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Sample records for radioresistant human esophageal

  1. WISP-1 contributes to fractionated irradiation-induced radioresistance in esophageal carcinoma cell lines and mice.

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    Li, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Li; Li, Hai-Ying; Zheng, Si-Si; Zhao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells that survive fractionated irradiation can be radioresistant and cause tumor recurrence. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of radioresistance in cancer cells remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of WISP-1 in the development of radioresistance in esophageal carcinoma during fractionated irradiation. Radioresistant esophageal cancer cells were generated from normal esophageal cancer cells via fractionated irradiation, and expression levels of related proteins were determined by Western blot. Radiosensitivity of cells was established by clonogenic cell survival assays, and cell cycle distribution was evaluated by flow cytometry. Protein distributions were determined by immunofluorescence, and cell toxicity was evaluated by cell counting kit-8 assays. In vivo validations were performed in a xenograft transplantation mouse model. Our data indicate that WISP-1 plays an important role in the development of radioresistance in esophageal cancer cells during fractionated irradiation. The overexression of WISP-1 in esophageal cancer cells was associated with radioresistance. Depletion of extracellular WISP-1 by antibody neutralizing reversed radioresistance and directly induced mitotic catastrophe resulting in cell death. WISP-1 may be a candidate therapeutic target in the treatment of recurrent esophageal carcinoma after radiotherapy.

  2. WISP-1 contributes to fractionated irradiation-induced radioresistance in esophageal carcinoma cell lines and mice.

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    Wen-Feng Li

    Full Text Available Cancer cells that survive fractionated irradiation can be radioresistant and cause tumor recurrence. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of radioresistance in cancer cells remain elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of WISP-1 in the development of radioresistance in esophageal carcinoma during fractionated irradiation. Radioresistant esophageal cancer cells were generated from normal esophageal cancer cells via fractionated irradiation, and expression levels of related proteins were determined by Western blot. Radiosensitivity of cells was established by clonogenic cell survival assays, and cell cycle distribution was evaluated by flow cytometry. Protein distributions were determined by immunofluorescence, and cell toxicity was evaluated by cell counting kit-8 assays. In vivo validations were performed in a xenograft transplantation mouse model. Our data indicate that WISP-1 plays an important role in the development of radioresistance in esophageal cancer cells during fractionated irradiation. The overexression of WISP-1 in esophageal cancer cells was associated with radioresistance. Depletion of extracellular WISP-1 by antibody neutralizing reversed radioresistance and directly induced mitotic catastrophe resulting in cell death. WISP-1 may be a candidate therapeutic target in the treatment of recurrent esophageal carcinoma after radiotherapy.

  3. Evaluation of the role of genetic factors in human radioresistance

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    Telnov, Vitaliy I.; Sotnik, Natalie V. [Southern Ural Biophysics Institute, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    This study was focused on evaluation of the role of genetic factors in development of chronic radiation sickness (CRS) due to occupational exposure to external {gamma} -rays. This study was based on results of molecular-genetic studies for 985 nuclear workers of the Mayak Production Association. CRS occurrence was related to the genetic haptoglobin (Hp) system among a number of studied genetic markers. Excess risk of CRS was revealed at similar exposure doses for individuals-carriers of Hp 2-2 (1.96) versus lower risks for carriers of Hp 1-1 and 2-1 (0.64). The contribution of genetic factors to CRS development was implemented in a rather narrow dose range, i.e. it was of a relative nature. A scheme of the relationship of affecting factor and differences in genetic radioresistance was presented in terms of deterministic effects. The obtained data did not confirm the idea that A-bomb survivors were more radioresistant, thus being not representative for radiation risk estimation.

  4. Cytotoxicity and radiosensitization effect of TRA-8 on radioresistant human larynx squamous carcinoma cells.

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    Wu, F; Hu, Y; Long, J; Zhou, Y J; Zhong, Y H; Liao, Z K; Liu, S Q; Zhou, F X; Zhou, Y F; Xie, C H

    2009-02-01

    TRAIL induces apoptosis in a variety of tumorigenic and transformed cell lines, but not in many normal cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that death receptor 5 (DR5), one of the two death receptors bound by TRAIL, showed expression in most malignantly transformed cells. This study evaluated effects of a monoclonal antibody (TRA-8) to human death receptor 5, combined with ionizing radiation, on radioresistant human larynx squamous carcinoma cell line (Hep-2R). Cells were treated with TRA-8 alone or in combination with radiation, cell viability inhibition was measured by MTT assay, and the induction of apoptosis was determined by Annexin V staining. Radionsensitivity of Hep-2R cells treated with TRA-8 were investigated with long-term clonogenic assays. Regulation of DR5 expression in cells after radiation was analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence using murine TRA-8 in combination with flow cytometry. The results suggested that TRA-8 enhanced radionsensitivity of Hep-2R cells, and that TRA-8 regulated Hep-2R cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. Irradiation up-regulated the expression of DR5, and when combined with TRA-8 yielded optimal survival benefit. Therefore, TRA-8 can be used in combination with irradiation in radioresistant human larynx squamous carcinoma cells. Monoclonal antibodies such as TRA-8 may play an important role in the development of an effective treatment strategy for patients with radioresistant cancers.

  5. Molecular Genetic Study of Human Esophageal Carcinoma

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    1991-07-16

    virus have been shown to be the causative agent for human cancer, as human papilloma - virus ( HPV ) was associated with...F.J., Syrjanen, S., Shen, Q., J.I, H., & Kyrjanen, K. Human papilloma virus ( HPV ) DNA in esophageal precursor lesions and squamous cell carcinomas...genital tumors. Gene products, such as SV40 tumor antigen, Ela and Elb in adenovirus, E6 and E7 protein of human papilloma virus type 16 and type

  6. Characterization of H460R, a Radioresistant Human Lung Cancer Cell Line, and Involvement of Syntrophin Beta 2 (SNTB2 in Radioresistance

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    Chang-Nim Im

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A radioresistant cell line was established by fractionated ionizing radiation (IR and assessed by a clonogenic assay, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis, as well as zymography and a wound healing assay. Microarray was performed to profile global expression and to search for differentially expressed genes (DEGs in response to IR. H460R cells demonstrated increased cell scattering and acidic vesicular organelles compared with parental cells. Concomitantly, H460R cells showed characteristics of increased migration and matrix metalloproteinase activity. In addition, H460R cells were resistant to IR, exhibiting reduced expression levels of ionizing responsive proteins (p-p53 and γ-H2AX; apoptosis-related molecules, such as cleaved poly(ADP ribose polymerase; and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related molecules, such as glucose-regulated protein (GRP78 and C/EBP-homologous protein compared with parental cells, whereas the expression of anti-apoptotic X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein was increased. Among DEGs, syntrophin beta 2 (SNTB2 significantly increased in H460R cells in response to IR. Knockdown of SNTB2 by siRNA was more sensitive than the control after IR exposure in H460, H460R, and H1299 cells. Our study suggests that H460R cells have differential properties, including cell morphology, potential for metastasis, and resistance to IR, compared with parental cells. In addition, SNTB2 may play an important role in radioresistance. H460R cells could be helpful in in vitro systems for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of and discovering drugs to overcome radioresistance in lung cancer therapy.

  7. Dexamethasone-induced radioresistance occurring independent of human papilloma virus gene expression in cervical carcinoma cells

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    Rutz, H.P.; Mariotta, M.; Mirimanoff, R.O. [Lab. de Radiobiologie, Service de Radio-Oncologie, CHUV, Lausanne (Switzerland); Knebel Doeberitz, M. von [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Virusforschung

    1998-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of HPV 18 E6 and E7 gene products with respect to radiosensitivity of two cervical carcinoma cell lines. The two cervical carcinoma lines C4-1 and SW 756 were used in which treatment with dexamethasone allows to modulate expression levels of HPV 18 E6 and E7 genes: Upregulation in C4-1, down-regulation in SW 756. Effects of treatment with dexamethasone on plating efficiency and radiosensitivity were assessed using a clonogenic assay. Treatment with dexamethasone increased plating efficiency of the C4-1 cells, but did not affect plating efficiency of SW 756 cells. Treatment with dexamethasone induced enhanced radioresistance in both cell lines. Thus, in C4-1 cells the observed changes in radioresistance correlate to the enhancement in expression of HPV 18 genes E6/E7, whereas in SW 756, a reduced expression correlates negatively with the enhanced radioresistance. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Das Ziel dieser Studie lag darin, die Rolle der HPV-18-Gene E6 und E7 in bezug auf die Strahlenempfindlichkeit von menschlichen Zervixkarzinomzellen zu untersuchen. Wir verwendeten zwei menschliche Zervixkarzinomzellinien, C4-1 und SW 756, in welchen die Expression der viralen Gene HPV 18 E6 und E7 mit Dexamethason moduliert werden kann: In C4-1 bewirkt die Behandlung mit Dexamethason eine Erhoehung der Expression dieser Gene, in SW 756 eine Verminderung. Die Wirkung auf die Wachstumsfaehigkeit der Zellen und auf die Wachstumshemmung durch die Bestrahlung wurde unter Verwendung eines klonogenen Assays bestimmt. Dexamethason bewirkte eine erhoehte Wachstumsfaehigkeit der C4-1 Zellen, ohne die Wachstumsfaehigkeit der SW-756-Zellen zu beeinflussen, wie schon frueher beschrieben. Die Resistenz beider Zellinien gegenueber Bestrahlung wurde erhoeht. Somit besteht in den C4-1-Zellen eine Korrelation der Expression der viralen Gene mit der Zunahme der Strahlenresistenz, wogegen in den SW-756-Zellen die Abnahme der Expression im Gegensatz zu

  8. Human papillomavirus infection and esophageal cancer: a case report

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    Miguel A. Serra Valdés

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Currently over 216 types of human papillomavirus (HPV have been reported, but only 100 have been fully sequenced. They are able to infect cells of the basal layer of any epithelium. Evidence of HPV oncogenicity has been found. Objective. To describe a case of esophageal HPV infection associated to cancer of the esophagus. Case report. 63 years-old, African and rural origin, single, female housewife with the habit of smoking and frequent ingestion of alcohol. Four months before the diagnosis was established, the patient began to gradually develop dysphagia to solids and weight loss. Upper endoscopy shows a proliferative ulcerated lesion in the middle third of the esophagus. Biopsy is consistent with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Cytology is suggestive of papillomavirus infection. Discussion. Prior esophageal papillomatosis and other risk factors contributed to the occurrence of esophageal carcinoma. Histopathology was consistent with the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma probably caused by HPV infection. Conclusion. The association between papilloma virus and esophageal cancer is rare but can be diagnosed if it is suspected and other risk factors are present, as well as if there is access to modern diagnostic means.

  9. (Ezh2) Enhancement in Human Esophageal Cell Lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the inhibitory effect of berberine treatment on enhancement of zeste of homolog 2 (Ezh2) expressions in KYSE450 human esophageal cancer cells. Methods: Transwell motility chambers were used to analyze cell migration and invasion. Bio-Rad protein assay was used for the determination of ...

  10. Esophago-pleural fistula with multiple esophageal ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A case report

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    Kwon, Soo Hee; Lee, Young Kyung; Choi, Jae Phil; Son, Jin Sung [Seoul Medical Center, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Esophagitis is a common complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is caused by candidiasis, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, or idiopathic esophagitis with no detectable etiology. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is occasionally combined with esophageal ulcers. We report chest CT findings and clinical manifestation of esophago-pleural fistula with pneumothorax in a HIV infected patient, who was treated for aspiration pneumonia and esophageal ulcers.

  11. Identification of human papillomavirus in esophageal squamous papillomas.

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    Bohn, Olga-L; Navarro, Leticia; Saldivar, Jesus; Sanchez-Sosa, Sergio

    2008-12-14

    To investigate the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in esophageal squamous papilloma (ESP) and determine p16, p53 and Ki67 expression in a Mexican cohort. Nineteen cases diagnosed as ESP, corresponding to 18 patients were reviewed; nineteen cases of normal esophageal mucosa were used as negative controls. HPV detection was performed by amplified chromogenic in situ hybridization (ACISH) using a wide spectrum-cocktail probe and PCR. The average age at presentation was 46.3 years (range 28-72 years). Patients included four (22.22%) males and 14 (77.77%) females. The most frequent location was upper third (11 cases), followed by middle third (3 cases) and unknown site (5 cases). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed basal and focal p53 expression in 17 cases (89%); p16 was expressed in eight cases (42.10%) and the Ki67 index ranged from 10% to 30%. HPV was detected in 14 out of 16 cases (87.5%) by ACISH: Twelve showed diffuse nuclear patterns and two showed granular patterns. HPV DNA was identified by PCR in 12 out of 14 cases (85.7%). Low-risk HPV types were detected in the most of the cases. This study provides identification of HPV infection in almost 80% of ESP using either ACISH or PCR; overall, all of these lesions show low expression of cell-cycle markers. We suggest ACISH as an alternative diagnostic tool for HPV detection in ESP.

  12. HIF-1α inhibition by siRNA or chetomin in human malignant glioma cells: effects on hypoxic radioresistance and monitoring via CA9 expression

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    Bache Matthias

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia induces activation of the HIF-1 pathway and is an essential characteristic of malignant gliomas. Hypoxia has been linked to tumor progression, therapy resistance and poor prognosis. However, little is known about the impact of HIF-1α inhibition on radioresistance of malignant glioma. Methods In this study, we investigated the effects of the inhibition of HIF-1α on cell survival and radiosensitivity in U251MG and U343MG glioma cells, using two different strategies. HIF-1α inhibition was achieved by siRNA targeting of HIF-1α or via chetomin, a disruptor of interactions between HIF-1α and p300. The inhibition of the HIF-1 pathway was monitored by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analyses of the expression levels of HIF-1α and CA9. CA9 expression was investigated as a potential indicator of the efficacy of HIF-1 inhibition and the resulting radiosensitivity of malignant glioma cell lines was determined by clonogenic assay after irradiation under normoxic (2-10 Gy or hypoxic (2-15 Gy conditions. Results Although siRNA and chetomin show distinct modes of action, both attenuated the hypoxia-induced radioresistance of malignant glioma cell lines U251MG (DMF10: 1.35 and 1.18 and U343MG (DMF10: 1.78 and 1.48. However, siRNA and chetomin showed diverse effects on radiosensitivity under normoxic conditions in U251MG (DMF10: 0.86 and 1.35 and U343MG (DMF10: 1.33 and 1.02 cells. Conclusions Results from this in vitro study suggest that inhibition of HIF-1α is a promising strategy to sensitize human malignant gliomas to radiotherapy and that CA9 could serve as an indicator of effective HIF-1-related radiosensitization.

  13. High-risk human papillomavirus in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Antonsson, Annika; Nancarrow, Derek J; Brown, Ian S; Green, Adele C; Drew, Paul A; Watson, David I; Hayward, Nicholas K; Whiteman, David C

    2010-08-01

    Although most cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in western populations have been attributed to high levels of exposure to tobacco and alcohol, infectious agents have been postulated as possible causes, particularly human papillomavirus (HPV). To explore this issue, we analyzed HPV DNA prevalence and HPV types together with lifestyle factors, in relation to tumor stage and survival in a low-incidence population. Archived tumor samples from a nationwide cohort of 222 ESCC patients were tested for the presence of HPV DNA by PCR; positive samples were sequenced to determine HPV type, and p16(INK4a) status was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Of 222 ESCC patients, 8 tested HPV positive (prevalence, 3.6%; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-6.1%), of which 6 were HPV-16 positive and 2 were HPV-35 positive. Four of the eight HPV-positive tumors overexpressed p16(INK4a). None of 55 normal esophageal tissue samples from healthy participants had any detectable HPV. Although the numbers were low, it seemed that patients with HPV-positive ESCC tumors were younger than those with HPV-negative tumors (mean age, 60.8 versus 65.3 years, P = 0.18) and had higher body mass index (BMI) throughout life (mean current BMI of 25.1 for HPV positive, 22.2 for HPV negative, P = 0.08; mean BMI at 20 years of 25.8 for HPV positive, 22.1 for HPV negative, P = 0.003). We found no difference between patients with HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumors with respect to other lifestyle factors. These findings suggest a very low prevalence of HPV DNA in human ESCC. HPV is very unlikely to be a common cause of ESCC in Australia. (c)2010 AACR.

  14. Radioresistant Bacteria Came From Mars?

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    Pavlov, A.; Kalinin, V.; Konstantinov, A.; Shelegedin, V.

    We propose that the radioresistant bacteria (i.e. Deinococcus radiodurans) has been originated on Mars. This bacteria possesses an ability which should have been ab- solutely "unnecessary" in the Earth environment. It can survive very high doses of the ionizing radiation. Our experiments demonstrate that different kinds of non- radioresistant bacteria are able to develop very high radioresistance ability also. To develop radioresistance we exposed different bacterial cultures to several dozens of cycles of high irradiation. Therefore, radioresistance is not a result of some early spontaneous bacterial mutation but rather a consequence of the very specific plane- tary environment. Polar regions of Mars are the most probable (if not the only) place in the Solar System for such a periodical high-dosage irradiation process. We pro- pose a plausible scenario of where and when such an adaptation process could have taken place and also discuss indirect arguments of the Martian origin of Deinococcus Radiodurans based on their specific genetic structure.

  15. Alvocidib (Flavopiridol) suppresses tumor growth in SCID mice with human esophageal cancer xenografts without inducing apoptosis.

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    Sato, Shinsuke; Kajiyama, Yoshiaki; Sugano, Masahiko; Iwanuma, Yoshimi; Sonoue, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Toshiharu; Tsurumaru, Masahiko

    2006-08-01

    Alvocidib (Flavopiridol, HMR1275) is a potent inhibitor of multiple cyclin-dependent kinases and has been identified recently as an antitumor agent in several cancers. Previous studies have shown that alvocidib could potentially treat esophageal cancer in vitro. This study evaluates alvocidib for its ability to suppress tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice bearing TE8 human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) xenografts. Alvocidib treatment of 10mg/kg body weight reduced tumor volume significantly. Immunohistochemistry analysis of alvocidib-treated tumor sections showed significant reductions in cyclin D1, VEGF, and Rb levels. Alvocidib treatment did not cause a marked increase in apoptotic tumor cells by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analysis, yet hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed tumor necrosis. In vivo investigation of alvocidib treatment confirmed antitumor activity in TE8 esophageal xenografts. These findings suggest that alvocidib could be a useful anti-cancer agent for esophageal cancer.

  16. The MUC1 mucin regulates the tumorigenic properties of human esophageal adenocarcinomatous cells.

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    Gronnier, Caroline; Bruyère, Emilie; Lahdaoui, Fatima; Jonckheere, Nicolas; Perrais, Michaël; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Piessen, Guillaume; Mariette, Christophe; Van Seuningen, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    MUC1 is a membrane-bound mucin known to participate in tumor proliferation. It has been shown that MUC1 pattern of expression is modified during esophageal carcinogenesis, with a progressive increase from metaplasia to adenocarcinoma. The principal cause of development of esophageal adenocarcinoma is gastro-esophageal reflux and MUC1 was previously shown to be up-regulated by several bile acids present in reflux. In this report, our aim was thus to determine whether MUC1 plays a role in biological properties of human esophageal cancer cells. For that, a stable MUC1-deficient esophageal cancer cell line was established using a shRNA approach. In vitro (proliferation, migration and invasion) and in vivo (tumor growth following subcutaneous xenografts in SCID mice) biological properties of MUC1-deficient cells were analyzed. Our results show that esophageal cancer cells lacking MUC1 were less proliferative and had decreased migration and invasion properties. These alterations were accompanied by a decreased activity of NFKB p65, Akt and MAPK (p44/42, JNK and p38) pathways. MCM6 and TSG101 tumor-associated markers were also decreased. Subcutaneous xenografts showed a significant decrease in tumor size when cells did not express MUC1. Altogether, the data indicate that MUC1 plays a key role in proliferative, migrating and invasive properties of esophageal cancer cells as well as in tumor growth promotion. MUC1 mucin appears thus as a good therapeutic target to slow down esophageal tumor progression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pterostilbene Inhibits the Growth of Human Esophageal Cancer Cells by Regulating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

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    Yingtong Feng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Pterostilbene (PTE, a natural dimethylated resveratrol analog from blueberries, is known to have diverse pharmacological activities, including anticancer properties. In this study, we investigated the anticancer activity of PTE against human esophageal cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo and explored the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress (ERS signaling in this process. Methods: Cell viability, the apoptotic index, Caspase 3 activity, adhesion, migration, reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, and glutathione (GSH levels were detected to explore the effect of PTE on human EC109 esophageal cancer cells. Furthermore, siRNA transfection and a chemical inhibitor were employed to confirm the role of ERS. Results: PTE treatment dose- and time-dependently decreased the viability of human esophageal cancer EC109 cells. PTE also decreased tumor cell adhesion, migration and intracellular GSH levels while increasing the apoptotic index, Caspase 3 activity and ROS levels, which suggest the strong anticancer activity of PTE. Furthermore, PTE treatment increased the expression of ERS-related molecules (GRP78, ATF6, p-PERK, p-eIF2α and CHOP, upregulated the pro-apoptosis-related protein PUMA and downregulated the anti-apoptosis-related protein Bcl-2 while promoting the translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol and the activation of Caspase 9 and Caspase 12. The downregulation of ERS signaling by CHOP siRNA desensitized esophageal cancer cells to PTE treatment, whereas upregulation of ERS signaling by thapsigargin (THA had the opposite effect. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC, a ROS scavenger, also desensitized esophageal cancer cells to PTE treatment. Conclusions: Overall, the results indicate that PTE is a potent anti-cancer pharmaceutical against human esophageal cancer, and the possible mechanism involves the activation of ERS signaling pathways.

  18. Esophagitis and esophageal strictures.

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    Glazer, Alan; Walters, Patricia

    2008-05-01

    Esophagitis and esophageal strictures are relatively uncommon but significant diseases in companion animals. Often, an esophageal disorder is suspected on the animal's medical history and clinical signs. Esophagitis and acquired esophageal strictures are caused by prolonged contact of caustic substances or foreign bodies with the esophageal lining, leading to mucosal injury. In cases of stricture, damage extends into the submucosal and muscular layers. Timely detection and appropriate management of esophagitis and esophageal strictures significantly improve nutritional status, dysphagia, and pain and often return the animal to a normal quality of life. This article reviews the current literature and focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of esophagitis and esophageal strictures caused by fibrosis secondary to esophageal inflammation.

  19. Therapeutic and Radiosensitizing Effects of Armillaridin on Human Esophageal Cancer Cells

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    Chih-Wen Chi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Armillaridin (AM is isolated from Armillaria mellea. We examined the anticancer activity and radiosensitizing effect on human esophageal cancer cells. Methods. Human squamous cell carcinoma (CE81T/VGH and TE-2 and adenocarcinoma (BE-3 and SKGT-4 cell lines were cultured. The MTT assay was used for cell viability. The cell cycle was analyzed using propidium iodide staining. Mitochondrial transmembrane potential was measured by DiOC6(3 staining. The colony formation assay was performed for estimation of the radiation surviving fraction. Human CE81T/VGH xenografts were established for evaluation of therapeutic activity in vivo. Results. AM inhibited the viability of four human esophageal cancer cell lines with an estimated concentration of 50% inhibition (IC50 which was 3.4–6.9 μM. AM induced a hypoploid cell population and morphological alterations typical of apoptosis in cells. This apoptosis induction was accompanied by a reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. AM accumulated cell cycle at G2/M phase and enhanced the radiosensitivity in CE81T/VGH cells. In vivo, AM inhibited the growth of CE81T/VGH xenografts without significant impact on body weight and white blood cell counts. Conclusion. Armillaridin could inhibit growth and enhance radiosensitivity of human esophageal cancer cells. There might be potential to integrate AM with radiotherapy for esophageal cancer treatment.

  20. Human papillomavirus detection and p16 methylation pattern in a case of esophageal papilloma

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    L.A. Afonso

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is a prevalent cancer worldwide. Some studies have reported the possible etiology of human papillomavirus (HPV in benign and malignant papillomas of the esophagus but the conclusions are controversial. In the present study, we investigated an esophageal papilloma from a 30-year-old male patient presenting aphasia. HPV DNA was detected by generic PCR using MY09/11 primers, and restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed the presence of HPV54, usually associated with benign genital lesions. Hypermethylation of the pINK4A gene was also investigated due to its relation to malignant transformation, but no modification was detected in the host gene. Except for an incipient reflux, no risk factors such as cigarette smoking, alcohol abuse or an infected sexual partner were recorded. Since esophageal lesions may have a malignant potential, HPV detection and typing are useful tools for patient follow-up.

  1. Detection of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus and Human Papillomavirus in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Non-Cancerous Esophageal Samples in Northern Iran.

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    Yahyapour, Yousef; Sadeghi, Farzin; Alizadeh, Ahad; Rajabnia, Ramazan; Siadati, Sepideh

    2016-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the hypothesized causes of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), but the etiological association remains uncertain. It was postulated that other infectious agents together with HPV may increase the risk of ESCC. The current investigation aimed to explore the presence of a new human tumor virus, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), together with HPV in ESCC tumors and non-cancerous esophageal samples in northern Iran. In total, 96 esophageal samples (51 with ESCC, and 45 without esophageal malignancy) were examined. HPV DNA was detected in esophageal specimens of 16 out of the 51 ESCC cases (31.4 %) and 20 out of the 45 non-cancerous samples (44.4 %). Untypable HPV genotypes were recognized in high rates in cancerous (75.0 %) and non-cancerous (55.0 %) esophageal specimens. MCPyV DNA was detected in esophageal specimens of 23 out of the 51 ESCC cases (45.1 %) and 16 out of the 45 non-cancerous samples (35.6 %). The mean MCPyV DNA copy number was 1.0 × 10(-5) ± 2.4 × 10(-5) and 6.0 × 10(-6) ± 1.3 × 10(-5) per cell in ESCC cases and non-cancerous samples, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between cancerous and non-cancerous samples regarding mean MCPyV DNA load (P = 0.353). A bayesian logistic regression model adjusted to the location of esophageal specimen and MCPyV infection, revealed a significant association between HPV and odds of ESCC (OR, 2.45; 95 % CI: 1.01-6.16). This study provides the evidence of the detection of the MCPyV DNA at a low viral copy number in cancerous and non- cancerous esophageal samples.

  2. Radioresistance studies in Methylobacterium spp

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    Nogueira, Fatima; Botelho, M. Luisa; Tenreiro, Rogerio

    1998-06-01

    Methylobacterium extorquens was isolated and was found as one of the most resistant microorganisms in the original bioburden of ophthalmic cotton dressings to be submitted to {gamma} radiation sterilization. Radiation survival curves were simultaneously performed in phosphate buffer and in test-pieces on two isolates, one obtained before irradiation (wild strain) and the other after irradiation at 20 kGy (rad strain), as well as on three type strains of Methylobacterium spp. (M. extorquens{sup T}, M. radiotolerans{sup T} and M. fujisawaense{sup T}). The radiation resistance was compared using D{sub values}. To analyze the effect of non linearity on radioresistance other measures were applied, such as intercept point, fraction of surviving cells at a selected dose and area. The ranking of strains with these approaches showed to be different, pointing out the need of an integrated measure of radioresistance. Therefore, an index of relative survival (IRS) is proposed.

  3. Radioresistance studies in Methylobacterium spp.

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    Nogueira, Fátima; Luisa Botelho, M.; Tenreiro, Rogério

    1998-06-01

    Methylobacterium extorquens was isolated and was found as one of the most resistant microorganisms in the original bioburden of ophthalmic cotton dressings to be submitted to γ radiation sterilization. Radiation survival curves were simultaneously performed in phosphate buffer and in test-pieces on two isolates, one obtained before irradiation ( wild strain) and the other after irradiation at 20 kGy ( rad strain), as well as on three type strains of Methylobacterium spp. ( M. extorquensT, M. radiotoleransT and M. fujisawaenseT). The radiation resistance was compared using D values. To analyze the effect of non linearity on radioresistance other measures were applied, such as intercept point, fraction of surviving cells at a selected dose and area. The ranking of strains with these approaches showed to be different, pointing out the need of an integrated measure of radioresistance. Therefore, an index of relative survival (IRS) is proposed.

  4. [Meta analysis on etiological relationship between human papillomavirus and esophageal carcinoma].

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    Li, Shu-ying; Li, Ying; Shen, Li-ping; Wu, Xiao-zhou; Zhao, Xiao-yu; Zhou, Ling; Liu, Hong-tu; Zeng, Yi

    2009-04-01

    To study the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and esophageal cancer development in China. We searched and collected the published articles in Chinese related to HPV and esophageal cancer, and selected the articles with the PCR approach to detect HPV in the esophageal cancer specimens. We filtered our publication collection with standards as (1) PCR as the detection approach, (2) specimens as the paraffin-embedded sections, and (3) description of the primer in the experiments, and fifteen articles were enrolled for our meta-analysis. Among the articles, totally 980 specimens were tested, and 460 were HPV positive with the average HPV prevalence was 46.9% (95% CI: 43.8%-50.0%), varied from 8.3%-69.8% in the different locations. On the other hands, among 556 specimens whose HPV detection spectrum included HPV16, 139 showed the positivity of HPV16, the average prevalence was 25.0%, (95% CI: 21.4%-28.6%) varied from 4.4%-63.4% dependent on the locations; among 485 specimens whose HPV detection spectrum included HPV18, thirty-three specimens showed the positivity of HPV18, the average prevalence was 6.8% (95% CI: 4.6%-9.0%) varied from 0%-19.0% dependent on the locations. Third, among the fifteen articles enrolled in the meta-analysis, four articles used the same primer set for HPV detection in totally 406 paraffin-embedded specimens with the prevalence of 40.2% (95% CI: 36.0%-45.4%) varied from 20.3%-67.6% in different locations. Our analysis result suggested the HPV prevalence in the esophageal cancer samples of China and clued the possible etiological relationships between HPV infection and the esophageal cancer development.

  5. Gene silencing of galectin-3 changes the biological behavior of Eca109 human esophageal cancer cells

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    QIAO, LILI; LIANG, NING; XIE, JIAN; LUO, HUI; ZHANG, JINGXIN; DENG, GUODONG; LI, YUPENG; ZHANG, JIANDONG

    2015-01-01

    Galectin-3 is a multifunctional ?-galactoside-binding lectin that is involved in multiple biological functions which are upregulated in malignancies, including cell growth, adhesion, proliferation, progression and metastasis, as well as apoptosis. A previous study has confirmed the roles of galecin-3 overexpression in the biological behavior of Eca109 human esophageal cancer (EC) cells. In the present study, small interfering (si)RNA-mediated galectin-3 silencing was performed to analyze the ...

  6. [Expression of c-myc and HER-1 genes in the development of human esophageal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y Y

    1991-05-01

    To understand the possible role of oncogenes in the development of human esophageal cancer, the expression of c-myc and HER-1 genes was studied by in situ hybridization. The results showed that: (a) The c-myc and HER-1 protooncogenes were transcriptionally activated (b) Activation of c-myc gene was observed in hyperplastic cells and carcinoma cells. (c) The degree of pathological changes of the esophageal epithelium was related to the level of c-myc transcription, the highest level of c-myc expression was seen in invasive carcinoma cells. (d) Expression of HER-1 gene in carcinoma cells is higher than that in normal and adjacent non-tumor cells, but its frequency is lower than that of c-myc gene.

  7. DADS Suppresses Human Esophageal Xenograft Tumors through RAF/MEK/ERK and Mitochondria-Dependent Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoran Yin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Diallyl disulfide (DADS is a natural organosulfur compound isolated from garlic. DADS has various biological properties, including anticancer, antiangiogenic, and antioxidant effects. However, the anticancer mechanisms of DADS in human esophageal carcinoma have not been elucidated, especially in vivo. In this study, MTT assay showed that DADS significantly reduced cell viability in human esophageal carcinoma ECA109 cells, but was relatively less toxic in normal liver cells. The pro–apoptotic effect of DADS on ECA109 cells was detected by Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI staining. Flow cytometry analysis showed that DADS promoted apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner and the apoptosis rate could be decreased by caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO. Xenograft study in nude mice showed that DADS treatment inhibited the growth of ECA109 tumor in both 20 and 40 mg/kg DADS groups without obvious side effects. DADS inhibited ECA109 tumor proliferation by down-regulating proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. DADS induced apoptosis by activating a mitochondria-dependent pathway with the executor of caspase-3, increasing p53 level and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and downregulating the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway in ECA109 xenograft tumosr. Based on studies in cell culture and animal models, the findings here indicate that DADS is an effective and safe anti-cancer agent for esophageal carcinoma.

  8. The Prevalence of Human Papilloma Virus in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadat Noori

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carcinomas of esophagus, mostly squamous cell carcinomas, occur throughout the world. There are a number of suspected genetic or environmental etiologies. Human papilloma virus (HPV is said to be a major etiology in areas with high incidence of esophageal carcinoma, while it is hardly detectable in low incidence regions. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of HPV in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC cases diagnosed in Pathology Department, Medical School, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.Methods: DNA material for PCR amplification of HPV genome was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of 92 cases of ESCC, diagnosed during 20 years from 1982 to 2002. Polymerase chain reaction was performed for amplification and detection of common HPV and type specific HPV-16 and HPV-18 genomic sequences in the presence of positive control (HPV-18 and HPV positive biopsies of uterine exocervix and additional internal controls i.e. beta-globin and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4.Result: Good amplification of positive control and internal controls was observed. However, no amplification of HPV genome was observed.Conclusion: There is no association between HPV infection and the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the cases evaluated.

  9. Measurement of the human esophageal cancer in an early stage with Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yasuhiro; Ishigaki, Mika; Taketani, Akinori; Andriana, Bibin B.; Ishihara, Ryu; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2014-02-01

    The esophageal cancer has a tendency to transfer to another part of the body and the surgical operation itself sometimes gives high risk in vital function because many delicate organs exist near the esophagus. So the esophageal cancer is a disease with a high mortality. So, in order to lead a higher survival rate five years after the cancer's treatment, the investigation of the diagnosis methods or techniques of the cancer in an early stage and support the therapy are required. In this study, we performed the ex vivo experiments to obtain the Raman spectra from normal and early-stage tumor (stage-0) human esophageal sample by using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra are collected by the homemade Raman spectrometer with the wavelength of 785 nm and Raman probe with 600-um-diameter. The principal component analysis (PCA) is performed after collection of spectra to recognize which materials changed in normal part and cancerous pert. After that, the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is performed to predict the tissue type. The result of PCA indicates that the tumor tissue is associated with a decrease in tryptophan concentration. Furthermore, we can predict the tissue type with 80% accuracy by LDA which model is made by tryptophan bands.

  10. Dickkopf-1, the Wnt antagonist, is induced by acidic pH and mediates epithelial cellular senescence in human reflux esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyros, Orestis; Rafiee, Parvaneh; Nie, Linghui; Medda, Rituparna; Jovanovic, Nebojsa; Schmidt, Jamie; Mackinnon, Alexander; Venu, Nanda; Shaker, Reza

    2014-04-01

    Squamous esophageal epithelium adapts to acid reflux-mediated injury by proliferation and differentiation via signal transduction pathways. Induction of the Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) is involved in tissue repair during inflammation and cellular injury. In this study, we aimed to identify the biological role of Dkk1 in human reflux esophagitis with respect to cell growth and regulation of Wnt signaling. Esophageal biopsies from reflux-esophagitis patients (n = 15) and healthy individuals (n = 10) were characterized in terms of Dkk1 expression. The role of Dkk1 in response to acid-mediated epithelial injury was analyzed by cellular assays in vitro utilizing squamous esophageal epithelial cell lines (EPC1-hTERT, EPC2-hTERT, and HEEC). Dkk1 was significantly overexpressed in human reflux-esophagitis tissue compared with healthy esophageal mucosa at transcriptional and translational levels. After acute and chronic acid (pH 4) exposure, esophageal squamous epithelial cell lines expressed and secreted high levels of Dkk1 in response to stress-associated DNA injury. High extracellular levels of human recombinant Dkk1 inhibited epithelial cell growth and induced cellular senescence in vitro, as demonstrated by reduced cell proliferation, G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, elevated senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, and upregulation of p16. Acid pulsing induced Dkk1-mediated senescence, which was directly linked to the ability of Dkk1 to antagonize the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In healthy esophageal mucosa, Dkk1 expression was associated with low expression of transcriptionally active β-catenin, while in reflux-esophagitis tissue, Dkk1 overexpression correlated with increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and p16 upregulation. The data indicate that, in human reflux esophagitis, Dkk1 functions as a secreted growth inhibitor by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling and promoting cellular senescence. These findings suggest a significant

  11. Effect of galectin-3 on the behavior of Eca-109 human esophageal cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIANG, NING; SONG, XIAOMING; XIE, JIAN; XU, DEGUO; LIU, FENGJUN; YU, XINSHUANG; TIAN, YUAN; LIU, ZHEN; QIAO, LILI; ZHANG, JIANDONG

    2015-01-01

    Galectin-3, a β-galactoside-binding lectin, is a cell adhesion molecule involved in the regulation of tumor progression. However, the importance of galectin-3 in Eca-109 human esophageal cancer cells has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, a lentiviral vector was designed for overexpression of galectin-3 in Eca-109 cells following plasmid-mediated transfection (Eca-109/Gal-3 cells). A negative lentiviral vector was introduced into Eca-109 cells as a control (Eca-109/Neo cells). Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses were used to measure the expression levels of galectin-3 protein and mRNA. The proliferation of Eca-109 cells was measured by a cell counting kit-8 assay. Eca-109 cell apoptosis was determined by Annexin V/7-amino-actinomycin double-staining. The migration and invasion capacity of Eca-109 cells was determined by a Transwell assay. A total of >98% Eca-109 cells were transfected with the lentiviral vector harboring galectin-3, and galectin-3 expression was detected in Eca-109 cells, Eca-109/Gal-3 cells and Eca-109/Neo cells. Compared with non-transfected and negative control Eca-109 cells, proliferation was increased significantly in the Eca-109/Gal-3 cells (PEca-109 cell apoptosis, compared with the two control groups (P=0.007 and P=0.04, respectively). Transwell migration and invasion assays revealed that significantly greater numbers of Eca-109/Gal-3 cells crossed the artificial basement membrane (55.4±3.9) compared with either the non-transfected or negative control Eca-109 cells (30.6±1.5 and 29±2.6 respectively, PEca-109 esophageal cancer cells, resulting in enhanced proliferation, migration and invasion, as well as reduced apoptosis. These data indicate that galectin-3 may be a potential molecular target in the treatment of esophageal cancer. PMID:25373317

  12. Warburg effect, hexokinase-II, and radioresistance of laryngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jiang-Tao; Zhou, Shui-Hong

    2017-02-21

    Radiotherapy is now widely used as a part of multidisciplinary treatment approaches for advanced laryngeal carcinoma and preservation of laryngeal function. However, the mechanism of the radioresistance is still unclear. Some studies have revealed that the Warburg effect promotes the radioresistance of various malignant tumors, including laryngeal carcinoma. Among the regulators involved in the Warburg effect, hexokinase-II (HK-II) is a crucial glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the first essential step of glucose metabolism. HK-II is reportedly highly expressed in some human solid carcinomas by many studies. But for laryngeal carcinoma, there is only one. Till now, no studies have directly targeted inhibited HK-II and enhanced the radiosensitivity of laryngeal carcinoma. Accumulating evidence has shown that dysregulated signaling pathways often result in HK-II overexpression. Here, we summarize recent advances in understanding the association among the Warburg effect, HK-II, and the radioresistance of laryngeal carcinoma. We speculate on the feasibility of enhancing radiosensitivity by targeted inhibiting HK-II signaling pathways in laryngeal carcinoma, which may provide a novel anticancer therapy.

