was analyzed based on assumed radon exposures to Illinois citizens. Results for standard conditions indicate that budget levels under approximately $30,000 do not warrant a radon education and incentive program. For budget levels of approximately $30,000 to $1 million, Program 2 was most effective, and Program 3 was most effective above this level. Sensitivity analyses indicate the results are relatively insensitive to input variable assumptions with the exception of public-response estimates. Study results suggest that all of the programs evaluated are likely to be relatively ineffective. Considerable improvement may be possible using more innovative approaches to public education

  8. Swiss radon programme 'RAPROS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, W.

    1992-03-01

    The results of the five-year radon research program RAPROS presented in this report, allow for scientifically valid statements on the origin of elevated levels of indoor radon in Switzerland. These results form a basis for recommendations and for actions to be taken. Indoor radon concentrations have been measured in more than 4000 living-rooms and 2000 basements; a sampling density of about 0.2% of the Swiss housing stock. According to these measurements radon leads to an estimated average annual effective dose of 2 milli-Sievert, although in some regions the annual dose may be much higher. Extrapolation of the existing data shows that in about 10'000 Swiss houses radon may exceed 1000 Bq/m 3 . For these houses remedial actions are recommended. There seems to be no radon problem in the large cities in the Swiss Plateau. High indoor radon concentrations in Switzerland are due to the soil beneath the buildings. Data from the study indicated that the most important soil characteristic influencing indoor radon concentrations was its gas permeability. Because natural ventilation in a heated house creates a slight underpressure in the lower levels with respect to surrounding soils, radon is driven from the soil into the building. Weatherization of the houses to reduce energy consumption had in most cases no effect on the indoor radon concentrations. Radon from tap water or from building materials does not contribute significantly to indoor radon levels in Switzerland. The high levels in the Jura Mountains are thought to be associated with karstic limestone bedrock. Several houses within Switzerland have now been modified to reduce radon levels. The most successful mitigation technique combined forced-air ventilation with tightening of the basement to decrease or prevent air infiltration from the soil. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  9. Environmental radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.K.; Schmalz, R.F.; Miller, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers many aspects of environmental radon, including: historical perspectives; occurrence and properties; detection, measurement, and mitigation, radon and health; and political, economic, and legislative impacts

  10. Use of a geographic information system (GIS) for targeting radon screening programs in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearfott, Kimberlee J; Whetstone, Zachary D; Rafique Mir, Khwaja M

    2016-01-01

    Because (222)Rn is a progeny of (238)U, the relative abundance of uranium may be used to predict the areas that have the potential for high indoor radon concentration and therefore determine the best areas to conduct future surveys. Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping software was used to construct maps of South Dakota that included levels of uranium concentrations in soil and stream water and uranium deposits. Maps of existing populations and the types of land were also generated. Existing data about average indoor radon levels by county taken from a databank were included for consideration. Although the soil and stream data and existing recorded average indoor radon levels were sparse, it was determined that the most likely locations of elevated indoor radon would be in the northwest and southwest corners of the state. Indoor radon levels were only available for 9 out of 66 counties in South Dakota. This sparcity of data precluded a study of correlation of radon to geological features, but further motivates the need for more testing in the state. Only actual measurements should be used to determine levels of indoor radon because of the strong roles home construction and localized geology play in radon concentration. However, the data visualization method demonstrated here is potentially useful for directing resources relating to radon screening campaigns. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  11. Use of a geographic information system (GIS) for targeting radon screening programs in South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearfott, Kimberlee J.; Whetstone, Zachary D.; Mir, Khwaja M. Rafique

    2016-01-01

    Because 222 Rn is a progeny of 238 U, the relative abundance of uranium may be used to predict the areas that have the potential for high indoor radon concentration and therefore determine the best areas to conduct future surveys. Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping software was used to construct maps of South Dakota that included levels of uranium concentrations in soil and stream water and uranium deposits. Maps of existing populations and the types of land were also generated. Existing data about average indoor radon levels by county taken from a databank were included for consideration. Although the soil and stream data and existing recorded average indoor radon levels were sparse, it was determined that the most likely locations of elevated indoor radon would be in the northwest and southwest corners of the state. Indoor radon levels were only available for 9 out of 66 counties in South Dakota. This sparcity of data precluded a study of correlation of radon to geological features, but further motivates the need for more testing in the state. Only actual measurements should be used to determine levels of indoor radon because of the strong roles home construction and localized geology play in radon concentration. However, the data visualization method demonstrated here is potentially useful for directing resources relating to radon screening campaigns. (author)

  12. Radon Measurements in Vojvodina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Bikit, K.; Forkapic, S.; Mrda, D.; Nikolov, J.; Todorovic, N.; Veskovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent analyses of epidemiological studies of lung cancer risk from residential exposures demonstrate a statistically significant increase per unit of exposure below average annual concentrations of about 200 Bq/m 3 . Indoor radon measurements performed in Novi Sad in about 400 houses and flats are presented and discussed in this paper. By measuring gamma-activity of radon daughters, radon activity concentration was determined to be 50 Bq/m 3 . In Vojvodina region indoor radon levels were measured by alpha track detectors CR-39 on about 3000 locations during the winter seasons in the period of three years (2003-2005). The main aim of the present study was to explore the critical group of population for radon exposure and to estimate maximal annual doses. Existing radon maps which identify regions with elevated radon levels will improve data collection and analysis for the future radon campaigns. Collaboration on the JRC program of European indoor radon map and implementation of grid system are also discussed.(author)

  13. Other applications of ion microbeams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cookson, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the analytical and non-analytical applications of ion microbeams. The analytical applications considered include:-fusion research, environmental studies, ion implantations and criminology, and each is briefly discussed. Non-analytical applications in which nuclear microprobes have been used include:-thickness and uniformity measurements, energy loss radiography, channelling contrast, tomography, topography, ion implantation, and detector testing, and these are also discussed. (UK)

  14. Radon analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The process claimed includes the steps of transferring radon gas produced by a sample to a charcoal trap, cooled to a temperature whereby the radon is absorbed by the charcoal, heating the charcoal trap to a sufficient temperature to release the radon, and transferring the radon to a counting device where the gas particles are counted

  15. Active mems microbeam device for gas detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.

    2017-10-05

    Sensors and active switches for applications in gas detection and other fields are described. The devices are based on the softening and hardening nonlinear response behaviors of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) clamped-clamped microbeams. In that context, embodiments of gas-triggered MEMS microbeam sensors and switches are described. The microbeam devices can be coated with a Metal-Organic Framework to achieve high sensitivity. For gas sensing, an amplitude-based tracking algorithm can be used to quantify an amount of gas captured by the devices according to frequency shift. Noise analysis is also conducted according to the embodiments, which shows that the microbeam devices have high stability against thermal noise. The microbeam devices are also suitable for the generation of binary sensing information for alarming, for example.

  16. Microbeam evolution: From single cell irradiation to preclinical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghita, Mihaela; Fernandez-Palomo, Cristian; Fukunaga, Hisanori

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This review follows the development of microbeam technology from the early days of single cell irradiations, to investigations of specific cellular mechanisms and to the development of new treatment modalities in vivo. A number of microbeam applications are discussed with a focus on prec...... to deliver radiotherapy using plane parallel microbeams, in Microbeam Radiotherapy (MRT)....

  17. Lessons from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, M.

    1993-01-01

    At EPA there is a public outreach program that the Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) has developed for radon. To meet the difficult challenge radon presented, OAR's Radon Division developed working relationships with national nonprofit groups who share a mission. These groups have well-established communication networks with their memberships for advancing their goals. Such diverse groups as the American Lung Association, the Advertising Council, the National Association of Counties (NACo), the Consumer Federation of America, the National Association of Homebuilders, and the National Safety Council have joined with EPA to reduce radon health risks. Through this alliance, EPA has been able to take advantage of communication channels that it could never replicate on tis own. Every group working with EPA disseminates the radon message through its own established channels to reach its constituency. These partners wield authority in their fields and are ideal for addressing the concerns of their audiences

  18. Standardization of radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszek, J.M.; Hutchinson, J.A.; Lance, B.H.; Virgil, M.G.; Mahoney, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Radon escaping from soil into homes appears to present the single greatest source of radiation exposure that most people will ever face. Measurement protocols for the relatively inert gas inextricably link the method of collection with the counting of the specimen. The most commonly used methods depend on the measurement of dislocation sites on plastic α-track detectors or on the adsorption of radon onto activated charcoal for subsequent counting of the γ-rays produced by decay of the radon progeny. The uncertainties inherent to the radon-measurement methods used commercially in the United States are far greater than those for measurements of other environmental radionuclides. The results of this preliminary study raise doubts as to whether existing proficiency-testing programs can provide assurance that radon-measurement methods are representative of actual conditions in any dwelling. 17 refs., 1 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Radon in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Search Radon Contact Us Share Radon in Schools Related Information Managing Radon in Schools Radon Measurement ... Radon Could Be a Serious Threat to Your School Chances are you've already heard of radon - ...

  20. Radon evasion rates in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans as determined during the Geosecs program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, T.; Broecker, W.S.; Mathieu, G.G.; Li, Y.; Bainbridge, A.E.

    1979-01-01

    During the Geosecs expedition in the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans, more than 100 stations were occupied for the measurement of surface radon profiles. The radon deficiency in these profiles gives estimates of the gas transfer rate across the sea-air interface. The global mean transfer rate is estimated to be 2.9 m/d (at 20 0 C) which is corresponding to a hypothetical stagnant films thickness of about 36 microns. No clear relationship can be found between the gas exchange rate and wind speed. The CO 2 exchange rate as determined by the radon method is 80% of that given by the distributions of natural and of bomb-produced radiocarbon. One possible explanation may be that the Geosecs radon measurements were made during periods of lower than average wind speed. Another is that the conversion of CO 2 to HCO 3 - is catalyzed within the sea

  1. Radon risk communication research: Practical lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Johnson, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    Those responsible for state and local radon programs often express frustration about the small share of homes that have been tested for radon, and the small share of those with high readings that have been mitigated. There are now a number of completed studies that have examined how well alternative ways of communicating about radon risk have accomplished the goals of motivating appropriate testing and mitigation. This paper summarizes the research results that are most crucial for planning and implementing effective radon risk communication programs. We identify six reasons why people do not respond to radon as a serious threat and provide some remedies suggested by radon studies

  2. Radon house doctor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, I.A.; Brennan, T.; Wadach, J.B.; O'Neil, R.

    1986-01-01

    The term house doctor may be generalized to include persons skilled in the use of instruments and procedures necessary to identify, diagnose, and correct indoor air quality problems as well as energy, infiltration, and structural problems in houses. A radon house doctor would then be a specialist in radon house problems. Valuable experience in the skills necessary to be developed by radon house doctors has recently been gained in an extensive radon monitoring and mitigation program in upstate New York sponsored by Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. These skills, to be described in detail in this paper, include: (i) the use of appropriate instruments, (ii) the evaluation of the symptoms of a radon-sick house, (iii) the diagnostic procedures required to characterize radon sources in houses, (iv) the prescription procedures needed to specify treatment of the problem, (v) the supervision of the implementation of the treatment program, (vi) the check-up procedures required to insure the house cured of radon problems. 31 references, 3 tables

  3. Microbeams, microdosimetry and specific dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randers-Pehrson, H.

    2002-01-01

    Dose and its usefulness as a single parameter to describe the amount of radiation absorbed are well established for most situations. The conditions where the concept of dose starts to break down are well known, mostly from the study of microdosimetry. For low doses of high LET radiation it is noted that the process of taking the limiting value of the energy absorbed within a test volume divided by the mass within that volume yields either zero or a relatively large value. The problem is further exacerbated with microbeam irradiations where the uniformity of the energy deposition is experimentally manipulated on the spatial scale of cells being irradiated. Booz introduced a quantity to deal with these problems: the unfortunately named 'mean specific energy in affected volumes'. This quantity multiplied by the probability that a test volume has received an energy deposit is equal to dose (in situations where dose can be defined). I propose that Booz's quantity be renamed 'specific dose', that is the mean energy deposited divided by the mass within a specified volume. If we believe for instance that the nucleus of a cell is the critical volume for biological effects, we can refer to the nuclear specific dose. A microbeam experiment wherein 10 per cent of the cell nuclei were targeted with 10 alpha particles would be described as delivering a nuclear specific dose of 1.6 Gy to 10 per cent of the population. (author)

  4. A horizontal multi-purpose microbeam system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Marino, S. A.; Garty, G.; Harken, A.; Brenner, D. J.

    2018-04-01

    A horizontal multi-purpose microbeam system with a single electrostatic quadruplet focusing lens has been developed at the Columbia University Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF). It is coupled with the RARAF 5.5 MV Singleton accelerator (High Voltage Engineering Europa, the Netherlands) and provides micrometer-size beam for single cell irradiation experiments. It is also used as the primary beam for a neutron microbeam and microPIXE (particle induced x-ray emission) experiment because of its high particle fluence. The optimization of this microbeam has been investigated with ray tracing simulations and the beam spot size has been verified by different measurements.

  5. The new Sandia light ion microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizkelethy, G., E-mail: gvizkel@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS 1056, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Doyle, B.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS 1056, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); McDaniel, F.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS 1056, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    The Ion Beam Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) was recently relocated into a brand new building. The 6 MV High Voltage Engineering (HVE) tandem accelerator (hosting the heavy ion microbeam and several analytical beam lines) and the 350 kV HVE implanter with a nanobeam were moved to the new building. There were several new pieces of equipment acquired associated with the move, among them a new high brightness 3 MV Pelletron accelerator, a high resolution light ion microbeam, a nanoimplanter, and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) connected to the tandem accelerator. In this paper this new facility will be described, and initial results of the new microbeam will be presented.

  6. Personal radon daughter dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, H.

    1979-12-01

    The conventional means of radon daughter exposure estimatikn for uranium miners in Canada is by grab sampling and time weighting. Personal dosimetry is a possible alternative method with its own advantages and limitations. The author poses basic questions with regard to two methods of radon daughter detection, thermoluminescent chips and track-etch film. An historical review of previous and current research and development programs in Canada and in other countries is presented, as are brief results and conclusions of each dosimeter evaluation

  7. Negative Knudsen force on heated microbeams

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Taishan; Ye, Wenjing; Zhang, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Knudsen force acting on a heated microbeam adjacent to a cold substrate in a rarefied gas is a mechanical force created by unbalanced thermal gradients. The measured force has its direction pointing towards the side with a lower thermal gradient

  8. Origin of Knudsen forces on heated microbeams

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Taishan; Ye, Wenjing

    2010-01-01

    microbeam are captured as functions of Knudsen number in the entire flow regime. Both flow strength and Knudsen force peak in the transition regime and negative Knudsen force absent in experimental data is observed. The mechanisms of the thermally induced

  9. Active mems microbeam device for gas detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.; Jaber, Nizar; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2017-01-01

    Sensors and active switches for applications in gas detection and other fields are described. The devices are based on the softening and hardening nonlinear response behaviors of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) clamped-clamped microbeams

  10. Recommended HVAC standard of the Florida Radon Research Program. Final report, Mar-Sep 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The report contains the recommended language for the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) section of the 'Florida Code for Radon-resistant Construction and Mitigation.' It deals with elements of construction that relate to the HVAC of houses. Its primary intent is to prevent pressure differentials in houses that can increase the transport of radon into houses. Three pathways of compliance are available to meet the requirements of the HVAC portion of the standards. The first is purely prescriptive. The second is a performance and prescriptive approach. The third is a marketplace approach

  11. Production and applications of positron microbeams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandes, G.R.; Canter, K.F.; Horsky, T.N.; Lippel, P.H.; Mills, A.P. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The production of a positron microbeam using the high-brightness beam developed at Brandeis University and possible applications of this microbeam to spatially resolved defect studies and positron microscopy are reviewed. The high-brightness beam consists of a W(110) primary moderator and two remoderation stages which provide a 500-fold increase in brightness. With this brightness increase and microbeam optics, we are able to form a 12 μm FWHM beam (48 mrad pencil half-angle) at 5 keV beam energy. The well characterised small-diameter beam is particularly adaptable for determining defect concentration and structure, both laterally and in a depth-profiling mode. In the case of a transmission positron microscope or a positron re-emission microscope operating in a high-magnification mode, efficient image formation requires the use of a microbeam to maximise the number of positrons in the area being imaged. Results of the scanning microbeam tests and the application of a microbeam to positron microscopy and defect studies are reviewed. (author)

  12. EML indoor radon workshop, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.; Lowder, W.; Fisenne, I.; Knutson, E.O.; Hinchliffe, L.

    1983-07-01

    A workshop on indoor radon, held at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) on November 30 and December 1, 1982, covered recent developments in radon daughter research and development. Thirty papers were presented dealing with standardization and quality assurance measurement methods, surveys, measurements strategy, physical mechanisms of radon and radon daughter transport and development of guidance standards for indoor exposures. The workshop concluded with a planning session that identified the following needs: (1) national and international intercomparisons of techniques for measuring radon and radon daughter concentrations, working level and radon exhalation flux density; (2) development and refinement of practical measurement techniques for thoron and its daughter products; (3) quantitative definition of the sources of indoor radon and the mechanisms of transport into structures; (4) better knowledge of the physical properties of radon daughters; (5) more complete and accurate data on the population exposure to radon, which can only be met by broadly based surveys; and (6) more international cooperation and information exchange among countries with major research programs

  13. Human perception of radon risk and radon mitigation: Some remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neznal, M.; Neznal, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Radon program in the Czech Republic has a relatively long and rich history. Procedures, which enable to evaluate the risk of radon penetration from the ground, to protect new buildings, to find existing buildings with elevated indoor radon levels and to realise remedial measures in such buildings, have been developed, published and tested. In some cases, the whole system may fail due to psychological or sociological reasons. Three types of problems (conflicts) will be presented: human behaviour affecting measurement results, conflict between individual and 'all-society' points of view, interpretation of radon risk itself. (authors)

  14. Computer program for the sensitivity calculation of a CR-39 detector in a diffusion chamber for radon measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikezic, D., E-mail: nikezic@kg.ac.rs; Stajic, J. M. [Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, R. Domanovica 12, Kragujevac 34000 (Serbia); Yu, K. N. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue (Hong Kong)

    2014-02-15

    Computer software for calculation of the sensitivity of a CR-39 detector closed in a diffusion chamber to radon is described in this work. The software consists of two programs, both written in the standard Fortran 90 programming language. The physical background and a numerical example are given. Presented software is intended for numerous researches in radon measurement community. Previously published computer programs TRACK-TEST.F90 and TRACK-VISION.F90 [D. Nikezic and K. N. Yu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 174, 160 (2006); D. Nikezic and K. N. Yu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 178, 591 (2008)] are used here as subroutines to calculate the track parameters and to determine whether the track is visible or not, based on the incident angle, impact energy, etching conditions, gray level, and visibility criterion. The results obtained by the software, using five different V functions, were compared with the experimental data found in the literature. Application of two functions in this software reproduced experimental data very well, while other three gave lower sensitivity than experiment.

  15. The radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This booklet is intended to answer briefly the most important questions about the nature and sources of radon, its pathways from environment to organism, as well as the ways to minimize its concentration in the habitat's atmosphere. The radon is a naturally appearing radioactive gas, produced through the decay of uranium and radium present in the terrestrial crust. It can be found everywhere on the planet's surface and it is emitted particularly from the granite and volcanic underground rocks as well as from certain construction materials. It is one of the agents producing pulmonary cancer, although not so dangerous as the tobacco is. The following items are elaborated in this booklet: - the place of radon in the average exposure to ionizing radiations of the French population; - the risk; - the radon in the environment (the meteorological conditions, the nature of the rocks); - radon in dwellings (radon measurements in the French dwellings, the entrance pathways of radon, the dependence of radon concentration on the profession and way of life of the inhabitants); - radon measurements; - how to reduce the radon concentration in dwellings

  16. Uranium City radiation reduction program: further studies on remedial measures and radon infiltration routes for houses with block walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, M.K.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the results of tests of partial sealing of concrete block walls to prevent radon infiltration into houses in Uranium City, and gives the results of studies of radon migration through concrete block walls. Results of some laboratory tests on the effectiveness of concrete blocks as a radon barrier are included

  17. Find a Radon Test Kit or Measurement and Mitigation Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find a qualified radon service professional to fix or mitigate your home. If you have questions about a radon, you should contact your state radon contact and/or contact one or both of the two privately-run National Radon Proficiency Programs

  18. Indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The radon, a natural radioactive gas, is present almost everywhere on the earth's surface. It can be accumulated at high concentration in confined spaces (buildings, mines, etc). In the last decades many studies conducted in several countries showed that inhaling important amounts of radon rises the risk of lung cancer. Although, the radon is a naturally appearing radioactive source, it may be the subject of a human 'enhancement' of concentration. The increasing radon concentration in professional housing constitutes an example of enhanced natural radioactivity which can induce health risks on workers and public. Besides, the radon is present in the dwelling houses (the domestic radon). On 13 May 1996, the European Union Council issued the new EURATOM Instruction that establishes the basic standards of health protection of population and workers against the ionizing radiation hazards (Instruction 96/29/EURATOM, JOCE L-159 of 29 June 1996). This instruction does not apply to domestic radon but it is taken into consideration by another EURATOM document: the recommendation of the Commission 90/143/EURATOM of 21 February 1990 (JOCE L-80 of 27 March 1990). The present paper aims at establishing in accordance to European Union provisions the guidelines for radon risk management in working places, as well as in dwelling houses, where the implied risk is taken into account. This document does not deal with cases of high radon concentration on sites where fabrication, handling or storage of radium sources take place. These situations must be treated by special studies

  19. Scopingsreport Radon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer RO; Vaas LH; Hesse JM; Slooff W

    1989-01-01

    Dit scopingsrapport vormt een onderdeel van de voorbereiding tot het opstellen van het basisdocument radon. Het doel van dit rapport is het algemene kennisniveau van de deelnemers aan de scopingsbijeenkomst aangaande radon op eenzelfde peil te brengen en discussie- en beslispunten inzake de

  20. Consequences of cytoplasmic irradiation. Studies from microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hongning; Hong, Mei; Chai, Yunfei; Hei, Tom K.

    2009-01-01

    The prevailing dogma for radiation biology is that genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation such as mutations and carcinogenesis are attributed mainly to direct damage to the nucleus. However, with the development of microbeam that can target precise positions inside the cells, accumulating evidences have shown that energy deposit by radiation in nuclear DNA is not required to trigger the damage, extra-nuclear or extra-cellular radiation could induce the similar biological effects as well. This review will summarize the biological responses after cytoplasm irradiated by microbeam, and the possible mechanisms involved in cytoplasmic irradiation. (author)

  1. Origin of Knudsen forces on heated microbeams

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Taishan

    2010-09-09

    The presented work probes the fundamentals of Knudsen forces. Using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, the flows induced by temperature inhomogeneity within a representative configuration and the Knudsen force acting on a heated microbeam are captured as functions of Knudsen number in the entire flow regime. Both flow strength and Knudsen force peak in the transition regime and negative Knudsen force absent in experimental data is observed. The mechanisms of the thermally induced flows and Knudsen forces are studied. It has been found that thermal edge flow is the main driven source for the formation of the Knudsen force on microbeams and domain configuration plays an important role in the process.

  2. Project Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, S.

    1988-01-01

    The project started in March 1987. The objective is to perform radon monitoring in 2000 dwellings occupied by people employed by State Power Board and to continue to contribute to the development of radon filters. The project participates in developing methods for radon measurement and decontamination and in adapting the methods to large scale application. About 400 so called radon trace measurements (coarse measurement) and about 10 action measurements (decontamination measurement) have been made so far. Experience shows that methods are fully applicable and that the decontamination measures recommended give perfectly satisfactory results. It is also established that most of the houses with high radon levels have poor ventilation Many of them suffer from moisture and mould problems. The work planned for 1988 and 1989 will in addition to measurements be directed towards improvement of the measuring methods. An activity catalogue will be prepared in cooperation with ventilation enterprises. (O.S.)

  3. Protecting People and Families from Radon: A Federal Action Plan for Saving Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    This strategy for radon action outlines actions federal agencies can take within existing resources and program capacities to advance the Healthy People 2020 radon objectives and launch a national effort to end all avoidable radon-induced lung cancer death

  4. EPA program to demonstrate mitigation measures for indoor radon: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschel, D.B.; Scott, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    EPA has installed radon mitigation techniques in 18 concrete block basement homes in the Reading Prong region of eastern Pennsylvania. Three alternative active soil ventilation approaches were tested: suction on the void network within the concrete block basement walls; suction on the footing drain tile system; and suction on the aggregate underneath the concrete slab. The initial 18 mitigation installations were designed to demonstrate techniques which would have low to moderate installation and operating costs. Where effective closure of major openings in the block walls is possible, suction on the wall voids has proved to be extremely effective, able to reduce homes having very high radon Working Levels (up to 7 WL) to 0.02 WL and less. However, where inaccessible major openings are concealed within the wall, it is more difficult and/or more expensive to develop adequate suction on the void network, and performance is reduced. Testing is continuing to demonstrate the steps required to achieve high performance with wall suction in homes with such difficult-to close walls. Drain tile suction can be very effective where the drain tiles completely surround the home; drain tile suction is the least expensive and most aesthetic of the active soil ventilation approaches, but appears susceptible to spikes in radon levels when the basement is depressurized. Sub-slab suction as tested in this study - with one or two individual suction points in the slab - does not appear adequate to ensure sustained high levels of reduction on block wall basement homes; it appears to effectively treat slab-related soil gas entry routes so long as a uniform layer of aggregate is present, but it does not appear to effectively treat the wall-related entry routes. Closure of major openings might have improved sub-slab suction performance. 5 figures, 3 tables

  5. NORM and radon in Austria. Status and strategy; Norm und Radon in Oesterreich. Status und Strategie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maringer, F.J. [Bundesamt fuer Eich- und Vermessungswesen, Wien (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    The author reviews the actual radiation protection practice in Austria for NORM and radon, including possible strategies and developments. Specific topics are radiation protection technologies, metrological resources for NORM in Austria, civil engineering standards (OeNORM) for radon measurement, radon prevention for new buildings and radon cleansing for existing buildings, future assessment and legal regulation of radioactivity in construction materials. The strategic development in Austria considers the current European standard projects (EU standards) and European and international research programs.

  6. Elemental analysis techniques using proton microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuro; Oikawa, Masakazu; Sato, Takahiro

    2005-01-01

    Proton microbeam is a powerful tool for two-dimensional elemental analysis. The analysis is based on Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) techniques. The paper outlines the principles and instruments, and describes the dental application has been done in JAERI Takasaki. (author)

  7. Radon problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter examines the health hazards resulting from the release of naturally occurring radioactive gas derived from the decay of uranium. It is estimated that random inhalation is now causing about 10,000 fatal lung cancers per year in the US. Radon is constantly being generated in rocks and soils (in which uranium is naturally present) and in materials produced from them (e.g., brick, stone, cement, plaster). It is emphasized that radon levels in buildings are typically 5 times higher than outdoors because radon diffusing up from the ground below or out of bricks, stone, cement, or plaster is trapped inside for a relatively long time

  8. Evaluation of the performance characteristics of radon and radon-daughter concentration measurement devices under controlled environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, M.D.

    1989-04-01

    The Technical Measurements Center (TMC) conducted a study to expose 10 radon and 7 radon-daughter concentration measurement devices in the DOE/GJPO Radon/Radon-Daughter Environmental Chamber for a series of 24 controlled-environment tests. The tests evaluated the devices' response to temperature, relative humidity, dew point, condensation-nuclei concentration, radon-daughter/radon equilibrium ratio, and non-uniform radon and radon-daughter concentration. Devices were evaluated for linear response as a function of concentration. In addition to response to environmental parameters, the evaluation included determining the utility of the devices in providing reasonable assurance of compliance with the radon and radon-daughter concentration standards for DOE remedial action programs. This reasonable assurance criterion is based on a coefficient of variation of 25 percent for devices deployed for year-long measurements and a coefficient of variation of 18 percent for devices deployed for intermittent sampling. 39 refs., 65 figs., 33 tabs

  9. Radon: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepman, S.R.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, with the support of the Department of Energy, has developed a computerized database to manage research information in the area of building ventilation and indoor air quality. This literature survey contains references pertaining to the physical properties of radon and its daughters, instrumentation for their measurement, health effects, surveys and measurements, and regulatory information. The references in the bibliography are sequenced in alphabetical order and abstracts are included when supplied by the author. The objective of this report is to disseminate the bibliographic references compiled at the laboratory relating to radon research portion of the program. Interested database users are encouraged to contact the laboratory to receive instructions for direct database acess. A flyer describing the database is supplied at the end of the bibliography and a brief overview of the Radon Research porgram is given

  10. Radon: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepman, S.R.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, with the support of the Department of Energy, has developed a computerized database to manage research information in the area of building ventilation and indoor air quality. This literature survey contains references pertaining to the physical properties of radon and its daughters, instrumentation for their measurement, health effects, surveys and measurements, and regulatory information. The references in the bibliography are sequenced in alphabetical order and abstracts are included when supplied by the author. The objective of this report is to disseminate the bibliographic references compiled at the laboratory relating to radon research portion of the program. Interested database users are encouraged to contact the laboratory to receive instructions for direct database acess. A flyer describing the database is supplied at the end of the bibliography and a brief overview of the Radon Research porgram is given.

  11. Radon survey in Metropolitan Toronto schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, E.; Moridi, R.

    1992-01-01

    The radon testing survey in Metropolitan Toronto public schools was the most intensive project of its kind ever undertaken in Canadian schools. It also included an extensive public education program on radiation and radon-in-schools. The radon levels at 632 schools were measured using the CAIRS Radon Monitors. Ninety percent of the locations measured were found to have a radon level equal to or less than 2 mWL. Two locations in two different schools were found to have a radon level at or above the Action Level (20 mWL). The remaining results were between the two extremes. Follow-up testing in those schools where more than 10 mWL of radon was found is in progress. (author)

  12. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanchey, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  13. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-04-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  14. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  15. Measurement of radon in Spanish houses: characterization of its sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The determination of radon concentrations in-house are analyzed by different universities. The programs of Cantabria, Valencia, Barcelona and La Laguna Universities are presented. These programs study the environmental impact of radon in Barcelona and Madrid and characterize the radon sources

  16. High energy ion hit technique to local area using microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suda, Tamotsu; Sakai, Takuro; Hirao, Toshio; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Single energetic ion hit technique has been developed as an application of ion microbeam technique, in order to study the effect of local damage or injury to materials and living organisms. The overall performance is basically defined by those of separate techniques: microbeam formation, microbeam positioning, single ion detection, detection signal processing, hit timing control, and hit verification. Recent progress on the developments of these techniques at JAERI-TIARA facility are reviewed. (author)

  17. Focus small to find big - the microbeam story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinhua; Hei, Tom K

    2017-08-29

    Even though the first ultraviolet microbeam was described by S. Tschachotin back in 1912, the development of sophisticated micro-irradiation facilities only began to flourish in the late 1980s. In this article, we highlight significant microbeam experiments, describe the latest microbeam irradiator configurations and critical discoveries made by using the microbeam apparatus. Modern radiological microbeams facilities are capable of producing a beam size of a few micrometers, or even tens of nanometers in size, and can deposit radiation with high precision within a cellular target. In the past three decades, a variety of microbeams has been developed to deliver a range of radiations including charged particles, X-rays, and electrons. Despite the original intention for their development to measure the effects of a single radiation track, the ability to target radiation with microbeams at sub-cellular targets has been extensively used to investigate radiation-induced biological responses within cells. Studies conducted using microbeams to target specific cells in a tissue have elucidated bystander responses, and further studies have shown reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play critical roles in the process. The radiation-induced abscopal effect, which has a profound impact on cancer radiotherapy, further reaffirmed the importance of bystander effects. Finally, by targeting sub-cellular compartments with a microbeam, we have reported cytoplasmic-specific biological responses. Despite the common dogma that nuclear DNA is the primary target for radiation-induced cell death and carcinogenesis, studies conducted using microbeam suggested that targeted cytoplasmic irradiation induces mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular stress, and genomic instability. A more recent development in microbeam technology includes application of mouse models to visualize in vivo DNA double-strand breaks. Microbeams are making important contributions towards our

  18. Semiconductor analysis with a channeled helium microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingarfield, S.A.; McKenzie, C.D.; Short, K.T.; Williams, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a channeled helium microbeam for analysis of damage and dopant distributions in semiconductors. Practical difficulties and potential problems associated with the channeling of microbeams in semiconductors have been examined. In particular, the following factors have been characterised: i) the effect of both convergence of focused beam and beam scanning on the quality of channeling; ii) damage produced by the probe ions; and iii) local beam heating effects arising from high current densities. Acceptable channeling has been obtained (minimum yield approaching 4%) under a variety of focusing and scanning conditions which are suitable for analysis of device structures. The capabilities of the technique are demonstrated by monitoring variations in local damage and impurity depth distributions across a narrow (<2mm) region of an ion implanted silicon wafer

  19. Advances in radiobiological studies using a microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hei, Tom K.; Brenner, David J.; Geard, Charles R.; Ballas, Leslie K.

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in microbeam technology have made drastic improvements in particle delivery, focusing, image processing and precision to allow for rapid advances in our knowledge in radiation biology. The unequivocal demonstration that targeted cytoplasmic irradiation results in mutations in the nuclei of hit cells and the presence of non-targeted effects, all made possible using a charged particle microbeam, results in a paradigm shift in our basic understanding of the target theory and other radiation-induced low dose effects. The demonstration of a bystander effect in 3D human tissue and whole organisms have shown the potential relevance of the non-targeted response in human health. The demonstration of delayed mutations in the progeny of bystander cells suggest that genomic instability induced following ionizing radiation exposure is not dependent on direct damage to cell nucleus. The identification of specific signaling pathways provides mechanistic insight on the nature of the bystander process. (author)

  20. High energy ion microbeams and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhru, H.; Nickles, E.; Haberl, A.; Morris, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years there has been rapid growth for the development of equipment for forming a focussed beam (0.5 - 2μm) with high energy ions. The State University of New York at Albany ion scanning microprobe has been used for several applications especially in the fields of materials and biological studies. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analysis have been performed on microelectronic circuits with a spatial resolution of approximately 2 μm. Studies on films of superconductors (YBa CuO) will be presented. Applications of microbeams for the biological studies and analytical techniques will be presented. Current and future role of microbeams and their limitations will be discussed. (author)

  1. Electrothermally Actuated Microbeams With Varying Stiffness

    KAUST Repository

    Tella, Sherif Adekunle

    2017-11-03

    We present axially loaded clamped-guided microbeams that can be used as resonators and actuators of variable stiffness, actuation, and anchor conditions. The applied axial load is implemented by U-shaped electrothermal actuators stacked at one of the beams edges. These can be configured and wired in various ways, which serve as mechanical stiffness elements that control the operating resonance frequency of the structures and their static displacement. The experimental results have shown considerable increase in the resonance frequency and mid-point deflection of the microbeam upon changing the end conditions of the beam. These results can be promising for applications requiring large deflection and high frequency tunability, such as filters, memory devices, and switches. The experimental results are compared to multi-physics finite-element simulations showing good agreement among them.

  2. Operating instructions for LBL radon measurement facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, J.G.

    1980-06-01

    This manual is intended for users of the radon-measuring facilities of the Radon Project of the Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Program at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The manual comprises three parts. Part 1 sets out the steps involved in collecting, transferring, and counting radon. Part 2 describes the calibration of the transfer system and of the Lucas cells in the counting system. Part 3 outlines the maintenance procedures for the facility

  3. Indoor radon II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Because of the growing interest in and public concern about indoor radon, APCA, in April 1987, sponsored the Second International Specialty Conference on Indoor Radon. This book is the proceedings of this conference and includes discussions on: A current assessment of the nature of the problem; Issues related to health effects and risk assessment; The development of public and private sector initiatives; Research into methods of control and prevention; International perspectives; and Measurement methods and programs. The material is intended for the technically oriented and for those responsible for developing programs and initiatives to address this important public health issue. Contributors include federal, state, and provincial program officials and members of the academic and private sectors

  4. Scopingreport radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauboer, R.O.; Vaas, L.H.; Hesse, J.M.; Slooff, W.

    1989-09-01

    This report contains general information on radon concerning the existing standards, sources and emissions, the exposure levels and effect levels. lt serves as a basis for the discussion during the exploratory melting to be held in November/December 1989, aimed at determining the contents of the Integrated Criteria Document Radon. Attention is focussd on Rn-222 (radon) and Rn-220 (thoron), presently of public interest because of radon gas pollution in private homes. In the Netherlands air quality standards nor product standards for the exhalation rate of building materials have been recommended. The major source of radon in the Netherlands is the soil gas (> 97%), minor sources are phosphate residues and building materials (> 2% in total). Hence, the major concern is the transfer through the inhalation of air, the lung being the most critical organ at risk to develop cancer. Compared to risks for humans, the risks of radon and its daughters for aquatic and terrestric organisms, as well as for agricultural crops and livestock, are assumed to be limited. In the Netherlands the average dose for man due to radon and thoron progeny is appr. 1.2 mSv per year, the estimated dose range being 0.1-3.5 mSv per year. This dose contributes for about 50% to rhe total exposure due to all sources of ionizing radiation. Of this dose respectively 80% is caused by radon and about 90% is received indoor. The estimated dose for the general population corresponds to a risk for inducing fatal cancers of about 15 x 10-6 per year, ranging from 1.2 x 10-6 to 44 x 10-6 which exceeds the risk limit of 1 x 10-6 per year -as defined in the standardization policy in the Netherlands for a single source of ionizing radiation-with a factor 15 (1- 44). Reduction of exposure is only possible in the indoor environment. Several techniques have been described to reduce the indoor dose, resulting from exhalation of the soil and building materials. )aut- hor). 37 refs.; 3 figs.; 8 tabs

  5. Measurements of parameters for determining the radon load in the framework of the Dutch national research program SAWORA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groen, G.C.H.; Groot, T.J.H. de; Nyqvist, R.G.; Keverling Buisman, A.S.; Stoute, J.R.D.

    1986-06-01

    This report describes a series of measurements related to the indoor exposure to daughters of radon and thoron. Important parameters are the Potential Alpha Energy Concentration (PAEC) and the Activity Median Aerodynamic Diameter (AMAD). The results for indoor atmosphere are presented leading to an order of magnitude estimate of the effective dose-equivalent rate of 500 μSv/y. The thoron daughter concentrations are relatively high with respect to those of radon daughters. (Auth.)

  6. 3D mapping of individual cells using a proton microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelet, C.; Moretto, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    Various imaging techniques carried out with a nuclear microprobe make it possible to reveal by 2D mapping, the internal structure of isolated cells. An improvement of those techniques allows today 3D mapping of cells. STIM- and PIXE-Tomography have been recently implemented on the CENBG microbeam line. The performance offered by these methods, which are capable of resolving objects having diameters less then 100 μm, has been validated on reference specimens and on human cells from cultures. In addition to the fineness of the resolution, these techniques offer the advantage of performing volume analyses without prior cutting of the samples. The ultimate aim of this program of research is to perform 3D elemental chemical analysis of individual cells in the field of biomedicine

  7. Radon: Residential attitudes toward the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, R.; Hinman, G.; Rosenman, R.; Wandschneider, P.

    1990-01-01

    Veradale, Washington (east of Spokane) is a region of high residential radon concentrations. Three hundred eighty residents of Veradale recently responded to a mail survey designed to elicit (1) their knowledge of and attitudes toward the risks of radon in their homes, (2) the actions they have taken or intend to take to identify and reduce those risks, and (3) policy preferences toward radon. Results reveal that these residents know that they live in an area with high radon levels, that radon causes lung cancer, and that radon will affect their health. However only 11% of respondents have had their homes tested for radon. This especially is puzzling because a large number of respondents claimed that (1) radon was important in home buying decisions, (2) they would test their own homes, (3) they would take action if such tests revealed problems, and (4) their willingness to pay for tests and improvements was well within the current costs of these actions. It remains a mystery why testing is at such a low level. Three other results are of note. First, subsidies for radon tests and home improvements may be having the unintended consequences of unneeded improvements and (potentially) moves without improvements. Second, individuals want radon testing required and results made known during home purchase decisions. Third, at present, weatherization programs that concentrate radon are acceptable to individuals. Of course, the future may hold different results. Administrators of weatherization programs, who are trusted by respondents according to this survey, would do well to institute weatherization programs with reduced radon concentrations in mind

  8. Communicating the risk from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; McClelland, G.H.; Schulze, W.D.; Doyle, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    A prominent television station developed a special series of newscasts and public service announcements about radon. This was combined with their advertising of the availability of reduced-price radon test kits in a local supermarket chain. The large number of test kits sold was a success from a marketing perspective, but not from a public health perspective - especially because of the very small share of high readings that were mitigated. In contrast, a study of housing sales showed a much higher testing rate and corresponding mitigation when risk communication accompanied the housing transaction, rather than being directed toward the general public. This paper examined the relative effectiveness of these alternative approaches to radon risk communication, emphasizing the implications for developing and implementing radon programs

  9. Proton microbeam irradiation effects on PtBA polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microbeam irradiation effects on poly-tert-butyl-acrylate (PtBA) polymer using 2.0 MeV proton microbeam are reported. Preliminary results on pattern formation on PtBA are carried out as a function of fluence. After writing the pattern, a thin layer of Ge is deposited. Distribution of Ge in pristine and ion beam patterned surface ...

  10. Plastic-bag radon gas monitor and survey results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torri, G.

    1990-01-01

    The Plastic-bag radon monitor used in the Italian National Survey is described. The choice of this radon gas sampler has been determined by the peculiarity of the italian environmental monitoring program, which is carried out by several different regional laboratories. Results obtained in the past using this radon monitoring device are also reported. (author). 8 refs, 7 figs

  11. Radon in service and industrial premises (rooms) of Tashkent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirahmedova, N.M.; Akimov, V.A.; Mullagalieva, F.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The radon map of the Tashkent is received in some approach on the basis of 800 surveyed inhabited and industrial premises, are designed average for one year radiating doze come on the average city dweller. Is paid attention to huge medical-biological danger natural and technogenesis of radon emanations, the question on acceptance of the special state program 'Radon' is put

  12. Ventilation measurements as an adjunct to radon measurements in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, E.O.; Franklin, H.

    1977-01-01

    The concentration of radon in a building is a function of the radon sources within the building and of the building's ventilation characteristics. To complement its radon measurement program, HASL is currently assessing apparatus and procedures for measuring building ventilation. Results are reported from ventilation measurements made in the laboratory and in a residential building

  13. Dynamics of Microbeams under Multi-Frequency Excitations

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Alwathiqbellah

    2017-01-24

    This paper presents an investigation of the dynamics of microbeams under multiple harmonic electrostatic excitation frequencies. First, the response of a cantilever microbeam to two alternating current (AC) source excitation is examined. We show by simulations the response of the microbeam at primary resonance (near the fundamental natural frequency) and at secondary resonances (near half, superharmonic, and twice, subharmonic, the fundamental natural frequency). A multimode Galerkin method combined with the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation, accounting for the nonlinear electrostatic force, has been used to develop a reduced order model. The response of the cantilever microbeam to three AC source excitation is also investigated and shown as a promising technique to enhance the bandwidth of resonators. Finally, an experimental study of a clamped-clamped microbeam is conducted, demonstrating the multi-frequency excitation resonances using two, three, and four AC sources.

  14. Dynamics of Microbeams under Multi-Frequency Excitations

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Alwathiqbellah; Jaber, Nizar; Chandran, Akhil; Thirupathi, Maloth; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the dynamics of microbeams under multiple harmonic electrostatic excitation frequencies. First, the response of a cantilever microbeam to two alternating current (AC) source excitation is examined. We show by simulations the response of the microbeam at primary resonance (near the fundamental natural frequency) and at secondary resonances (near half, superharmonic, and twice, subharmonic, the fundamental natural frequency). A multimode Galerkin method combined with the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation, accounting for the nonlinear electrostatic force, has been used to develop a reduced order model. The response of the cantilever microbeam to three AC source excitation is also investigated and shown as a promising technique to enhance the bandwidth of resonators. Finally, an experimental study of a clamped-clamped microbeam is conducted, demonstrating the multi-frequency excitation resonances using two, three, and four AC sources.

  15. Heavy-ion microbeam system at JAEA-Takasaki for microbeam biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funayama, Tomoo; Wada, Seiichi; Yokota, Yuichiro

    2008-01-01

    Research concerning cellular responses to low dose irradiation, radiation-induced bystander effects, and the biological track structure of charged particles has recently received particular attention in the field of radiation biology. Target irradiation employing a microbeam represents a useful means of advancing this research by obviating some of the disadvantages associated with the conventional irradiation strategies. The heavy-ion microbeam system at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)-Takasaki, which was planned in 1987 and started in the early 1990's, can provide target irradiation of heavy charged particles to biological material at atmospheric pressure using a minimum beam size 5 μm in diameter. A variety of biological material has been irradiated using this microbeam system including cultured mammalian and higher plant cells, isolated fibers of mouse skeletal muscle, silkworm (Bombyx mori) embryos and larvae, Arabidopsis thaliana roots, and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The system can be applied to the investigation of mechanisms within biological organisms not only in the context of radiation biology, but also in the fields of general biology such as physiology, developmental biology and neurobiology, and should help to establish and contribute to the field of 'microbeam biology'. (author)

  16. Mechanisms of radon injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1988-01-01

    In this new project, they conduct molecular, cellular and whole-animal research relevant to understanding the inhalation toxicology of radon and radon-daughter exposures. The work specifically addresses the exposure-rate effect in radon-daughter carcinogenesis; the induction-promotion relationships associated with exposure to radon and cigarette-smoke mixtures; the role of oncogenes in radon-induced cancers; the effects of radon on DNA as well as on DNA repair processes; and the involvement of growth factors and their receptors in radon-induced carcinogenesis. Preliminary experiments showed that oncogenes are activated in radon-induced lung tumors. They have therefore begun further exposures pertinent to the oncogene and growth-factor studies. An in vitro radon cellular-exposure system was designed, and cell exposures were initiated. Initiation-promotion-initiation studies with radon and cigarette-smoke mixtures have also begun; and they are compiling a radon health-effects bibliography

  17. BGS Radon Protective Measures GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, D.; Adlam, K.

    2000-01-01

    The British Geological Survey Radon Protective Measures Geographical Information System is described. The following issues are highlighted: Identification of development sites where radon protection is required in new dwellings; Mapping radon potential on the basis of house radon and geology; Radon Protective Measures GIS; Radon site reports; and Follow-up radon protective measures sire reports

  18. Development of economic MeV-ion microbeam technology at Chiang Mai University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singkarat, S.; Puttaraksa, N.; Unai, S.; Yu, L. D.; Singkarat, K.; Pussadee, N.; Whitlow, H. J.; Natyanum, S.; Tippawan, U.