  13. Influence of repeated infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce on esophageal secondary peristalsis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T T; Yi, C H; Lei, W Y; Hung, X S; Yu, H C; Chen, C L

    2014-10-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 has been implicated as a target mediator for heartburn perception and modulation of esophageal secondary peristalsis. Our aim was to determine the effect of repeated esophageal infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce on heartburn perception and secondary peristalsis in healthy adults. Secondary peristalsis was performed with mid-esophageal injections of air in 15 healthy adults. Two separate protocols including esophageal infusion with saline and capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce and 2 consecutive sessions of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce were randomly performed. After repeated infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce, the threshold volume to activate secondary peristalsis was significantly increased during slow (p sauce enhanced heartburn perception (p sauce infusion (p = 0.007). Acute infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce significantly increased pressure wave amplitudes of distal esophagus during slow (p = 0.003) and rapid air injections (p = 0.01), but repeated infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce significantly decreased pressure wave amplitude of distal esophagus during slow (p = 0.0005) and rapid air injections (p = 0.003). Repeated esophageal infusion of capsaicin appears to attenuate heartburn perception and inhibit distension-induced secondary peristalsis in healthy adults. These results suggest capsaicin-sensitive afferents in modulating sensorimotor function of secondary peristalsis in human esophagus. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [The molecular mechanisms of curcuma wenyujin extract-mediated inhibitory effects on human esophageal carcinoma cells in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Zhao; Zou, Hai-Zhou; Xu, Fang

    2012-09-01

    To study the molecular mechanisms of Curcuma Wenyujin extract-mediated inhibitory effects on human esophageal carcinoma cells. The Curcuma Wenyujin extract was obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. TE-1 cells were divided into 4 groups after adherence. 100 microL RMPI-1640 culture medium containing 0.1% DMSO was added in Group 1 as the control group. 100 microL 25, 50, and 100 mg/L Curcuma Wenyujin extract complete culture medium was respectively added in the rest 3 groups as the low, middle, and high dose Curcuma Wenyujin extract groups. The effects of different doses of Curcuma Wenyujin extract (25, 50, and 100 mg/L) on the proliferation of human esophageal carcinoma cell line TE-1 in vitro were analyzed by MTT assay. The gene expression profile was identified by cDNA microarrays in esophageal carcinoma TE-1 cells exposed to Curcuma Wenyujin extract for 48 h. The differential expression genes were further analyzed by Gene Ontology function analysis. Compared with the control group, MTT results showed that Curcuma Wenyujin extract significantly inhibited the proliferation of TE-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner (PCurcuma Wenyujin extract could inhibit the growth of human esophageal carcinoma cell line TE-1 in vitro. The molecular mechanisms might be associated with regulating genes expressions at multi-levels.

  15. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide against human telomerase reverse transcriptase inhibits the proliferation of Eca-109 esophageal carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    FAN, XIANG-KUI; YAN, RUI-HUA; LI, BAO-JIANG; CHEN, XIANG-MING; WEI, LIN; WANG, ZHOU

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the growth of tumor cells may be inhibited by antisense oligonucleotides (ASODNs) targeted against human telomerase (hTR) or human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), resulting in antitumor activity in a wide variety of tumors. However, few studies have investigated the effect of hTERT gene-targeted ASODNs on telomerase activity and cell proliferation in human esophageal cancer. In the present study, an MTT assay was used to determine the growth inhibition rate of Eca-109 cells treated with a hTERT-targeted phosphorothioate-ASODN (PS-ASODN). An inverted microscope was used to observe the morphologic changes of the cells following treatment with 5 μM PS-ASODN for 10 days. Telomerase activity was detected using the silver staining semi-quantitative telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. Following treatment with the PS-ASODN (1–5 μmol/l), the proliferation of the Eca-109 cells was inhibited. The differences in inhibition rate between the PS-ASODN and blank control groups were statistically significant (Pgroups. The inhibition rate increased gradually as the concentration of the PS-ASODN increased and with time, suggesting that the PS-ASODN inhibited the growth of Eca-109 cells in a concentration-dependent, time-dependent and sequence-specific manner. The growth rate of the cells incubated with the PS-ASODN was reduced compared with that of the control cells. Cells treated with the PS-ASODN became round, suspended and reduced in size. The PS-ASODN was also found to inhibit telomerase activity. The ability of the PS-ASODN to inhibit the telomerase activity and cell proliferation of the Eca-109 cell line suggests that ASODNs have the potential to be novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of esophageal cancer. PMID:25187833

  16. Aquaporin-8 mediates human esophageal cancer Eca-109 cell migration via the EGFR-Erk1/2 pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Heng; Shi, Yong-Hua; Talaf, Tuo-Kan; Lin, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal expression of aquaporins (AQPs) has been reported in several human cancers. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2 (ERK1/2) are associated with tumorigenesis and cancer progression and may upregulate AQPs expression. In this study, we investigated acquaporin-8 expression and signaling via epidermal growth factor receptor-extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2 in human esophageal cancer Eca-109 cells by western blot, immunofluorescence and...

  17. Effect of galectin-3 on the behavior of Eca‑109 human esophageal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ning; Song, Xiaoming; Xie, Jian; Xu, Deguo; Liu, Fengjun; Yu, Xinshuang; Tian, Yuan; Liu, Zhen; Qiao, Lili; Zhang, Jiandong

    2015-02-01

    Galectin-3, a β-galactoside-binding lectin, is a cell adhesion molecule involved in the regulation of tumor progression. However, the importance of galectin-3 in Eca-109 human esophageal cancer cells has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, a lentiviral vector was designed for overexpression of galectin-3 in Eca-109 cells following plasmid‑mediated transfection (Eca-109/Gal-3 cells). A negative lentiviral vector was introduced into Eca-109 cells as a control (Eca‑109/Neo cells). Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses were used to measure the expression levels of galectin-3 protein and mRNA. The proliferation of Eca-109 cells was measured by a cell counting kit-8 assay. Eca-109 cell apoptosis was determined by Annexin V/7-amino-actinomycin double‑staining. The migration and invasion capacity of Eca-109 cells was determined by a Transwell assay. A total of >98% Eca-109 cells were transfected with the lentiviral vector harboring galectin-3, and galectin-3 expression was detected in Eca-109 cells, Eca-109/Gal-3 cells and Eca-109/Neo cells. Compared with non‑transfected and negative control Eca-109 cells, proliferation was increased significantly in the Eca-109/Gal-3 cells (PGalectin-3 also significantly reduced Eca-109 cell apoptosis, compared with the two control groups (P=0.007 and P=0.04, respectively). Transwell migration and invasion assays revealed that significantly greater numbers of Eca-109/Gal-3 cells crossed the artificial basement membrane (55.4±3.9) compared with either the non-transfected or negative control Eca-109 cells (30.6±1.5 and 29±2.6 respectively, Pgalectin-3 expression was significantly increased in transfected Eca-109 esophageal cancer cells, resulting in enhanced proliferation, migration and invasion, as well as reduced apoptosis. These data indicate that galectin-3 may be a potential molecular target in the treatment of esophageal cancer.

  18. Effects of Pacifier and Taste on Swallowing, Esophageal Motility, Transit and Respiratory Rhythm in Human Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, Theresa R.; Sitaram, Swetha; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pacifier use is widely prevalent globally despite hygienic concerns and uncertain mechanistic effects on swallowing or airway safety. Aims The effects of pacifier and taste interventions on pharyngo-esophageal motility, bolus transit and respiratory rhythms were investigated by determining the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), esophageal body, esophagogastric junction (EGJ) motor patterns as well as deglutition apnea, respiratory rhythm disturbances and esophageal bolus clearance. Methods Fifteen infants (6 males; median gestation 31 wks and birth weight 1.4 kg) underwent high resolution impedance manometry at 43 (41-44) weeks post-menstrual age. Manometric, respiratory, and impedance characteristics of spontaneous swallows, pacifier associated dry swallowing and taste (pacifier dipped in 3% sucrose) associated swallowing were analyzed. Linear mixed and generalized estimating equation models were used. Data are presented as mean ± SEM, %, or median (IQR). Key Results Pharyngo-esophageal motility, respiratory, and impedance characteristics of 209 swallows were analyzed (85 spontaneous swallows, 63 pacifier associated dry swallows, 61 taste associated swallows). Basal UES and EGJ pressures decreased upon pacifier (P<0.05) and taste interventions (P<0.05); however, esophageal motility, respiratory rhythm, and impedance transit characteristics were similar with both interventions. Conclusions and Inferences Oral stimulus with pacifier or taste interventions decreases UES and EGJ basal pressure, but has no effects on pharyngo-esophageal motility, airway interactions, or esophageal bolus transit. A decrease in central parasympathetic-cholinergic excitatory drive is likely responsible for the basal effects. PMID:26727930

  19. Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from your throat to your stomach. Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. Later, you may ... You're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid ...

  20. Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your primary physician about your risk for esophageal cancer. You can print these sample questions to use as a basis for discussion with your doctor. The sooner esophageal cancer is found, the better the chance of recovery; ...

  1. Overexpression of stefin A in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells inhibits tumor cell growth, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wendong; Ding, Fang; Zhang, Liyong; Liu, Zhongmin; Wu, Yu; Luo, Aiping; Wu, Min; Wang, Mingrong; Zhan, Qimin; Liu, Zhihua

    2005-12-15

    Evidence is accumulating that an inverse correlation exists between stefin A level and malignant progression. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of stefin A in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells and to evaluate the possibility of stefin A for cancer therapy. We stably transfected stefin A cDNA into human EC9706 or KYSE150 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells. Subsequently, we evaluated the effect of stefin A overexpression on cell growth, cathepsin B activity, cell motility and invasion, tumor growth, and metastasis. Immunoanalysis was done to assess the expression of factor VIII and to support the localization of stefin A and cathepsin B. We also evaluated the effect of CA074Me, a selective membrane-permeant cathepsin B inhibitor. Both transfection of stefin A and treatment with 10 micromol/L CA074Me significantly reduced cathepsin B activity and inhibited the Matrigel invasion. Combination of both further reduced cathepsin B activity and inhibited the Matrigel invasion. Overexpression of stefin A delayed the in vitro and in vivo growth of cells and significantly inhibited lung metastasis compared with 50% of lung metastasis in xenograft mice from EC9706 or empty vector cells. Transfection with stefin A showed a dramatic reduction of factor VIII staining in the tumors of xenograft mice. Our data strongly indicate that stefin A plays an important role in the growth, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells and suggest that stefin A may be useful in cancer therapy.

  2. LPE-1, an orally active pyrimidine derivative, inhibits growth and mobility of human esophageal cancers by targeting LSD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Zhao, Bing; Pang, Lu-Ping; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Guo, Qian; Wang, Jun-Wei; Zheng, Yi-Chao; Zhang, Xin-Hui; Liu, Ying; Liu, Guang-Yao; Guo, Wen-Ge; Wang, Chao; Li, Zhong-Hua; Mao, Xue-Jing; Yu, Bin; Ma, Li-Ying; Liu, Hong-Min

    2017-08-01

    Histone lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) plays an important role in epigenetic modifications, and aberrant expression of LSD1 predicts tumor progression and poor prognosis in human esophageal cancers. In this study, a series of LSD1 inhibitors were synthesized and proved to be highly potent against human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Our data showed that these LSD1 inhibitors selectively suppressed the viability of esophageal cancer cell line (EC-109) bearing overexpressed LSD1. Among these, compound LPE-1 (LSD1 IC50=0.336±0.003μM) significantly suppressed proliferation, induced apoptosis, arrested cell cycle of EC109 cells at G2/M phase, and caused changes of the associated protein markers correspondingly. We also found that compound LPE-1 potently inhibited the migration and invasion of EC-109 cells. Docking studies showed that the cyano group formed hydrogen bonds with Val811 and Thr810. Additionally, the thiophene moiety formed arene-H interaction with Trp761 residue. In vivo studies showed that compound LPE-1 inhibited tumor growth of xenograft models bearing EC-109 without obvious toxicity. Collectively, our findings indicate that LSD1 may be a potential therapeutic target in ESCC, and compound LPE-1 could serve as a lead compound for further development for anti-ESCC drug discovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human papillomavirus 16 infection predicts poor outcome in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi R

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ruxing Xi,1 Xiaozhi Zhang,1 Xin Chen,1 Shupei Pan,1 Beina Hui,1 Li Zhang,1 Shenbo Fu,1 Xiaolong Li,2 Xuanwei Zhang,1 Tuotuo Gong,1 Jia Guo,1 Shaomin Che1 1Department of Radiotherapy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiao Tong University, 2Department of Radiotherapy, The People’s Liberation Army 323 Hospital, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China Background: Previous studies indicate that human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16 infection plays a pivotal role in the etiology of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. We aim to detect the influence of HPV16 infection on ESCC patient prognosis. Patients and methods: Immunohistochemical staining for HPV16 E6 oncoprotein, the low-affinity p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K was performed on 103 archived surgical specimens from patients with ESCC and 54 control samples from patients with benign esophageal tumor or inflammatory lesions. All patients were from the Shaan Xi Province, People’s Republic of China. Results: HPV16 E6 expression was significantly higher in the ESCC group (P<0.05. HPV16 E6 expression was significantly higher in men than in women (P<0.05. p75NTR expression was higher in those aged >56 years (P<0.05. PI3K expression was higher in those with a more advanced histopathological grade (P<0.05. There was a positive correlation between HPV16 E6 and p75NTR expression (r=0.547, P<0.001 and between p75NTR and PI3K expression (r=0.364, P<0.001. In 100 evaluable patients, the 5-year overall survival (OS rate was 11%. In patients with ESCC, HPV16 E6 and PI3K expression were negatively correlated with the 3-year OS (P<0.05, 5-year OS (P<0.05, and progression-free survival (P<0.05. Conclusion: HPV16 infection likely contributes to the etiology of ESCC patients in Shaan Xi, People’s Republic of China. HPV16 infection status and PI3K expression levels could be useful for predicting prognosis in patients with ESCC. Keywords: low-affinity p75

  4. Apoptotic effects of Photofrin-Diomed 630-PDT on SHEEC human esophageal squamous cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shegan; Zhang, Mengxi; Zhu, Xiaojuan; Qu, Zhifeng; Shan, Tanyou; Xie, Xuanhu; Wang, Ying; Feng, Xiaoshan

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using photofrin-II is a clinically effective treatment for both non-neoplastic and neoplastic diseases. Herein, we performed an in vitro experiment to study the anti-tumor effect and mechanisms of photofrin-II mediated PDT for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell line, SHEEC. In this study, human ESCC cell line SHEEC and parental normal cell line SHEE were used. The anti-tumor effect of PDT was determined by evaluating cell viability using CCK-8 assay, apoptosis and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PDT induced significant apoptosis in SHEEC and SHEE cells in a time- and photofrin-II dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, PDT treatment induced significant death of SHEEC, instead of SHEE cells. The apoptotic outcome was accompanied by concurrent generation of ROS. In summary, PDT shed light on therapy of ESCC, functioning as a useful tool for ESCC clinical treatment, providing a better understanding of Photofrin-Diomed 630-PDT in SHEEC cells.

  5. The Antitumor Activity of the Novel Compound Jesridonin on Human Esophageal Carcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    Full Text Available Jesridonin, a small molecule obtained through the structural modification of Oridonin, has extensive antitumor activity. In this study, we evaluated both its in vitro activity in the cancer cell line EC109 and its in vivo effect on tumor xenografts in nude mice. Apoptosis induced by Jesridonin was determined using an MTT assay, Annexin-V FITC assay and Hoechest 33258 staining. Apoptosis via mitochondrial and death receptor pathways were confirmed by detecting the regulation of MDM2, p53, and Bcl-2 family members and by activation of caspase-3/-8/-9. In addition, vena caudalis injection of Jesridonin showed significant inhibition of tumor growth in the xenograft model, and Jesridonin-induced cell apoptosis in tumor tissues was determined using TUNEL. Biochemical serum analysis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, total protein (TP and albumin (ALB indicated no obvious effects on liver function. Histopathological examination of the liver, kidney, lung, heart and spleen revealed no signs of JD-induced toxicity. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Jesridonin exhibits antitumor activity in human esophageal carcinomas EC109 cells both in vitro and in vivo and demonstrated no adverse effects on major organs in nude mice. These studies provide support for new drug development.

  6. Gene silencing of galectin-3 changes the biological behavior of Eca109 human esophageal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lili; Liang, Ning; Xie, Jian; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Jingxin; Deng, Guodong; Li, Yupeng; Zhang, Jiandong

    2016-01-01

    Galectin-3 is a multifunctional β-galactoside‑binding lectin that is involved in multiple biological functions which are upregulated in malignancies, including cell growth, adhesion, proliferation, progression and metastasis, as well as apoptosis. A previous study has confirmed the roles of galecin-3 overexpression in the biological behavior of Eca109 human esophageal cancer (EC) cells. In the present study, small interfering (si)RNA-mediated galectin-3 silencing was performed to analyze the effects of decreased galectin-3 expression on the biological behavior of EC cells. Western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses were utilized to confirm galectin-3 knockdown at the protein and mRNA level (PGalectin-3 knockdown significantly enhanced the apoptotic rate of Eca109 cells compared with that in the siRNA-control and untreated groups (P=0.031 and P=0.047, respectively). In conclusion, following successful knockdown of galecin-3 expression in Eca109 cells, the cell proliferation, migration and invasion were reduced, while the apoptosis was enhanced, which indicates that galectin silencing may represent a therapeutic strategy for EC.

  7. Review of anticancer and antioxidant activities of radioresistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    electromagnetic or corpuscular). Chroococcidiopsis sp., Deinococcus radiodurans, Rubrobacter radiotolerans, and Thermococcus gammatolerans are examples of radioresistant microorganisms with the ability to survive and grow under high ...

  8. Herpetic esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shortsleeve, M.J.; Gauvin, G.P.; Gardner, R.C.; Greenberg, M.S.

    1981-12-01

    Four patients with herpetic esophagitis were examined. In three of them, the presenting symptom was odynophagia. Early in the course of herpetic esophagitis, shallow round and oval ulcers were seen on barium esophagograms. Later, the ulcers filled with fibrinous exudate, forming nodular plaques that projected into the esophageal lumen. Although these findings are diagnostic of esophagitis, they are not specific for a herpes virus infection. The definitive diagnosis must be established by histologic examination, which demonstrates the cytopathic effect of the herpes virus infection within the squamous epithelium.

  9. Dysregulation of IRP1-mediated iron metabolism causes gamma ray-specific radioresistance in leukemia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtis J Haro

    Full Text Available Iron is required for nearly all organisms, playing important roles in oxygen transport and many enzymatic reactions. Excess iron, however, can be cytotoxic. Emerging evidence suggests that radioresistance can be achieved in lower organisms by the protection of proteins, but not DNA, immediately following ionizing radiation (IR exposure, allowing for improved DNA repair. One potential mechanism for protein protection is controlling and limiting the amount of free iron in cells, as has been demonstrated in the extremophile Deinococcus Radiodurans, reducing the potential for oxidative damage to proteins during exposure to IR. We found that iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1 expression was markedly reduced in human myeloid leukemia HL60 cells resistant to low linear energy transfer (LET gamma rays, but not to high LET alpha particles. Stable knockdown of IRP1 by short-hairpin RNA (shRNA interference in radiosensitive parental cells led to radioresistance to low LET IR, reduced intracellular Fenton chemistry, reduced protein oxidation, and more rapid DNA double-strand break (DSB repair. The mechanism of radioresistance appeared to be related to attenuated free radical-mediated cell death. Control of intracellular iron by IRPs may be a novel radioresistance mechanism in mammalian cells.

  10. Signaling in TRPV1-induced platelet activating factor (PAF) in human esophageal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Harnett, Karen M; Behar, Jose; Biancani, Piero; Cao, Weibiao

    2010-02-01

    Transient receptor potential channel, vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) receptors were identified in human esophageal squamous epithelial cell line HET-1A by RT-PCR and by Western blot. In fura-2 AM-loaded cells, the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin caused a fourfold cytosolic calcium increase, supporting a role of TRPV1 as a capsaicin-activated cation channel. Capsaicin increased production of platelet activating factor (PAF), an important inflammatory mediator that acts as a chemoattractant and activator of immune cells. The increase was reduced by the p38 MAP kinase (p38) inhibitor SB203580, by the cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA(2)) inhibitor AACOCF3, and by the lyso-PAF acetyltransferase inhibitor sanguinarin, indicating that capsaicin-induced PAF production may be mediated by activation of cPLA(2), p38, and lyso-PAF acetyltransferase. To establish a sequential signaling pathway, we examined the phosphorylation of p38 and cPLA(2) by Western blot. Capsaicin induced phosphorylation of p38 and cPLA(2). Capsaicin-induced p38 phosphorylation was not affected by AACOCF3. Conversely, capsaicin-induced cPLA(2) phosphorylation was blocked by SB203580, indicating that capsaicin-induced PAF production depends on sequential activation of p38 and cPLA(2). To investigate how p38 phosphorylation may result from TRPV1-mediated calcium influx, we examined a possible role of calmodulin kinase (CaM-K). p38 phosphorylation was stimulated by the calcium ionophore A23187 and by capsaicin, and the response to both agonists was reduced by a CaM inhibitor and by CaM-KII inhibitors, indicating that calcium induced activation of CaM and CaM-KII results in P38 phosphorylation. Acetyl-CoA transferase activity increased in response to capsaicin and was inhibited by SB203580, indicating that p38 phosphorylation in turn causes activation of acetyl-CoA transferase to produce PAF. Thus epithelial cells produce PAF in response to TRPV1-mediated calcium elevation.

  11. Cox2 and β-Catenin/T-cell Factor Signaling Intestinalize Human Esophageal Keratinocytes When Cultured under Organotypic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Kong

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC is rising in the United States. An important risk factor for EAC is the presence of Barrett esophagus (BE. BE is the replacement of normal squamous esophageal epithelium with a specialized columnar epithelium in response to chronic acid and bile reflux. However, the emergence of BE from squamous keratinocytes has not yet been demonstrated. Our research has focused on this. Wnt and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2 are two pathways whose activation has been associated with BE and progression to EAC, but their role has not been tested experimentally. To explore their contribution, we engineered a human esophageal keratinocyte cell line to express either a dominant-active Wnt effector CatCLef or a Cox2 complementary DNA. In a two-dimensional culture environment, Cox2 expression increases cell proliferation and migration, but neither transgene induces known BE markers. In contrast, when these cells were placed into three-dimensional organotypic culture conditions, we observed more profound effects. CatCLef-expressing cells were more proliferative, developed a thicker epithelium, and upregulated Notch signaling and several BE markers including NHE2. Cox2 expression also increased cell proliferation and induced a thicker epithelium. More importantly, we observed cysts form within the epithelium, filled with intestinal mucins including Muc5B and Muc17. This suggests that Cox2 expression in a three-dimensional culture environment induces a lineage of mucin-secreting cells and supports an important causal role for Cox2 in BE pathogenesis. We conclude that in vitro modeling of BE pathogenesis can be improved by enhancing Wnt signaling and Cox2 activity and using three-dimensional organotypic culture conditions.

  12. Esophageal Spasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Symptom Checker Esophageal spasms Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  13. ERK/p38 MAPK inhibition reduces radio-resistance to a pulsed proton beam in breast cancer stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwan; Park, Jeong Chan

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have identified highly tumorigenic cells with stem cell-like characteristics, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs) in human cancers. CSCs are resistant to conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy owing to their high DNA repair ability and oncogene overexpression. However, the mechanisms regulating CSC radio-resistance, particularly proton beam resistance, remain unclear. We isolated CSCs from the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, which expressed the characteristic breast CSC membrane protein markers CD44+/CD24-/ low , and irradiated the CSCs with pulsed proton beams. We confirmed that CSCs were resistant to pulsed proton beams and showed that treatment with p38 and ERK inhibitors reduced CSC radio-resistance. Based on these results, BCSC radio-resistance can be reduced during proton beam therapy by co-treatment with ERK1/2 or p38 inhibitors, a novel approach to breast cancer therapy.

  14. Risk factors for esophageal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chocarro Martínez, A; Galindo Tobal, F; Ruiz-Irastorza, G; González López, A; Alvarez Navia, F; Ochoa Sangrador, C; Martín Arribas, M I

    2000-02-01

    The role of gastric acid inhibitors as predisposing factors for Candida esophagitis is unknown. A retrospective case-control study of esophageal candidiasis was conducted in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients diagnosed from January 1991 to December 1997. The diagnosis of esophageal candidiasis was always made on the basis of endoscopic and histological criteria. Fifty-one patients were diagnosed with esophageal candidiasis, 15 of whom had esophageal complaints and 48 of whom suffered from another previous chronic disease (17 had cancer). In addition, 20 patients had previously been treated with antibiotics, 13 with steroids and 14 with omeprazole. In the multivariate analysis, neoplasm (odds ratio, 5.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.94-15.56) and therapy with antibiotics (odds ratio, 11.97; 95% confidence interval, 3.82-37.45), steroids (odds ratio, 35.52; 95% confidence interval, 3.90-324.01) or omeprazole (odds ratio, 18.23; 95% confidence interval, 4.67-71.03) were all associated with esophageal candidiasis. These data suggest that Candida esophagitis tends to occur in patients with chronic diseases, most of whom have been previously treated with antibiotics, steroids or omeprazole. The findings support the hypothesis that treatment with omeprazole favors the development of esophageal candidiasis.

  15. Effect of Food Additive Citric Acid on The Growth of Human Esophageal Carcinoma Cell Line EC109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoguang; Lv, Qiongxia; Liu, Yumei; Deng, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Today, esophageal cancer (EC) has become one of the most common cancer types in China. Therefore, new drug and therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to improve postoperative survival rate of patients with EC. As a food additive, several lines of evidence have shown that citric acid can be served as glycolysis suppressor to inhibit growth of some tumor cells. However, little is known about the effect of this organic acid on the growth of human esophageal carcinoma cell line, EC109. In this experimental study, cell proliferation rate was determined using MTT assay. Apoptotic morphological changes were evaluated by fluorescent microscopy using Hoechst 33258 staining. Cell apoptosis rate and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were detected using flow-cytometry. Effect of citric acid on cellular membrane permeability was assessed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, using LDH assay kit. Compared to the control group, there was a marked decrease in cells proliferation when the cells were treated with higher citric acid concentrations (800, 1600 μg/ml). Typical apoptotic morphology of EC109 cells was observed upon treatment with citric acid, such as chromatin condensation and appearance of apoptotic body. Cell apoptotic indexes were significantly increased (Pcitric acid at the concentration of 400-1600 μg/ml. Extracellular LDH activity and loss of MMP in all of the treated groups were significantly higher than control (Pcitric acid prevents EC109 cell growth by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis, which perhaps offers some theoretical guidance for its application in EC treatment.

  16. Microarray analysis of DNA damage repair gene expression profiles in cervical cancer cells radioresistant to 252Cf neutron and X-rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhen-Zhou

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to obtain stable radioresistant sub-lines from the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa by prolonged exposure to 252Cf neutron and X-rays. Radioresistance mechanisms were investigated in the resulting cells using microarray analysis of DNA damage repair genes. Methods HeLa cells were treated with fractionated 252Cf neutron and X-rays, with a cumulative dose of 75 Gy each, over 8 months, yielding the sub-lines HeLaNR and HeLaXR. Radioresistant characteristics were detected by clone formation assay, ultrastructural observations, cell doubling time, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis assay. Gene expression patterns of the radioresistant sub-lines were studied through microarray analysis and verified by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Results The radioresistant sub-lines HeLaNR and HeLaXR were more radioresisitant to 252Cf neutron and X-rays than parental HeLa cells by detecting their radioresistant characteristics, respectively. Compared to HeLa cells, the expression of 24 genes was significantly altered by at least 2-fold in HeLaNR cells. Of these, 19 genes were up-regulated and 5 down-regulated. In HeLaXR cells, 41 genes were significantly altered by at least 2-fold; 38 genes were up-regulated and 3 down-regulated. Conclusions Chronic exposure of cells to ionizing radiation induces adaptive responses that enhance tolerance of ionizing radiation and allow investigations of cellular radioresistance mechanisms. The insights gained into the molecular mechanisms activated by these "radioresistance" genes will lead to new therapeutic targets for cervical cancer.

  17. [Expression and clinical significance of BRCA1 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-xuan; Xue, Li-yan; Dong, Li-jia; Fu, Ming; Zhan, Qi-min; Tong, Tong

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the expression of BRCA1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues and evaluate its correlation with clinicopathological features as well as the prognosis of ESCC patients. The expression of BRCA1 was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 201 specimens of T3 stage ESCC tissues and corresponding adjacent normal tissues using tissue microarray. The correlation between BRCA1 expression and clinicopathological features of ESCC was determined by chi-square analysis. The cumulative survival rate was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. The positive rate of BRCA1 expression in ESCC tissues was significantly higher than that in adjacent normal tissues [88.6% (178/201) vs. 36.8% (74/201), P 0.05). The results of Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that ESCC patients with a higher positive rate of BRCA1 expression have a poorer prognosis (P < 0.05). The expression of BRCA1 is related to the occurrence and development of esophageal carcinoma. BRCA1 protein may serve as a new potential biomarker in estimating the biological behavior of ESCC.

  18. Esophageal scintigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, F; Hesse, B; Tromholt, N

    1992-01-01

    Esophageal scintigraphy has been rather widely used, but much debated as a simple screening method of esophageal dysfunction. However, reports of normal ranges, age dependence and reproducibility are very limited. We studied 60 healthy subjects with a mean age of 43 yr (26, 19, 15 subjects aged 20......-39, 40-59, and 60-79 yr) to establish normal ranges and variations of esophageal mean transit time and residual activity measured by a radionuclide method using [99mTc] pertechnetate labeled water. Mean transit time was calculated by Zierler's formula. The median values and 95% percentiles of single...... were reduced to 10% for MTT and 40% for residual activity in the supine position. The values did not change with age except for a higher frequency of spikes in subjects over 40 yr. The study has demonstrated that mean transit time for radiolabeled water in the esophagus of healthy subjects, measured...

  19. Platinum nanoparticles: an exquisite tool to overcome radioresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Porcel, Erika; Remita, Hynd; Marco, Sergio; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Dutertre, Murielle; Confalonieri, Fabrice; Lacombe, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    Small metallic nanoparticles are proposed as potential nanodrugs to optimize the performances of radiotherapy. This strategy, based on the enrichment of tumours with nanoparticles to amplify radiation effects in the tumour, aims at increasing the cytopathic effect in tumours while healthy tissue is preserved, an important challenge in radiotherapy. Another major cause of radiotherapy failure is the radioresistance of certain cancers. Surprisingly, the use of nanoparticles to overcome radioresistance has not, to the best of our knowledge, been extensively investigated. The mechanisms of radioresistance have been extensively studied using Deinococcus radiodurans, the most radioresistant organism ever reported, as a model. In this work, we investigated the impact of ultra-small platinum nanoparticles (1.7 nm) on this organism, including uptake, toxicity, and effects on radiation responses. We showed that the nanoparticles penetrate D. radiodurans cells, despite the 150 nm cell wall thickness with a minimal inhibition concentration on the order of 4.8 mg L(-1). We also found that the nanoparticles amplify gamma ray radiation effects by >40%. Finally, this study demonstrates the capacity of metallic nanoparticles to amplify radiation in radioresistant organisms, thus opening the perspective to use nanoparticles not only to improve tumour targeting but also to overcome radioresistance.

  20. The Fas counterattack in vivo: apoptotic depletion of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes associated with Fas ligand expression by human esophageal carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bennett, M W

    2012-02-03

    Various cancer cell lines express Fas ligand (FasL) and can kill lymphoid cells by Fas-mediated apoptosis in vitro. FasL expression has been demonstrated in several human malignancies in vivo. We sought to determine whether human esophageal carcinomas express FasL, and whether FasL expression is associated with increased apoptosis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in vivo, thereby contributing to the immune privilege of the tumor. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively, FasL mRNA and protein were colocalized to neoplastic esophageal epithelial cells in all esophageal carcinomas (squamous, n = 6; adenocarcinoma, n = 2). The Extent of FasL expression was variable, with both FasL-positive and FasL-negative neoplastic regions occurring within tumors. TIL were detected by immunohistochemical staining for the leukocyte common Ag, CD45. FasL expression was associated with a mean fourfold depletion of TIL when compared with FasL-negative areas within the same tumors (range 1.6- to 12-fold, n = 6,p < 0.05). Cell death of TIL was detected by dual staining of CD45 (immunohistochemistry) and DNA strand breaks (TUNEL, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling). There was a mean twofold increase in detectable cell death among TIL in FasL-positive areas compared with FasL-negative areas (range 1.6- to 2.4-fold, n = 6, p < 0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrate a statistically significant, quantitative reduction of TIL concomitant with significantly increased TIL apoptosis within FasL-expressing areas of esophageal tumors. Our findings suggest Fas-mediated apoptotic depletion of TIL in response to FasL expression by esophageal cancers, and provide the first direct, quantitative evidence to support the Fas counterattack as a mechanism of immune privilege in vivo in human cancer.

  1. Deinococcus radiodurans pprI expression enhances the radioresistance of eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ling; Yue, Ling; Shi, Yi; Ren, Lili; Chen, Tingting; Li, Na; Zhang, Shuyu; Yang, Wei; Yang, Zhanshan

    2016-03-29

    PprI accelerates radiation-induced DNA damage repair via regulating the expression of DNA repair genes and enhances antioxidative enzyme activity in Deinococcus radiodurans after radiation. The main aim of our study was to determine whether the expression of pprI gene could fulfil its DNA repair function in eukaryotes and enhance the radioresistance of eukaryotic organism or not. In this study, we constructed pEGFP-c1-pprI eukaryotic expression vector and established a human lung epithelial cell line BEAS-2B with stable integration of pprI gene. We found that pprIexpression enhanced radioresistance of BEAS-2B cells, decreased γ-H2AX foci formation and apoptosis in irradiated BEAS-2B cells and alleviated radiation induced G2/M arrest of BEAS-2B cells. Moreover, we transferred pEGFP-c1-pprI vector into muscle of BALB/c mice by in vivo electroporation and studied the protective effect of prokaryotic pprI gene in irradiated mice. We found that pprI expression alleviated acute radiation induced hematopoietic system, lung, small intestine and testis damage and increased survival rate of irradiated mice via regulating Rad51 expression in different organs. These findings suggest that prokaryotic pprI gene expression in mammalian cells could enhance radioresistance in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Esophageal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M. B.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas in esophageal cancer (EC) has changed, and focus directed towards tumors of the distal esophagus and the esophagogastric junction. The genetic events leading to EC are not fully clarified, but important risk factors have been...

  3. The Antiproliferative Effect of Moringa oleifera Crude Aqueous Leaf Extract on Human Esophageal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiloke, Charlette; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Chuturgoon, Anil A

    2016-04-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is commonly diagnosed in South Africa (SA), with high incidences occurring in SA's black population. Moringa oleifera (MO), a multipurpose tree, is used traditionally for its nutritional and medicinal properties. It has been used for the treatment of a variety of ailments, including cancer. We investigated the antiproliferative effect of MO crude aqueous leaf extract (MOE) on a cancerous esophageal cell line (SNO). SNO cells were exposed to a range of MOE dilutions to evaluate cytotoxicity (MTT assay). Oxidative stress was determined using the TBARS assay. The comet assay was used to assess DNA damage. We then determined cell death mechanisms by measuring phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization (flow cytometry), caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activities, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels (luminometry). Protein expression of Smac/DIABLO and PARP-1 was determined by western blotting. SNO cells were treated with a range of MOE dilutions to obtain an IC50 value of 389.2 μg/mL MOE (24 h), which was used in all subsequent assays. MOE significantly increased lipid peroxidation (P < .05) and DNA fragmentation (P < .0001) in SNO cells. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed by the increase in PS externalization (P < .0001), caspase-9 (P < .05) and caspase-3/7 (P = .22) activities, and decreased ATP levels (P < .0001). MOE significantly increased both the expression of Smac/DIABLO protein and cleavage of PARP-1, resulting in an increase in the 24-kDa fragment (P < .001). MOE possesses antiproliferative effects on SNO EC cells by increasing lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, and induction of apoptosis.

  4. PIM1 gene silencing inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of human esophageal cancer cell line Eca-109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Xun; Zhou, Xin-Ming

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to study the effect of PIM1 gene silencing on the proliferation and apoptosis of human esophageal cancer cell line Eca109. Cultured Eca109 cells were transfected with the recombinant plasmids in mediation of Lipofectamine TM 2000 Reagent. The Eca109 cells in logarithmic growth phase were collected and assigned into three groups: the PIM1 siRNA group (stably transfected with PIM1-shRNA plasmids), the negative control (NC) group (transfected with vacant plasmids), and the blank group (Eca109 cells without any transfection). The PIM1 mRNA expression was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Cell proliferation was evaluated using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). Cell apoptosis was assessed by Annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining and TUNEL assays. The PIM1 mRNA expression of Eca109 cells in the PIM1 siRNA group was significantly lower than that in the NC and blank groups. Compared with the NC and blank groups, the viability and proliferation of the Eca109 cells in the PIM1 siRNA group were significantly decreased at 48 h, 72 h and 96 h after transfection. The cell growth inhibition rate of the PIM1 siRNA group was higher than that of the NC and blank groups after transfection. Furthermore, the apoptotic rate of the PIM1 siRNA group was also higher than that of the NC and blank groups. In conclusion, our preliminary findings suggest that PIM1 gene silencing could inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells.

  5. Lithium inhibits proliferation of human esophageal cancer cell line Eca-109 by inducing a G2/M cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Cui-Lian; Wen, Ji-Fang; Wang, Yong-Jin; Hu, Yong-Bin; Ren, Hong-Zheng

    2008-07-07

    To investigate the effect of lithium on proliferation of esophageal cancer (EC) cells and its preliminary mechanisms. Eca-109 cells were treated with lithium chloride, a highly selective inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta), at different concentrations (2-30 mmol/L) and time points (0, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h). Cell proliferative ability was evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and cell cycle distribution was examined by flow cytometry. Expressions of p-GSK-3beta, beta-catenin, cyclin B1, cdc2 and cyclin D1 protein were detected by Western blotting, and the subcellular localization of beta-catenin was determined by immunofluorescence. The mRNA level of cyclin B1 was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Lithium could inhibit the proliferation of Eca-109 cells. Lithium at a concentration of 20 mmol/L lithium for 24 h produced obvious changes in the distribution of cell cycle, and increased the number of cells in G(2)/M phase (Pgroup). Western blotting showed that lithium inhibited GSK-3beta by Ser-9 phosphorylation and stabilized free beta-catenin in the cytoplasm. Immunofluorescence further confirmed that free beta-catenin actively translocated to the nucleus. Moreover, lithium slightly elevated cyclin D1 protein expression, whereas lowered the cyclin B1 expression after 24 h lithium exposure and no obvious change was observed for cdc2 protein. Lithium can inhibit the proliferation of human esophageal cancer cell line Eca-109 by inducing a G(2)/M cell cycle arrest, which is mainly mediated through the inhibition of lithium-sensitive molecule, GSK-3beta, and reduction of cyclin B1 expression.

  6. Study on establishment of esophageal carcinoma animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Qiang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is one of the common human gastrointestinal malignancies.In recent years,the global incidence of esophageal cancer and its mortality rise.China is the high incidence area of esophageal cancer with the highest morbidity and mortality in the world.However,the exact pathogeny of esophageal cancer has not been fully clarified yet.Thus,it is of significant importance to establish ideal and stable esophageal carcinoma animal models with similar biological characteristics to clinical tumors,which will provide a reliable research basis for the occurrence,development,metastasis and drug responses of esophageal carcinoma,and is also helpful for anti-esophageal cancer drug screening and the development of rational dinical therapeutic treatment.This article provides an overview of the development of esophageal carcinoma animal models in recent years,the classification of esophageal carcinoma animal models,modeling methods and the progress of model evaluation.

  7. Esophageal Mucormycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Boatright

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is a rare invasive fungal infection with high mortality. It usually affects patients with poorly controlled diabetes, immunosuppression, or hematological malignancies. Gastroenterologists need to be aware of this rare infection because endoscopy can facilitate early diagnosis and prompt appropriate therapy. Here we describe a case of invasive esophageal mucormycosis that developed in a 63-year-old man with diabetes, acute promyelocytic leukemia, and prolonged leukopenia after chemotherapy. Upper endoscopy showed distal circumferential esophageal wall thickening with devitalization. The mucosa did not bleed after endoscopic biopsy. Histopathology confirmed mucormycosis. He was treated with various antifungal agents including echinocandins, fluconazole, and liposomal amphotericin B. Despite aggressive antifungal therapy and supportive care, the patient died 24 days later.

  8. Expression of peanut agglutinin-binding mucin-type glycoprotein in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma as a marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan Ramathilakam

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TF (Thomson – Friedenreich blood group antigen behaves as an onco-foetal carcinoma-associated antigen, showing increased expression in malignancies and its detection and quantification can be used in serologic diagnosis mainly in adenocarcinomas. This study was undertaken to analyze the sera and tissue level detectable mucin-type glycoprotein (TF-antigen by Peanut agglutinin (PNA and its diagnostic index in serum as well tissues of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma as marker. Results We examined 100 patients for serological analysis by Enzyme Linked Lectin Assay (ELISA and demonstrated a sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 90% and a positive predictive value of 95%. The immuno-histochemical localization of TF antigen by Fluorescence Antigen Technique (FAT in 25 specimens of normal esophageal squamous epithelium specimens and 92 specimens with different grades of, allowed a quicker and more precise identification of its increased expression and this did not correlate with gender and tumor size. There was a positive correlation between membrane bound TF antigen expression with different histological progression, from well differentiated to poorly differentiated, determined by PNA binding. Specimens showed morphological changes and a pronounced increase in PNA binding in Golgi apparatus, secretory granules of the cytosol of well differentiated and an increased cell membrane labeling in moderately and poorly differentiated, when compared with ESCC and normal tissues. Conclusion The authors propose that the expression of TF-antigen in human may play an important role during tumorigenesis establishing it as a chemically well-defined carcinoma-associated antigen. Identification of the circulating TF-antigen as a reactive form and as a cryptic form in the healthy individuals, using PNA-ELLA and Immunohistochemical analysis of TF antigen by FAT is positively correlated with the different histological grades as a simple

  9. Cancer-associated adipocytes promotes breast tumor radioresistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochet, Ludivine; Meulle, Aline [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); CNRS, IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), 205 route de Narbonne, BP 64182, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, INSERM U1048, 1 Avenue du Pr Jean Poulhes, BP 84225, F-31432 Toulouse Cedex (France); Imbert, Sandrine [CNRS, IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), 205 route de Narbonne, BP 64182, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); Salles, Bernard [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); CNRS, IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), 205 route de Narbonne, BP 64182, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); Valet, Philippe [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, INSERM U1048, 1 Avenue du Pr Jean Poulhes, BP 84225, F-31432 Toulouse Cedex (France); Muller, Catherine, E-mail: muller@ipbs.fr [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France); CNRS, IPBS (Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale), 205 route de Narbonne, BP 64182, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} Tumor-surrounding adipocytes contribute to breast cancer progression. {yields} Breast tumor cells previously co-cultivated with mature adipocytes exhibit radioresistance. {yields} Increased in Chk1 phosphorylation is observed in irradiated co-cultivated tumor cells. {yields} IL-6 is over-expressed in tumor cells co-cultivated with adipocytes. {yields} IL-6 exposure confers increased Chk1 phosphorylation and radioresistance in tumor cells. -- Abstract: Mature adipocytes are excellent candidates to influence tumor behavior through heterotypic signaling processes since these cells produce hormones, growth factors, cytokines and other molecules, a heterogeneous group of molecules named adipokines. Using a 2D coculture system, we demonstrate that breast tumor cells previously co-cultivated with mature adipocytes exhibit radioresistance and an earlier and higher increase in the effector kinase Chk1, a phenotype that was associated with decreased cell death as compared to tumor cells grown alone. Interestingly, the adipocytes-induced tumor changes taking place during the coculture time preceding the exposure to IR were sufficient to confer the radioresistant effect. Notorious among the changes brought by adipocytes was the significant increase of IL-6 expression in tumor cells, whose activity may well account for the observed tumor cell protection from IR toxicity. Indeed, our data confirmed the protective role of this cytokine as tumor cells incubated after irradiation with recombinant IL-6 exhibit an increased in Chk1 phosphorylation and a radioresistant phenotype, thus far recapitulating the effects observed in the presence of adipocytes. Our current study sheds light on a new role of tumor-surrounding adipocytes in fostering a radioresistant phenotype in breast tumors, a finding that might have important clinical implications in obese patients that frequently exhibit aggressive diseases.

  10. Esophageal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected pediatric patients after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Christine C; Groll, Andreas H; Mavrogiorgos, Nikolaos; Wood, Lauren V; Walsh, Thomas J

    2002-05-01

    To investigate epidemiologic trends, clinical features and outcome of esophageal candidiasis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy in a prospectively monitored population of HIV-infected children and adolescents followed at the National Cancer Institute. The records of all HIV-infected pediatric patients (n = 266) followed between 1995 and 2000 were reviewed for a history of esophageal candidiasis. Proven esophageal candidiasis was defined as clinical plus radiographic and/or endoscopic findings of esophageal candidiasis. Probable esophageal candidiasis was defined as esophageal symptoms that responded promptly to appropriate antifungal therapy. The medical records of all patients fulfilling these criteria were reviewed for demographic, clinical and laboratory features at presentation, as well as therapeutic interventions and outcome. Of the 266 patients 9 (3.4%) had 18 documented episodes of proven (n = 16) or probable (n = 2) esophageal candidiasis. A history of prior mucosal candidiasis was present in 94% of all episodes. The median CD4+ count at the time of diagnosis was 7/microl (range, 0 to 550), and the median viral load was 98000 copies/ml (range, 22916 to 1278933). Concurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis was the most common clinical presentation (72%) followed by fever (55%), odynophagia (50%) and nausea or vomiting (39%). Treatment consisted of antifungal triazoles (61%) or amphotericin B (39%). Clinical cure was achieved in 15 cases, including all patients receiving triazoles. Esophageal candidiasis persists in the subgroup of patients not responding to highly active antiretroviral therapy and in that setting may present without concomitant oropharyngeal candidiasis or typical clinical symptoms, thus underscoring the need for a high index of suspicion in children with very low CD4+ counts.

  11. Unusual radioresistance of nitrogen-fixing cultures of Anabaena ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Chem. 140 315–322. Mattimore V and Battista J R 1996 Radioresistance of Deinococcus radiodurans: functions necessary to survive ionizing radiation are also necessary to survive desiccation; J. Bacteriol. 178. 633–637. Morton J I and Siegel B V 1971 Radiation sensitivity of. New Zealand black mice and the development ...

  12. Aquaporin-8 mediates human esophageal cancer Eca-109 cell migration via the EGFR-Erk1/2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heng; Shi, Yong-Hua; Talaf, Tuo-Kan; Lin, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal expression of aquaporins (AQPs) has been reported in several human cancers. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2 (ERK1/2) are associated with tumorigenesis and cancer progression and may upregulate AQPs expression. In this study, we investigated acquaporin-8 expression and signaling via epidermal growth factor receptor-extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2 in human esophageal cancer Eca-109 cells by western blot, immunofluorescence and wound healing (scratch) assays. Our results showed that epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced both Eca-109 migration and AQP8 expression. Wound healing results showed that cell migration was increased by 1.23-1.10-fold at 24 h and 48 h after EGF treatment. AQP8 expression was significantly increased (1.19-fold) at 48 h after EGF treatment in Eca-109. The EGFR kinase inhibitor, PD153035, blocked EGF-induced AQP8 expression and cell migration. AQP8 expression was decreased from 3.65-fold (EGF-treated) to 0.55-fold (PD153035-treated) in Eca-109. Furthermore, the MEK [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/Erk1/2]/Erk1/2 inhibitor U0126 also inhibited EGF-induced AQP8 expression and cell migration. AQP8 expression was decreased from 3.92-fold (EGF-treated) to 1.38-fold (U0126-treated) in Eca-109. In conclusions, EGF induces AQP8 expression and cell migration in Eca-109 cells via the EGFR/Erk1/2 signal transduction pathway.

  13. Transient elevation of glycolysis confers radio-resistance by facilitating DNA repair in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Anant Narayan; Chauhan, Ankit; Khanna, Suchit; Rai, Yogesh; Singh, Saurabh; Soni, Ravi; Kalra, Namita; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S

    2015-05-01

    Cancer cells exhibit increased glycolysis for ATP production (the Warburg effect) and macromolecular biosynthesis; it is also linked with therapeutic resistance that is generally associated with compromised respiratory metabolism. Molecular mechanisms underlying radio-resistance linked to elevated glycolysis remain incompletely understood. We stimulated glycolysis using mitochondrial respiratory modifiers (MRMs viz. di-nitro phenol, DNP; Photosan-3, PS3; Methylene blue, MB) in established human cell lines (HEK293, BMG-1 and OCT-1). Glucose utilization and lactate production, levels of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes were investigated as indices of glycolysis. Clonogenic survival, DNA repair and cytogenetic damage were studied as parameters of radiation response. MRMs induced the glycolysis by enhancing the levels of two important regulators of glucose metabolism GLUT-1 and HK-II and resulted in 2 fold increase in glucose consumption and lactate production. This increase in glycolysis resulted in resistance against radiation-induced cell death (clonogenic survival) in different cell lines at an absorbed dose of 5 Gy. Inhibition of glucose uptake and glycolysis (using fasentin, 2-deoxy-D-glucose and 3-bromopyruvate) in DNP treated cells failed to increase the clonogenic survival of irradiated cells, suggesting that radio-resistance linked to inhibition of mitochondrial respiration is glycolysis dependent. Elevated glycolysis also facilitated rejoining of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks by activating both non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) pathways of DNA double strand break repair leading to a reduction in radiation-induced cytogenetic damage (micronuclei formation) in these cells. These findings suggest that enhanced glycolysis generally observed in cancer cells may be responsible for the radio-resistance, partly by enhancing the repair of DNA damage.

  14. [Esophageal moniliasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Degollado, J; Martínez Aguilar, A; Peniche Bojórquez, J

    1978-01-01

    Esophageal moniliasis is found rarely. It has been described mainly in chronically ill patients, who receive antibiotics and corticoesteroids. Early diagnosis and treatment betters their prognosis. Nine patients, 5 males and 4 females were studies in Hospital General del Centro Medico Nacional in Mexico City. Their agesranged from 26 to 77 years, with a mean of 49 years. All patients were chronically ill and 7 of them were treated in the intensive care unit. Three had disphagia, 3 retrosternal pain, and 2 gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Eight patients had high W.B.C., 3 irregular filling defects on X ray studies, and on endoscopy, all showed a pseudomembranous white yellowish exudate, underneath it the mucosa was inflamed, irregular and bled scantily. In 5 out of 9 patients biopsy and a smear confirmed the diagnosis. Eight patients treated with nystatin were cured. This disorder must be suspected in patients with disphagia and retrosternal pain; esophagoscopy is the prefered procedure to establish this diagnosis.

  15. Heterophyllin B inhibits the adhesion and invasion of ECA-109 human esophageal carcinoma cells by targeting PI3K/AKT/β-catenin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantai, Ji-Cheng; Zhang, Yao; Zhao, Heng

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to measure the effect of heterophyllin B (HB) on the adhesion and invasion of ECA-109 human esophageal carcinoma cells, and examine the possible mechanism involved. A Cell Counting kit 8 assay was performed to determine the cell viability. Cell adhesion and invasion were determined following treatment of the ECA-109 cells with HB (0, 10, 25 and 50 µM) for 24 h. The levels of phosphorylated (p-)ATK and p-phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and the protein levels of β-catenin were measured using western blot analysis. The mRNA and protein expression levels of E-cadherin, vimentin, snail, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2 and MMP9 were detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses, respectively. HB (10, 25 and 50 µM) significantly suppressed the adhesion and invasion of the ECA-109 human esophageal carcinoma cells in a dose-dependant manner. The expression levels of p-ATK, p-PI3K and β-catenin were markedly decreased. The expression of E-cadherin was promoted, whereas the expression levels of snail, vimentin, MMP 2 and MMP 9 were decreased significantly in the ECA-109 cells treated with HB. In addition, HB inhibited the adhesion and invasion induced by PI3K activating peptide in the ECA-109 cells, and the protein expression levels were also adjusted. These results suggested that HB effectively suppressed the adhesion and invasion of the human esophageal carcinoma cells by mediating the PI3K/AKT/β-catenin pathways and regulating the expression levels of adhesion- and invasion-associated genes.

  16. Human papillomavirus shows highly variable prevalence in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and no significant correlation to p16INK4a overexpression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Sanne Høxbroe; Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; von Buchwald, Christian

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This review investigates the role of p16(INK4a) as a marker of transcriptionally active human papillomavirus (HPV) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and the regional prevalence of HPV in ESCC. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched...... of p16(INK4a) overexpression as a marker of HPV DNA presence was 0.35, the specificity 0.67, and the positive predictive value 0.25. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review reports great regional variation in the prevalence of HPV in ESCC and suggests that p16(INK4a) is not a reliable marker of HPV status...

  17. Radiologic features of esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kressel, H.Y.; Glick, S.N.; Laufer, I.; Banner, M.

    1981-05-15

    The radiographic features of 31 cases of esophagitis confirmed by endoscopy and biopsy were studied by double-contrast techniques. The morphologic findings are analyzed and the changes noted in the infectious and peptic types of esophagitis are contrasted.

  18. Esophageal Strictures in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Bazrafshan

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Anastomotic stricture after surgical repair of esophageal atresia comprised the most common cause of esophageal stricture. Proximal esophagus was the most common site of stricture. Most of the patients recovered with dilatation, surgery, or a combination of the two.

  19. Role of Natural Radiosensitizers and Cancer Cell Radioresistance: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Malik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer originates from genetic mutations accumulation. Cancer stem cells have been depicted as tumorigenic cells that can differentiate and self-renew. Cancer stem cells are thought to be resistant to conventional therapy like chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy damage carcinomic DNA cells. Because of the ability of cancer stem cells to self-renew and reproduce malignant tumors, they are the subject of intensive research. In this review, CSCs radioresistant mechanisms which include DNA damage response and natural radiosensitizers have been summed up. Reactive oxygen species play an important role in different physiological processes. ROS scavenging is responsible for regulation of reactive oxygen species generation. A researcher has proved that microRNAs regulate tumor radiation resistance. Ionizing radiation does not kill the cancer cells; rather, IR just slows down the signs and symptoms. Ionizing radiation damages DNA directly/indirectly. IR is given mostly in combination with other chemo/radiotherapies. We briefly described here the behavior of cancer stem cells and radioresistance therapies in cancer treatment. To overcome radioresistance in treatment of cancer, strategies like fractionation modification, treatment in combination, inflammation modification, and overcoming hypoxic tumor have been practiced. Natural radiosensitizers, for example, curcumin, genistein, and quercetin, are more beneficial than synthetic compounds.

  20. Role of Natural Radiosensitizers and Cancer Cell Radioresistance: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Arif; Sultana, Misbah; Qazi, Aamer; Qazi, Mahmood Husain; Parveen, Gulshan; Waquar, Sulayman; Ashraf, Abdul Basit; Rasool, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Cancer originates from genetic mutations accumulation. Cancer stem cells have been depicted as tumorigenic cells that can differentiate and self-renew. Cancer stem cells are thought to be resistant to conventional therapy like chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy damage carcinomic DNA cells. Because of the ability of cancer stem cells to self-renew and reproduce malignant tumors, they are the subject of intensive research. In this review, CSCs radioresistant mechanisms which include DNA damage response and natural radiosensitizers have been summed up. Reactive oxygen species play an important role in different physiological processes. ROS scavenging is responsible for regulation of reactive oxygen species generation. A researcher has proved that microRNAs regulate tumor radiation resistance. Ionizing radiation does not kill the cancer cells; rather, IR just slows down the signs and symptoms. Ionizing radiation damages DNA directly/indirectly. IR is given mostly in combination with other chemo/radiotherapies. We briefly described here the behavior of cancer stem cells and radioresistance therapies in cancer treatment. To overcome radioresistance in treatment of cancer, strategies like fractionation modification, treatment in combination, inflammation modification, and overcoming hypoxic tumor have been practiced. Natural radiosensitizers, for example, curcumin, genistein, and quercetin, are more beneficial than synthetic compounds.

  1. The Accomplices of NF-κB Lead to Radioresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Miaomiao; Ma, Xiaoxing; Li, Xiaolei; Wang, Xiaohui; Mei, Qian; Li, Xiang; Wu, Zhiqiang; Han, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) plays an important role in the treatment of epithelial tumors, such as lung and prostate cancer, by wounding and killing cancer cells. However, IR also activates sophisticated anti-apoptotic transcriptional factors such that cancer cells fail to repair DNA damage and obtain resistance to apoptosis under conditions of radiotherapy. Among these transcription factors, the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is recognized as a key feature for protecting cells from apoptosis in most cell types. Moreover, the induction of radioresistance is mediated by several genes that are regulated by NF- κB. The primary purpose of this review is to introduce the studies of the signaling mechanisms of IR in NF-κB activation, such as ROS/NF-κB, ATM or DNA-PK/MAPKK/ p90rsk, PI3K/AKT/IKK and k-ras/c-raf/ MEKK/ NF-κB pathways. Moreover, we describe how the expression of the target genes (e.g., XIAP, A20, FLIP, Bcl-xL) are induced by NF-κB to regulate the activation of survival signaling pathways and to inhibit apoptotic signaling pathways. In addition, IR activates NF-κB to express cell cycle-specific genes, for example cyclin D1, which is associated with reinforcing radioresistance. We exhibit the signaling pathways that are induced by IR stimulation of NF-κB and illustrate the molecular mechanisms of radioresistance.

  2. Dual effects of 8-Br-cAMP on differentiation and apoptosis of human esophageal cancer cell line Eca-109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Mei; Zheng, Nai-Gang; Wu, Jing-Lan; Gong, Cui-Cui; Wang, Yi-Ling

    2005-11-07

    To investigate the effects of 8-Br-cAMP on differentiation and apoptosis of human esophageal cancer cell line Eca-109, and the related gene expression. The cultured Eca-109 cells were divided into four groups: E1 group (co-cultured with 8-Br-cAMP for 24 h); E2 group (co-cultured with 8-Br-cAMP for 48 h); C1 group (treated without 8-Br-cAMP for 24 h); and C2 group (treated without 8-Br-cAMP for 48 h). The same concentration of cell suspension of each group was dropped separately onto the slides and nitrocellulose membranes (NCM). The biotin-labeled cDNA probes for c-myc, wild-type (wt) p53, bcl-2 and iNOS were prepared for in situ hybridization. The expressions of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), p38 kinase, FAS, FasL and caspase-3 were detected using immunocytochemistry, and the NOS activity and the ratio of differentiated cells/proliferating cells were examined by cytochemistry. Immunocytochemistry, cytochemistry, and in situ hybridization were separately carried out on both slides and NCM specimens for each group. In addition, TUNEL was used to detect the cell apoptosis rate in each group. The apoptotic rate of E2 group was significantly higher compared to E1 group, while there was no difference in the ratio of differentiated cells/proliferating cells between E1 and E2 groups. The signals of wt p53 and iNOS were markedly stronger, while the signals of c-myc and EGFR were obviously weaker in E1 group than those in C1 group (Pgroup than those in C2 group (PEca-109 can be induced after 24- and 48-h treatment with 8-Br-cAMP, respectively. Upregulation of wt p53, iNOS and downregulation of c-myc may be associated with differentiation and apoptosis of Eca-109 cells. Furthermore, upregulation of FasL, p38 kinase and caspase-3 as well as downregulation of bcl-2, and Fas may be involved in the apoptosis of Eca-109 cells.

  3. [Esophageal stenting complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoliar, A N; Radchenko, Iu A; Nefedova, G A; Abakumov, M M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze esophageal stenting complications in case of cancer and benign diseases. It was investigated complications in 8 patients in terms from 7 days to 1 year after intervention. In 4 patients esophageal stenting was performed for constrictive esophageal cancer and compression with pulmonary cancer metastases into mediastinal lymphatic nodes. 2 patients had esophageal stenting for post-tracheostomy tracheo-esophageal fistula, 1 patient - for spontaneous esophageal rupture, 1 patient - for post-burn scar narrowing of esophagus and output part of the stomach. Severe patients' condition with tumor was determined by intensive esophageal bleeding in 2 cases, bilateral abscessed aspiration pneumonia, tumor bleeding, blood aspiration (1 case), posterior mediastinitis (1 case). Severe patients' condition with benign disease was associated with decompensated esophageal narrowing about proximal part of stent (1 case), increase of tracheo-esophageal fistula size complicated by aspiration pneumonia (1 case), stent migration into stomach with recurrence of esophago-mediastino-pleural fistula and pleural empyema (1 case), decompensated narrowing of esophagus and output part of the stomach (1 case). Patients with cancer died. And patients with benign diseases underwent multi-stage surgical treatment and recovered. Stenting is palliative method for patients with esophageal cancer. Patients after stenting should be under outpatient observation for early diagnosis of possible complications. Esophageal stenting in patients with benign diseases should be performed only by life-saving indications, in case of inability of other treatment and for the minimum necessary period.

  4. 4-Methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate mediates nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 activation by regulating reactive oxygen species production in human esophageal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Tadashi; Cho, Young-Man; Suzuki, Isamu; Toyoda, Takeshi; Akagi, Jun-Ichi; Nakamura, Yasushi; Numazawa, Satoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2018-01-01

    4-Methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC) extracted from daikon (Raphanus sativus), which shows antimutagenicity, may have applications as an effective chemopreventive agent in several cancers; however, few reports have described the associated mechanisms. We investigated whether MTBITC induced cytoprotective genes, including phase II enzymes, in Het-1A human esophageal epithelial cells. HMOX1, NQO1, and GCLC mRNA levels and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) protein levels were increased in Het-1A cells treated with 10 μM MTBITC. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) tended to increase when Het-1A cells were treated with MTBITC, and the increases in ROS and Nrf2 expression in the cells treated with MTBITC were completely abolished by treatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine. We also examined the relationships between Nrf2 activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling by western blot analysis. MTBITC induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 phosphorylation in Het-1A cells; however, MTBITC did not affect the relationship between Nrf2 activation and MAPK responses. In the present study, we found that MTBITC induced Nrf2 activation and cytoprotective genes via ROS production in Het-1A cells. These results suggest that MTBITC may have the potential for preventing esophageal carcinogenesis through modification of carcinogen metabolism by phase II enzyme induction via ROS production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Esophageal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Esophageal Cancer Screening Research Esophageal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Esophageal Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  6. Esophageal lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Janine Pichler de; Uribe, Natalia Caballero; Abulafia, Luna Azulay; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the skin, mucous membranes, nails and scalp. Esophageal lichen planus is a rarely reported manifestation of lichen planus, presenting itself commonly in middle-aged women, with symptoms such as dysphagia. We report a case of esophageal lichen planus in a 54-year-old woman associated with oral, cutaneous and ungual lichen planus. Although lichen planus is a disorder well known by dermatologists, reports of esophageal lichen planus are rare in dermatologic literature. The esophageal lichen planus is little known and underdiagnosed, with a significant delay between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis.

  7. Diagnosis and management of esophageal achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Stavros N; Friedel, David; Modayil, Rani; Parkman, Henry P

    2016-09-13

    Achalasia is a rare esophageal motility disorder that is usually idiopathic in origin. It is characterized by dysphagia, and patients often have chest pain, regurgitation, weight loss, and an abnormal barium radiograph showing esophageal dilation with narrowing at the gastroesophageal junction. Abnormal or absent esophageal peristalsis and impaired relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) are typically seen on esophageal manometry. The advent of high resolution manometry (HRM) has allowed more precise diagnosis of achalasia, subtype designation, and differentiation from other esophageal motor disorders with an initial seminal publication in 2008 followed by further refinements of what has been termed the Chicago classification. Potential treatments include drugs, endoscopic botulinum toxin injection, balloon dilation, traditional surgery (usually laparoscopic Heller myotomy; LHM), and a novel, less invasive, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) approach to Heller myotomy termed peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM). The first human POEM was performed in 2008, with the first publication appearing in 2010 and evidence now rapidly accumulating showing POEM to be comparable to traditional surgery in terms of clinical success and radiologic and manometric post-therapy outcomes. This review discusses the diagnosis and management of achalasia with particular emphasis on the recent developments of HRM and POEM, which arguably represent the most important advances in the field since the advent of laparoscopic Heller myotomy in the 1990s. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Metabolic analysis of radioresistant medulloblastoma stem-like clones and potential therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lue; Moritake, Takashi; Ito, Kazuya; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Yasui, Hironobu; Nakagawa, Hidehiko; Hirayama, Aki; Inanami, Osamu; Tsuboi, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is a fatal brain tumor in children, primarily due to the presence of treatment-resistant medulloblastoma stem cells. The energy metabolic pathway is a potential target of cancer therapy because it is often different between cancer cells and normal cells. However, the metabolic properties of medulloblastoma stem cells, and whether specific metabolic pathways are essential for sustaining their stem cell-like phenotype and radioresistance, remain unclear. We have established radioresistant medulloblastoma stem-like clones (rMSLCs) by irradiation of the human medulloblastoma cell line ONS-76. Here, we assessed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondria function, oxygen consumption rate (OCR), energy state, and metabolites of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle in rMSLCs and parental cells. rMSLCs showed higher lactate production and lower oxygen consumption rate than parental cells. Additionally, rMSLCs had low mitochondria mass, low endogenous ROS production, and existed in a low-energy state. Treatment with the metabolic modifier dichloroacetate (DCA) resulted in mitochondria dysfunction, glycolysis inhibition, elongated mitochondria morphology, and increased ROS production. DCA also increased radiosensitivity by suppression of the DNA repair capacity through nuclear oxidization and accelerated the generation of acetyl CoA to compensate for the lack of ATP. Moreover, treatment with DCA decreased cancer stem cell-like characters (e.g., CD133 positivity and sphere-forming ability) in rMSLCs. Together, our findings provide insights into the specific metabolism of rMSLCs and illuminate potential metabolic targets that might be exploited for therapeutic benefit in medulloblastoma.

  9. TP53 mutations, human papilloma virus DNA and inflammation markers in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma from the Rift Valley, a high-incidence area in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martel-Planche Ghislaine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Esophagus is one of the most common malignancies in both men and women in eastern and south-eastern Africa. In Kenya, clinical observations suggest that this cancer is frequent in the Rift Valley area. However, so far, there has been no report on the molecular characteristics of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC in this area. Results We have analyzed TP53 mutations, the presence of human papilloma virus (HPV DNA and expression of inflammation markers Cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2 and Nitrotyrosine (NTyR in 28 cases (13 males and 15 females of archived ESCC tissues collected at the Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Eldoret, Kenya. Eleven mutations were detected in TP53 exons 5 to 8 (39%. All ESCC samples were negative for HPV 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 70, 73 and 82. Immunohistochemical analysis of Cox-2 and NTyR showed a low proportion of positive cases (17.4% and 39.1%, respectively. No association between the above markers and suspected risk factors (alcohol or tobacco use, hot tea drinking, use of charcoal for cooking was found. Conclusion Our findings suggest that mechanisms of esophageal carcinogenesis in eastern Africa might be different from other parts of the world. Low prevalence of TP53 mutation compared with other intermediate or high incidence areas of the world highlights this hypothesis. Our data did not support a possible ole of HPV in this series of cases. Further studies are needed to assess and compare the molecular patterns of ESCC from Kenya with those of high-incidence areas such as China or Central Asia.

  10. Esophageal infections: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Niraj C; Caicedo, Ricardo A

    2015-10-01

    Infectious esophagitis generally occurs in patients with impaired immunity. Although methods to suppress the immune system evolve, the potential infectious consequences are poorly understood. The purpose of this article is to review the risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious esophagitis. Minimal pediatric data, including a few case reports and series, involve infectious esophagitis. Esophageal infections are usually caused by the following microbes, in order starting with the most common: Candida albicans, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus. Uncommon risk factors in these and other reports include epidural triamcinolone and oral budesonide in addition to more common risk factors such as HIV infection, chemotherapeutic agents, and transplant immunosuppressive medications. Rare reports involve immunocompetent patients and treatment of these patients is controversial. Understanding of infectious esophagitis is growing, and risk factors, diagnosis, and treatments are evolving.

  11. A ring-like nucleoid is not necessary for radioresistance in the Deinococcaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battista John R

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmission electron microscopy images of Deinococcus radiodurans R1 suggest that the nucleoid of this species exists as a "ring-like" body, and have led to speculation that this structure contributes to the radioresistance of the species. Since extreme radioresistance is characteristic of six other species of Deinococcus, we have attempted to correlate nucleoid morphology and radioresistance by determining whether the genomic DNA of each of these species exhibit similar structures. Results The nucleoid morphologies of seven recognized species of Deinococcus, the radioresistant bacterium Rubrobacter radiotolerans, and the more radiosensitive deinococcal relative Thermus aquaticus were evaluated using epifluorescence and deconvolution techniques. Although the nucleoids of Deinococcus murrayi, Deinococcus proteolyticus, Deinococcus radiophilus, and Deinococcus grandis have structures similar to D. radiodurans, the majority of nucleoids found in Deinococcus radiopugnans and Deinococcus geothermalis lack any specific organization. The nucleoid of R. radiotolerans consists of multiple highly condensed spheres of DNA scattered throughout the cell. The genomic DNA of Thermus aquaticus is uniformly distributed throughout the cell. Conclusion There is no obvious relationship between the shape of a species' nucleoid and extreme radioresistance. However, the genomes of all extremely radioresistance species examined are highly condensed relative to more radiosensitive species. Whether DNA in this tightly packed configuration contributes to the radioresistance of these bacteria remains unknown, but this common structural feature appears to limit diffusion of fragments generated post-irradiation even in cells incapable of repairing strand breaks.

  12. A case report: Does the ulcer belong to esophageal carcinoma or HIV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ning; Tang, Yanping; Li, Yang; Gan, Yongkang

    2017-12-01

    The deep-rooted pathogenesis of the human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is still uncertain and argumentative. As we know, a lot of cases of esophageal infections, such as esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal squamous papilloma (ESP), associated with HPV are reported. However, primary esophageal ulcer infection associated with HPV is unusual. This case is different from the other reports associated with HPV due to the patient's favorable prognosis. We present a case of a man diagnosed in the Gastroenterology Department of Tianjin Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, which presented a deep and big esophageal ulcer with irregular borders caused by type 16 HPV infection. The esophageal ulcer was treated with vidarabine monophosphate treatment. The esophageal ulcer was cured. We could put forward the diagnostic criteria available for diagnostic guidelines and 2 hypotheses that could possibly prevent esophageal carcinoma from happening.

  13. From reflux esophagitis to Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Hua

    2015-05-07

    The occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease is common in the human population. Almost all cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma are derived from Barrett's esophagus, which is a complication of esophageal adenocarcinoma precancerous lesions. Chronic exposure of the esophagus to gastroduodenal intestinal fluid is an important determinant factor in the development of Barrett's esophagus. The replacement of normal squamous epithelium with specific columnar epithelium in the lower esophagus induced by the chronic exposure to gastroduodenal fluid could lead to intestinal metaplasia, which is closely associated with the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the exact mechanism of injury is not completely understood. Various animal models of the developmental mechanisms of disease, and theoretical and clinical effects of drug treatment have been widely used in research. Recently, animal models employed in studies on gastroesophageal reflux injury have allowed significant progress. The advantage of using animal models lies in the ability to accurately control the experimental conditions for better evaluation of results. In this article, various modeling methods are reviewed, with discussion of the major findings on the developmental mechanism of Barrett's esophagus, which should help to develop better prevention and treatment strategies for Barrett's esophagus.

  14. Long-lived keratin 15+ esophageal progenitor cells contribute to homeostasis and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Véronique; Lento, Ashley A; Islam, Mirazul; Pitarresi, Jason R; Kharbanda, Akriti; Hamilton, Kathryn E; Whelan, Kelly A; Long, Apple; Rhoades, Ben; Tang, Qiaosi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Lengner, Christopher J; Bass, Adam J; Wileyto, E Paul; Klein-Szanto, Andres J; Wang, Timothy C; Rustgi, Anil K

    2017-06-01

    The esophageal lumen is lined by a stratified squamous epithelium comprised of proliferative basal cells that differentiate while migrating toward the luminal surface and eventually desquamate. Rapid epithelial renewal occurs, but the specific cell of origin that supports this high proliferative demand remains unknown. Herein, we have described a long-lived progenitor cell population in the mouse esophageal epithelium that is characterized by expression of keratin 15 (Krt15). Genetic in vivo lineage tracing revealed that the Krt15 promoter marks a long-lived basal cell population able to self-renew, proliferate, and generate differentiated cells, consistent with a progenitor/stem cell population. Transcriptional profiling demonstrated that Krt15+ basal cells are molecularly distinct from Krt15- basal cells. Depletion of Krt15-derived cells resulted in decreased proliferation, thereby leading to atrophy of the esophageal epithelium. Further, Krt15+ cells were radioresistant and contributed to esophageal epithelial regeneration following radiation-induced injury. These results establish the presence of a long-lived and indispensable Krt15+ progenitor cell population that provides additional perspective on esophageal epithelial biology and the widely prevalent diseases that afflict this epithelium.

  15. PAF promotes stemness and radioresistance of glioma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Derrick Sek Tong; Hu, Baoli; Ho, Yan Wing; Sauvé, Charles-Etienne Gabriel; Bristow, Christopher A; Wang, Qianghu; Multani, Asha S; Chen, Peiwen; Nezi, Luigi; Jiang, Shan; Gorman, Claire Elizabeth; Monasterio, Marta Moreno; Koul, Dimpy; Marchesini, Matteo; Colla, Simona; Jin, Eun-Jung; Sulman, Erik P; Spring, Denise J; Yung, Wai-Kwan Alfred; Verhaak, Roel G W; Chin, Lynda; Wang, Y Alan; DePinho, Ronald A

    2017-10-24

    An integrated genomic and functional analysis to elucidate DNA damage signaling factors promoting self-renewal of glioma stem cells (GSCs) identified proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-associated factor ( PAF ) up-regulation in glioblastoma. PAF is preferentially overexpressed in GSCs. Its depletion impairs maintenance of self-renewal without promoting differentiation and reduces tumor-initiating cell frequency. Combined transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses revealed that PAF supports GSC maintenance, in part, by influencing DNA replication and pyrimidine metabolism pathways. PAF interacts with PCNA and regulates PCNA-associated DNA translesion synthesis (TLS); consequently, PAF depletion in combination with radiation generated fewer tumorspheres compared with radiation alone. Correspondingly, pharmacological impairment of DNA replication and TLS phenocopied the effect of PAF depletion in compromising GSC self-renewal and radioresistance, providing preclinical proof of principle that combined TLS inhibition and radiation therapy may be a viable therapeutic option in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Published under the PNAS license.