    2017-08-01

    Developing high technologies but in economic manners is necessary and also feasible for developing countries. At Chiang Mai University, Thailand, we have developed MeV-ion microbeam technology based on a 1.7-MV Tandetron tandem accelerator with our limited resources in a cost-effective manner. Instead of using expensive and technically complex electrostatic or magnetic quadrupole focusing lens systems, we have developed cheap MeV-ion microbeams using programmed L-shaped blade aperture and capillary techniques for MeV ion beam lithography or writing and mapping. The programmed L-shaped blade micro-aperture system consists of a pair of L-shaped movable aperture pieces which are controlled by computer to cut off the ion beam for controlling the beam size down to the micrometer order. The capillary technique utilizes our home-fabricated tapered glass capillaries to realize microbeams. Either system can be installed inside the endstation of the MeV ion beam line of the accelerator. Both systems have been applied to MeV-ion beam lithography or writing of micro-patterns for microfluidics applications to fabricate lab-on-chip devices. The capillary technique is being developed for MeV-ion beam mapping of biological samples. The paper reports details of the techniques and introduces some applications.

  19. Genome-wide transcription responses to synchrotron microbeam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprung, Carl N; Yang, Yuqing; Forrester, Helen B; Li, Jason; Zaitseva, Marina; Cann, Leonie; Restall, Tina; Anderson, Robin L; Crosbie, Jeffrey C; Rogers, Peter A W

    2012-10-01

    The majority of cancer patients achieve benefit from radiotherapy. A significant limitation of radiotherapy is its relatively low therapeutic index, defined as the maximum radiation dose that causes acceptable normal tissue damage to the minimum dose required to achieve tumor control. Recently, a new radiotherapy modality using synchrotron-generated X-ray microbeam radiotherapy has been demonstrated in animal models to ablate tumors with concurrent sparing of normal tissue. Very little work has been undertaken into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that differentiate microbeam radiotherapy from broad beam. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the whole genome transcriptional response of in vivo microbeam radiotherapy versus broad beam irradiated tumors. We hypothesized that gene expression changes after microbeam radiotherapy are different from those seen after broad beam. We found that in EMT6.5 tumors at 4-48 h postirradiation, microbeam radiotherapy differentially regulates a number of genes, including major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen gene family members, and other immunity-related genes including Ciita, Ifng, Cxcl1, Cxcl9, Indo and Ubd when compared to broad beam. Our findings demonstrate molecular differences in the tumor response to microbeam versus broad beam irradiation and these differences provide insight into the underlying mechanisms of microbeam radiotherapy and broad beam.

  20. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerblom, G

    1999-07-01

    50-500 Bq/l for public waters and 200-1000 Bq/l for private water supplies. 4 EU member states and 11 non-EU European countries have reference levels for the concentration of radioactive elements in building materials. 8 European countries have guidelines regarding radon at city planning and 13 have mapped the radon risk in their countries. It is essential to the work against radon and to future reduction of radon concentrations in dwellings and workplaces that the national states issue recommendations, regulations, directives or laws on radon limits and building practices. In order to have a significant effect on the radon situation, the questionnaire responses show that radon reference levels and regulations must be enforced or very little progress is achieved. Extensive measurement and research programs have been carried out in many in countries. Heretofore, only those countries with enforced regulations have had successful programs, resulting in remedial actions in more than 10,000 buildings. The only exception is USA, which concentrated on extensive information media campaigns on radon and the training of large numbers of contractors to perform measurements and remedial measures.

  1. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerblom, G.

    1999-07-01

    -500 Bq/l for public waters and 200-1000 Bq/l for private water supplies. 4 EU member states and 11 non-EU European countries have reference levels for the concentration of radioactive elements in building materials. 8 European countries have guidelines regarding radon at city planning and 13 have mapped the radon risk in their countries. It is essential to the work against radon and to future reduction of radon concentrations in dwellings and workplaces that the national states issue recommendations, regulations, directives or laws on radon limits and building practices. In order to have a significant effect on the radon situation, the questionnaire responses show that radon reference levels and regulations must be enforced or very little progress is achieved. Extensive measurement and research programs have been carried out in many in countries. Heretofore, only those countries with enforced regulations have had successful programs, resulting in remedial actions in more than 10,000 buildings. The only exception is USA, which concentrated on extensive information media campaigns on radon and the training of large numbers of contractors to perform measurements and remedial measures

  2. Memory and survival after microbeam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueltke, Elisabeth; Juurlink, Bernhard H.J.; Ataelmannan, Khalid; Laissue, Jean; Blattmann, Hans; Braeuer-Krisch, Elke; Bravin, Alberto; Minczewska, Joanna; Crosbie, Jeffrey; Taherian, Hadi; Frangou, Evan; Wysokinsky, Tomasz; Chapman, L. Dean; Griebel, Robert; Fourney, Daryl

    2008-01-01

    Background: Disturbances of memory function are frequently observed in patients with malignant brain tumours and as adverse effects after radiotherapy to the brain. Experiments in small animal models of malignant brain tumour using synchrotron-based microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) have shown a promising prolongation of survival times. Materials and methods: Two animal models of malignant brain tumour were used to study survival and memory development after MRT. Thirteen days after implantation of tumour cells, animals were submitted to MRT either with or without adjuvant therapy (buthionine-SR-sulfoximine = BSO or glutamine). We used two orthogonal 1-cm wide arrays of 50 microplanar quasiparallel microbeams of 25 μm width and a center-to-center distance of about 200 μm, created by a multislit collimator, with a skin entrance dose of 350 Gy for each direction. Object recognition tests were performed at day 13 after tumour cell implantation and in monthly intervals up to 1 year after tumour cell implantation. Results: In both animal models, MRT with and without adjuvant therapy significantly increased survival times. BSO had detrimental effects on memory function early after therapy, while administration of glutamine resulted in improved memory

  3. Radon and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chobanova, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Radon is radioactive noble gas that can be found in soil, water, outdoor and indoor air. Since environmental radon on average accounts for about half of all human exposure to radiation from natural sources, increasing attention has been paid to exposure to radon and its associated health risks. Many countries have introduced regulations to protect their population from radon in dwellings and workplaces. In this article are discussed main characteristics of radon, including sources of exposure, variation in radon exposure, how managing risks from radon exposure, how to measure the concentration of radon. There are results of measurements conducted under the 'National radon programme' in Bulgaria also. Key words: radon, sources of exposure, risk, cancer, measure to decrease the concentration [bg

  4. Radon dynamics in underwater thermal radon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettner, H.; Hofmann, W.; Winkler, R.; Rolle, R.; Foisner, W.

    1998-01-01

    At a facility for underwater thermal radon therapy in Bad Hofgastein, experiments were carried out with the aim of establishing radon in the air exhaled by the treated patients and of radon decay products on the skin of the patients. The time course of radon concentration in the exhaled air shows a maximum a few minutes after entering the bath, then the Rn concentration remains constant over the remaining time spent in the bath. Taking into account several simplifying assumptions, the average dose to the epidermis from radon daughters is about 50 μGy. (A.K.)

  5. Radon and its hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Guilan

    2002-01-01

    The author describes basic physical and chemical properties of radon and the emanation, introduces methods of radon measurement, expounds the hazards of non-mine radon accumulation to the health of human being and the protection, as well as the history how the human being recognizes the hazards of radon through the specific data and examples, and finally proposes protecting measures to avoid the hazards of radon to the health of human being, and to do ecologic evaluation of environments

  6. Air pollution. Actions to promote radon testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Peter F.; Adams, Charles M.; McGee, William F.; Goldsmith, Larry A.; Feldesman, Alice G.; Grissinger, Charles R.; Updegraff, William D.; Langdon, Robin S.; Bartholomew, Philip L.

    1992-12-01

    To promote radon testing, EPA initiated public information and awareness programs and provided grants to states to develop programs aimed at encouraging homeowners to test for radon. Nationwide telephone surveys, according to EPA, indicate that these efforts have raised the public awareness of radon to as high as 78 percent but that about only 9 percent of those surveyed have tested their homes for radon. Concerned about improving risk reduction through its radon program, EPA convened a review panel. The panel not only recommended in May 1992 that the current voluntary approach be continued but also called for program changes to encourage more testing. These changes include targeting public information and other resources to areas where radon levels are predicted to be high and promoting testing and mitigation at the time of real estate transactions. To support state radon efforts, the Congress authorized a grant program for yearly grants of $10 million for 3 years. Funds for this program were recently extended for a fourth year through fiscal year 1993. Information to measure states' success in promoting testing by homeowners was generally not available because (1) much of the grant funding has been used to identify the extent of the radon problem; (2) federally funded public information projects were often directed to large audiences, making it difficult to measure testing rates; and (3) EPA's evaluation process for the grant program did not contain a component to measure increases in testing. We did, however, identify some state projects that have increased radon testing by targeting program efforts to homes in areas with potentially high levels of radon. The results of the state projects would seem to support the EPA review panel's recommendations on promoting radon testing through targeting program resources. In two states we surveyed, the voluntary use of disclosure statements as part of a real estate sales contract was a frequent occurrence, and in one state

  7. Indoor radon and decay products: Concentrations, causes, and control strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Revzan, K.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report is another in the on going technical report series that addresses various aspects of the DOE Radon Research Program. It provides an overview of what is known about the behavior of radon and its decay products in the indoor environment and examines the manner in which several important classes of factors -- structural, geological, and meteorological -- affect indoor radon concentrations. Information on US indoor radon concentrations, currently available monitoring methods and novel radon control strategies are also explored. 238 refs., 22 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo [Estonian Radiation Protection Centre (Kiirguskeskus), Tallinn (Spain); Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m{sup 3}, in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m{sup 3}. In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m{sup 3}. Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m{sup 3}, and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m{sup 3}. The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated

  9. Radon in Estonian dwellings - Results from a National Radon Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahapill, Lia; Rulkov, Anne; Rajamaee, Raivo; Aakerblom, Gustav

    2003-10-01

    A countrywide survey of radon concentrations in Estonian dwellings was carried out during the period 1998-2001. The survey formed a part of the cooperation program on radiation protection between the Estonian Radiation Protection (Kiirguskeskus) Centre and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The survey included measurements in a number of dwellings representative for Estonia in detached houses and multifamily buildings (only dwellings on the bottom floor were included in the survey). Altogether, radon concentrations were measured in 515 dwellings, a number large enough to be statistically significant. All measurements were made with alphatrack film detectors of the same type that SSI uses in Sweden. The measurements were made during a 2-3 month period during the winter half-year. Two detectors were used in each dwelling. In Estonia there are 0.17 million dwellings in detached houses and 0.45 million in multi apartment buildings. Of the 1.26 million inhabitants in Estonia. 0.36 million live in detached houses and 0.90 million in multi apartment buildings. Most of the latter were built during the Soviet occupation. Of the dwellings in multifamily buildings 30 % are assumed to be situated on the first floor. The mean radon concentration in dwellings in detached hoses, according to the survey results, is 103 Bq/m 3 , in dwellings on the bottom floor in multi apartment buildings it is 78 Bq/m 3 . In 1% of the dwellings the radon concentration exceeded 400 Bq/m 3 . The highest radon concentration found in the study was 1040 Bq/m 3 . Based on the assumption that the average radon concentration in the dwellings in multi-apartment buildings that are not situated on the bottom floor is 30 Bq/m 3 , and that these dwellings constitute 70% of all dwellings in multi apartment buildings, the mean radon concentration in dwellings in multi apartment buildings is calculated to be 44 Bq/m 3 . The mean value for all Estonia dwellings is calculated to be 60 Bq/m 3 . Using

  10. Neurocognitive sparing of desktop microbeam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyar, Soha; Inscoe, Christina R; Benefield, Thad; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Lee, Yueh Z

    2017-08-11

    Normal tissue toxicity is the dose-limiting side effect of radiotherapy. Spatial fractionation irradiation techniques, like microbeam radiotherapy (MRT), have shown promising results in sparing the normal brain tissue. Most MRT studies have been conducted at synchrotron facilities. With the aim to make this promising treatment more available, we have built the first desktop image-guided MRT device based on carbon nanotube x-ray technology. In the current study, our purpose was to evaluate the effects of MRT on the rodent normal brain tissue using our device and compare it with the effect of the integrated equivalent homogenous dose. Twenty-four, 8-week-old male C57BL/6 J mice were randomly assigned to three groups: MRT, broad-beam (BB) and sham. The hippocampal region was irradiated with two parallel microbeams in the MRT group (beam width = 300 μm, center-to-center = 900 μm, 160 kVp). The BB group received the equivalent integral dose in the same area of their brain. Rotarod, marble burying and open-field activity tests were done pre- and every month post-irradiation up until 8 months to evaluate the cognitive changes and potential irradiation side effects on normal brain tissue. The open-field activity test was substituted by Barnes maze test at 8th month. A multilevel model, random coefficients approach was used to evaluate the longitudinal and temporal differences among treatment groups. We found significant differences between BB group as compared to the microbeam-treated and sham mice in the number of buried marble and duration of the locomotion around the open-field arena than shams. Barnes maze revealed that BB mice had a lower capacity for spatial learning than MRT and shams. Mice in the BB group tend to gain weight at the slower pace than shams. No meaningful differences were found between MRT and sham up until 8-month follow-up using our measurements. Applying MRT with our newly developed prototype compact CNT-based image-guided MRT system

  11. Radon gas as a tracer for volcanic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Radon emissions from volcanic systems have been under investigation for several decades. Soil gas and groundwater radon activities have been used to map faults and to characterize geothermal systems, and measurements of atmospheric radon and radon daughter concentrations have been used to estimate the volume of magma chambers feeding active eruptions. Several studies have also shown that temporal variations in radon concentration have been associated with the onset of volcanic eruptions or changes in the rates or character of an eruption. Some of these studies have been able to clearly define the cause of the radon anomalies but others have proposed models of radon emission and transport that are not well supported by the known physical and chemical processes that occur in a volcanic system. In order to better characterize the processes that control radon activities in volcanic systems, it is recommended that future radon monitoring programs attempt to maintain continuous recording of radon activities; individual radon measurements should be made over the shortest time intervals possible that are consistent with acceptable counting statistics and geophysical, meteorological, and hydrological parameters should be measured in order to better define the physical processes that affect radon activities in volcanic systems. (author). 63 refs

  12. Parameter identification of an electrically actuated imperfect microbeam

    KAUST Repository

    Ruzziconi, Laura; Younis, Mohammad I.; Lenci, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In this study we consider a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) and focus on extracting analytically the model parameters that describe its non-linear dynamic features accurately. The device consists of a clamped-clamped polysilicon microbeam

  13. Multifrequency Excitation of a Clamped-Clamped Microbeam

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar; Ramini, Abdallah; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    . These microbeams are fabricated using polyimide as structural layer coated with nickel form top and chromium and gold layers from bottom. We demonstrate the excitation of additive and subtractive type resonance. We show that by properly tuning the frequency

  14. An Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Electrostatically Coupled Cantilever Microbeams

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad; Chappanda, Karumbaiah N.; Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Ramini, Abdallah; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical investigation of the static and dynamic behavior of electrostatically coupled laterally actuated silicon microbeams. The coupled beam resonators are composed of two almost identical flexible cantilever

  15. Conceptual design for real time monitoring of electron microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Seok; Kim, Hyun Ki; Jang, Mee; Choi, Chang Woon; Sun, Gwang Min; Lee, Jai Ki

    2008-01-01

    It is recognized that the microbeam is powerful system to understand the interaction of ionizing radiation with cells. Especially, electron microbeam system is useful to investigate the effect of low-LET radiation for cells. Electron microbeam has been developed in KIRAMS. It can irradiate the small volume in cell level by collimator and electromagnetic field and give local dose to individual cell by controlling the number of electrons. When the electron microbeam irradiates the individual cell, however, there is a possibility to change the current and intended trajectory of electron beam. Because this possibility introduces the uncertainty of dose, it is necessary to monitor the trajectory and current of electron beam. This study deals with development of real time monitoring device to confirm beam quality and to control if necessary during experiment. Consequently we designed dual monitoring device to solve various factors. And we optimize the design by simulation. (author)

  16. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagliardi, Frank M., E-mail: frank.gagliardi@wbrc.org.au [Alfred Health Radiation Oncology, The Alfred, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia and School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Cornelius, Iwan [Imaging and Medical Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Blencowe, Anton [Division of Health Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, The University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia and Division of Information Technology, Engineering and the Environment, Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, South Australia 5095 (Australia); Franich, Rick D. [School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia); Geso, Moshi [School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200 or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery.

  17. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardi, Frank M.; Cornelius, Iwan; Blencowe, Anton; Franich, Rick D.; Geso, Moshi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200 or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery

  18. Realisation of a calibration chamber for radon in the air and establishment of a system for measuring radon in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassi, Nedra

    2011-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas that is naturally produced from the decay of radium. The main source of radon found in the earth's crust caused by the presence of a series of uranium (222 isotope of radon) and a series of thorium (220 isotope of radon) therein. We have optimized a new radon calibration chamber by developing an electronic system controlled by a PIC 16F877 microcontroller type to manage the various functions of the room. Several electronic circuits were developed to manage multiple functions such as pressure, temperature and controls motors and solenoids. This system can also be interfaced with a computer through programs such as LabView or Matlab.

  19. Development of a portable radon detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.W.

    1976-09-01

    The presence of radon-222 in soil gas and ground water can indicate the existence of nearby uranium deposits even when heavy overburdens completely absorb the associated gamma radiation. Techniques to detect and measure radon have evolved during the past several years to the point where radon prospecting is routinely employed in a number of countries. A program to develop and field test a prototype system for measuring radon from soil gas and water is described. A prototype system employing a flow through scintillation detector was designed and constructed, utilizing standard commercial components, to provide a fieldworthy unit for testing the system concepts. Laboratory and preliminary field tests of this unit indicate that it can detect anomalous radon levels of less than 10 picoCuries per liter (pCi/l) in soil gas and ground water

  20. Radon programme: presence and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulka, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation an overview of radon programme experiences is presented. The paper summarises national radon policy, national programmes, legislation, the role of preventive measures and interventions with respect to existing and future exposure and knowledge of radon risk, problems of remediation strategies, practical protection in dwellings, radon measurements strategies, progress in radon measurement of an individual house (radon diagnosis), radon mapping process and sense of delineation of radon prone areas, natural radioactivity of building materials and radioactivity in public water and their role in the radon programme, public awareness on radon issue and publicity campaign. Some research activities are proposed aiming at effective solutions of radon issues in future

  1. In situ macromolecular crystallography using microbeams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin L; Aishima, Jun; Foadi, James; Morgan, Ann W; Robinson, James I; Nettleship, Joanne E; Owens, Raymond J; Moraes, Isabel; Fry, Elizabeth E; Grimes, Jonathan M; Harlos, Karl; Kotecha, Abhay; Ren, Jingshan; Sutton, Geoff; Walter, Thomas S; Stuart, David I; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2012-05-01

    Despite significant progress in high-throughput methods in macromolecular crystallography, the production of diffraction-quality crystals remains a major bottleneck. By recording diffraction in situ from crystals in their crystallization plates at room temperature, a number of problems associated with crystal handling and cryoprotection can be side-stepped. Using a dedicated goniometer installed on the microfocus macromolecular crystallography beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source, crystals have been studied in situ with an intense and flexible microfocus beam, allowing weakly diffracting samples to be assessed without a manual crystal-handling step but with good signal to noise, despite the background scatter from the plate. A number of case studies are reported: the structure solution of bovine enterovirus 2, crystallization screening of membrane proteins and complexes, and structure solution from crystallization hits produced via a high-throughput pipeline. These demonstrate the potential for in situ data collection and structure solution with microbeams. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography

  2. Development of the Jyvaeskylae microbeam facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norarat, Rattanaporn, E-mail: rattanaporn.norarat@phys.jyu.fi [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Sajavaara, Timo; Laitinen, Mikko; Heikkinen, Pauli; Ranttila, Kimmo; Ylikorkala, Kari; Haenninen, Vaeinoe; Rossi, Mikko; Jones, Pete [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Marjomaeki, Varpu; Gilbert, Leona [Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Whitlow, Harry J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2012-02-01

    Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A MeV ion microbeam for biomedical materials research is being developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High accuracy scanning using electrostatic post-focus deflection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imaging and direct lithographic image writing using time-stamping methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New scanning modes and fluorescence detectors permit low ion-fluence cell imaging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal compensated beam-line support design for high positional accuracy. - Abstract: A new microbeam facility is being constructed at the 1.7 MV Pelletron Accelerator in Jyvaeskylae. The facility is designed for easy upgrading and incorporates a number of innovative features. Initially, it is based on a Heidelberg doublet with a design capability of a 3 Multiplication-Sign 5 {mu}m beamspot at PIXE intensities and later upgraded to nanobeam performance. A thermal-expansion compensated rigid frame mounted on a mechanically isolated floor section is used to support the ion optical components. A compact-post focusing electrostatic deflector is used for high linearity beam scanning. This together with a novel time-stamped data collection (TDC) allows dynamic effects in IBIC, fluorescence bleaching to be studied as well as facilitating multi-resolution image support for low-fluence imaging of cells. The target chamber is fitted with a novel low-cost large working distance optical microscope, extremely compact large solid angle photon detectors as well as conventional secondary electron, PIXE and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) detectors.

  3. Microbeam irradiation of the C. elegans nematode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertucci, Antonella; Brenner, David J.; Pocock, Roger D.J.; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    The understanding of complex radiation responses in biological systems, such as non-targeted effects as represented by the bystander response, can be enhanced by the use of genetically amenable model organisms. Almost all bystander studies to date have been carried out by using conventional single-cell in vitro systems, which are useful tools to characterize basic cellular and molecular responses. A few studies have been reported in monolayer explants and bystander responses have been also investigated in a three-dimensional normal human tissue system. However, despite the well-know usefulness of in vitro models, they cannot capture the complexity of radiation responses of living systems such as animal models. To carry out in vivo studies on the bystander effect we have developed a new technique to expose living organisms using proton microbeams. We report the use of a nematode C. elegans strain with a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) reporter for the hsp-4 heat-shock gene as an in vivo model for radiation studies. Exposing animals to heat and chemicals stressors leads to whole body increases in the hsp-4 protein reflected by enhanced fluorescence. We report here that γ-rays also can induce stress response in a dose dependent manner. However, whole body exposure to stress agents does not allow for evaluation of distance dependent response in non targeted tissues: the so-called bystander effect. We used the RARAF microbeam to site specifically deliver 3 MeV protons to a site in the tail of young worms. GFP expression was enhanced after 24 hours in a number dependent manner at distances > 100 μm from the site of irradiation. (author)

  4. Wide area scanning system and carbon microbeams at the external microbeam facility of the INFN LABEC laboratory in Florence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuntini, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Massi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Calusi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Castelli, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Carraresi, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Fedi, M.E.; Gelli, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P.A.; Mazzinghi, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Palla, L. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa and Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Romano, F.P. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali (IBAM), Via Biblioteca, 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), LNS, Via S.Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); and others

    2015-04-01

    Recently, developments have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence. A new system for mechanical sample scanning was implemented. This system allows us to acquire large maps (up to 20 × 20 cm{sup 2}), of great interest in the Cultural Heritage field. In parallel, the possibility of using carbon microbeams for experiments, such as, for example, ion beam modification of materials and MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, has been investigated. As a test application, Particle Induced X-ray Emission with carbon microbeams has been performed on a lapis lazuli stone. First results for both wide area imaging and external carbon microbeams are briefly reported.

  5. Wide area scanning system and carbon microbeams at the external microbeam facility of the INFN LABEC laboratory in Florence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuntini, L.; Massi, M.; Calusi, S.; Castelli, L.; Carraresi, L.; Fedi, M.E.; Gelli, N.; Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P.A.; Mazzinghi, A.; Palla, L.; Romano, F.P.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, developments have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence. A new system for mechanical sample scanning was implemented. This system allows us to acquire large maps (up to 20 × 20 cm 2 ), of great interest in the Cultural Heritage field. In parallel, the possibility of using carbon microbeams for experiments, such as, for example, ion beam modification of materials and MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, has been investigated. As a test application, Particle Induced X-ray Emission with carbon microbeams has been performed on a lapis lazuli stone. First results for both wide area imaging and external carbon microbeams are briefly reported

  6. Proceedings of 6th International Microbeam Workshop/12th L.H. Gray Workshop Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prise, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    The extended abstracts which are submitted here present a summary of the proceedings of the 6th International Workshop/12th LH Gray Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held at St. Catherine's College, University of Oxford, UK on March, 29th-31st, 2003. In 1993 the 4th LH Gray Workshop entitled ''Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response'' was held at the Gray Cancer Institute in Northwood. This was organized by Prof BD Michael, Dr M. Folkard and Dr KM Prise and brought together 40 participants interested in developing and applying new microbeam technology to problems in radiation biology (1). The workshop was an undoubted success and has spawned a series of subsequent workshops every two years. In the past, these workshops have been highly successful in bringing together groups interested in developing and applying micro-irradiation techniques to the study of cell and tissue damage by ionizing radiations. Following the first microbeam workshop, there has been a rapid growth in the number of centres developing radiobiology microbeams, or planning to do so and there are currently 15-20 worldwide. Much of the recent research using microbeams has used them to study low-dose effects and ''non-targeted'' responses such bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. The goal of the 6th workshop was to build on our knowledge of the development of microbeam approaches and the application to radiation biology in the future with the meeting stretching over a 3 day period. Over 80 participants reviewed the current state of radiobiology microbeam research worldwide and reported on new technological developments both in the fields of physics and biology

  7. Radon reduction in waterworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raff, O.; Haberer, K.; Wilken, R.D.; Funk, H.; Stueber, J.; Wanitschek, J.; Akkermann-Kubillus, A.; Stauder, S.

    2000-01-01

    The removal of radon from water using water aeration is one of the most effective methods for reducing radon in waterworks. Therefore, this report describes investigations on packed tower columns and shallow aeration devices and a method for mathematical modelling of gas exchange processes for dimensioning packed tower columns for radon removal. Moreover, possibilities for removing radon using active carbon filtration under waterworks typical conditions and for reducing indoor radon levels in waterworks are discussed. Finally, conclusions on the necessity of radon removal in German waterworks are drawn. (orig.) [de

  8. Indoor radon measurements and methodologies in Latin American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canoba, A.; Lopez, F.O.; Arnaud, M.I.; Oliveira, A.A.; Neman, R.S.; Hadler, J.C.; Iunes, P.J.; Paulo, S.R.; Osorio, A.M.; Aparecido, R.; Rodriguez, C.; Moreno, V.; Vasquez, R.; Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.; Martinez, T.; Navarrete, M.; Cabrera, I.; Segovia, N.; Pena, P.; Tamez, E.; Pereyra, P.; Lopez-Herrera, M.E.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2001-01-01

    According to the current international guidelines concerning environmental problems, it is necessary to evaluate and to know the indoor radon levels, specially since most of the natural radiation dose to man comes from radon gas and its progeny. Several countries have established National Institutions and National Programs for the study of radon and its connection with lung cancer risk and public health. The aim of this work is to present the indoor radon measurements and the detection methods used for different regions of Latin America (LA) in countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. This study shows that the passive radon devices based on alpha particle nuclear track methodology (NTM) is one of the more generalized methods in LA for long term indoor radon measurements, CR-39, LR-115 and Makrofol being the more commonly used detector materials. The participating institutions and the radon level measurements in the different countries are presented in this contribution

  9. Weanling piglet cerebellum: a surrogate for tolerance to MRT (microbeam radiation therapy) in pediatric neuro-oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laissue, Jean A.; Blattmann, Hans; Di Michiel, Marco; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Lyubimova, Nadia; Guzman, Raphael; Zimmermann, Werner; Birrer, Stephan; Bley, Tim; Kircher, Patrick; Stettler, Regina; Fatzer, Rosmarie; Jaggy, Andre; Smilowitz, Henry; Brauer, Elke; Bravin, Alberto; Le Duc, Geraldine; Nemoz, Christian; Renier, Michel; Thomlinson, William C.; Stepanek, Jiri; Wagner, Hans-Peter

    2001-12-01

    The cerebellum of the weanling piglet (Yorkshire) was used as a surrogate for the radiosensitive human infant cerebellum in a Swiss-led program of experimental microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) at the ESRF. Five weanlings in a 47 day old litter of seven, and eight weanlings in a 40 day old litter of eleven were irradiated in November, 1999 and June, 2000, respectively. A 1.5 cm-wide x 1.5 xm-high array of equally space approximately equals 20-30 micrometers wide, upright microbeams spaced at 210 micrometers intervals was propagated horizontally, left to right, through the cerebella of the prone, anesthetized piglets. Skin-entrance intra-microbeam peak adsorbed doses were uniform, either 150, 300, 425, or 600 gray (Gy). Peak and inter-microbeam (valley) absorbed doses in the cerebellum were computed with the PSI version of the Monte Carlo code GEANT and benchmarked using Gafchromic and radiochromic film microdosimetry. For approximately equals 66 weeks [first litter; until euthanasia], or approximately equals 57 weeks [second litter; until July 30, 2001] after irradiation, the littermates were developmentally, behaviorally, neurologically and radiologically normal as observed and tested by experienced farmers and veterinary scientists unaware of which piglets were irradiated or sham-irradiated. Morever, MRT implemented at the ESRF with a similar array of microbeams and a uniform skin-entrance peak dose of 625 Gy, followed by immunoprophylaxis, was shown to be palliative or curative in young adult rats bearing intracerebral gliosarcomas. These observations give further credence to MRT's potential as an adjunct therapy for brain tumors in infancy, when seamless therapeutic irradiation of the brain is hazardous.

  10. World Health Organization's International Radon Project 2005-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, Zhanat; Shannoun, Ferid; Zielinski, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies of people exposed to indoor radon have confirmed that radon in homes is a serious health hazard that can be easily mitigated. To address the issue at an international level, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the International Radon Project (IRP). The project was launched in January 2005 with its first meeting attended by 36 experts representing 17 countries. The project's scope and the key objectives were outlined at this meeting and later refined: 1-) To identify effective strategies for reducing the health impact of radon; 2-) To promote sound policy options, prevention and mitigation programs (including monitoring and evaluation of programs; 3-) To raise public, political and economical awareness about the consequences of exposure to radon (including financial institutions as target group); 4-) To estimate the global health impact of exposure to residential radon using available data on radon worldwide. WHO and its member states strive through the WHO-IRP to succeed in putting indoor radon on the environmental health agenda in countries with lower awareness of radon as a health problem and in strengthening local and national radon-related activities in countries with ongoing radon programs. Two subsequent working meetings were held: in March, 2006 in Geneva with 63 participants from 25 countries, along with representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and European Commission (EC); and in March 2007 in Munich with 61 participants from 27 countries. Both meetings reviewed the IRP progress and focused on the two main outputs: 'The WHO Report on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) due to Radon' and 'The WHO Radon Handbook'. The former applies the WHO methodology for GBD assessment and considers ways to graphically map residential radon concentrations

  11. Radon in geological medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hricko, J [GEOCOMPLEX, a.s., Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a{sub v} has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km{sup 2}. The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a{sub v} > 50 kBq/m{sup 3}). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  12. Radon in geological medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hricko, J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a v has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km 2 . The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a v > 50 kBq/m 3 ). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs

  13. Radon sump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeham, C.J.R.

    1992-01-01

    A radon sump which can be installed easily by unskilled labour and which is cheap to produce comprises a unit in the form of a box-like housing having one or more walls, a floor and a roof, and is preferably made from a synthetic plastics material, optionally reinforced with glass fibre or other reinforcing material, the housing having a plurality of inlets in its wall or walls and at least one outlet leading to a pipe spigot which is made in one piece with the housing. Alternatively, the housing is made in concrete, in 3 pieces (floor, wall, roof) with a knock-out portion which can be removed for insertion of an outlet pipe. (Author)

  14. Radon in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, H.

    2000-01-01

    Several projects in Austria deal with the problem of enhanced radon exposure to the public. The Austrian Radon Project is the largest project within this task, with the aim of investigating the radon concentrations in Austrian homes. Another project concerns mitigation methods. According to the EU directive EURATOM 96/29 it is also necessary to check working places for possibly enhanced radon concentrations. These projects are and will be funded by the government. The federal government of Upper Austria sponsored a project to test the indoor air quality in kindergartens including radon measurements. Within an EU research project, the radon concentrations in Austrian springs and groundwater were systematically listed and analyzed. Additional investigations will focus on methods to improve the radon potential maps from the Austrian Radon Project by including geological and other information. (author)

  15. Radon: A health problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucci, J.; Gaston, S.

    1990-01-01

    Nurses can and should function as effective teachers about the potential hazards to health of radon contamination in the home as well as become activists in the development of health care policy on radon

  16. Radon survey techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The report reviews radon measurement surveys in soils and in water. Special applications, and advantages and limitations of the radon measurement techniques are considered. The working group also gives some directions for further research in this field

  17. Indoor radon pollution: Control and mitigation. June 1978-December 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for June 1978-December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the control and mitigation of radon pollution in homes and commercial buildings. Citations cover radon transport studies in buildings and soils, remedial action proposals on contaminated buildings, soil venting, building ventilation, sealants, filtration systems, water degassing, reduction of radon sources in building materials, and evaluation of existing radon mitigation programs including their cost effectiveness. Analysis and detection of radon and radon toxicity are covered in separate published bibliographies. (Contains 129 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  18. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform designers, householders and other building owners about the radon problem and to help in deciding if there is need to take any action to reduce radon levels in their homes or other buildings.It explains what radon is, how it enters buildings and what effect it may have on health. Reference is made to some of the usual ways of reducing the level of radon and guidance is given on some sources of assistance

  19. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gooding, Tracy

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radioactive gas radon has been found at excessive levels in many workplaces other than mines throughout the country. Prolonged exposure to radon and its decay products increases the risk of developing lung cancer, and controls to protect employees from excessive exposure are included in the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. The control of occupational exposure to radon is discussed here. (author)

  20. From insulation contracting to radon mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    As the definition of house doctor has evolved over the past ten years and the field of energy services has grown more sophisticated, many contractors have expanded the services they offer their clients. This paper presents the story of one insulation contractor who has found a niche in radon testing and mitigation. The EPA now has a national program for the radon mitigator called the Radon Contractor Proficiency Program. The requirements include attending the Radon Technology for Mitigators course, passing an exam, and taking continuing education. In the Midwest, the most popular mitigation technique is the subslab depressurization system. To draw suction from under the slab, the system can take advantage of an existing sump crock or can penetrate the slab. Interior drain tiles collect water to empty into the crock, providing an excellent pathway to draw from. This mitigation process is explained

  1. Ambient Radon-222 Monitoring in Amargosa Valley, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L.H. Karr; J.J. Tappen; D. Shafer; K.J. Gray

    2008-01-01

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline selected environmental parameters in the region around the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, ambient radon-222 monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, the community closest to the proposed repository site. Passive integrating radon monitors and a continuous radon monitoring instrument were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) (http://www.cemp.dri.edu/index.html) station located in the Amargosa Valley Community Center near the library. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated radon measurements as well as verify meteorological data collected by the continuous radon monitoring instrument. Additionally, different types of environmental enclosures that housed the monitors and instrument were used to determine if particular designs influenced the ambient radon measurements

  2. In situ macromolecular crystallography using microbeams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin L.; Aishima, Jun [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Foadi, James [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Morgan, Ann W.; Robinson, James I. [University of Leeds, Leeds LS9 7FT (United Kingdom); Nettleship, Joanne E.; Owens, Raymond J. [Research Complex at Harwell, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory R92, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Moraes, Isabel [Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Fry, Elizabeth E.; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Harlos, Karl; Kotecha, Abhay; Ren, Jingshan; Sutton, Geoff; Walter, Thomas S. [University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Stuart, David I. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Evans, Gwyndaf, E-mail: gwyndaf.evans@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-17

    A sample environment for mounting crystallization trays has been developed on the microfocus beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source. The technical developments and several case studies are described. Despite significant progress in high-throughput methods in macromolecular crystallography, the production of diffraction-quality crystals remains a major bottleneck. By recording diffraction in situ from crystals in their crystallization plates at room temperature, a number of problems associated with crystal handling and cryoprotection can be side-stepped. Using a dedicated goniometer installed on the microfocus macromolecular crystallography beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source, crystals have been studied in situ with an intense and flexible microfocus beam, allowing weakly diffracting samples to be assessed without a manual crystal-handling step but with good signal to noise, despite the background scatter from the plate. A number of case studies are reported: the structure solution of bovine enterovirus 2, crystallization screening of membrane proteins and complexes, and structure solution from crystallization hits produced via a high-throughput pipeline. These demonstrate the potential for in situ data collection and structure solution with microbeams.

  3. Negative Knudsen force on heated microbeams

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Taishan

    2011-11-18

    Knudsen force acting on a heated microbeam adjacent to a cold substrate in a rarefied gas is a mechanical force created by unbalanced thermal gradients. The measured force has its direction pointing towards the side with a lower thermal gradient and its magnitude vanishes in both continuum and free-molecule limits. In our previous study, negative Knudsen forces were discovered at the high Knudsen regime before diminishing in the free-molecule limit. Such a phenomenon was, however, neither observed in experiment [A. Passian et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 124503 (2003)], nor captured in the latest numerical study [J. Nabeth et al., Phys. Rev. E 83, 066306 (2011)]. In this paper, the existence of such a negative Knudsen force is further confirmed using both numerical simulation and theoretical analysis. The asymptotic order of the Knudsen force near the collisionless limit is analyzed and the analytical expression of its leading term is provided, from which approaches for the enhancement of negative Knudsen forces are proposed. The discovered phenomenon could find its applications in novel mechanisms for pressure sensing and actuation.

  4. In situ macromolecular crystallography using microbeams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin L.; Aishima, Jun; Foadi, James; Morgan, Ann W.; Robinson, James I.; Nettleship, Joanne E.; Owens, Raymond J.; Moraes, Isabel; Fry, Elizabeth E.; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Harlos, Karl; Kotecha, Abhay; Ren, Jingshan; Sutton, Geoff; Walter, Thomas S.; Stuart, David I.; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2012-01-01

    A sample environment for mounting crystallization trays has been developed on the microfocus beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source. The technical developments and several case studies are described. Despite significant progress in high-throughput methods in macromolecular crystallography, the production of diffraction-quality crystals remains a major bottleneck. By recording diffraction in situ from crystals in their crystallization plates at room temperature, a number of problems associated with crystal handling and cryoprotection can be side-stepped. Using a dedicated goniometer installed on the microfocus macromolecular crystallography beamline I24 at Diamond Light Source, crystals have been studied in situ with an intense and flexible microfocus beam, allowing weakly diffracting samples to be assessed without a manual crystal-handling step but with good signal to noise, despite the background scatter from the plate. A number of case studies are reported: the structure solution of bovine enterovirus 2, crystallization screening of membrane proteins and complexes, and structure solution from crystallization hits produced via a high-throughput pipeline. These demonstrate the potential for in situ data collection and structure solution with microbeams

  5. Analysis of metallic pigments by ion microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelicon, P.; Klanjsek-Gunde, M.; Kunaver, M.; Simcic, J.; Budnar, M.

    2002-01-01

    Metallic paints consist of metallic flakes dispersed in a resinous binder, i.e. a light-element polymer matrix. The spatial distribution and orientation of metallic flakes inside the matrix determines the covering efficiency of the paint, glossiness, and its angular-dependent properties such as lightness flop or color flop (two-tone). Such coatings are extensively used for a functional (i.e. security) as well as decorative purpose. The ion microbeam analysis of two types of silver paint with imbedded metallic flakes has been performed to determine the spatial distribution of the aluminum flakes in paint layer. The average sizes of the aluminum flakes were 23 μm (size distribution 10-37) and 49 μm (size distribution 34-75), respectively. The proton beam with the size of 2x2 μm 2 at Ljubljana ion microprobe has been used to scan the surface of the pigments. PIXE mapping of Al Kα map shows lateral distribution of the aluminum flakes, whereas the RBS slicing method reveals tomograms of the flakes in uppermost 7 μm of the pigment layer. The series of point analysis aligned over the single flake reveal the flake angle in respect to the polymer matrix surface. The angular sensitivity is well below 1 angular degree

  6. Element of risk: The politics of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    The recent history of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) approach to managing the risk of indoor radon offers a rich base from which to consider US practice in risk assessment, management, and communication. The biological evidence of risks from high-level exposure to radon is in many ways stronger--and the gap to be spanned by extrapolation from laboratory animal studies to ambient exposures narrower--than for many of the toxic and hazardous air pollutants that have been the focus of EPA regulatory attention. The epidemiological evidence about radon is complicated by a number of confounding variables, but this is often the state of epidemiological evidence. Radon has also been the focus of a considerable amount of research on risk communication. To complete the promising ingredients, disagreements between federal regulators at EPA and managers of federal nuclear programs run by the Department of Energy (DOE) concerning radon from uranium mill tailings, for example, and other issues in radiation health physics offer a rich array of opportunities to explore issues in federal bureaucratic politics. This book provides a straightforward report of much of the development of US policy on indoor radon over the past decade. As such, it gives readers unfamiliar with the evolution of radon regulation an opportunity to come quickly up to speed on many historical details

  7. A study of radon 222 transfer indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximilien, R.; Robe, M.C.; Archimbaud, M.

    1985-01-01

    Indoor exposure can vary considerably depending upon the natural environment (geology, climate), man-made arrangements (building materials, insulation and ventilation systems...) or way of living. In order to specify the sources and assess their respective contribution in a given dwelling, a good knowledge of radon transfer and dispersion processes is required as well as a heavy experimental device (continuous radon and ventilation monitoring...). The study must be limited to some cases selected by a systematic measurement program either because they are representative of dwelling conditions, or preferably on account of their high radon level, the origin of which will be investigated. As a consequence, countermeasures can be developed. A pilot study has been carried out on radon transport in two houses of the Rhone river valley. The two houses -selected among 131 other ones for their high radon levels- are built with the same architectural approach and located very close to each other, yet the factors accounting for domestic exposure are quite different. Indoor parameters are at the origin of various radon concentrations in the case of low natural ventilation; conversely, outdoor parameters only seem to act in the case of high ventilation. For a larger part, however, radon seems to emanate from under the foundations of both houses [fr

  8. Contribution of radon in natural gas to the dose from aiborne radon-daughters in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, C.J.; Moore, R.E.; Rohwer, P.S.

    1973-01-01

    Data have been obtained on the radon concentration in natural gas supplied to several metropolitan areas in the United States. The average value of 20 pCi/l was selected to estimate the contribution of this source of natural radioactivity to doses from radon-daughters received by individuals in homes. Radon-daughter concentrations in the home atmosphere were calculated by use of computer programs for an 8000 ft 3 house in which 27 ft 3 of gas per day was used for cooking in an unvented kitchen range. The total estimated dose to the bronchial epithelium included contributions from radon plus daughters in the outside ventilation air, each of which was assumed to be present at a concentration of 0.13 pCi/l, and from the radon plus daughters in the natural gas. The latter contribution averaged approximately 3 percent of the total dose. There was a 3.5 percent decrease in the estimated total dose when the air change rate increased from 0.25 to 2.0 per hour. We conclude that radon and radon-daughters entering the home with natural gas produce a negligible fraction of the total dose to the respiratory system of home occupants from airborne radon-daughters

  9. Radon: Detection and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, S.; Loken, T.

    1989-01-01

    Within the last few years, natural radon exposure in non-industrial settings, primarily homes, has become a health concern. Research has demonstrated that many homes throughout the United States have radon concentrations much higher than the legal federal limits set for miners. Thousands of unsuspecting people are being exposed to high levels of radiation. It is estimated that up to 15 percent of lung cancers are caused from radon. This is a significant health risk. With basic knowledge of the current information on radon, a primary health care provider can address patients' radon concerns and make appropriate referrals

  10. Techniques and multi-disciplinary applications of ion microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Guanghua

    2012-01-01

    Beam of MeV ions form particle accelerators can be confined by collimators or focused by electrical/magnetic quadruples into micrometer size, and this microbeam can be used to obtain spatial information or radiation effect in solids and biological samples. This paper reviews the technical developments and the multi-disciplinary applications of microbeam, including ion beam analysis, single event effect in semiconductor devices, proton beam writing and cellular response to targeted particle irradiations. Finally, the high-energy heavy-ion microbeam facility at the Institute of Modern Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences is introduced, which has successfully focused 1 GeV Carbon ions into a beam spot of 1 μm × 2 μm in air. (authors)

  11. Nanoscale and submicron fatigue crack growth in nickel microbeams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Yao, N.; Imasogie, B.; Soboyejo, W.O.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a novel edge-notched microbeam technique for the study of short fatigue crack growth. The technique is used to study submicron and nanoscale fatigue in LIGA Ni thin films with columnar microstructures. The edge-notched microbeams were fabricated within LIGA Ni thin films, using focused ion beam (FIB) techniques. The microbeams were then cyclically deformed to failure at a stress ratio of 0.1. Different slip-band structures were observed below the nanoscale notches. Cyclic deformation resulted in the formation of primary slip bands below the notch. Subsequent crack growth then occurred by the unzipping of fatigue cracks along intersecting slip bands. The effects of the primary slip bands were idealized using dislocation-based models. These were used to estimate the intrinsic fatigue threshold and the fatigue endurance limit. The estimates from the model are shown to be consistent with experimental data from prior stress-life experiments and current/prior fatigue threshold estimates

  12. Improvement of the Energy Stability of the Single Ion Microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Furu; Qi Xuehong; Xu Mingliang; Chen Lianyun; Yu Zengliang

    2008-01-01

    Energy instability strongly affects the state and the beam size of the single ion microbeam. A facility based on the Generating Voltmeter was developed to improve the energy stability of the CAS-LIBB (Chinese Academy of Sciences, key laboratory of ion beam bioengineering) single ion microbeam. This paper presents the analysis of the energy instability of the single ion microbeam. A simplified theoretical model is set up to calculate the relationship between the energy instability and the beam spot size. By using this technique, the energy instability is adjusted to about 1%. Stable run-time is over 6 hours. The radius of the single ion beam is reduced by 10% compared to the previous one.

  13. Light ion microbeam analysis / processing system and its improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koka, Masashi; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Yamada, Naoto; Ohkubo, Takeru; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Satoh, Takahiro; Kada, Wataru; Kitamura, Akane; Iwata, Yoshihiro

    2016-03-01

    A MeV-class light ion microbeam system has been developed for micro-analysis and micro-fabrication with high spatial resolution at 3-MV single-ended accelerator in Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application of Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Sector of Nuclear Science Research, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. This report describes the technical improvements for the main apparatus (the accelerator, beam-transport lines, and microbeam system), and auxiliary equipments/ parts for ion beam applications such as Particle Induced X-ray/Gamma-ray Emission (PIXE/PIGE) analysis, 3-D element distribution analysis using PIXE Computed Tomography (CT), Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL) analysis, and Proton Beam Writing with the microbeam scanning, with functional outline of these apparatus and equipments/parts. (author)

  14. Mapping the geogenic radon potential of the eastern Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiano, Jesús G.; Alonso, Hector; Arnedo, Miguel. A.; Tejera, Alicia; Martel, Pablo; Gil, Juan M.; Rodriguez, Rafael; González, Jonay

    2014-05-01

    using a calibrated nomogram. As results, maps of radon in soils have been developed for the three islands to identify areas where may appear high activity concentrations of radon due to natural sources. Finally to determine the radon potential of soils analyzed we applied a procedure to classify the radon areas in several levels of risk using the measured values of radon activity concentration and soil permeability. Acknowledgments: This work was financed by the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) through a grant in its R&D program 2009 and by the European Development Fund (ERDF) through a research project program 2007 granted by Canary Agency for Research, Innovation and Information Society (ACIISI) of the Canary Islands.

  15. Radon emanation from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markkanen, M.; Arvela, H.

    1992-01-01

    The results of gamma spectrometric sample measurements of radon ( 222 Rn) emanation coefficients and radium concentrations ( 226 Ra) from about 800 Finnish soil samples are presented. The radon emanation rate was measured in about 400 soil samples, using radon-tight cans and Lucas cells. The effects of water content and temperature on radon emanation were investigated, using various samples of different soil types. Radon emanation and the effect of water content on radon emanation were investigated separately for different grain sizes (samples of till). The results provide some information on radon emanation in different soil types and relate emanation in laboratory conditions to conditions in ground soil. In routine measurements of radon emanation from soil samples, use of a 5% water content was considered advisable. The correction coefficients of radon emanation varied between 0.3 and 1.5, depending on the water content and soil type. At 5% water content, hardly any difference was found between radon emanation at temperatures of 20 and 1 o C. Radon emanation was found to be an inverse function of grain sizes larger than 0.5 mm in diameter. (author)

  16. Radon, a real threat to our health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauna, T.; Mauna, A.; Ghita, R.

    2005-01-01

    Radon is invisible, odorless and tasteless a radioactive gas that comes from the radioactive decay of naturally occurring uranium and thorium in soil and rock, can concentrate in domestic homes, overground workplaces, and caves. Radon has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancers in the U.S., about 20.000 per year, and is present in millions of homes. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of USA designated January 2005 as National Radon Action Month (NRAM) and held the second week of October every year as National Radon Action Week (NRAW). The focus of NRAM and NRW is to promote awareness about, testing for and mitigation of indoor radon gas with various events and outreach campaigns. The EPA considering radon exposure as capital problem for the population health decided to have a special dedicated free phone number the similar for every county state of USA taking into account the increase easy call by interested people. Many universities and research centers, including NGO from different countries world wide, following the recommendation of 'United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation' (USNCEAR) and 'International Commission on Radiological Protection ' (ICRP) until 1977, developed their own radon researches in order to clarify the properties, area distribution and concentration, geological production and other needed aspects. This paper compare the radon risk versus radioactive waste gaseous Nuclear Power Plant release in normal or abnormal operation and underlines the needs for Romanian's radiation research laboratories to undertake radon protection programs similar to to those underway in other countries. (authors)

  17. Radon in buildings: instrumentation of an experimental house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameon, R.; Diez, O.; Dupuis, M.; Merle-Szeremeta, A.

    2004-01-01

    IRSN decided to develop a code called RADON 2 for conducting simple and methodical studies of indoor radon concentrations. Since a validity check must be performed of the phenomenological model on which the code is based, an experimental program was initiated in 2002, within which a house in Brittany, located on a well-characterized uranium-bearing geological formation, was fitted with special instruments. After characterizing the soil underlying the house, the instrumentation implemented on site continuously monitors a number of parameters to characterize: the radon source term in the building (exhalation rate of 222 Rn at the ground/building interface and at soil surface, radon concentration in the soil and in outdoor air); radon penetration by advection (differential pressure in the house basement); the driving mechanisms for natural ventilation in the house (weather conditions, indoor temperature and relative humidity); radon distribution throughout the house by air flow and radon diffusion (indoor radon concentration at each floor of the house). Using the experimental data acquired over the past two years, the phenomena governing radon penetration inside the house (wind and stack effect) and radon extraction (fresh air supply rate) have been characterized to lay down the bases for validating the newly developed code

  18. Real estate transaction radon test tampering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    A thousand-house study, over the past two years showed 35% of the houses were tampered with. This paper offers statistical charts representing the different methods of tampering; A slide presentation showing houses and the non-tamper controls used to monitor EPA closed-house conditions, movement of detectors and covering of detectors. A strong message must be conveyed now, that tampering will not be tolerated by radon technicians, when performing radon tests in the field. A message that incorporates non-tamper controls that are cost effective and provide for reasonably priced testing; A message that will lend credibility to our Radon industry by means of separating the professional test from a do-it-yourself homeowner test. This paper will address that message and offer a program for the prevention of tampering in a house during a PROFESSIONALLY done Radon test

  19. Soil radon response around an active volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Valdes, C.; Pena, P.; Mena, M.; Tamez, E.

    2001-01-01

    Soil radon behavior related to the volcanic eruptive period 1997-1999 of Popocatepetl volcano has been studied as a function of the volcanic activity. Since the volcano is located 60 km from Mexico City, the risk associated with an explosive eruptive phase is high and an intense surveillance program has been implemented. Previous studies in this particular volcano showed soil radon pulses preceding the initial phase of the eruption. The radon survey was performed with LR-115 track detectors at a shallow depth and the effect of the soil moisture during the rainy season has been observed on the detectors response. In the present state of the volcanic activity the soil radon behavior has shown more stability than in previous eruptive stages

  20. Supercritical nonlinear parametric dynamics of Timoshenko microbeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhi, Hamed; Ghayesh, Mergen H.

    2018-06-01

    The nonlinear supercritical parametric dynamics of a Timoshenko microbeam subject to an axial harmonic excitation force is examined theoretically, by means of different numerical techniques, and employing a high-dimensional analysis. The time-variant axial load is assumed to consist of a mean value along with harmonic fluctuations. In terms of modelling, a continuous expression for the elastic potential energy of the system is developed based on the modified couple stress theory, taking into account small-size effects; the kinetic energy of the system is also modelled as a continuous function of the displacement field. Hamilton's principle is employed to balance the energies and to obtain the continuous model of the system. Employing the Galerkin scheme along with an assumed-mode technique, the energy terms are reduced, yielding a second-order reduced-order model with finite number of degrees of freedom. A transformation is carried out to convert the second-order reduced-order model into a double-dimensional first order one. A bifurcation analysis is performed for the system in the absence of the axial load fluctuations. Moreover, a mean value for the axial load is selected in the supercritical range, and the principal parametric resonant response, due to the time-variant component of the axial load, is obtained - as opposed to transversely excited systems, for parametrically excited system (such as our problem here), the nonlinear resonance occurs in the vicinity of twice any natural frequency of the linear system; this is accomplished via use of the pseudo-arclength continuation technique, a direct time integration, an eigenvalue analysis, and the Floquet theory for stability. The natural frequencies of the system prior to and beyond buckling are also determined. Moreover, the effect of different system parameters on the nonlinear supercritical parametric dynamics of the system is analysed, with special consideration to the effect of the length-scale parameter.

  1. Nuclear tracks in solids and gas radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in USA, and the European Community, have dedicated significant budget to the Radon study, its health effects and remedial actions for controlling and achieving lower levels, in these cases, nationwide research programs have been organized. With the aim to contribute on the radon levels knowledge in our country, the Applied Dosimetry Project at the Physics Institute of the University of Mexico has developed an indoor and outdoor radon measurement methodology. In this paper a passive radon detector device based on CR-39 polycarbonate for use in radon research and routine measurements is presented. As well the methodology for the track formation, automatic reading system, calibration procedure and measurements in a different location, are shown in this work. The results had been compared with dynamic detection systems, and another methodologies and research groups in order to have a high confidence in the radon levels reported. (Author)

  2. Radon/radium detection increases uranium drilling effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, R.H.; Cook, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The use of portable radon detectors has become routine in reconnaissance uranium surveys where water and sediment samples are analyzed in field labs for radon and radium, and in detailed work where drill hole locations are pinpointed by field determinations of radon in soil gas from shallow holes. During the drilling program itself, however, very few operators are taking advantage of radon and radium analyses to decide whether a barren drill hole was a near miss or whether the immediate area can be written off. The technique, which is outlined here, is effective both above and below the water table

  3. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Labs and Research Centers Radon Contact Us Share Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  4. Integral measurement system for radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia H, J.M.; Pena E, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Integral measurement system for Radon is an equipment to detect, counting and storage data of alpha particles produced by Radon 222 which is emanated through the terrestrial peel surface. This equipment was designed in the Special Designs Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Research. It supplies information about the behavior at long time (41 days) on each type of alpha radiation that is present into the environment as well as into the terrestrial peel. The program is formed by an User program, where it is possible to determine the operation parameters of a portable probe that contains, a semiconductor detector, a microprocessor as a control central unit, a real time clock and calendar to determine the occurred events chronology, a non-volatile memory device for storage the acquired data and an interface to establish the serial communications with other personal computers. (Author)

  5. The first interdisciplinary experiments at the IMP high energy microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Guanghua; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Ruqun; Guo, Na; Liu, Wenjing; Ye, Fei; Sheng, Lina; Li, Qiang [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Li, Huiyun [Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen (China)

    2015-04-01

    The high energy beam of tens to hundred MeV/u ions possesses mm-to-cm penetration depth in materials and can be easily extracted into air without significant energy loss and beam scattering. Combination of high energy ions and microbeam technology facilitates the microprobe application to many practical studies in large scale samples. The IMP heavy ion microbeam facility has recently been integrated with microscopic positioning and targeting irradiation system. This paper introduced the first interdisciplinary experiments performed at the IMP microbeam facility using the beam of 80.5 MeV/u carbon ions. Bystander effect induction via medium transferring was not found in the micro-irradiation study using HeLa cells. The mouse irradiation experiment demonstrated that carbon irradiation of 10 Gy dose to its tuberomammillary nucleus did not impair the sleep nerve system. The fault injection attack on RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) decryption proved that the commercial field-programmable gate array chip is vulnerable in single event effect to low linear-energy-transfer carbon irradiation, and the attack can cause the leakage of RSA private key. This work demonstrates the potential of high energy microbeam in its application to biology, biomedical, radiation hardness, and information security studies.

  6. A proton microbeam deflection system to scan target surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, D.

    1978-12-01

    A system to deflect the proton beam within the Karlsruhe microbeam setup is described. The deflection is achieved whithin a transverse electrical field generated between parallel electrodes. Their tension is controlled by a pattern generator, thus enabling areal and line scans with a variable number of scan points at variable scan speed. The application is demonstrated at two different examples. (orig.) [de

  7. Dynamic Characteristics of Electrostatically Actuated Microbeams with Slant Crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved model of the slant crack on a microbeam is presented. Based on fracture mechanics, the rotation coefficient for the slant crack is derived as a massless rotational spring accounting for the additional stress intensity factors generated by the orientation of the crack compared to the transverse crack. Comparisons between microbeams with a slant crack of different geometry parameters (slant angle, depth ratio, and crack position are investigated with regard to the dynamic mechanical behaviors and nonlinear response. By presenting a mathematical modeling, the effects of the slant crack and the electric actuation of an electrostatically actuated fixed-fixed microbeam on the dynamic characteristics are examined in detail. It is shown that the crack position has more significant influence on the pull-in voltage value than the slant angle or the depth ratio. Approaching the slant crack to the fixed end or enlarging the external incentives amplifies the nonlinearity of the microbeam system, while the effects of depth ratio and slant angle are dependent on the crack position. The resonance frequency and the resonance amplitude are affected as well.

  8. Radon and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication proposes an overview on what is known about the carcinogenic effect of radon. It recalls the origin of radon, its presence in the environment, and its radioactivity. It comments data on the relationship between exposure to radon and lung cancer, and with other forms of cancer. It discusses the role of the exposure level, and the cases of professional and domestic exposure with respect to these risks. It indicates the hazardous areas in France which are well identified, outlines that smokers are more likely victims of risks related to radon, that this risk is still underrated and underestimated (notably by the public). It gives an overview of existing regulations regarding exposure to radon, of public health policies and national plans concerning radon, and recalls some WHO recommendations

  9. Radon mitigation in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B.; Saum, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    This article reports on radon mitigation in school buildings. Subslab depressurization (SSD) has been the most successful and widely used radon reduction method in houses. Thus far, it has also substantially reduced radon levels in a number of schools. Schools often have interior footings or thickened slabs that may create barriers for subslab air flow if a SSD system is the mitigation option. Review of foundation plans and subslab air flow testing will help to determine the presence and effect of such barriers. HVAC systems in schools vary considerable and tend to have a greater influence on pressure differentials (and consequently radon levels) than do heating and air-conditioning systems encountered in the radon mitigation of houses. As part of any radon mitigation method, ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 should be consulted to determine if the installed HVAC system is designed and operated to achieve minimum ventilation standards for indoor air quality

  10. Leukaemia risks and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    A correlation has been established between domestic radon exposure and mutation in peripheral T lymphocytes. Some caution must be exercised, however, in interpreting this result as evidence that levels of domestically encountered radon are sufficient to cause leukaemogenic chromosomal alterations. Radon may simply be acting as a surrogate for some other mutagenic factor. Correlations with Local Authority statistics collected in the United Kingdom 1981 Census appear to show that lower domestic radon levels reflect relatively greater socioeconomic deprivation whereas higher levels reflect greater prosperity. The relative risk of lymphoproliferative disease correlates with the same factors that determine domestic radon levels at the county level. Putative relationships between domestic radon exposure and cancer thus need to be controlled for socioeconomic status and associated factors, at least at the county level. (The correlations may not apply to smaller areas.) Similarly, the causative factors underlying the relationships between higher regional socioeconomic status and leukaemia require closer examination. (author)

  11. Radon therapy; Radon in der Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spruck, Kaija [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz

    2017-04-01

    Radon therapies are used since more than 100 years in human medicine. Today this method is controversially discussed due to the possible increase of ionizing radiation induced tumor risk. Although the exact mode of biological radiation effect on the cell level is still not known new studies show the efficiency of the radon therapy without side effect for instance for rheumatic/inflammatory or respiratory disorders.

  12. Radon-Instrumentation; Radon-Instrumentacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno y Moreno, A. [Departamento de Apoyo en Ciencias Aplicadas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 4 Sur 104, Centro Historico 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The presentation of the active and passive methods for radon, their identification and measure, instrumentation and characteristics are the objectives of this work. Active detectors: Active Alpha Cam Continuous Air Monitor, Model 758 of Victoreen, Model CMR-510 Continuous Radon Monitor of the Signature Femto-Tech. Passive detectors: SSNTD track detectors in solids Measurement Using Charcoal Canisters, disk of activated coal deposited in a metallic box Electrets Methodology. (Author)

  13. EPA'S strategy to reduce risk of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988 (IRAA) directed EPA to undertake a variety of activities to address the growing public concern over dangers posed by exposure to indoor radon. Among other requirements, the law directed the Agency to study radon levels, evaluate mitigation methods, establish proficiency programs, assist states with program development, develop training centers, and provide public information. EPA has developed and implemented programs to address each of the key provisions of this statute. This paper presents EPA's broad national strategy to reduce radon risks. It combines and reinforces EPA's basic foundation, including its guiding policies and cooperative partnerships, with an overall management approach and focus for the future. The paper starts with an overview that introduces the strategy's four key elements: underlying policies and scientific principles, a decentralized system of states and other partners for targeting the public, multiple strategies for achieving radon risk reduction, and a strong focus on five key program priorities. This paper then discusses each of these elements in more detail and describes how they interact to guide future efforts and directions of the Agency

  14. Radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, B.E.; Boman, C.A.; Nyblom, L.; Swedjemark, G.A.

    1980-06-01

    The report presents the function of the ventilation by natural draught in three-storey houses. In some cases also the measurement of gamma radiation, radon and radon daughters was made. The investigation took place in Uppsala. The houses were built of light weight concrete made of alum-shale. The measurements showed that the contents of radon daughters were far below the provisional limits. (G.B.)

  15. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, N.M.; Finn, M.

    1995-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform designers, contractors, householders and other building owners about radon in buildings and to provide guidance where it has been decided to take action to reduce radon levels. It gives some pointers to good practice insofar as it relates to non complex buildings of normal design and construction. Reference is made to the usual ways of reducing l;levels of radon and guidance is given on sources of further information. I

  16. Radon integral measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia H, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Radon Integral Measurement System (SMIR) is a device designed specially to detect, to count and to store the data of the acquisition of alpha particles emitted by Radon-222 coming from the underground. The system includes a detection chamber, a radiation detector, a digital system with bateries backup and an auxiliary photovoltaic cell. A personal computer fixes the mode in which the system works, transmitting the commands to the system by the serial port. The heart of the system is a microprocesor working with interrupts by hardware. Every external device to the microprocessor sends his own interrupt request and the microprocessor handles the interrupts with a defined priority. The system uses a real time clock, compatible with the microprocessor, to take care of the real timing and date of the acquisition. A non volatile RAM is used to store data of two bytes every 15 minutes along 41 days as a maximum. After the setting up to the system by the computer, it can operate in stand alone way for up 41 days in the working place without the lose of any data. If the memory is full the next data will be written in the first locations of the memory. The memory is divided in pages corresponding every one of this to a different day of the acquisition. The counting time for every acquisition can be programmed by the user from 15 minutes to 65535 minutes but it is recommended to use a small time not to reach the limit of 65535 counts in every acquisition period. We can take information of the system without affecting the acquisition process in the field by using a lap top computer, then the information can be stored in a file. There is a program in the computer that can show the information in a table of values or in a bar graph. (Author)

  17. Heavy ion microbeam system for study of single event effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Tomihiro; Utsunomiya, Nobuhiro; Minehara, Eiichi; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Ohmura, Miyoshi; Kohno, Kazuhiro; Iwamoto, Eiji.

    1992-01-01

    A high-energy heavy ion microbeam system has been developed and installed on a beam line of a 3 MV tandem electrostatic accelerator mainly for analysis of basic mechanism of single event upset (SEU) of semiconductor devices in spacecraft. The SEU is now the most serious problem for highly reliable spacecraft electronics system with long space mission. However, the mechanism has not been understood on the basis of microscopic process of SEU. The SEU phenomena depends not only upon hitting particles, but also upon the hit position on the microcircuit. To observe the transient charge pulse from a SEU, a single ion particle must hit exactly the desired position of the microcircuit. Such an experiment requires the microbeam spot size within 1 μm, the beam positioning accuracy within ±1 μm, and single ion hitting. The microbeam system has been designed to meet the above technical requirements. The system is equipped with two lens systems: one to control the target beam current in a wide range down to extremely low current without any change of the beam optics, and the other to focus heavy ion beams within a spot size of 1 μm. The final goal is to hit a microscopic target area with a single 15 MeV nickel ion. The beam spot size has been evaluated by Gaussian fitting of secondary electron profiles with microbeam scanning across the fine Cu mesh. The single ion detection has been also tested to generate a trigger signal for closing beam shutter to prevent further hits. This paper outlines the new microbeam system and describes methods to realize these techniques. (author)

  18. Radon in your dwellings - problems and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of radon in dwellings gained importance in 1984 after the Stanely Watra's house incidence in Pennsylvania USA. Since then several radon measuring techniques have been identified and instrumentations developed. National survey programs were started for monitoring radon levels in dwellings by Government authorities in all developed and developing countries including India. Successively, the measurement of thoron levels was also found desirable especially in high radiation background areas. A lot of work has been done since then by scientists and university researches and thousands of publications have been made in this field. Several developed countries have given guide lines for initiating action to reduce radon levels in dwellings if it is beyond 200-400 Bq/m 2 . The recommended 'action level' is found to depend upon the authorities making the recommendations. This talk is aimed to produce public awareness about the health hazard posed by concentration of naturally occurring radon gas in our dwellings, the sources of its production and mitigation of radon problem. The matter will be discussed in a general way using ppt presentation. (author)

  19. Radon in large buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.L.; Dudney, C.S.; Gammage, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, considerable research has been devoted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and others to develop radon sampling protocols for single family residences and schools. However, very little research has been performed on measuring radon in the work place. To evaluate possible sampling protocols, 833 buildings throughout the United States were selected for extensive radon testing. The buildings tested (warehouses, production plants and office buildings) were representative of commercial buildings across the country both in design, size and use. Based on the results, preliminary radon sampling protocols for the work place have been developed. (orig.). (5 refs., 3 figs.)

  20. Radon in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, R.; Rusov, V.D.; Pavlovych, V.N.; Vaschenko, V.M.; Hanzic, L.; Bondarchuk, Y.A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews results of radon measurements obtained in Antarctic research stations in the last 40 years by both active and passive radon monitors. A brief description of the radon laboratory set-up in the Ukrainian Academician Vernadsky station on the Antarctic Peninsula (W 64 o 16 ' , S 65 o 15 ' ), where radon is measured by two types of etched track Rn dosimeter and 4 types of continuous radon monitoring devices is presented. Some selected results of research work are described related to: (i) analysis of radon storms, defined as an abrupt increase of 222 Rn during the occurrence of a cyclone, and its applicability for the study of the transport of air masses of continental origin to Antarctica; (ii) a study of the correlation of changes of radon concentration and geomagnetic field induced by tectonic activity and its application to predicting tectonomagnetic anomalies, and (iii) verification of a newly developed theoretical model based on noise analysis of the measured radon signal for earthquake prediction. Suggestions for future utilization of radon for basic research in Antarctica (and not only in Antarctica) conclude the contribution. conclude the contribution

  1. The Pennsylvania radon story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerusky, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    In December 1984, the Pennsylvania Bureau of Radiation Protection found itself confronted with the discovery of a home in eastern Pennsylvania having the highest level of radon daughters ever reported. The Bureau responded with a massive radon monitoring, educational, and remediation effort. As of November, 1986, over 18,000 homes had been screen for radon daughters, of which approximately 59% were found to have levels in excess of the 0.020 Working Level guideline. Pennsylvania's response to the indoor radon problem is detailed in this article

  2. Radon atlas of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voutilainen, A.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Pennanen, M.; Reisbacka, H.; Castren, O.

    1997-11-01

    The most efficient means of reducing indoor radon exposure is to locate and mitigate dwellings with radon concentration exceeding the action level of 400 Bq/m 3 and to build new houses so that radon concentrations do not exceed 200 Bq/m 3 . The maps and tables in this report are useful tools for those who plan and decide what kind of radon mitigation measures are needed in municipalities. STUK (The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has an indoor radon database of 52 000 dwellings, for which the indoor radon concentration and construction details are known. The building site soil type of about 38 000 dwellings is known. This atlas is a summary of all indoor radon measurements made by STUK in lowrise dwellings and in first-floor flats. The results are shown as arithmetic means of 5- or 10-km squares on maps of the provinces. Three radon maps have been made for each province. On one map the data consist of all measurements the position coordinates of which are known. On the two other maps the building sites of houses are classified into permeable and low-permeable soil types. The tables show statistics for all indoor radon measurements by municipality and building site soil type. (orig.)

  3. Radon dose and aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Radolic, V.; Faj, Z.; Vukovic, B.

    2000-01-01

    The equilibrium factor value (F) was measured in the NRPB radon chamber and the corresponding track density ratio (r = D/D 0 ) of bare (D) and diffusion (D 0 ) LR-115 nuclear track detectors was determined, as well as the regression equation F(r). Experiments with LR-115 nuclear track detectors and aerosol sources (burning candle and cigarette) were carried out in the Osijek University radon chamber and afterwards an empirical relationship between the equilibrium factor and aerosol concentration was derived. For the purpose of radon dose equivalent assessment, procedures for determining the unattached fraction of radon progeny were introduced using two nuclear track detectors. (author)

  4. Public perceptions of radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainous, A.G. III; Hagen, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1984, a significant amount of media attention has focused on health threats from radon gas exposure. Using a probability telephone survey of adults (n = 685), we studied public perceptions of risk from radon exposure versus other environmental health risks. The results indicated that 92% of those individuals who had heard of radon believe radon to be a health risk, although only 4% believe they are currently exposed to high levels of radon gas. Perception of risk from radon was positively related to other perceptions of environmental risks. Younger and less educated individuals were more likely to perceive radon as a health risk. Women were three-and-one-half times as likely as men to perceive risk from radon. However, there was no significant relationship between perceived risk from radon and cigarette smoking. Media attention has apparently led to public awareness of radon hazards, but further attention is needed to improve smokers' awareness of their special risks from radon

  5. Analysis of the X-ray microbeam test result of the flash memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yihua; Ding Lili; Chen Wei; Guo Hongxia; Guo Xiaoqiang; Lin Dongsheng; Zhang Keying; Zhang Fengqi; Deng Yuliang; Fan Ruyu

    2013-01-01

    Background: The failure phenomenon is difficult to analyze for the flash memories when the whole chip is exposed to irradiation since both the memory array and the peripheral circuits might be degraded. Purpose: In order to detect the radiation susceptibility and corresponding phenomenon of the related circuits that included in the flash memories, the X-ray microbeam is used as the radiation source instead of 60 Co. Methods: The failure phenomenon is studied respectively when the memory array, decoder circuits, the charge pump circuits as well as the I/O circuits are exposed to radiation. The errors are mapped according to the logical address and the failure mechanism is analyzed based on the circuits. Results: Irradiated on the memory .array win lead to regularly distributed 0→1 bit flips, while only 1→0 are found when the row decoder is under exposure. Degradation of the charge pump circuits would lead to the erase/program functional failure. Conclusions: The results suggest that the X-ray microbeam radiation test is a good method for detecting the radiation susceptibility of the integrated circuits that contains lots of circuit modules. (authors)

  6. Draft of „National Radon Programme” 2013-2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, K.; Badulin, V.; Georgieva, R.

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization defines radon as the second most important causal factor for lung cancer after smoking and the number one factor for people who have never smoked. The draft of the new European Directive takes accounts the latest ICRP Recommendations for reducing radon exposure in buildings. The Directive requires Member States to bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions. The main goal of „National Radon Programme” is establishment and implementation of long-term policy to reduce and prevent risks of public health resulting from exposure to high concentrations of indoor radon in buildings. To achieve this are required: – to establish an appropriate system; – to carry out national survey and mapping of areas with radon background; – to establish radon prevention strategies in newly constructed buildings and radon mitigation strategies in existing buildings; – to improve public awareness; – to lay down a system for protection against radon in workplaces. The implementation of the program will contribute to reducing the public exposure due to indoors due to radon. Along with the reduction of smoking, it will directly and indirectly improve the prevention of lung cancer risks. (author)

  7. QA/QC For Radon Concentration Measurement With Charcoal Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelic, G.; Zivanovic, M.; Rajacic, M.; Krneta Nikolic, J.; Todorovic, D.

    2015-01-01

    The primary concern of any measuring of radon or radon progeny must be the quality of the results. A good quality assurance program, when properly designed and diligently followed, ensures that laboratory staff will be able to produce the type and quality of measurement results which is needed and expected. Active charcoal detectors are used for testing the concentration of radon in dwellings. The method of measurement is based on radon adsorption on coal and measurement of gamma radiation of radon daughters. Upon closing the detectors, the measurement was carried out after achieving the equilibrium between radon and its daughters (at least 3 hours) using NaI or HPGe detector. Radon concentrations as well as measurement uncertainties were calculated according to US EPA protocol 520/5-87-005. Detectors used for the measurements were calibrated by 226Ra standard of known activity in the same geometry. Standard and background canisters are used for QA and QC, as well as for the calibration of the measurement equipment. Standard canister is a sealed canister with the same matrix and geometry as the canisters used for measurements, but with the known activity of radon. Background canister is a regular radon measurement canister, which has never been exposed. The detector background and detector efficiency are measured to ascertain whether they are within the warning and acceptance limits. (author).

  8. Coordinated indoor radon surveys in some Arab countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azmi, D.; Al-Abed, T.; Alnasari, M.S.; Borham, E.E.; Chekir, Z.; Khalifa, M.S.; Shweikani, R.

    2012-01-01

    Indoor radon surveys were carried out in some of the Arab countries through a Coordination Research Program (CRP) organized by the Arab Atomic Energy Agency (AAEA). The objectives of the program aim at establishing a database on indoor radon concentration levels in the region and investigating any anomalies, where they exist. The approach adopted by the survey teams to achieve public participation in accepting the radon detectors in dwellings is presented and discussed. Most of the participants in the CRP used the passive method (CR-39 plastic detectors) for long-term radon measurements, while others used charcoal detectors and E-Perm systems for short-term measurements. The results of the surveys showed that radon concentration levels in most of the dwellings were low, whilst in some old cities and in an area close to a phosphate mine the levels were found to be relatively high. (authors)

  9. The role of the ventilation industry in addressing indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellford, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that radon mitigation can only be accomplished on a national scale through a cooperative effort of government, industry and an informed public. The Environmental Protection Agency has developed, demonstrated and published acceptable procedures for testing and preventing the entry or radon into occupancies, as well as procedures for removal when it is not possible or economically viable to prevent radon from entering these occupancies. Various states have instituted programs for industry implementation of EPA procedures and public education programs are now underway. Industry effort will be required to mitigate existing housing stock, to insure new radon resistant housing and, equally important, to provide for radon monitoring and servicing of mitigation measures for centuries to come. What the nature of that industry can and should be and how government agencies can encourage the development of such industry is the subject of this paper

  10. The radon service industry in selected Northeastern states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, M.R.; Reese, J.P.; Adams, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986 the EPA initiated an expedited program of technical assistance in response to the discovery of extremely elevated levels of indoor radon in Pennsylvania homes. A vital component of this project was a training program which addressed the variety of techniques used to reduce human exposure to radon gas and its decay products. The New York State Energy Office was selected as the most suitable organization to assist in this project because of its relevant experience in training programs, especially the building for energy efficiency workshop series with its indoor radon gas component. This paper reports on the project

  11. Static Response of Microbeams due to Capillary and Electrostatic Forces

    KAUST Repository

    Bataineh, Ahmad M.

    2016-03-07

    Micro-sensors or micro-switches usually operate under the effect of electrostatic force and could face some environmental effects like humidity, which may lead to condensation underneath the beams and create strong capillary forces. Those tiny structures are principally made of microbeams that can undergo instabilities under the effect of those created huge capillary forces. In fact, during the fabrication of microbeams, there is an important step to separate the beam from its substrate (wet etching). After this step, the microstructure is dried, which may causes the onset of some droplets of water trapped underneath the beam that could bring about a huge capillary force pulling it toward its substrate. If this force is bigger than the microbeam\\'s restoring force, it will become stuck to the substrate. This paper investigates the instability scenarios of both clamped-clamped (straight and curved) and cantilever (straight and curled) microbeams under the effect of capillary and/or electrostatic forces. The reduced order modeling (ROM) based on the Galerkin procedure is used to solve the nonlinear beam equations. The non-ideal boundaries are modeled by adding springs. The volume of the fluid between the beam and the substrate underneath it is varied and the relation between the volume of the water and the stability of the beam is shown. An analysis for the factors of which should be taken in to consideration in the fabrication processes to overcome the instability due to huge capillary forces is done. Also the size of the electrode for the electrostatic force is varied to show the effect on the micro-switch stability. A variation of the pull-in voltage with some specific beam parameters and with more than one case of electrode size is shown. It is found that capillary forces have a pronounced effect on the stability of microbeams. It is also found that the pull-in length decreases as the electrode size increases. It is also shown that the pull-in voltage decreases

  12. Electron microbeam specifications for use in cell irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.-H.; Choi, M.-C.; Lee, D.-H.; Chang, M.; Kang, C.-S.

    2003-01-01

    The microbeam irradiation system was devised originally to identify the hit and unhit cells by confining the beam within the target cell. The major achievement through the microbeam experiment studies has turned out to be the discovery of the 'bystander effect'. Microbeam experiments have been performed with alpha and proton beams in major and with soft x-rays in minor. The study with electron microbeam has been deferred mainly due to the difficulty in confining the electron tracks within a single target cell. In this paper, the electron microbeam irradiation system under development in Korea is introduced in terms of the beam specifications. The KIRAMS electron microbeam irradiation system consists of an electron gun, a vacuum chamber for beam collimation into 5 μm in diameter and a biology stage. The beam characteristics in terms of current and energy spectrum of the electrons entering a target cell and its neighbor cells were investigated by Monte Carlo simulation for the electron source energies of 25, 50, 75 and 100 keV. Energy depositions in the target cell and the neighbor cells were also calculated. The beam attenuation in current and energy occurs while electrons pass through the 2 μm-thick Mylar vacuum window, 100 μm-thick air gap and the 2 μm-thick Mylar bottom of cell dish. With 25 keV electron source, 80 % of decrease in current and 30 % of decrease in average energy were estimated before entering the target cell. With 75 keV electron source, on the other hand, 55 % of decrease in current and less than 1 % of decrease in average energy were estimated. Average dose per single collimated electron emission was 0.067 cGy to the target cell nucleus of 5 μm in diameter and 0.030 cGy to the cytoplasm of 2.5 μm in thickness with 25 keV electron source while they were 0.15 cGy and 0.019 cGy, respectively, with 75 keV electron source. The multiple scattering of electrons resulted in energy deposition in the neighbor cells as well. Dose to the first

  13. Modeling of indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on models for radon, which are developed not only to describe the behavior of radon and daughters since the moment that radon is created in natural sources by the alpha decay of 226 Ra up to the point that doses to humans are estimated based on the inhalation of radon and its progeny. The objective of a model should be determinant in defining the model structure and boundaries. Modeling indoors radon is particularly useful when the 226 Ra concentration in building materials and soils can be known before a house will be built with such 226 Ra bearing materials and over 226 Ra rich soils. The reported concentrations of 226 Ra in building materials range from 0.3 Bq · kg -1 in wood to about 2.6 x 10 3 Bq · kg -1 in aerated concrete based on alum shale. 30 In addition, when a house is built on a soil containing a high 226 Ra concentration, radon exhalation from the soil contributes to increase radon concentration indoors. The reported radon exhalation from soils range from 3.4 Bq · m -2 · s -1 in latosolic soil from Osaka, Japan to about 53 mBq · m -2 · s -1 in chernozemic soil from Illinois

  14. Radon and its measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzo, Silvia

    2006-03-01

    The work reviews the topics concerning the problem of the indoor radon and its measurement. The initial stage deals with the general features of radon, from the historical remarks about its discovery to the formation mechanisms in the soil, then passing to describe the transport processes that lead the radon to enter into the buildings. The mean radon concentration distribution among the Italian regions is reported and compared with the situation in the other countries of the world. A particular importance is given to present the national law concerning the radioprotection from the natural sources of ionizing radiations; a paragraph is completely devoted to this argument and to discuss the differences between the Italian approach and the regulations applied in the Test of Europe for both workplaces and dwellings. Chapter 3 describes the different detectors and methods to measure the radon and its short mean live decay products concentrations, together with the operative procedures and guides provided by the Italian law and by the international bodies. As an example of typical radon passive measurement device. the new ENEA detector developed at the Institute of Radioprotection is presented and discussed. Appendix 1 is entirely devoted to discuss the main remedial actions for decreasing the radon indoor concentration both for old and new buildings; appendix 2 reports the main quantities related to radon and radioprotection [it

  15. MODEL RADIOACTIVE RADON DECAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Parovik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In a model of radioactive decay of radon in the sample (222Rn. The model assumes that the probability of the decay of radon and its half-life depends on the fractal properties of the geological environment. The dependencies of the decay parameters of the fractal dimension of the medium.

  16. Radon flux measurement methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Five methods for measuring radon fluxes are evaluated: the accumulator can, a small charcoal sampler, a large-area charcoal sampler, the ''Big Louie'' charcoal sampler, and the charcoal tent sampler. An experimental comparison of the five flux measurement techniques was also conducted. Excellent agreement was obtained between the measured radon fluxes and fluxes predicted from radium and emanation measurements

  17. Radon: Not so Noble

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Radon in the Environment and Associated Health Problems ... is presently working on emission of ... Radon isotope 222 has a half-life of 3.8 days, long enough to ..... 222Rn concentration of one WL for 170 working hours in one month.

  18. Background concentrations of radon and radon daughters in Canadian homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Vasudev, P.; Letourneau, E.G.; McCullough, R.S.; Prantl, F.A.; Taniguchi, H.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of radon and radon daughters were carried out in 14 Canadian cities on a total of 9999 homes selected in a statistically random manner. The geometric means of the different cities varied from 0.14 to 0.88 pCi/l. for radon and 0.0009 to 0.0036 Working Levels for radon daughters. The radon originates from natural radioactivity in the soil surrounding the homes. (author)

  19. A Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP)-Coated Microbeam MEMS Sensor for Chemical Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    ARL-RP-0536 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory A Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP)- Coated Microbeam MEMS Sensor for...ARL-RP-0536 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory A Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP)- Coated Microbeam MEMS Sensor for Chemical...TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP)-Coated Microbeam MEMS Sensor for Chemical Detection 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  20. Risks from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The best estimate of risk to which everyone is exposed from natural radon in buildings is now obtained by extrapolation from observations on men exposed to radon in mines. The relationship between dose and effect derived by the US National Research Council implies that about 6% of the current life-time risk of developing the disease in the UK is attributable to radon, but for residents of some houses it will be much greater. This estimate is dependent on many assumptions, some of which are certainly wrong, and reliable estimates can be obtained only by direct observations on people living in different houses. It is possible that radon may also cause some risk of other cancers, notably leukaemia, but such risks, if real, are certainly small. Studies in progress should provide reliable estimates of all radon induced risks within a few years. (author)

  1. Radon in Syrian houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Hushari, M.; Raja, G.; Alsawaf, A.

    1996-01-01

    A nationwide investigation of radon levels in Syrian houses was carried out during the period 1991-1993. Passive radon diffusion dosemeters using polycarbonate detectors were distributed in houses all over Syria. Detectors were subjected to electrochemical etching to reveal latent tracks of alpha particles. The mean radon concentration in Syrian houses was found to be 45 Bq m -3 with some values several times higher. This investigation indicated that there were a few houses in Syria that require remedial action. Most houses that have high levels of radon were found in the southern area, especially in the Damascus governorate. The study also indicated that radon concentrations were higher in old houses built from mud with no tiling. (author)

  2. Chemical properties of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, L.

    1986-01-01

    Radon is frequently regarded as a totally inert element. It is, however, a ''metalloid'' - an element which lies on the diagonal of the Periodic Table between the true metals and nonmetals and which exhibits some of the characteristics of both. It reacts with fluorine, halogen fluorides, dioxygenyl salts, fluoro-nitrogen salts, and halogen fluoride-metal fluoride complexes to form ionic compounds. Several of the solid reagents can be used to collect radon from air but must be protected from moisture, since they hydrolyze readily. Recently, solutions of nonvolatile, cationic radon have been produced in nonaqueous solvents. Ion-exchange studies have shown that the radon can be quantitatively collected on columns packed with either Nafion resins or complex salts. In its ionic state, radon is able to displace H + , Na + , K + , Cs + , Ca 2+ , and Ba 2+ ions from a number of solid materials. 27 refs., 6 figs

  3. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markkanen, M.; Annanmaeki, M.; Oksanen, E.

    2000-01-01

    The EU Member States have to implement the new Basic Safety Standards Directive (BSS) by May 2000. The Title VII of the Directive applies in particular to radon in workplaces. The Member States are required to identify workplaces which may be of concern, to set up appropriate means for monitoring radon exposures in the identified workplaces and, as necessary, to apply all or part of the system of radiological protection for practices or interventions. The BSS provisions on natural radiation are based on the ICRP 1990 recommendations. These recommendations were considered in the Finnish radiation legislation already in 1992, which resulted in establishing controls on radon in all types of workplaces. In this paper issues are discussed on the practical implementation of the BSS concerning occupational exposures to radon basing on the Finnish experiences in monitoring radon in workplaces during the past seven years. (orig.) [de

  4. Health effects of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    Exposure of people to radon has taken on increased interest during the last decade because of the understanding that buildings can serve to trap radon and its daughters, and thereby build up undesirable concentrations of these radioactive elements. Numerous studies of underground miners (often uranium miners) have shown an increased risk of lung cancer in comparison with nonexposed populations. Laboratory animals exposed to radon daughters also develop lung cancer. The abundant epidemiological and experimental data have established the carcinogenicity of radon progeny. Those observations are of considerable importance, because uranium, from which radon and its progeny arise, is ubiquitous in the earth's crust, including coal mines. Risk estimates of the health effects of long-term exposures at relatively low levels require continued development, especially to address the potential health effects of radon and radon daughters in homes and occupational settings where the exposure levels are less than levels in underground uranium and other metal mines that have been the subject of epidemiological studies. Two approaches can be used to characterize the lung-cancer risks associated with radon-daughter exposure: mathematical representations of the respiratory tract that model radiation doses to target cells and epidemiological investigation of exposed populations, mainly underground uranium miners. The mathematically-based dosimetric approach provides an estimate of lung cancer risk related to radon-daughter exposure based specifically on modeling of the dose to target cells. The various dosimetric models all require assumptions, some of which are not subject to direct verification, as to breathing rates; the deposition of radon daughters in the respiratory tract; and the type, nature, and location of the target cells for cancer induction. The most recent large committee effort drawn together to evaluate this issue was sponsored by the National Research Council

  5. Ion, X-ray, UV and Neutron Microbeam Systems for Cell Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, A W; Randers-Pehrson, G; Garty, G; Geard, C R; Xu, Y; Harken, A D; Johnson, G W; Brenner, D J

    2010-08-08

    The array of microbeam cell-irradiation systems, available to users at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF), Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University, is expanding. The HVE 5MV Singletron particle accelerator at the facility provides particles to two focused ion microbeam lines: the sub-micron microbeam II and the permanent magnetic microbeam (PMM). Both the electrostatic quadrupole lenses on the microbeam II system and the magnetic quadrupole lenses on the PMM system are arranged as compound lenses consisting of two quadrupole triplets with "Russian" symmetry. Also, the RARAF accelerator is a source for a proton-induced x-ray microbeam (undergoing testing) and is projected to supply protons to a neutron microbeam based on the (7)Li(p, n)(7)Be nuclear reaction (under development). Leveraging from the multiphoton microscope technology integrated within the microbeam II endstation, a UV microspot irradiator - based on multiphoton excitation - is available for facility users. Highlights from radiation-biology demonstrations on single living mammalian cells are included in this review of microbeam systems for cell irradiation at RARAF.

  6. Heavy Ion Microbeam- and Broadbeam-Induced Current Transients in SiGe HBTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Reed, R. A.; McMorrow, D.; Vizkelethy, G.; Ferlet-Cavrois, V.; Baggio, J.; Duhamel, O.; Moen, K. A.; Phillips, S. D.; Diestelhorst, R. M.; hide

    2009-01-01

    IBM 5AM SiGe HBT is device-under-test. High-speed measurement setup. Low-impedance current transient measurements. SNL, JYFL, GANIL. Microbeam to broadbeam position inference. Improvement to state-of-the-art. Microbeam (SNL) transients reveal position dependent heavy ion response, Unique response for different device regions Unique response for different bias schemes. Similarities to TPA pulsed-laser data. Broadbeam transients (JYFL and GANIL) provide realistic heavy ion response. Feedback using microbeam data. Overcome issues of LET and ion range with microbeam. **Angled Ar-40 data in full paper. Data sets yield first-order results, suitable for TCAD calibration feedback.