  16. A truncated splice variant of human lysyl oxidase-like 2 promotes migration and invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hai-Ying; Lv, Guo-Qing; Dai, Li-Hua; Zhan, Xiu-Hui; Jiao, Ji-Wei; Liao, Lian-Di; Zhou, Tai-Mei; Li, Chun-Quan; Wu, Bing-Li; Xu, Li-Yan; Li, En-Min

    2016-06-01

    Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) is a member of the lysyl oxidase family, which plays an important role in extracellular matrix protein biosynthesis and tumor progression. In the present study, we identified a novel splice variant, LOXL2Δ72, which encodes a peptide having the same N- and C-termini as wild-type LOXL2 (LOXL2WT), but lacks 72 nucleotides encoding 24 amino acids. LOXL2Δ72 had dramatically reduced enzymatic activity, and was no longer secreted. However, LOXL2Δ72 promoted greater cell migration and invasion than LOXL2WT. Furthermore, a dual luciferase reporter assay indicated that LOXL2Δ72 activates distinct signal transduction pathways compared to LOXL2WT, consistent with cDNA microarray data showing different expression levels of cell migration- and invasion-related genes induced following over-expression of each LOXL2 isoform. In particular, LOXL2Δ72 distinctly promoted esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell migration via up-regulating the C-C motif chemokine ligand 28 (CCL28). Our results suggest that the new LOXL2 splice variant contributes to tumor progression by novel molecular mechanisms different from LOXL2WT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antitumor effect and mechanism of Gecko on human esophageal carcinoma cell lines in vitro and xenografted sarcoma 180 in Kunming mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Jian-Gang; Wang, Shu-Ying; Li, Yan; Wu, Yin-Ping; Xi, Shou-Min

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-tumor effect of Chinese medicine Gecko on human esophageal carcinoma cell lines and xenografted sarcoma 180 in Kunming mice and its mechanism. METHODS: The serum pharmacological method was used in vitro. The growth rates of the human esophageal carcinoma cells (EC9706 or EC1) were measured by a modified 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The transplanted tumor model of the mouse S180 sarcoma was established. Fifty mice were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10). Three Gecko groups were treated respectively with oral administration of Gecko powder at a daily dose of 13.5 g/kg, 9 g/kg, and 4.5 g/kg. The negative group (NS group) was treated with oral administration of an equal volume of saline and the positive group (CTX group) was treated with 100 mg/kg Cytoxan by intraperitoneal injection at the first day. After 2 wk of treatment, the anti-tumor activity was evaluated by tumor tissue weighing. The impact on immune organ was detected based on the thymus index, spleen index, phagocytic rate and phagocytic index. The protein expression of vascular endothelin growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were detected by immunohistochemistry. The cell apoptotic rate was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. RESULTS: The A value in each group treated with Gecko after 72 h was reduced significantly in EC9706 and in EC1. The tumor weight in each group of Gecko was decreased significantly (1.087 ± 0.249 vs 2.167 ± 0.592; 1.021 ± 0.288 vs 2.167 ± 0.592; 1.234 ± 0.331 vs 2.167 ± 0.592; P Gecko groups had no significant difference compared with the NS group. The immunoreactive score of VEGF and bFGF protein expression of each Gecko group by immunohistochemical staining were lowered significantly. The apoptosis index (AI) of each group was increased progressively with increase of dose of Gecko by TUNEL. CONCLUSION

  18. Esophageal ulcer and alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Paulo Ferrari Junior

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of esophageal ulcer associated with the use of alendronate. CASE REPORT: This is the fifth case ever described in the literature according to our bibliographic review. In our patient, the association between the drug and the esophageal lesions was masked by the presence of a hiatal hernia, potentially a cause of the esophageal lesion. The persistence of the lesions despite high doses of anti-reflux therapy called attention to the possibility of the relationship. The esophageal lesion healed soon after suspension of alendronate. DISCUSSION: The authors present a review of the literature and point to the need for diagnostic investigation, to suspend such a drug from patients who experience dyspeptic symptoms while using it.

  19. Lower esophageal ring (Schatzki)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Upper gastrointestinal system References Devault KR. Symptoms of esophageal disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. ... anomalies of the esophagus. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. ...

  20. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 promotes transforming growth factor-β1-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and motility in transformed human esophageal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Shinya; Wong, Gabrielle S.; Ahmadi, Azal; Kalman, Ross A.; Budo, Daniela; Klein-Szanto, Andres J.; Herlyn, Meenhard; Diehl, J. Alan; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 is overexpressed frequently in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Yet, the role of IGFBP3 in esophageal tumor biology remains to be elucidated. We find that IGFBP3 facilitates transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in transformed human esophageal epithelial cells, EPC2–hTERT–EGFR–p53R175H. In organotypic 3D culture, a form of human tissue engineering, laser-capture microdissection revealed concurrent upregulation of TGF-β target genes, IGFBP3 and EMT-related genes in the cells invading into the stromal compartment. IGFBP3 enhanced TGF-β1-mediated EMT as well as transcription factors essential in EMT by allowing persistent SMAD2 and SMAD3 phosphorylation. TGF-β1-mediated EMT and cell invasion were enhanced by ectopically expressed IGFBP3 and suppressed by RNA interference directed against IGFBP3. The IGFBP3 knockdown effect was rescued by IGFBP3I56G/L80G/L81G, a mutant IGFBP3 lacking an insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding capacity. Thus, IGFBP3 can regulate TGF-β1-mediated EMT and cell invasion in an IGF or insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor-independent manner. IGFBP3I56G/L80G/L81G also promoted EMT in vivo in a Ras-transformed human esophageal cell line T-TeRas upon xenograft transplantation in nude mice. In aggregate, IGFBP3 may have a novel IGF-binding independent biological function in regulation of TGF-β1-mediated EMT and cell invasion. PMID:20513670

  1. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 promotes transforming growth factor-{beta}1-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and motility in transformed human esophageal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Ohashi, Shinya; Wong, Gabrielle S; Ahmadi, Azal; Kalman, Ross A; Budo, Daniela; Klein-Szanto, Andres J; Herlyn, Meenhard; Diehl, J Alan; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    2010-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 is overexpressed frequently in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Yet, the role of IGFBP3 in esophageal tumor biology remains to be elucidated. We find that IGFBP3 facilitates transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in transformed human esophageal epithelial cells, EPC2-hTERT-EGFR-p53(R175H). In organotypic 3D culture, a form of human tissue engineering, laser-capture microdissection revealed concurrent upregulation of TGF-beta target genes, IGFBP3 and EMT-related genes in the cells invading into the stromal compartment. IGFBP3 enhanced TGF-beta1-mediated EMT as well as transcription factors essential in EMT by allowing persistent SMAD2 and SMAD3 phosphorylation. TGF-beta1-mediated EMT and cell invasion were enhanced by ectopically expressed IGFBP3 and suppressed by RNA interference directed against IGFBP3. The IGFBP3 knockdown effect was rescued by IGFBP3(I56G/L80G/L81G), a mutant IGFBP3 lacking an insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding capacity. Thus, IGFBP3 can regulate TGF-beta1-mediated EMT and cell invasion in an IGF or insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor-independent manner. IGFBP3(I56G/L80G/L81G) also promoted EMT in vivo in a Ras-transformed human esophageal cell line T-TeRas upon xenograft transplantation in nude mice. In aggregate, IGFBP3 may have a novel IGF-binding independent biological function in regulation of TGF-beta1-mediated EMT and cell invasion.

  2. Esophageal candidiasis in an immunocompetent girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasosah, Mohammed Yahya; Showail, Mahmmod; Al-Sahafi, Ashraf; Satti, Mohammed; Jacobson, Kevan

    2009-05-01

    Infections of the esophagus are rare and most commonly seen in children with immune suppression resulting from malignancy, chronic metabolic or infectious disease, or immunosuppressive drug therapy. An 18-month-old girl on inhaled corticosteroid for bronchial asthma presented with coffee-ground emesis and melena. Upper endoscopy revealed yellow-white plaques scattered over the mucosa of the distal esophagus. Biopsy results showed chronic esophagitis with features of reflux disease. Gram staining of esophageal brushing showed pseudohyphae, and the culture was positive for candida species. The patient was treated with omeprazole 2 mg/kg per day and fluconazole 6 mg/kg per day for three weeks. Immunological workup was normal and she was negative for human immunodeficiency virus. Post treatment endoscopy showed normal appearance of esophageal mucosa and normal histology. At 12 months after treatment, the child remained asymptomatic and continued to thrive. We believe that this child developed esophageal candidiasis secondary to long-term use of inhaled corticosteroid associated with immune suppression on a background of reflux esophagitis. Anti-acid and antifungal therapies are effective in the treatment.

  3. [Esophageal motility disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannig, C; Wuttge-Hannig, A; Rummeny, E

    2007-02-01

    For the better understanding of esophageal motility, the muscle texture and the distribution of skeletal and smooth muscle fibers in the esophagus are of crucial importance. Esophageal physiology will be shortly mentioned as far as necessary for a comprehensive understanding of peristaltic disturbances. Besides the pure depiction of morphologic criteria, a complete esophageal study has to include an analysis of the motility. New diagnostic tools with reduced radiation for dynamic imaging (digital fluoroscopy, videofluoroscopy) at 4-30 frames/s are available. Radiomanometry is a combination of a functional pressure measurement and a simultaneous dynamic morphologic analysis. Esophageal motility disorders are subdivided by radiologic and manometric criteria into primary, secondary, and nonclassifiable forms. Primary motility disorders of the esophagus are achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus, and the hypertonic lower esophageal sphincter. The secondary motility disorders include pseudoachalasia, reflux-associated motility disorders, functionally caused impactions, Boerhaave's syndrome, Chagas'disease, scleroderma, and presbyesophagus. The nonclassificable motility disorders (NEMD) are a very heterogeneous collective.

  4. Factors affecting the sensitivity of human-derived esophageal carcinoma cell lines to 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    MINEGAKI, TETSUYA; TAKARA, KOHJI; HAMAGUCHI, RYOHEI; TSUJIMOTO, MASAYUKI; NISHIGUCHI, KOHSHI

    2013-01-01

    Effective chemotherapy against esophageal carcinoma is considered achievable with a combination of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (CDDP). However, chemo-therapy remains ineffective in certain patients. The aim of this study was to clarify the factors which affect sensitivity to 5-FU and CDDP. The effects of factors known to influence sensitivity to 5-FU and CDDP, namely transporters, DNA repair enzymes and metabolic enzymes, were examined. mRNA levels of four transporters, SLC22A2, SLC23A2, ABCB1 and ABCC2, two DNA repair-related enzymes, Rad51 and MSH2, and one metabolic enzyme, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD), showed a strong correlation (|r|>0.7) with IC50 values for 5-FU. In addition, the mRNA levels of ABCC2, MSH2 and DPYD showed a strong correlation (|r|>0.7) with the IC50 values for CDDP. Gimeracil, a DPYD inhibitor, enhanced the sensitivity of some cells to 5-FU but decreased the sensitivity of all the cells to CDDP. The inhibitory effects of ABCC2 with MK571 did not correspond to those observed in the correlation analysis. In conclusion, mRNA levels of SLC22A2, SLC23A2, ABCB1, ABCC2, Rad51, MSH2 and DPYD were confirmed to be strongly correlated with IC50 values for 5-FU, and mRNA levels of ABCC2, MSH2 and DPYD were confirmed to be strongly correlated with IC50 values for CDDP. In addition, the inhibition of DPYD appeared to affect the cytotoxicity of CDDP. PMID:23420099

  5. Rho Kinase ROCK2 Mediates Acid-Induced NADPH Oxidase NOX5-S Expression in Human Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hong

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of the progression from Barrett's esophagus (BE to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA are not fully understood. We have shown that NOX5-S may be involved in this progression. However, how acid upregulates NOX5-S is not well known. We found that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression was significantly decreased by the Rho kinase (ROCK inhibitor Y27632 in BE mucosal biopsies and FLO-1 EA cells. In addition, acid treatment significantly increased the Rho kinase activity in FLO-1 cells. The acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production was significantly decreased by knockdown of Rho kinase ROCK2, but not by knockdown of ROCK1. Conversely, the overexpression of the constitutively active ROCK2, but not the constitutively active ROCK1, significantly enhanced the NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production. Moreover, the acid-induced increase in Rho kinase activity and in NOX5-S mRNA expression was blocked by the removal of calcium in both FLO-1 and OE33 cells. The calcium ionophore A23187 significantly increased the Rho kinase activity and NOX5-S mRNA expression. We conclude that acid-induced increase in NOX5-S expression and H2O2 production may depend on the activation of ROCK2, but not ROCK1, in EA cells. The acid-induced activation of Rho kinase may be mediated by the intracellular calcium increase. It is possible that persistent acid reflux present in BE patients may increase the intracellular calcium, activate ROCK2 and thereby upregulate NOX5-S. High levels of reactive oxygen species derived from NOX5-S may cause DNA damage and thereby contribute to the progression from BE to EA.

  6. Cytogenetic Effects of Low Dose Radiation in Mammalian Cells Analysis of the Phenomenon Hypersensitivity and Induced Radioresistence

    CERN Document Server

    Shmakova, N L; Nasonova, E A; Krasavin, E A; Rsjanina, A V

    2001-01-01

    The induction of cytogenetic damage after irradiation of chinese hamster cells and human melanoma cells within dose range 1-200 cGy was studied. The anaphase and metaphase analysis of chromosome damage and micronuclei test were applied. The hypersensitivity (HRS) at doses below 20 cGy and the increased radioresistence at higher doses (IR) were shown with all cytogenetic criteria for both cell lines. The phenomenon of HRS/IR was reproduced in synchronic as well as in asynchronic population of chinese hamster cells. This fact shows that HRS was caused by high radiosensitivity of all cells and can not be explained by any differential sensitivity of cells in different phases of the cell cycle. So it was supposed that the increasing radioresistence is determined by the inclusion of the inducible repair processes in all cells. This conclusion agress with the fact that there was no evidence of HRS on dose-effect curves and that some part of pre-existent damage was repaired after preliminary irradiation with low dose...

  7. Evidence for a radiation-responsive 'p53 gateway' contributing significantly to the radioresistance of lepidopteran insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Chandna, Sudhir

    2018-01-08

    Recently, we have demonstrated that microRNA-31 (miR-31) overexpression is inherent to radiation-induced cell death in the highly radioresistant Sf9 insect cells, and regulates pro-apoptotic Bax translocation to mitochondria. In the present study, we report that at sub-lethal radiation doses for Sf9 cells, miR-31 is significantly downregulated and is tightly regulated by an unusual mechanism involving p53. While ectopic overexpression of a well-conserved Sfp53 caused typical apoptosis, radiation-induced p53 accumulation observed selectively at sub-lethal doses failed to induce cell death. Further investigation of this paradoxical response revealed an intriguing phenomenon that sub-lethal radiation doses result in accumulation of a 'hyper-phosphorylated' Sfp53, which in turn binds to miR-31 genomic location and suppresses its expression to prevent cell death. Interestingly, priming cells with sub-lethal doses even prevented the apoptosis induced by lethal radiation or ectopic Sfp53 overexpression. On the other hand, silencing p53 increased radiation-induced cell death by inhibiting miR-31 downregulation. This study thus shows the existence of a unique radiation-responsive 'p53 gateway' preventing miR-31-mediated apoptosis in Sf9 cells. Since Sfp53 has a good functional homology with human p53, this study may have significant implications for effectively modulating the mammalian cell radioresistance.

  8. Herpetic Esophagitis in Immunocompetent Medical Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Vidica Marinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophagitis caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV is often documented during periods of immunosuppression in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; it is rare in immunocompetent diagnosed patients. Case reports of herpetic esophagitis in students of health sciences are extremely rare. The disease presents with a clinical picture characterized by acute odynophagia and retrosternal pain without obvious causes and ulcers, evidenced endoscopically in the middistal esophagus. Diagnosis depends on endoscopy, biopsies for pathology studies, and immunohistochemistry techniques. The disease course is often benign; however, treatment with acyclovir speeds the disappearance of symptoms and limits the severity of infection. In this report, we present a case of herpetic esophagitis in an immunocompetent medical student, with reference to its clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment. The disease may have manifested as a result of emotional stress experienced by the patient.

  9. Prognostic relevance of Centromere protein H expression in esophageal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xian-Zhi; Zhang, Ge; Wang, Jun-Ye; Liu, Wan-Li; Wang, Fang; Dong, Ju-Qin; Xu, Li-Hua; Cao, Jing-Yan; Song, Li-Bing; Zeng, Mu-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Background Many kinetochore proteins have been shown to be associated with human cancers. The aim of the present study was to clarify the expression of Centromere protein H (CENP-H), one of the fundamental components of the human active kinetochore, in esophageal carcinoma and its correlation with clinicopathological features. Methods We examined the expression of CENP-H in immortalized esophageal epithelial cells as well as in esophageal carcinoma cells, and in 12 cases of esophageal carcinoma tissues and the paired normal esophageal tissues by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In addition, we analyzed CENP-H protein expression in 177 clinicopathologically characterized esophageal carcinoma cases by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to test for prognostic and diagnostic associations. Results The level of CENP-H mRNA and protein were higher in the immortalized cells, cancer cell lines and most cancer tissues than in normal control tissues. Immunohistochemistry showed that CENP-H was expressed in 127 of 171 ESCC cases (74.3%) and in 3 of 6 esophageal adenocarcinoma cases (50%). Statistical analysis of ESCC cases showed that there was a significant difference of CENP-H expression in patients categorized according to gender (P = 0.013), stage (P = 0.023) and T classification (P = 0.019). Patients with lower CENP-H expression had longer overall survival time than those with higher CENP-H expression. Multivariate analysis suggested that CENP-H expression was an independent prognostic marker for esophageal carcinoma patients. A prognostic value of CENP-H was also found in the subgroup of T3~T4 and N0 tumor classification. Conclusion Our results suggest that CENP-H protein is a valuable marker of esophageal carcinoma progression. CENP-H might be used as a valuable prognostic marker for esophageal carcinoma patients. PMID:18700042

  10. Herpes Simplex Esophagitis in Immunocompetent Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Eymard

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Over four months, three cases of biopsy-proven herpes simplex esophagitis were seen at Centre hospitalier Pierre-Boucher, Longueuil, in young adult males with no evidence of immunosuppression and negative serological testing for antibody against the human immunodeficiency virus. Clinical presentation consisted of odynophagia, fever and retrosternal chest pain. All patients rapidly improved with acyclovir therapy.

  11. [Effect of RAD18-siRNA on proliferation and chemotherapy sensitivity of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma ECA-109 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Pengrong; Sun, Xiaonan; Zhou, Jundong; Zou, Shitao

    2016-05-25

    Objective: To investigate the effect of RAD18-siRNA on cell proliferation and chemotherapy sensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) ECA-109 cells. Methods: RAD18-siRNA was transfected into human ECA-109 cells by Lipofectamine 3000. Quantitative PCR and Western blot were performed to detect RAD18 and CyclinD1 expression; CCK-8 assay was used to determine cell proliferation and chemotherapy drug sensitivity; flow cytometry was used to determine cell cycle. Correlation between RAD18 and CyclinD1 mRNA expression was analyzed by Pearson's correlation. Results: Compared with non-transfected cells, the expression of RAD18 in RAD18-siRNA group was significantly decreased ( P group. After treatment with different concentrations of cisplatin or 5-FU, the survival rate of the two cell groups was reduced (all P group was significantly lower than that of non-transfected group ( P <0.05). The mRNA expression of RAD18 was positively correlated with CyclinD1 expression in ESCC tissues( r =0.478, P <0.01). Conclusion: Down-regulated expression of RAD18 can decrease the cell proliferation and increase chemo-sensitivity of ESCC cells, and CyclinD1 may participate in the process.

  12. Esophageal Replacement for Long-Gap Esophageal Atresia in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The management of esophageal atresia in a resourcelimited environment is plagued with challenges that often lead to poor outcome. The diagnosis and management of babies with long-gap esophageal atresia adds a new dimension to these challenges. We report the success of esophageal replacement surgery for a ...

  13. Intracellular calcium promotes radioresistance of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells through activating Akt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiling; He, Jiantao; Zhang, Shenghui; Yang, Qingbo

    2017-03-01

    Radiotherapy is a major therapeutic approach in non-small cell lung cancer but is restricted by radioresistance. Although Akt signaling promotes radioresistance in non-small cell lung cancer, it is not well understood how Akt signaling is activated. Since intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) could activate Akt in A549 cells, we investigated the relationship between intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) and Akt signaling in radioresistant A549 cells by establishing radioresistant non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. The radioresistant cell line A549 was generated by dose-gradient irradiation of the parental A549 cells. The cell viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were, respectively, assessed using the cell counting kit-8, EdU labeling, and flow cytometry analysis. The phosphorylation of Akt was evaluated by Western blotting, and the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was assessed by Fluo 4-AM. The radioresistant A549 cells displayed mesenchymal morphology. After additional irradiation, the radioresistant A549 cells showed decreased cell viability and proliferation but increased apoptosis. Moreover, the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and the phosphorylation level on the Akt473 site in radioresistant A549 cells were higher than those in original cells, whereas the percentage of apoptosis in radioresistant A549 cells was less. All these results could be reversed by verapamil. In conclusion, our study found that intracellular Ca(2+) could promote radioresistance of non-small cell lung cancer cells through phosphorylating of Akt on the 473 site, which contributes to a better understanding on the non-small cell lung cancer radioresistance, and may provide a new target for radioresistance management.

  14. Androgen receptor as a mediator and biomarker of radioresistance in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speers, Corey; Zhao, Shuang G; Chandler, Ben; Liu, Meilan; Wilder-Romans, Kari; Olsen, Eric; Nyati, Shyam; Ritter, Cassandra; Alluri, Prasanna G; Kothari, Vishal; Hayes, Daniel F; Lawrence, Theodore S; Spratt, Daniel E; Wahl, Daniel R; Pierce, Lori J; Feng, Felix Y

    2017-01-01

    Increased rates of locoregional recurrence have been observed in triple-negative breast cancer despite chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Thus, approaches that combine therapies for radiosensitization in triple-negative breast cancer are critically needed. We characterized the radiation therapy response of 21 breast cancer cell lines and paired this radiation response data with high-throughput drug screen data to identify androgen receptor as a top target for radiosensitization. Our radiosensitizer screen nominated bicalutamide as the drug most effective in treating radiation therapy-resistant breast cancer cell lines. We subsequently evaluated the expression of androgen receptor in >2100 human breast tumor samples and 51 breast cancer cell lines and found significant heterogeneity in androgen receptor expression with enrichment at the protein and RNA level in triple-negative breast cancer. There was a strong correlation between androgen receptor RNA and protein expression across all breast cancer subtypes (R(2) = 0.72, p triple-negative breast cancer, expression of androgen receptor above the median was associated with increased risk of locoregional recurrence after radiation therapy (hazard ratio for locoregional recurrence 2.9-3.2)) in two independent data sets, but there was no difference in locoregional recurrence in triple-negative breast cancer patients not treated with radiation therapy when stratified by androgen receptor expression. In multivariable analysis, androgen receptor expression was most significantly associated with worse local recurrence-free survival after radiation therapy (hazard ratio of 3.58) suggesting that androgen receptor expression may be a biomarker of radiation response in triple-negative breast cancer. Inhibition of androgen receptor with MDV3100 (enzalutamide) induced radiation sensitivity (enhancement ratios of 1.22-1.60) in androgen receptor-positive triple-negative breast cancer lines, but did not affect androgen

  15. Pim-3 contributes to radioresistance through regulation of the cell cycle and DNA damage repair in pancreatic cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiang-Yuan; Wang, Zhen [Cancer Research Institute, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Li, Bei [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Ying-Jian, E-mail: yjzhang111@aliyun.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Li, Ying-Yi, E-mail: liyingyi@fudan.edu.cn [Cancer Research Institute, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2016-04-22

    Resistance of cancer cells to chemoradiotherapy is a major clinical problem in pancreatic cancer treatment. Therefore, understanding the molecular basis of cellular resistance and identifying novel targets are essential for improving treatment efficacy for pancreatic cancer patients. Previous studies have demonstrated a significant role for Pim-3 in pancreatic cancer survival against gemcitabine-induced genotoxic stress. Here, we observed that radiation treatment enhanced Pim-3 expression in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Stable overexpression of Pim-3 in pancreatic cancer cells significantly protected cells against radiation treatment by attenuating G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and DNA damage response. Silencing of Pim-3 expression significantly elevated the phosphorylation of histone variant H2AX, a marker of DNA double strand breaks, and decreased the activation of ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase, along with its downstream targets, eventually enhancing the radiosensitivity of human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Hence, we demonstrated a novel function for Pim-3 in human pancreatic cancer cell survival against radiation. Targeting Pim-3 may be a promising way to improve treatment efficacy in combination with radiotherapy in human pancreatic cancer. - Highlights: • This is first study to demonstrate that Pim-3 is endogenously induced by ionizing radiation in pancreatic cancer cells, and Pim-3 overexpression enhanced radioresistance of pancreatic cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. • This is first study to provide evidence that radioresistance induced by Pim-3 is mainly attributed to Pim-3 induces activation of ATM, which subsequently activates checkpoint 1, leading to amplification of DNA repair through cell cycle arrest and DNA repair pathways. • This is first study to indicate that targeting Pim-3 may be a promising strategy to provide better treatment efficacy in combination with radiotherapy in human pancreatic

  16. Inhibitory effect of α-solanine on esophageal carcinoma in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Sun, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Du, Yu-Wen; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Zang, Wen-Qiao; Chen, Xiao-Nan; ZHAO, GUO-QIANG

    2016-01-01

    α-solanine, a bioactive component and one of the major steroidal glycoalkaloids in potatoes, has been observed to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the antitumor efficacy of α-solanine on esophageal carcinoma has yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the antitumor efficacy of α-solanine against human esophageal carcinoma cells was investigated. It was determined that α-solanine inhibited the growth and proliferation of human esophageal EC9706 and Eca109...

  17. Esophageal foreign bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qudah, A; Daradkeh, S; Abu-Khalaf, M

    1998-05-01

    A retrospective review was performed on 180 patients from 1975 to 1997 to evaluate the diagnosis, and management of esophageal foreign bodies. All patients except two were symptomatic and 145 of them were younger than 14 years of age. Plain films were performed in every patient with a suspected esophageal foreign body (EFB). In all patients, rigid esophagoscopy was done under general anesthesia once the diagnosis of impacted EFB is made. Fifty-five percent of the foreign bodies were coins. In children, the majority of impacted esophageal foreign bodies were located at the level of the cricopharyngeus muscle while in adults the site of impaction was the lower esophageal sphincter. The most common symptoms were vomiting and or regurgitation. Of the 180 EFBs encountered, 169 were extracted endoscopically, five were pushed into the stomach, five were not found, and one patient needed cervicotomy. There were no deaths in this series. Predisposing factors were found in 15 patients. Fifteen patients (8.3%) had benign strictures. In ten patients (5.5%), minor complications were encountered, none of which were esophagoscopically related. Alternative diagnostic and therapeutic modalities are discussed. All patients with a history of suspected foreign body ingestion should have direct endoscopic examination. If the EFB is not detected a thorough radiographic examination, including CT scan, should be performed to detect a possible intra- or extraluminal object. Preservation of the airway is regarded to be the most important consideration in esophageal foreign body management.

  18. Altered expression of the urokinase receptor homologue, C4.4A, in invasive areas of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line V.; Laerum, Ole D; Illemann, Martin

    2008-01-01

    . In the present study, we have therefore analyzed the expression of C4.4A in 14 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC). Normal squamous esophageal epithelium shows a strong cell surface associated C4.4A expression in the suprabasal layers, whereas basal cells are negative. Upon transition to dysplasia...... and carcinoma in situ the expression of C4.4A is abruptly and coordinately weakened. Double immunofluorescence staining of normal and dysplastic tissue showed that C4.4A colocalizes with the epithelial cell surface marker E-cadherin in the suprabasal cells and has a complementary expression pattern compared...

  19. Effect of aging on the secondary esophageal peristalsis: presbyesophagus revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, J; Shaker, R; Kusano, M; Podvrsan, B; Metwally, N; Dua, K S; Sui, Z

    1995-05-01

    In this study we determined the effect of aging on the capability of the human esophagus to generate secondary peristalsis. We studied nine healthy young (35 +/- 2 yr, 25-45 yr) and nine healthy elderly (74 +/- 3 yr, 70-83 yr) volunteers. We stimulated secondary peristalsis by intraesophageal air injection and balloon distension. All young volunteers exhibited secondary esophageal peristalsis. In four elderly volunteers, secondary peristalsis could not be elicited with injection of any of the tested air volumes. Frequency of stimulation of secondary peristalsis and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation in response to intraesophageal air distension in the elderly was significantly lower than that in the young (P < 0.01). Stimulation of secondary peristalsis by balloon distension was less consistent compared with the air injection. In conclusion, 1) in the elderly, compared with the young, secondary esophageal peristalsis is either absent or is evoked less frequently after esophageal distension, and complete LES relaxation in response to esophageal air distension is less frequent, and 2) in both young and elderly, secondary esophageal peristalsis is induced more frequently after generalized esophageal distension by air than its segmental distension by a balloon.

  20. Temporal Expression of the Candida albicans Genes CHK1 and CSSK1, Adherence, and Morphogenesis in a Model of Reconstituted Human Esophageal Epithelial Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Bernhardt, Joern; Calderone, Richard

    2002-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that genes encoding a putative two-component histidine kinase (CHK1) or a response regulator (CSSK1) are each required for virulence in a murine model of hematogenously disseminated candidiasis and that strains with each gene deleted are also defective in morphogenesis under certain growth conditions. In the present study, the role of these two genes in the adherence to and colonization of reconstituted human esophageal tissue (RHE) is described. We compared strains of Candida albicans with deletions of chk1 (strain CHK21) and cssk1 (strain CSSK21) to wild-type cells (CAF2), as well as strains with CHK1 and CSSK1 reconstituted (strains CHK23 and CSSK23, respectively). Adherence and colonization of RHE were evaluated in periodic acid-Schiff-stained sections, as well as by SEM. We observed that both deletion-containing strains colonized the RHE to a lesser extent than did CAF2 and that the percent germination by both strains was reduced in comparison to that of control strains at 1 h postinfection. Expression of CHK1 or CSSK1 was quantitated by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR from RHE tissues infected with wild-type C. albicans yeast cells. Expression of both CHK1 and CSSK1 increased over the 48-h period following infection of the tissue, although expression of CHK1 was greater than that of CSSK1. By RT-PCR, we have also shown that expression of CHK1 and CSSK1 in the strains with cssk1 and chk1 deleted, respectively, was similar to that of CAF2, indicating that CHK1 and CSSK1 do not regulate each other but probably encode signal proteins of different pathways. Our observations indicate that CHK1 and CSSK1 are each partially required for colonization and conversion to filamentous growth on RHE tissue. PMID:11854244

  1. [Effect of gecko alcohol extract on human esophageal squamous carcinoma cell line EC9706 and anti-tumor activity in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolan; Wang, Shuying; Wang, Jiangang

    2010-08-01

    To observe the anti-tumor activity of gecko alcohol extract in vitro and in vivo. in vitro, the inhibitory effect of gecko alcohol extract on proliferation of human esophageal carcinoma EC9706 cells was measured by MTT colorimetric assay. Morphological change of apoptotic cells was observed by Hoechst33258 fluorescence staining and apoptosis induced by gecko alcohol extract was evaluated in TUNEL assay. The expression of apoptosis protein Bax and Bcl-2 in EC9706 cells was investigated by immunohistochemistry. in vivo, the inhibitory effect of gecko alcohol extract on tumor growth was examined on S180 sarcoma model. After gecko alcohol extract (6-8 g x L(-1)) treatment for 24, 48 and 72 h separately, EC9706 cell proliferation was significantly inhibited in both dose- and time- dependent manner (P gecko alcohol extract-treated group (6, 7 g x L(-1)) was significantly higher than that in control group [(12.73 +/- 3.84)%, (9.80 +/- 2.32)% vs. (5.87 +/- 2.54)%, P gecko alcohol extract treated group. Gecko alcohol extract inhibited the growth of S180 sarcoma in Kun-ming mice at all doses (0.6, 1.2, 2.4 g x kg(-1)) of administration. The inhibitory rate was 44.88%, 63.94% and 69.53% respectively. From tumor inhibitory test, gecko alcohol extract shows significantly inhibitory effect in vitro and in vivo. The increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio is mechanistically linked to the gecko alcohol extract-induced tumor cell apoptosis.

  2. Esophageal Foreign Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Cobanoglu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal foreign body aspiration is a common event which can cause serious morbidity and mortality in the children and adult population. For that reason, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing these life threateining complications. Children most often ingest coins and toys whereas adults commonly tend to have problems with meat and bones. Esophageal foreign bodies are located at the cricopharyngeus muscle level in 70%, the thoracic esophagus in 15% and the gastroesophageal junction in the remaining 15%. Symptoms can vary according to the shape and structure of the ingested object, type of location, patient%u2019s age and complications caused by the foreign body. Delay in treatment, esophageal perforation and an underlying esophageal disease are poor prognostic factors. In treatment, observation, foley catheter, rigid or flexible esophagoscopy and removing the foreign body with a Magill forceps, pushing the foreign body into the stomach, giving intravenous glucagon and surgical treatment methods can be used. Rigid esophagoscopy is an effective and safe procedure for foreign body diagnosis and removal. Improved endoscopic experience and clinical management of thoracic surgeons led to reduced morbidity and mortality in recent years. Most of those emergencies of childhood are preventable. Family education is very important.

  3. [Esophageal resections and plastics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagajevas, Aleksandras

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate interim results of surgery and plastics for esophageal diseases. From March 2002 to August 2003, 31 patients underwent esophageal resections in the Department of Thoracic Surgery of Klaipeda Hospital. The following operations were performed: 10 patients (32.3%) had transthoracic resections, 10 patients (32.3%) - transhiatal resections, 2 patients (6.5%) - Lewis type, 5 patients (16.1%) - Garlock type and 4 patients (12.9%) - first step of Thoreck type operations. Twenty-five patients (80.6%) underwent surgery due to cancer, 3 patients (9.7%) due to esophagus perforation, 1 patient (3.2%) due to peptic stricture, 1 patient (3.2%) due to post-burn stricture, and 1 patient (3.2%) due to gastric necrosis. In 7 cases (22.6%) combined esophageal resections were performed: 2 patients (6.5%) with lung segmentectomies, 2 patients (6.5%) with liver metastasis resections, 1 patient (3.25%) with right lower lobectomy, and 2 patients (6.5%) with proximal gastric metastasis resection. In 58% of patients we observed postoperative complications; lethal outcome was present in 5 patients (16.1%). Subtotal esophageal resection with gastric pipe reconstruction and two-level lymphadenectomies are sufficient radical treatment in cancer patients. Postoperative mortality (16.1%) after 31 resections depends on stage of disease, performance status, comorbidity, surgeon experience and type of operation.

  4. Identification of radioresistance-related molecules in laryngeal cancer cells using proteomic and EST data mining approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Hong, Eun Hee; Yoon, Hong Sik; Yang, Kyung Mi; Hwang, Sang Gu [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Laryngeal cancer is the largest subgroup of head and neck cancer which is the sixth most prevalent cancer in the world. Radiotherapy is known as a major treatment modality of laryngeal caner in conjunction with surgery and chemotherapy. Clinical radiotherapy is generally based on the treatment of fractionated radiation (commonly 2 Gy daily to total 60-70 Gy) to the cancer. This chronic treatment can trigger tumor-adaptive radioresistance contributing cancer recurrence following radiotherapy. Unfortunately, approximately 15 % of laryngeal cancers after radiotherapy acquire radioresistance. However, little is known about the molecular markers and mechanisms underlying tumor-adaptive radioresistance. In the present study, we established the radioresistant model system using HEp-2 cell line and identified radioresistance-related molecules by using the analysis of laryngeal cancer expressed sequence tag (EST) data bases and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE)

  5. MiR-20a-5p promotes radio-resistance by targeting NPAS2 in nasopharyngeal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fangfang; Pu, Youguang; Qian, Liting; Zang, Chunbao; Tao, Zhenchao; Gao, Jin

    2017-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key players of gene expression involved in diverse biological processes including the cancer radio-resistance, which hinders the effective cancer therapy. Here we found that the miR-20a-5p level is significantly up-regulated in radio-resistant nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) cells via an RNA-seq and miR-omic analysis. Moreover, we identified that the neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2) gene is one of the targets of miR-20a-5p. The involvement of miR-20a-5p and NPAS2 with NPC radio-resistance was further validated by either down- or up-regulation of their levels in NPC cell lines. Taken together, these results not only reveal novel insights into the NPC radio-resistance, but also provide hints for an effective therapeutic strategy to fight against NPC radio-resistance.

  6. Critical Role of Aberrant Angiogenesis in the Development of Tumor Hypoxia and Associated Radioresistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Multhoff, Gabriele, E-mail: Gabriele.multhoff@lrz.tu-muenchen.de [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Straße 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Clinical Cooperation Group “Innate Immunity in Tumor Biology”, Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Radons, Jürgen [multimmune GmbH, Munich, Ismaningerstr. 22, 81675 Munich (Germany); Vaupel, Peter [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Straße 22, 81675 Munich (Germany)

    2014-04-08

    Newly formed microvessels in most solid tumors show an abnormal morphology and thus do not fulfil the metabolic demands of the growing tumor mass. Due to the chaotic and heterogeneous tumor microcirculation, a hostile tumor microenvironment develops, that is characterized inter alia by local hypoxia, which in turn can stimulate the HIF-system. The latter can lead to tumor progression and may be involved in hypoxia-mediated radioresistance of tumor cells. Herein, cellular and molecular mechanisms in tumor angiogenesis are discussed that, among others, might impact hypoxia-related radioresistance.

  7. Treatment Options by Stage (Esophageal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Esophageal Cancer Screening Research Esophageal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Esophageal Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  8. [Management of the esophageal candidiasis by the primary care physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Garance; Bocherens, Astrid; Senn, Nicolas

    2014-05-14

    Esophageal candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic infections in patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This pathology is also found in patients without overt immunodeficiency. Other risk factors are known to be associated with this disease like inhaled or systemic corticosteroid treatment or proton-pump inhibitors and H2 receptor antagonists. In the absence of identified risk factors, a primary immune deficiency should be sought. Prevention of esophageal candidiasis is based primarily on the identification of risk factors, and a better control of them. This article presents a review of the physiopathology, clinical presentation and management of esophageal candidiasis by primary care physicians. We will also discuss ways of preventing esophageal candidiasis when necessary.

  9. Esophagitis Induced by Doxycycline Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Şenel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Esophagitis is the most common disease of the esophagus. Drug use is one of the reasons of chemical esophagitis. Herein, we report two male patients of 17 and 18 years of age who developed esophagitis in acne treatment with doxycycline. Both patients took doxycycline capsules for approximately one week. Ulcerations were detected at upper and mid-esophagus of the 17-year-old patient. Circular ulcerations were found at mid-esophagus of the 18-year-old case. Doxycycline induced esophagitis is a preventable disease with the physician giving appropriate medication ingestion advice to the patient.

  10. Brain Abscess after Esophageal Dilatation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaïni, S; Grand, M; Michelsen, J

    2007-01-01

    Brain abscess formation is a serious disease often seen as a complication to other diseases and to procedures. A rare predisposing condition is dilatation therapy of esophageal strictures. A case of brain abscess formation after esophageal dilatations is presented. A 59-year-old woman was admitted...... with malaise, progressive lethargy, fever, aphasia and hemiparesis. Six days before she had been treated with esophageal dilatation for a stricture caused by accidental ingestion of caustic soda. The brain abscess was treated with surgery and antibiotics. She recovered completely. This clinical case...... illustrates the possible association between therapeutic esophageal dilatation and the risk of brain abscess formation....

  11. DNA repair and cytokines: TGF-beta, IL-6, and thrombopoietin as different biomarkers of radioresistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bianca Aiello

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Double strand breaks (DSBs induced by radiotherapy are highly cytotoxic lesions, leading to chromosomal aberrations and cell death. ATM-dependent DNA-damage response, non-homologous end joining, and homologous recombination pathways coordinately contribute to repairing DSBs in higher eukaryotes. It is known that the expression of DSB repair genes is increased in tumors which is one of the main reasons for radioresistance. The inhibition of DSB repair pathways may be useful to increase tumor cell radiosensitivity and may target stem cell-like cancer cells, known to be the most radioresistant tumor components. Commonly overexpressed in neoplastic cells, cytokines confer radioresistance by promoting proliferation, survival, invasion, and angiogenesis. Unfortunately, tumor irradiation increases the expression of various cytokines displaying these effects, including transforming growth factor-beta and interlukin-6. Recently the capabilities of these cytokines to support DNA repair pathways and the ATM-dependent DNA response have been demonstrated. Thrombopoietin, essential for megakaryopoiesis and very important for hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis, has also been found to promote DNA repair in a highly selective manner. These findings reveal a novel mechanism underlying cytokine-related radioresistance, which may be clinically relevant. Therapies targeting specific cytokines may be used to improve radiosensitivity. Specific inhibitors may be chosen in consideration of different tumor microenvironments. Thrombopoietin may be useful in fending off irradiation-induced loss of hematopoietic stem cells.