  7. Attempts of local irradiation of cells by microbeam. From ultraviolet to heavy particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2002-03-01

    This review describes the history of attempts of local irradiation of cells by microbeam and present status of the study. Local irradiation of cells was attempted as early as in 1912 with use of short {alpha}-particle range and of focused UV beams. After the war, laser microbeams were then developed for microsurgery in embryology. In addition, microbeams of electron generated from the gun and of X-ray collimated were developed. In 1950s, the electron microbeam was generated from Van de Graaff accelerator in Chicago University and proton, deuteron and He-ion microbeams from the cyclotron, in BNL. In 1980s, Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforshung (Germany) used heavy ion microbeams from C to U generated from the linear accelerator and PNL, proton to {sup 4}He-ion microbeams from the tandem-electrostatic accelerator. At present in 2002, the equipments for microbeam for cell irradiation are the Van de Graaff accelerators in Gray Cancer Institute (England) and in Columbia University, and the cyclotron in TIARA in Japan. The purpose of the study in TIARA is to develop a system to generate heavy particle microbeams for cell irradiation for analysis of the biological effect of ultra-low fluence, high LET heavy particles like the galactic cosmic ray. Recently, the CHO-KI cell nucleus is irradiated by {sup 40}Ar and {sup 20}Ne ions. (K.H.)

  8. Attempts of local irradiation of cells by microbeam. From ultraviolet to heavy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2002-01-01

    This review describes the history of attempts of local irradiation of cells by microbeam and present status of the study. Local irradiation of cells was attempted as early as in 1912 with use of short α-particle range and of focused UV beams. After the war, laser microbeams were then developed for microsurgery in embryology. In addition, microbeams of electron generated from the gun and of X-ray collimated were developed. In 1950s, the electron microbeam was generated from Van de Graaff accelerator in Chicago University and proton, deuteron and He-ion microbeams from the cyclotron, in BNL. In 1980s, Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforshung (Germany) used heavy ion microbeams from C to U generated from the linear accelerator and PNL, proton to 4 He-ion microbeams from the tandem-electrostatic accelerator. At present in 2002, the equipments for microbeam for cell irradiation are the Van de Graaff accelerators in Gray Cancer Institute (England) and in Columbia University, and the cyclotron in TIARA in Japan. The purpose of the study in TIARA is to develop a system to generate heavy particle microbeams for cell irradiation for analysis of the biological effect of ultra-low fluence, high LET heavy particles like the galactic cosmic ray. Recently, the CHO-KI cell nucleus is irradiated by 40 Ar and 20 Ne ions. (K.H.)

  9. Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy for rat brain tumor palliation-influence of the microbeam width at constant valley dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serduc, Raphael; Fonta, Caroline; Renaud, Luc; Bouchet, Audrey; Braeuer-Krisch, Elke; Sarun, Sukhena; Bravin, Alberto; Le Duc, Geraldine; Laissue, Jean A; Spiga, Jenny; Boutonnat, Jean; Siegbahn, Erik Albert; Esteve, Francois

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the effects of the microbeam width (25, 50 and 75 μm) on the survival of 9L gliosarcoma tumor-bearing rats and on toxicity in normal tissues in normal rats after microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), 9L gliosarcomas implanted in rat brains, as well as in normal rat brains, were irradiated in the MRT mode. Three configurations (MRT25, MRT50, MRT75), each using two orthogonally intersecting arrays of either 25, 50 or 75 μm wide microbeams, all spaced 211 μm on center, were tested. For each configuration, peak entrance doses of 860, 480 and 320 Gy, respectively, were calculated to produce an identical valley dose of 18 Gy per individual array at the center of the tumor. Two, 7 and 14 days after radiation treatment, 42 rats were killed to evaluate histopathologically the extent of tumor necrosis, and the presence of proliferating tumors cells and tumor vessels. The median survival times of the normal rats were 4.5, 68 and 48 days for MRT25, 50 and 75, respectively. The combination of the highest entrance doses (860 Gy per array) with 25 μm wide beams (MRT25) resulted in a cumulative valley dose of 36 Gy and was excessively toxic, as it led to early death of all normal rats and of ∼50% of tumor-bearing rats. The short survival times, particularly of rats in the MRT25 group, restricted adequate observance of the therapeutic effect of the method on tumor-bearing rats. However, microbeams of 50 μm width led to the best median survival time after 9L gliosarcoma MRT treatment and appeared as the better compromise between tumor control and normal brain toxicity compared with 75 μm or 25 μm widths when used with a 211 μm on-center distance. Despite very high radiation doses, the tumors were not sterilized; viable proliferating tumor cells remained present at the tumor margin. This study shows that microbeam width and peak entrance doses strongly influence tumor responses and normal brain toxicity, even if valley doses are kept constant in all groups. The use

  10. Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy for rat brain tumor palliation-influence of the microbeam width at constant valley dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serduc, Raphael; Fonta, Caroline; Renaud, Luc [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition (France); Bouchet, Audrey; Braeuer-Krisch, Elke; Sarun, Sukhena; Bravin, Alberto; Le Duc, Geraldine [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, F38043 Grenoble (France); Laissue, Jean A [Institute of Pathology, University of Bern (Switzerland); Spiga, Jenny [Department of Physics, University of Cagliari, s.p. Monserrato-Sestu, Monserrato (Canada) 09042 (Italy); Boutonnat, Jean [TIMC lab, UMR CNRS 5525, Univ Joseph Fourier, CHU, Grenoble (France); Siegbahn, Erik Albert [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, 17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Esteve, Francois [INSERM U836, Equipe 6, Institut des Neurosciences de Grenoble, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)], E-mail: raph.serduc@gmail.com

    2009-11-07

    To analyze the effects of the microbeam width (25, 50 and 75 {mu}m) on the survival of 9L gliosarcoma tumor-bearing rats and on toxicity in normal tissues in normal rats after microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), 9L gliosarcomas implanted in rat brains, as well as in normal rat brains, were irradiated in the MRT mode. Three configurations (MRT25, MRT50, MRT75), each using two orthogonally intersecting arrays of either 25, 50 or 75 {mu}m wide microbeams, all spaced 211 {mu}m on center, were tested. For each configuration, peak entrance doses of 860, 480 and 320 Gy, respectively, were calculated to produce an identical valley dose of 18 Gy per individual array at the center of the tumor. Two, 7 and 14 days after radiation treatment, 42 rats were killed to evaluate histopathologically the extent of tumor necrosis, and the presence of proliferating tumors cells and tumor vessels. The median survival times of the normal rats were 4.5, 68 and 48 days for MRT25, 50 and 75, respectively. The combination of the highest entrance doses (860 Gy per array) with 25 {mu}m wide beams (MRT25) resulted in a cumulative valley dose of 36 Gy and was excessively toxic, as it led to early death of all normal rats and of {approx}50% of tumor-bearing rats. The short survival times, particularly of rats in the MRT25 group, restricted adequate observance of the therapeutic effect of the method on tumor-bearing rats. However, microbeams of 50 {mu}m width led to the best median survival time after 9L gliosarcoma MRT treatment and appeared as the better compromise between tumor control and normal brain toxicity compared with 75 {mu}m or 25 {mu}m widths when used with a 211 {mu}m on-center distance. Despite very high radiation doses, the tumors were not sterilized; viable proliferating tumor cells remained present at the tumor margin. This study shows that microbeam width and peak entrance doses strongly influence tumor responses and normal brain toxicity, even if valley doses are kept constant in

  11. Quality assurance for environmental radon measurements by LR115 nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomaa, M A [National Network of Radiation Physics, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Hafez, A F [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria Univercity, Alexandria (Egypt); Hussein, A S [Radiation Protection Department, Nuclear Power Plants Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-06-15

    Passive radon dosimeters based on LR115 nuclear track detectors are very attractive for assessment of radon exposure. For developing countries wishing to undertake national radon survey the most appropriate techniques are those making use of LR115 detectors. These detectors are small, cheap, simple, and non-hazardous and provide an entirely adequate tool for large scale use in assessing levels of radon over several months because of the short - term fluctuations in radon concentrations. In this paper, the principles and philosophy in order to improve the quality and reliability of radon exposure under a quality assurance (QA) program are presented . Also examples of how a QA program of radon measurements by LR115 detectors using the can-techniques are well defined and applied.

  12. Quality assurance for environmental radon measurements by LR115 nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.; Hafez, A.F.; Hussein, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Passive radon dosimeters based on LR115 nuclear track detectors are very attractive for assessment of radon exposure. For developing countries wishing to undertake national radon survey the most appropriate techniques are those making use of LR115 detectors. These detectors are small, cheap, simple, and non-hazardous and provide an entirely adequate tool for large scale use in assessing levels of radon over several months because of the short - term fluctuations in radon concentrations. In this paper, the principles and philosophy in order to improve the quality and reliability of radon exposure under a quality assurance (QA) program are presented . Also examples of how a QA program of radon measurements by LR115 detectors using the can-techniques are well defined and applied

  13. Online imaging of initial DNA damages at the PTB microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesen, U.; Langner, F.; Mielke, C.; Mosconi, M.; Dirks, W. G.

    2011-01-01

    In an inter-disciplinary collaboration of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (DSMZ) and Heinrich-Heine Univ., live-cell imaging has been established at the charged-particle microbeam facility of PTB. Candidate genes participating in DNA strand-break repair pathways such as PARP-1, MRE11, MSH2, MDC1 and p53BP1 have been modified to generate fluorescent fusion proteins. Using multi-cistronic expression vectors, stable genomic integration was achieved in HT-1080 fibroblasts. The aim of this study is to characterise and use these highly reliable cell lines for studying initial steps of DNA damage responses and kinetics of repair after microbeam irradiation with high- and low-linear energy transfer (LET) particles in living cells at physiological conditions. (authors)

  14. Multifrequency Excitation of a Clamped-Clamped Microbeam

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar R.

    2016-01-20

    We present analytical and experimental investigation of an electrically actuated clamped-clamped microbeam under a twosource harmonic excitation. The first frequency is swept around the first mode of vibration where the second one is fixed. These microbeams are fabricated using polyimide as structural layer coated with nickel form top and chromium and gold layers from bottom. We demonstrate the excitation of additive and subtractive type resonance. We show that by properly tuning the frequency and the amplitude of the excitation force, the frequency bandwidth of the resonator is increased. Theoretically, we solved the eigenvalue problem for different axial forces to find the natural frequencies ratio that match the experimental values. Using Galerkin method, a reduced order model is derived to simulate the static and dynamic response of the device where using three symmetric mode shapes provided a good agreement with experimental data. © Copyright 2015 by ASME.

  15. Converse flexoelectric effect in comb electrode piezoelectric microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Zhiyuan, E-mail: shenyuan675603@gmail.com [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); Chen, Wei [Microelectronics Centre, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-04-09

    We demonstrate the converse flexoelectric effect in a lead zirconate titanate microbeam. The fringe electric field of a comb electrode induces converse flexoelectric responses in uniformly poled and depoled beams. The simulated electric field distribution shows that bending of the beam is induced by piezoelectric and μ{sub 11}, μ{sub 12} flexoelectric coefficients. Simulations indicate that piezoelectric displacement occurs in different directions in the two opposite poled samples while flexoelectric displacement remains the same. This finding is verified by the displacement measurement results. -- Highlights: ► We demonstrate the converse flexoelectric effect in a PZT microbeam. ► Beams with upward and downward poling states are fabricated by MEMS technique. ► Converse flexoelectric deformation is induced by the fringe field. ► Electric field distribution is calculated by finite element analysis. ► The simulation results are verified by impedance and displacement measurements.

  16. Extended abstracts: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response [final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, David J.

    2000-01-01

    In July 1999, we organized the 4th International Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held in Killiney Bay, Dublin, Ireland, on July 17-18. Roughly 75 scientists (about equal numbers of physicists and biologists) attended the workshop, the fourth in a bi-annual series. Extended abstracts from the meeting were published in the Radiation Research journal, vol. 153, iss. 2, pp. 220-238 (February 2000)(attached). All the objectives in the proposal were met

  17. Risk assessment and control management of radon in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The role of risk assessment and risk management of radon in drinking water was reviewed. It is noted that risk assessments for the public health consequences of radon in drinking water require information on radon concentration in water, exposure pathways, and dose-response relationships. On the other hand, risk management involves assumptions of risk acceptance and the establishment of governmental policies in accord with society's acceptance of these assumptions. Although risk assessment for radon exposures can be reasonably qualitative, risk management is clearly judgmental. The following conclusions/recommendations were made. (1) The presence of radon in drinking water is estimated to have its greatest health impact on the 18% of the US population served by private wells. (2) Although no direct evidence exists associated radon in water with health problems, the diseases that are associated with radon in drinking water are stomach cancer from ingestion and lung cancer from inhalation of radon decay products released during household use of water. (3) Using a number of questionable assumptions, the total number of cancer deaths per year attributable to radon in water is estimated to be about 5,000 as a maximum value, with essentially all cases occurring in the population served by private wells. (4) Promulgating federal regulations to control radon levels in water under the Safe Drinking Water Act seems unwarranted, since private wells would not likely be regulated. (5) Government control programs should be limited to emphasizing an awareness of possible substantially higher than average levels of radon in water in certain geological areas. 12 refs., 4 tabs

  18. Monte Carlo dose calculation of microbeam in a lung phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Company, F.Z.; Mino, C.; Mino, F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Recent advances in synchrotron generated X-ray beams with high fluence rate permit investigation of the application of an array of closely spaced, parallel or converging microplanar beams in radiotherapy. The proposed techniques takes advantage of the hypothesised repair mechanism of capillary cells between alternate microbeam zones, which regenerates the lethally irradiated endothelial cells. The lateral and depth doses of 100 keV microplanar beams are investigated for different beam dimensions and spacings in a tissue, lung and tissue/lung/tissue phantom. The EGS4 Monte Carlo code is used to calculate dose profiles at different depth and bundles of beams (up to 20x20cm square cross section). The maximum dose on the beam axis (peak) and the minimum interbeam dose (valley) are compared at different depths, bundles, heights, widths and beam spacings. Relatively high peak to valley ratios are observed in the lung region, suggesting an ideal environment for microbeam radiotherapy. For a single field, the ratio at the tissue/lung interface will set the maximum dose to the target volume. However, in clinical application, several fields would be involved allowing much greater doses to be applied for the elimination of cancer cells. We conclude therefore that multifield microbeam therapy has the potential to achieve useful therapeutic ratios for the treatment of lung cancer

  19. Radon in public buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, H.; Flesch, K.; Hermann, E.; Loebner, W.; Leissring, B.

    2009-01-01

    From the Free State of Saxony, a study was commissioned to survey how reliable measurements to characterize the radon situation in public buildings at a reasonable financial and human effort can be carried out to reduce radiation exposure in public buildings. The study approach was for 6 objects. To characterize the radon situation the time evolution measurement of radon concentrations of more than 1 to 2 weeks turned out to be sufficient. A novel data analysis enables the identification of a ''typical daily alteration of the radon concentration'' depending on the ventilation conditions and the daily use of the offices or class rooms. The identification of typical diurnal radon variations for the working time and weekends or holidays is of fundamental importance for assessing the exposure situation in public buildings. It was shown that the radon concentration during working time are in general much lower than in the times when the buildings (offices) are unused. It turned out that the long-term radon measurements with nuclear track detectors within distinct time regimes (day / night, working hours / leisure time) by utilizing switch modules are very efficient to estimate the actual exposure. (orig.)

  20. Mortality and indoor radon daughter concentrations in 13 Canadian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, E.G.; Wigle, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine if lung cancer and general mortality rates in 13 Canadian cities were significantly correlated with average indoor radon daughter concentrations. The radon daughter measurements were obtained from a study of 10,000 homes chosen in a statistically valid grab sample basis. Cancer deaths by year of death, sex, age, and cause were retrieved for each of the cities for the period 1957-1976. Age specific and age standardized mortality rates were calculated. The results showed no evidence of any substantial association between general or lung cancer mortality rates and indoor radon daughter concentrations. The limitations of this study and the feasibility of a common international program of epidemiology of radon daughter exposure are discussed. A proposal is made for the use of case control studies of lung cancer to assess the relative importance of smoking, occupational and domestic exposure to radon daughters

  1. Experimental, statistical, and biological models of radon carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1991-09-01

    Risk models developed for underground miners have not been consistently validated in studies of populations exposed to indoor radon. Imprecision in risk estimates results principally from differences between exposures in mines as compared to domestic environments and from uncertainties about the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products. Uncertainties in extrapolating miner data to domestic exposures can be reduced by means of a broad-based health effects research program that addresses the interrelated issues of exposure, respiratory tract dose, carcinogenesis (molecular/cellular and animal studies, plus developing biological and statistical models), and the relationship of radon to smoking and other copollutant exposures. This article reviews experimental animal data on radon carcinogenesis observed primarily in rats at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Recent experimental and mechanistic carcinogenesis models of exposures to radon, uranium ore dust, and cigarette smoke are presented with statistical analyses of animal data. 20 refs., 1 fig

  2. Mineral dusts and radon in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to assert that radon is a major cause of lung cancer in this country. EPA is fostering a radon program that could entail huge financial and emotional costs while yielding negligible benefits to public health. Justification for the program was the occurrence of lung cancer in men exposed to huge amounts of radon, mineral dusts, and other lung irritants in uranium mines on the Colorado Plateau. Lung cancer has been reported in about 356 cigarette smokers and in about 25 nonsmokers. During the era of high radon levels, monitoring was sporadic. Conditions in only a small fraction of the mines were measured, and that on a few separate occasions. Later, cumulative exposure to radon was calculated on the basis of measurements involving only a tiny fraction of the miners. Some were exposed to more than 15,000 pCi/liter of radon and its products. The level in the average home is about 1.5 pCi/liter. In making extrapolations from mine to home, the assumption is made that residents are in their dwellings most of the time and that miners spend only 170 hours a month in the mine. Two major questionable assumptions are involved in extrapolations from high doses of radon in the mines to low doses in homes. One is that no threshold is involved; that is, that humans have no remediation mechanism for α particle damages. There is evidence to the contrary. The most unrealistic assumption is that heavy exposure to silica has no effect on inducing lung cancer. Many studies have shown that silica dust causes lung cancer in animals. Exposure of human culture cells to silica has resulted in formation of neoplastic tissue. EPA has no solid evidence that exposures to 4 pCi/liter of radon causes lung cancer in either smokers or nonsmokers. Indeed, there is abundant evidence to the contrary in the fact that in states with high levels of radon, inhabitants have less lung cancer than those in states with low levels

  3. Indoor Radon Concentration Related to Different Radon Areas and Indoor Radon Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid; Šál, Jiří

    2017-12-01

    Indoor radon has been observed in the buildings at areas with different radon risk potential. Preventive measures are based on control of main potential radon sources (soil gas, building material and supplied water) to avoid building of new houses above recommended indoor radon level 200 Bq/m3. Radon risk (index) estimation of individual building site bedrock in case of new house siting and building protection according technical building code are obligatory. Remedial actions in buildings built at high radon risk areas were carried out principally by unforced ventilation and anti-radon insulation. Significant differences were found in the level of radon concentration between rooms where radon reduction techniques were designed and those where it was not designed. The mathematical model based on radon exhalation from soil has been developed to describe the physical processes determining indoor radon concentration. The model is focused on combined radon diffusion through the slab and advection through the gap from sub-slab soil. In this model, radon emanated from building materials is considered not having a significant contribution to indoor radon concentration. Dimensional analysis and Gauss-Newton nonlinear least squares parametric regression were used to simplify the problem, identify essential input variables and find parameter values. The presented verification case study is introduced for real buildings with respect to various underground construction types. Presented paper gives picture of possible mathematical approach to indoor radon concentration prediction.

  4. Comparison of radon and radon-daughter grab samples obtained during the winter and summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, K.E.

    1987-08-01

    The Technical Measurements Center (TMC), under the auspices of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) program, is investigating short-term methods for estimating annual average indoor radon-daughter concentrations (RDC). A field study at 40 sample locations in 26 residential structures in Grand Junction, Colorado, was conducted once in the winter and once in the summer. The short-term methods investigated as part of this study include ten-minute radon and radon-daughter grab sampling and hourly RDC measurements. The results of the field study indicate that ten-minute radon grab samples from basement locations are reproducible over different seasons during controlled sampling conditions. Nonbasement radon and RDC grab samples are highly variable even when the use of the location by the occupant is controlled and the ventilation rate is restricted. The grab sampling was performed under controlled occupied conditions. These results confirm that a short-term radon or RDC measurement in a nonbasement location in a house is not a standardized measurement that can be used to infer an annual average concentration. The hourly RDC measurements were performed under three sets of conditions over a 72-hour period. The three sets of conditions were uncontrolled occupied, controlled occupied, and controlled unoccupied. These results indicate that it is not necessary to relocate the occupants during the time of grab sampling. 8 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs

  5. Riddle of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.

    1996-01-01

    Why is the most significant source of human exposure to ionising radiation - and one that is so easy to reduce - not accorded the attention it deserves from those engaged in radiological protection nor the action it requires from those affected by it at work or at home? There are, after all, clear indications that high levels of radon exist and firm strands of evidence that radon causes cancer. Some national and international authorities have even developed regulations and recommendations to limit exposures. But radon still lies in the penumbra of protection because proponents of intervention lack conviction and opponents are full of passionate intensity. Little wonder that citizens are confused! (Author)

  6. Radon affected areas: Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Board advice on radon in homes issued in 1990 specifies that areas of the UK where 1% or more of homes exceed the Action Level of 200 becquerels per cubic metre of air should be regarded as Affected Areas. Results of radon measurements in homes in the districts of Kincardine and Deeside and Gordon in Grampian Region and Caithness and Sutherland in Highland Region are mapped and used to delineate Affected Areas in these areas where required. The Scottish Office is advised to consider the desirability of developing guidance on precautions against radon in future homes. (author)

  7. Measuring your radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackmurdo, R.

    1994-01-01

    In its annual report for 1992/93, the NRPB has warned that tens of thousands of UK employees may be exposed to high levels of radon at work. In addition to those who work underground, employees at risk of radon-induced lung cancer are typically those who spend long periods indoors. This article reviews the implications for all employers especially those in low or unknown levels of radon who resist taking measurements in the belief that by not measuring, they are not liable. (UK)

  8. A survey on radon reduction efficiency of zeolite and bentonite in a chamber with artificially elevated radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    reducing indoor radon levels. Conclusions: Zeolite and bentonite significantly decrease the indoor radon level. The efficiency of zeolite in radon reduction is significantly higher than that of bentonite. As both zeolite and bentonite can be found in many parts of IR Iran, these mineral sorbents can be used in national remedial action programs.

  9. Radon detection system, design, test and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Chavez, A.; Pina-Villalpando, G.; Navarrete, M.

    1999-01-01

    A portable radon detection system (α-Inin) has been designed and constructed for using it in adverse environmental conditions where humidity, temperature and chemical vaporous are present. The minimum integration time is in periods of 15 min during 41 days. A 12 V battery and a photovoltaic module allow the α-Inin autonomy in field measurements. Data is collected by means of a laptop computer where data processing and α-Inin programming are carried out. α-Inin performance was simultaneously tested in a controlled radon chamber, together with a commercial α-Meter

  10. A comparison of ray-tracing software for the design of quadrupole microbeam systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incerti, S.; Smith, R.W.; Merchant, M.; Grime, G.W.; Meot, F.; Serani, L.; Moretto, Ph.; Touzeau, C.; Barberet, Ph.; Habchi, C.; Nguyen, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    For many years the only ray-tracing software available with sufficient precision for the design of quadrupole microbeam focusing systems has been OXRAY and its successor TRAX, developed at Oxford in the 1980s. With the current interest in pushing the beam diameter into the nanometre region, this software has become dated and more importantly the precision at small displacements may not be sufficient and new simulation tools are required. Two candidates for this are Zgoubi, developed at CEA as a general beam line design tool and the CERN simulation program Geant in its latest version Geant4. In order to use Geant4 new quadrupole field modules have been developed and implemented. In this paper the capabilities of the three codes TRAX, Zgoubi and Geant4 are reviewed. Comparisons of ray-tracing calculations in a high demagnification quadrupole probe-forming system for the sub-micron region are presented

  11. Passive radon daughter dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, R.G.C.; Johnson, J.R.

    1986-03-01

    On the basis of an extensive review of the recent literature concerning passive radon daughter dosimeters, we have reached the following conclusions: 1) Passive dosimeters for measuring radon are available and reliable. 2) There does not presently exist an acceptable passive dosimeter for radon daughters. There is little if any hope for the development of such a device in the foreseeable future. 3) We are pessimistic about the potential of 'semi-passive dosimeters' but are less firm about stating categorically that these devices cannot be developed into a useful radon daughter dosimeter. This report documents and justifies these conclusions. It does not address the question of the worker's acceptance of these devices because at the present time, no device is sufficiently advanced for this question to be meaningful. 118 refs

  12. The matter of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.; O'Riordan, C.N.

    1992-01-01

    By comparison with the radiation doses from radon, the doses to individual members of the public and to the general community from nuclear activities are quite trivial. Doses from radon in some British homes exceed the statutory dose limit for nuclear workers;the collective dose from radon is two thousand times the value for nuclear discharges. And yet, too little attention - legal or otherwise - is paid to this radioactive pollutant. An attempt is made in this paper to compensate for the neglect. The origins, properties and harmful effects of radon are described. Measurements in homes and places of work are summarised. Voluntary and regulatory controls on exposure are elucidated. Questions of public administration, confidentiality of information and sale of property are discussed. Prospects for progress are assessed. (author)

  13. Radon - natural health threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrixon, Anthony

    1985-01-01

    Natural sources of radiation attract little attention, yet a survey has found radon gas in buildings at levels which put the occupants at some risk. The author wants safety standards set without undue delay. (author)

  14. Radon i danske lejeboliger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Skytte Clausen, Louise

    I denne undersøgelse kortlægges radonindholdet i indeluften og det undersøges, hvordan indholdet af radon i indeluften er fordelt og spredes i en ejendom, og om det er muligt at pege på en bygningsdel eller en bygningskomponent som en spredningsvej for radon i boliger. Boligerne er lejeboliger og...... ligger i etageejendomme, kæde- og rækkehuse tilhørende bygningstyper opført fra 1850 og frem. De udvalgte ejendomme ligger i områder af landet, hvor der ved tidligere undersøgelser har vist sig at være en stor andel af huse med et højt indhold af radon i indeluften. Koncentrationen af radon er målt over...

  15. ROE Radon Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The polygon dataset represents predicted indoor radon screening levels in counties across the United States. These data were provided by EPA’s Office of Radiation...

  16. Radon testing in schools in New York State: a 20-year summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitto, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For nearly 20 years the Department of Health has conducted programs to assist in the measurement and reduction of indoor radon concentrations in 186 schools located primarily in Zone 1 areas of New York State. Although many schools had few or no rooms containing radon above 148 Bq/m 3 , some rooms had >740 Bq/m 3 and remediation techniques were utilized to reduce exposure. Short-term radon measurements in the schools showed little correlation to basement and first-floor radon results from single-family homes in the towns. - Highlights: • Relatively few schools in New York State have been tested for indoor radon. • We provide a summary of radon-testing results for measured schools. • The radon potential in schools is often less than in local houses. • Short-term measurement results exceeded their long-term counterparts in nearly every case

  17. Study of transient current induced by heavy-ion microbeams in Si and GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirao, Toshio; Nashiyama, Isamu; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suda, Tamotu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Heavy-ion microbeams were applied to the study of mechanism of single event upset (SEU). Transient current induced in p{sup +}n junction diodes by strike of heavy ion microbeam were measured by using a high-speed digitizing sampling system. (author)

  18. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, A.; Lehmann, K.-H.; Reineking, A.; Porstendoerfer, J.; Schwedt, J.; Streil, T.

    2000-01-01

    The radiological assessment of the results of radon measurements in dwellings is not automatically applicable to workplaces due to different forms of utilization, constructional conditions, time of exposure, heating and ventilation conditions, additional aerosol sources, aerosol parameters, chemical substances, etc. In order to investigate the peculiarities of the radon situation in workplaces located inside buildings compared with that in dwellings, long-time recordings of radon, attached radon progeny and unattached radon progeny concentrations ( 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi) are carried out at several categories of workplaces (e.g. offices, social establishments, schools, production rooms, workshops, kitchens, agricultural facilities). 36 workplaces have been investigated. There have been carried out at least 2-3 long-time recordings for each workplace during different seasons. At the same time the gamma dose rate, meteorological conditions, aerosol particle concentrations have been registered. Many special dates from the workplaces and the buildings have been recorded. Activity size distribution of the aerosol-attached and unattached fraction of short-lived radon decay products have been determinated in 20 workplaces. Mainly the following measurement systems were used: Radon- and Radon Progeny Monitor EQF 3020, SARAD GmbH, Germany. Alpha-Track Radon Detectors, BfS Berlin, Germany. Screen Diffusion Batteries with Different Screens, University of Goettingen, Germany. Low-Pressure Cascade Impactor, Type BERNER. Condensation Nuclei Counter, General Electric, USA. PAEC-f p -Rn-Monitor, University of Goettingen, Germany. Through the measurements, many peculiarities in the course of the radon-concentration, the equilibrium factor F, the unattached fraction f p and the activity size distribution have been determined. These amounts are influenced mainly by the working conditions and the working intervals. The influence of these peculiarities in workplaces on the dose have

  19. Radon-Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno y Moreno, A.

    2003-01-01

    The presentation of the active and passive methods for radon, their identification and measure, instrumentation and characteristics are the objectives of this work. Active detectors: Active Alpha Cam Continuous Air Monitor, Model 758 of Victoreen, Model CMR-510 Continuous Radon Monitor of the Signature Femto-Tech. Passive detectors: SSNTD track detectors in solids Measurement Using Charcoal Canisters, disk of activated coal deposited in a metallic box Electrets Methodology. (Author)

  20. Radon in housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    The enclosed material deals with the substantial efforts made until now to control the levels of radon in Sweden dwellings. It is meant as a source material for the several publications which have emerged from the National Institute of Radiation Protection in Stockholm during 1983 and 1984. The first document is a translation of chapter 16, the deliberations of the Swedish Radon Commission, appointed by the government in 1979. Comments on the report of the commission were solicited before 1 October, 1983. (author)

  1. Radon og boligen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    Radon er en radioaktiv og sundhedsskadelig luftart, som ved indånding øger risikoen for lungekræft. Der er ingen dokumenteret nedre grænse for, hvornår radon er ufarligt. Derfor anbefales det, at man tilstræber et så lavt radonindhold i indeluften som muligt. Man kan hverken lugte, se, høre eller...... smage radon, så vil du vide, om du har radon i din bolig, må du måle radonindholdet i indeluften. Radon forekommer naturligt i jorden og kan suges ind sammen med jordluft, hvis der inde er et undertryk, og hvis konstruktionerne mod jord er utætte. Jordluft trænger ind gennem revner og utætte samlinger......, fx omkring rør til kloak, vand og varmeforsyning. Koncentrationen af radon i jorden varierer meget fra sted til sted, også lokalt og gennem året. Tidligere undersøgelser har vist, at der kan forekomme høje koncentrationer i Sydgrønland, specielt i området syd for Narsalik ved Paamiut, 61°30’N....

  2. Radon in Croatian spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.; Planinic, J.

    2004-01-01

    There are ten thermal spas in Croatia and all of them provide health services for patients and visitors. Radon measurements were performed since there is a lack of data concerning natural radioactivity originated from radon and its short-lived progenies in such environments. The thermal water at two different sites (the indoor swimming pool with geothermal water and the spring) in each spa was sampled and radon concentrations were measured by AlphaGUARD radon measuring system. The obtained values were in the range of 0.7 to 19 Bq.dm -3 and 2 to 94 Bq.dm -3 for indoor swimming pools and springs, respectively. Integrated measurements of radon concentration in air were performed by two solid state nuclear track detectors LR-115 II (open and diffusion one) thus enabling estimation of equilibrium factor between radon and its daughters. The annual effective doses received by spa workers were found to be about 1 mSv/y (below the lower limit value of 3 mSv/y recommended by ICRP 65). The doses of patients and visitors were one or two order of magnitude lower than that of the personnel. (author)

  3. Radon and radon daughter monitoring (including thoron daughter monitoring)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, V.A.; Grealy, G.; Gan, W.

    1982-01-01

    Radon/radon daughter and thoron daughter measurement techniques are outlined. The necessary precautions and critical assessments of each method are also presented with a view to providing a better understanding of the various measurement methods

  4. Radon: A health problem and a communication problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is making great efforts to alert the American public to the potential health risks of radon in homes. The news media have widely publicized radon as a problem; state and local governments are responding to public alarms; and hundreds of radon open-quotes expertsclose quotes are now offering radon detection and mitigation services. Apparently, USEPA's communication program is working, and the public is becoming increasingly concerned with radon. But are they concerned with radon as a open-quotes healthclose quotes problem in the way USEPA intended? The answer is yes, partly. More and more, however, the concerns are about home resale values. Many homebuyers are now deciding whether to buy on the basis of a single radon screening measurement, comparing it with USEPA's action guide of 4 pCi L -1 . They often conclude that 3.9 is OK, but 4.1 is not. Here is where the communication problems begin. The public largely misunderstands the significance of USEPA's guidelines and the meaning of screening measurements. Seldom does anyone inquire about the quality of the measurements, or the results of USEPA performance testing? Who asks about the uncertainty of lifetime exposure assessments based on a 1-hour, 1-day, 3-day, or even 30-day measurement? Who asks about the uncertainty of USEPA's risk estimates? Fortunately, an increasing number of radiation protection professions are asking such questions. They find that USEPA's risk projections are based on many assumptions which warrant further evaluation, particularly with regard to the combined risks of radon and cigarette-smoking. This is the next communication problem. What are these radiation professions doing to understand the bases for radon health-risk projections? Who is willing to communicate a balanced perspective to the public? Who is willing to communicate the uncertainty and conservatism in radon measurements and risk estimates?

  5. Predicting radon/radon daughter concentrations in underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed description of a computer programme is outlined for the calculation of radon/radon daughter concentrations in air. This computer model is used to predict the radon/radon daughter concentrations in Working Level (WL) at the workplace and at the various junctions at either end of the branches in a typical ventilation network proposed for the Jabiluka mine in the Northern Territory

  6. Human Lung Cancer Risks from Radon – Part I - Influence from Bystander Effects - A Microdose Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Bobby E.; Thompson, Richard E.; Beecher, Georgia C.

    2010-01-01

    Since the publication of the BEIR VI report in 1999 on health risks from radon, a significant amount of new data has been published showing various mechanisms that may affect the ultimate assessment of radon as a carcinogen, at low domestic and workplace radon levels, in particular the Bystander Effect (BE) and the Adaptive Response radio-protection (AR). We analyzed the microbeam and broadbeam alpha particle data of Miller et al. (1995, 1999), Zhou et al. (2001, 2003, 2004), Nagasawa and Little (1999, 2002), Hei et al. (1999), Sawant et al. (2001a) and found that the shape of the cellular response to alphas is relatively independent of cell species and LET of the alphas. The same alpha particle traversal dose response behavior should be true for human lung tissue exposure to radon progeny alpha particles. In the Bystander Damage Region of the alpha particle response, there is a variation of RBE from about 10 to 35. There is a transition region between the Bystander Damage Region and Direct Damage Region of between one and two microdose alpha particle traversals indicating that perhaps two alpha particle “hits” are necessary to produce the direct damage. Extrapolation of underground miners lung cancer risks to human risks at domestic and workplace levels may not be valid. PMID:21731539

  7. Residents in a high radon potential geographic area: Their risk perception and attitude toward testing and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferng, S.F.; Lawson, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Boone County, Indiana was identified by the EPA as one of the high radon potential geographic areas. Health education campaigns are needed to prevent resident's unnecessary radon exposure. In order to design suitable programs, a questionnaire mail survey was conducted to measure socio-demographic characteristics of County resident's knowledge about radon, attitude toward radon testing and mitigation, support of education campaigns, and the best media to deliver radon education campaigns. A stratified random sampling method was applied for a total of 400 samples. The number of samples from each township/city was a proportion of their taxable parcels. The survey return rate was 39.8%. The data were analyzed by Epi Info and SPSS. The statistical significant level was set at α = 0.05. The results showed that resident's knowledge about radon was at a relatively superficial level. There was no association identified between the knowledge of radon and gender, age, family income, or education, except that females more frequently believed in false effects caused by radon. A significant correlation between radon knowledge and home radon tests was observed. Also found in this study was that respondents with better knowledge about diseases caused by radon had more confidence in radon mitigation actions. Newspaper was chosen by respondents as the most favorite media to deliver radon health education campaigns. Health education campaigns for the residents of Boone County might be conducted by local governments and/or other organizations

  8. MOSFET dosimetry of the radiation therapy microbeams at the European synchrotron radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: We have developed an innovative on-line MOSFET readout system for use in the quality assurance of radiation treatment beams. Recently the system has found application in areas where excellent spatial resolution is also a requirement in the quality assurance process, for example IMRT, and microbeam radiation therapy. The excellent spatial resolution is achieved by using a quadruple RADFET TM chip in 'edge on' mode. In developing this approach we have found that the system can be utilised to determine any error in the beam profile measurements due to misalignment of RADFET with respect to the radiation beam or microbeam. Using this approach will ensure that the excellent spatial resolution of the RADFET used in 'edge-on' mode is fully utilised. In this work we report on dosimetry measurements performed at the microbeam radiation therapy beamline located at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The synchrotron planar array microbeam with size 10-30 μm and pitch ∼200 μm has found an important application in microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) of brain tumours in infants for whom other kinds of radiotherapy are inadequate and/or unsafe. The radiation damage from an array of parallel microbeams correlates strongly with the range of peak-valley dose ratios (PVDR), ie, the range of the ratio of the absorbed dose to tissue directly in line with the mid-plane of the microbeam to that in the mid-plane between adjacent microbeams. Novel physical dosimetry of the microbeams using the online MOSFET reader system will be presented. Comparison of the experimental results with both GaF film measurements and Monte Carlo computer-simulated dosimetry are described here for selected points in the peak and valley regions of a microbeam-irradiated tissue phantom

  9. Control of indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sextro, R.G.

    1985-05-01

    There are three general categories of techniques for the control of radon and radon progeny concentrations in indoor air - restriction of radon entry, reduction of indoor radon concentrations by ventilation or air cleaning, and removal of airborne radon progeny. The predominant radon entry process in most residences appears to be pressure driven flow of soil gas through cracks or other openings in the basement, slab, or subfloor. Sealing these openings or ventilation of the subslab or subfloor space are methods of reducing radon entry rates. Indoor radon concentrations may be reduced by increased ventilation. The use of charcoal filters for removal of radon gas in the indoor air by adsorption has also been proposed. Concentrations of radon progeny, which are responsible for most of the health risks associated with radon exposures, can be controlled by use of electrostatic or mechanical filtration. Air circulation can also reduce radon progeny concentrations in certain cases. This paper reviews the application and limitations of each of these control measures and discusses recent experimental results

  10. Radon as a hydrological indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komae, Takami [National Research Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The radon concentration in water is measured by a liquid scintillation method. After the radioactive equilibrium between radon and the daughter nuclides was attained, the radon concentration was determined by the liquid scintillation analyzer. {alpha}-ray from radon, then two {beta}- and two {alpha}-ray from the daughter nuclei group were released, so that 500% of the apparent counting efficiency was obtained. The detector limit is about 0.03 Bq/l, the low value, which corresponds to about 5.4x10{sup -15} ppm. By determining the radon concentration in groundwater, behavior of radon in hydrological process, the groundwater exchange caused by pumping and exchange between river water and groundwater were investigated. The water circulation analysis by means of radon indicator in the environment was shown. By using the large difference of radon concentration between in river water and in groundwater, arrival of injected water to the sampling point of groundwater was detected. (S.Y.)

  11. Procedure manual for the estimation of average indoor radon-daughter concentrations using the radon grab-sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.L.

    1986-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology established the Technical Measurements Center to provide standardization, calibration, comparability, verification of data, quality assurance, and cost-effectiveness for the measurement requirements of DOE remedial action programs. One of the remedial-action measurement needs is the estimation of average indoor radon-daughter concentration. One method for accomplishing such estimations in support of DOE remedial action programs is the radon grab-sampling method. This manual describes procedures for radon grab sampling, with the application specifically directed to the estimation of average indoor radon-daughter concentration (RDC) in highly ventilated structures. This particular application of the measurement method is for cases where RDC estimates derived from long-term integrated measurements under occupied conditions are below the standard and where the structure being evaluated is considered to be highly ventilated. The radon grab-sampling method requires that sampling be conducted under standard maximized conditions. Briefly, the procedure for radon grab sampling involves the following steps: selection of sampling and counting equipment; sample acquisition and processing, including data reduction; calibration of equipment, including provisions to correct for pressure effects when sampling at various elevations; and incorporation of quality-control and assurance measures. This manual describes each of the above steps in detail and presents an example of a step-by-step radon grab-sampling procedure using a scintillation cell

  12. A new paradigm in radioadaptive response developing from microbeam research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hideki; Tomita, Masanori; Otsuka, Kensuke; Hatashita, Masanori

    2009-01-01

    A classic paradigm in radiation biology asserts that all radiation effects on cells, tissues and organisms are due to the direct action of radiation on living tissue. Using this model, possible risks from exposure to low dose ionizing radiation (below 100 mSv) are estimated by extrapolating from data obtained after exposure to higher doses of radiation, using a linear non-threshold model (LNT model). However, the validity of using this dose-response model is controversial because evidence accumulated over the past decade has indicated that living organisms, including humans, respond differently to low dose/low dose-rate radiation than they do to high dose/high dose-rate radiation. These important responses to low dose/low dose-rate radiation are the radiation-induced adaptive response, the bystander response, low-dose hypersensitivity, and genomic instability. The mechanisms underlying these responses often involve bio-chemical and molecular signals generated in response to targeted and non-targeted events. In order to define and understand the bystander response to provide a basis for the understanding of non-targeted events and to elucidate the mechanisms involved, recent sophisticated research has been conducted with X-ray microbeams and charged heavy particle microbeams, and these studies have produced many new observations. Based on these observations, associations have been suggested to exist between the radio-adaptive and bystander responses. The present review focuses on these two phenomena, and summarizes observations supporting their existence, and discusses the linkage between them in light of recent results obtained from experiments utilizing microbeams. (author)

  13. Radon emanometry in active volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M. (CNRS, IN2P3, BP45/F63170 Aubiere (France)); Cejudo, J. (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City)

    1984-01-01

    Radon emission measurements from active volcanoes has, since 1981, been continuously measured at monitoring stations in Mexico and in Costa Rica. Counting of etched alpha tracks on cellulose nitrate LR-115 detectors give varying results at the several stations. Radon emanation at Chichon, where an explosive eruption occurred in 1982, fell down. Radon detection at the active volcano in Colima shows a pattern of very low emission. At the Costa Rica stations located at Poas, Arenal and Irazu, the radon emanation shows regularity.

  14. Radon risk in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niewiadomski, T.

    1996-01-01

    The author discusses the risk related to the inhalation of radon decay products. This products are the cause of almost the half of the doses absorbed by the people. The concentration of radon in buildings is much higher than in the open areas and its country average in Poland is 50 Bq/m 3 . It is difficult to predict the concentration of radon in the building without measurement. Author concludes that there are technical means to decrease radon concentration in buildings

  15. Radon in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.; Gregory, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Guide has been prepared for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) by the Building Research Establishment (BRE). Following the guidance is not compulsory and you are free to take other action. However if you do follow the guidance you will normally be doing enough to comply with the law. Health and Safety Inspectors seek to secure compliance with the law and may refer to this guidance as illustrating good practice. In the past, concern about exposure of employees to radon has largely centred on the mining environment. In recent times, with increased knowledge and mapping of radon levels in homes, attention has increasingly turned to radon exposure in buildings used for work purposes. Now there is a considerable fund of information to show that employees in some buildings can receive very significant radiation doses from radon. Surveys show that levels of radon tend to be higher in buildings with small rooms, such as offices rather than larger factory and warehouse constructions. The particular problem is that the nature of the work process gives no clue as to the radon hazard that may exist, and the employer may be unaware of its presence and how to deal with it. This Guide is aimed principally at employers and those who control buildings used for work purposes, or their representatives. It offers guidance on practical measures for reducing radon levels in workplaces. The guidance should also be of interest and assistance to those, such as surveyors and builders, concerned with specifying and carrying out the necessary remedial measures. Advice is provided for the majority of building types and construction situations likely to be encountered in larger non-domestic buildings. For buildings where construction is similar to that found in dwellings the guidance published by BRE on remedial measures for dwellings should be used. BRE prepared this Guide with assistance from the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and Cornwall County Council under contract

  16. New capabilities of the Zagreb ion microbeam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaksic, M.; Bogdanovic Radovic, I.; Bogovac, M.; Desnica, V.; Fazinic, S.; Karlusic, M.; Medunic, Z.; Muto, H.; Pastuovic, Z.; Siketic, Z.; Skukan, N.; Tadic, T.

    2007-01-01

    The installation of a new 1.0 MV Tandetron accelerator and a recent upgrade of the 6.0 MV Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator increased the application possibilities of the Zagreb ion microbeam system. Several ion sources enable now the selection of a wide variety of ions. Most of them can be focused by the existing microprobe system. Sample positioning tools and new scanner control options are implemented in the new generation of SPECTOR data acquisition system. Details of the upgrades are presented

  17. Photoacoustic microbeam-oscillator with tunable resonance direction and amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingjun; Li, Fanghao; Wang, Bo; Yi, Futing; Jiang, J. Z.; Zhang, Dongxian

    2018-01-01

    We successfully design one photoacoustic microbeam-oscillator actuated by nanosecond laser, which exhibits tunable resonance direction and amplitude. The mechanism of laser induced oscillation is systematically analyzed. Both simulation and experimental results reveal that the laser induced acoustic wave propagates in a multi-reflected mode, resulting in resonance in the oscillator. This newly-fabricated micrometer-sized beam-oscillator has an excellent actuation function, i.e., by tuning the laser frequency, the direction and amplitude of actuation can be efficiently altered, which will have potential industrial applications.

  18. Radon and radon daughters in public, private and commercial buildings in communities associated with uranium mining and processing in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    The elevated indoor radon levels in certain communities in Canada have been studied. An overview of the investigational and remedial action programs are presented in this paper. It is suggested that radon daughter concentrations can be controlled by: (a) removing source; (b) placing a barrier between the source and the living space; (c) diverting the radon before it enters a building: (d) increasing the ventilation rate. All methods have been proven but no one technique is the most cost effective because of widely varying conditions found in older housing

  19. Radon discrimination for work place air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratvold, T.

    1994-01-01

    Gross alpha/beta measurement systems are designed solely to identify an incident particle as either an alpha or a beta and register a count accordingly. The tool of choice for radon identification, via decay daughters, is an instrument capable of identifying the energy of incident alpha particles and storing that information separately from detected alpha emissions of different energy. In simpler terms, the desired instrument is an alpha spectroscopy system. K Basins Radiological Control (KBRC) procured an EG ampersand G ORTEC OCTETE PC alpha spectroscopy system to facilitate radon identification on work place air samples. The alpha spectrometer allows for the identification of any alpha emitting isotope based on characteristic alpha emission energies. With this new capability, KBRC will explicitly know whether or not there exists a true airborne concern. Based on historical air quality data, this new information venue will reduce the use of respirators substantially. Situations where an area remains ''on mask'' due solely to the presence of radon daughters on the grab air filter will finally be eliminated. This document serves to introduce a new method for radon daughter detection at the 183KE Health Physics Analytical Laboratory (HPAL). A new work place air sampling analysis program will be described throughout this paper. There is no new technology being introduced, nor any unproven analytical process. The program defined over the expanse of this document simply explains how K Basins Radiological Control will employ their alpha spectrometer

  20. Radon in the indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, H.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of R and D on radon in the indoor environment at SCK-CEN is to (1) to investigate the deposition of radon progeny in the human respiratory tract by means of direct measurements as a function of aerosol conditions; to assess the radon concentrations in buildings retrospectively with volume traps. Progress and main achievements in 1997 are reported on

  1. Radon in the indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, H.

    1998-01-01

    A precise retrospective assessment of long-term radon exposures in dwellings is essential for estimating lung-cancer risks. The objectives of this research are (1) to investigate the deposition of radon progeny in the human respiratory tract by means of direct measurements as a function of aerosol conditions, (2) to assess the radon concentrations in buildings retrospectively with volume traps

  2. Emission of radon from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlberg, P.; Lindmark, A.; Rosen, B.

    1980-03-01

    The report deals with the measurement of radon daughters in the soil Radon migrates readily through the limestone which is superpositioned the alum shale. The level of gamma radiation is normal. Measurements have been made by the track etch technique and with Kodak film. The contents of radon daughters are shown to be due to the measuring depth. (G.B.)

  3. Monitoring for radon in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deininger, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    This article focuses on radionuclides elements of interest to utilities and consumers alike. Each of these groups may be interested in a low-cost radiation detector that can be connected to a laptop or desktop computer through either the serial or the parallel port. A complete set of software comes with the detector, and a detailed manual describes operation of the program and discusses the various forms of common radiation sources in a home. Computer programs can run in the foreground and display a scrolling bar chart or in the background while the incoming data are logged, so the user can continue to work on the computer. Data are automatically stored on a disk file. Data collection times can be set for minutes, hours, days, or weeks, thus allowing long-term trends to be identified. The detector can be connected to the computer by a modular telephone cable and can be placed as far away as several hundred feet. Utilities that use surface water supplies are unlikely to detect any radon. Only those plants that use groundwater supplies from areas where radioactive materials are in the ground will have some radon in the water

  4. Simulation of Rn-222 decay products concentration deposited on a filter. Description of radon1.pas computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaj, B.

    1996-01-01

    A computer program allowing simulation of activity distribution of 222 Rn short lived decay products deposited on a filter against time is presented, for any radiation equilibrium degree of the decay products. Deposition of the decay products is simulated by summing discrete samples every 1/10 min in the sampling time from 1 to 10 min. The concentration (activity) of the decay products is computed in one minute intervals in the range 1 - 100 min. The alpha concentration and the total activity of 218 Po + 214 Po produced are computed in the range 1 to 100 min as well. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs

  5. Radon risks: Attitudes, perceptions and actions. Risk communication series. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L.

    1989-08-01

    As many as 8 million homes in the United States may have elevated radon levels, with accompanying lung cancer risks several orders of magnitude higher than for most other environmental risks. The U.S. Environmental Protection Program (EPA) does not have clear regulatory authority over radon, so has relied on an information program. Less than 5% of homes have been tested, which is disappointing from a public health stance. The report summarizes the available research on communicating about the risk from radon from the perspective of a psychologist. The research results are critiqued to draw practical conclusions for radon policy and suggest the most important topics for further risk communication research.

  6. Theoretical and experimental study of radon measurement with designing and calibration domestic canister with active charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urosevic, V.; Nikezic, D.; Zekic, R.

    2005-01-01

    Radon concentration in air may change significantly large variation due to atmospheric variation. Measurement with active charcoal can be inaccurate because the variation in radon concentration. We made model to simulate radon measurements with active charcoal in order to optimize and improve integration characteristic. A numerical method and computer code based on the method of finite elements is developed for the case of variable radon concentration in air. This program simulates radon adsorption by the activated charcoal bed, enabling determination of sensitivity. The dependence of sensitivity on different parameters, such as temperature, thickness of the charcoal, etc. was studied using this program. Using results of theoretical investigation we designed and calibrated our canister with active charcoal for radon measurements. (author)

  7. Radon -- an environmental hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faheem, M.; Rahman, R.; Rahman, S.; Matiullah

    2005-01-01

    Humans have always been exposed throughout its period of experience to naturally occurring sources of ionizing radiation or natural background radiation, It is an established fact that even these low background doses are harmful to man and cause increased cancer risk. About half of our radiation comes from radon, a radioactive gas coming from normal materials in the ground. Several building materials such as granite, bricks, sand, cement etc., contain uranium in various amounts. The radioactive gas /sup 222/Rn produced in these materials due to decay of 226Ra is transported to indoor air through diffusion and convective flow. It seeps out of soil and rocks, well water, building materials and other sources at a varied rate. Amongst the naturally occurring radioisotopes, radon is the most harmful one that can be a cause of lung cancer. Radon isotopes are born by the decay of radium and radium production in turns comes from uranium or thorium decay. For humans the greatest importance among Radon isotopes is attributed to /sup 222/Rn because it is the longest lived of the three naturally produced isotopes. Drinking water also poses a threat. Radon gas is dissolved in water and is released into the air via water faucets, showerheads, etc. the lack of understanding has so far lead to speculative estimates of pollutant related health hazards. (author)

  8. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a large-scale survey of radon concentrations in Norwegian dwellings are reported. Measurements of radon have been made in a total of 7500 dwellings. The dwellings were randomly selected and the number in each municipality is proportional to its population. The measurements were performed using etched track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Board in the UK. One detector was placed in the main bedroom in each dwelling for 6 months. The annual average of radon concentration in Norwegian bedrooms is calculated to be 51 Bq.m -3 . The frequency distribution is approximately log-normal with a geometric mean of 26 Bq.m -3 and about 4% of the bedrooms have concentrations above 200 Bq.m -3 . The radon concentrations are found to be about 40% higher for bedrooms in single-family houses than in blocks of flats and other multifamily houses. In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor and the bedrooms on the first floor. An additional factor is that the winters of 1987-1988 and 1988-1989 were much warmer than normal. Taking these factors into account, the average radon concentration in Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55 and 65 Bq.m -3 . (author)

  9. Occurrence of radon in the Polish underground tourist routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Olszewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are about 200 underground tourist routes in Poland. There are caves, mines or underground structures. This paper presents the results of the research intended to identify the extent of the occurrence of radon concentrations in underground areas of tourist routes. Material and Methods: We conducted the measurement of periodic concentrations of radon (1–2 months in the summer using type Tastrak trace detectors. We determined the average concentrations of radon in air in 66 underground tourist routes in Poland. Results: The research results comprise 259 determinations of average radon concentrations in 66 routes. The arithmetic average of the results was 1610 Bqm–3, and the maximum measured concentration was over 20 000 Bqm–3. The minimum concentration was 100 Bqm–3 (threshold method considering the arithmetic average of the measurements. It was found that in 67% of the routes, the average concentration of radon has exceeded 300 Bqm–3 and in 22 underground routes it exceeded 1000 Bqm–3. Conclusions: Radon which occurs in many Polish underground tourist routes may be an organizational, legal and health problem. It is necessary to develop a program of measures to reduce radon concentrations in underground routes, especially routes located in the former mines. Med Pr 2015;66(4:557–563

  10. Measurements of indoor radon and radon progeny in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.S.; Rodriguez, G.P.

    1996-01-01

    Indoor radon has been a public concern associated with increased lung cancer risks. Radon decay products interact with indoor aerosols to form progeny with different size distributions, which may influence the lung dosimetry when the progeny are inhaled. Air pollution in Mexico City is a serious problems with high particulate concentrations, but there are few reports of indoor radon measurement. The purposes of this study were to measure the aerosol concentration, radon concentration, and radon activity size distribution in the living area of three houses in Mexico City. The radon concentration was monitored by a RGM-3 radon gas monitor (Eberline, Inc., Santa Fe, NM). A graded diffusion battery was used to determine the progeny concentration and activity size distribution. The concentration and size distribution of the indoor aerosols were monitored by a quartz, crystal microbalance cascade impactor. Our measurements showed high concentrations of indoor aerosols (20-180 gg m -3 ). However, the radon concentrations-were low ( -1 ), but showed a clear diurnal pattern with peak concentrations from 2-10 AM. The activity size distributions of radon progeny were trimodal, with peaks of 0.6 nm, 4-5 nm, and 100 rim. Most activities were associated with large particle sizes. Our results indicated that indoor radon concentration was not high, due in part to a relatively high air exchange with outdoor air. The high aerosol concentration may also play an important part in the activity size distribution of radon progeny

  11. Design of the IMP microbeam irradiation system for 100 MeV/u heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Lina; Song Mingtao; Zhang Xiaoqi; Yang Xiaotian; Gao Daqing; He Yuan; Zhang Bin; Liu Jie; Sun Youmei; Dang Bingrong; Lwenjian; Su Hong; Man Kaidi; Guo Yizhen; Wang Zhiguang; Zhan Wenlong

    2009-01-01

    A state-of-the-art high energy heavy ion microbeam irradiation system is constructed at the Institute of Modern Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. This microbeam system operates in both full current intensity mode and single ion mode. It delivers a predefined number of ions to pre-selected targets for research in biology and material science. The characteristic of this microbeam system is high energy and vertical irradiation. A quadrupole focusing system, in combination with a series of slits, has been designed to optimize the spatial resolution. A symmetrically achromatic system leads the beam downwards and serves simultaneously as an energy analyzer. A high gradient quadrupole triplet finally focuses a C 6+ ion beam to 1 μm in the vacuum chamber within the energy range from 10 MeV/u to 100 MeV/u. In this paper, the IMP microbeam system is described in detail. A systematic investigation of the ion beam optics of this microbeam system is presented together with the associated aberrations. Comparison is made between the IMP microbeam system and the other existing systems to further discuss the performance of this microbeam. Then the optimized initial beam parameters are given for high resolution and high hitting efficiency. At last, the experiment platform is briefly introduced. (authors)

  12. Geologic influence on indoor radon concentrations and gamma radiation levels in Norwegian dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundal, Aud Venche

    2003-09-01

    dose rates are measured in the areas covered by nearly impermeable silt and clay deposits. Indoor gamma dose rates as high as 620 nGy/h are obtained in the areas of exposed carbonatites, primarily due to enhanced thorium concentrations in these rock types. The observed correlations between geological factors and indoor radon concentrations in Norway indicate that geological information is a useful tool in radon risk analysis. Resources can be concentrated to regions of high geologic radon potential when screening programs are planned, and efficient follow-up surveys can be established based on geological data in combination with radon measurements in a representative sample of the building stock. The observed contrasts in radon risk potential between different types of building grounds also enable the prediction of radon risk in areas which are not currently inhabited. (Author)

  13. The householders' guide to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This guide is a follow-up to the leaflet Radon in Houses which was issued previously by the Department of the Environment. It is intended for people who live in areas with high levels of radon. It is written particularly for householders whose homes have already been tested and found to have an appreciable level of radon. It explains what radon is, how it gets into houses and what the effects on health may be. It also outlines some of the ways of reducing the level of radon and gives guidance both on how to get the work done and likely costs. (author)

  14. Radon surveys and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Cliff, K.D.; Dixon, D.W.; Green, B.M.R.; Strong, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the UK, as in other countries, radon daughter inhalation is the most significant cause of human exposure to ionising radiation either at home or at work whether one considers the mean or the maximum dose. Substantial studies of radon are under way in the UK, and the importance of radon is recognised in several spheres. NRPB investigations of the radon levels in buildings and mines are reported, the distributions of doses presented and risk factors calculated. The bases of radon limitation for workers and members of the public are given and the means of compliance discussed. (author)

  15. Ground-truthing predicted indoor radon concentrations by using soil-gas radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimer, G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Predicting indoor radon potential has gained in importance even as the national radon programs began to wane. A cooperative study to produce radon potential maps was conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Department of Energy (DOE), and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) with the latter taking the lead role. A county-wide predictive model based dominantly on the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) aerorad data and secondly on geology, both small-scale data bases was developed. However, that model breaks down in counties of complex geology and does not provide a means to evaluate the potential of an individual home or building site. Soil-gas radon measurements on a large scale are currently shown to provide information for estimating radon potential at individual sites sort out the complex geology so that the small-scale prediction index can be validated. An example from Frederick County, Maryland indicates a positive correlation between indoor measurements and soil-gas data. The method does not rely on a single measurement, but a series that incorporate seasonal and meteorological considerations. (author)

  16. 7th International Workshop on Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, David J.

    2009-07-21

    The extended abstracts that follow present a summary of the Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held at Columbia University’s Kellogg Center in New York City on March 15–17, 2006. These International Workshops on Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response have been held regularly since 1993 (1–5). Since the first workshop, there has been a rapid growth (see Fig. 1) in the number of centers developing microbeams for radiobiological research, and worldwide there are currently about 30 microbeams in operation or under development. Single-cell/single-particle microbeam systems can deliver beams of different ionizing radiations with a spatial resolution of a few micrometers down to a few tenths of a micrometer. Microbeams can be used to addressquestions relating to the effects of low doses of radiation (a single radiation track traversing a cell or group of cells), to probe subcellular targets (e.g. nucleus or cytoplasm), and to address questions regarding the propagation of information about DNA damage (for example, the radiation-induced bystander effect). Much of the recent research using microbeams has been to study low-dose effects and ‘‘non-targeted’’ responses such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. This Workshop provided a forum to assess the current state of microbeam technology and current biological applications and to discuss future directions for development, both technological and biological. Over 100 participants reviewed the current state of microbeam research worldwide and reported on new technological developments in the fields of both physics and biology.

  17. Parameter identification of an electrically actuated imperfect microbeam

    KAUST Repository

    Ruzziconi, Laura

    2013-12-01

    In this study we consider a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) and focus on extracting analytically the model parameters that describe its non-linear dynamic features accurately. The device consists of a clamped-clamped polysilicon microbeam electrostatically and electrodynamically actuated. The microbeam has imperfections in the geometry, which are related to the microfabrication process, resulting in many unknown and uncertain parameters of the device. The objective of the present paper is to introduce a simple but appropriate model which, despite the inevitable approximations, is able to describe and predict the most relevant aspects of the experimental response in a neighborhood of the first symmetric resonance. The modeling includes the main imperfections in the microstructure. The unknown parameters are settled via parametric identification. The approach is developed in the frequency domain and is based on matching both the frequency values and, remarkably, the frequency response curves, which are considered as the most salient features of the device response. Non-linearities and imperfections considerably complicate the identification process. Via the combined use of linear analysis and non-linear dynamic simulations, a single first symmetric mode reduced-order model is derived. Extensive numerical simulations are performed at increasing values of electrodynamic excitation. Comparison with experimental data shows a satisfactory concurrence of results not only at low electrodynamic voltage, but also at higher ones. This validates the proposed theoretical approach. We highlight its applicability, both in similar case-studies and, more in general, in systems. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Nitric oxide mediated bystander responses induced by microbeam targeted cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, C.; Prise, K.M.; Folkard, M.; Michael, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    Considerable evidence has recently been accumulated in support of the existence of a 'bystander effect', which cells having received no irradiation show biological consequences from their vicinal irradiated cells. The application of microbeams is providing new insights into the radiation-induced bystander effect. The present study found that when a fraction of radioresistant human glioblastoma cells were individually targeted with a precise number of helium ions generated from the Gray Cancer Institute Charged Particle Microbeam, micronucleus (MN) induction significantly exceeded the expected value that was calculated from the number of MN observed when all of the cells were targeted assuming no bystander effect occurring. Even when only a single cell within a population was hit by one helium ion, the MN induction in the population could be increased by 16%. These results provide direct evidence of radiation-induced bystander effect. Moreover, MN was effectively induced in the unirradiated primary human fibroblasts and glioblastoma cells either co-cultured with irradiated cells or treated with the medium harvested from irradiated cells, indicating a signal molecule was produced from the irradiated cells. However, when c-PTIO, a nitric oxide (NO)-specific scavenger, was present in the medium during and after irradiation until MN analysis, the production of MN in all of the above cases was reduced to low levels. Consequently, NO plays an important role in the radiation-induced bystander effect

  19. An Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Electrostatically Coupled Cantilever Microbeams

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad

    2016-06-16

    We present an experimental and theoretical investigation of the static and dynamic behavior of electrostatically coupled laterally actuated silicon microbeams. The coupled beam resonators are composed of two almost identical flexible cantilever beams forming the two sides of a capacitor. The experimental and theoretical analysis of the coupled system is carried out and compared against the results of beams actuated with fixed electrodes individually. The pull-in characteristics of the electrostatically coupled beams are studied, including the pull-in time. The dynamics of the coupled dual beams are explored via frequency sweeps around the neighborhood of the natural frequencies of the system for different input voltages. Good agreement is reported among the simulation results and the experimental data. The results show considerable drop in the pull-in values as compared to single microbeam resonators. The dynamics of the coupled beam resonators are demonstrated as a way to increase the bandwidth of the resonator near primary resonance as well as a way to introduce increased frequency shift, which can be promising for resonant sensing applications. Moreover the dynamic pull-in characteristics are also studied and proposed as a way to sense the shift in resonance frequency.

  20. Radon in soil gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rector, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a technology review conducted to identify and organize the range of options for measuring radon in soil gas as a means to evaluate radon exposure potential in buildings. The main focus of the review includes identifying the following: Measurement of objectives - the specific parameter(s) that each technology is designed to measure( e.g., soil gas concentration, flux density, etc.); Equipment needs -commercial availability of systems and/or components, specifications for fabricated components; Procedural information - documented elements of field and laboratory methodology and quality assurance; Underlying assumptions - conceptual and mathematical models utilized to convert analytical outcomes to estimators of radon. Basic technologies and field data were examined from a generic perspective (e.g., the common denominators of passive detectors, hollow sampling probes, flux monitors)( as well as specific configurations developed by individual investigators (e.g., sample volume, depth) to develop the basis for separating analytical uncertainties form sampling uncertainties

  1. Alpha scintillation radon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222 Rn and 226 Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

  2. Radon depth migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, S.T.; Carroll, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A depth migration method is presented that used Radon-transformed common-source seismograms as input. It is shown that the Radon depth migration method can be extended to spatially varying velocity depth models by using asymptotic ray theory (ART) to construct wavefield continuation operators. These operators downward continue an incident receiver-array plane wave and an assumed point-source wavefield into the subsurface. The migration velocity model is constrain to have longer characteristic wavelengths than the dominant source wavelength such that the ART approximations for the continuation operators are valid. This method is used successfully to migrate two synthetic data examples: (1) a point diffractor, and (2) a dipping layer and syncline interface model. It is shown that the Radon migration method has a computational advantage over the standard Kirchhoff migration method in that fewer rays are computed in a main memory implementation

  3. Radon daughter dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, J.

    1977-01-01

    This patent describes a portable radon daughter dosimeter unit used to measure radon gas alpha daughters in ambient air. These measurements can then be related to preselected preestablished standards contained in a remote central readout unit. The dosimeter unit is adapted to be worn by an operator in areas having alpha particle radiation such as in uranium mines. Within the dosimeter is a detector head housing having a filter head and a solid state surface barrier radiation detector; an air pump to get air to the detector head; a self contained portable power supply for the unit; and electronic circuitry to process detected charged electrons from the detector head to convert and count their pulses representatives of two alpha radon emitter daughters. These counted pulses are in binary form and are sent to a readout unit where a numerical readout displays the result in terms of working level-hours

  4. Radon daughter dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, J.

    1977-01-01

    A portable radon daughter dosimeter unit used to measure Radon gas alpha daughters in ambient air is described. These measurements can then be related to preselected preestablished standards contained in a remote central readout unit. The dosimeter unit is adapted to be worn by an operator in areas having alpha particle radiation such as uranium mines. Within the dosimeter is a detector head housing having a filter head and a solid state surface barrier radiation detector; an air pump to get air to the detector head; a self contained portable power supply for the unit; and electronic circuitry to process detected charged electrons from the detector head to convert and count their pulses representatives of two alpha radon emitter daughters. These counted pulses are in binary form and are sent to a readout unit where a numerical readout diplays the result in terms of working level-hours

  5. Water radon anomaly fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, H.

    1980-01-01

    A striking aspect of water radon levels in relation to earthquakes is that before the Tangshan quake there was a remarkable synchronicity of behavior of many wells within 200 km of Tangshan. However, for many wells anomalous values persisted after the earthquake, particularly outside the immediate region of the quake. It is clear that radon may be produced by various processes; some candidates are pressure, shear, vibration, temperature and pressure, mixing of water-bearing strata, breakdown of mineral crystal structure, and the like, although it is not clear which of these are primary. It seems that a possible explanation of the persistence of the anomaly in the case of Tangshan may be that the earthquake released strain in the vicinity of Tangshan but increased it further along the geological structures involved, thus producing a continued radon buildup.

  6. Dry radon gas generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandrish, G.

    1979-10-01

    A radon gas standard with a source strength of 120037 pCi capable of delivering 121 pCi of radon gas successively to a large number of cells has been developed. The absolute source strength has been calibrated against two radium solution standards and is accurate to 4 percent. A large number of cells (approxiiately 50) may be calibrated conveniently on a daily basis with appropriate corrections for sequential changes in the amount of gas delivered, and a correction for the growth of radon in the standard on successive days. Daily calibration of ten cells or less does not require these corrections. The standard is suitable for field use and the source emanation rate is stable over extreme temperatue and pressure ranges and over six months

  7. Radon: an environmental pollutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    Radiological concerns with the disposal and use of mining and milling residues have heightened to the point that federal agencies are asking or being asked to formulate new regulactions for controlling radon daughters from a variety of sources - radioactivity previously considered to be part of our natural environment. Based on information derived from epidemiologic studies of underground miners, particularly uranium miners, the health impact on the general public is being projected. Depending on the assumptions made, these projections vary widely. Because of these variations in health risks, decisions on control measures have even wider implications on economic and social considerations. Thus the question: is radon an environmental pollutant. While not fully answering the question, recognizing the uncertainties in assessing and controlling radon daughters can put the question in better perspective

  8. Project radon final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, S.; Rossby, U.

    1990-01-01

    The main radiation problem in Sweden is due to radon in dwellings. At the Swedish State Power Board, R, D and D about radon has been going on since 1980. The work has concentrated on the important questions: How to find building with enhanced radon levels?; How to accurately decide on measures that will give adequate cleaning-up results, using appropriate measurement procedures; What cleaning-up effect is possible to achieve with an electro-filter?; and What cleaning-up effects are possible to achieve with different types of ventilation systems? The R, D and D-work, has been pursued in cooperation with universities of technology in Denmark and Finland, equipment manufacturers, consultants and authorities concerned. It was decided in December 1986 to give an offer to some SSPB-employees to investigate the radon situation of their dwellings, in order to test methods of measurement and cleaning-up under realistic conditions and to develop the methods to commercial maturity. The investigation was named 'Project Radon' and was carried out in three years with costs amounting to 1 M dollars. During the project less comprehensive radon measurements, named 'trace-measurements' were undertaken in about 1300 dwellings and more elaborate measurements, leading to suggestions of actions to be taken, in about 400 dwellings. Out of the suggestions, about 50 are carried out including control measurement after actions taken. The control measurement have shown that the ability to suggest appropriate actions is very successful - in just one case was a minor additional action necessary. The high reliability is achieved by always doing elaborate measurements before suggested mitigation method is decided on. (authors)

  9. Radon programmes and health marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fojtikova, I.; Rovenska, K.

    2011-01-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed. (authors)

  10. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed.

  11. Excess bottom radon 222 distribution in deep ocean passages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmiento, J.L.; Broecker, W.S.; Biscaye, P.E.

    1978-01-01

    Radon 222 and STD profiles were obtained as part of the Geosecs program in the Vema Channel in the southwest Atlantic Ocean and in the Samoan, Clarion, and Wake Island passages in the Pacific Ocean. The standing crop of excess radon 222 is higher in the passages than at other nearby locations. The most likely explanation for this is that there is a high flux of radon 222 from the floor of the passages. Since much of the floor is covered with manganese nodules and encrustations, the high flux of radon 222 may be attributable to the high concentrations of radium 226 in the outer few millimeters of such deposits. Laboratory measurements of radon 222 emissivity from maganese encrustations obtained in Vema Channel support this hypothesis. The excess radon 222 in the Vema Channel and Wake Island Passage is found in substantial quantities at heights above bottom greatly exceeding the heights at which excess radon 222 is found in nonpassage areas. The horizontal diffusion of radon emanating from the walls of the passages is unlikely to be the cause of the observed concentrations because the ratio of wall surface area to water volume is very low. The profiles must therefore be a result of exceptionally high apparent vertical mixing in the passages. Further work is needed to determine the nature of this apparent vertical mixing. The excess radon 222 and STD data in all four passages have been fit with an empirical model in which it is assumed that the bouyancy flux is constant with distance above bottom. The fits are very good and yield apparent buoyancy fluxes that are between 1 and 3 orders of magnitude greater than those obtained at nearby stations outside the passages for three of the four passages

  12. Radon diffusion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretzsch, G.; Boerner, E.; Lehmann, R.; Sarenio, O.

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to the detection of radioactive gases emitting alpha particles like radon, thoron and their alpha-decaying daughters by means of a diffusion chamber with a passive detector, preferably with a solid state track detector. In the chamber above and towards the detector there is a single metallized electret with negative polarity. The distance between electret and detector corresponds to the range of the alpha particles of radon daughters in air at the most. The electret collects the positively charged daughters and functions as surface source. The electret increases the sensitivity by the factor 4

  13. Radon mitigation in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saum, D.; Craig, A.B.; Leovic, K.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1987, more than 40 schools in Maryland, Virginia, Tennessee and North Carolina were visited by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). School characteristics that potentially influence radon entry and impact mitigation system design and performance were identified. Mitigation systems that had proven successful in house mitigation were then installed in several of these schools. Many of the systems were installed by school personnel with some assistance from EPA and an experienced radon diagnostician. This article presents the diagnostic measurements made in the schools and it discusses in detail the specific mitigation systems that were installed in four Maryland schools by the EPA

  14. Radon assay for SNO+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumleskie, Janet [Laurentian University, Greater Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  15. Radon measurements in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, E.; Ntalles, K.; Molfetas, M.; Athanassiadis, A.; Proukakis, C.

    1988-01-01

    Studies of radon concentration in greek spas, in a cave, in constituents of the greek cement, in building materials in Greece and in greek mines have been published. Some preliminary studies of radon concentration in greek dwellings have been published. In order to get an idea of the problem in Greece we decided to carry out a national survey. Two different sites were selected: Athens, where domicile about 40% of the greek population and Domatia, a small village in northern Greece 600Km from Athens, located in an area known to have soil with increased uranium concentrations

  16. Low-cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, William B. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Francisco, Paul W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Merrin, Zachary [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofits conducted a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation and living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois, area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements. Blower door and zone pressure diagnostics were conducted at each house. The treatments consisted of using air-sealing foams at the underside of the floor that separated the living space from the foundation and providing duct sealing on the ductwork that is situated in the foundation area. The hypothesis was that air sealing the floor system that separated the foundation from the living space should better isolate the living space from the foundation; this isolation should lead to less radon entering the living space from the foundation. If the hypothesis had been proven, retrofit energy-efficiency programs may have chosen to adopt these isolation methods for enhanced radon protection to the living space.

  17. Radon: Chemical and physical states of radon progeny. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The evolving chemical and physical form of radon progeny influence their transport to the bioreceptor and the extent to which that receptor can take up these species into various tissues. When first born following radioactive decay processes, the potentially deleterious radon progeny undergo various physical and chemical transformations as they transcend from a highly charged to a neutral state, and interact with various constituents of the environment. These transformations impact on the extent to which the radon progeny become associated with aerosol particles on the one hand, and their ultimate chemical form that is available for uptake in the biosystem, on the other. The program, which originally commenced in 1987, dealt with the basic chemistry and physics of radon progeny and hence impacted on several themes of importance to the DOE/OHER radon program. One of these is dose response, which is governed by the physical forms of the radon progeny, their transport to the bioreceptor and the chemical forms that govern their uptake. The second theme had to do with cellular responses, one of the major issues motivating the work. It is well known that various sizes of ions and molecules are selectively transported across cell membrane to differing degrees. This ultimately has to do with their chemical and physical forms, charge and size. The overall objective of the work was threefold: (1) quantifying the mechanisms and rates of the chemical and physical transformation; (2) ascertaining the ultimate chemical forms, and (3) determining the potential interactions of these chemical species with biological functional groups to ascertain their ultimate transport and incorporation within cells

  18. Radon thematic days - Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the Radon thematic days organized by the French society of radiation protection (SFRP). Twenty five presentations (slides) are compiled in the document and deal with: 1 - General introduction about radon (Sebastien Baechler, IRA); 2 - Survey of epidemiological studies (Dominique Laurier, IRSN); 3 - Dosimetric model (Eric Blanchardon, Estelle Davesne, IRSN); 4 - Radon issue in Franche-Comte: measurement of the domestic exposure and evaluation of the associated health impact (Francois Clinard, InVS); 5 - WHO's (World Health Organization) viewpoint in limiting radon exposure in homes (Ferid Shannoun, OMS); 6 - Radon measurement techniques (Roselyne Ameon, IRSN); 7 - Quality of radon measurements (Francois Bochud, IRA); 8 - International recommendations (Jean-Francois Lecomte, IRSN); 9 - Radon management strategy in Switzerland - 1994-2014 (Christophe Murith, OFSP); 10 - 2011-2015 action plan for radon risk management (Jean-Luc Godet, Eric Dechaux, ASN); 11 - Radon at work place in Switzerland (Lisa Pedrazzi, SUVA); 12 - Strategies of radiation protection optimization in radon exposure situations (Cynthia Reaud, CEPN); 13 - Mapping of the radon potential of geologic formations in France (Geraldine Ielsch, IRSN); 14 - Radon database in Switzerland (Martha Gruson, OFSP); 15 - Radon 222 in taps water (Jeanne Loyen, IRSN); 16 - Buildings protection methods (Bernard Collignan, CSTB, Roselyne Ameon, IRSN); 17 - Preventive and sanitation measures in Switzerland (Claudio Valsangiacomo, SUPSI); 18 - Training and support approach for building specialists (Joelle Goyette-Pernot, Fribourg engineers and architects' school); 19 - Status of radon bulk activity measurements performed between 2005-2010 in public areas (Cyril Pineau, ASN); 20 - Neuchatel Canton experiments (Didier Racine, SENE); 21 - Montbeliard region experience in the radon risk management (Isabelle Netillard, Pays de Montbeliard Agglomeration); 22

  19. Application of microbeam in bio-science and life science. Biological effects induced in bystander cells by particle microbeams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masao

    2006-01-01

    Biological events occurring in cells directly hit by radiation appear in bystander cells nearby not hit directly, which is called the bystander effect. This review describes the events and mechanisms of biological bystander effect yielded by the low-dose radiation including the microbeam. Bystander effects, particularly by charged particle beams, have been studied by two representative approaches by α-ray from plutonium (stochastic irradiation) and by particle microbeams (targeted irradiation), where a bystander effect like chromosome aberrations is shown to occur by communication between irradiated and non-irradiated cells through gap junction. Bystander effects that do not require the cell contact also occur in the irradiated cell-conditioned medium (ICCM), where, not only the short-life radicals like reactive oxygen species and NO, but also more long-life factors participate. Authors have shown the presence of such bystander-inducing factors in ICCM, producing the aberrations even 48 hr after irradiation of either low or high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. Bystander effects can be important from the aspect of risk assessments of radiation in the terrestrial/spatial environment involving aircraft as well as in cancer therapy by low-dose heavy particle beams. (T.I)

  20. Radon in houses due to radon in potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, C.T.; Korsah, J.K.; Einloth, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Radon concentration in the air of 10 houses has been measured as a function of water use and meterological parameters such as barometric pressure, wind velocity and direction, indoor and outdoor temperature, and rainfall. Results of calibrations and data collected in winter, spring, fall, and summer are given for selected houses. Average values of radon concentration in air are from 0.80 to 77 rhoCi/1. Water use average ranges from 70 to 240 gal/day. Average potential alpha energy concentrations in these houses range from 0.02 to 1.6 working levels. The radon level due to water use ranges from 0 to 36% of the house radon from soil and water combined. The radon level change due to use of a filter on the water supply shows a 60% reduction in radon in the house. Conclusions are that water radon can be a major fraction of the radon in houses. The ratio of airborne radon concentration due to water use to the radon concentration in water is 4.5 x 10/sup -5/ - 13 x 10/sup -5/

  1. Contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.; Samet, J.M.; Cross, F.T.; Hess, T.; Muller, J.; Thomas, D.

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews studies on the contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer and proposes recommendations for further research, particularly a national radon survey. The steady-state outdoor radon concentration averages 200 pCi/m3, and indoor levels are about 4 times higher. The primary source of radon in homes is the underlying soil; entry depends on multiple variables and reduced ventilation for energy conservation increases indoor radon levels. Occupational exposures are expressed in units of radon daughter potential energy concentration or working level (WL). Cumulative exposure is the product of the working level and the time exposed. The unit for cumulative exposure is the working level month (WLM). The occupational standard for radon exposure is 4 WLM/year, and 2 WLM/year has been suggested as a guideline for remedial action in homes. Epidemiologic studies show that miners with cumulative radon daughter exposures somewhat below 100 WLM have excess lung cancer mortality. Some 3% to 8% of miners studied have developed lung cancer attributable to radon daughters. All of the underground mining studies show an increased risk of lung cancer with radon daughter exposure. All cell types of lung cancer increased with radon exposure. If radon and smoking act in a multiplicative manner, then the risk for smokers could be 10 times that for nonsmokers. The potential risk of lung cancer appears to be between 1 and 2 per 10,000/WLM, which yields a significant number of lung cancers as some 220 million persons in the United States are exposed on average to 10 to 20 WLM/lifetime

  2. The April 1994 and October 1994 radon intercomparisons at EML

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisenne, I.M.; George, A.C.; Perry, P.M.; Keller, H.W.

    1995-10-01

    Quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) are the backbone of many commercial and research processes and programs. QA/QC research tests the state of a functioning system, be it the production of manufactured goods or the ability to make accurate and precise measurements. The quality of the radon measurements in the US have been tested under controlled conditions in semi-annual radon gas intercomparison exercises sponsored by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) since 1981. The two Calendar Year 1994 radon gas intercomparison exercises were conducted in the EML exposure chamber. Thirty-two groups including US Federal facilities, USDOE contractors, national and state laboratories, universities and foreign institutions participated in these exercises. The majority of the participant's results were within ±10% of the EML value at radon concentrations of 570 and 945 Bq m -3

  3. Radon at the Mauna Loa Observatory: transport from distant continents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittlestone, S.; Robinson, E.; Ryan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Continuous measurements of radon have been made at an altitude of 3400m at the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. Concentrations ranged from about 20 to more than 700mBq m -3 . These were similar to values at remote Macquarie I., some 2000 km south of Australia in the Southern Ocean. At Mauna Loa, the radon concentrations could usually be separated into free tropospheric and island influenced categories on the basis of local meteorological observations. On one occasion a long range transport event from Asia brought relatively high radon concentrations to Mauna Loa and persisted for several days. The Asian origin of this event was supported by wind trajectories. This measurement program demonstrates the value of radon data in evaluating air transport models and the influence of transport from distant continents on baseline atmospheric measurements. (author)

  4. Evaluation of strategies for promoting effective radon mitigation. Risk communication and economic research series. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, J.K.; McClelland, G.H.; Schulze, W.D.; Locke, P.A.; Elliott, S.R.

    1990-03-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has estimated that as many as 20,000 lung cancer deaths per year in the United States can be attributed to exposure to radon gas. The report evaluates alternative strategies for motivating people to test for radon gas in their homes and to mitigate if necessary. Specifically, two separate radon information and awareness programs were evaluated, one targeted to the general population in the Washington, D.C. area and the other to home buyers in the Boulder, Colorado area. The results suggest that a home buyer program is likely to be far more effective in terms of effective remediation to reduce home radon levels than a program aimed at the general population. The report discusses the empirical findings and develops a recommendation for increasing the effectiveness of radon awareness and mitigation programs

  5. Modeling the potential impacts of different radon policies for the U.S. housing stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.D.; Ritchie, I.M.

    1995-01-01

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other public health agencies in the United States, radon may be the leading cause (along with passive smoking) of lung cancer deaths among nonsmokers. Radon is estimated to be the second leading cause of lung cancer death in smokers behind smoking-related lung cancer. EPA estimates that 7,000 to 30,000 lung cancer deaths each year are due to radon exposure. (It is implied that radon-related lung cancer deaths can be prevented by reducing radon levels below EPA's guideline levels). Current EPA radon policy is based on a strategy of education, the transfer of testing and remediation technologies to the public and private sectors, and recently proposed radon-resistant construction standards for new homes. This paper models the effectiveness of current proposed, and alternative policies for reducing radon risks in U.S. residential construction. The results of our analysis suggest that EPS's projections of 2,200 'lives saved annually' as a result of its current action level of 4 pCi/l will not be achieved with its current policy in the near future. Overall, the response of radon-related mortality to most policy options is delayed and flat due in part to the large number of houses with low radon levels and the long latency period between radon exposure and the development of cancer. The modeling results suggest that more aggressive smoking reduction programs may yield greater benefits in overall lung cancer mortality (but not reduced radon exposure) than most radon-related policies. (au)

  6. The HAZWRAP/Navy Radon Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otten, J.A.; Wilson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFACENGCOM) was assigned the responsibility of identifying potential hazards from exposure to naturally occurring indoor radon to personnel in Naval facilities and prioritizing corrective actions. In response to this request, NAVFACENGCOM established the Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program (NAVRAMP), which evaluates problems associated with radon levels above current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-guidelines (EPA-520/1-86-04) of 4pCi/L. NAVRAMP consists of four phases: screening, assessment, mitigation, and postmitigation. Approximately 300,000 alpha track detectors (ATDs) will be used during the screening and assessment phases. Several unique approaches were developed to verify the quality of the information collected during this large program. To guarantee chain-of-custody, a computerized data management system was developed to track each ATD from initial purchase through field implementation to final analysis and was also used to track and identify quality control (QC) problems related to the manufacture and analysis of ATDs. The QC program addressed potential problems that could occur using ATDs. The potential errors associated with the use of ATDs included (1) lot-to-lot variation, (2) chemical process variation, (3) pouch leakage, and (4) background. The data management and QC programs ensured the quality and integrity of the samples, the accuracy and precision of the analyses, the representatives of the results, and the completeness of the information

  7. Radon campaigns. Status report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Valmari, T.; Reisbacka, H.; Niemelae, H.; Oinas, T.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Laitinen-Sorvari, R.

    2008-12-01

    Radon campaigns aim at activating citizens to make indoor radon measurements and remediation as well as increasing the common awareness of indoor radon questions. Indoor radon increases the risk of lung cancer. Through radon campaigns Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) also promotes the attainment of those goals that the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health has set for municipal authorities in Finland for prevention of the harmful effects of radon. The Ministry of Social Affairs and Health supports this campaign. Radon campaigns were started in autumn 2003. By autumn 2008 the campaigns have been organised already in 64 regions altogether in 160 municipalities. In some municipalities they have already arranged two campaigns. Altogether 14 100 houses have been measured and in 2 100 of these the action limit of radon remediation 400 Bq / m 3 has been exceeded. When participating in radon campaigns the house owners receive a special offer on radon detectors with a reduced price. In 2008 a new practice was introduced where the campaign advertisements were distributed by mail to low-rise residential houses in a certain region. The advertisement includes an order / deposit slip with postage paid that the house owner can send directly to STUK to easily make an order for radon measurement. In the previous radon campaigns in 2003 - 2007 the municipal authorities collected the orders from house owners and distributed later the radon detectors. The radon concentrations measured in the campaign regions have exceeded the action limit of 400 Bq / m 3 in 0 - 39% of houses, depending on the region. The total of 15% of all measurements made exceeded this limit. The remediation activities have been followed by sending a special questionnaire on remedies performed to the house owners. In 2006 - 2007 a questionnaire was sent to those households where the radon concentration of 400 Bq / m 3 was exceeded during the two first campaign seasons. Among the households that replied

  8. Improved radon-flux-measurement system for uranium-tailings pile measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.

    1981-10-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing cover technology for uranium mill tailings that will inhibit the diffusion of radon to the atmosphere. As part of this cover program, an improved radon flux measurement system has been developed. The radon measurement system is a recirculating, pressure-balanced, flow-through system that uses activated carbon at ambient temperatures to collect the radon. With the system, an area of 0.93 m 2 is sampled for periods ranging from 1 to 12 h. The activated carbon is removed from the radon trap and the collected radon is determined by counting the 214 Bi daughter product. Development of the system included studies to determine the efficiency of activated carbon, relative calibration measurements and field measurements made during 1980 at the inactive tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado. Results of these studies are presented

  9. Publications about Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no known safe level of exposure to radon. EPA strongly recommends that you fix your home if your test shows 4 picocuries (pCi/L) or more. These publications and resources will provide you with the information you need to fix your home.

  10. Radon investigation in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burian, I.

    1992-01-01

    After a short description of the history of radon measurements in mines, the results of bare track detector application in dwellings are commented on. Many related methods and problems are discussed. Most experiences are similar to the published ones, but details are specific for Central Europe (absence of air-conditioning, etc.). (author)

  11. Radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report gives a review of the present situation in Sweden concerning the knowledge and research on radon in dwellings.The responsibilities and need for actions in this field are examined. Costs and possibilities for financial help to install radonreducing equipment are also treated. (L.E.)

  12. Concentration variation of radon in the room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaruzaman Mohd Noor; Haziman Hassan; Rosli Mahat; Yusof Md Amin

    1995-01-01

    The study was carried out to determine the variation of radon concentration in the room. Radon detector used was solid nuclear tracks detector (SSNTD) LR-115. From this result, suitable points to make radon measurement was determined

  13. Radon and its daughters in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundo, J

    1984-05-01

    Prolonged exposure to radon should build up a reservoir of radon in body fat and fluids. If the subject moved to an environment with a lower radon concentration from an environment with a higher level of radon, the result would be an exhalation of radon, and the initial exhalation rate of radon should depend of the radon concentration inhaled. This paper describes the behavior of radon and its daughters in vivo and a relationship between the radon exhalation rate and the time after a meal. A major but short-lived postprandial increase in the exhalation rate of radon was observed. The author reports a similar effect in the exhalation rate of radon by persons containing no radium. It should be noted that the possibility exists that a large amount of radon daughters in the chest may interfere in the investigation of possible internal contamination with plutonium or other actinides by external counting. 8 figures.

  14. Radon and its daughters in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundo, J

    1984-05-01

    Prolonged exposure to radon should build up a reservoir of radon in body fat and fluids. Movement of the subject to an environment with a lower radon concentration from an environment with a higher level of radon would result in an exhalation of radon, and the initial exhalation rate of radon should depend on the radon concentration inhaled. This paper describes the behavior of radon and its daughters in vivo and a relationship between the radon exhalation rate and the time after a meal. A major but short-lived postprandial increase in the exhalation rate of radon was observed. We report a similar effect in the exhalation rate of radon by persons containing no radium. It should be noted that the possibility exists that a large amount of radon daughters in the chest may interfere in the investigation of possible internal contamination with plutonium or other actinides by external counting. (author).