  12. PprA, a pleiotropic protein for radioresistance, works through DNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. PprA, a pleiotropic protein involved in radioresistance of Deinococcus radiodurans was detected in multiprotein DNA pro- cessing complex identified from this bacterium. pprA mutant expressing GFP-PprA could restore its wild type resistance of γ radiation. Under normal conditions, GFP-PprA expressing cells ...

  13. [Effect of RNA interference targeting HIF-1α gene on biological behavior of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Kai-feng; Jin, Hai-lin; Zhang, Wei-feng; Xiao, Bin; Zhu, Hong; Hao, Bo; Shi, Rui-hua

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the effect of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) on the proliferation, migration and vasculogenic mimicry(VM) in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line Eca-109 and gastric adenocarcinoma cell line SGC-7901 in vitro. The recombinant plasmid pGCsi-shHIF-1α was transfected into Eca-109 and SGC-7901 cells by Lipofectamine(TM) 2000. The inhibitory effect of HIF-1α was measured at protein level by Western blot under normoxia and hypoxia. The cell proliferation was detected by colony formation and MTT assays. The migration of transfected cells was assayed using Transwell chambers. Whether Eca-109 and SGC-7901 cells could form the capillary tube-like structures (TLSs) was observed by 3-dimensional culture, and the tube formation of transfected cells was detected by tube-like structure formation assay. The expression of HIF-1α protein in each group of transfected cells was significantly suppressed under normoxia and hypoxia (Eca-109: 0.00, 0.74 ± 0.05; 0.00, 1.11 ± 0.06; SGC-7901: 0.00, 0.60 ± 0.05; 0.00, 0.96 ± 0.07, P groups (104.7 ± 9.6, 151.7 ± 4.5; 88.3 ± 5.1, 128.3 ± 6.7, P Eca-109 and SGC-7901 cells could form TLSs when cultured on matrigel, and the number of tubules was significantly increased under hypoxia (30.8 ± 3.9, 34.3 ± 3.4; 26.2 ± 3.4, 30.1 ± 4.1, P groups was significantly inhibited under normoxia and hypoxia (Eca-109: 3.7 ± 2.8, 30.8 ± 3.9; 3.9 ± 2.7, 34.3 ± 3.4; SGC-7901: 4.9 ± 3.5, 26.2 ± 3.4; 5.3 ± 3.6, 30.1 ± 4.1, P Eca-109 and gastric adenocarcinoma cell line SGC-7901 are capable of forming vasculogenic mimicry structures in vitro. The recombinant plasmid pGCsi-shHIF-1α can efficiently suppress their proliferation, migration and vasculogenic mimicry formation.

  14. Two cases of esophageal eosinophilia: eosinophilic esophagitis or gastro-esophageal reflux disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Yilmaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE and gastro-esophageal reflux disease are among the major causes of isolated esophageal eosinophilia. Isolated esophageal eosinophilia meeting criteria for EoE may respond to proton pump inhibitor (PPI treatment. This entity is termed proton pumps inhibitor responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE. Gastro-esophageal reflux is thought to comprise a subgroup of patients with PPI-REE. According to the latest guidelines, PPI responsiveness distinguishes people with PPI-REE from patients having EoE (non-responders. In this report, two unusual cases with findings belonging to both EoE and PPI-REE are discussed with known and unknown facts.

  15. Effects of radiation type and delivery mode on a radioresistant eukaryote Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuryak, Igor; Bryan, Ruth A; Broitman, Jack; Marino, Stephen A; Morgenstern, Alfred; Apostolidis, Christos; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2015-06-01

    Most research on radioresistant fungi, particularly on human pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans, involves sparsely-ionizing radiation. Consequently, fungal responses to densely-ionizing radiation, which can be harnessed to treat life-threatening fungal infections, remain incompletely understood. We addressed this issue by quantifying and comparing the effects of densely-ionizing α-particles (delivered either by external beam or by (213)Bi-labeled monoclonal antibodies), and sparsely-ionizing (137)Cs γ-rays, on Cryptococcus neoformans. The best-fit linear-quadratic parameters for clonogenic survival were the following: α = 0.24 × 10(-2) Gy(-1) for γ-rays and 1.07 × 10(-2) Gy(-1) for external-beam α-particles, and β = 1.44 × 10(-5) Gy(-2) for both radiation types. Fungal cell killing by radiolabeled antibodies was consistent with predictions based on the α-particle dose to the cell nucleus and the linear-quadratic parameters for external-beam α-particles. The estimated RBE (for α-particles vs. γ-rays) at low doses was 4.47 for the initial portion of the α-particle track, and 7.66 for the Bragg peak. Non-radiological antibody effects accounted for up to 23% of cell death. These results quantify the degree of C. neoformans resistance to densely-ionizing radiations, and show how this resistance can be overcome with fungus-specific radiolabeled antibodies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypnotherapy for Esophageal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Megan E; Keefer, Laurie

    2015-07-01

    Hypnotherapy is an evidence based intervention for the treatment of functional bowel disorders, particularly irritable bowel syndrome. While similar in pathophysiology, less is known about the utility of hypnotherapy in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Esophageal disorders, most of which are functional in nature, cause painful and uncomfortable symptoms that impact patient quality of life and are difficult to treat from a medical perspective. After a thorough medical workup and a failed trial of proton pump inhibitor therapy, options for treatment are significantly limited. While the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial, two critical factors are believed to drive esophageal symptoms--visceral hypersensitivity and symptom hypervigilance. The goal of esophageal directed hypnotherapy is to promote a deep state of relaxation with focused attention allowing the patient to learn to modulate physiological sensations and symptoms that are not easily addressed with conventional medical intervention. Currently, the use of hypnosis is suitable for dysphagia, globus, functional chest pain/non-cardiac chest pain, dyspepsia, and functional heartburn. In this article the authors will provide a rationale for the use of hypnosis in these disorders, presenting the science whenever available, describing their approach with these patients, and sharing a case study representing a successful outcome.

  17. esophageal cancer: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Maddah Safaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dysphagia is a common initial presentation in locally advanced esophageal cancer and negatively impacts patient quality of life and treatment compliance. To induce fast relief of dysphagia in patients with potentially operable esophageal cancer high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy was applied prior to definitive radiochemotherapy. Material and methods : In this single arm phase II clinical trial between 2013 to 2014 twenty patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer (17 squamous cell and 3 adenocarcinoma were treated with upfront 10 Gy HDR brachytherapy, followed by 50.4 Gy external beam radiotherapy (EBRT and concurrent chemotherapy with cisplatin/5-fluorouracil. Results : Tumor response, as measured by endoscopy and/or computed tomography scan, revealed complete remission in 16 and partial response in 4 patients (overall response rate 100%. Improvement of dysphagia was induced by brachytherapy within a few days and maintained up to the end of treatment in 80% of patients. No differences in either response rate or dysphagia resolution were found between squamous cell and adenocarcinoma histology. The grade 2 and 3 acute pancytopenia or bicytopenia reported in 4 patients, while sub-acute adverse effects with painful ulceration was seen in five patients, occurring after a median of 2 months. A perforation developed in one patient during the procedure of brachytherapy that resolved successfully with immediate surgery. Conclusions : Brachytherapy before EBRT was a safe and effective procedure to induce rapid and durable relief from dysphagia, especially when combined with EBRT.

  18. Doxycycline induced Esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Karakus Yilmaz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Esophagitis is a hazardous condition such as acid reflux of esophageal mucosa, infection, systemic diseases, radiation, drugs and trauma. Drug- induced esophagial injury (DIEI is a disease with the use of variety of drugs that caused serious damage and ulcer in the mucosa of the esophagus. The most commonly implicated drugs are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, chloride and especially antibiotics. Thirty-six year-old female patient presented to the emergency department with odynophagia during swallowing and complaining of retrosternal pain. One week before 100 mg doxycycline (2x1 PO for therapeutic abortion were prescribed. It was learned that in the third day of the initiation of medication, the patient\\'s symptoms began and stopped using drug by the fourth day due to advers effect of drugs, but her symptoms didn’t regressed although she didn’t use them. Endoscopy appointment was taken, proton pump inhibitor and antiacid treatment was given, than patient was discharged from the emergency department. In the endoscopy, 20 mm segment esophageal ulcer was seen approximately in the 30.th cm of the esophagius. DIEI is a relatively common, although under-recognized, so this case was presented for remainding DIEI to emergency medicine personals and reweiving its diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

  19. CD133-expressing thyroid cancer cells are undifferentiated, radioresistant and survive radioiodide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Chien-Chih [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); Liu, Ren-Shyan [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); NRPGM, Molecular and Genetic Imaging Core, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National PET/Cyclotron Center, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Yang, An-Hang [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Liu, Ching-Sheng [National Yang-Ming University Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Chi, Chin-Wen [National Yang-Ming University, Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei (China); Tseng, Ling-Ming [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Tsai, Yi-Fan [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Ho, Jennifer H. [Taipei Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Medical Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Taipei (China); Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Medical Center, Center for Stem Cell Research, Taipei (China); Lee, Chen-Hsen [NRPGM, Molecular and Genetic Imaging Core, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Lee, Oscar K. [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Stem Cell Research Center, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei (China)

    2013-01-15

    {sup 131}I therapy is regularly used following surgery as a part of thyroid cancer management. Despite an overall relatively good prognosis, recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer is not rare. CD133-expressing cells have been shown to mark thyroid cancer stem cells that possess the characteristics of stem cells and have the ability to initiate tumours. However, no studies have addressed the influence of CD133-expressing cells on radioiodide therapy of the thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CD133{sup +} cells contribute to the radioresistance of thyroid cancer and thus potentiate future recurrence and metastasis. Thyroid cancer cell lines were analysed for CD133 expression, radiosensitivity and gene expression. The anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line ARO showed a higher percentage of CD133{sup +} cells and higher radioresistance. After {gamma}-irradiation of the cells, the CD133{sup +} population was enriched due to the higher apoptotic rate of CD133{sup -} cells. In vivo {sup 131}I treatment of ARO tumour resulted in an elevated expression of CD133, Oct4, Nanog, Lin28 and Glut1 genes. After isolation, CD133{sup +} cells exhibited higher radioresistance and higher expression of Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Lin28 and Glut1 in the cell line or primarily cultured papillary thyroid cancer cells, and lower expression of various thyroid-specific genes, namely NIS, Tg, TPO, TSHR, TTF1 and Pax8. This study demonstrates the existence of CD133-expressing thyroid cancer cells which show a higher radioresistance and are in an undifferentiated status. These cells possess a greater potential to survive radiotherapy and may contribute to the recurrence of thyroid cancer. A future therapeutic approach for radioresistant thyroid cancer may focus on the selective eradication of CD133{sup +} cells. (orig.)

  20. [Traumatic esophageal pseudodiverticulum (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesa, E; Olivares, P; Morales, C; Díez Pardo, J A; Monereo, J

    1975-01-01

    Hypoharyngeal perforation with production of an esophageal pseudodiverticulum in the newborn is reviewed. Two new cases are reported and the clinical signs, very similar to those of tracheoesophageal fistula with esophageal artresia, commented upon. The radiological findings of the lesion are discussed, and hints on conservative treatment, advanced.

  1. Gender effects on esophageal motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas R.O.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that there are no gender effects on esophageal motility. However, in previous studies the subjects did not perform multiple swallows and the quantitative features of esophageal contractions were not evaluated. In order to investigate the gender effects on esophageal motility we studied 40 healthy normal volunteers, 20 men aged 37 ± 15 years (mean ± SD, and 20 women aged 38 ± 14 years. We used the manometric method with an eight-lumen polyvinyl catheter and continuous perfusion. The upper and lower esophageal sphincter pressures were measured by the rapid pull-through method. With the catheter positioned with one lumen opening in the lower esophageal sphincter, and the others at 5, 10 and 15 cm above the sphincter, ten swallows of a 5-ml water bolus alternated with ten dry swallows were performed. Statistical analysis was done by the Student t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Gender differences (P<0.05 were observed for wet swallows in the duration of contractions 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter (men: 3.7 ± 0.2 s, women: 4.5 ± 0.3 s, mean ± SEM, and in the velocity of contractions from 15 to 10 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter (men: 4.7 ± 0.3 cm/s, women: 3.5 ± 0.2 cm/s. There was no difference (P>0.05 in sphincter pressure, duration and percentage of complete lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, amplitude of contractions, or in the number of failed, multipeaked and synchronous contractions. We conclude that gender may cause some differences in esophageal motility which, though of no clinical significance, should be taken into consideration when interpreting esophageal motility tests.

  2. Esofagites em pacientes com síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida: estudo histológico e imunoistoquímico Esophagitis in patients with acquired human immunodeficiency syndrome: an histological and immunohistochemistry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Aguiar Vidal

    2007-12-01

    citomegalovírus, respectivamente. O emprego da técnica de imunoistoquímica auxilia no diagnóstico das esofagites virais e torna possível detectar o citomegalovírus em esôfagos normais à endoscopia e/ou ao exame histopatológico.BACKGROUND: Almost all patients with acquired immunodeficiency virus syndrome will have gastrointestinal symptoms during the course of their illness. The high prevalence and complications of esophagitis are well documented. AIM: Graduate esophagitis; identify microorganisms like Candida sp, cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus and mycobacteria; identify by immunohistochemical staining viral agents cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus I, herpesvirus II, Epstein-Barr Virus, human papilloma virus and human immunodeficiency virus; verify how immunohistochemistry changes the profile of esophagitis; verify the association between the histological and endoscopical findings; verify the relevance of the number of fragments studied in the characterization of the histological agents. METHODS: We studied retrospectively esophageal biopsies in 227 patients with acquired immunodeficiency virus syndrome using hematoxylin and eosin, PAS (periodic acid of Schiff, Groccott and Ziehl-Nielsen stains and immunoperoxidase stains to detect opportunistic agents. Endoscopic aspects were studied. RESULTS: The non-specific esophagitis grade III, in the inferior third of the esophagus, was the most frequent type. Candida sp was the most frequent agent, followed by viruses cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus and mycobacteria. The presence of plaque and ulceration suggested the diagnosis of esophageal candidiasis and cytomegalovirus esophagitis. Immunohistochemical allowed the characterization of cytomegalovirus and of herpesvirus in those cases where other techniques could not achieve it, furthermore the cytomegalovirus was also found in histological normal cases, making the use of this technique advisable in routine diagnosis. The herpesvirus I was not found isolated but associated to

  3. Imaging of Esophageal Tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagi, B.; Kochhar, R.; Bhasin, D.K.; Singh, K. [PGIMER, Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Gastroenterology; Lal, A.; Gulati, M.; Suri, S. [PGIMER, Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Radiodiagnosis

    2003-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the various radiological abnormalities in patients with proven esophageal tuberculosis. Material and Methods: The case records of 23 patients with proven esophageal tuberculosis were evaluated retrospectively for various radiological abnormalities. Twenty-two patients had secondary involvement of esophagus in the form of direct extension of mediastinal and pulmonary tuberculosis or spinal tuberculosis. Only 1 patient had primary involvement of the esophagus with no evidence of disease elsewhere. The diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopic and CT-guided biopsy/aspiration cytology in 7 and 6 cases, respectively. Diagnosis was made on the basis of surgical biopsy of lymph node and autopsy in 1 patient each. In the remaining 8 patients the diagnosis was based on radiological and endoscopic findings and the response to antituberculous treatment. Results: Chest radiography (CXR) was abnormal in 65% patients. While the findings were non-conclusive for esophageal tuberculosis, characteristic lesions of tuberculosis in lungs or spine were suggestive of tuberculous etiology. In 15 patients, CT of the chest confirmed the corresponding CXR findings and also showed additional findings of mediastinal lymphadenopathy when CXR was normal. Fourteen patients showed mediastinal lymphadenopathy on CT of the chest. In all these patients, more than one group of lymph nodes was involved. The characteristic hypodense center of lymph nodes suggestive of tuberculosis was seen in 12 patients. Radiological abnormalities seen in barium swallow examination were extrinsic compression, traction diverticula, strictures, sinus/fistulous tracts, kinking and pseudotumor mass of esophagus in decreasing order of frequency. The middle third of the esophagus was found to be the most frequent site of involvement.

  4. FGF18 signaling in the hair cycle resting phase determines radioresistance of hair follicles by arresting hair cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuko Kawano, PhD

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that FGF18 signaling mediates radioresistance in telogen HFs by arresting the cell cycle, and that FGF18 has potential as a radioprotector for radiation-induced alopecia.

  5. Prognostic factors for outcomes after whole-brain irradiation of brain metastases from relatively radioresistant tumors: a retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyners, Thekla; Heisterkamp, Christine; Kueter, Jan-Dirk; Veninga, Theo; Stalpers, Lukas J. A.; Schild, Steven E.; Rades, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated potential prognostic factors in patients treated with whole-brain irradiation (WBI) alone for brain metastases from relatively radioresistant tumors such as malignant melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and colorectal cancer. Additionally, a potential benefit from escalating the

  6. Prognostic factors for outcomes after whole-brain irradiation of brain metastases from relatively radioresistant tumors: a retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyners, T.; Heisterkamp, C.; Kueter, J.D.; Veninga, T.; Stalpers, L.J.A.; Schild, S.E.; Rades, D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study investigated potential prognostic factors in patients treated with whole-brain irradiation (WBI) alone for brain metastases from relatively radioresistant tumors such as malignant melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and colorectal cancer. Additionally, a potential benefit from

  7. Acute promyelocytic leukemia mutated to radioresistance suppressed monocyte lineage differentiation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzen, Satoru; Takimura, Kodai; Kashiwakura, Ikuo; Hosokawa, Yoichiro

    2013-09-01

    Induction of myeloid differentiation in radioresistant HL60 cells (Res-HL60) was examined to clarify the developmental mechanism of radioresistant leukemia. Compared to wild-type HL60 cells (Wt-HL60), Res-HL60 were smaller and strongly expressed CD38. Under all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) stimulation, Res-HL60 continued to proliferate slowly and with similar level of CD11b expression to Wt-HL60. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) strongly suppressed proliferation of Res-HL60, downregulated CD14, and affected mRNA expression. These results suggested that the specific myeloid differentiation of Res-HL60 suppressed monocyte lineage by ATRA and PMA occurred through regulation of mRNA expression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adherence and invasion studies of Candida albicans strains, using in vitro models of esophageal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, J; Herman, D; Sheridan, M; Calderone, R

    2001-11-01

    The adherence of clinical and commensal isolates and reference collection strains of Candida albicans to a human esophageal cell monolayer (HET1-A) and reconstituted human esophageal tissue was compared. Isolates from patients with a severe form of esophageal candidiasis or candidemia adhered to HET1-A cells to a significantly greater extent than did isolates from patients with mild esophageal candidiasis or commensal and reference collection strains. In addition, C. albicans strain SSK21, which lacks the ssk1 response regulator gene of a 2-component signal transduction pathway, adhered less readily to the HET1-A cells than did parental cells or a gene-reconstituted strain. In a reconstituted esophageal tissue model, all clinical strains but not commensal or reference collection strains penetrated the epithelium, albeit at different rates. Hyphal formation following yeast cell adherence to the esophageal tissue was a requirement for invasion. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to confirm the colonization of the esophageal tissues by various strains. These studies indicate that both the HET1-A and the reconstituted esophageal tissue models can be used as in vitro targets to evaluate the adherence phenotype and invasiveness of C. albicans strains.

  9. Transient elevation of glycolysis confers radio-resistance by facilitating DNA repair in cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt, Anant Narayan; Chauhan, Ankit; Khanna, Suchit; Rai, Yogesh; Singh, Saurabh; Soni, Ravi; Kalra, Namita; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer cells exhibit increased glycolysis for ATP production (the Warburg effect) and macromolecular biosynthesis; it is also linked with therapeutic resistance that is generally associated with compromised respiratory metabolism. Molecular mechanisms underlying radio-resistance linked to elevated glycolysis remain incompletely understood. Methods We stimulated glycolysis using mitochondrial respiratory modifiers (MRMs viz. di-nitro phenol, DNP; Photosan-3, PS3; Methylene blue, MB)...

  10. Esophageal cancer: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslick, Guy D

    2009-03-01

    The history of esophageal cancer dates back to ancient Egyptian times, circa 3000 bc. Since then, the progress in the diagnosis and treatment of esophageal cancer has been steady. Over the last few centuries there have been advancements in the visualization and removal of these lesions, but with no real overall impact on survival rates. The twenty-first century is the time to make major progress in not only improving survival rates, but also in diagnosing esophageal cancer in the very early stages.

  11. Recovery and radio-resistance in mice after external irradiation; Restauration et radio-resistance chez la souris apres irradiation externe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guillou, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The author presents a literature study concerning recovery from external irradiation and an analysis of experimental data (which appear to suggest the idea of a radio-resistance in animals), as well as the hypotheses put forward for explaining this phenomenon. The author then describes an experiment carried out on mice whose LD 50/30 days increased from 1005 to 1380 rads and for which it was shown that an increase occurs in the number of certain anti-bodies circulating after a low dose of {gamma} irradiation. (author) [French] L'auteur presente une etude bibliographique de la restauration apres irradiation externe et une analyse des donnees experimentales qui paraissent suggerer la notion de radioresistance chez les animaux ainsi que les hypotheses cherchant a expliquer ce phenomene. Il relate ensuite une experience realisee sur des souris dont la DL 50/30 jours est passee de 1005 a 1380 rads et dans laquelle est montree l'augmentation de certains anticorps circulant apres une faible dose d'irradiation gamma. (auteur)

  12. Glyco-centric lectin magnetic bead array (LeMBA − proteomics dataset of human serum samples from healthy, Barrett׳s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok K. Shah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This data article describes serum glycoprotein biomarker discovery and qualification datasets generated using lectin magnetic bead array (LeMBA – mass spectrometry techniques, “Serum glycoprotein biomarker discovery and qualification pipeline reveals novel diagnostic biomarker candidates for esophageal adenocarcinoma” [1]. Serum samples collected from healthy, metaplastic Barrett׳s esophagus (BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC individuals were profiled for glycoprotein subsets via differential lectin binding. The biomarker discovery proteomics dataset consisting of 20 individual lectin pull-downs for 29 serum samples with a spiked-in internal standard chicken ovalbumin protein has been deposited in the PRIDE partner repository of the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the data set identifier PRIDE: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/projects/PXD002442. Annotated MS/MS spectra for the peptide identifications can be viewed using MS-Viewer (〈http://prospector2.ucsf.edu/prospector/cgi-bin/msform.cgi?form=msviewer〉 using search key “jn7qafftux”. The qualification dataset contained 6-lectin pulldown-coupled multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS data for 41 protein candidates, from 60 serum samples. This dataset is available as a supplemental files with the original publication [1].

  13. Glyco-centric lectin magnetic bead array (LeMBA) - proteomics dataset of human serum samples from healthy, Barrett׳s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Alok K; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh; Choi, Eunju; Chen, David; Gautier, Benoît; Nancarrow, Derek; Whiteman, David C; Baker, Peter R; Clauser, Karl R; Chalkley, Robert J; Saunders, Nicholas A; Barbour, Andrew P; Joshi, Virendra; Hill, Michelle M

    2016-06-01

    This data article describes serum glycoprotein biomarker discovery and qualification datasets generated using lectin magnetic bead array (LeMBA) - mass spectrometry techniques, "Serum glycoprotein biomarker discovery and qualification pipeline reveals novel diagnostic biomarker candidates for esophageal adenocarcinoma" [1]. Serum samples collected from healthy, metaplastic Barrett׳s esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) individuals were profiled for glycoprotein subsets via differential lectin binding. The biomarker discovery proteomics dataset consisting of 20 individual lectin pull-downs for 29 serum samples with a spiked-in internal standard chicken ovalbumin protein has been deposited in the PRIDE partner repository of the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the data set identifier PRIDE: PXD002442. Annotated MS/MS spectra for the peptide identifications can be viewed using MS-Viewer (〈http://prospector2.ucsf.edu/prospector/cgi-bin/msform.cgi?form=msviewer〉) using search key "jn7qafftux". The qualification dataset contained 6-lectin pulldown-coupled multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) data for 41 protein candidates, from 60 serum samples. This dataset is available as a supplemental files with the original publication [1].

  14. Altered expression of the urokinase receptor homologue, C4.4A, in invasive areas of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.V.; Laerum, O.D.; Illemann, M.

    2008-01-01

    C4.4A is a glycolipid-anchored membrane protein with structural homology to the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). Although C4.4A was identified as a metastasis-associated protein little is known about its actual expression and possible function in malignant disease. In the pre......C4.4A is a glycolipid-anchored membrane protein with structural homology to the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). Although C4.4A was identified as a metastasis-associated protein little is known about its actual expression and possible function in malignant disease....... In the present study, we have therefore analyzed the expression of C4.4A in 14 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC). Normal squamous esophageal epithelium shows a strong cell surface associated C4.4A expression in the suprabasal layers, whereas basal cells are negative. Upon transition to dysplasia......, we analyzed the possible coexpression of C4.4A and the gamma 2-chain of LN5 (LN5-gamma 2). Although these proteins are indeed expressed by either neighboring cancer cells or in a few cases even coexpressed by the same cells in the tumor front and metastases, we found no evidence for a general...

  15. Upregulation of KLF4 by methylseleninic acid in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells: Modification of histone H3 acetylation through HAT/HDAC interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chenfei; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Qing; Ma, Kai; Chen, Lechuang; Wang, Zaozao; He, Shun; Zhu, Hongxia; Xu, Ningzhi

    2015-10-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) occurs at a very high frequency in certain areas of China. Supplementation with selenium-containing compounds was associated with a significantly lower cancer mortality rate in a study conducted in Linxia, China. Thus, selenium could be a potential anti-esophageal cancer agent. In this study, methylseleninic acid (MSA) could inhibit cell growth of ESCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Upon treated with MSA, the activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs) was decreased and general control nonrepressed protein 5 (GCN5) was upregulated in ESCC cells. Meanwhile, a significant increase of H3K9 acetylation (H3K9ac) was detected. Upregulation of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) was also observed after MSA treatment. Additionally, the acetylated histone H3 located more at KLF4 promoter region after MSA treatment, shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Moreover, knockdown of GCN5 decreased the protein level of both H3K9ac and KLF4, along with less cell growth inhibition. Taken all, our results indicated that MSA could inhibit ESCC cell growth, at least in part, by MSA-HDAC/GCN5-H3K9ac-KLF4 axis. To our best knowledge, this is the first report that MSA induced acetylation of histone H3 at Lys9, which might depend on the activities and the balance between HDACs and HATs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Role of miR-100 in the radioresistance of colorectal cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Shu-Yu; Wu, Yong; Xing, Chun-Gen; Ru, Gan; Xu, Hong-Tao; Cao, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis of radioresistant colorectal cancer (CRC) is generally poor. Abnormal expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in the radiosensitivity of various tumor cells as these RNAs regulate biological signaling pathways. However, radioresistance-associated miRNAs in CRC have not yet been identified. In this study, we filtered out HCT116 and CCL-244 from seven CRC cell lines that showed the highest difference in radiosensitivity in a clonogenic assay. MiRNA sequencing identified 33 differentially expressed miRNAs (13 up-regulated and 20 down-regulated) in CCL-244 and 37 in HCT116 (20 up-regulated and 17 down-regulated) cells. MiR-100 was significantly down-regulated in CCL-244 cells after X-ray irradiation but not in HCT116 cells. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the expression of miR-100 in CRC tissues was significantly lower than that in normal tissues. Thus, miR-100 seems to be involved in the radioresistance of CCL-244 cells. MiR-100 up-regulation sensitized CCL-244 cells to X-ray irradiation, which probably led to apoptosis and DNA double-strand breaks in these. In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first study to show that miR-100 may play an important role in regulating the radiosensitivity of CRC, and it may act as a new clinical target for CRC radiotherapy. PMID:25973296

  17. Esophageal dysmotility in children with eosinophilic esophagitis: a study using prolonged esophageal manometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurko, Samuel; Rosen, Rachel; Furuta, Glenn T

    2009-12-01

    The pathophysiology of dysphagia in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is unknown but may be related to abnormal esophageal motor function. Symptoms rarely occur during stationary esophageal manometry, so it has been difficult to establish an association between symptoms and motor events. Our aim was to evaluate esophageal motor function in children with EoE with the use of stationary manometry and ambulatory prolonged esophageal manometry and pH-metry (PEMP). PEMP was performed in children with EoE and compared with controls and children with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Peristalsis was considered effective when the esophageal contractions had a normal amplitude and propagation. Results are expressed as mean+/-s.e. Seventeen patients with EoE, 13 with GERD, and 11 controls were studied. Values are expressed as mean+/-s.e. Stationary manometry identified abnormal peristalsis in 41% of children with EoE. During PEMP, children with EoE had an increased number of isolated (16.7+/-3.8 vs. 9.5+/-1.6 vs. 6.5+/-1.1; Pchildren with GERD and controls. Thirteen patients with EoE experienced 21 episodes of dysphagia, and all correlated with simultaneous abnormal motor function. PEMP allowed the detection of ineffective peristalsis in children with EoE. Symptoms observed in children with EoE may be related to esophageal motor dysfunction.

  18. ESOPHAGEAL DYSMOTILITY IN CHILDREN WITH EOSINOPHILIC ESOPHAGITIS. A STUDY USING PROLONGED ESOPHAGEAL MANOMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurko, Samuel; Rosen, Rachel; Furuta, Glenn T.

    2010-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology of dysphagia in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is unknown, but may be related to abnormal esophageal motor function. Symptoms rarely occur during stationary esophageal manometry so it has been difficult to establish an association between symptoms and motor events. Aim To evaluate esophageal motor function in children with EoE with the use of stationary manometry and ambulatory prolonged esophageal manometry and pH-metry (PEMP) Methods PEMP was performed in children with EoE, compared with controls and children with GERD. Effective peristalsis was considered when the esophageal contractions had a normal amplitude and propagation. Results expressed as mean ± S.E. Results Seventeen patients with EoE, 13 with GERD and 11 controls were studied. Values are expressed as mean ± se. Stationary manometry identified abnormal peristalsis in 41% of children with EoE. During PEMP, children with EoE had an increased number of isolated (16.7 ± 3.8 vs 9.5 ± 1.6 vs 6.5 ± 1.1 ; pchildren with GERD and controls. Thirteen patients with EoE experienced 21 episodes of dysphagia and all correlated with simultaneous abnormal motor function. Conclusions PEMP allowed the detection of ineffective peristalsis in children with EoE. Symptoms observed in children with EoE may be related to esophageal motor dysfunction. PMID:19755968

  19. Esophageal cancer in esophageal diverticula associated with achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ah Ran; Chon, Nu Ri; Youn, Young Hoon; Paik, Hyo Chae; Kim, Yon Hee; Park, Hyojin

    2015-01-01

    The simultaneous occurrence of achalasia and esophageal diverticula is rare. Here, we report the case of a 68-year-old man with multiple esophageal diverticula associated with achalasia who was later diagnosed with early esophageal cancer. He initially presented with dysphagia and dyspepsia, and injection of botulinum toxin to the lower esophageal sphincter relieved his symptoms. Five years later, however, the patient presented with worsening of symptoms, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) was performed. The endoscopic findings showed multifocal lugol-voiding lesions identified as moderate dysplasia. We decided to use photodynamic therapy to treat the multifocal dysplastic lesions. At follow-up EGD 2 months after photodynamic therapy, more lugol-voiding lesions representing a squamous cell carcinoma in situ were found. The patient ultimately underwent surgery for the treatment of recurrent esophageal multifocal neoplasia. After a follow-up period of 3 years, the patient showed a good outcome without symptoms. To manage premalignant lesions such as achalasia with esophageal diverticula, clinicians should be cautious, but have an aggressive approach regarding endoscopic surveillance.

  20. Enzymes involved in DNA ligation and end-healing in the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasius, Melanie; Buob, Rebecca; Shevelev, Igor V; Hubscher, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Background Enzymes involved in DNA metabolic events of the highly radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans are currently examined to understand the mechanisms that protect and repair the Deinococcus radiodurans genome after extremely high doses of γ-irradiation. Although several Deinococcus radiodurans DNA repair enzymes have been characterised, no biochemical data is available for DNA ligation and DNA endhealing enzymes of Deinococcus radiodurans so far. DNA ligases are necessary to seal broken DNA backbones during replication, repair and recombination. In addition, ionizing radiation frequently leaves DNA strand-breaks that are not feasible for ligation and thus require end-healing by a 5'-polynucleotide kinase or a 3'-phosphatase. We expect that DNA ligases and end-processing enzymes play an important role in Deinococcus radiodurans DNA strand-break repair. Results In this report, we describe the cloning and expression of a Deinococcus radiodurans DNA ligase in Escherichia coli. This enzyme efficiently catalyses DNA ligation in the presence of Mn(II) and NAD+ as cofactors and lysine 128 was found to be essential for its activity. We have also analysed a predicted second DNA ligase from Deinococcus radiodurans that is part of a putative DNA repair operon and shows sequence similarity to known ATP-dependent DNA ligases. We show that this enzyme possesses an adenylyltransferase activity using ATP, but is not functional as a DNA ligase by itself. Furthermore, we identified a 5'-polynucleotide kinase similar to human polynucleotide kinase that probably prepares DNA termini for subsequent ligation. Conclusion Deinococcus radiodurans contains a standard bacterial DNA ligase that uses NAD+ as a cofactor. Its enzymatic properties are similar to E. coli DNA ligase except for its preference for Mn(II) as a metal cofactor. The function of a putative second DNA ligase remains unclear, but its adenylyltransferase activity classifies it as a member of the

  1. Enzymes involved in DNA ligation and end-healing in the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevelev Igor V

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymes involved in DNA metabolic events of the highly radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans are currently examined to understand the mechanisms that protect and repair the Deinococcus radiodurans genome after extremely high doses of γ-irradiation. Although several Deinococcus radiodurans DNA repair enzymes have been characterised, no biochemical data is available for DNA ligation and DNA endhealing enzymes of Deinococcus radiodurans so far. DNA ligases are necessary to seal broken DNA backbones during replication, repair and recombination. In addition, ionizing radiation frequently leaves DNA strand-breaks that are not feasible for ligation and thus require end-healing by a 5'-polynucleotide kinase or a 3'-phosphatase. We expect that DNA ligases and end-processing enzymes play an important role in Deinococcus radiodurans DNA strand-break repair. Results In this report, we describe the cloning and expression of a Deinococcus radiodurans DNA ligase in Escherichia coli. This enzyme efficiently catalyses DNA ligation in the presence of Mn(II and NAD+ as cofactors and lysine 128 was found to be essential for its activity. We have also analysed a predicted second DNA ligase from Deinococcus radiodurans that is part of a putative DNA repair operon and shows sequence similarity to known ATP-dependent DNA ligases. We show that this enzyme possesses an adenylyltransferase activity using ATP, but is not functional as a DNA ligase by itself. Furthermore, we identified a 5'-polynucleotide kinase similar to human polynucleotide kinase that probably prepares DNA termini for subsequent ligation. Conclusion Deinococcus radiodurans contains a standard bacterial DNA ligase that uses NAD+ as a cofactor. Its enzymatic properties are similar to E. coli DNA ligase except for its preference for Mn(II as a metal cofactor. The function of a putative second DNA ligase remains unclear, but its adenylyltransferase activity classifies it as a

  2. Prevention of Esophageal Variceal Rebleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin-Ho Lo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The rate of rebleeding of esophageal varices remains high after cessation of acute esophageal variceal hemorrhage. Many measures have been developed to prevent the occurrence of rebleeding. When considering their effectiveness in reduction of rebleeding, the associated complications cannot be neglected. Due to unavoidable high incidence of complications, shunt surgery and endoscopic injection sclerotherapy are now rarely used. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt was developed to replace shunt operation but is now reserved for rescue therapy. Nonselective beta-blockers alone or in combination with isosorbide mononitrate and endoscopic variceal ligation are currently the first choices in the prevention of variceal rebleeding. The combination of nonselective beta-blockers and endoscopic variceal ligation appear to enhance the efficacy. With the advent of newly developed measures, esophageal variceal rebleeding could be greatly reduced and the survival of cirrhotics with bleeding esophageal varices could thereby be prolonged.

  3. Drugs Approved for Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for esophageal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  4. Clinical Applications of the Eosinophilic Esophagitis Diagnostic Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE is a recently recognized upper gastrointestinal allergic disorder characterized by esophageal dysfunction (e.g., dysphagia and esophageal eosinophilia of ≥15 eosinophils/high-power field in patients who have persistent esophagitis even on proton pump inhibitor (PPI therapy. The histologic method is the gold standard of EoE diagnosis. However, EoE clinical symptoms do not always correlate with histology, and the histologic method has sensitivity and specificity issues due to the patchiness of EoE and the subjective nature of the method. The “EoE transcriptome” was initially discovered in 2006, which led to the invention of the EoE diagnostic panel (EDP. In addition to providing a definitive EoE diagnosis with high accuracy, the EDP has been useful in elucidating several key elements about the disease including the efficacy of specific drugs such as swallowed glucocorticoids and anti-IL-13 humanized antibody therapy, the relationship between EoE and PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia, and predicting the disease course and responsiveness to therapy. The EDP’s long-term potential arises from its plasticity to incorporate new genes and uncover novel disease pathogenesis. We expect that the EDP will be increasingly helpful for personalized medicine approaches and improved diagnostics and disease monitoring.

  5. Clinical Applications of the Eosinophilic Esophagitis Diagnostic Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ting; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2017-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a recently recognized upper gastrointestinal allergic disorder characterized by esophageal dysfunction (e.g., dysphagia) and esophageal eosinophilia of ≥15 eosinophils/high-power field in patients who have persistent esophagitis even on proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. The histologic method is the gold standard of EoE diagnosis. However, EoE clinical symptoms do not always correlate with histology, and the histologic method has sensitivity and specificity issues due to the patchiness of EoE and the subjective nature of the method. The “EoE transcriptome” was initially discovered in 2006, which led to the invention of the EoE diagnostic panel (EDP). In addition to providing a definitive EoE diagnosis with high accuracy, the EDP has been useful in elucidating several key elements about the disease including the efficacy of specific drugs such as swallowed glucocorticoids and anti-IL-13 humanized antibody therapy, the relationship between EoE and PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia, and predicting the disease course and responsiveness to therapy. The EDP’s long-term potential arises from its plasticity to incorporate new genes and uncover novel disease pathogenesis. We expect that the EDP will be increasingly helpful for personalized medicine approaches and improved diagnostics and disease monitoring. PMID:28770203

  6. Esophageal morphometric and biomechanical changes during aging in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Gregersen, H

    2015-11-01

    Human studies have demonstrated aging-related changes in esophagus which may contribute to the increased rate of gastro-esophageal reflux in elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate esophageal morphometric and biomechanical remodeling in aging rats to obtain detailed information about aging-related changes. Twenty-four male Wistar rats, aged from 6 to 22 months, were studied. Morphometric data were obtained by measuring the wall thickness and cross-sectional area. The esophageal diameter and length were obtained from digitized images of the segments at preselected luminal pressure levels and at no-load and zero-stress states. Circumferential and longitudinal stresses (force per area) and strains (deformation) were computed from the length, diameter and pressure data, and from the zero-stress state geometry. The esophageal parameters such as the weight per unit length, the wall thickness and the wall cross-sectional area increased slightly from 6 to 22 months (p aging (p aging. The stress-strain data showed that the esophageal wall became stiffer circumferentially and longitudinally during aging (p change after 12 months. A pronounced morphometric and biomechanical remodeling occurred in the rat esophagus during aging. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Radiation-induced esophagitis in lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sarah; Fairchild, Alysa

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced esophagitis is the most common local acute toxicity of radiotherapy (RT) delivered for the curative or palliative intent treatment of lung cancer. Although concurrent chemotherapy and higher RT dose are associated with increased esophagitis risk, advancements in RT techniques as well as adherence to esophageal dosimetric constraints may reduce the incidence and severity. Mild acute esophagitis symptoms are generally self-limited, and supportive management options include analgesics, acid suppression, diet modification, treatment for candidiasis, and maintenance of adequate nutrition. Esophageal stricture is the most common late sequela from esophageal irradiation and can be addressed with endoscopic dilatation. Approaches to prevent or mitigate these toxicities are also discussed. PMID:28210168

  8. Genetics of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    in Table 2. SNP CHR BP Alleles Gene Location Left gene Right gene P -values OR rs12642902 4 123727951 A/G NA NA IL2 IL21 0.02 1.27 rs6835745 4...123730462 G/T NA NA IL2 IL21 0.04 1.25 rs975405 4 123740630 C/T IL21 intron IL2 LOC729338 0.04 1.23 CCHMC EE (n=226) vs. CHOP controls (n=316) Table 2...variants for celiac disease in the IL2 /IL21 locus are associated with eosinophilic esophagitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. Feb2010;125(2)Supplement 1:AB160

  9. High-resolution esophageal pressure topography for esophageal motility disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Fakhre Yaseri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-resolution manometer (HRM of the esophagus has become the main diagnostic test in the evaluation of esophageal motility disorders. The development of high-resolution manometry catheters and software displays of manometry recordings in color-coded pressure plots have changed the diagnostic assessment of esophageal disease. The first step of the Chicago classification described abnormal esophagogastric junction deglutitive relaxation. The latest classification system, proposed by Pandolfino et al, includes contraction patterns and peristalsis integrity based on integrated relaxation pressure 4 (IRP4. It can be discriminating the achalasia from non-achalasia esophageal motility disorders. The aim of this study was to assessment of clinical findings in non-achalasia esophageal motility disorders based on the most recent Chicago classification. Methods: We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study of 963 patients that had been referred to manometry department of Gastrointestinal and Liver Research Center, Firozgar Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from April, 2012 to April, 2015. They had upper GI disorder (Dysphasia, non-cardiac chest pain, regurgitation, heartburn, vomiting and asthma and weight loss. Data were collected from clinical examinations as well as patient questionnaires. Manometry, water-perfused, was done for all patients. Manometry criteria of the patients who had integrated relaxation pressure 4 (IRP4 ≤ 15 mmHg were studied. Results: Our finding showed that the non-achalasia esophageal motility disorders (58% was more common than the achalasia (18.2%. Heartburn (68.5%, regurgitation (65.4% and non-cardiac chest pain (60.6% were the most common clinical symptoms. Although, vomiting (91.7% and weight loss (63% were the most common symptoms in referring patients but did not discriminate this disorders from each other’s. Borderline motor function (67.2% was the most common, absent peristalsis (97% and the hyper

  10. Decursin reduce radio-resistance of hypoxic regions under the proton beam therapy by induced HIF-1α degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Myung Hwan; Kim, Kye Ryung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Protons induce cancer-cell apoptosis in vitro and block blood vessel formation in vivo through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The fact that proton severely inhibits blood vessel development in zebrafish embryos suggests a higher sensitivity of vascular endothelial cells to proton beam. Decursin, a coumarin compound, was originally isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai (Dang Gui). A. gigas root has been traditionally used in Korean folk medicine for the treatment of anemia and other common diseases. In previous reports, decursin was reported to exhibit anti-tumor activity against various cancer cells and to inhibit the activities of the androgen and androgen-receptor (AR) signaling pathway in prostate cancer, induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in various cancer cells, such as prostate, breast, bladder, and colon cancer cells. Decursin also inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis through the suppression of the VEGFR-2-signaling pathway. However, the mechanism of decursin mediates change of HIF-1α activities is not clear. In this research, we identified regulations of the HIF-1α and the anti-angiogenesis effects of decursin in proton-beam-irradiated human lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hepatic cancer cells. We investigated the underlying mechanisms of positive effects of protonbeam-induced anti-angiogenesis. Our data indicate that the groups co-treated with decursin and a proton-beam had significant reduced HIF-1α activity compared with the groups treated with only a proton beam under the hypoxic condition caused by DFX(desferrioxamine). Decursin was found to induced HIF-1α degradation. Therefore, we suggest that decursin may be a potential candidate for use as a sensitizer for proton-beaminduced cell apoptosis. Here we have shown that decursin successfully reduced HIF-1α stability under hypoxic condition by induced desferrioxamine. We showed novel candidates for anti-angiogenic compound, decursin, leading to complete inhibition of radio-resistance

  11. A Rare Case of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma with Urinary Bladder Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Katz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma to the urinary bladder is extremely rare. We describe a previously healthy 49-year-old female with recent diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction with metastatic disease to the liver. Biopsy was positive for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH. She received six cycles of Cisplatin, 5-Fluorouracil, and Herceptin and subsequently developed symptomatic anemia and hematuria. Cystoscopy with retroflexion was performed and she received a transurethral resection of bladder tumor with fulguration. Pathology of the bladder tumor revealed similar morphology to her liver metastasis and immunohistochemical stains were consistent with metastatic esophageal cancer. Three weeks after being diagnosed with metachronous urinary bladder metastasis from esophageal adenocarcinoma primary, she expired. She only received her first cycle of palliative chemotherapy with Ramucirumab and Paclitaxel.

  12. Technical Feasibility of TachoSil Application on Esophageal Anastomoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkamp, Leonie; Ruurda, Jelle P; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Sealing esophageal anastomoses with a sealant patch (TachoSil) containing human fibrinogen and thrombin may improve mechanical strength. The aim was to evaluate the technical feasibility of the application of a sealant patch in upper gastrointestinal surgery. Methods. In total 15 patients,

  13. Jaridonin-induced G2/M phase arrest in human esophageal cancer cells is caused by reactive oxygen species-dependent Cdc2-tyr15 phosphorylation via ATM–Chk1/2–Cdc25C pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yong-Cheng [Clinical Pharmacology Laboratory, Henan Province People' s Hospital, No. 7, Wei Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan (China); Su, Nan [Department of Quality Detection and Management, Henan University of Animal Husbandry and Economy, Zhengzhou, Henan (China); Shi, Xiao-Jing; Zhao, Wen; Ke, Yu [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, No. 100, Science Avenue, Zhengzhou, Henan (China); Zi, Xiaolin [Department of Urology, University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA (United States); Department of Pharmacology, University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA (United States); Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA (United States); Zhao, Ning-Min; Qin, Yu-Hua; Zhao, Hong-Wei [Clinical Pharmacology Laboratory, Henan Province People' s Hospital, No. 7, Wei Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan (China); Liu, Hong-Min, E-mail: liuhm@zzu.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, No. 100, Science Avenue, Zhengzhou, Henan (China)

    2015-01-15

    Jaridonin, a novel diterpenoid from Isodon rubescens, has been shown previously to inhibit proliferation of esophageal squamous cancer cells (ESCC) through G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. However, the involved mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we found that the cell cycle arrest by Jaridonin was associated with the increased expression of phosphorylation of ATM at Ser1981 and Cdc2 at Tyr15. Jaridonin also resulted in enhanced phosphorylation of Cdc25C via the activation of checkpoint kinases Chk1 and Chk2, as well as in increased phospho-H2A.X (Ser139), which is known to be phosphorylated by ATM in response to DNA damage. Furthermore, Jaridonin-mediated alterations in cell cycle arrest were significantly attenuated in the presence of NAC, implicating the involvement of ROS in Jaridonin's effects. On the other hand, addition of ATM inhibitors reversed Jaridonin-related activation of ATM and Chk1/2 as well as phosphorylation of Cdc25C, Cdc2 and H2A.X and G2/M phase arrest. In conclusion, these findings identified that Jaridonin-induced cell cycle arrest in human esophageal cancer cells is associated with ROS-mediated activation of ATM–Chk1/2–Cdc25C pathway. - Highlights: • Jaridonin induced G2/M phase arrest through induction of redox imbalance. • Jaridonin increased the level of ROS through depleting glutathione in cell. • ATM–Chk1/2–Cdc25C were involved in Jaridonin-induced cell cycle arrest. • Jaridonin selectively inhibited cancer cell viability and cell cycle progression.

  14. DDEC: Dragon database of genes implicated in esophageal cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2009-07-06

    Background: Esophageal cancer ranks eighth in order of cancer occurrence. Its lethality primarily stems from inability to detect the disease during the early organ-confined stage and the lack of effective therapies for advanced-stage disease. Moreover, the understanding of molecular processes involved in esophageal cancer is not complete, hampering the development of efficient diagnostics and therapy. Efforts made by the scientific community to improve the survival rate of esophageal cancer have resulted in a wealth of scattered information that is difficult to find and not easily amendable to data-mining. To reduce this gap and to complement available cancer related bioinformatic resources, we have developed a comprehensive database (Dragon Database of Genes Implicated in Esophageal Cancer) with esophageal cancer related information, as an integrated knowledge database aimed at representing a gateway to esophageal cancer related data. Description: Manually curated 529 genes differentially expressed in EC are contained in the database. We extracted and analyzed the promoter regions of these genes and complemented gene-related information with transcription factors that potentially control them. We further, precompiled text-mined and data-mined reports about each of these genes to allow for easy exploration of information about associations of EC-implicated genes with other human genes and proteins, metabolites and enzymes, toxins, chemicals with pharmacological effects, disease concepts and human anatomy. The resulting database, DDEC, has a useful feature to display potential associations that are rarely reported and thus difficult to identify. Moreover, DDEC enables inspection of potentially new \\'association hypotheses\\' generated based on the precompiled reports. Conclusion: We hope that this resource will serve as a useful complement to the existing public resources and as a good starting point for researchers and physicians interested in EC genetics. DDEC is

  15. Combining ultrasmall gadolinium-based nanoparticles with photon irradiation overcomes radioresistance of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladi, Imen; Aloy, Marie-Thérèse; Armandy, Emma; Mowat, Pierre; Kryza, David; Magné, Nicolas; Tillement, Olivier; Lux, François; Billotey, Claire; Janier, Marc; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Gadolinium based nanoparticles (GBNs, diameter 2.9±0.2nm), have promising biodistribution properties for theranostic use in-vivo. We aimed at demonstrating the radiosensitizing effect of these GBNs in experimental radioresistant human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SQ20B, FaDu and Cal33 cell lines). Combining 0.6mM GBNs with 250kV photon irradiation significantly decreased SQ20B cell survival, associated with an increase in non-reparable DNA double-strand breaks, the shortening of G2/M phase blockage, and the inhibition of cell proliferation, each contributing to the commitment of late apoptosis. Similarly, radiation resistance was overcome for SQ20B stem-like cells, as well as for FaDu and Cal33 cell lines. Using a SQ20B tumor-bearing mouse model, combination of GBNs with 10Gy irradiation significantly delayed tumor growth with an increase in late apoptosis and a decrease in cell proliferation. These results suggest that GBNs could be envisioned as adjuvant to radiotherapy for HNSCC tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High-dose omeprazole in esophagitis with stenosis after surgical treatment of esophageal atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biervliet, S; Van Winckel, M; Robberecht, E; Kerremans, I

    2001-09-01

    The authors describe 4 children with recurrent stenosis and persistent esophagitis after secondary repair of a long gap esophageal atresia. They underwent an esophageal reconstruction by elongation of the lesser gastric curvature according to Schärli at the age of 11 to 14 months. All had esophagitis grade III to IV (Savary-Miller classification), esophageal stenosis, and failure to thrive. Effective treatment of the esophagitis and prevention of stenosis consisted in high doses of omeprazole (1.9 to 2.5 mg/kg/d). After this treatment, the need for esophageal dilatation disappeared, and nutritional status normalized. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  17. X-ray imaging of radioresistant Deinococcus radiodurans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemoto, K; Kihara, H [Department of Physics, Kansai Medical University, 18-89 Uyamahigashi, Hirakata, Osaka, 573-1136 (Japan); Narumi, I; Satoh, K [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, 370-1292 (Japan); Namba, H, E-mail: takemoto@makino.kmu.ac.j [Department of Physical Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi Kusatsu, Shiga, 525-8577 (Japan)

    2009-09-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans has been known to withstand radiation levels up to 1,000 times than that would kill normal human cells. To cope radiation damage during soft X-ray observation of living cells, D. radiodurans incubated with tellurium oxyanions was used as the X-ray microscopy sample. The first observation was successfully performed. In combination of antifreeze solution and subzero temperature, along with carbon window, the cell observation will be more closely to the living condition.

  18. Endoscopic Assessment of Children with Esophageal Atresia: Lack of Relationship of Esophagitis and Esophageal Metaplasia to Symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Castilloux

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Late complications of esophageal atresia (EA, particularly esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus, are increasingly being recognized. With the exception of patients with dysphagia associated with esophageal stricture, it is unknown whether patient symptomatology can predict endoscopic findings.

  19. Lysyl oxidase mediates hypoxia-induced radioresistance in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chongwen; Gu, Runxia; Jin, Honglin; Sun, Yao; Li, Zhenyu; Chen, Jing; Wu, Gang

    2016-02-01

    Hypoxia-induced radioresistance has been well known as the main obstacle in cancer radiotherapy. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) was previously demonstrated to play an important role in hypoxia-induced biological behaviors, such as metastasis and angiogenesis, through hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which is an important contributing factor to radioresistance in tumor cells. However, how LOX plays a role in hypoxia-induced radioresistance has yet to be determined. Here, we found that LOX expression was in accordance with HIF-1α expression, and LOX expression at the mRNA and protein level, and enzymatic activity were remarkably upregulated in the hypoxic A549 cells, compared with normoxic A549 cells. Inhibition of LOX resulted in the reduction of the ability to repair double-stranded breaks (DSBs), promotion of apoptosis, relief of G2/M cycle arrest, and eventually reduction of hypoxia-induced radioresistance in the hypoxic A549 cells. This suggests that LOX may play an important role in hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Together, our results might suggest a novel potential therapeutic target in the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  20. Esophageal Stricture Post Endoscopic Injection Sclerotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Post endoscopic sclerotherapy esophageal stricture is usually not fatal but may requires several sessions of esophageal dilation as an effective palliative treatment yet has its own complications. Aim: The purpose of this study is to find out the predictors of sclerotherapy esophageal stricture. Methods: This is a ...

  1. Gallium-67 imaging in candidal esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundback, J.H.; Goldfarb, C.R.; Ongseng, F. (Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Ga-67 scanning has been used to evaluate esophageal carcinoma. It has demonstrated candidal infection in other body sites and, in one previous case, in the esophagus. The authors present a case of diffuse esophageal uptake of Ga-67 in esophageal candidiasis.

  2. Respiratory function after esophageal replacement in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallo, Gabriele; Vrijlandt, Elianne J. L. E.; Arets, Hubertus G. M.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Van der Zee, David C.; Hulscher, Jan B. F.; Zwaveling, Sander

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children born with esophageal atresia require an anastomosis between the proximal and distal esophagus. When this distance is too wide (long gap esophageal atresia, LGEA) esophageal replacement strategies have to be deployed. The aim of this study was to assess long-term respiratory

  3. From reflux esophagitis to Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux disease is common in the human population. Almost all cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma are derived from Barrett’s esophagus, which is a complication of esophageal adenocarcinoma precancerous lesions. Chronic exposure of the esophagus to gastroduodenal intestinal fluid is an important determinant factor in the development of Barrett’s esophagus. The replacement of normal squamous epithelium with specific columnar epithelium in the lower esophagus induced by the chronic exposure to gastroduodenal fluid could lead to intestinal metaplasia, which is closely associated with the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the exact mechanism of injury is not completely understood. Various animal models of the developmental mechanisms of disease, and theoretical and clinical effects of drug treatment have been widely used in research. Recently, animal models employed in studies on gastroesophageal reflux injury have allowed significant progress. The advantage of using animal models lies in the ability to accurately control the experimental conditions for better evaluation of results. In this article, various modeling methods are reviewed, with discussion of the major findings on the developmental mechanism of Barrett’s esophagus, which should help to develop better prevention and treatment strategies for Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:25954094

  4. Enhanced radiation response in radioresistant MCF-7 cells by targeting peroxiredoxin II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz AJG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthony Joseph Gomez Diaz,1 Daniel Tamae,2 Yun Yen,3 JianJian Li,4 Tieli Wang1 1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University at Dominguez Hills, Carson, CA, 2Center of Excellence in Environmental Toxicology, Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 3Department of Clinical and Molecular Pharmacology, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, 4Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA Abstract: In our previous study, we identified that a protein target, peroxiredoxin II (PrxII, is overexpressed in radioresistant MCF+FIR3 breast-cancer cells and found that its expression and function is associated with breast-cancer radiation sensitivity or resistance. Small interference RNA (siRNA targeting PrxII gene expression was able to sensitize MCF+FIR3 radioresistant breast-cancer cells to ionizing radiation. The major focus of this work was to investigate how the radiation response of MCF+FIR3 radioresistant cells was affected by the siRNA that inhibits PrxII gene expression. Our results, presented here, show that silencing PrxII gene expression increased cellular toxicity by altering cellular thiol status, inhibiting Ca2+ efflux from the cells, and perturbing the intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. By combining radiotherapy and siRNA technology, we hope to develop new therapeutic strategies that may have potential to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents due to this technology's property of targeting to specific cancer-related genes. Keywords: siRNA, PrxII, radiation resistance, Ca2+, MCF+FIR3

  5. Radiotherapy for oligometastatic disease in patients with spinal cord compression (MSCC) from relatively radioresistant tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freundt, Katja; Meyners, Thekla; Dunst, Juergen; Rades, Dirk [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Luebeck (Germany); Bajrovic, Amira [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Hamburg (Germany); Basic, Hiba [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina); Karstens, Johann H. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover (Germany); Adamietz, Irenaeus A. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Ruhr Univ. of Bochum (Germany); Rudat, Volker [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Saad Specialist Hospital, Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia); Schild, Steven E. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Background: Radiotherapy alone is the most common treatment for metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC). Patients with relatively radioresistant tumors and oligometastatic disease may benefit from more intensive therapies (surgery, high-precision radiotherapy). If such therapies are not available, one can speculate whether patients benefit from dose escalation beyond the standard regimen 30 Gy in ten fractions. Patients and methods: Of 206 patients with MSCC from relatively radioresistant tumors (renal cell carcinoma, colorectal cancer, malignant melanoma), 51 had oligometastatic disease (no visceral or other bone metastases, involvement of only one to three vertebrae). In this subset, 21 patients receiving 30 Gy in ten fractions were retrospectively compared to 30 patients receiving higher doses. Seven further potential prognostic factors were investigated: age, gender, tumor type, performance status, interval from tumor diagnosis to radiotherapy of MSCC, pretreatment ambulatory status, and time developing motor deficits before radiotherapy. Results: Motor function improved in 52% of patients after 30 Gy and 40% after higher doses (p = 0.44). On multivariate analysis, functional outcome was associated with interval from tumor diagnosis to radiotherapy (p = 0.020). 1-year local control rates were 84% after 30 Gy and 82% after higher doses (p = 0.75). No factor was associated with local control. 1-year survival rates were 76% after 30 Gy and 63% after higher doses (p = 0.52). On multivariate analysis, survival was associated with performance status (p = 0.022) and interval from tumor diagnosis to radiotherapy (p = 0.039), and almost with pretreatment ambulatory status (p = 0.069). Conclusion: Dose escalation beyond 30 Gy in ten fractions did not improve motor function, local control, and survival in MSCC patients with oligometastatic disease from relatively radioresistant tumors. (orig.)

  6. The Pathophysiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Avi Lemberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE is an emerging disease characterised by esophageal eosinophilia (>15eos/hpf, lack of responsiveness to acid-suppressive medication and is managed by allergen elimination and anti-allergy therapy. Although the pathophysiology of EoE is currently unsubstantiated, evidence implicates food and aeroallergen hypersensitivity in genetically predisposed individuals as contributory factors. Genome-wide expression analyses have isolated a remarkably conserved gene-expression profile irrespective of age and gender, suggesting a genetic contribution. EoE has characteristics of mainly TH2 type immune responses but also some TH1 cytokines, which appear to strongly contribute to tissue fibrosis, with esophageal epithelial cells providing a hospitable environment for this inflammatory process. Eosinophil-degranulation products appear to play a central role in tissue remodeling in EoE. This remodeling and dysregulation predisposes to fibrosis. Mast cell-derived molecules such as histamine may have an effect on enteric nerves and may also act in concert with TGF-β to interfere with esophageal musculature. Additionally, the esophageal epithelium may facilitate the inflammatory process under pathogenic contexts such as in EoE. This article aims to discuss the contributory factors in the pathophysiology of EoE.

  7. Complications following esophageal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, O P; Lukács, L; Cseke, L

    2000-01-01

    Chronologically, complications can be classified as intraoperative, early, and late. The authors analyze complications according to this classification on the basis of more than 400 esophageal operations and related literary data. As regards intraoperative complications, they deal only with those occurring at transhiatal esophagectomy (e.g., tracheal tear, bleeding, pneumothorax, laryngeal nerve injury). Among the early complications, they survey the incidence of transplant necrosis and related mortality, further sequelae ensuing from subacute ischemia of the replaced organ and analyze in detail the questions which arise regarding anastomotic leakage. Firstly, they deal with those causative factors that influence the frequency of anastomotic insufficiency, such as the technical "know-how" of anastomosis making (e.g., one layer vs two layers; stapling or manual suture; interrupted or running suture), the way of replacement using whole stomach or tube-stomach and the consequences originating from the route of replacement (e.g., anterior or posterior mediastinal route). Incidence and management of chylothorax are also dealt with. While dealing with late complications, the authors give a detailed comment on anastomotic strictures and also other factors facilitating the development of late dysphagia, such as peptic stricture and tumor of the organ remnant. Finally, some cases successfully treated by surgery are presented (skin-tube formation in cases following transplant necrosis; abolition of a pharyngogastric anastomosis stricture using a free jejunal transplant and surgical solution of an anastomotic stricture from median sternotomy approach).

  8. Esophageal cancer in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samawi, Abdullah S; Aulaqi, Saleh M

    2014-03-01

    To document the age and gender distribution, histopathologic type as well as grading characteristics of Esophageal Cancer (EC) in Yemen. A case series. Department of Pathology, Sana'a University, Sana'a, Yemen, from January 2005 to December 2011. Three hundred twenty five cases of EC were included for review. The diagnoses were made on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections and the cases were categorized into Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (ADC). Out of the 325 EC cases, 163 (50%) were SCC (females 67%, males 33%) and 158 (49%) were ADC (females 30%, males 70%). The rest of the cases were 2 adenosquamous carcinoma and 2 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The mean age, for SCC was 60 years while the mean age for ADC was 65 years. The peak incidence for SCC was found in the age groups of fifth and sixth decades for females and in fifth and seventh decades for males. The maximum number of patients with ADC was seen in sixth and seventh decades for both gender. Well-differentiated histological grading accounted for 247 (77%) for both genders and types. The moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated accounted, for 17% and 6% respectively. The EC in Yemen had a predominance of SCC in female patients and predominance of ADC in male patients which was usually of a well-differentiated grade.

  9. Green tea and prevention of esophageal and lung cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2012-01-01

    Green tea contains high concentrations of tea polyphenols that have shown inhibitory effects against the development, progress, and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in animal models at different organ sites, including the esophagus and lung. Green tea polyphenols also have shown to suppress cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Besides antioxidative property, green tea polyphenols have pro-oxidative activities under certain conditions and modulate phase II metabolic enzymes that can enhance the detoxification pathway of environmental toxicants and carcinogens. Although epidemiological studies have provided inconclusive results on the effect of green tea consumption against the development of esophageal and lung cancers in humans overall, the inverse association between green tea intake and risk of esophageal cancer risk is more consistently observed in studies with adequate control for potential confounders. Epidemiological studies also have demonstrated an inverse, albeit moderate, association between green tea consumption and lung cancer, especially in non-smokers. This article reviews data on the cancer-preventive activities of green tea extract and green tea polyphenols and possible mechanisms against the esophageal and lung carcinogenesis in experimental animals, and summarizes the current knowledge from epidemiological studies on the relationship between green tea consumption and esophageal and lung cancer risk in humans. PMID:21538848

  10. Flavopiridol potentiates the cytotoxic effects of radiation in radioresistant tumor cells in which p53 is mutated or Bcl-2 is overexpressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takamitsu; Omura-Minamisawa, Motoko; Kang, Yun; Cheng, Chao; Inoue, Tomio

    2008-08-01

    Loss of the cell-cycle regulatory protein p53 or overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 is associated with resistance to radiation in several types of cancer cells. Flavopiridol, a synthetic flavone, inhibits the growth of malignant tumors cells in vitro and in vivo through multiple mechanisms. The purpose of the present study is to clarify whether flavopiridol enhances the cytotoxic effects of radiation in tumor cells that contain dysfunction p53 or that overexpress Bcl-2. A human glioma cell line (A172/mp53) stably transfected with a plasmid containing mutated p53 and a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa/bcl-2) transfected with a bcl-2 expression plasmid were used. Cells were incubated with flavopiridol for 24 h after radiation, and then cell viability was determined by a colony formation assay. Foci of phosphorylated histone H2AX were also evaluated as a sensitive indicator of DNA double-strand breaks. Compared with the parental wild-type cells, both transfected cell lines were more resistant to radiation. Post-treatment with flavopiridol increased the cytotoxic effects of radiation in both transfected cell lines, but not in their parental wild-type cell lines. Post-treatment with flavopiridol inhibited sublethal damage repair as well as the repair of DNA double-strand breaks in response to radiation. Flavopiridol enhanced the cytotoxic effect of radiation in radioresistant tumor cells that harbor p53 dysfunction or Bcl-2 overexpression. A combination treatment of flavopiridol with radiation has the potential to conquer the radioresistance of malignant tumors induced by the genetic alteration of p53 or bcl-2.

  11. Photodynamic therapy for esophageal cancer. Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, B D

    2000-08-01

    Although clinical studies with photodynamic therapy have been conducted for over 25 years, only recently has this technique become widely available for the treatment of esophageal cancer. Studies have demonstrated that it is as effective as Nd:YAG therapy for advanced esophageal malignancies while technically being somewhat easier to perform. Preliminary studies in early esophageal cancer also show effectiveness. In many ways, PDT is still in its infancy, and its exact role compared to other endoscopic treatments of esophageal cancer remains to be defined. It is expected that the development of new photosensitizers and light delivery systems will further expand the role of PDT in the diagnosis and management of esophageal neoplasms.

  12. Expressions of HPV 16-E6 in Esophageal Carcinoma and its Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The role of (Human Papilloma Virus HPV in cancer of certain anatomical location, such as cervix, has been widely recognized. The present study was conducted to explore the association between HPV 16-E6 protein and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: SP immunohistochemical method was used to examine the expression of HPV 16-E6 in 50 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 10 cases of normal esophageal squamous cell and 10 cases of adjacent tissue. Results: The expression of HPV 16-E6 was significantly higher in esophageal carcinoma than in normal esophageal mucosa and in adjacent tissue. The expressions of HPV 16-E6 had significant correlation with invasive depth (P<0.05, but not with patient age, lymph node metastasis, tumor size (P>0.05. Conclusion: HPV 16-E6 can promote the growth and metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and can be a prognostic factor of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i4.12970 JCMS Nepal 2014; 10(4:1-5 

  13. Differential Bystander Signaling Between Radioresistant Chondrosarcoma Cells and Fibroblasts After X-Ray, Proton, Iron Ion and Carbon Ion Exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakatsuki, Masaru, E-mail: wa@mbe.nifty.com [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Magpayo, Nicole; Kawamura, Hidemasa; Held, Kathryn D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Chondrosarcoma is well known as a radioresistant tumor, but the mechanisms underlying that resistance are still unclear. The bystander effect is well documented in the field of radiation biology. We investigated the bystander response induced by X-rays, protons, carbon ions, and iron ions in chondrosarcoma cells using a transwell insert co-culture system that precludes physical contact between targeted and bystander cells. Methods and Materials: Human chondrosarcoma cells were irradiated with 0.1-, 0.5-, 1-, and 2-Gy X-rays, protons, carbon ions or iron ions using a transwell insert co-culture system. Formation of micronuclei and p53 binding protein 1 staining in bystander and irradiated cells were analyzed and bystander signaling between mixed cultures of chondrosarcoma cells, and normal human skin fibroblasts was investigated. Results: In this study, we show that the fraction of cells with DNA damages in irradiated chondrosarcoma cells showed dose-dependent increases with all beams. However, the fraction of cells with DNA damages in all bystander chondrosarcoma cells did not show any change from the levels in control cells. In the bystander signaling between mixed cultures of chondrosarcoma cells and fibroblasts, the amount of micronucleus formation in all bystander chondrosarcoma cells co-cultured with irradiated fibroblasts were the same as the levels for control cells. However, all bystander fibroblasts co-cultured with irradiated chondrosarcoma cells showed significant increases in the fraction of micronucleated cells compared to the rate of control cells. Conclusions: We conclude that chondrosarcoma cells in the transwell insert co-culture system could release bystander stimulations but could not develop bystander responses.

  14. Detection of human papillomavirus in esophageal and gastroesophageal junction tumors: A retrospective study by real-time polymerase chain reaction in an instutional experience from Turkey and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkay, Düriye Özer; Vural, Çiğdem; Sayan, Murat; Gürbüz, Yeşim

    2016-02-01

    Esophageal cancer is a poor-prognosis malignancy that ranks eighth among all cancer types, and its prevalence shows differences among geographical regions. Although the most important risk factors for esophageal carcinoma are alcohol and smoking, viral infections, particularly HPV infection, are also considered among etiological agents. Our study aims to detect the presence of HPV in esophageal cancers in our patient population and to investigate its correlation with clinico-pathological parameters. We investigated the presence of HPV-DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction in a total of 52 patients with esophageal cancer. Subtype analysis was performed in positive cases and was correlated with selected clinico-pathological parameters. Five (9.6%) of 52 tumor samples, 3 squamous cell carcinomas (3/33 cases) and 2 adenocarcinomas (2/19 cases), were HPV-DNA-positive. Subtype analysis could be performed in four HPV-DNA-positive cases, of which three were HPV type-39 and 1 was type-16. The Marmara region, where the present study was carried out, is a region with low-moderate risk for esophageal cancer, and the prevalence of HPV-DNA in these tumors is similar to the prevalence of HPV-DNA reported in the literature for regions with similar risk. In conclusion, we detected HPV DNA in a subset of esophageal and gastroesophageal junction tumors. HPV infection may have a role in esophageal carcinogenesis and high-risk HPV subtypes can particularly be considered among risk factors since the prevalence of high risk HPV infection has also been found to be increased in regions with a high risk for esophageal cancer compared to low-moderate risk regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Esophageal pH monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophageal pH monitoring References Katzka DA, Falk G. Diseases of the esophagus. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap ... Gastroesophageal reflux disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. ...

  16. [Esophageal histoplasmosis. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, M A; Mendes, E F; Saad, L H; Rodrigues, P A; Gonçalves, I

    1996-01-01

    The authors report a case of a patient with complaint of progressive disphagia. Stenoses of lower third of esophagus was revealed by radiological and endoscopic examinations. Fungi were showed in biopsy of lesion, with demonstration of Histoplasm capsulate by tissue culture. Endoscopic dilatation was performed because especific medical treatment failed but esophageal rupture was observed. Partial esophagectomy was performed with symptoms remission.

  17. Esophageal Carcinoma Following Bariatric Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Matthew F.; Richardson, J. David

    2004-01-01

    Background: The long-term success of bariatric operations for weight reduction has been well documented, but their potential effects on the risk of esophageal cancer have not been evaluated. Methods: We performed operations on 3 patients for esophageal cancer following bariatric operations: 2 had Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and 1 underwent vertical banded gastroplasty. All of these patients had adenocarcinoma at the gastroesophageal junction; 1 involved the entire intrathoracic esophagus. Results: The intervals between the weight-loss operations and cancer diagnoses were 21, 16, and 14 years. All 3 patients had symptoms of reflux for many years before dysphagia developed and cancer was diagnosed. We performed a limited esophagogastrectomy, a classic IvorLewis procedure, and a total esophagectomy with jejunal free-tissue transfer from stomach to cervical esophagus. Two patients had positive lymph nodes. One patient is alive at 6 years; 2 died at 13 and 15 months after undergoing operation for recurrent cancer. Conclusion: The effect of bariatric operations on gastroesophageal reflux is not known, although gastric bypass has been advocated as the “ultimate antireflux procedure.” The presence of esophageal cancer in these 3 patients years after the weight loss operation is worrisome. We believe that patients who develop new symptoms should have endoscopic evaluation and that epidemiologic studies on the incidence of esophageal cancer occurring years after bariatric operation should be performed. PMID:15554284

  18. HPV-E6 protein enriches the CD55(+) population in cervical cancer cells promoting radio-resistance and cancer aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Thomas Ho-Yin; Tang, Hermit Wai-Man; Siu, Michelle Kwan-Yee; Chan, David Wai; Chan, Karen Kar-Loen; Cheung, Annie Nga-Yin; Ngan, Hextan Yuen-Sheung

    2017-09-25

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the human papilloma virus (HPV) E6 protein plays a crucial role in the development of cervical cancer. Sub-populations of cells that reside within tumors are responsible for tumor resistance to cancer therapy and recurrence. However, the identity of such cells residing in cervical cancer and their relationship with the HPV-E6 protein have not been identified. Here, we isolated sphere-forming cells, which exhibited self-renewal ability, from primary cervical tumors. Gene expression profiling revealed that CD55 was upregulated in primary cervical cancer sphere cells. Flow cytometric analysis detected abundant CD55(+) populations among a panel of HPV-positive cervical cancer cell lines, while only few CD55(+) cells were found in HPV-negative cervical cancer and normal cervical epithelial cell lines. The isolated CD55(+) sub-population from the C33A cell line exhibited significant sphere-forming ability and enhanced tumorigenicity, cell migration and radio-resistance. In contrast, the suppression of CD55 in HPV-positive CaSki cells inhibited tumorigenicity both in vitro and in vivo and sensitized cells to irradiation treatment. In addition, ectopic expression of HPV-E6 in HPV-negative cervical cancer cells dramatically enriched the CD55(+) sub-population. CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of the CD55 gene in an HPV-E6-overexpressing stable clone abolished the tumorigenic properties exerted by HPV-E6. Taken together, our data suggest that HPV-E6 protein expression enriches the CD55(+) population, which contributes to tumorigenicity and radio-resistance in cervical cancer cells. Targeting CD55 via CRISPR/Cas9 may represent a novel avenue for developing new strategies and effective therapies for the treatment of cervical cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Early Stage of Esophageal Carcinoma;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-20

    Esophageal Neoplasm; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Primary Tumor (T) T2; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Primary Tumor (T) T3; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Regional Lymph Nodes (N) N0; Esophageal Cancer TNM Staging Distal Metastasis (M) M0

  20. Toll-like receptors in esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonas H Kauppila

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and esophageal adenocarcinoma are cancers of high mortality. Esophageal adenocarcinoma develops through Barrett’s esophagus and columnar dysplasia, preceded by gastroesophageal reflux disease. The risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is increased by smoking and alcohol consumption. New treatment options for esophageal cancer are desperately needed. Toll-like receptors (TLRs play a central role in mammalian immunity and cancer. TLRs are activated by microbial components, such as lipopolysaccharide, flagellin, DNA and RNA, as well as endogenous ligands, including heat-shock proteins and endogenous DNA.This review summarizes the studies on Toll-like receptors in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and esophageal adenocarcinoma. It has been shown that TLRs 1-10 are expressed in the normal esophagus. In esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, TLRs 3, -4, -7, and 9 have been studied, showing associations to aggressive disease properties. In Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma, only TLRs 4, -5 and -9 have been studied. In the review, we discuss the implications of TLRs in esophageal cancer.

  1. Basic aspects of radiation action on microorganisms. Final report for the period ending October 31, 1977. [Radioresistance of micrococcus luteus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, E.C.

    1977-12-01

    Progress is reported on studies on the basic aspects of radiation effects on microorganisms. Results are included from studies on the effects of uv pretreatment on the survival of ..gamma..-irradiated micrococcus luteus and uv-induced radioresistance to bacteriophage.

  2. MicroRNA-98 and microRNA-214 post-transcriptionally regulate enhancer of zeste homolog 2 and inhibit migration and invasion in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Sheng-Dong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2 was found to be overexpressed and associated with tumor metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. On the other hand, it was reported that miR-26a, miR-98, miR-101, miR-124, miR-138 and miR-214 could inhibit the expression of EZH2 in some tumors. However, the role of miRNAs in the regulation of EZH2 expression in human ESCC has not been documented. The aim of this study was to determine the role of these miRNAs in the regulation of tumor metastasis via EZH2 overexpression in human ESCC. Methods and results The expression of these miRNAs and EZH2 mRNA were examined by qPCR and the expression of EZH2 protein was detected by western blot. The role of these miRNAs in migration and invasion was studied in ESCC cell line (Eca109 transfected with miRNA mimics or cotransfected with miRNA mimics and pcDNA-EZH2 plasmid (without the 3’-UTR of EZH2. Through clinical investigation, we found that miR-98 and miR-214 expression was significantly lower in ESCC tissues than in matched normal tissues, and the expression level of miR-98 and miR-214 was inversely correlated to EZH2 protein expression and the clinical features such as pathological grade, tumor stage and lymph node metastasis in ESCC. In Eca109 cells, overexpression of miR-98 and miR-214 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of ESCC cells, which was reversed by transfection of EZH2. Conclusions These findings suggest that decreased expression of miR-98 and miR-214 might promote metastasis of human ESCC by inducing accumulation of EZH2 protein.