  15. Construction materials and Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Loriane, Fior; Schelin, Hugo R.; Pottker, Fabiana; Paula Melo, Vicente de

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Current studies have been performed with the aim to find the correlation of radon concentration in the air and used construction materials. At the first stage of the measurements different samples of materials used in civil construction were studied as a source of radon in the air and at the second step it was studied the radon infiltration insulation using different samples of finishing materials. For 222 Rn concentration measurements related to different construction materials as well as for the studies of radon emanation and its reduction, the sealed cell chambers, of approximately 60 x 60cm 2 , have been built using the ceramic and concrete blocks. This construction has been performed within protected and isolated laboratory environment to maintain the air humidity and temperature stable. These long term measurements have been performed using polycarbonate alpha track passive detectors. The exposure time was set about 15 days considering previous calibration performed at the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), where the efficiency of 70% was obtained for the density of alpha particle tracks about 13.8 cm -2 per exposure day and per kBq/m 3 of radon activity concentration. The chemical development of alpha tracks has been achieved by electrochemical etching. The track identification and counting have been done using a code based on the MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox. The cell chambers have been built following four principle steps: 1) Assembling the walls using the blocks and mortar; 2) Plaster installation; 3) Wall surface finishing using the lime; 4) Wall surface insulation by paint. Making the comparison between three layers installed at the masonry walls from concrete and ceramic blocks, it could be concluded that only wall painting with acrylic varnish attended the expectation and reduced the radon emanation flow by the factor of 2.5 approximately. Studied construction materials have been submitted the instant

  16. Vibration Characteristics of Piezoelectric Microbeams Based on the Modified Couple Stress Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ansari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibration behavior of piezoelectric microbeams is studied on the basis of the modified couple stress theory. The governing equations of motion and boundary conditions for the Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam models are derived using Hamilton’s principle. By the exact solution of the governing equations, an expression for natural frequencies of microbeams with simply supported boundary conditions is obtained. Numerical results for both beam models are presented and the effects of piezoelectricity and length scale parameter are illustrated. It is found that the influences of piezoelectricity and size effects are more prominent when the length of microbeams decreases. A comparison between two beam models also reveals that the Euler-Bernoulli beam model tends to overestimate the natural frequencies of microbeams as compared to its Timoshenko counterpart.

  17. Nonlinear dynamics of an electrically actuated imperfect microbeam resonator: Experimental investigation and reduced-order modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Ruzziconi, Laura; Bataineh, Ahmad M.; Younis, Mohammad I.; Cui, Weili; Lenci, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of the dynamic behavior of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device consisting of an imperfect clamped-clamped microbeam subjected to electrostatic and electrodynamic actuation. Our objective is to develop a theoretical

  18. Development of a TOF SIMS setup at the Zagreb heavy ion microbeam facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Tonči; Bogdanović Radović, Iva; Siketić, Zdravko; Cosic, Donny Domagoj; Skukan, Natko; Jakšić, Milko; Matsuo, Jiro

    2014-08-01

    We describe a new Time-of-flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF SIMS) setup for MeV SIMS application, which is constructed and installed at the heavy ion microbeam facility at the Ruđer Bošković Institute in Zagreb. The TOF-SIMS setup is developed for high sensitivity molecular imaging using a heavy ion microbeam that focuses ion beams (from C to I) with sub-micron resolution. Dedicated pulse processing electronics for MeV SIMS application have been developed, enabling microbeam-scanning control, incoming ion microbeam pulsing and molecular mapping. The first results showing measured MeV SIMS spectra as well as molecular maps for samples of interest are presented and discussed.

  19. Development of a TOF SIMS setup at the Zagreb heavy ion microbeam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadić, Tonči; Bogdanović Radović, Iva; Siketić, Zdravko; Cosic, Donny Domagoj; Skukan, Natko; Jakšić, Milko; Matsuo, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new Time-of-flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF SIMS) setup for MeV SIMS application, which is constructed and installed at the heavy ion microbeam facility at the Ruđer Bošković Institute in Zagreb. The TOF-SIMS setup is developed for high sensitivity molecular imaging using a heavy ion microbeam that focuses ion beams (from C to I) with sub-micron resolution. Dedicated pulse processing electronics for MeV SIMS application have been developed, enabling microbeam-scanning control, incoming ion microbeam pulsing and molecular mapping. The first results showing measured MeV SIMS spectra as well as molecular maps for samples of interest are presented and discussed

  20. Higher order modes excitation of electrostatically actuated clamped–clamped microbeams: experimental and analytical investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar; Ramini, Abdallah; Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd. In this study, we demonstrate analytically and experimentally the excitations of the higher order modes of vibrations in electrostatically actuated clamped-clamped microbeam resonators. The concept is based on using

  1. Heavy Ion Microbeam and Broadbeam Transients in SiGe HBTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Reed, Robert A.; McMorrow, Dale; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Dodd, Paul E.; Ferlet-Cavrois, Veronique; Baggio, Jacques; Paillet, Philippe; Duhamel, Olivier; Phillips, Stanley D.; hide

    2009-01-01

    SiGe HBT heavy ion current transients are measured using microbeam and both high- and low-energy broadbeam sources. These new data provide detailed insight into the effects of ion range, LET, and strike location.

  2. Environmental radon and radon daughter dosimetry in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, R.B.

    1979-04-01

    This report describes work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's program to determine safety and costs related to decommissioning nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Individual dose factors for the inhalation of radon and its daughter products are calculated for use in environmental dose assessments. The calculated committed dose equivalent factors for 222 Rn and its daughters are tabulated for lungs, bronchi tract and other organs. An activity median aerodynamic diameter of 0.1 μm was used. The dose to an individual is calculated by multiplying the estimated intake from inhalation for a particular radionuclide by the corresponding dose factor. A working level month-to-dose conversion factor is calculated to be 1 rad/WLM to the epithelial tissue of the T-B region, assuming 100% daughter equilibrium and 10% free 218 Po ions. This value is in reasonable agreement with recently reported values

  3. Quality assurance for radon exposure chambers at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, Montgomery, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semler, M.O.; Sensintaffar, E.L. [National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory, Montgomery, AL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), operates six radon exposure chambers in its two laboratories, the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, and the Las Vegas Facility, Las Vegas, Nevada. These radon exposure chambers are used to calibrate and test portable radon measuring instruments, test commercial suppliers of radon measurement services through the Radon Measurement Proficiency Program, and expose passive measurement devices to known radon concentrations as part of a quality assurance plan for federal and state studies measuring indoor radon concentrations. Both laboratories participate in national and international intercomparisons for the measurement of radon and are presently working with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to receive a certificate of traceability for radon measurements. NAREL has developed an estimate of the total error in its calibration of each chamber`s continuous monitors as part of an internal quality assurance program. This paper discusses the continuous monitors and their calibration for the three chambers located in Montgomery, Alabama, as well as the results of the authors intercomparisons and total error analysis.

  4. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Green, B.M.R; Lomas, P.R.; Mangnus, K.; Stranden, E.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of radon in indoor air have been made in a total of about 7500 randomly selected dwellings in Norway from all parts of the country. The number of selected dwellings in each municipality is about proportional to its population, except for the two largest municipalities, Oslo and Bergen, where somewhat smaller samples were taken due to the higher population density. The measurements were performed by nuclear track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Boards in United Kingdom, and the integration time for the measurements was 6 months. The detectors were spread evenly over all seasons of the year to eliminate influence from seasonal variation in the radon level. One single measurement was performed in each dwelling: in the main bedroom. The results shows that the distribution of radon concentrations in Norwegian bedrooms is log-normal. The aritmetic mean of the measurements, including all categories of dwellings, is calculated to be 51 Bq/m 3 and the corresponding geometric mean to be 26 Bq/m 3 . In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor while the bedrooms are located one floor higher. The results of the study shows that the radon level is somewhat higher at the ground floor than on the first floor, and higher in the basement than on the first floor. Taking this into account, and assuming that measurements in bedrooms on the first floor is a representative average for living room and kitchen, the average radon concentration for Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55-65 Bq/m 3 . In this estimate, possible influences of the fact that the winters 87/88 and 88/89 were much warmer than normal and may therefor have lowered the results, has been taken into account. 15 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs

  5. Indoor radon and earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghatelyan, E.; Petrosyan, L.; Aghbalyan, Yu.; Baburyan, M.; Araratyan, L.

    2004-01-01

    For the first time on the basis of the Spitak earthquake of December 1988 (Armenia, December 1988) experience it is found out that the earthquake causes intensive and prolonged radon splashes which, rapidly dispersing in the open space of close-to-earth atmosphere, are contrastingly displayed in covered premises (dwellings, schools, kindergartens) even if they are at considerable distance from the earthquake epicenter, and this multiplies the radiation influence on the population. The interval of splashes includes the period from the first fore-shock to the last after-shock, i.e. several months. The area affected by radiation is larger vs. Armenia's territory. The scale of this impact on population is 12 times higher than the number of people injured in Spitak, Leninakan and other settlements (toll of injured - 25 000 people, radiation-induced diseases in people - over 300 000). The influence of radiation directly correlates with the earthquake force. Such a conclusion is underpinned by indoor radon monitoring data for Yerevan since 1987 (120 km from epicenter) 5450 measurements and multivariate analysis with identification of cause-and-effect linkages between geo dynamics of indoor radon under stable and conditions of Earth crust, behavior of radon in different geological mediums during earthquakes, levels of room radon concentrations and effective equivalent dose of radiation impact of radiation dose on health and statistical data on public health provided by the Ministry of Health. The following hitherto unexplained facts can be considered as consequences of prolonged radiation influence on human organism: long-lasting state of apathy and indifference typical of the population of Armenia during the period of more than a year after the earthquake, prevalence of malignant cancer forms in disaster zones, dominating lung cancer and so on. All urban territories of seismically active regions are exposed to the threat of natural earthquake-provoked radiation influence

  6. RADON reconstruction in longitudinal phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, V.; Peggs, S.; Wei, J.

    1997-01-01

    Longitudinal particle motion in circular accelerators is typically monitoring by one dimensional (1-D) profiles. Adiabatic particle motion in two dimensional (2-D) phase space can be reconstructed with tomographic techniques, using 1-D profiles. A computer program RADON has been developed in C++ to process digitized mountain range data and perform the phase space reconstruction for the AGS, and later for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

  7. Synchrotron microbeam irradiation induces neutrophil infiltration, thrombocyte attachment and selective vascular damage in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Br?nnimann, Daniel; Bouchet, Audrey; Schneider, Christoph; Potez, Marine; Serduc, Rapha?l; Br?uer-Krisch, Elke; Graber, Werner; von Gunten, Stephan; Laissue, Jean Albert; Djonov, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Our goal was the visualizing the vascular damage and acute inflammatory response to micro-and minibeam irradiation in vivo. Microbeam (MRT) and minibeam radiation therapies (MBRT) are tumor treatment approaches of potential clinical relevance, both consisting of parallel X-ray beams and allowing the delivery of thousands of Grays within tumors. We compared the effects of microbeams (25– 100 μm wide) and minibeams (200–800 μm wide) on vasculature, inflammation and surro...

  8. Nonlinear analysis of thermally and electrically actuated functionally graded material microbeam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingli; Meguid, S A; Fu, Yiming; Xu, Daolin

    2014-02-08

    In this paper, we provide a unified and self-consistent treatment of a functionally graded material (FGM) microbeam with varying thermal conductivity subjected to non-uniform or uniform temperature field. Specifically, it is our objective to determine the effect of the microscopic size of the beam, the electrostatic gap, the temperature field and material property on the pull-in voltage of the microbeam under different boundary conditions. The non-uniform temperature field is obtained by integrating the steady-state heat conduction equation. The governing equations account for the microbeam size by introducing an internal material length-scale parameter that is based on the modified couple stress theory. Furthermore, it takes into account Casimir and van der Waals forces, and the associated electrostatic force with the first-order fringing field effects. The resulting nonlinear differential equations were converted to a coupled system of algebraic equations using the differential quadrature method. The outcome of our work shows the dramatic effect and dependence of the pull-in voltage of the FGM microbeam upon the temperature field, its gradient for a given boundary condition. Specifically, both uniform and non-uniform thermal loading can actuate the FGM microbeam even without an applied voltage. Our work also reveals that the non-uniform temperature field is more effective than the uniform temperature field in actuating a FGM cantilever-type microbeam. For the clamped-clamped case, care must be taken to account for the effective use of thermal loading in the design of microbeams. It is also observed that uniform thermal loading will lead to a reduction in the pull-in voltage of a FGM microbeam for all the three boundary conditions considered.

  9. Performances of synchrotron radiation microbeam focused by monolithic half focusing polycapillary X-ray lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Tianxi; Liu Zhiguo; He Bo; Wei Shiqiang; Xie Yaning; Liu Tao; Hu Tiandou; Ding Xunliang

    2007-01-01

    A monolithic half focusing polycapillary X-ray lens (MHFPXRL) composed of 289,000 capillaries is used to produce a synchrotron radiation microbeam. The energy dependence of the output focal distance, focal spot size, transmission efficiency, vertical beam position, and gain in flux density of this microbeam is studied in detail. There is a slight change in the output focal distance of the MHFPXRL when the X-ray energies change

  10. First trial of spatial and temporal fractionations of the delivered dose using synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serduc, Raphael; Braeuer-Krisch, Elke; Bouchet, Audrey; Brochard, Thierry; Bravin, Alberto; Le Duc, Geraldine; Renaud, Luc; Laissue, Jean Albert

    2009-01-01

    The technical feasibility of temporal and spatial fractionations of the radiation dose has been evaluated using synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy for brain tumors in rats. A significant increase in lifespan (216%, p<0.0001) resulted when three fractions of microbeam irradiation were applied to the tumor through three different ports, orthogonal to each other, at 24 h intervals. However, there were no long-term survivors, and immunohistological studies revealed that 9 L tumors were not entirely ablated. (orig.)

  11. First trial of spatial and temporal fractionations of the delivered dose using synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serduc, Raphael [Toulouse Univ. (France). UPS Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition; CNRS, CerCo, Toulouse (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Braeuer-Krisch, Elke; Bouchet, Audrey; Brochard, Thierry; Bravin, Alberto; Le Duc, Geraldine [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Renaud, Luc [Toulouse Univ. (France). UPS Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition; CNRS, CerCo, Toulouse (France); Laissue, Jean Albert [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Pathology

    2009-07-15

    The technical feasibility of temporal and spatial fractionations of the radiation dose has been evaluated using synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy for brain tumors in rats. A significant increase in lifespan (216%, p<0.0001) resulted when three fractions of microbeam irradiation were applied to the tumor through three different ports, orthogonal to each other, at 24 h intervals. However, there were no long-term survivors, and immunohistological studies revealed that 9 L tumors were not entirely ablated. (orig.)

  12. Construction of radon/radon daughter calibraton chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, J.; Gan, T.H.; Leach, V.A.; Saddlier, J.; Solomon, S.B.; Tam, K.K.; Travis, E.; Wykes, P.

    1983-01-01

    The radon/radon daughter test chamber is a copper lined room 1.65x1.75x2.75m with an effective volume of 8000 litres. The air residence time is controlled by circulating the air in the chamber through absolute filters which remove 99.9% of particulates. Radon is drawn into the chamber from a 17 μCi 226 RaCl source using the pressure differential across the blowers (<3 psi)

  13. Branch formation induced by microbeam irradiation of Adiantum protonemata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.

    1998-01-01

    Branches were induced in centrifuged Adiantum protonemal cells by partial irradiation with polarized red light. Nuclear behavior and microtubule pattern change during branch formation were investigated. A branch formed at any part where a red microbeam was focused along a long apical cell. The nucleus moved towards the irradiated area and remained there until a branch developed. The pattern of microtubules changed from parallel to oblique at the irradiated area and then a transverse arrangement of microtubules appeared on both sides of the area. It appeared as if the nucleus was suspended between two microtubule rings. This nuclear behavior and the changes in microtubule pattern were different from those observed during branch formation under whole cell irradiation. From the results of this work we suggest that there is an importance for precise control of experimental conditions

  14. Nuclear microbeam study of advanced materials for fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, L.C.; Alves, E.; Grime, G.W.; Silva, M.F. da; Soares, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The Oxford scanning proton microprobe was used to study SiC fibres, SiC/SiC ceramic composites and Be pebbles, which are some of the most important materials for fusion technology. For the SiC materials, although the results reveal a high degree of homogeneity and purity in the composition of the fibres, some grains containing heavy metals were detected in the composites. Rutherford backscattering analysis further allowed establishing that at least some of these grains are not on the surface of the material but rather distributed throughout the bulk of the SiC composites. The two different types of Be pebbles analysed also showed very different levels of contaminants. The information obtained with the microbeam analysis is confronted with the one resulting from the broad beam PIXE and RBS analysis

  15. Fabrication of fine imaging devices using an external proton microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, T., E-mail: sakai.takuro@jaea.go.jp [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yasuda, R.; Iikura, H.; Nojima, T. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Koka, M.; Satoh, T.; Ishii, Y. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Oshima, A. [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We have successfully fabricated novel microscopic imaging devices made from UV/EB curable resin using an external scanning proton microbeam. The devices are micro-structured fluorescent plates that consist of an array of micro-pillars that align periodically. The base material used in the pillars is UV/EB curable resin and each pillar contains phosphor grains. The pattern exposures were performed using a proton beam writing technique. The height of the pillars depends on the range of the proton beam. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterize the samples. The results show that the fabricated fluorescent plates are expected to be compatible with both spatial resolution and detection efficiency.

  16. Electrothermally actuated tunable clamped-guided resonant microbeams

    KAUST Repository

    Alcheikh, Nouha

    2017-06-11

    We present simulation and experimental investigation demonstrating active alteration of the resonant and frequency response behavior of resonators by controlling the electrothermal actuation method on their anchors. In-plane clamped-guided arch and straight microbeams resonators are designed and fabricated with V-shaped electrothermal actuators on their anchors. These anchors not only offer various electrothermal actuation options, but also serve as various mechanical stiffness elements that affect the operating resonance frequency of the structures. We have shown that for an arch, the first mode resonance frequency can be increased up to 50% of its initial value. For a straight beam, we have shown that before buckling, the resonance frequency decreases to very low values and after buckling, it increases up to twice of its initial value. These results can be promising for the realization of different wide–range tunable microresonator. The experimental results have been compared to multi-physics finite-element simulations showing good agreement among them.

  17. Making microbeams and nanobeams by channeling in microstructures and nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bellucci

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A particle beam of very small cross section is useful in many accelerator applications including biological and medical ones. We show the capability of the channeling technique using a micron-sized structure on a surface of a single crystal, or using a nanotube, to produce a beam of a cross section down to one square micrometer (or nanometer. The channeled beam can be deflected and thus well separated in angle and space from the primary and scattered particles. Monte Carlo simulation is done to evaluate the characteristics of a channeled microbeam. Emittances down to 0.001 nm rad, and flux up to 10^{6}   μm^{2} per second, can be achieved for protons and ions.

  18. Electrothermally actuated tunable clamped-guided resonant microbeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcheikh, N.; Hajjaj, A. Z.; Jaber, N.; Younis, M. I.

    2018-01-01

    We present simulation and experimental investigation demonstrating active alteration of the resonant and frequency response behavior of resonators by controlling the electrothermal actuation method on their anchors. In-plane clamped-guided arch and straight microbeams resonators are designed and fabricated with V-shaped electrothermal actuators on their anchors. These anchors not only offer various electrothermal actuation options, but also serve as various mechanical stiffness elements that affect the operating resonance frequency of the structures. We have shown that for an arch, the first mode resonance frequency can be increased up to 50% of its initial value. For a straight beam, we have shown that before buckling, the resonance frequency decreases to very low values and after buckling, it increases up to twice of its initial value. These results can be promising for the realization of different wide-range tunable microresonator. The experimental results have been compared to multi-physics finite-element simulations showing good agreement among them.

  19. Compact detector for radon and radon daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, H.W.; Oswald, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention provides an improved compact track registration detector for radon gas. The detector comprises a housing having an open mouth, a bottom, and side walls; track registration means, supported inside the housing, which forms damage tracks along paths traversed by alpha particles; a microporous filter positioned across the mouth of the housing to prevent entry of radon daughters and particulate matter; and a cap that may be placed on the mouth of the housing to retain the filter. The housing has internal wall surfaces dimensioned to optimize the registration of alpha particles from radon and radon daughters present in the housing

  20. Radon and radiation biology of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crameri, R.; Burkart, W.

    1989-01-01

    The main papers presented at the meeting dealt with the behaviour of radon and the indoor environment, radiation biology of the lung, lung dosis and the possible cancer risk caused by radon in homes, contamination of the room air. A series of special papers treated the radon problem in detail: sources and transport mechanisms of radon, geological aspects of the radon radiation burden in Switzerland, radon in homes, search for radon sources, and the Swiss radon-programme RAPROS. 67 figs., 13 tabs., 75 refs

  1. Legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise

  2. Radon exposure and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Vukovic, B.; Faj, Z.; Radolic, V.; Suveljak, B.

    2003-01-01

    Although studies of radon exposure have established that Rn decay products are a cause of lung cancer among miners, the lung cancer risk to the general population from indoor radon remains unclear and controversial. Our epidemiological investigation of indoor radon influence on lung cancer incidence was carried out for 201 patients from the Osijek town. Ecological method was applied by using the town map with square fields of 1 km 2 and the town was divided into 24 fields. Multiple regression study for the lung cancer rate on field, average indoor radon exposure and smoking showed a positive linear double regression for the mentioned variables. Case-control study showed that patients, diseased of lung cancer, dwelt in homes with significantly higher radon concentrations, by comparison to the average indoor radon level of control sample. (author)

  3. Legal issues in radon affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuelle, M.H. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1999-12-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of expertsand the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise.

  4. Radon activities in natural gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo, B.L.; Palfalvi, J.

    1995-01-01

    Radon activities have been measured in gas samples used for residential heading, in Venezuela and in Hungary. Gas bottles were selected randomly in different regions, and radon activities were monitored with ionization clambers and solid stoke track detections. Radon concentrations in household natural gas are presented for regions in Venezuela and in Budapest, Hungary. The latter was found to be in the range of 88-135 Bq/m 3 . (R.P.)

  5. Radon exposures in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Public and occupational health protection against radon is provided in the UK. Protection is advised where geological conditions cause high concentrations in domestic and commercial buildings. These circumstances are described and the resulting exposures reviewed. An account is given of the limitation scheme for radon in the home and the regulatory scheme for radon at work, the manner in which they are implemented, and the degree to which they are successful. (author)

  6. Measuring radon in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued guidance for testing for radon in homes and interim guidance for testing in schools. Information on testing for radon in the workplace is the next initiative and this paper describes the current status of this effort. The results of measurements made in several buildings in the Washington, DC area are discussed. In this paper a discussion of preliminary guidance on radon survey design that has been offered to Federal agencies is presented

  7. Long term and equilibrium factor indoor radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Navarrete, M.; Cabrera, L.; Ramirez, A.; Elizarraras, V.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the annual radon gas concentrations obtained during the 1994-1995 monitoring campaign using passive electret system (type E-PERM). Radon levels were measured in 154 single family dwellings, in normal occupancy conditions (open house condition) in the metropolitan zone of Mexico City. At the same time radon monitoring was performed outdoors. The results show the general log-normal distribution of integrated indoor radon concentration with an annual indoor mean of 3.8 pCi x l -1 . The seasonal variations show the minimum mean values in the summer season which are 39% lower than that in autumn. Equilibrium factors (F) were measured in 12 typical houses both in autumn and winter using a continuous working level monitor for short-lived radon decay products and H-chamber loaded with a short term electret (HST, E-PERM) for radon gas. The obtained total mean equilibrium factors are: F=0.41±0.17 and F=0.29±0.04 for indoor and outdoor, respectively. A quality program was also improved. (author)

  8. Variation of radon levels in US homes with various factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.; Gromicko, N.

    1988-01-01

    A program combining 70,000 purchased and 3500 random selection-no charge measurements with extensive questionnaires is described. Methods for reducing biases in purchased measurements have been reasonably successful. Distributions are roughly lognormal with σ/sub g/ ≅ 3.0 but with an excess of very high measurements. Winter and spring-fall measurements average about 60 percent and 40 percent, respectively, higher than summer measurements. Basements average 2.5 times higher radon levels than upper floors. Tightening of homes since 1974 has increased radon levels by less than 10 percent, but well-weatherized houses have ∼ 40 percent higher levels than poorly weatherized houses. Open windows reduce levels by a factor of about 2.5. Low-cost newer houses have much lower levels than more expensive newer houses, but among older houses this is reversed. Low income families have substantially lower radon levels than average. There is little variation with education level. Nonsmokers have higher radon levels than smokers, but this seems to apply mainly to living rooms and dining rooms. Suburban houses have higher levels than urban, and rural houses have still higher levels. Owner-occupied houses have much higher levels than rented houses. Variations of radon levels with weatherization do not seem to be due to cost factors. A strategy for locating areas with high mean radon levels is described

  9. Radon-daughter exposures in energy-efficient buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V.; Berk, J.V.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.; Ingersoll, J.G.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    1981-10-01

    A radon concentration of 1 pCi/1 (37 Bq/m 3 ) appears to lie in the range that is typical for air inside US residential buildings. Moreover, some US residences have concentrations higher than 1 pCi/1, sometimes by an order of magnitude, implying significant individual risk to occupants. For typical radon daughter equilibrium ratios, this concentration corresponds to a radon daughter exposure rate of 0.2 working level months (WLM) per year. This exposure rate may account for a significant lung cancer incidence if data on lung cancers per unit exposure in miners are applicable to such low exposures. Reductions in air exchange rates may rise the typical exposure rate and even increase it to unacceptable levels in some cases. Measures that reduce energy use by reducing natural infiltration or mechanical ventilation in new or retrofit buildings are therefore undergoing severe scrutiny. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has performed measurements in buildings specifically designed to use energy efficiently or utilize solar heating. In many of these buildings radon concentrations appear to arise primarily from soil underlying the buildings. Measures to control higher levels, e.g., by mechanical ventilation with heat recuperation, appear to be economical. However, to evaluate energy-saving programs adequately requires a much more comprehensive characterization of radon sources (for example, by geographical area) and a much fuller understanding of the dynamics of radon and its daughters indoors than now exist

  10. ERRICCA radon model intercomparison exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Albarracín, D.; Csige, I.

    1999-01-01

    -state diffusive radon profiles in dry and wet soils, (2) steady-state entry of soil gas and radon into a house, (3) time-dependent radon exhalation from abuilding-material sample. These cases cover features such as: soil heterogeneity, anisotropy, 3D-effects, time dependency, combined advective and diffusive......, still remain. All in all, it seems that the exercise has served its purpose and stimulated improvements relating to the quality of numerical modelling of radon transport. To maintain a high quality of modelling, it is recommendedthat additional exercises are carried out....

  11. Radon levels in Croatian spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.; Stanic, D.; Planinic, J.

    2005-01-01

    Average radon concentrations in the air and geothermal water of spa pools in Croatia were 40.3 Bq/m 3 and 4.5 kBq/m 3 , respectively. Substantial difference between radon concentrations in pool and spring water is explained by the mixing normal and geothermal water in the pool and with radon decay. The estimated annual effective dose received by the personnel in the spa of Stubicke toplice, Croatia was 0.7 mSv. At the same location, the calculated transfer factor of radon for the air and thermal water in the pool was 4.9x10 -3 .(author)

  12. Radon studies in Indian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentration has been measured by Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) in large number of Indian dwellings. Radon concentrations were measured in different parts of the country. In the first study, radon concentrations were measured in 143 dwellings of Udaipur, Bikaner and Banswara towns of Rajasthan province. The distributions of the time-averaged indoor radon concentration in these three towns of the Rajasthan fit an approximately log normal distribution. The geometric mean (GM) values of radon concentrations in these three places were found to be 74 Bq m -3 , 46 Bq m -3 and 66 Bq m -3 with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.2, 2.2 and 2.5 respectively. In another study, radon concentrations were measured in about 150 dwellings of hilly regions of the country. The measurements were carried out in Kohima (Nagaland), Baijnath and Palampur (Himachal Pradesh). The distribution of radon concentration in Kohima dwellings was found to be approximately log normal, however, the radon distribution in Baijnath and Palampur dwellings seems to be bimodal. The GM values of the radon concentrations for 65 dwellings in Kohima and 43 dwellings in Baijnath and Palampur were 88 Bq m -3 and 134 Bq m -3 with GSD of 1.7 and 2.5 respectively. The results are discussed in detail. (author)

  13. [Mutagenicity of radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The current objective of our research is to investigate the dose-response relationship of the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure of cells to radon and its decay products. Dose-rate dependence will be studied, as well as the nature of the DNA lesions. The effect of DNA repair on the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure and on the character of the DNA lesions will be investigated by comparing the response of L5178Y strains which differ in their ability to rejoin X radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. This report discusses progress incurred from 4/1/1988--10/1/1990. 5 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Radon and radon daughters in South African underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, R.

    1980-01-01

    Radon and the radon daughters are the radionuclides which primarily determine the level of the radiation hazard in underground uranium mines and to a smaller extent in non-uranium mines. Radon is a gas, and its daughters adsorb on aerosol particles which are of respirable size. The hazard thus arises from the alpha decay of radon and its daughters in contact with lung tissue. Radon is itself part of the uranium decay chain. The major radionuclide, 238 U, decays successively through thirteen shorter-lived radionuclides to 206 Pb. Radon is the only gaseous decay product at room temperature; the other twelve are solids. The main hazard presented by the uranium decay chain is normally determined by the radon concentration because gaseous transport can bring alpha emitters close to sensitive tissue. There is no such transport route for the other alpha emitters, and the level of beta and gamma radiation caused by the uranium decay chain generally presents a far lower external radiation hazard. Radon itself is the heaviest of the noble gases, which are He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn. Its chemical reactions are of no concern in regard to its potential hazard in mines as it may be considered inert. It does, however, have a solubility ten times higher than oxygen in water, and this can play a significant part in assisting the movement of the gas from the rock into airways. Radon continuously emanates into mine workings from uranium ores and from the uranium present at low concentrations in practically any rock. It has been found that the control of the exposure level is most effectively achieved by sound ventilation practices. In South African mines the standard of ventilation is generally high and exposure to radon and radon daughters is at acceptably low levels

  15. Social marketing and the reduction of indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierma, T.J.; Swartzman, D.

    1990-01-01

    Indoor radon monitoring and mitigation has apparently been conducted by only a small percentage of private homeowners despite extensive media coverage of the radon issue and public information programs at the federal, state, and local levels. Whether public education programs should be informative or persuasive is an ethical decision. Arguments on each side of the issue are presented. A framework for the development of a persuasive campaign is then presented, suing the concepts of social marketing and the limited empirical evidence available on radon-related behavior. In this paper a four-step process is proposed: identify problem dimensions using focus groups and other methods, confirm dimension for market segmentation using probability samples and factor analysis, implement program and evaluate and revise

  16. Response of avian embryonic brain to spatially segmented x-ray microbeams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmanian, F A; Morris, G M; Le Duc, G; Huang, X; Ren, B; Bacarian, T; Allen, J C; Kalef-Ezra, J; Orion, I; Rosen, E M; Sandhu, T; Sathé, P; Wu, X Y; Zhong, Z; Shivaprasad, H L

    2001-05-01

    Duck embryo was studied as a model for assessing the effects of microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) on the human infant brain. Because of the high risk of radiation-induced disruption of the developmental process in the immature brain, conventional wide-beam radiotherapy of brain tumors is seldom carried out in infants under the age of three. Other types of treatment for pediatric brain tumors are frequently ineffective. Recent findings from studies in Grenoble on the brain of suckling rats indicate that MRT could be of benefit for the treatment of early childhood tumors. In our studies, duck embryos were irradiated at 3-4 days prior to hatching. Irradiation was carried out using a single exposure of synchrotron-generated X-rays, either in the form of parallel microplanar beams (microbeams), or as non-segmented broad beam. The individual microplanar beams had a width of 27 microm and height of 11 mm, and a center-to-center spacing of 100 microm. Doses to the exposed areas of embryo brain were 40, 80, 160 and 450 Gy (in-slice dose) for the microbeam, and 6, 12 and 18 Gy for the broad beam. The biological end point employed in the study was ataxia. This neurological symptom of radiation damage to the brain developed within 75 days of hatching. Histopathological analysis of brain tissue did not reveal any radiation induced lesions for microbeam doses of 40-160 Gy (in-slice), although some incidences of ataxia were observed in that dose group. However, severe brain lesions did occur in animals in the 450 Gy microbeam dose groups, and mild lesions in the 18 Gy broad beam dose group. These results indicate that embryonic duck brain has an appreciably higher tolerance to the microbeam modality, as compared to the broad beam modality. When the microbeam dose was normalized to the full volume of the irradiated tissue. i.e., the dose averaged over microbeams and the space between the microbeams, brain tolerance was estimated to be about three times higher to microbeam

  17. A personal radon dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberstedt, S.; Vanmarcke, H.

    1994-03-01

    In the last decade the radon issue has become one of the major problems of radiation protection. Animal studies as well as epidemiological studies showed an increased lung cancer risk. A new personal radon-dosemeter on the basis of a CR-39 (poly-allyl diglycol carbonate) track-etch detector has been developed. The read-out of the detectors is based on the image- processing technique. The actual efficiency of the new dosemeter, obtained with a semi-automatic personal-computer based image-analysis system, is 1.43 +/- 0.15 tracks/cm 2 /(kBq/m 3 h), which is about three times that of the widely used Karlsruhe-type detector based on polycarbonate detectors

  18. Radon measurements indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, G.

    1983-02-01

    Measurements of Radon concentrations have been made using photographic film detectors in the communities of Uppsala, Soedertaelje and Tyresoe. The result from 6700 filmexposures in both one-family and apartment houses are reported. The fraction of dwellings with radon daughter concentrations exceeding 200 Bq/m 3 is between 3 and 14 percent for one-family houses and 0 to 5 percent for apartment buildings. 8 to 68 percent of the one-family houses and 57 to 83 percent of the apartment buildings had concentrations lower than 70 Bq/m 3 . The seasonal variations were recorded in one-family houses in Uppsala. In houses with low concentrations, the winter values were higher than the summer values. For houses with high concentrations the reversed variation was recorded. (Author)

  19. EPA's radon study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowd, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Last winter, in cooperation with agencies in 10 states and two metropolitan area counties, EPA measured the indoor air radon concentrations of 14,000 houses, some chosen statistically at random and some by request of the homeowner. Passive measurement methodologies were used, such as exposing a charcoal canister to the air for a few days and allowing the air to migrate in to the charcoal naturally. To reduce dilution of radon by the outside air, the protocol required that the house be shut up; therefore, the study was conducted during winter. The measuring device was placed in the lowest livable area (usually the basement) of each house to maximize potential concentration. It should be noted that these procedures are generally considered to be screening tests because they result in a worst-case measurement rather than a best value. The results of these findings are presented

  20. Indoor air radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cothern, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    This review concerns primarily the health effects that result from indoor air exposure to radon gas and its progeny. Radon enters homes mainly from the soil through cracks in the foundation and other holes to the geologic deposits beneath these structures. Once inside the home the gas decays (half-life 3.8 d) and the ionized atoms adsorb to dust particles and are inhaled. These particles lodge in the lung and can cause lung cancer. The introduction to this review gives some background properties of radon and its progeny that are important to understanding this public health problem as well as a discussion of the units used to describe its concentrations. The data describing the health effects of inhaled radon and its progeny come both from epidemiological and animal studies. The estimates of risk from these two data bases are consistent within a factor of two. The epidemiological studies are primarily for hard rock miners, although some data exist for environmental exposures. The most complete studies are those of the US, Canadian, and Czechoslovakian uranium miners. Although all studies have some deficiencies, those of major importance include uranium miners in Saskatchewan, Canada, Swedish iron miners, and Newfoundland fluorspar miners. These six studies provide varying degrees of detail in the form of dose-response curves. Other epidemiological studies that do not provide quantitative dose-response information, but are useful in describing the health effects, include coal, iron ore and tin miners in the UK, iron ore miners in the Grangesburg and Kiruna, Sweden, metal miners in the US, Navajo uranium miners in the US, Norwegian niobian and magnitite miners, South African gold and uranium miners, French uranium miners, zinc-lead miners in Sweden and a variety of small studies of environmental exposure. An analysis of the epidemiological studies reveals a variety of interpretation problem areas.172 references

  1. Radon - The management of the risk related to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This leaflet briefly explains what radon is, where it comes from, and what it becomes. It indicates and briefly comments its concentrations in French departments, describes how radon can affect our health (lung cancer), describes how the risk can be reduced in buildings, and indicates the existing regulatory provisions

  2. Indoor radon epidemiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, E; Tomasek, L; Mueller, T [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic); Placek, V [Inst. for Expertises and Emergencies, Pribram-Kamenna (Czech Republic); Matzner, J; Heribanova, A [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The study is a long-term prospective cohort study of lung cancer and possibility other causes of death. The study population includes inhabitants of the area, who had resided there for at three years and at least one of these between 1.1.1960 and 21.12.1989. A total of 11865 inhabitants satisfied these criteria. The cumulative exposure of each respondent is being assessed on the basis of measurements in dwellings, time spent there and estimation of previous exposure levels by a model accounting for constructional changes in buildings. One year lasting measurements of radon daughter products by integral dosimeters (Kodak film LR 115) were performed in practically all dwellings of the specified area. Radon measurements in houses in term of equilibrium concentration are compared with the results of a pilot study in Petrovice in 1990-91 which gave the stimulus for the epidemiological study. The distribution of death causes and ratio of observed (O) to expected (E) cases among collected death cases in the cohort, generally, somewhat lower ratios than one reflect the non-industrial character of the region, with the exception of lung cancer in man. The differences in the O/E ratios for lung cancer among the separate communities indicate that even in the situation of generally lower mortality, the dependence of lung cancer mortality on radon.

  3. The significance of radon in radioactive pollution of environment. Pt. 2. Radon effect on living organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossakowski, S.; Dziura, A.; Kossakowski, A.

    1998-01-01

    Authors review the history of radon monitoring. Epidemiological studies of lung cancer and its correlation to radon concentration in mines and buildings are described. The influence of radon on animals living in the buildings built from waste materials is described. Authors review plans concerning creation of radon monitoring system in Poland. The necessity of monitoring influence of radon on animals is described

  4. Indoor radon -- a strategic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    Even the average 222 Rn concentration in US homes corresponds to an estimated individual lifetime risk of fatal lung cancer between 0.1% and 1%, depending on whether one smokes or not. Perhaps 50,000 to 100,000 homes have ten times the average or more, implying radiation doses to the occupants at or above the occupational radiation limit. But even this picture has been exaggerated by information provided the public by the EPA and the media, associating with nonsmokers risk estimated for smokers, and -- due to a faulty monitoring protocol -- giving the impression that a large fraction of homes have elevated levels. The result has been a program that focuses in fact on slightly-above-average indoor levels, while having no program for rapidly identifying and assisting those living at genuinely high levels. A sensible and effective strategy, in contrast, would (1) rely on accurate and specific public information, (2) recommend a monitoring protocol yielding the annual-average concentration in living space, the parameter of health significance, (3) constitute a national program to identify systematically and rapidly the areas of the country where the bulk of the high-radon homes occur, (4) build a sensible long-term research and action program associated with lower concentrations. Accomplishing these purposes will require a commitment to careful analysis and planning, involving an effective interaction with the scientific community, that has so far not been demonstrated

  5. Radon Mapping of the Osijek Town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Faj, Z.; Smit, G.; Culo, D.; Planinic, J.

    1998-01-01

    After ten years investigation of radon seasonal variations at three very different locations, as well as radon concentration measurements in kindergartens and schools, systematical indoor radon measurements were undertaken in dwellings of Osijek. Indoor radon was measured by means of the LR-115 nuclear track detector at 48 town locations that gave the arithmetic mean of 71.6 Bq m -3 , standard deviation of 44.0 Bq m -3 and geometric mean of 60.1 Bq m -3 , for the radon concentration range from 23 to 186 Bq m -3 . The empirical frequency distribution of radon concentrations, with the class width of 20 Bq m -3 , was in accordance with the theoretical log-normal distribution which was shown with χ 2 - test. The radon map pointed out a region of higher radon concentrations (central part of the town) that was ascribed to the geological soil structure. Thus supposition was confirmed by radon measurement in the soil gas using radon emanators with the LR-115 film that showed the positive correlation between radon concentrations in the soil and indoors. Radon measurements in Osijeks primary schools pointed out a school that had the highest radon concentration (300 Bq m -3 ) considering all the former indoor radon measurements. The radon distribution in the school building was investigated afterwards radon mitigation procedures were undertaken. (author)

  6. Indoor radon concentration in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamont-Ciesla, K.; Jagielak, J.; Rosinski, S.W.; Sosinka, A.; Bysiek, M.; Henschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary survey of Rn concentration indoors by means of track detectors and y-ray dose rate with the use of TLD in almost 500 homes in selected areas of Poland was performed in the late 1980s. It was concluded that radon contributes 1.16 mSv i.e. about 46 per cent of the total natural environment ionizing radiation dose to the Polish population. Comparison of the average radon concentrations in 4 seasons of a year and in 3 groups of buildings: masonry, concrete and wood, revealed that the ground beneath the building structure is likely the dominant source of radon indoors. Since the National Atomic Energy Agency in its regulations of 1988-03-31 set up the permissible limit of the equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon in new buildings (equal 100 Bq/m3), the nation-scale survey project for radon in buildings has been undertaken. These regulations were supposed to take effect in 1995-01-01. The project has 3 objectives: to estimate the radiation exposure due to radon daughters received by Polish population to identify radon-prone areas in Poland to investigate dependence of the indoor radon concentrations on such parameters as: type of construction material, presence (or absence) of cellar under the building, number of floor

  7. Radon measurements in indoor workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokonami, S.; Matsumoto, M.; Furukawa, M.; Fujimoto, K.; Fujitaka, K.; Pan, J.; Kurosawa, R.

    1996-01-01

    Radon measurements in several office buildings located in Tokyo were carried out with two types of device to study the time-dependent radon concentration in indoor workplaces. Both types of device use the electrostatic field for the collection of 218 Po onto the electrode of the detector. One provides an average radon concentration throughout the day. The other, in which a weekly timer is installed in the circuit of the electrode of the device, provides an average radon concentration during working hours (9:00-17:00, Monday-Friday). Although radon concentrations in Japanese dwellings have been found to be generally low, relatively high concentrations were observed in the office buildings. No consistent seasonal variation was recognised in this study. Little difference of average radon concentrations between working hours and the whole day was found throughout the year in two offices. On the other hand, a significant difference was observed in other offices. The operation of an air conditioner might change the radon concentration during working hours. From the results of radon measurements the average effective dose in the workplace was estimated to be 0.23 mSv for 2000 working hours in a year. (Author)

  8. Radon Moscow: internationalisation of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevejkin, P.P.; Grishin, O.E.; Rakov, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, SIA Radon Moscow has been an active participant in the international technical cooperation to resolve the current issues of radiation safety and radwaste management. The article presents the experience of such cooperation. Examples of Radon's participation in the international projects on the assessment of safety, the international education network DISPONET and implementation of TACIS projects are given [ru

  9. Radon in the human life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    Radon causes the utmost but controllable radiation exposure of the population. This is now clear, nearly hundred years after the discovery of radioactivity. Remediate and preventive activities have been stated with a complex approach using building engineering, geological sciences, physics and medicine. Despite of long experience in radon problems all these approaches need further development. (J.K.).

  10. Radon in the human life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.

    1995-01-01

    Radon causes the utmost but controllable radiation exposure of the population. This is now clear, nearly hundred years after the discovery of radioactivity. Remediate and preventive activities have been stated with a complex approach using building engineering, geological sciences, physics and medicine. Despite of long experience in radon problems all these approaches need further development. (J.K.)

  11. Airborne geophysical radon hazard mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, P.

    1993-01-01

    Shales containing uranium pose a radon health hazard even when covered by several meters of overburden. Such an alum shale in southern Norway has been mapped with a joint helicopter borne electromagnetic (HEM) and radiometric survey. Results are compared with ground spectrometer, radon emanometer and radon gas measurements in dwellings, and a model to predict radon gas concentrations from the airborne data is developed. Since the shale is conductive, combining the HEM data with the radiometric channel allows the shale to be mapped with greater reliability than if the radiometric channel were used alone. Radiometrically more active areas which do not pose a radon gas hazard can thus be separated from the shales which do. The ground follow-up work consisted of spectrometer and radon emanometer measurements over a uranium anomaly coinciding with a conductor. The correlation between the airborne uranium channel, the ground uranium channel and emanometry is extremely good, indicating that airborne geophysics can, in this case, be used to predict areas having a high radon potential. Contingency tables comparing both radon exhalation and concentration in dwellings with the airborne uranium data show a strong relationship exists between exhalation and the airborne data and while a relationship between concentration and the airborne data is present, but weaker

  12. Radon and risk of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rootwelt, K.

    1988-01-01

    The article reviews present knowledge on the possible detriment to health of radon in homes. It is concluded that inducement of lung cancer has neither been proved nor disproved. Large-scale epidemiological studies are in progress. Until the results of these studies have been reported, frightening anti-radon propaganda should be discouraged

  13. Radon concentration in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, R.J. de; Put, L.W.; Veldhuizen, A.

    1986-02-01

    In 1000 dwellings, which can be assumed to be an reasonable representation of the average Dutch dwellings, time averaged radon concentrations, radon daughter concentrations and gamma-exposure tempi are determined during a year with passive dosemeters. They are also determined outdoor at circa 200 measure points. (Auth.)