  3. Hemostasis by esophageal stent placement for management of esophageal tumor bleeding:a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isono, Yoshiaki; Saito, Tomonori; Tochio, Tomomasa; Kumazawa, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Hiroki; Matsusaki, Shimpei; Sase, Tomohiro; Okano, Hiroshi; Baba, Youichirou; Mukai, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    A 67-year-old male was diagnosed with advanced esophageal cancer. A computed tomography scan showed multiple intra-abdominal lymphadenopathies. Because the tumor was thought to be unresectable, we initiated chemotherapy. Twelve months later, the patient was admitted to our hospital because of hematemesis. Gastroduodenoscopy revealed oozing bleeding from the esophageal tumor. Hemostasis was not achieved with conservative treatment, and frequent blood transfusions were required. Endoscopic hemostasis was difficult to achieve because of the malignant esophageal stenosis. To treat the malignant esophageal stricture and esophageal tumor bleeding, we attempted to insert an esophageal covered self-expandable metallic stent. After the procedure, hemostasis was achieved by mechanical tamponade. Here we report a rare case of esophageal tumor bleeding that was managed with mechanical tamponade using an esophageal covered self-expandable metallic stent.

  4. The Changing Face of Esophageal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Melhado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The two main histological esophageal cancer types, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, differ in incidence, geographic distribution, ethnic pattern and etiology. This article focuses on epidemiology with particular reference to geographic and temporal variations in incidence, along with a review of the evidence supporting environmental and genetic factors involved in esophageal carcinogenesis. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus remains predominantly a disease of the developing world. In contrast, esophageal adenocarcinoma is mainly a disease of western developed societies, associated with obesity and gastro-esophageal reflux disease. There has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma in developed countries in parallel with migration of both esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas towards the gastro-esophageal junction.

  5. The Changing Face of Esophageal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melhado, Rachel E., E-mail: raye732001@yahoo.co.uk; Alderson, Derek; Tucker, Olga [Academic Department of Surgery, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University Hospitals Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-28

    The two main histological esophageal cancer types, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, differ in incidence, geographic distribution, ethnic pattern and etiology. This article focuses on epidemiology with particular reference to geographic and temporal variations in incidence, along with a review of the evidence supporting environmental and genetic factors involved in esophageal carcinogenesis. Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus remains predominantly a disease of the developing world. In contrast, esophageal adenocarcinoma is mainly a disease of western developed societies, associated with obesity and gastro-esophageal reflux disease. There has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma in developed countries in parallel with migration of both esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas towards the gastro-esophageal junction.

  6. Radiation-induced esophagitis in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Baker, Alysa Fairchild Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: Radiation-induced esophagitis is the most common local acute toxicity of radiotherapy (RT delivered for the curative or palliative intent treatment of lung cancer. Although concurrent chemotherapy and higher RT dose are associated with increased esophagitis risk, advancements in RT techniques as well as adherence to esophageal dosimetric constraints may reduce the incidence and severity. Mild acute esophagitis symptoms are generally self-limited, and supportive management options include analgesics, acid suppression, diet modification, treatment for candidiasis, and maintenance of adequate nutrition. Esophageal stricture is the most common late sequela from esophageal irradiation and can be addressed with endoscopic dilatation. Approaches to prevent or mitigate these toxicities are also discussed. Keywords: non–small cell lung cancer, acute, late, toxicity, stricture

  7. Magnetic stent hyperthermia for esophageal cancer: an in vitro investigation in the ECA-109 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Yi; Zhao, Ling-Yun; Wang, Yu-Ying; Li, Dan-Ye; Tao, Dan; Li, Li-Ya; Tang, Jin-Tian

    2012-03-01

    Magnetic stent hyperthermia (MSH) is a novel approach for targeted thermotherapy for esophageal cancer, which is based on the mechanism that inductive heat can be generated by the esophageal stent upon exposure under an alternative magnetic field (AMF). A positive effect of MSH on esophageal cancer has been demonstrated, however, there is no study on the in vitro effects of heating treatment or of the effects of AMF exposure on human esophageal cancer cells. This study aimed to investigate the effect of MSH and of AMF exposure in esophageal cancer cells. Inductive heating characteristics of esophageal stents were assessed by exposing the stents under AMF. A rather rapid temperature rise of the Ni-Ti stent when subjected to AMF exposure was observed and the desired hyperthermic temperature could be controlled by adjusting the field parameter of the AMF. Human esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC) ECA-109 cells were divided into four groups: the control group, the water-bath heating group, the MSH group and the AMF exposure group. Hyperthermic temperatures were 43, 48 and 53˚C and the treatment time was in the range of 5-30 min. The MTT assay, apoptotic analysis and TUNEL staining were applied in the current investigation. Exposure of ECA-109 cells under AMF with a field intensity of 50 to 110 kA/m had negligible effect on cell viability, cell necrosis and apoptosis. Hyperthermia had a remarkable inhibitory effect on the cell viability and the effect was dependent on the thermal dose (temperature and time). The optimal thermal dose of MSH for ECA-109 cells was 48˚C for 20-30 min. The study also elucidated that there was a difference in the effects on cell necrosis and apoptosis between the heating mode of water bath and MSH. The data suggest that MSH may have clinical significance for esophageal cancer treatment.

  8. New features of the cell wall of the radio-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farci, Domenica; Bowler, Matthew W; Kirkpatrick, Joanna; McSweeney, Sean; Tramontano, Enzo; Piano, Dario

    2014-07-01

    We have analyzed the cell wall of the radio-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. Unexpectedly, the bacterial envelope appears to be organized in different complexes of high molecular weight. Each complex is composed of several proteins, most of which are coded by genes of unknown function and the majority are constituents of the inner/outer membrane system. One of the most abundant complexes is constituted by the gene DR_0774. This protein is a type of secretin which is a known subunit of the homo-oligomeric channel that represents the main bulk of the type IV piliation family. Finally, a minor component of the pink envelope consists of several inner-membrane proteins. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Radiosensitivity and/or radioresistance of head and neck cancers: Biological angle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Rancoule, Chloé; Méry, Benoîte; Espenel, Sophie; Wozny, Anne-Sophie; Simonet, Stéphanie; Vallard, Alexis; Alphonse, Gersende; Ardail, Dominique; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire; Magné, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a cornerstone of head and neck cancer management. Technological improvements in recent years in radiation therapy, with intensity-modulated techniques, reinforce even more its role. However, both local and locoregional relapses are still observed. Understanding biological mechanisms of treatment resistance is a topic of major interest. From the cancer cell itself, its ability to repair and proliferate, its microenvironment and oxygenation conditions, migratory and invasive capacity, to biological parameters related to the patient, there are many mechanisms involving radiosensitivity and/or radioresistance of head and neck cancer. The present study explores the main biological mechanisms involved in radiation resistance of head and neck cancer, and describes promising therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR enhances radioresistance in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Wang, Chaoqun; Liu, Xia; Wu, Chengjun; Yin, Haitao

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the radiosensitizing effects of homeobox (HOX) transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) long non-coding RNA on breast cancer tumor cells and examine the underlying mechanisms. Recombinant plasmid vectors containing HOTAIR gene were constructed and MDA-MB231 cells were transfected with these plasmids using liposomes. The cells were treated with radiation and cell apoptosis, proliferation, and double-stranded DNA breaks were examined. HOXD10, phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) and p-BAD expression levels were measured using western blot analysis. The results showed a higher expression of HOTAIR in advanced tumor cells. HOTAIR efficiently enhanced radioresistance in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells and accelerated proliferation through the Akt pathway by targeting HOXD10. In conclusion, the findings demonstrated that HOTAIR gene is a valid therapeutic target for the reversal of radiotherapy resistance in breast cancer.

  11. Endoscopic and Radiologic Findings in Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeffrey A

    2018-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was first described by Landis in 1978. The disease is characterized by esophageal symptoms, primarily dysphagia in adult patients, and esophageal eosinophilic infiltration. The disease is associated with characteristic endoscopic findings, including edema, rings, furrows, exudates, and strictures. The typical radiographic findings of this disorder are rings, strictures, and small-caliber esophagus. The endoscopic and radiographic findings of EoE are the topic of this review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fatal esophageal perforation caused by invasive candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gock, Michael; Schäfer, Markus; Perren, Aurel; Demartines, Nicolas; Clavien, Pierre-Alain

    2005-09-01

    Instrumental lesions, spontaneous rupture, and trauma cause most esophageal perforations. Transmural fungal infection is extremely rare, although Candida may be detected in as many as 25% of normal esophagus. In this report we present a case of fatal esophageal perforation due to transmural Candida infection in a 76-year-old woman. The patient died from septic shock and multiorgan failure, despite esophageal resection and systemic antifungal therapy. Pathogenetic aspects and treatment strategies are discussed.

  13. Oral blastomycosis, laryngeal papillomatosis and esophageal tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Manuel; Hospital Regional del Cusco. Cusco, Perú. Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco. Cusco, Perú. Médico infectólogo.; Chumbiraico, Robert; Hospital Regional del Cusco. Cusco, Perú. Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco. Cusco, Perú. médico internista.; Ricalde, Melvin; Hospital Regional del Cusco. Cusco, Perú. Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco. Cusco, Perú. médico neumólogo.; Cazorla, Ernesto; Hospital Regional del Cusco. Cusco, Perú. Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco. Cusco, Perú. médico gastroenterólogo.; Hernández-Córdova, Gustavo; Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco. Cusco, Perú. Sociedad Científica de Estudiantes de Medicina ASOCIEMH-CUSCO. Cusco, Perú. estudiante de Medicina.

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal involvement is an extremely rare complication of tuberculosis even in countries with high prevalence of infection. We report the case of a 57 year-old hiv-seronegative patient with simultaneous diagnoses of oral blastomycosis and laryngeal papillomatosis. Both were confirmed by anatomopathological analysis. The esophageal biopsy revealed granulomatous esophagitis with necrosis and ziehl–neelsen stain showed acid-fast alcohol resistant bacilli suggestive of tuberculosis. The pat...

  14. Management of Malnutrition in Esophageal Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yu-juan; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien; Lee, Jang-Ming; Chen, Cheryl Chia-Hui

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition in patients with esophageal cancer is estimated to be as high as 78.9%. Malnutrition in esophageal cancer is significantly correlated with an increased risk of treatment toxicity and postoperative complications. It is therefore important to maintain an optimal nutritional status, particularly during the course of neoadjuvant chemoradiation. This article aims to review the mechanism, evaluation, and management strategies of malnutrition for patients with esophage...

  15. [Esophageal diseases: GERD, Barrett, achalasia and eosinophilic esophagitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Xavier; Villoria, Albert

    2014-09-01

    At Digestive Disease Week (DDW) 2014, developments in esophageal disease were presented. Highlights include: the usefulness of impedancemetry to diagnose reflux disease, or the effectiveness of PPIs for treating non-cardiac chest pain. Concerning Barrett's esophagus, its prevalence is identical in patients with and without reflux symptoms, Barrett segments less than 1cm probably do not require follow-up, and in older patients with long-segment Barrett, initial endoscopies overlooked up to 2% of significant lesions. Regarding achalasia, surgical myotomy is no more effective than endoscopic dilation and may even be less effective than peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM). In terms of eosinophilic esophagitis, it is important to systematically take biopsies in patients with dysphagia so that cases of eosinophilic esophagitis are not overlooked. In addition, for this condition, routine endoscopic dilations not only do not seem useful in improving the course of the disease, but could also worsen the response to medical treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of Differentially Expressed Genes in Esophageal Carcinoma Using Non-RI Differential Display with High Specificity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oka, Rie; Ninomiya, Itaru; Tanii, Hideji; Miwa, Kouichi; Saijoh, Kiyofumi

    2001-01-01

    Differentially expressed genes in human esophageal carcinoma/normal tissue pairs were identified by means of a modified differential display technique to overcome the limitations of the conventional technique...

  17. Acute Necrotizing Esophagitis Followed by Duodenal Necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Hierro, Piedad Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Acute Necrotizing Esophagitis is an uncommon pathology, characterized by endoscopic finding of diffuse black coloration in esophageal mucosa and histological presence of necrosis in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The first case of acute necrotizing esophagitis followed by duodenal necrosis, in 81 years old woman with a positive history of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, and usual intake of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs, is reported. Although its etiology remains unknown, the duodenal necrosis suggests that ischemia could be the main cause given that the branches off the celiac axis provide common blood supply to the distal esophageal and duodenal tissue. The massive gastroesophagic reflux and NSAID intake could be involved. PMID:27957030

  18. Esophageal reflexes modulate frontoparietal response in neonates: Novel application of concurrent NIRS and provocative esophageal manometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakiraih, Joanna F.; Hasenstab, Kathryn A.; Dar, Irfaan; Gao, Xiaoyu; Bates, D. Gregory; Kashou, Nasser H.

    2014-01-01

    Central and peripheral neural regulation of swallowing and aerodigestive reflexes is unclear in human neonates. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive method to measure changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO) and deoxyhemoglobin (HbD). Pharyngoesophageal manometry permits evaluation of aerodigestive reflexes. Modalities were combined to investigate feasibility and to test neonatal frontoparietal cortical changes during pharyngoesophageal (visceral) stimulation and/or swallowing. Ten neonates (45.6 ± 3.0 wk postmenstrual age, 4.1 ± 0.5 kg) underwent novel pharyngoesophageal manometry concurrent with NIRS. To examine esophagus-brain interactions, we analyzed cortical hemodynamic response (HDR) latency and durations during aerodigestive provocation and esophageal reflexes. Data are presented as means ± SE or percent. HDR rates were 8.84 times more likely with basal spontaneous deglutition compared with sham stimuli (P = 0.004). Of 182 visceral stimuli, 95% were analyzable for esophageal responses, 38% for HDR, and 36% for both. Of analyzable HDR (n = 70): 1) HbO concentration (μmol/l) baseline 1.5 ± 0.7 vs. 3.7 ± 0.7 poststimulus was significant (P = 0.02), 2) HbD concentration (μmol/l) between baseline 0.1 ± 0.4 vs. poststimulus −0.5 ± 0.4 was not significant (P = 0.73), and 3) hemispheric lateralization was 21% left only, 29% right only, and 50% bilateral. During concurrent esophageal and NIRS responses (n = 66): 1) peristaltic reflexes were present in 74% and HDR in 61% and 2) HDR was 4.75 times more likely with deglutition reflex vs. secondary peristaltic reflex (P = 0.016). Concurrent NIRS with visceral stimulation is feasible in neonates, and frontoparietal cortical activation is recognized. Deglutition contrasting with secondary peristalsis is related to cortical activation, thus implicating higher hierarchical aerodigestive protective functional neural networks. PMID:24789204

  19. Eosinophilic esophagitis: indications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex

    2014-01-01

    At present, it is still debated whether the focus of treatment in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) should be directed toward a symptomatic or histological response, or even toward a combination of both. This question cannot be answered as long as we have no solid data evaluating the long-term consequences of untreated symptoms and untreated inflammation. Nevertheless, today there are at least three established reasons to treat patients with clinically and histologically active EoE. First, dysphagia has a substantial negative impact on the patient's daily life. Despite the fact that patients often cope with this symptom and accept even marked restrictions in their nutritional habits, they usually experience a marked enhancement in quality of life under treatment. Second, untreated EoE harbors the risk of long-lasting food impactions. There is evidence that this unpleasant, unforeseeable and even risky incident can be prevented by efficient treatment of the eosinophilic inflammation. Third, it has been demonstrated in several clinical studies as well as in animal models that unbridled eosinophilic inflammation leads to a so-called remodeling of the esophagus with wall thickening, stiffness of the organ and stricture. Prevention of esophageal damage caused by tissue remodeling is therefore another reason to strongly advocate a consequential treatment. Finally, there is increasing evidence that untreated EoE might be a risk factor for acute infection of the esophagus with herpes simplex virus (HSV), leading to a severe ulcerative and extremely painful esophagitis. Prevention of HSV esophagitis might therefore be a fourth indication for treating EoE. 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Acute Esophageal Necrosis: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayat, Faisal; Hurairah, Abu; Virk, Hafeez Ul Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) or “black esophagus” is a rare clinical entity with an unclear etiology. It is diagnosed at upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with the presence of strikingly black necrotic esophagus. The treatment is primarily medical, but the prognosis is generally poor due to advanced age and comorbid illnesses in patients who develop AEN. Herein, we discussed the implications of poor glycemic control in regards with AEN and undertook a literature review of this rare diagnosis. PMID:27583242

  1. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Vyas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  2. Vitiligo associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asilian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is a disease that results in depigmented areas in the skin. It may develop at any age but the average age at onset is 20 years. Association of vitiligo and melanoma has been commonly reported, but malignancies other than melanoma have been rarely associated with vitiligo. We report a 73-year-old patient with new onset vitiligo who developed esophageal adenocarcinoma in the following years.

  3. Global trends in esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Gautam K; Yanala, Ujwal; Ravipati, Advaitaa; Follet, Matthew; Vijayakumar, M; Are, Chandrakanth

    2017-04-01

    Esophageal Cancer (EC) is a lethal malignancy with poor prognosis and significant variations in the incidence, mortality, and histopathology based on geographic regions. The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze these variations to identify patterns and areas for further research. We utilized the GLOBOCAN 2012, and Cancer Incidence in five Continents, Volume X (CI5X) database to analyze variations in EC incidence and mortality. We found the EC incidence and mortality is geographically varied with a particularly high burden in East Asia and Eastern/Southern Africa where esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) predominates over adenocarcinoma (AC). Interestingly, there is a dichotomy between the high incidence of esophageal SCC in East Africa and low incidence in West Africa. The global incidence and mortality from EC is expected to rise in the coming decades. Asia, and China in particular, will continue to be the areas most burdened by EC, while Africa is expected to surpass the incidence and mortality rates of Europe. The global burden of EC is expected to rise in the coming years. Understanding the geographic, environmental, and genetic contributors to the development of EC will be essential in combating its prevalence. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Novel device to sample the esophageal microbiome--the esophageal string test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie A Fillon

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies implicate the microbiome in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. Previous work has shown that adults with esophagitis related to gastroesophageal reflux disease have altered esophageal microbiota compared to those who do not have esophagitis. In these studies, sampling of the esophageal microbiome was accomplished by isolating DNA from esophageal biopsies obtained at the time of upper endoscopy. The aim of the current study was to identify the esophageal microbiome in pediatric individuals with normal esophageal mucosa using a minimally invasive, capsule-based string technology, the Enterotest™. We used the proximal segment of the Enterotest string to sample the esophagus, and term this the "Esophageal String Test" (EST. We hypothesized that the less invasive EST would capture mucosal adherent bacteria present in the esophagus in a similar fashion as mucosal biopsy. EST samples and mucosal biopsies were collected from children with no esophageal inflammation (n = 15 and their microbiome composition determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbiota from esophageal biopsies and ESTs produced nearly identical profiles of bacterial genera and were different from the bacterial contents of samples collected from the nasal and oral cavity. We conclude that the minimally invasive EST can serve as a useful device for study of the esophageal microbiome.

  5. Gastroesophageal reflux leads to esophageal cancer in a surgical model with mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaoxin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophago-gastroduodenal anastomosis with rats mimics the development of human Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma by introducing mixed reflux of gastric and duodenal contents into the esophagus. However, use of this rat model for mechanistic and chemopreventive studies is limited due to lack of genetically modified rat strains. Therefore, a mouse model of esophageal adenocarcinoma is needed. Methods We performed reflux surgery on wild-type, p53A135V transgenic, and INK4a/Arf+/- mice of A/J strain. Some mice were also treated with omeprazole (1,400 ppm in diet, iron (50 mg/kg/m, i.p., or gastrectomy plus iron. Mouse esophagi were harvested at 20, 40 or 80 weeks after surgery for histopathological analysis. Results At week 20, we observed metaplasia in wild-type mice (5%, 1/20 and p53A135V mice (5.3%, 1/19. At week 40, metaplasia was found in wild-type mice (16.2%, 6/37, p53A135V mice (4.8%, 2/42, and wild-type mice also receiving gastrectomy and iron (6.7%, 1/15. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma developed in INK4a/Arf+/- mice (7.1%, 1/14, and wild-type mice receiving gastrectomy and iron (21.4%, 3/14. Among 13 wild-type mice which were given iron from week 40 to 80, twelve (92.3% developed squamous cell carcinoma at week 80. None of these mice developed esophageal adenocarcinoma. Conclusion Surgically induced gastroesophageal reflux produced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, but not esophageal adenocarcinoma, in mice. Dominant negative p53 mutation, heterozygous loss of INK4a/Arf, antacid treatment, iron supplementation, or gastrectomy failed to promote esophageal adenocarcinoma in these mice. Further studies are needed in order to develop a mouse model of esophageal adenocarcinoma.

  6. Endoplasmic reticulum stress could induce autophagy and apoptosis and enhance chemotherapy sensitivity in human esophageal cancer EC9706 cells by mediating PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fang; Li, Yan-Hua; Wang, Jian-Jun; Pan, Jia; Lu, Hong

    2017-06-01

    The study was designed to explore the mechanism of tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in human esophageal cancer EC9706 cells and EC109 cells, as well as its effects on cell autophagy, apoptosis, and chemoresistance. Tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress model was established in EC9706 and EC109 cell lines. Western blotting was employed to detect the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress iconic protein GRP78. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to evaluate the effect of different cisplatin and tunicamycin concentrations on survival rate of EC9706 cells and EC109 cells. Autophagy was monitored using monodansylcadaverin and apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to detect the expressions of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins (PERK, eIF2α, and CHOP), PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway-related proteins, autophagy-related proteins (LC3-I/LC3-II, Beclin-1, and p62), and apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3). Tunicamycin led to increased expression of GRP78. With tunicamycin treatment, phosphorylation of PERK and eIF2α and CHOP expression increased. Meanwhile, the increase in cytolysosome was concentration and time dependent. With the increased tunicamycin concentration, there were increased expressions of Bax and cleaved caspase-3, decreased expression of Bcl-2, and lower phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway-related proteins. Therefore, it can be concluded that the combination of tunicamycin and cisplatin could improve the sensitivity of EC9706 cells and EC109 cells to cisplatin; PI3K inhibitor BEZ235 could enhance cell autophagy and apoptosis and increase cell sensitivity to cisplatin.

  7. Knockdown of Minichromosome Maintenance Proteins Inhibits Foci Forming of Mediator of DNA-Damage Checkpoint 1 in Response to DNA Damage in Human Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma TE-1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinzhong; Wang, Ruijie; Wu, Jinfeng; Dang, Zhongqin; Zhang, Qinsheng; Li, Bo

    2016-10-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has a high morbidity in China and its treatment depends greatly on adjuvant chemotherapy. However, DNA damage repair in cancer cells severely affects the outcome of treatment. This study investigated the potential mechanism regarding mediator of DNA-damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1) and minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCMs) during DNA damage in ESCC. Recombinant vectors of MDC1 and MCMs with tags were constructed and transfected into human ESCC cell line TE-1. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were performed to screen the MCMs interacting with MDC1, and direct interaction was confirmed by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay in vitro. MCM2 and MCM6 were knocked down by shRNAs, after which chromatin fraction and foci forming of MDC1 upon bleomycin-induced DNA damage were examined. The results showed that MCM2/3/5/6 were immunoprecipitated by antibodies against the tag of MDC1 in TE-1 nuclei, and the GST pull-down assay indicated the direct interaction. Knockdown of MCM2 or MCM6 reduced the chromatin fraction of MDC1 according to Western blot results. Moreover, knockdown of MCM2 or MCM6 could significantly inhibit foci forming of MDC1 in TE-1 nuclei in response to bleomycin-induced DNA damage (p TE-1 nuclei. Downregulation of MCMs can inhibit chromatin fraction and foci forming of MDC1 in TE-1 cells upon DNA damage, which suggests MCMs and MDC1 as potential targets to improve the outcome of chemotherapy in ESCC.

  8. Helicobacter pylori induces CDX2 and COX2 expression by modulating microRNAs in esophageal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Guigen; Dai, Yun; Chu, Yunxiang; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hongchen; Wu, Ting; Shuai, Xiaowei; Wang, Weihong

    2017-12-07

    Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been linked to virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The role of H. pylori in esophageal disease has not been clearly defined. We previously reported that H. pylori-esophageal colonization promotes the incidence of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma in vivo. Here, we studied the direct effects of H. pylori on the transformation of esophageal epithelial cells, with particular focus on whether H. pylori exerts its effects by modulating miRNAs and their downstream target genes. The human normal esophageal cell line HET-1A was chronically exposed to H. pylori extract and/or acidified deoxycholic acid (DCA) for up to 36 weeks. The miRNA profiles of the esophageal epithelial cells associated with H. pylori infection were determined by microarray analysis. We found that chronic H. pylori exposure promoted acidified DCA-induced morphological changes in HET-1A cells, along with aberrant overexpression of intestinal metaplasia markers and tumorigenic factors, including CDX2, MUC2 and COX2. H. pylori modified the miRNA profiles of esophageal epithelial cells, particularly aberrant silencing of miR-212-3p and miR-361-3p. Moreover, in biopsies from Barrett's esophagus patients, esophageal H. pylori colonization was associated with a significant decrease in miR-212-3p and miR-361-3p expression. Furthermore, we identified COX2 as a target of miR-212-3p, and CDX2 as a target of miR-361-3p. H. pylori infection of esophageal epithelial cells was associated with miRNA-mediated up-regulation of oncoprotein CDX2 and COX2. Our observations provide new evidence about the molecular mechanisms underlying the association between H. pylori infection and esophageal carcinogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Esophageal cancer awareness in Bomet district, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Department of Surgery, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Rhode Island Hospital ... Objective: To determine baseline level of knowledge of esophageal cancer in ... studies of esophageal cancer in Africa have come ..... educating people of the community. A mobile endoscopy unit may ideally complement the current.

  10. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Sung-Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); O, Joo Hyun [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis.

  11. Candidial esophagitis - A marker for HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Kumar

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of AIDS manifested as candidial esophagitis. In addition , he had genital herpes, frequent diarrhoea, loss of weight and generalized lymphadenopathy. The diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopy. The patient died in 3 months due to unremitting diarrhoea. This importance of candidial esophagitis in a person at risk for developing AIDS is highlighted.

  12. Esophageal strictures during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kevin; Storey, Lorna; O' Sullivan, Maureen; Butler, Karina; McDermott, Michael; Corbally, Martin; McMahon, Corrina; Smith, Owen P; O' Marcaigh, Aengus

    2010-03-01

    Esophageal stricture is a rare complication of paediatric cancer treatment that usually occurs after esophageal exposure to radiotherapy. We describe 4 cases of esophageal stricture during chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. All patients presented with refractory vomiting and were diagnosed with radiologic contrast studies. None of the patients had received radiotherapy. Esophageal candidiasis was seen in 2 patients but the remaining 2 patients had earlier systemic candidiasis. High-dose dexamethasone may predispose these children to both esophageal candidiasis and peptic esophagitis. The etiology of esophageal strictures during treatment for acute leukemia is likely to be multifactorial but systemic candidiasis may play a significant role.

  13. Esophageal strictures during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    Esophageal stricture is a rare complication of paediatric cancer treatment that usually occurs after esophageal exposure to radiotherapy. We describe 4 cases of esophageal stricture during chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. All patients presented with refractory vomiting and were diagnosed with radiologic contrast studies. None of the patients had received radiotherapy. Esophageal candidiasis was seen in 2 patients but the remaining 2 patients had earlier systemic candidiasis. High-dose dexamethasone may predispose these children to both esophageal candidiasis and peptic esophagitis. The etiology of esophageal strictures during treatment for acute leukemia is likely to be multifactorial but systemic candidiasis may play a significant role.

  14. Association of a globus sensation with esophageal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Hiromi; Yoshifuku, Kousuke; Kurono, Yuichi

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the relationship between a globus sensation and esophageal diseases using upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The study population consisted of 52 consecutive patients (33 men, 19 women, age 46-94 years old) with a globus sensation without laryngeal and hypopharyngeal findings who were referred to the Department of Otolaryngology at Ooshima Prefecture Hospital. The subjects were examined by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Nineteen patients (36.5%) had esophageal disorder, including 10 cases of reflux esophagitis, 5 of esophageal candidiasis, 3 of esophageal cancer. and 1 of herpes and reflux esophagitis. Neither age nor duration of symptoms differed significantly between patients without an esophageal disorder and those with reflux esophagitis or esophageal candidiasis. The results suggest that examination for esophageal diseases is important in patients with a globus sensation without laryngeal and hypopharyngeal findings. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radioresistance of mesenchymal glioblastoma initiating cells correlates with patient outcome and is associated with activation of inflammatory program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzani, Elisabetta; Martínez-Soler, Fina; Mateos, Teresa Martín; Vidal, Noemi; Villanueva, Alberto; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Serra-Musach, Jordi; de la Iglesia, Núria; Giménez-Bonafé, Pepita; Tortosa, Avelina

    2017-09-26

    Glioblastoma (GBM) still remains an incurable disease being radiotherapy (RT) the mainstay treatment. Glioblastoma intra-tumoral heterogeneity and Glioblastoma-Initiating Cells (GICs) challenge the design of effective therapies. We investigated GICs and non-GICs response to RT in a paired in-vitro model and addressed molecular programs activated in GICs after RT. Established GICs heterogeneously expressed several GICs markers and displayed a mesenchymal signature. Upon fractionated RT, GICs reported higher radioresistance compared to non-GICs and showed lower α- and β-values, according to the Linear Quadratic Model interpretation of the survival curves. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between GICs radiosensitivity and patient disease-free survival. Transcriptome analysis of GICs after acquisition of a radioresistant phenotype reported significant activation of Proneural-to-Mesenchymal transition (PMT) and pro-inflammatory pathways, being STAT3 and IL6 the major players. Our findings support a leading role of mesenchymal GICs in defining patient response to RT and provide the grounds for targeted therapies based on the blockade of inflammatory pathways to overcome GBM radioresistance.

  16. The anti-esophageal cancer cell activity by a novel tyrosine/phosphoinositide kinase inhibitor PP121

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yi; Zhou, Yajuan [Department of Radiation and Medical Oncology, Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan 430071 (China); Cheng, Long [Department of Interventional Radiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Soochow University, Suzhou 215001 (China); Hu, Desheng; Zhou, Xiaoyi; Wang, Zhaohua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan 430071 (China); Xie, Conghua, E-mail: chxie_65@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation and Medical Oncology, Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhou, Fuxiang, E-mail: ZhouFuxiangwuhan@126.com [Department of Radiation and Medical Oncology, Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-09-11

    Here we explored the potential effect of PP121, a novel dual inhibitor of tyrosine and phosphoinositide kinases, against human esophageal cancer cells. We showed that PP121 exerted potent cytotoxic effect in primary (patient-derived) and established (Eca-109, TE-1 and TE-3 lines) esophageal cancer cells, possibly through activating caspase-3-dependnent apoptosis. PP121 was, however, non-cytotoxic to the normal human esophageal epithelial cells (EECs). At the molecular level, we showed that PP121 blocked Akt-mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) activation in esophageal cancer cells, which was restored by introducing a constitutively-active Akt (CA-Akt). Yet, CA-Akt only partly inhibited cytotoxicity by PP121 in Eca-109 cells. Importantly, we showed that PP121 inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) signaling activation in esophageal cancer cells, which appeared independent of Akt-mTOR blockage. In vivo, oral administration of PP121 remarkably inhibited Eca-109 xenograft growth in nude mice, and significantly improved mice survival. Further, the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot assays analyzing xenografted tumors showed that PP121 inhibited Akt-mTOR and NFκB activations in vivo. Together, we demonstrate that PP121 potently inhibits esophageal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, possibly through concurrently inhibiting Akt-mTOR and NFκB signalings. - Highlights: • PP121 is cytotoxic against primary and established esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 induces caspase-3-dependnent apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 blocks Akt-mTOR activation in esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 inhibits NFκB activation, independent of Akt-mTOR blockage. • PP121 inhibits Eca-109 xenograft growth and Akt-mTOR/NFκB activation in vivo.

  17. The management of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhawt, Matthew; Aceves, Seema S; Spergel, Jonathan M; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic, chronic esophageal inflammatory disease resistant to acid suppressive therapy and is associated with variable symptoms indicative of upper gastrointestinal dysfunction. Per current guidelines established by The International Group of Eosinophil Researchers (TIGERS), the diagnosis is made in symptomatic patients after a biopsy that confirms a peak eosinophil level of ≥15 eosinophils/high-powered field (HPF). The esophagus is distinguished by pronounced tissue eosinophilia in which dietary antigens are key inciting factors for disease pathogenesis; EoE being reversed by elimination of triggering food allergens suggests that the disease is mediated in part by allergic sensitization to foods. Moreover, experimental EoE in mice can be induced not only via food exposure but also via aeroallergen exposure. Consistent with an allergic etiology rather than an acid-induced esophagitis, swallowed glucocorticoids are effective for the treatment of EoE. Evaluation by an allergist is a recommended part of the diagnostic workup, especially for management of allergic comorbidities. Clinical practice for the evaluation of patients with EoE mainly relies on prick skin tests due to the ease and validation of these tests in the context of immediate hypersensitivity. However, both atopy patch testing and serum IgE testing have been used in EoE. Herein, we reviewed the basic clinical features of EoE with a focus on the approach to diagnosing causative food allergens and to dietary therapy. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Esophageal reconstruction for esophageal stricture after corrosive injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, C; Ogasawara, H; Tsuyu, M; Kakibuchi, M; Yamada, N; Nakai, Y; Yoshinaga, K; Sakagami, M

    1999-08-01

    Swallowing a corrosive agent (alkali or acid) often causes severe pharyngeal, laryngeal or esophageal stricture (caustic stenosis), which is usually very difficult to treat. This paper reports two cases of esophageal stricture treated by esophagoplasty. Both cases had attempted suicide by swallowing a sodium hydroxide solution or acid. Case 1 was a 66-year-old man found to have severe hypopharynx and thoracic esophagus stenosis with supraglottic stricture. The supraglottic stricture was reconstructed with an ileocolon graft and laryngectomy. The intestinal anastomosis was patent, but the peristaltic motion in the ileocolon was not good. The patient continues to have difficulty achieving sufficient oral feeding and to receive supplemental feeding via a jejunostomy. Case 2 was a 81-year-old woman with severe thoracic esophagus stenosis after gastrectomy. The lesion was reconstructed with a jejenum graft. The intestinal anastomosis was patent. She achieved oral alimentation of both liquids and solids without aspiration after surgery. Esophagectomy in these cases can be difficult and hazardous due to extensive fibrosis and many adhesions to adjacent structures. In both cases, the reconstructed intestine passed through the ante-sternal route, so there was severe scar formation in the mediastinum, and an esophago-skin fistula formed in the cervical skin. Cervical vessels and intestinal vessels were anastomosed for blood supply to the reconstructed intestinal tract. This method is useful because it is safe and results in good deglution.

  19. Association of esophageal candidiasis and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsing, C E; Bleeker-Rovers, C P; van de Veerdonk, F L; Tol, J; van der Meer, J W M; Kullberg, B J; Netea, M G

    2012-01-01

    Chronic esophageal candidiasis is an infection that is mostly seen in immunocompromised conditions, among which is chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Recently an association between CMC and esophageal carcinoma has been reported. Here we present two patients with chronic esophageal candidiasis who developed esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and we discuss the etiologic role of Candida-induced nitrosamine production, the loss of STAT1 function and impaired tumor surveillance and T-lymphocyte function in the development of esophageal carcinoma.

  20. Microbial radio-resistance of Salmonella Typhimurium in egg increases due to repetitive irradiation with electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesfai, Adiam T.; Beamer, Sarah K.; Matak, Kristen E. [West Virginia University, Division of Animal and Nutritional Sciences, PO Box 6108, Morgantown, WV 26508 (United States); Jaczynski, Jacek, E-mail: Jacek.Jaczynski@mail.wvu.ed [West Virginia University, Division of Animal and Nutritional Sciences, PO Box 6108, Morgantown, WV 26508 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Ionizing radiation improves food safety. However, foodborne pathogens develop increased resistance in response to sub-lethal stresses such as heat, pH, antibiotics, etc. Therefore, it is hypothesized that foodborne pathogens may develop increased radio-resistance to electron beam (e-beam) radiation. The objective was to determine if D{sub 10}-value for Salmonella Typhimurium in de-shelled raw egg (egg white and yolk mixed together) increases due to repetitive processing with e-beam at sub-lethal doses. Survivors were enumerated on non-selective (TSA) and selective (XLD) media. Survivors from the highest dose were isolated and used in subsequent e-beam cycle. This process was repeated four times for a total of five e-beam cycles. D{sub 10}-values for S. Typhimurium enumerated on TSA and XLD following each e-beam cycle were calculated as inverse reciprocal of the slope of survivor curves. D{sub 10}-values for the ATCC strain were 0.59{+-}0.031 and 0.46{+-}0.022 kGy on TSA and XLD, respectively. However, following the fifth e-beam cycle, the respective D{sub 10}-values increased (P<0.05) to 0.69{+-}0.026 and 0.61{+-}0.029 kGy, respectively. S. Typhimurium showed a trend (P>0.05) to develop radio-resistance faster on selective media, likely due to facilitated selection of radio-resistant cells within microbial population following each e-beam cycle. For all five e-beam cycles, S. Typhimurium had higher (P<0.05) D{sub 10}-values on non-selective media, indicating that sub-lethal injury followed by cellular repair and recovery are important for radio-resistance and inactivation of this microorganism. This study demonstrated that e-beam efficiently inactivates S. Typhimurium in raw egg; however, similar to other inactivation techniques and factors affecting microbial growth, S. Typhimurium develops increased radio-resistance if repetitively processed with e-beam at sub-lethal doses.