  14. An investigation of radon mitigation in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanger, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that Radon mitigation contractors were contacted to obtain information on the progress of radon mitigation in Pennsylvania. Information was obtained on the beginning and ending radon concentrations, the cost of the job, the mitigation method used, and the location by zip code. Most radon mitigations achieved reductions below 90 percent, and most achieved 4 pCi/1. 65 percent achieved 2 pCi/1. There was little relationship between the cost of the job and either the percent reduction or the beginning radon. Percent reduction was strongly related to beginning radon, with lower percent reductions associated with low starting radon

  15. Environmental radon and cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, A K.M.M.; Kirk, A E [South Bank Polytechnic, London (United Kingdom)

    1992-01-01

    Data collected from the office of Population Censuses and Surveys (OPCS) statistics and those published by the Leukaemia Research Fund (LRF) have been analysed with a view to examining whether radon is a possible causative agent in the induction of leukaemias. Radon concentration values have been taken from a NRPB survey. Positive correlation has been observed between radon concentration and incidence of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and chronic lymphoid leukaemia (CLL). Employing the method of BEIR IV, the lifetime probability of leukaemia incidence, R[sub o], of a non-exposed person (zero radon concentration) has been calculated for AML, CML, ALL and CLL, which agree well with those values obtained from extrapolation of linear graphs of leukaemia deaths versus radon concentration. (author).

  16. Radon classification of building ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slunga, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Laboratories of Building Technology and Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering at the Helsinki University of Technology in cooperation with The Ministry of the Environment have proposed a radon classification for building ground. The proposed classification is based on the radon concentration in soil pores and on the permeability of the foundation soil. The classification includes four radon classes: negligible, normal, high and very high. Depending on the radon class the radon-technical solution for structures is chosen. It is proposed that the classification be done in general terms in connection with the site investigations for the planning of land use and in more detail in connection with the site investigations for an individual house. (author)

  17. Radon levels in Oslo schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birovlev, A.

    2004-01-01

    Radon measurements using passive CR-39 detectors have been conducted in all schools in Oslo municipality during winter 2003/2004. Results are presented and discussed in the light of qualitative and quantitative factors, some of which are specific for schools as workplaces. Analysis is conducted with respect to factors relating to building construction type, ventilation principle, age of building, building size etc. The influence of ventilation type on radon levels is studied, and problems of investigations based purely on conventional passive radon detectors are noted. Over-estimation of radon concentration by passive detectors and day-night variations of indoor radon levels in buildings with mechanical ventilation systems are discussed. Several guiding principles for planning similar investigations based on above discussions are outlined. (author)

  18. Radon Infiltration in Rented Accommodation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2017-01-01

    in homes was measured and the Buildings were registered for a series of variables describing upgrades, facilities, building components, Construction characteristics and used materials. In addition, the radon level was measured in the basement in 9 of the buildings. The mean year value of the indoor radon......Indoor radon levels were measured in 221 homes located in 53 buildings, including 28 multi-occupant houses and 25 single-family terraced houses. The homes consisted of rented accommodation located in buildings recorded as being constructed before 2010 and after the year 1850. The radon level...... radon levels exceeding 100 Bq/m3 in homes in multi-occupant houses was found to be very low, but the risk was highest on the ground floor in a building constructed with slab on ground....

  19. Radon measurements in hispaniola dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, J.; Colgan, P.A.; Cancio, D.

    1996-01-01

    The results of a national radon survey and a number of regional surveys of radon in spanish dwelling are reviewed. The best estimate of the geometric mean of indoor radon concentrations is 41.1. Bq/m -3 and single-family dwellings have been shown to be more at risk than apartments. Results need to be interpreted with some caution due to differences in survey methodologies and measurement procedures. The risks from radon exposure are put in perspective by comparison with other voluntary risks. Finally, although a number of 'high risk' areas have already been identified, it is concluded that implementation of a national programme to reduce radon exposure may await a better definition of the problem extent. (authors). 20 refs., 1 tab

  20. Radon availability in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLemore, V.T.

    1995-01-01

    The New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources (NMBMMR) in cooperation with the Radiation Licensing and Registration Section of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been evaluating geologic and soil conditions that may contribute to elevated levels of indoor radon throughout New Mexico. Various data have been integrated and interpreted in order to determine areas of high radon availability. The purpose of this paper is to summarize some of these data for New Mexico and to discuss geologic controls on the distribution of radon. Areas in New Mexico have been identified from these data as having a high radon availability. It is not the intent of this report to alarm the public, but to provide data on the distribution of radon throughout New Mexico

  1. Ion climate and radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busbarna, L.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristic values of radon concentration in natural ion climate and in open air were compared and the effect of artificially produced negative ion excess on the radon concentration of air was studied. The results show that the radon concentration measurable at the rise of negative ion excess is smaller than that in the case of natural equilibrium. This effect can be utilized lowering the background of the scintillation chambers, thus increasing their sensitivity. The negative ions of the artificial ion climate lower radon concentration in closed space. The question arises whether only the ion climate is responsible for the effects on the organism and on the nervous system or the radon concentration of the air also contributes to them. (author)

  2. Study of underground radon transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csige, I.; Hakl, J.; Lenart, L.

    1990-01-01

    The soil gas radon content measurements with solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are widely used in geoscience, for instance in uranium exploration and earthquake prediction. In these applications the radon frequently is used as a natural tracer of underground fluid transport processes. Obviously, to get the soil radon measuring method more and more effective the study of these transport processes in deeper part of the Earth is fundamental. The Track Detector Group in the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Debrecen has been performing environmental radon activity concentration measurements since 1977 with alpha sensitive SSNTDs. These types of measurements were initiated and widely used by the late head of the group Dr. G. Somogyi, who devoted his life to better understanding of the nature. The measurements in caves, springs and drilled wells proved to be effective to study these underground radon transport processes. We are glad to present some results of our investigations. 7 refs, 7 figs

  3. Radon - To mobilise civil society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    As radon is one of the two main sources of exposure of population to ionizing radiations in France, is notably said to be responsible of 1.000 to 3.000 deaths for lung cancer per year, and could be at the origin of other cancers like child leukaemia, this set of articles evokes the different factors which promote radon transfer from soils to buildings, studies performed to better identify geological sources of radon, actions implemented to assess radon presence in dwellings (distribution of 'radon kits' in Brittany), the performance of radiological expertise by the IRSN on the request of public authorities, the project of dwelling inventory and population information. A second article reports examples of intervention by the IRSN to inform local authorities, inhabitants, academics, public utilities, building professions, and even children. Technical solutions adopted in the United Kingdom are briefly evoked

  4. ERRICCA radon model intercomparison exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, C.E.; Albarracin, D.; Csige, I.; Graaf, E.R. van der; Jiranek, M.; Rehs, B.; Svoboda, Z.; Toro, L.

    1999-04-01

    Numerical models based on finite-difference or finite-element methods are used by various research groups in studies of radon-222 transport through soil and building materials. Applications range from design of radon remediation systems to more fundamental studies of radon transport. To ascertain that results obtained with these models are of good quality, it is necessary that such models are tested. This document reports on a benchmark test organized by the EU project ERRICCA: European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action. The test comprises the following cases: 1) Steady-state diffusive radon profiles in dry and wet soils, 2) steady-state entry of soil gas and radon into a house, 3) time-dependent radon exhalation from a building-material sample. These cases cover features such as: soil heterogeneity, anisotropy, 3D-effects, time dependency, combined advective and diffusive transport of radon, flux calculations, and partitioning of radon between air and water in soil pores. Seven groups participated in the intercomparison. All groups submitted results without knowing the results of others. For these results, relatively large group-to-group discrepancies were observed. Because of this, all groups scrutinized their computations (once more) and engaged in follow-up discussions with others. During this debugging process, problems were indeed identified (and eliminated). The accordingly revised results were in better agreement than those reported initially. Some discrepancies, however, still remain. All in all, it seems that the exercise has served its purpose and stimulated improvements relating to the quality of numerical modelling of radon transport. To maintain a high quality of modelling, it is recommended that additional exercises are carried out. (au)

  5. Radon-technical design methods based on radon classification of the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettunen, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Radon-technical classification of the foundation soil divides the foundation soil into four classes: negligible, normal, high and very high. Separate radon-technical designing methods and radon-technical solutions have been developed for each class. On regions of negligible class, no specific radon-technical designing methods are needed. On regions of normal radon class, there is no need for actual radon-technical designing based on calculations, whereas existing radon-technical solutions can be used. On regions of high and very high radon class, a separate radon-technical designing should be performed in each case, where radon-technical solutions are designed so that expected value for indoor radon content is lower than the maximum allowable radon content. (orig.). (3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  6. CONTRIBUTION OF RADON FLOWS AND RADON SOURCES TO THE RADON CONCENTRATION IN A DWELLING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMEIJER, RJ; STOOP, P; PUT, LW

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a model is presented for analysis of the radon concentrations in a compartment in terms of contributions from transport by flows of air between compartments and from radon sources in the compartment. Measurements were made to study the effect of increased natural ventilation of the

  7. Radon dosimetry: a review of radon and radon daughter exposure conditions in dwellings and other structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.T.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Poston, J.W.; Haywood, F.F.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1983-07-01

    Within the past few years several situations have been brought to light which indicate an increased radiation exposure of certain segments of the general population caused by human activities. The most widely publicized activities are those associated with the mining and milling of uranium in the western United States, the phosphate industry in Florida, and those potential problems represented by former Manhattan Engineer District sites. One of the primary problems involves exposure to radon and radon daughters which are released from large waste piles or, in some cases, evolve from backfill and construction materials used in homes, schools, and other buildings. This report presents a review of the available data on radon and radon daughter concentrations in dwellings and other structures. The primary objectives were to compile and tabulate pertinent radon exposure data and to prepare a statistical summary of the data which will be useful in the prediction of normal levels of radon and radon daughter concentrations in these structures. In addition, other parameters associated with radon exposure conditions are presented and discussed

  8. Review of selected state-of-the-art applications of diagnostic measurements for radon-mitigation planning. Report for April 1986-June 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, L.M.; Harrje, D.T.; Gadsby, K.J.; Sanchez, D.C.; Turk, B.H.

    1987-09-01

    Since late-1984, EPA's AEERL has supported a program to develop and demonstrate radon-mitigation techniques for single-family detached dwellings. As part of the program, projects have been started, directed at developing and demonstrating the use of diagnostic measurements in all phases of the radon-mitigation process. Diagnostic measurements are used to assess: (1) the radon sources strengths, variability, and locations; and, (2) radon transport to the house and its entry and distribution in the house as influenced by environmental, house characteristics, and occupancy factors. The diagnostic measurements reported include: (1) soil-gas grab sampling; (2) communication (air flow or pressure-field extension) tests; (3) whole house infiltration; (4) differential pressure, (5) gamma radiation; and, (6) radon flux. The paper concludes that the above selected diagnostic measurements were especially useful in characterizing houses with indoor radon problems attributable to soil-gas-borne radon that may be amenable to mitigation through the use of subslab ventilation

  9. Radon in public buildings; Radon in oeffentlichen Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H.; Flesch, K. [IAF - Radiooekologie GmbH, Dresden (Germany); Hermann, E. [B.P.S. Engineering GmbH, Zwickau (Germany); Loebner, W. [Wismut GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany); Leissring, B. [Bergtechnisches Ingenieurbuero GEOPRAX, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    From the Free State of Saxony, a study was commissioned to survey how reliable measurements to characterize the radon situation in public buildings at a reasonable financial and human effort can be carried out to reduce radiation exposure in public buildings. The study approach was for 6 objects. To characterize the radon situation the time evolution measurement of radon concentrations of more than 1 to 2 weeks turned out to be sufficient. A novel data analysis enables the identification of a ''typical daily alteration of the radon concentration'' depending on the ventilation conditions and the daily use of the offices or class rooms. The identification of typical diurnal radon variations for the working time and weekends or holidays is of fundamental importance for assessing the exposure situation in public buildings. It was shown that the radon concentration during working time are in general much lower than in the times when the buildings (offices) are unused. It turned out that the long-term radon measurements with nuclear track detectors within distinct time regimes (day / night, working hours / leisure time) by utilizing switch modules are very efficient to estimate the actual exposure. (orig.)

  10. Diagnosis of spatial resolution for microbeam scanning PIXE using STIM method and CR-39 track detector in PASTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamano, T.; Imaseki, H.; Yukawa, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Iso, H.; Matsumoto, K.

    2003-01-01

    In PIXE analysis system and Tandem Accelerator facility (PASTA) of NIRS, we are using Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) method and solid track detector to diagnose the spatial resolution of scanning microbeam PIXE analysis system. These methods are widely used by many microbeam facilities. (author)

  11. Development of a Charged Particle Microbeam for Single-Particle Subcellular Irradiations at the MIT Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2004-01-01

    The development of a charged particle microbeam for single particle, subcellular irradiations at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications (MIT LABA) was initiated under this NEER aeard. The Microbeam apparatus makes use of a pre-existing electrostatic accelerator with a horizontal beam tube

  12. Application of single-chip microcomputer to portable radon and radon daughters monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Yecheng; Huang Zhanyun; She Chengye

    1992-01-01

    Application of single-chip microcomputer to portable radon and radon daughters monitor is introduced in this paper. With the single-chip microcomputer automation comes into effect in the process from sampling to measuring of radon and radon daughters. The concentrations of radon and radon daughters can be easily shown when the conversion coefficients are pre-settled before the measurement. Moreover, the principle and design are briefly discussed according to the characteristics of the monitor

  13. Dynamics of an Imperfect Microbeam Considering its Exact Shape

    KAUST Repository

    Bataineh, Ahmad M.

    2014-08-17

    We study the static and dynamic behavior of electrically actuated micromachined arches. First, we conduct experiments on micromachined polysilicon beams by driving them electrically and varying their amplitude and frequency of voltage loads. The results reveal several interesting nonlinear phenomena of jumps, hysteresis, and softening behaviors. Next, we conduct analytical and theoretical investigation to understand the experiments. First, we solve the Eigen value problem analytically. We study the effect of the initial rise on the natural frequency and mode shapes, and use a Galerkin-based procedure to derive a reduced order model, which is then used to solve both the static and dynamic responses. We use two symmetric modes in the reduced order model to have accurate and converged results. We use long time integration to solve the nonlinear ordinary differential equations, and then modify our model using effective length to match experimental results. To further improve the matching with the experimental data, we curve-fit the exact profile of the microbeam to match the experimentally measured profile and use it in the reduced-order model to generate frequency-response curves. Finally, we use another numerical technique, the shooting technique, to solve the nonlinear ordinary differential equations. By using shooting and the curve fitted function, we found that we get good agreement with the experimental data.

  14. Radiobiological experiments at the Munich ion microbeam SNAKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedl, A.A.; Drexler, G.A.; Loewe, R. [Strahlenbiologisches Inst., Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Dollinger, G.; Hauptner, A.; Hable, V.; Greubel, C.; Kruecken, R. [Physik Dept. E12, Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Cremer, T.; Dietzel, S. [Dept. Biologie II, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen, Planegg-Martinsried (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The ion microbeam SNAKE at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator was recently adapted for irradiation of cells and is now routinely used for radiobiological experiments. Several features, including ion-optical beam focussing to achieve a targeting accuracy of about 500 nm, fast movement of the beam by electrostatic deflection and single ion preparation make SNAKE an excellent tool for localized irradiation with a defined number of ions. The ion spectrum available ranges from 20 MeV protons to 200 MeV gold ions, thus allowing to vary the LET over four orders of magnitude and to conduct low and high LET irradiation in a single experimental set-up. This offers the possibility of a systematic analysis of the cellular response mechanisms in their dependence on dose and LET. Other current lines of research include analysis of the spatio-temporal dynamics of protein recruitment at damaged chromatin sites and determination of the mobility of damaged chromatin regions in the interphase nucleus. (orig.)

  15. Bystander effect studies using heavy-ion microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Funayama, Tomoo; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Wada, Seiichi; Yokota, Yuichiro; Kakizaki, Takehiko; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Hara, Takamitsu; Fukamoto, Kana; Suzuki, Michiyo; Ni, M.; Furusawa, Yoshiya

    2007-01-01

    We have established a single cell irradiation system, which allows selected cells to be individually hit with defined number of heavy charged particles, using a collimated heavy-ion microbeam apparatus at JAEA-Takasaki. This system has been developed to study radiobiological processes in hit cells and bystander cells exposed to low dose and low dose-rate high-LET radiations, in ways that cannot be achieved using conventional broad-field exposures. Individual cultured cells grown in special dishes were irradiated in the atmosphere with a single or defined numbers of 18.3 MeV/amu 12 C, 13.0 or 17.5 MeV/amu 20 Ne, and 11.5 MeV/amu 40 Ar ions. Targeting and irradiation of the cells were performed automatically according to the positional data of the target cells microscopically obtained before irradiation. The actual number of particle tracks that pass through target cells was detected with prompt etching of the bottom of the cell dish made of ion track detector TNF-1 (modified CR-39). (author)

  16. A new external microbeam system in Fudan University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Y.; Shen, H.; Li, Y.Q.; Li, X.Y.; Yang, M.J.; Mi, Y.

    2013-01-01

    A cost-effective and removable external beam system is set up based on the Oxford Microbeam system in Fudan University. In our external beam system, 7.5-μm-thick Kapton film is used as exit window with a diameter of 3.5 mm. The spatial resolution is about 18 μm full width at half maximum (FWHM) on a copper grid. As an example, calcium distribution in otolith is present by the external micro-PIXE. In addition, little change can be done to the external system mentioned above for radiobiology experiments. The exit window can be changed from the focal plane to the observation window of vacuum chamber. By calculation, the beam spot size can reach less than 30 μm. Since the Oxford type octagonal target chamber is popular among the nuclear microprobe facilities, this method can be provided to easily replace the in-vacuum system with the external system, extending the in-vacuum analysis to external beam analysis

  17. A new external microbeam system in Fudan University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y.; Shen, H., E-mail: haoshen@fudan.edu.cn; Li, Y.Q.; Li, X.Y.; Yang, M.J.; Mi, Y.

    2013-07-01

    A cost-effective and removable external beam system is set up based on the Oxford Microbeam system in Fudan University. In our external beam system, 7.5-μm-thick Kapton film is used as exit window with a diameter of 3.5 mm. The spatial resolution is about 18 μm full width at half maximum (FWHM) on a copper grid. As an example, calcium distribution in otolith is present by the external micro-PIXE. In addition, little change can be done to the external system mentioned above for radiobiology experiments. The exit window can be changed from the focal plane to the observation window of vacuum chamber. By calculation, the beam spot size can reach less than 30 μm. Since the Oxford type octagonal target chamber is popular among the nuclear microprobe facilities, this method can be provided to easily replace the in-vacuum system with the external system, extending the in-vacuum analysis to external beam analysis.

  18. A new external microbeam system in Fudan University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shen, H., E-mail: haoshen@fudan.edu.cn [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Y.Q.; Li, X.Y.; Yang, M.J.; Mi, Y. [Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2013-02-01

    A cost-effective and removable external beam system is set up based on the Oxford Microbeam system in Fudan University. In our external beam system, 7.5-μm-thick Kapton film is used as exit window with a diameter of 3.5 mm. The spatial resolution is about 18 μm full width at half maximum (FWHM) on a copper grid. As an example, calcium distribution in otolith is present by the external micro-PIXE. In addition, little change can be done to the external system mentioned above for radiobiology experiments. The exit window can be changed from the focal plane to the observation window of vacuum chamber. By calculation, the beam spot size can reach less than 30 μm. Since the Oxford type octagonal target chamber is popular among the nuclear microprobe facilities, this method can be provided to easily replace the in-vacuum system with the external system, extending the in-vacuum analysis to external beam analysis.

  19. The ionoluminescence apparatus at the LABEC external microbeam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calusi, S.; Colombo, E.; Giuntini, L.; Giudice, A. Lo; Manfredotti, C.; Massi, M.; Pratesi, G.; Vittone, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the main features of the ionoluminescence (IL) apparatus recently installed at the external scanning microbeam facility of the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of the INFN LABEC Laboratory in Firenze. The peculiarity of this IL set-up resides in the fact that the light produced by the ion irradiation of the specimen is collected by a bifurcated optical fiber, so that photons are shunted both to a CCD spectrometer, working in the 200-900 nm wavelength range, and to a photomultiplier (PMT). The accurate focusing of the optical system allows high photon collection efficiency and this results in rapid acquisition of luminescence spectra with low ion currents on luminescent materials; simultaneously, luminescence maps with a spatial resolution of 10 μm can be acquired through the synchronization of PMT photon detection with the position of the scanning focused ion beam. An optical filter with a narrow passband facing the photomultiplier allows chromatic selectivity of the luminescence centres. The IL apparatus is synergistically integrated into the existing set-up for ion beam analyses (IBA). The upgraded system permits simultaneous IL and PIXE/PIGE/BS measurements. With our integrated system, we have been studying raw lapis lazuli samples of different known origins and precious lapis lazuli artworks of the Collezione Medicea of Museum of Natural History, University of Firenze, aiming at characterising their composition and provenance

  20. The ionoluminescence apparatus at the LABEC external microbeam facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calusi, S.; Colombo, E. [INFN Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale and NIS Excellence Centre, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Giuntini, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita and INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: giuntini@fi.infn.it; Giudice, A. Lo [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale and NIS Excellence Centre, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Manfredotti, C. [INFN Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale and NIS Excellence Centre, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Massi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita and INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Pratesi, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra and Museo di Storia Naturale, Universita di Firenze, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Vittone, E. [INFN Sezione di Torino, Via P.Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale and NIS Excellence Centre, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    In this paper, we describe the main features of the ionoluminescence (IL) apparatus recently installed at the external scanning microbeam facility of the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of the INFN LABEC Laboratory in Firenze. The peculiarity of this IL set-up resides in the fact that the light produced by the ion irradiation of the specimen is collected by a bifurcated optical fiber, so that photons are shunted both to a CCD spectrometer, working in the 200-900 nm wavelength range, and to a photomultiplier (PMT). The accurate focusing of the optical system allows high photon collection efficiency and this results in rapid acquisition of luminescence spectra with low ion currents on luminescent materials; simultaneously, luminescence maps with a spatial resolution of 10 {mu}m can be acquired through the synchronization of PMT photon detection with the position of the scanning focused ion beam. An optical filter with a narrow passband facing the photomultiplier allows chromatic selectivity of the luminescence centres. The IL apparatus is synergistically integrated into the existing set-up for ion beam analyses (IBA). The upgraded system permits simultaneous IL and PIXE/PIGE/BS measurements. With our integrated system, we have been studying raw lapis lazuli samples of different known origins and precious lapis lazuli artworks of the Collezione Medicea of Museum of Natural History, University of Firenze, aiming at characterising their composition and provenance.

  1. Radon remediation in irish schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synnott, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Commencing in 1998, the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland carried out radon measurements in 3826 schools in the Republic of I reland on behalf of the Irish Department of Education and Science (D.E.S.). This represents approximately 97% of all schools in the country. Approximately 25% (984) schools had radon concentrations above the Irish national schools Reference Level for radon of 200 Bq/m 3 and required remedial work. The number of individual rooms with radon concentrations above 200 Bq/m 3 was 3020. Remedial work in schools commenced in early 2000. In general schools with maximum radon concentrations in the range 200 -400 Bq/m 3 in one or more rooms were remediated through the installation of passive systems such as an increase in permanent background ventilation mainly wall vents and trickle vents in windows. Schools with maximum radon concentrations greater than 400 Bq/m 3 were usually remediated through the provision of active systems mainly fan assisted sub -slab de pressurization or where this was not possible fan assisted under floor ventilation. The cost of the remedial programme was funded by central Government. Active systems were installed by specialized remedial contractors working to the specifications of a radon remedial expert appointed by the D.E.S. to design remedial systems for affected schools. Schools requiring increased ventilation were granted aided 190 pounds per affected room and had to organize the work themselves. In most schools radon remediation was successful in reducing existing radon concentrations to below the Reference Level. Average radon concentration reduction factors for sub-slab de pressurization systems and fan assisted fan assisted under floor ventilation ranged from 5 to 40 with greater reduction rates found at higher original radon concentrations. Increasing ventilation in locations with moderately elevated radon concentrations (200 - 400 Bq/m 3 ) while not as effective as active systems produced on

  2. Statistical analysis of real-time, enviromental radon monitoring results at the Fernald Enviromental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ning; Spitz, H.B.; Tomezak, L.

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive real-time, environmental radon monitoring program is being conducted at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, where a large quantity of radium-bearing residues have been stored in two covered earth-bermed silos. Statistical analyses was conducted to determine what impact radon emitted by the radium bearing materials contained in the silos has on the ambient radon concentration at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site. The distribution that best describes the outdoor radon monitoring data was determined before statistical analyses were conducted. Random effects associated with the selection of radon monitoring locations were accommodated by using nested and nested factorial classification models. The Project site was divided into four general areas according to their characteristics and functions: (1) the silo area, where the radium-bearing waste is stored; (2) the production/administration area; (3) the perimeter area, or fence-line, of the Fernald Environmental Management Project site; and (4) a background area, located approximately 13 km from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site, representing the naturally-occurring radon concentration. A total of 15 continuous, hourly readout radon monitors were installed to measure the outdoor radon concentration. Measurement results from each individual monitor were found to be log-normally distributed. A series of contrast tests, which take random effects into account, were performed to compare the radon concentration between different areas of the site. These comparisons demonstrate that the radon concentrations in the production/administration area and the perimeter area are statistically equal to the natural background, whereas the silo area is significantly higher than background. The study also showed that the radon concentration in the silo area was significantly reduced after a sealant barrier was applied to the contents of the silos. 10 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs

  3. Domestic radon in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El May, Michele V.; Omrane, Latifa; Mtimet, Sadok; Hammou, Azza

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine level of natural radioactivity and to eventually identify areas where radon concentrations are elevated, measurements of indoor air radon concentrations were carried out in Tunisian houses since 1999. Passive alpha-track open Kodalpha dosimeters have been placed in one or two rooms by dwellings at 1 m to 1.50 m from soil. The first campaign controlled the capital, Tunis, and lasted 14 months by two months periods. The annual median was 30 Bq m -3 . In the 120 surveyed houses, a seasonal variation has been found with the highest concentrations unregistered in winter. The second campaign was conducted in 1,151 houses situated in all the inhabited areas of Tunisia during two winter months. The median was 36 Bq m -3 with a maximum of 512 Bq m -3 . The majority of results were lower than 100 Bq m -3 . Only 5.5% of results were comprised between 100 and 200 Bq m -3 and 0.7% between 200 and 400 Bq m -3 . The third campaign was performed in an area where inhabitants used to live in underground homes. Sixty modern and sixty underground houses were controlled during one year by three months periods. The results were significantly different with a median at 46.5 Bq m -3 in the modern houses and 305 Bq m -3 in the underground caves with a maximum at 1,563 Bq m -3 . 54% of results were under 100 Bq m -3 , 32% between 100 and 400, 13% between 400 and 1,000 Bq m -3 . Only 1% (two underground houses) were higher than 1,000 Bq m -3 . A careful enquiry showed that most of these underground houses are no more inhabited and are rarely opened. In these dwellings, the highest concentrations were found during summer. Most of the indoor radon concentration levels found in Tunisia were under international recommended levels. (author)

  4. Radon/radon-daughter measurement methods and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Radon-daughter measurement equipment and techniques have been continuously improved over the last 25 years. Improvements have been in the areas of accuracy, time and convenience. We now have miniaturized scalers and detectors available for measuring the alpha particle count rates from aerosol samples collected on filter papers. We also have small lightweight efficient pumps for conveniently collecting samples and we have various counting methods which allow us to choose between making very precise measurements or nominal measurements. Radon-daughter measurement methods used in uranium mines and mills are discussed including a personal radon-daughter-exposure integrating device which can be worn by miners

  5. The effect and the amendment of thermoregulation to the stability of radon concentration in radon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiongjie; Wang Renbo; Qu Jinhui; Tang Bin; Zhu Zhifu; Man Zaigang

    2010-01-01

    When the temperature in the airtight radon chamber was adjusted, it would induce the frequent changes of the air pressure in chamber, then the radon concentration in the radon chamber would continuously reduce, which could seriously destroy the stability of the radon concentration in radon chamber. In this paper, on the study of the effect reasons to the stability of radon concentration in airtight radon chamber due to the thermoregulation, a new amendment scheme was put forward, and the solutions of the relevant parameters were discussed. The amendment scheme had been successfully applied to HD-6 radon chamber, and achieved good results. (authors)

  6. Animals exposed to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, R.; Morin, M.; Lafuma, J.; Morlier, J.P.; Chameaud, J.; Bredon, P.

    1992-01-01

    'There is sufficient evidence that 222 Rn is a carcinogen in animals': this statement was important for the classification of radon as carcinogenic to man, outside of uranium mine atmospheres, clearly identified by epidemiology as causing lung cancer. Since recent reviews of animal experiments have been given by NCRP and by IARC, this review will be mainly limited to the recent results which came from two laboratories in the last 20 years. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL), USA, and COGEMA Laboratoire de Pathologie Professionnelle (LPP) France. (author)

  7. A radon meter chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, R.

    1990-01-01

    The meter consists of a cylindrical house with two openings, at the ends, one of which is equipped with an alpha particle detector and the other covered with a metal net. The house is manufactured in an isolating material e.g. plastic, with a metallic layer applied to all internal surfaces. The metallic layer and net are kept at a positive electric potential, compared to the alpha detector, in order to attract the radon daughters to the detector and achieve a high efficiency. (L.E.)

  8. Exposure to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Part 3 is given of the Code of Practice approved by the UK Health and Safety Commission with the consent of the Secretary of State for the purpose of providing practical guidance with respect to the provisions of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. Part 3 gives specific guidance on the application of the Regulations to certain work involving exposure to isotopes of radon and their decay products. Aspects covered in the Regulations include restriction of exposure, dose limits, controlled areas, radiation protection advisers and supervisors, dosimetry and area monitoring. (U.K.)

  9. Radon Survey in Kalamata (Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geranios, A.; Kakoulidou, M.; Mavroidi, Ph.; Moschou, M.; Fisher, S.; Burian, I.; Holecek, J.

    2001-01-01

    A national radon survey is still lacking for Greece. Some groups have carried out several more or less local or extended radon surveys and valuable experience has been gained. After the first preliminary survey carried out by our group, where 500 Kodak LR-115 etched track detectors were placed in Greek schools and dwellings for one year, indoor radon measurements were continued by placing the same number of detectors in a restricted area, covering the city of Kalamata (a medium size city with 60,000 inhabitants), situated in the south of Peloponnese. Although Kalamata was not of special radon interest, the local authorities insisted on knowing for their citizens' sake the level of this natural radiation. At first, the intention was to use a different method of organisation and distribution of the etched-track detectors from the previous one, attempting mainly to acquire more reliable results and to collect as many detectors as possible. Secondly, it was of great importance to test the statistics of the indoor radon concentrations for a rather small area, and thirdly, to estimate independently the annual absorbed dose by children, taking into account radon concentrations measured both in their home and at school. The set of detectors' readings (about 370), revealed, in general, lower values for Kalamata, compared to the ones found in the preliminary radon survey in Greece and almost all concentrations were found to be below the NRPB action level (200 Bq.m -3 ) (author)

  10. Radon problem in uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.H.; Raghavayya, M.

    1991-01-01

    Radon emission is invariably associated with the mining and processing of uranium ores. Radon (sup(222)Rn) enters mine atmosphere through diffusion from exposed ore body, fractures and fissures in the rocks and is also brought in by ground water. Being the progenitor of a series of short lived radioisotopes it contributes over 70% of the radiation dose to mine workers and thus accounts for nearly 30% of the total radiation doses received by workers in the whole nuclear industry. This paper summarises the data on radon emanation from the ore body, backfilled sands and mine water. Radon and its progeny concentrations in different haulage levels and stopes of the Jaduguda uranium mine are presented to emphasise the need for a well planned ventilation system to control radiation exposure of miners. Results of radon monitoring from a few exploratory uranium mines are included to indicate the need for a good ventilation system from inception of the mining operations. Relative contribution of mine exhaust and tailings surfaces to the environmental radon are also given. Some instruments developed locally for monitoring of radon and its progeny in mines and in the environment are briefly described to indicate the progress made in this field. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Radon and energy efficient homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.

    1981-09-01

    Radon and its daughters in indoor air are presently responsible for dose equivalents of about 31 mSv/year (3 rem/year) to parts of the respiratory tract. Linear extrapolation from the dose response values of uranium miners heavily exposed to radon and its decay products would suggest that almost all lung cancers in the non-smoking population are caused by environmental 222 Rn. Using epidemiological data on the types of lung cancer found in non-smokers of the general public as compared to the miners, a smaller effect of low level radon exposure is assumed, which would result in a lung cancer mortality rate due to radon of about 10 deaths per year and million or 25% of the non-smoker rate. Higher indoor radon concentrations in energy efficient homes mostly caused by reduced air exchange rates will lead to a several fold increase of the lung cancer incidence from radon. Based on the above assumption, about 100 additional lung cancer deaths/year-million will result both from an increase in radionuclide concentrations in indoor air and a concomitant rise in effectiveness of radiation to cause cancer with higher exposure levels. Possibilities to reduce indoor radon levels in existing buildings and costs involved are discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Survey on the radon gas content and surface gamma radiometry in the cape Fort William area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, Marco

    1998-01-01

    The Ecuadorian Commission of Atomic Energy, during the last years have carried out investigations on the presence of Radon in the Ecuador with a numberless of purposes: radon in polluted spaces, contamination of radon in mining work, radon applied to detection of uranium and exploration of uranium, getting outputs that in their due moment have been published in several reports through the CEEA. Within the Antarctic Ecuadorian Program, it was expounded carry out investigation, on the presence of the gas radon and superficial gamma radiometry in pint Fort William. This study enlarges to the Bransfield Strait, utilizing portable equipment, and allowed to carry out studies in inhospitable zones, where an infrastructure does not exist in order to could employ more complex equipment. The bank of data gotten on radiometry and emanometry will apply to fields of radioprotection, geophysics and geology

  13. 1981 radon barrier field test at Grand Junction uranium mill tailings pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Gee, G.W.; Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.

    1983-04-01

    Technologies to reduce radon released from uranium mill tailings are being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology development program. These technologies include: (1) earthen cover systems, (2) multilayer cover systems, and (3) asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. During the summer of 1981, a field test was initiated at the Grand Junction, Colorado, uranium tailings pile to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of each radon barrier system. Test plots cover about 1.2 ha (3 acres). The field test has demonstrated the effectiveness of all three cover systems in reducing radon release to near background levels ( 2 s - 1 ). In conjunction with the field tests, column tests (1.8 m diameter) were initiated with cover systems similar to those in the larger field test plots. The column tests allow a direct comparison of the two test procedures and also provide detailed information on radon transport

  14. Multifrequency excitation of a clamped–clamped microbeam: Analytical and experimental investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar

    2016-03-14

    Using partial electrodes and a multifrequency electrical source, we present a large-bandwidth, large-amplitude clamped–clamped microbeam resonator excited near the higher order modes of vibration. We analytically and experimentally investigate the nonlinear dynamics of the microbeam under a two-source harmonic excitation. The first-frequency source is swept around the first three modes of vibration, whereas the second source frequency remains fixed. New additive and subtractive resonances are demonstrated. We illustrated that by properly tuning the frequency and amplitude of the excitation force, the frequency bandwidth of the resonator is controlled. The microbeam is fabricated using polyimide as a structural layer coated with nickel from the top and chromium and gold layers from the bottom. Using the Galerkin method, a reduced order model is derived to simulate the static and dynamic response of the device. A good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data are reported.

  15. Multifrequency excitation of a clamped–clamped microbeam: Analytical and experimental investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar; Ramini, Abdallah; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    Using partial electrodes and a multifrequency electrical source, we present a large-bandwidth, large-amplitude clamped–clamped microbeam resonator excited near the higher order modes of vibration. We analytically and experimentally investigate the nonlinear dynamics of the microbeam under a two-source harmonic excitation. The first-frequency source is swept around the first three modes of vibration, whereas the second source frequency remains fixed. New additive and subtractive resonances are demonstrated. We illustrated that by properly tuning the frequency and amplitude of the excitation force, the frequency bandwidth of the resonator is controlled. The microbeam is fabricated using polyimide as a structural layer coated with nickel from the top and chromium and gold layers from the bottom. Using the Galerkin method, a reduced order model is derived to simulate the static and dynamic response of the device. A good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data are reported.

  16. Microbeam high-resolution diffraction and x-ray standing wave methods applied to semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimirov, A; Bilderback, D H; Huang, R; Sirenko, A; Ougazzaden, A

    2004-01-01

    A new approach to conditioning x-ray microbeams for high angular resolution x-ray diffraction and scattering techniques is introduced. We combined focusing optics (one-bounce imaging capillary) and post-focusing collimating optics (miniature Si(004) channel-cut crystal) to generate an x-ray microbeam with a size of 10 μm and ultimate angular resolution of 14 μrad. The microbeam was used to analyse the strain in sub-micron thick InGaAsP epitaxial layers grown on an InP(100) substrate by the selective area growth technique in narrow openings between the oxide stripes. For the structures for which the diffraction peaks from the substrate and the film overlap, the x-ray standing wave technique was applied for precise measurements of the strain with a Δd/d resolution of better than 10 -4 . (rapid communication)

  17. Ion microbeam irradiation for radiobiology and radical chemistry: status and prospect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodja, H, E-mail: hicham.khodja@cea.fr [CEA, IRAMIS, SIS2M, LEEL, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); CNRS, UMR 3299, SIS2M, LEEL, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-01-01

    Ion microbeams are commonly used to study local irradiation effects in living cells, as it has been established that ion beam irradiations can lead to deleterious changes in cells that are not struck directly by the microbeam. Such changes, which take place over distances long compared to the size of the irradiation spot and for times long compared to the time of irradiation, are collectively termed radiation-induced bystander effect or RIBE. Free-radical chemistry is frequently invoked to explain the RIBE but no unified model is available at present. Ion microbeams when coupled with advanced methods for observing free radicals are the tools of choice for investigating the chemistry and biological processes governing RIBE.

  18. The application of microbeam in the research on radiation-induced bystander effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jie; Han Ling

    2002-01-01

    There has been more and more attention to the phenomenon known as radiation-induced bystander effects, which will have a tremendous effect on the research in low -dose radiation biological effects. However, due to the stochastic nature of energy deposition and the random position of tracts, direct evidence for bystander effects and exact results of single particle interacts with a cell cannot be provided by using conventional broad-field irradiation. The availability of microbeam, especially the single particle microbeam in the world, whereby individual cells or precise location of cells can be irradiated with either a single or an exact number of particles provides a useful tool for the research on radiation-induced bystander effects. The author describes the radiation -induced bystander effect and the application of microbeam in the research on it

  19. Alignment of dipole magnet in micro-beam line of HIRFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shaoming; Chen Wenjun; Yang Shengli; Cai Guozhu; Guo Yizhen; Zhou Guangming; Man Kaidi; Song Mingtao

    2010-01-01

    Microbeam irradiation facility is an experiment platform, which can reduce the beam-spot on the irradiated sample to micrometer level, and can accurately locate and count the radioactive particles. It is a powerful research tool for the irradiation material science, irradiation biology, irradiation biomedicine and micro mechanical machining. The microbeam irradiation facility requires the precise work for installation and alignment. These conditions make magnet's change for directions and positions because the location space of dipole magnets in micro-beam line of HIRFL (Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou) is very small. It is a challenge for the installation and alignment work of magnets. It was solved by transforming coordinates of benchmarks of magnets, which controlled the error of magnet setup within error tolerance range. (authors)

  20. Residual stress measurement method in MEMS microbeams using frequency shift data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somà, Aurelio; Ballestra, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    The dynamical behaviour of a set of gold microbeams affected by residual stress has been studied. Experimental frequency shift curves were obtained by increasing the dc voltage applied to the specimens. Comparison with different analytical and numerical models has been carried out in order to identify both analytical and finite element models in the presence of residual stress. Residual strain and stress, due to the fabrication process, have been widely reported in the literature in both out-of-plane microcantilevers and clamped–clamped microbeams by using mainly the value of pull-in voltage and static deflection data. In the case of a microcantilever, an accurate modelling includes the effect of the initial curvature due to microfabrication. In double-clamped microbeams, a pre-load applied by tensile stress is considered. A good correspondence is pointed out between measurements and numerical models so that the residual stress effect can be evaluated for different geometrical configurations

  1. Result of the intercomparison exercise on radon measuring instruments and radon detectors 'bev- radon ring 2005'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, A.; Maringer, F.J.; Michai, P.; Kreuziger, M.

    2006-01-01

    In spring 2005 the Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (B.E.V.) invited all in Austria working radon measuring institutes to an intercomparison exercise at the radon calibration laboratory in the Arsenal. The aim of this intercomparison was on the one hand an objective inquiry and documentation of the current metrological potential on the section of radon measurement in Austria - both quantitative and qualitative- and on the other hand an initiative for the participating laboratories to optimize and improve their applied calibration-, measurement and analyse technique. Ten contacted Austrian radon laboratories were prepared to participate on the radon intercomparison exercise. The intercomparison exercise was carried out from 14. till 29. June at the radon calibration laboratory in the Arsenal of the B.E.V.. As radon emanation source a five stepped arranged, at the Arsenal built radon source was used. The source ( A.D.O.T.T.O. 1 is filled with a certified Ra- 226-standard solution of the Czech Metrological Institute (C.M.I.), Prag. A simple statistic based model was used for the evaluation and assessment of the results from the participants, which consider the statistic nature of the radioactive decay combined uncertainty. Altogether 183 measuring instruments participated the intercomparison exercise. Two reference measuring instruments, 22 active and 159 passive measuring instruments. The active measuring instruments formed 6 types of instruments and as passive radon detectors were 7 different types used from the participants. The positioning of the radon measuring instruments and detectors in the radon calibration laboratory was executed in regard to statistic points of view. From the active measuring instruments 17 could qualify and from the passive methods six from eight participants were in compliance to the given criteria. Radon measurements, which could have financial and economics relating implications (e.g. architectural redevelopment or

  2. Protection of workers from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, P.

    1992-01-01

    The TUC regards exposure to radon as one of a range of health hazards in industry which need to be controlled. In the case of radon the costs of control measures are very much lower than the costs of averting similar doses in the nuclear industry. All employers in the areas affected should be able to demonstrate that they have taken appropriate steps to determine the risks from radon and have introduced remedial measures where appropriate. The TUC considers it essential that trade union safety representatives should be fully involved and consulted about the problem. (Author)

  3. Radon risk in the house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressa, G.

    2001-01-01

    Radon was discovered in 1900, but its potential dangerousness for man was fully understood only in 1950. Being a radioactive natural gas - and therefore particularly dangerous - radon results from the long decay chain of radionuclides, such as thorium and radium. Some igneous rocks (granite, tufa and lava) as well as coal are considered to be the main sources of this radionuclide. A number of epidemiologic studies have shown the carcinogenicity of this element, particularly among miners and workers subjected to high level exposure in confined spaces such as basements, garages, cellars, etc. There are, however, some techniques to remove radon in order to reduce exposure to minimum values [it

  4. Radon as an earthquake precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.

    2004-01-01

    Radon concentrations in soil gas were continuously measured by the LR-115 nuclear track detectors during a four-year period. Seismic activities, as well as barometric pressure, rainfall and air temperature were also observed. The influence of meteorological parameters on temporal radon variations was investigated, and a respective equation of the multiple regression was derived. The earthquakes with magnitude ≥3 at epicentral distances ≤200 km were recognized by means of radon anomaly. Empirical equations between earthquake magnitude, epicentral distance and precursor time were examined, and respective constants were determined

  5. Radon as an earthquake precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planinic, J. E-mail: planinic@pedos.hr; Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B

    2004-09-11

    Radon concentrations in soil gas were continuously measured by the LR-115 nuclear track detectors during a four-year period. Seismic activities, as well as barometric pressure, rainfall and air temperature were also observed. The influence of meteorological parameters on temporal radon variations was investigated, and a respective equation of the multiple regression was derived. The earthquakes with magnitude {>=}3 at epicentral distances {<=}200 km were recognized by means of radon anomaly. Empirical equations between earthquake magnitude, epicentral distance and precursor time were examined, and respective constants were determined.

  6. Radon in dwellings the national radon survey Galway and Mayo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, A.T.; Fennell, S.G.; Mackin, G.M.; Madden, J.S.; O'Colmain, M.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the results of the final phase of the National Radon Survey carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. The counties included in this phase are Galway and Mayo. The average radon concentrations for the houses measured in these counties were 112 Bq/m 3 and 100 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The measurement data were grouped on the basis of the 10 km grid squares of the Irish National Grid System and used to predict the percentage of dwellings in each grid square which exceeds the Reference Level of 200 Bq/m 3 . Grid squares where this percentage is predicted to be 10% or higher are designated High Radon Areas. The health effects of exposure to high radon levels are discussed and recommendations are made regarding both new and existing dwellings. (author)

  7. Radon in dwellings the national radon survey Cork and Kerry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, A.T.; Fennell, S.G.; Mackin, G.M.; Madden, J.S.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents the results of the third phase of the National Radon Survey carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. The counties included in this phase are Cork and Kerry. The average radon concentrations for the houses measured in these counties were 76 Bq/m 3 and 70 Bq/m 3 . The measurement data were grouped on the basis of the 10 km grid squares of the Irish National Grid System and used to predict the percentage of dwellings in each grid square which exceeds the Reference Level of 200 Bq/m 3 . Grid squares where this percentage is predicted to be 10% or higher are designated High Radon Areas. The health effects of exposure to high radon levels are discussed and recommendations are made regarding both new and existing dwellings. (author)

  8. Radiation exposure due to radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, W.

    1976-01-01

    Underground miners working over long periods of time in mines with a high content of radon and radon daughters belong to that group of occupationally exposed persons who are subject to the greatest somatic risk, with values especially high if the permissible dose limits are exceeded. Follwing an overview of the permissible limits currently in use for radon and radon daughters as well as the results of examinations performed in nationally-owned underground mining of the G.D.R., considerations are presented on the measuring quantities requisite for statistical, control and safety measurements in this field. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning the measuring procedures and instruments to be employed for practical work. (author)

  9. Emanation of radon-222 in uraniferous phosphorite from Pernambuco, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M.L.O.; França, E.J.; Amaral, D.S.; Silva, K.E.M.; Hazin, C.A.; Farias, E.E.G.

    2017-01-01

    The concentration of radon-222 activity available for transport to the surface through the pore space can be defined as radon emanation. From the decay of radium-226, whose half-life is 1850 years, it is associated with the development of neoplasia, such as lung cancer. In the Metropolitan Region of Recife, sedimentary rocks known as phosphorites have been known since 1959, so, from the radiometric characterization of the Paulista and Igarassu Municipality, in Pernambuco, emanation tests were carried out, aiming to determine the emanation power of radon in samples of uraniferous phosphorite from the Recife Metropolitan Region. Initially, 6 independent samples of phosphorites with activity concentration of 226 Ra> 400 Bq kg -1 were comminuted. Portions of 5g were conditioned in a radon chamber with 500 mL volume for measurements. The linear fit of the model converged after 200 interactions with selection of the best fit by the Chi-Square test, through the Origin® 8.0 program. After analysis of the samples, radon emanation power was estimated in the range of 7% to 15%, with a mean value of 10.8%. The methodology used to determine the emanation parameters in samples of uraniferous phosphorite was adequate, observing an inversely proportional relation between the concentration of the radium-226 and the emanation power

  10. Earthquake forecasting studies using radon time series data in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Vivek; Kumar, Arvind; Fu, Ching-Chou; Lin, Shih-Jung; Chou, Kuang-Wu; Wen, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Cheng-Hong

    2017-04-01

    For few decades, growing number of studies have shown usefulness of data in the field of seismogeochemistry interpreted as geochemical precursory signals for impending earthquakes and radon is idendified to be as one of the most reliable geochemical precursor. Radon is recognized as short-term precursor and is being monitored in many countries. This study is aimed at developing an effective earthquake forecasting system by inspecting long term radon time series data. The data is obtained from a network of radon monitoring stations eastblished along different faults of Taiwan. The continuous time series radon data for earthquake studies have been recorded and some significant variations associated with strong earthquakes have been observed. The data is also examined to evaluate earthquake precursory signals against environmental factors. An automated real-time database operating system has been developed recently to improve the data processing for earthquake precursory studies. In addition, the study is aimed at the appraisal and filtrations of these environmental parameters, in order to create a real-time database that helps our earthquake precursory study. In recent years, automatic operating real-time database has been developed using R, an open source programming language, to carry out statistical computation on the data. To integrate our data with our working procedure, we use the popular and famous open source web application solution, AMP (Apache, MySQL, and PHP), creating a website that could effectively show and help us manage the real-time database.

  11. Monitoring of radon concentration in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Ryuhei

    1991-01-01

    Radon problems in dwellings have recently received much attention. Radon concentration in dwellings, as well as in the general environment, varies with various factors such as meteorological conditions and soil components. Therefore, a long term monitoring of radon concentration is required to obtain an average concentration. This paper reviews a passive type radon monitor that is handy and allows a long term radon monitoring. It provides the structure and principle of the radon monitor, covering the type, filter function, sensitivity of diffusion collecting type (cup type), electrostatic collecting type, adsorption collecting type, and detector of radon monitor. Actual examples of the radon monitor are also given. Radon daughter nuclides will have become major foci of exposure countermeasures. In the future, the development of a passive type monitor for determining potential alpha energy concentration is required. (N.K.)

  12. Quality assurance for radon measurements in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.R.; Buchroeder, H.; Foerster, E.; Schmidt, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Radiation protection regarding work activities at workplaces with naturally occurring radiation has been regulated in the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. Regulations refer only to workplaces where the presence of natural radiation leads to a significant increase in the exposure of workers. These workplaces were identified in the following working areas with enhanced exposures to radon-222: underground mines, including visitor mines and show caves; radon-spas and galleries; water supply and distribution industries. Presently, regulations are being initiated by the German government to limit the exposures to radon in homes. For radon measurements at workplaces passive radon devices for individual monitoring as well as active measuring systems for workplace monitoring can be used. However, passive radon devices are preferred for radon measurements in homes because of low costs and availability in large quantities. To assure the quality of radon measurements the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) has established annual interlaboratory comparisons for passive radon devices. The comparisons are carried out in the BfS radon calibration laboratory accredited by the German Calibration Service. Passive radon devices which use solid state track detectors, electrets or activated charcoal can be submitted. Approved radon services which offer radon measurements to determine radon exposure in homes and at workplaces have to pass the comparisons successfully. (author)

  13. Synchrotron x-ray microbeam characteristics for x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Atsuo; Noma, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis using a synchrotron x-ray microprobe has become an indispensable technique for non-destructive micro-analysis. One of the most important parameters that characterize the x-ray microbeam system for x-ray fluorescence analysis is the beam size. For practical analysis, however, the photon flux, the energy resolution and the available energy range are also crucial. Three types of x-ray microbeam systems, including monochromatic and continuum excitation systems, were compared with reference to the sensitivity, the minimum detection limit and the applicability to various types of x-ray spectroscopic analysis. 16 refs., 5 figs

  14. Channeling-based collimators for generation of microbeams produced by silicon micromachining technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidi, V.; Antonini, A.; Milan, E.; Ronzoni, A.; Martinelli, G.; Biryukov, V.M.; Chesnokov, Yu.A.

    2006-01-01

    The growing interest on micro-beams in recent years and the combined development of channeling technology in high-energy physics have opened the way to new concepts for micro-beams devices. Silicon micromachining technology is here applied to manufacture micro-collimators in inexpensive and feasible ways. Both dry and wet etchings can be employed for the purpose, though the latter technique appears to be cheaper and easier. Two designs for micro-collimator devices have been considered and preliminary samples have been produced accordingly

  15. Geographical information system for radon gas from soil measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, P.; Amici, M.; Altieri, A.; Massari, P.; Miccadei, E.; Onofri, A.; Orlando, C.; Paolelli, C.; Paron, P.; Perticaroli, P.; Piacentini, T.; Silvestri, C.; Minach, L.; Verdi, L.; Bertolo, A.; Trotti, F.

    2000-03-01

    The working program foresees the realization of an geographical information system for the check in field of the geological parameters and determination of uranium and radium contents in various type of rocks. It is here also pointed out a measuring method for radon concentration in soil [it

  16. Proceedings of radon and radon progeny measurements in Australia symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akber, R.A.; Harris, F.

    1994-01-01

    This publication contain papers presented at a symposium on radon and radon progeny measurements in Australia, held in Canberra on 18 February 1994. The emphasis was on results of measurements in different exposure situations, however information on methodology and techniques was also included. The scope of the symposium expanded through participation by scientists from China, French Polynesia and New Zealand. A list of participants and their organizations is included at the end of the proceedings. refs., tabs., figs

  17. Decommissioning/closeout of Malargue site: measurement of radon daughter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila Cadena, Guadalberto

    2000-01-01

    In Malargue complex there are about 700,000 mt of uranium tailings disposed off during 32 years of operation of the Malargue facility. The objective of the Malargue Site is to undertake the necessary actions to execute remediation programs. A summary of measurements of concentrations of radon daughter taken in different buildings of the city and in the field shows the influence of radon source. The results obtain for concentrations of radon daughter indicate that they do not differ significantly between each others. The environmental remediation of uranium mill tailings at Malargue Site is a requirement of Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) and of the Mendoza province and a commitment to reduce the doses as low as reasonably achievable, social and economic factors being taken into account (ALARA concept). (author)

  18. An Alpha spectrometer for measuring radon daughter individual activity concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berico, M.; Formignani, M.; Mariotti, F.

    2001-01-01

    In the frame of the program of the Institute for Radiation Protection of ENEA, related to the evaluation of dose from radon and thoron progeny, an alpha spectrometer for the continuous air monitoring (CAM type) of radon and thoron has been realized. The constructive characteristics of the device are here presented together with energy and efficiency calibration. The device allows, by means of a screen type diffusion battery and a filter, to determinate the single radioactivity of each radionuclide of the progeny selecting them in relation to their diffusive behaviour (dichotomous particle size selection). The three-count filter method has been employed to measure the concentrations of 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Bi in air. Radon and thoron effective doses using a dosimetric, instead of an epidemiologic approach, will be then evaluated [it

  19. Radon risk in the house; Il rischio radon nelle abitazioni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressa, G. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. di Farmacologia e Anestesiologia, Lab. di Tossicologia

    2001-04-01

    Radon was discovered in 1900, but its potential dangerousness for man was fully understood only in 1950. Being a radioactive natural gas - and therefore particularly dangerous - radon results from the long decay chain of radionuclides, such as thorium and radium. Some igneous rocks (granite, tufa and lava) as well as coal are considered to be the main sources of this radionuclide. A number of epidemiologic studies have shown the carcinogenicity of this element, particularly among miners and workers subjected to high level exposure in confined spaces such as basements, garages, cellars, etc. There are, however, some techniques to remove radon in order to reduce exposure to minimum values. [Italian] Il radon fu scoperto nel 1900, ma solo nel 1950 si comprese la sua potenziale pericolosita' per l'uomo. Il radon e' particolarmente pericoloso essendo un gas naturale radioattivo. Esso proviene dalla lunga catena di decadimento di radionuclidi come il torio e di radio. Sorgenti di tale radionuclide sono da considerarsi principalmente alcune rocce ignee (graniti, tufi e lave) e il carbone. Diversi studi epidemiologici hanno evidenziato la cancerogenicita' di tale elemento, specie tra i minatori e soggetti esposti ad alti livelli in ambienti confinati quali scantinati, garage sotterranei, ecc.. Esistono comunque tecniche di intervento per la rimozione del gas radon in modo tale da ridurre l'esposizione a valori minimi.

  20. Reasons for increasing radon concentrations in radon remediated houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavensjoe, B.

    1997-01-01

    The study comprises 31 single-dwelling houses where remedial actions were carried out in the 1980s. In all of them the radon concentrations have increased more than 30% according to recent control measurements. Radon sources are building material as well as the soil. The remedial actions dealt with ventilation systems, leakage through the basement floor, air cushions, sub-slab suction or radon wells according to the original problems. Causes for the increase varied: In many houses with soil radon problems, the installation of a normal mechanical ventilation system is not a good remedial action. In some houses on a ground with high permeability and high radon content in the soil air, the radon concentration may increase by the lowering of the indoor air pressure. In other houses the increase was a measurement effect, where sites/rooms were confused. Living related causes were identified in a number of cases, where fan speeds were reduced for energy conservation/noise reduction purposes or different use of windows airing had occurred. Extension of the dwelling space without changing the ventilation system caused the increase in one house. 23 refs

  1. Energy deposition and radiation quality of radon and radon daughters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, L.R.; Caswell, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    This program was aimed at creating a quantitative physical description, at the micrometer and nanometer levels, of the physical interactions of the alpha particles from radon and its daughters with cells at risk in the bronchial epithelium. The authors calculated alpha-particle energy spectra incident upon the cells and also energy deposition spectra in micrometer- and nanometer-sized sites as a function of cell depth, site size, airway diameter, activities of 218 Po and 214 Po, and other parameters. These data are now being applied, using biophysical models of radiation effects, to predict cell killing, mutations, and cell transformation. The model predictions are then compared to experimental biophysical, biochemical, and biological information. These studies contribute to a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of the biological effectiveness of the radiations emitted by radon and its progeny

  2. Nonlinear dynamic response of an electrically actuated imperfect microbeam resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Ruzziconi, Laura

    2013-08-04

    We present a study of the dynamic behavior of a MEMS device constituted of an imperfect clamped-clamped microbeam subjected to electrostatic and electrodynamic actuation. Our objective is to develop a theoretical analysis, which is able to describe and predict all the main relevant aspects of the experimental response. Extensive experimental investigation is conducted, where the main imperfections coming from microfabrication are detected and the nonlinear dynamics are explored at increasing values of electrodynamic excitation, in a neighborhood of the first symmetric resonance. The nonlinear behavior is highlighted, which includes ranges of multistability, where the non-resonant and the resonant branch coexist, and intervals where superharmonic resonances are clearly visible. Numerical simulations are performed. Initially, two single mode reduced-order models are considered. One is generated via the Galerkin technique, and the other one via the combined use of the Ritz method and the Padé approximation. Both of them are able to provide a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. This occurs not only at low values of electrodynamic excitation, but also at higher ones. Their computational efficiency is discussed in detail, since this is an essential aspect for systematic local and global simulations. Finally, the theoretical analysis is further improved and a two-degree-of-freedom reduced-order model is developed, which is capable also to capture the measured second symmetric superharmonic resonance. Despite the apparent simplicity, it is shown that all the proposed reduced-order models are able to describe the experimental complex nonlinear dynamics of the device accurately and properly, which validates the proposed theoretical approach. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

  3. Predicting radon flux from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, is developing technology for the design of radon barriers for uranium mill tailings piles. To properly design a radon cover for a particular tailings pile, the radon flux emanating from the bare tailings must be known. The tailings characteristics required to calculate the radon flux include radium-226 content, emanating power, bulk density, and radon diffusivity. This paper presents theoretical and practical aspects of estimating the radon flux from an uranium tailings pile. Results of field measurements to verify the calculation methodology are also discussed. 24 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  4. Ventilation influence upon indoor air radon level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Deyuan

    1995-01-01

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level. Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition, although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level. Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level. Therefore, the total indoor air Rn levels are normal > ventilation > exhaust or in-draft > exhaust plus in-draft

  5. Radon in soils: intercomparative studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Galle, C.; Seidel, J.-L.; Monnin, M.

    1988-01-01

    Two kinds of experiments were designed to evaluate some of the variations that can be expected from radon in soil concentrations as monitored by closely spaced solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). Measurements were performed by the Insituto Nacional de Investigations Nucleares in Mexico and the Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire in France. The first experimental design consisted of a series of 15 day exposures of twenty monitoring devices placed inside a single bore hole. Fluctuations obtained in the radon levels at the twenty closely spaced monitoring sites ranged from 9% to 33%. The second experiment was performed with 4 pairs of radon monitoring devices located at 4 different sites at the summit of the Nevado de Toluca volcano. Results show that the SSNTD technique is well suited for radon measurements intended for geophysical studies. (author)

  6. Radon in soils: intercomparative studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Galle, C. (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico)); Seidel, J.-L.; Monnin, M. (Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire)

    1988-01-01

    Two kinds of experiments were designed to evaluate some of the variations that can be expected from radon in soil concentrations as monitored by closely spaced solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). Measurements were performed by the Insituto Nacional de Investigations Nucleares in Mexico and the Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire in France. The first experimental design consisted of a series of 15 day exposures of twenty monitoring devices placed inside a single bore hole. Fluctuations obtained in the radon levels at the twenty closely spaced monitoring sites ranged from 9% to 33%. The second experiment was performed with 4 pairs of radon monitoring devices located at 4 different sites at the summit of the Nevado de Toluca volcano. Results show that the SSNTD technique is well suited for radon measurements intended for geophysical studies. (author).

  7. Evolution of radon dose evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto Kenzo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical change of radon dose evaluation is reviewed based on the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR reports. Since 1955, radon has been recognized as one of the important sources of exposure of the general public. However, it was not really understood that radon is the largest dose contributor until 1977 when a new concept of effective dose equivalent was introduced by International Commission on Radiological Protection. In 1982, the dose concept was also adapted by UNSCEAR and evaluated per caput dose from natural radiation. Many researches have been carried out since then. However, lots of questions have remained open in radon problems, such as the radiation weighting factor of 20 for alpha rays and the large discrepancy of risk estimation among dosimetric and epidemiological approaches.

  8. Residential radon survey in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Castren, O.

    1993-02-01

    The study measured the indoor radon concentration in the dwellings of 3074 persons, selected randomly from the central population register of Finland. Alpha track detectors and two consecutive half year measuring periods were used. The national mean of indoor radon concentration for persons living in low-rise residential buildings as well as blocks of flats was 145 and 82 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The mean for the total population was 123 Bq/m 3 . Based on the decision of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health in 1992, the indoor radon concentration should not exceed 400 Bq/m 3 in already existing houses, the target for new construction being less than 200 Bq/m 3 . According to the study, the percentage of the Finnish population living in houses with an indoor radon concentration exceeding 200, 400 and 800 Bq/m 3 was 12.3 %, 3.6 % and 1.0 %

  9. Physiologically gated microbeam radiation using a field emission x-ray source array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chtcheprov, Pavel, E-mail: PavelC@unc.edu, E-mail: zhou@email.unc.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, 152 MacNider Hall, Campus Box 7575, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Burk, Laurel; Inscoe, Christina; Ger, Rachel; Hadsell, Michael; Lu, Jianping [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Phillips Hall, CB #3255, 120 East Cameron Avenue, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Yuan, Hong [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, 2006 Old Clinic, CB #7510, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Zhang, Lei [Department of Applied Physical Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapman Hall, CB#3216, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Chang, Sha [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, 101 Manning Drive, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514 and UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, 101 Manning Drive, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514 (United States); Zhou, Otto, E-mail: PavelC@unc.edu, E-mail: zhou@email.unc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Phillips Hall, CB #3255, 120 East Cameron Avenue, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 and UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, 101 Manning Drive, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) uses narrow planes of high dose radiation beams to treat cancerous tumors. This experimental therapy method based on synchrotron radiation has been shown to spare normal tissue at up to 1000 Gy of peak entrance dose while still being effective in tumor eradication and extending the lifetime of tumor-bearing small animal models. Motion during treatment can lead to significant movement of microbeam positions resulting in broader beam width and lower peak to valley dose ratio (PVDR), which reduces the effectiveness of MRT. Recently, the authors have demonstrated the feasibility of generating microbeam radiation for small animal treatment using a carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array. The purpose of this study is to incorporate physiological gating to the CNT microbeam irradiator to minimize motion-induced microbeam blurring. Methods: The CNT field emission x-ray source array with a narrow line focal track was operated at 160 kVp. The x-ray radiation was collimated to a single 280 μm wide microbeam at entrance. The microbeam beam pattern was recorded using EBT2 Gafchromic{sup ©} films. For the feasibility study, a strip of EBT2 film was attached to an oscillating mechanical phantom mimicking mouse chest respiratory motion. The servo arm was put against a pressure sensor to monitor the motion. The film was irradiated with three microbeams under gated and nongated conditions and the full width at half maximums and PVDRs were compared. An in vivo study was also performed with adult male athymic mice. The liver was chosen as the target organ for proof of concept due to its large motion during respiration compared to other organs. The mouse was immobilized in a specialized mouse bed and anesthetized using isoflurane. A pressure sensor was attached to a mouse's chest to monitor its respiration. The output signal triggered the electron extraction voltage of the field emission source such that x-ray was generated only

  10. Radon measurement studies in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevost'yanov, V.N.

    2003-01-01

    Today, one has to admit that despite the important role and certain achievements in providing the radiation control in Kazakhstan, radon measurements still present some problems related to clear definition of physical quantities applied, correct use of methods, and application of adequate measuring devices to meet requirements of regulatory documents currently in effect, such as NRB-99. The paper provides some data on radon measurements, describes the problem status in Kazakhstan and proposes ways to solve it. (author)

  11. CANALPH-3: a portable three-channel alpha spectrometer for measuring the daughter products of radon and thoron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, D.W.

    1979-07-01

    A portable three-channel alpha spectrometer for the measurment of radon and thoron daughters in uranium mines or homes is described. The computer programs for analysing the data to give the working levels of radon and thoron by both the alpha spectrometric and modified Kusnetz methods are included along with some typical results

  12. Radon gas measurement in Corum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzbey, S.; Celebi, N.

    2009-01-01

    The existence of the natural radioactive sources in earth's crust which has long half-life and the degradation products of these in the environmental medium such as earth, rocks, foods, water, air, forms the basis of radiation which people are exposed to. Radon is the unique radioactive gas in the nature and it is made up of radium which is the result of uranium degradation. It is necessary to determine the radon concentration because of the difference in the concentration of uranium existence in different places. TAEK (Turkish Atomic Energy Authority) allows 400 Bq/m 3 of radon concentration at houses, 1000 Bq/m 3 at offices per year. In this attempt, government buildings, houses and offices were determined as the sampling places in Corum city center and towns to represent Corum. While disposing the radon measuring detectors, places which are close to the ground level were preferred. 74 radon detectors were left in those places for 60 days and in the end the detectors were collected while discontinuing the connection of environment and they were assessed. According to the results, the average radon gas concentration in 14 government buildings is 71,71 Bq/m 3 , in 15 offices 32,26 Bq/m 3 and at houses 42,34 Bq/m 3 .

  13. THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS RADON DANGER MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Chunikhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon is the major contributor to the background exposure of the population. In the world practice, the radon risk or radon potential mapping are used for the radon dose assessment.The aim of this work was a radon danger mapping of the Republic of Belarus to assess the radiation situation and determine the radon hazard critical areas.Materials and methods: The mapping is based on measured values of radon volume activity in the living rooms of different buildings on the territory of the six regions of the Republic of Belarus. We have performed more than 4000 measurements. Integral track radon radiometers based on the polymer Kodak LR-115 film were used to evaluate radon volume activity. Exposure time ranged from 90 to 120 days. The cartogram was built with using the MAPINFO software package.Results: The low levels of radon concentrations were determined in the Brest and Gomel regions, as well as in the southern districts of Minsk and south-western districts of the Mogilev region. The high levels radon concentrations were determined in some districts of the Vitebsk and Grodno regions, as well as in the north-eastern districts of the Mogilev region. About 2–5 times nonuniformity of radon distribution in settlements of the Republic was observed. The radon hazard critical areas with radon concentrations in the range of 200–400 Bq/m3 were found in some districts of the Vitebsk, Grodno and Mogilev regions.Conclusions: The radon risk map of the Republic of Belarus gives the possibility to estimate the existing radiation risk. Taking into account the low efficiency of countermeasures long after the Chernobyl accident, it is necessary to increase the level of radiation protection through the radon mitigation activities or to change the radon normative documents.

  14. Screening radon risks: A methodology for policymakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisinger, D.S.; Simmons, R.A.; Lammering, M.; Sotiros, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an easy-to-use screening methodology to estimate potential excess lifetime lung cancer risk resulting from indoor radon exposure. The methodology was developed under U.S. EPA Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation sponsorship of the agency's Integrated Environmental Management Projects (IEMP) and State/Regional Comparative Risk Projects. These projects help policymakers understand and use scientific data to develop environmental problem-solving strategies. This research presents the risk assessment methodology, discusses its basis, and identifies appropriate applications. The paper also identifies assumptions built into the methodology and qualitatively addresses methodological uncertainties, the direction in which these uncertainties could bias analyses, and their relative importance. The methodology draws from several sources, including risk assessment formulations developed by the U.S. EPA's Office of Radiation Programs, the EPA's Integrated Environmental Management Project (Denver), the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. When constructed as a spreadsheet program, the methodology easily facilitates analyses and sensitivity studies (the paper includes several sensitivity study options). The methodology will be most helpful to those who need to make decisions concerning radon testing, public education, and exposure prevention and mitigation programs.26 references

  15. Indoor radon and radon daughters survey at Campinas-Brazil using CR-39: First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, S.; Hadler, J.C.N.; Iunes, P.J.; Navia, L.M.S.; Neman, R.S.; Paulo, S.R.; Rodrigues, V.C.; Souza, W.F.; Tello, C.A.S.; Zuniga, A.

    1999-01-01

    The first results of a radon and radon daughters (RD) survey performed at Campinas-SP, Brazil, are presented. We employed a technique that, potentially, makes possible to measure the radon and RD activity in the air and to separate from this result the activity of radon, alone. In this preliminary paper only the former activity is studied

  16. Indoor radon and radon daughters survey at Campinas-Brazil using CR-39: First results

    CERN Document Server

    Guedes, S; Iunes, P J; Navia, L M S; Neman, R S; Paulo, S R; Rodrigues, V C; Souza, W F; Tello, C A S; Zúñiga, A G

    1999-01-01

    The first results of a radon and radon daughters (RD) survey performed at Campinas-SP, Brazil, are presented. We employed a technique that, potentially, makes possible to measure the radon and RD activity in the air and to separate from this result the activity of radon, alone. In this preliminary paper only the former activity is studied.

  17. Uranium prospecting through radon detection; La prospection de l'uranium par le radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradel, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    Prospecting rests on the determination of the concentration of ground air in radon. Radon diffusing from deep uranium bearing layers is detected in upper ground layers. (author) [French] La prospection est basee sur l'etude de la concentration en radon dans l'air du sol. Dans les terrains superficiels, on decele le radon qui diffuse a partir des couches profondes uraniferes. (auteur)

  18. The history, development and the present status of the radon measurement programme in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The US radon measurement programme began in the late 1950's by the US Public Health Service in Colorado, New Mexico and Utah during the uranium frenzy. After the 1967 Congressional Hearings on the working conditions in uranium mines, the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was asked to conduct studies in active uranium mines to assess the exposure of the miners on the Colorado Plateau and in New Mexico. From 1967 to 1972, the Health and Safety Laboratory of the US AEC in New York investigated more than 20 uranium mines for radon and radon decay product concentrations and particle size in 4 large uranium mines in New Mexico. In 1970, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established and took over some of the AEC radon measurement activities. Between 1975 and 1978, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory of the US Department of Energy conducted the first detailed indoor radon survey in the USA. Later in 1984, the very high concentrations of radon found in Pennsylvania homes set the wheels in motion and gave birth to the US Radon Industry. The US EPA expanded its involvement in radon issues and assumed an active role by establishing the National Radon Proficiency Program to evaluate the effectiveness of radon measurement and mitigation methods. In 1998, due to limited resources EPA privatised the radon programme. This paper presents a personal perspective of past events and current status of the US radon programme. It will present an update on radon health effects, the incidence rate of lung cancer in the USA and the number of radon measurements made from 1988 to 2013 using short-term test methods. More than 23 million measurements were made in the last 25 y and as a result more than 1.24 million homes were mitigated successfully. It is estimated that <2 % of the radon measurements performed in the USA are made using long-term testing devices. The number of homes above the US action level of 148 Bq m -3 (4 pCi l -1 ) may be ∼8.5 million because ∼50

  19. Radon gas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madnick, P.A.; Sherwood, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a radon gas detector. It comprises: a housing having an interior chamber, the interior chamber being completely closed to ambient light, the interior chamber being divided into an environment connecting chamber and a radiation ascertaining chamber; radiation sensitive means mounted between the environment connecting chamber and the radiation ascertaining chamber; air movement means mounted in connection with the environment connecting chamber. The air movement means for moving ambient air through the environment connecting chamber; electronic means for detecting radiation within the air which is passing through the environment connecting chamber. The electronic means also including radiation counting means. The electronic means producing an output based on the type and quantity of radiation in the environment connecting chamber; and display electronics for receiving the output and displaying accordingly a display representative of the amount and type of radiation located within the environment connecting chamber and hence within the ambient air

  20. [Estimation of effective doses derived from radon in selected SPA centers that use geothermal waters based on the information of radon concentrations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Katarzyna; Zmyślony, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal waters contain, among other components, soluble radon gas. Alpha radioactive radon is a health hazard to humans, especially when it gets into the respiratory tract. SPA facilities that use geothermal water can be a source of an increased radiation dose to people who stay there. Based on the available literature concerning radon concentrations, we assessed exposure to radon among people - workers and visitors of Spa centers that use geothermal waters. Radon concentrations were analyzed in 17 geothermal centers: in Greece (3 centers), Iran (5), China (4) and India (5). Doses recived by people in the SPA were estimated using the formula that 1 hour exposure to 1 Bq/m3 of radon concentration and equilibrium factor F = 0.4 corresponds to an effective dose of 3.2 nSv. We have found that radon levels in SPAs are from a few to several times higher than those in confined spaces, where geothermal waters are not used (e.g., residential buildings). In 82% of the analyzed SPAs, workers may receive doses above 1 mSv/year. According to the relevant Polish regulations, people receiving doses higher than 1 mSv/year are included in category B of radiation exposure and require regular dosimetric monitoring. Doses received by SPA visitors are much lower because the time of their exposure to radon released from geothermal water is rather short. The analysis of radon concentration in SPA facilities shows that the radiological protection of people working with geothermal waters plays an important role. It seems reasonable to include SPA workers staying close to geotermal waters into a dosimetric monitoring program.

  1. Estimation of effective doses derived from radon in selected SPA centers that use geothermal waters based on the information of radon concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Walczak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geothermal waters contain, among other components, soluble radon gas. Alpha radioactive radon is a health hazard to humans, especially when it gets into the respiratory tract. SPA facilities that use geothermal water can be a source of an increased radiation dose to people who stay there. Based on the available literature concerning radon concentrations, we assessed exposure to radon among people - workers and visitors of Spa centers that use geothermal waters. Material and Methods: Radon concentrations were analyzed in 17 geothermal centers: in Greece (3 centers, Iran (5, China (4 and India (5. Doses recived by people in the SPA were estimated using the formula that 1 hour exposure to 1 Bq/m3 of radon concentration and equilibrium factor F = 0.4 corresponds to an effective dose of 3.2 nSv. Results: We have found that radon levels in SPAs are from a few to several times higher than those in confined spaces, where geothermal waters are not used (e.g., residential buildings. In 82% of the analyzed SPAs, workers may receive doses above 1 mSv/year. According to the relevant Polish regulations, people receiving doses higher than 1 mSv/year are included in category B of radiation exposure and require regular dosimetric monitoring. Doses received by SPA visitors are much lower because the time of their exposure to radon released from geothermal water is rather short. Conclusions: The analysis of radon concentration in SPA facilities shows that the radiological protection of people working with geothermal waters plays an important role. It seems reasonable to include SPA workers staying close to geotermal waters into a dosimetric monitoring program. Med Pr 2013;64(2:193–198

  2. S. 2844: A Bill to provide for radon testing. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, September 29, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This bill, entitled as the Department of Housing and Urban Development Radon Policy Act, has been introduced to provide for radon testing. The purposes of this Act are to: provide the Department of Housing and Urban Development with a mandate to establish a departmental radon policy and program; require the Department of Housing and Urban Development to use its programs to assist the EPA in addressing radon contamination; and require the Department of Housing and Urban Development, in coordination with the EPA, to develop a radon assessment and mitigation program which utilized EPA recommended guidelines and standards to ensure that occupants of housing covered under this Act are not exposed to elevated levels of radon

  3. Radon as geological tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Valladares, D.L.; Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Ayub, J. Juri [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis (IMASL); Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of {sup 222}Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 23}'8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using {sup 222}Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m{sup -3} recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  4. Radon as geological tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M.; Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of 222 Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of 40 K, 232 Th and 23 '8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using 222 Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m -3 recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  5. The INFN-LNL single-ion horizontal microbeam facility for cell irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerardi, S.; Galeazzi, G.; Cherubini, R.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Charged particle microbeams provide a unique method to control precisely the dose and its localisation within the cell. Such a kind of tool allows studying a number of important radiobiological processes in ways that cannot be achieved using conventional broad beam irradiation, which has the inherent experimental limitation imposed by the random Poisson-distributed particle hitting. We have designed and developed an apparatus for the micro-collimation in air of low-energy light ion beams, able to deliver targeted and counted particles to individual cells with an overall spatial resolution of few micrometers. The apparatus has been built up at the 7MV Van de Graaff CN accelerator, delivering protons, deuterons, helium-3 and helium-4 ion beams in an LET range from 7 to 180 keV/μm. The beam section is reduced down to 3-7 μm 2 by means of a tantalum pinhole microcollimator. A semi-automatic cell visualization and an automatic cell positioning and (after irradiation) cell revisiting system, based on an inverted phase contrast optical microscope and on X-Y micro-positioning stages with 0.1μm positioning precision, has been developed. Cell recognition is performed without using fluorescent staining and UV light. Particle detection in air is based on a silicon detector while beam profile and precise hit position measurements are accomplished by a high resolution and high sensibility cooled-CCD camera and Solid State Nuclear Track detectors, respectively. A dedicated software program, CELLView named, has been developed by using the LabView 6.0 package (National Instruments) to control all the irradiation protocol operations of sample holder movement, cell visualization, image acquisition and processing, cell data logging, cell positioning and revisiting. Facility performances and preliminary experimental results will be presented

  6. Identification of ancient textile fibres from Khirbet Qumran caves using synchrotron radiation microbeam diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Martin [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik der Christian, Albrechts, Universitaet zu Kiel, Leibnizstr. 19, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)]. E-mail: mmueller@physik.uni-kiel.de; Murphy, Bridget [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik der Christian, Albrechts, Universitaet zu Kiel, Leibnizstr. 19, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Burghammer, Manfred [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Riekel, Christian [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Roberts, Mark [Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Papiz, Miroslav [Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Clarke, David [Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Gunneweg, Jan [Institute of Archaeology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem (Israel); Pantos, Emmanuel [Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2004-10-08

    Archaeological textiles fragments from the caves of Qumran in the Dead Sea region were investigated by means of X-ray microbeam diffraction on single fibres. This non-destructive technique made the identification of the used plant textile fibres possible. Apart from bast fibres (mainly flax), cotton was identified which was most unexpected in the archaeological context.

  7. Continuation of mitosis after selective laser microbeam destruction of the centriolar region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berns, N.W.; Richardson, S.M.

    1977-12-01

    The centriole regions of prophase PTK2 cells were irradiated with a laser microbeam. Cells continued through mitosis normally. Ultrastructural analysis revealed either an absence of centrioles or severely damaged centrioles at the irradiated poles. Microtubules appeared to focus into pericentriolar cloud material.

  8. Live cell imaging at the Munich ion microbeam SNAKE – a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, Guido A; Siebenwirth, Christian; Drexler, Sophie E; Girst, Stefanie; Greubel, Christoph; Dollinger, Günther; Friedl, Anna A

    2015-01-01

    Ion microbeams are important tools in radiobiological research. Still, the worldwide number of ion microbeam facilities where biological experiments can be performed is limited. Even fewer facilities combine ion microirradiation with live-cell imaging to allow microscopic observation of cellular response reactions starting very fast after irradiation and continuing for many hours. At SNAKE, the ion microbeam facility at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator, a large variety of biological experiments are performed on a regular basis. Here, recent developments and ongoing research projects at the ion microbeam SNAKE are presented with specific emphasis on live-cell imaging experiments. An overview of the technical details of the setup is given, including examples of suitable biological samples. By ion beam focusing to submicrometer beam spot size and single ion detection it is possible to target subcellular structures with defined numbers of ions. Focusing of high numbers of ions to single spots allows studying the influence of high local damage density on recruitment of damage response proteins. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0350-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  9. Piezoelectric transduction of flexural modes in pre-stressed microbeam resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torri, G.B.; Janssen, N.M.A.; Zeng, Z.; Rottenberg, X.; Karabacak, D.M.; Vandecasteele, M.; Hoof, C.V.; Puers, R.; Tilmans, H.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the optimization of the design of piezoelectric transducer elements integrated on doubly-clamped microbeam resonators utilized as (bio)chemical sensors. We report and emphasize the often forgotten influence of membrane stresses on defining the dimensions and optimal position of

  10. Live cell imaging at the Munich ion microbeam SNAKE - a status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Guido A; Siebenwirth, Christian; Drexler, Sophie E; Girst, Stefanie; Greubel, Christoph; Dollinger, Günther; Friedl, Anna A

    2015-02-18

    Ion microbeams are important tools in radiobiological research. Still, the worldwide number of ion microbeam facilities where biological experiments can be performed is limited. Even fewer facilities combine ion microirradiation with live-cell imaging to allow microscopic observation of cellular response reactions starting very fast after irradiation and continuing for many hours. At SNAKE, the ion microbeam facility at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator, a large variety of biological experiments are performed on a regular basis. Here, recent developments and ongoing research projects at the ion microbeam SNAKE are presented with specific emphasis on live-cell imaging experiments. An overview of the technical details of the setup is given, including examples of suitable biological samples. By ion beam focusing to submicrometer beam spot size and single ion detection it is possible to target subcellular structures with defined numbers of ions. Focusing of high numbers of ions to single spots allows studying the influence of high local damage density on recruitment of damage response proteins.

  11. Continuation of mitosis after selective laser microbeam destruction of the centriolar region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berns, N.W.; Richardson, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    The centriole regions of prophase PTK2 cells were irradiated with a laser microbeam. Cells continued through mitosis normally. Ultrastructural analysis revealed either an absence of centrioles or severely damaged centrioles at the irradiated poles. Microtubules appeared to focus into pericentriolar cloud material

  12. Dynamic response of an electrostatically actuated microbeam to drop-table test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouakad, Hassen M; Younis, Mohammad I; Alsaleem, Fadi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theoretical and experimental investigation into the dynamic response of an electrostatically actuated microbeam when subjected to drop-table test. For the theoretical part, a reduced-order model based on an Euler–Bernoulli beam model is utilized. The model accounts for the electrostatic bias on the microbeam and the shock pulse of the drop-table test. Simulation results are presented showing the combined effect of electrostatic force and mechanical shock in triggering early pull-in instability of the cantilever microbeams. The analytical simulation results are validated by finite-element results for the static response. Dynamic pull-in threshold as a function of the mechanical shock amplitude is shown over a wide range of shock spanning hundreds of thousands of g up to zero g. For the experimental part, a micromachined cantilever beam made of gold of length 50 µm is subjected to drop-table tests while being biased by electrostatic loads. Several experimental data are shown demonstrating the phenomenon of collapse due to the combined shock and electrostatic forces. It is also demonstrated that by biasing short and too stiff microbeams with electrostatic voltages, their stiffness is weakened. This lowers their threshold of collapse considerably to the range of acceleration that enables testing them with in-house shock testing equipments, such as drop-table tests. (paper)

  13. Development of an intermediate energy heavy-ion micro-beam irradiation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Mingtao; Wang Zhiguang; He Yuan; Gao Daqing; Yang Xiaotian; Liu Jie; Su Hong; Man Kaidi; Sheng Li'na

    2008-01-01

    The micro-beam irradiation system, which focuses the beam down the micron order and precisely delivers a predefined number of ions to a predefined spot of micron order, is a powerful tool for radio-biology, radio-biomedicine and micromachining. The Institute of Modern Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences is developing a heavy-ion micro-beam irradiation system up to intermediate energy. Based on the intermediate and low energy beam provided by Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou, the micro-beam system takes the form of the magnetic focusing. The heavy-ion beam is conducted to the basement by a symmetrical achromatic system consisting of two vertical bending magnets and a quadrupole in between. Then a beam spot of micron order is formed by magnetic triplet quadrupole of very high gradient. The sample can be irradiated either in vacuum or in the air. This system will be the first opening platform capable of providing heavy ion micro-beam, ranging from low (10 MeV/u) to intermediate energy (100 MeV/u), for irradiation experiment with positioning and counting accuracy. Target material may be biology cell, tissue or other non-biological materials. It will be a help for unveiling the essence of heavy-ion interaction with matter and also a new means for exploring the application of heavy-ion irradiation. (authors)

  14. The Dynamics of a Doubly Clamped Microbeam Near the Primary Resonance: Experimental and Analytical Investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Masri, Karim M.

    2016-01-20

    We present experimental and analytical investigation of the dynamics of a doubly clamped microbeam near its primary resonance. The microbeam is excited electrostatically by an electrode on the first half of the beam. These microbeams are fabricated using polyimide as structural layer coated with nickel from top and chromium and gold layers from bottom. A noise signal is applied to experimentally detect the natural frequencies. Then, frequency sweep tests are generated for various values of DC bias revealing hardening, transition, and softening behavior of the microbeam. We report for the first time the transition from lower stable state, to unstable state, and then to large stable state experimentally. A multi-mode Galerkin method is used to develop a reduced order model (ROM) of the beam. Shooting method is used to find the periodic motion and is utilized to generate frequency response curves. The curves show good agreement with the experimental results with hardening behavior at lower DC voltage then softening at higher voltage loads and dynamic pull-in. © Copyright 2015 by ASME.

  15. Identification of ancient textile fibres from Khirbet Qumran caves using synchrotron radiation microbeam diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Martin; Murphy, Bridget; Burghammer, Manfred; Riekel, Christian; Roberts, Mark; Papiz, Miroslav; Clarke, David; Gunneweg, Jan; Pantos, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Archaeological textiles fragments from the caves of Qumran in the Dead Sea region were investigated by means of X-ray microbeam diffraction on single fibres. This non-destructive technique made the identification of the used plant textile fibres possible. Apart from bast fibres (mainly flax), cotton was identified which was most unexpected in the archaeological context

  16. Identification of ancient textile fibres from Khirbet Qumran caves using synchrotron radiation microbeam diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Martin; Murphy, Bridget; Burghammer, Manfred; Riekel, Christian; Roberts, Mark; Papiz, Miroslav; Clarke, David; Gunneweg, Jan; Pantos, Emmanuel

    2004-10-01

    Archaeological textiles fragments from the caves of Qumran in the Dead Sea region were investigated by means of X-ray microbeam diffraction on single fibres. This non-destructive technique made the identification of the used plant textile fibres possible. Apart from bast fibres (mainly flax), cotton was identified which was most unexpected in the archaeological context.

  17. Influence of squeeze film damping on the higher-order modes of clamped–clamped microbeams

    KAUST Repository

    Alcheikh, Nouha

    2016-05-06

    This paper presents an experimental study and a finite-element analysis of the effect of squeeze film damping on the resonance frequency and quality factor of the higher-order flexure vibrations modes of clamped-clamped microbeams. Viscoelastic and silicon nitride microbeams are fabricated and are electrostatically actuated by various electrode configurations to trigger the first, second, and third modes. The damping characteristic and the resonance frequency of these modes are examined for a wide range of gas pressure and electrostatic voltage loads. The results of the silicon nitride beams and viscoelastic beams are compared. It is found that the intrinsic material loss is the major dissipation mechanism at low pressure for the viscoelastic microbeams, significantly limiting their quality factor. It is also found that while the silicon nitride beams show higher quality factors at the intrinsic and molecular regimes of pressure, due to their low intrinsic loss, their quality factors near atmospheric pressure are lower than those of the viscoelastic microbeams. Further, the higher-order modes of all the beams show much higher quality factors at atmospheric pressure compared to the first mode, which could be promising for operating such resonators in air. Experimental results and finite element model simulations show good agreement for resonance frequency and quality factor for the three studied modes. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  18. Mapping of groundwater radon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aekerblom, G.; Lindgren, J.

    1997-01-01

    The domestic use of water with elevated radon concentration may represent a public health hazard, partly due to the release of radon to the indoor air. While only a limited number of countries have implemented regulations with respect to radon in water, many more are considering doing so. The compulsory limits proposed by Swedish authorities are 100 Bq/1 for public water, while water from private wells is not to exceed 1000 Bq/1. Furthermore, it is recommended that water with a radon content above 500 Bq/1 should not be given to children under five years of age. In Sweden, the estimated number of wells with radon levels above 1000 Bq/1 exceeds 10,000, with a considerable amount in excess of 10,000 Bq/1. The highest radon concentration in a well supplying drinking water encountered so far is 57,000 Bq/1. Radon levels exceeding 500 Bq/1 are almost exclusively found in wells drilled into bedrock and in springs with intramontaneous water. Elevated ground water radon levels require that the water has passed through bedrock with elevated concentration of uranium, or through fractures with coatings of minerals containing enhanced concentrations of radium-226. Intramontaneous water from areas with uranium-bearing rock types (e.g. uranium-rich granites, pegmatites and vulcanites) often manifests elevated radon levels. Routines for the establishment of risk maps focusing on water are currently under development. The backbone of the process is the access to high spatial resolution radiometric information together with bedrock and soil information on a detailed scale (1:50,000). This information is available from the Geological Survey of Sweden, which is routinely carrying out airborne measurements at an altitude of 30 m and a line spacing of 200 m. While some 60% of Sweden is covered up to now, 75 % is expected to be covered within the next ten years. Other available databases utilized in the risk mapping process include radon measurements in wells, geochemical data from

  19. H.R. 3258: This Act may be cited as the Radon Awareness and Disclosure Act of 1991, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, August 2, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    H.R. 3258 was introduced into the US House of Representatives to improve the accuracy of radon testing products and services, to increase testing for radon in schools, and to create a commission to provide increased public awareness of radon. Studies by the Environmental Protection Agency indicated that 54% of schools tested have at least one room with elevated levels of radon. A key feature of this act calls for the EPA, in cooperation with the Department of Health and Human Services, to implement an outreach program to provide information radon to the medical community. This information will explain the health risks of radon, and the association of radon with smoking and other causes of lung caner, and identify appropriate steps to determine exposure to radon in the home

  20. Some basic facts about radioactive radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, J.S.; Tanner, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    This article presents some basic facts about 222 Rn. These facts include: half-life; diffusion patterns; how radon enters a house; health risks; and means of definition and estimation of radon hazard potential