  1. Nanomedicine to overcome radioresistance in glioblastoma stem-like cells and surviving clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séhédic, Delphine; Cikankowitz, Annabelle; Hindré, François; Davodeau, François; Garcion, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the standard treatments for glioblastoma, but its effectiveness often encounters the phenomenon of radioresistance. This resistance was recently attributed to distinct cell contingents known as glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) and dominant clones. It is characterized in particular by the activation of signaling pathways and DNA repair mechanisms. Recent advances in the field of nanomedicine offer new possibilities for radiosensitizing these cell populations. Several strategies have been developed in this direction, the first consisting of encapsulating a contrast agent or synthesizing metal-based nanocarriers to concentrate the dose gradient at the level of the target tissue. In the second strategy the physicochemical properties of the vectors are used to encapsulate a wide range of pharmacological agents which act in synergy with the ionizing radiation to destroy the cancerous cells. This review reports on the various molecular anomalies present in GSCs and the predominant role of nanomedicines in the development of radiosensitization strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. First proof of bismuth oxide nanoparticles as efficient radiosensitisers on highly radioresistant cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Callum; Konstantinov, Konstantin; McKinnon, Sally; Guatelli, Susanna; Lerch, Michael; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Tehei, Moeava; Corde, Stéphanie

    2016-11-01

    This study provides the first proof of the novel application of bismuth oxide as a radiosensitiser. It was shown that on the highly radioresistant 9L gliosarcoma cell line, bismuth oxide nanoparticles sensitise to both kilovoltage (kVp) or megavoltage (MV) X-rays radiation. 9L cells were exposed to a concentration of 50μg.mL -1 of nanoparticle before irradiation at 125kVp and 10MV. Sensitisation enhancement ratios of 1.48 and 1.25 for 125kVp and 10MV were obtained in vitro, respectively. The radiation enhancement of the nanoparticles is postulated to be a combination of the high Z nature of the bismuth (Z=83), and the surface chemistry. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to elucidate the physical interactions between the incident radiation and the nanoparticle. The results of this work show that Bi 2 O 3 nanoparticles increase the radiosensitivity of 9L gliosarcoma tumour cells for both kVp and MV energies. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate the advantage of a platelet morphology. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phosphorylation of Deinococcus radiodurans RecA Regulates Its Activity and May Contribute to Radioresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpurohit, Yogendra S; Bihani, Subhash C; Waldor, Matthew K; Misra, Hari S

    2016-08-05

    Deinococcus radiodurans has a remarkable capacity to survive exposure to extreme levels of radiation that cause hundreds of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). DSB repair in this bacterium depends on its recombinase A protein (DrRecA). DrRecA plays a pivotal role in both extended synthesis-dependent strand annealing and slow crossover events of DSB repair during the organism's recovery from DNA damage. The mechanisms that control DrRecA activity during the D. radiodurans response to γ radiation exposure are unknown. Here, we show that DrRecA undergoes phosphorylation at Tyr-77 and Thr-318 by a DNA damage-responsive serine threonine/tyrosine protein kinase (RqkA). Phosphorylation modifies the activity of DrRecA in several ways, including increasing its affinity for dsDNA and its preference for dATP over ATP. Strand exchange reactions catalyzed by phosphorylated versus unphosphorylated DrRecA also differ. In silico analysis of DrRecA structure support the idea that phosphorylation can modulate crucial functions of this protein. Collectively, our findings suggest that phosphorylation of DrRecA enables the recombinase to selectively use abundant dsDNA substrate present during post-irradiation recovery for efficient DSB repair, thereby promoting the extraordinary radioresistance of D. radiodurans. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Phosphorylation of Deinococcus radiodurans RecA Regulates Its Activity and May Contribute to Radioresistance*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpurohit, Yogendra S.; Bihani, Subhash C.; Waldor, Matthew K.; Misra, Hari S.

    2016-01-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans has a remarkable capacity to survive exposure to extreme levels of radiation that cause hundreds of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). DSB repair in this bacterium depends on its recombinase A protein (DrRecA). DrRecA plays a pivotal role in both extended synthesis-dependent strand annealing and slow crossover events of DSB repair during the organism's recovery from DNA damage. The mechanisms that control DrRecA activity during the D. radiodurans response to γ radiation exposure are unknown. Here, we show that DrRecA undergoes phosphorylation at Tyr-77 and Thr-318 by a DNA damage-responsive serine threonine/tyrosine protein kinase (RqkA). Phosphorylation modifies the activity of DrRecA in several ways, including increasing its affinity for dsDNA and its preference for dATP over ATP. Strand exchange reactions catalyzed by phosphorylated versus unphosphorylated DrRecA also differ. In silico analysis of DrRecA structure support the idea that phosphorylation can modulate crucial functions of this protein. Collectively, our findings suggest that phosphorylation of DrRecA enables the recombinase to selectively use abundant dsDNA substrate present during post-irradiation recovery for efficient DSB repair, thereby promoting the extraordinary radioresistance of D. radiodurans. PMID:27255712

  5. Effect of individual and group housing of mice on the level of radioresistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorozhkina O.V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to examine the effect of individual and group housing of mice on radioresistance. Material and methods. Effects of individual and group housing of mice on immunity and blood systems were studied on ICR (CD-1 and C57BI6 male mice before and after proton irradiation. Results. Group housing of intact animals resulted in a decline in the number of nucleated cells in the femur bone marrow and thymus mass. The irradiation with proton with energy of 171 MeV at a dose of 1 Gy causes a statistically significant greater reduction of the number of nucleated cells in the femur bone marrow in group-housed mice. A trend toward greater safety of the number of leukocytes in the peripheral blood and higher proliferative activity of bone marrow cells, as well as lower level of aberrant mitoses have been noted in individually-housed mice. Reduction processes in the recovery period of radiation sickness take place at a greater rate in group-housed mice. Conclusion. Group housing of male mice causes increased sensitivity of the blood and immunity systems to the effects of radiation and at the same time accelerates processes of radiation recovery.

  6. Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes as Carriers of Ruthenium Complexes to Antagonize Cancer Multidrug Resistance and Radioresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ni; Feng, Yanxian; Zeng, Lilan; Zhao, Zhennan; Chen, Tianfeng

    2015-07-15

    Multidrug resistance and radioresistance are major obstacles for successful cancer therapy. Due to the unique characteristics of high surface area, improved cellular uptake, and the possibility to be easily bound with therapeutics, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted increasing attention as potential nanodrug delivery systems. In this study, a CNT-based radiosensitive nanodrug delivery system was rationally designed to antagonize the multidrug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma. The nanosystem was loaded with a potent anticancer ruthenium polypyridyl complex (RuPOP) via π-π interaction and formation of a hydrogen bond. The functionalized nanosystem (RuPOP@MWCNTs) enhanced the cellular uptake of RuPOP in liver cancer cells, especially drug-resistant R-HepG2 cells, through endocytosis. Consistently, the selective cellular uptake endowed the nanosystem amplified anticancer efficacy against R-HepG2 cells but not in normal cells. Interestingly, RuPOP@MWCNTs significantly enhanced the anticancer efficacy of clinically used X-ray against R-HepG2 cells through induction of apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, with the involvement of ROS overproduction, which activated several downstream signaling pathways, including DNA damage-mediated p53 phosphorylation, activation of p38, and inactivation of AKT and ERK. Moreover, the nanosystem also effectively reduces the toxic side effects of loaded drugs and prolongs the blood circulation in vivo. Taken together, the results demonstrate the rational design of functionalized carbon nanotubes and their application as effective nanomedicine to overcome cancer multidrug resistance.

  7. A Sequence Variant in the Phospholipase C Epsilon C2 Domain Is Associated With Esophageal Carcinoma and Esophagitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Li-Dong; Bi, Xiuli; Song, Xin; Pohl, Nicole M.; Cheng, Yulan; Zhou, Yixing; Shears, Stephen; Ansong, Emmanuel; XING, MENGTAO; Wang, Shaomeng; Xu, Xiao-Chun; Huang, Peng; Xu, Liyan; Wang, Liang; Fan,Zongmin

    2013-01-01

    A single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs2274223: A5780G:His1927Arg) in the phospholipase C epsilon gene (PLCε) was recently identified as a susceptibility locus for esophageal cancer in Chinese subjects. To determine the underlying mechanisms of PLCε and this SNP in esophageal carcinogenesis, we analyzed PLCε genotypes, expression, and their correlation in esophageal cancer cell lines, non-transformed esophageal cells, 58 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and 10,614 non-cancer subjects from Chi...

  8. The potential of photodynamic therapy to treat esophageal candidiasis coexisting with esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Haixia; Mao, Yongping; Gu, Ying; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Ying; Zeng, Jing; Huang, Naiyan; Liu, Qingsen; Yang, Yunsheng

    2014-01-05

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used in recent years to deal with fungal infections because of the prevalence of fungi resistance to drugs. However, PDT for gastrointestinal fungal infection has not been reported. This study was conducted to assess the potential of PDT to deal with esophageal candidiasis. Two male patients with histological evidence of esophageal candidiasis coexisting with esophageal cancer were included in this retrospective study. Both patients were treated with PDT. This treatment was repeated at least 1month after the initial PDT if the patient still had residual cancer or esophageal candidiasis. Short-term efficacy was evaluated on the basis of endoscopy and histology findings. Further follow-up data were obtained from endoscopy results or telephone conversation. The esophageal candidiasis located 21-24cm and 25-28cm from the incisors of case 1 reached complete remission after one and two PDT sessions, respectively. The esophageal cancer coexisting with esophageal candidiasis located 21-24cm from the incisors reached complete remission after two PDT sessions. No recurrence was found at a 14-month follow-up. The esophageal cancer located 30-35cm from the incisors reached partial response after three PDT sessions. Both of the esophageal candidiasis and the coexisting esophageal cancer at 23-26cm from the incisors of case 2 reached complete remission and the esophageal cancer at 34-37cm from the incisors reached complete remission after one PDT session. No recurrence was found at a 24-month follow-up. There were no serious adverse events found in either of the two cases. Results of this preliminary study indicate that PDT may be a potential method to deal with esophageal candidiasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. MAST CELLS DISTINGUISH EOSINOPHILIC ESOPHAGITIS IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizete Aparecida LOMAZI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Mast cells exert a substantial role in gastrointestinal allergic diseases. Therefore, it is reasonable to presume that mast cell may aid diagnosis in eosinophilic gastroenteropathy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether mast cell count in the esophageal epithelium can discriminate eosinophilic esophagitis, proton-pump inhibitor (PPI-responsive eosinophilic esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux esophagitis. METHODS: Retrospectively we reviewed the files of 53 consecutive patients (age: 7.8 years; range: 8-14 years with definitive diagnose established during clinical follow up in a universitary outpatient clinic as follow: eosinophilic esophagitis (N=23, PPI-responsive eosinophilic esophagitis (N=15 and gastroesophageal reflux esophagitis (N=15. Eosinophil count in the esophageal epithelium in slides stained with H-E was reviewed and immunohistochemistry for mast cell tryptase was performed. RESULTS: Count of eosinophils/high-power field (HPF higher than 15 were found in 14 out of 15 reflux esophagitis patients. The mean count of eosinophils/HPF was similar in eosinophilic esophagitis patients and in those with PPI-responsive eosinophilic esophagitis (42 and 39 eosinophils/HPF, respectively, P=0.47. Values of mast cell tryptase (+ were higher in eosinophilic esophagitis [median: 25 mast cells/HPF; range (17-43 ] and in PPI-responsive eosinophilic esophagitis patients [25 (16-32 ], compared to reflux esophagitis [4 (2-14 ], P<0.001. There was no difference between the mean count of mast cells/HPF in the esophageal epithelium of eosinophilic esophagitis patients and PPI-responsive eosinophilic esophagitis patients, respectively, 26 and 24 mast cells/HPF, P=0.391. CONCLUSION: Tryptase staining of mast cells differentiates eosinophilic esophagitis from reflux esophagitis.

  10. Management of Malnutrition in Esophageal Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Juan Xu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of malnutrition in patients with esophageal cancer is estimated to be as high as 78.9%. Malnutrition in esophageal cancer is significantly correlated with an increased risk of treatment toxicity and postoperative complications. It is therefore important to maintain an optimal nutritional status, particularly during the course of neoadjuvant chemoradiation. This article aims to review the mechanism, evaluation, and management strategies of malnutrition for patients with esophageal cancer. The optimal management strategy involved both non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches. We hope that by increasing awareness among professionals, early detection and timely intervention could lead to improved care.

  11. Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Flemming Holbæk; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The esophagus serves to transport food and fluid from the pharynx to the stomach. Manometry has been the "golden standard" for the diagnosis of esophageal motility diseases for many decades. Hence, esophageal function is normally evaluated by means of manometry even though it reflects the squeeze...... force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external...

  12. Esophageal Metastasis From Occult Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Kuei Hsu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A 66-year-old man with dysphagia was found to have a poorly differentiated esophageal carcinoma by incision biopsy. Following esophagectomy, reconstruction with a gastric tube was performed. Pathological examination and immunohisto-chemistry showed infiltration of adenocarcinoma cells with positive thyroid transcription factor 1-staining in the submucosal layer, which indicated metastatic esophageal carcinoma. Although no pulmonary lesion could be visualized by imaging or bronchoscopy, pulmonary origin was highly suspected as a result of positive thyroid transcription factor 1-staining. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of metastatic esophageal carcinoma from occult lung cancer (AJCC TNM stage TX.

  13. The incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer and their relationship to development in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakzad, Reza; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Khosravi, Bahman; Soltani, Shahin; Pakzad, Iraj; Mohammadian, Mahdi; Momenimovahed, Zohre

    2016-01-01

    Background Esophageal cancer is the most common cancer in less developed countries. It is necessary to understand epidemiology of the cancer for planning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and mortality of esophageal cancer, and its relationship with Human Development Index (HDI) and its components in Asia in 2012. Methods This study was an Ecological study, which conducted based on GLOBOCAN project of WHO for Asian counters. We assess the correlation between standardized incidence rates (SIR) and standardized mortality rates (SMR) of esophageal cancer with HDI and its components with using of SPSS18. Results A total of 337,698 incidence (70.33% were males and 29.87% females. Sex ratio was 2.37) and 296,734 death (69.45% in men and 30.54% in women. The sex ratio was 2.27) esophageal cancer was recorded in Asian countries in 2012. Five countries with the highest SIR and SMR of esophageal cancer were Turkmenistan, Mongolia and Tajikistan, Bangladesh and China respectively. Correlation between HDI and SIR was −0.211 (P=0.159), in men −0.175 (P=0.244) and in women −0.231 (P=0.123). Also between HDI and SMR −0.250 (P=0.094) in men −0.226 (P=0.131) and in women −0.251 (P=0.037). Conclusions The incidence of esophageal cancer is more in less developed and developing countries. Statistically significant correlation was not found between standardized incidence and mortality rates of esophageal cancer, and HDI and its dimensions, except for life expectancy at birth. PMID:26889482

  14. Proteomic profiling of fetal esophageal epithelium, esophageal cancer, and tumor-adjacent esophageal epithelium and immunohistochemical characterization of a representative differential protein, PRX6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun-Hui; Xing, Guo-Lan; Fang, Xin-Hui; Wu, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Jin-Zhong; Fan, Zong-Min; Wang, Li-Dong

    2017-01-01

    AIM To understand the molecular mechanism of esophageal cancer development and provide molecular markers for screening high-risk populations and early diagnosis. METHODS Two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry were adopted to screen differentially expressed proteins in nine cases of fetal esophageal epithelium, eight cases of esophageal cancer, and eight cases of tumor-adjacent normal esophageal epithelium collected from fetuses of different gestational age, or esophageal cancer patients from a high-risk area of esophageal cancer in China. Immunohistochemistry (avidin-biotin-horseradish peroxidase complex method) was used to detect the expression of peroxiredoxin (PRX)6 in 91 cases of esophageal cancer, tumor-adjacent normal esophageal tissue, basal cell hyperplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ, as well as 65 cases of esophageal epithelium from fetuses at a gestational age of 3-9 mo. RESULTS After peptide mass fingerprint analysis and search of protein databases, 21 differential proteins were identified; some of which represent a protein isoform. Varying degrees of expression of PRX6 protein, which was localized mainly in the cytoplasm, were detected in adult and fetal normal esophageal tissues, precancerous lesions, and esophageal cancer. With the progression of esophageal lesions, PRX6 protein expression showed a declining trend (P < 0.05). In fetal epithelium from fetuses at gestational age 3-6 mo, PRX6 protein expression showed a declining trend with age (P < 0.05). PRX6 protein expression was significantly higher in well-differentiated esophageal cancer tissues than in poorly differentiated esophageal cancer tissues (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Development and progression of esophageal cancer result from interactions of genetic changes (accumulation or superposition). PRX6 protein is associated with fetal esophageal development and cancer differentiation. PMID:28293090

  15. Prevalence of reflux esophagitis among patients undergoing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed Gado

    2013-10-25

    steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs and 8 (2%) were consuming alcohol. The duration of RS ranged from one. Abbreviations: GERD, gastro-esophageal reflux disease; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; RS, reflux ...

  16. Herpetic esophagitis: An uncommon cause of dysphagia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rinkesh K Bansal; Piyush Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex esophagitis usually occurs in immune-compromised patients. We report a case of 44 year-old lady without any immune deficient state, who presented with dysphagia and retrosternal pain...

  17. Esophageal transit scintigraphy in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnowski, Marek; Kobylecka, Małgorzata; Olesińska, Marzena

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a rare connective tissue disease, distinctive features of which are fibrosis and microangiopathy. The esophagus is one of the most commonly involved internal organs. Most patients experience dysphagia, difficulties in swallowing and gastro-esophageal reflux. However, in up to one third of cases, the initial onset of esophageal disease may be clinically silent. There are several diagnostic modalities available for assessing both morphological and functional abnormalities of the esophagus. If structural abnormalities are suspected, endoscopy is the method of choice. Functional evaluation is best achieved with manometry. Both endoscopy and manometry are invasive techniques, with low patient acceptance. Barium-contrast study is well tolerated, but qualitative assessment of functional abnormalities is imprecise. Esophageal scintigraphy is an easy, non-invasive, sensitive and specific diagnostic modality. It can detect esophageal dysfunction even in asymptomatic patients. In patients already diagnosed with systemic sclerosis, scintigraphy is useful in evaluating severity and progression of the disease.

  18. Regenerative Medicine Strategies for Esophageal Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Pathologies that involve the structure and/or function of the esophagus can be life-threatening. The esophagus is a complex organ comprising nonredundant tissue that does not have the ability to regenerate. Currently available interventions for esophageal pathology have limited success and are typically associated with significant morbidity. Hence, there is currently an unmet clinical need for effective methods of esophageal repair. The present article presents a review of esophageal disease along with the anatomic and functional consequences of each pathologic process, the shortcomings associated with currently available therapies, and the latest advancements in the field of regenerative medicine with respect to strategies for esophageal repair from benchtop to bedside. PMID:25813694

  19. Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EE) or (EoE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just for Kids Library School Tools Videos Virtual ... reintroduction of foods to your diet. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Environmental Allergies Environmental allergies to substances such as dust ...

  20. Mid-esophageal ulceration and candidiasis-associated distal esophagitis as two distinct clinical patterns of tetracycline or doxycycline-induced esophageal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencosmanoglu, Rasim; Kurtkaya-Yapicier, Ozlem; Tiftikci, Arzu; Avsar, Erol; Tozun, Nurdan; Oran, Ebru Sen

    2004-07-01

    Tetracyclines may cause esophageal injury. The aims of this study are to describe 2 distinct clinical patterns of esophageal injury induced by tetracycline or its derivate doxycycline and to compare these patterns with respect to demographic, endoscopic, and clinical characteristics of the patients. Forty-eight patients with the diagnosis of doxycycline- or tetracycline-induced esophageal injury by endoscopy were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were considered in 2 groups according to the type and the location of esophageal lesions (Group A: mid-esophageal ulceration, n = 18; Group B: distal esophagitis, n = 30). Patients in Group A were significantly younger than in Group B (P = 0.0014). In Group A, 15 patients (83%) had single ulceration, 2 (11%) double, and 1 (6%) circumferential at the mid-esophagus. In Group B, all patients had multiple micro-ulcerations in the distal esophagus. Development of mid-esophageal ulceration was induced predominantly by doxycycline, whereas distal esophagitis was induced by tetracycline. The description of drug ingestion with little or no water by patients in Group A was significantly more frequent than in Group B (94% vs. 10%, P esophageal candidiasis were significantly more frequent in Group B (P = 0.006, P esophageal injury because mid-esophageal ulceration seems to be more frequently associated with doxycycline and distal esophagitis with or without candidiasis with tetracycline.

  1. Temporary esophageal stenting allows healing of esophageal perforations following atrial fibrillation ablation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, T Jared; Nelson, Jennifer; Foley, Tom; Allison, Scott; Crandall, Brian G; Osborn, Jeffrey S; Weiss, J Peter; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Nielsen, Peter; Anderson, Lars; Lappe, Donald L; Day, John D

    2006-04-01

    Left atrial catheter ablation (LACA) has emerged as a successful method to eliminate atrial fibrillation (AF). Recent reports have described atrio-esophageal fistulas, often resulting in death, from this procedure. Temporary esophageal stenting is an established therapy for malignant esophageal disease. We describe the first case of successful temporary esophageal stenting for an esophageal perforation following LACA. A 48-year-old man with symptomatic drug refractory lone AF underwent an uneventful LACA. Fifty-nine ablations with an 8-mm tip ablation catheter (30 seconds, 70 Watts, 55 degrees C), as guided by 3-D NavX mapping, were performed in the left atrium to isolate the pulmonary veins as well as a left atrial flutter and roof ablation line. In addition, complex atrial electrograms in AF and sites of vagal innervation were ablated. Two weeks later, he presented with sub-sternal chest pain, fever, and dysphagia. A chest CT showed a 3-mm esophageal perforation at the level of the left atrium with mediastinal soiling and no pericardial effusion. An urgent upper endoscopy with placement of a PolyFlex removable esophageal stent to seal off the esophago-mediastinal fistula was performed. After 3 weeks of i.v. antibiotics, naso-jejunal tube feedings, and esophageal stenting, the perforation resolved and the stent was removed. Over 18 months of follow-up, there have been no other complications, and he has returned to a physically active life and remains free from AF on previously ineffective anti-arrhythmic drugs. Early diagnosis of esophageal perforations following LACA may allow temporary esophageal stenting with successful esophageal healing. Prompt chest CT scans with oral and i.v. contrast should be considered in any patient with sub-sternal chest pain or dysphagia following LACA.

  2. Herpetic esophagitis: An uncommon cause of dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinkesh K Bansal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex esophagitis usually occurs in immune-compromised patients. We report a case of 44 year-old lady without any immune deficient state, who presented with dysphagia and retrosternal pain. Upper GI endoscopy revealed multiple punched out ulcers in esophagus. Biopsy from these ulcers revealed intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies and multinucleated epithelial giant cells suggestive of herpetic esophagitis. Serum HSV-1 IgM antibodies was positive. Dysphagia improved on treatment with acyclovir.

  3. Esophageal Metastasis From Occult Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Po-Kuei; Shai, Sen-Ei; Wang, John; Hsu, Chung-Ping

    2010-01-01

    A 66-year-old man with dysphagia was found to have a poorly differentiated esophageal carcinoma by incision biopsy. Following esophagectomy, reconstruction with a gastric tube was performed. Pathological examination and immunohisto-chemistry showed infiltration of adenocarcinoma cells with positive thyroid transcription factor 1-staining in the submucosal layer, which indicated metastatic esophageal carcinoma. Although no pulmonary lesion could be visualized by imaging or bronchoscopy, pulmon...

  4. Phase-contrast X-ray CT imaging of esophagus and esophageal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfa; Tian, Dongping; Lin, Runhua; Zhou, Guangzhao; Peng, Guanyun; Su, Min

    2014-06-18

    The electron density resolution is 1000 times higher for synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast CT imaging than conventional X-ray absorption imaging in light elements, with which high-resolution X-ray imaging of biological soft tissue can be achieved. In the present study, we used phase-contrast X-ray CT to investigate human resected esophagus and esophageal carcinoma specimens. This technology revealed the three-layer structure of the esophageal wall-- mucous, submucosa and muscular layers. The mucous and muscular layers were clearly separated by a loose submucosa layer with a honeycomb appearance. The surface of the mucous layer was smooth. In esophageal carcinoma, because of tumor tissue infiltration, the submucosa layer was absent, which indicated destruction of the submucosa. The boundary between normal tissue and tumor was comparatively fuzzy, the three-layer structure of the esophageal wall was indistinct. The surface of the mucous layer was rugose. The technology might be helpful in tumor staging of esophageal carcinoma.

  5. Cost-benefit analysis of screening for esophageal and gastric cardiac cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wen-Qiang; Yang, Chun-Xia; Lu, Si-Han; Yang, Juan; Li, Bian-Yun; Lian, Shi-Yong; Qiao, You-Lin

    2011-03-01

    In 2005, a program named "Early Detection and Early Treatment of Esophageal and Cardiac Cancer" (EDETEC) was initiated in China. A total of 8279 residents aged 40-69 years old were recruited into the EDETEC program in Linzhou of Henan Province between 2005 and 2008. Howerer, the cost-benefit of the EDETEC program is not very clear yet. We conducted herein a cost-benefit analysis of screening for esophageal and cardiac cancer. The assessed costs of the EDETEC program included screening costs for each subject, as well as direct and indirect treatment costs for esophageal and cardiac severe dysplasia and cancer detected by screening. The assessed benefits of this program included the saved treatment costs, both direct and indirect, on esophageal and cardiac cancer, as well as the value of prolonged life due to screening, as determined by the human capital approach. The results showed the screening cost of finding esophageal and cardiac severe dysplasia or cancer ranged from RMB 2707 to RMB 4512, and the total cost on screening and treatment was RMB 13 115-14 920. The cost benefit was RMB 58 944-155 110 (the saved treatment cost, RMB 17 730, plus the value of prolonged life, RMB 41 214-137 380). The ratio of benefit-to-cost (BCR) was 3.95-11.83. Our results suggest that EDETEC has a high benefit-to-cost ratio in China and could be instituted into high risk areas of China.

  6. CT findings of esophageal schwannoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Man Ho; Ryu, Dae Shick; Eom, Dae Woon; Shin, Dong Rock; Choi, Soo Jung; Ahn, Jae Hong; Park, Man Soo; Yoo, Dong Kon [Gangneung Asan Hospital, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Esophageal schwannomas are a relative rare benign neoplasm that usually occurs in the upper esophagus, in the middle aged women. We report a case of a 67-year-old man with a lower esophageal schwannoma. This lesion was composed of homogenous density, iso-attenuating with the chest wall muscle on pre- and post-contrast chest computed tomography (CT). The CT findings of the esophageal schwannoma are similar to those of esophageal leiomyoma. Hense, esophageal schwannoma may be a differential diagnosis with esophageal leiomyoma.

  7. [Radioresistance mechanisms of side population cells in mouse melanoma cell line B16].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchuk, O N; Zamulaeva, I A; Kovalev, O A; Saenko, A S

    2013-01-01

    As it was shown by us earlier, side population (SP) cells are more resistant to the low-LET radiation than the other part of mouse melanoma B16 cells (Matchuk et al., 2012). The aim of our research was finding some mechanisms of radioresistance, therefore we analyzed SP and nonSP cell cycle distribution, spontaneous and radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks (number of γH2AX foci) and intracellular NO concentration. The results indicate that SP cells have significantly less DNA double-strand breaks after irradiation at dose of 3 Gy than nonSP cells (24.4 vs 40.3, accordingly, P < 0.05 Mann-Whitney Ucriterion). SP cells are more quiescent compared to nonSP G1/G0 fraction is 85 vs 39%, accordingly, P < 0.01 Mann-Whitney U criterion). Most nonSP cells reside in S, G2/M phases (61%), believed to be rather radiosensitive. Thus, the difference of SP and nonSP cells radiosensitivity can be partly explained by peculiarities of cell cycle distribution. NO concentration is 1.5 times higher in SP than nonSP cells (P < 0.05 Mann-Whitney U criterion); since it is known that NO inhibits apoptosis, being one of the mechanisms of genetic stability maintenance, greater number of spontaneous DNA double-strand breaks in SP cells is unsurprising (P < 0.05 Mann-Whitney U criterion). The above-listed results explain considerably the higher resistance of SP cells to the action of low-LET radiation in comparison with other melanoma B16 cells. Further study of this question can become the basis for development of tools to target SP cells and, ultimately, more effective cancer treatment.

  8. Critical analysis of salvage radical prostatectomy in the management of radioresistant prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seabra, Daniel; Faria, Eliney; Dauster, Breno; Rodrigues, Gunther; Fava, Gilberto [Pio XII Foundation, Barretos, SP (Brazil). Section of Urology], e-mail: daniel.seabra@terra.com.br

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: To critically evaluate salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP) in the treatment of patients with recurrent prostate cancer (PCa). Materials and Methods: From January 2005 to June 2007, we assessed patients with recurrent localized PCa. Recurrence was suspected when there were three or more successive increases in prostate specific antigen (PSA) after nadir. After the routine imagery examinations, and once localized PCa was confirmed, patients were offered SRP. Following surgery, we evaluated bleeding, rectal injury, urinary incontinence or obstruction and impotence. PSA values were measured at 1, 3, 6, months and thereafter twice a year. Results: Forty-two patients underwent SRP. The average age was 61 years. Following radiotherapy , the mean PSA nadir was 1.5 ng/mL (0.57-5.5). The mean prostate specific antigen doubling time (PSA-DT) was 14 months (6-20). Prior to SRP, the mean PSA was 5.7 ng/mL (2.9-18). The pathologic staging was pT2a: 13%; pT2b: 34%; pT2c: 27%; pT3a: 13%; and pT3b: 13%. Bleeding > 600 mL occurred in 14% of the cases; urethral stenosis in 50%; and urinary incontinence (two or more pads/day) in 72%. The mean follow-up post-SRP ranged from 6 to 30 months. The PSA level rose in 9, of which 6 had PSA-DT < 10 months. Conclusions: SRP is a feasible method in the management of localized radioresistant PCa. PSA-DT has shown to be important for the selection and SRP should not be performed if PSA-DT > 10 months. Due to its increased morbidity, SRP should be only offered to the patients who are more concerned about survival rather than quality of life. (author)

  9. Managing eosinophilic esophagitis: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah NA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nisha A Shah, Dustin M Albert, Noah M Hall, Fouad J Moawad Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology Service, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA Abstract: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE is a chronic and progressive immune-mediated condition defined by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and dense eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa. Therapies consist of anti-eosinophilic medications and specialized diets aimed to decrease the progression of EoE and alleviate its symptoms, namely, dysphagia and food impaction. Assessing response to therapy remains challenging, as treatment end points are not well defined and currently consist of clinical, histologic, and endoscopic features. Newer validated measures may help standardize treatment end points. Emerging data support the use of maintenance therapy, which may reduce disease progression. Optimal dosages, delivery techniques, and duration of treatment need to be determined. When features of fibrostenosis develop, esophageal dilation is a safe and effective adjunctive strategy for improving symptoms. In EoE cases refractory to conventional treatments, newer therapies targeting inflammatory mediators and cytokines are on the horizon. Keywords: eosinophilic esophagitis, esophagitis, eosinophilia, dysphagia, allergy, corticosteroids, dietary treatment, dilation 

  10. Esophageal Intramural Pseudodiverticulosis: A Rare Endoscopic Finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Lopes de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old woman, presenting with a 4-year history of progressive dysphagia, was submitted to endoscopic examination. The upper endoscopy revealed a proximal esophageal stricture and inflammatory mucosa associated with multiples small orifices in the esophageal wall, some of them fulfilled with white spots suggestive of fungal infection. This was a typical endoscopic finding of esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis, a benign and rare condition, related to chronic esophagitis and others comorbid states, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease or infectious esophagitis, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, and achalasia. Dysphagia is the predominant symptom and can be accompanied by esophageal stricture in 80% to 90% of patients. The pathogenesis is unknown, and as the pseudodiverticulosis is an intramural finding, endoscopy biopsies are inconclusive. The main histological finding is dilation of the submucosal glands excretory ducts, probably obstructed by inflammatory cells. The treatment consists in management of the underlying diseases and symptoms relief. In this particular case, the patient was submitted to antifungal drugs followed by endoscopic dilation with thermoplastic bougies, with satisfactory improvement of dysphagia.

  11. Do large hiatal hernias affect esophageal peristalsis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Sabine; Kahrilas, Peter J; Kia, Leila; Luger, Daniel; Soper, Nathaniel; Pandolfino, John E

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aim Large hiatal hernias can be associated with a shortened or tortuous esophagus. We hypothesized that these anatomic changes may alter esophageal pressure topography (EPT) measurements made during high-resolution manometry (HRM). Our aim was to compare EPT measures of esophageal motility in patients with large hiatal hernias to those of patients without hernia. Methods Among 2000 consecutive clinical EPT, we identified 90 patients with large (>5 cm) hiatal hernias on endoscopy and at least 7 evaluable swallows on EPT. Within the same database a control group without hernia was selected. EPT was analyzed for lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure, Distal Contractile Integral (DCI), contraction amplitude, Contractile Front Velocity (CFV) and Distal Latency time (DL). Esophageal length was measured on EPT from the distal border of upper esophageal sphincter to the proximal border of the LES. EPT diagnosis was based on the Chicago Classification. Results The manometry catheter was coiled in the hernia and did not traverse the crural diaphragm in 44 patients (49%) with large hernia. Patients with large hernias had lower average LES pressures, lower DCI, slower CFV and shorter DL than patients without hernia. They also exhibited a shorter mean esophageal length. However, the distribution of peristaltic abnormalities was not different in patients with and without large hernia. Conclusions Patients with large hernias had an alteration of EPT measurements as a consequence of the associated shortened esophagus. However, the distribution of peristaltic disorders was unaffected by the presence of hernia. PMID:22508779

  12. Systematic review: Eosinophilic esophagitis in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Ishimura, Norihisa; Oshima, Naoki; Ishihara, Shunji

    2015-07-21

    To investigate the prevalence and the clinical characteristics of Asian patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. We conducted a systematic search of the PubMed and Web of Science databases for original studies, case series, and individual case reports of eosinophilic esophagitis in Asian countries published from January 1980 to January 2015. We found 66 and 80 articles in the PubMed and Web of Science databases, respectively; 24 duplicate articles were removed. After excluding animal studies, articles not written in English, and meeting abstracts, 25 articles containing 217 patients were selected for analysis. Sample size-weighted mean values were determined for all pooled prevalence data and clinical characteristics. The mean age of the adult patients with eosinophilic esophagitis was approximately 50 years, and 73% of these patients were male. They frequently presented with allergic diseases including bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and atopic dermatitis. Bronchial asthma was the most frequent comorbid allergic disease, occurring in 24% of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. Dysphagia was the primary symptom reported; 44% of the patients complained of dysphagia. Although laboratory blood tests are not adequately sensitive for an accurate diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis, endoscopic examinations revealed abnormal findings typical of this disease, including longitudinal furrows and concentric rings, in 82% of the cases. One-third of the cases responded to proton pump inhibitor administration. The characteristics of eosinophilic esophagitis in Asian patients were similar to those reported in Western patients, indicating that this disease displays a similar pathogenesis between Western and Asian patients.

  13. Infrared light-absorbing gold/gold sulfide nanoparticles induce cell death in esophageal adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Gobin, Andre M; Dryden, Gerald W; Kang, Xinqin; Xiao, Deyi; Li, Su Ping; Zhang, Guandong; Martin, Robert CG

    2013-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles and near infrared-absorbing light are each innocuous to tissue but when combined can destroy malignant tissue while leaving healthy tissue unharmed. This study investigated the feasibility of photothermal ablation therapy for esophageal adenocarcinoma using chitosan-coated gold/gold sulfide (CS-GGS) nanoparticles. A rat esophagoduodenal anastomosis model was used for the in vivo ablation study, and three human esophageal cell lines were used to study the response of cancer cells and benign cells to near infrared light after treatment with CS-GGS. The results indicate that both cancerous tissue and cancer cells took up more gold nanoparticles and were completely ablated after exposure to near infrared light. The benign tissue and noncancerous cells showed less uptake of these nanoparticles, and remained viable after exposure to near infrared light. CS-GGS nanoparticles could provide an optimal endoluminal therapeutic option for near infrared light ablation of esophageal cancer. PMID:23818775

  14. Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stomach anatomy Esophagus References Falk GW, Katzka DA. Diseases of the esophagus. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap ... Gastroesophageal reflux disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. ...

  15. [Clinical Analysis of Esophageal Bypass Surgery with Nutritional Assessment in Patients with Unresectable Esophageal Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaki, Hiroshi; Fujii, Yoritaka; Fujita, Jun; Morioka, Emi; Kaida, Daisuke; Ohonishi, Toshio; Tomita, Yasuto; Noguchi, Miki; Fujita, Hideto; Kinami, Shinichi; Nakano, Yasuharu; Ueda, Nobuhiko; Kosaka, Takeo

    2015-11-01

    Esophageal bypass surgery is palliative surgery for unresectable esophageal cancer with esophageal stenosis, which often leads to poor nutrition. We investigated the clinical characteristics, nutritional status, and outcomes of patients who underwent esophageal bypass surgery. We reviewed 11 cases of esophageal bypass surgery for unresectable esophageal cancer performed in our hospital between 1992 and 2015, and we examined the surgical outcome along with preoperative nutritional assessment. There were 1, 9, and 1 cases of cStage Ⅲ, Ⅳa, and Ⅳb, respectively. For the bypass, a gastric tube was used in 8 cases and colon reconstruction in 3. Postoperative complications were 1 case of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (9%), 4 cases of anastomotic leakage (36%), and 4 cases of pneumonia (36%). The preoperative nutritional status (total protein, albumin, and cholinesterase levels) in the esophageal bypass group (n=11) was significantly worse than that in the esophagectomy group (n=40). The median survival of all patients (n=11) was 5.7 months. Patients receiving induction chemoradiotherapy followed by bypass surgery (n=7) had a median survival of 15.2 months. Since patients undergoing esophageal bypass surgery often present with malnutrition, attention to anastomotic leakage and infectious complications is necessary.

  16. Subtle lower esophageal sphincter relaxation abnormalities in patients with unexplained esophageal dysphagia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herregods, T. V. K.; van Hoeij, F. B.; Bredenoord, A. J.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2018-01-01

    Esophageal dysphagia is a relatively common symptom. We aimed to evaluate whether subtle, presently not acknowledged forms of dysfunction of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) could explain dysphagia in a subset of patients with normal findings at high-resolution manometry (HRM) according to the

  17. Cytochrome P450 levels are altered in patients with esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergheim, I.; Wolfgarten, E.; Bollschweiler, E.

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the carcinogenesis of squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) in human esophagus by determining expression patterns and protein levels of representative CYPs in esophageal tissue of patients with SCC and controls. METHODS: mRNA expression of CYP2E1...

  18. Space radiobiology and the new era of induced radioresistance: should traditional concepts be moved to science history museums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, S M J

    2013-01-01

    Energetic solar particle events (SPE) which are among the main sources of ionizing radiation can be life threatening to astronauts who are not adequately protected. To date, physical shielding of spacecrafts and inducing radioresistance by using radioprotectors have been proposed by different investigators. Mortazavi et al. have previously reported that screening of the candidates of long-term space missions by conducting Ground-based in vitro adaptive response studies before any mission identifies the individuals who respond well to low levels of ionizing radiation and reveal high magnitudes of radioadaptive response. On the other hand, Mortazavi et al. have recently showed that radiofrequency-induced adaptive response can be used as a method for decreasing the risk of infection caused by immunosuppression during deep space missions. Furthermore, over the past years the radioresistance induced by a wide variety of radioprotectors has been studied. According to classical radiobiology, chemical radioprotective agents must be administered before irradiation or at the time of irradiation, to increase the mean survival rate of the exposed individuals. A revolution in this paradigm was started in 2010, when investigators reported that a diet supplemented with antioxidants administered starting 24 h after total-body irradiation is more effective than if given soon after the exposure (radiation mitigation). This finding along with the above mentioned interventions open new horizons in inducing biological radioresistance against unpredictable high levels of radiation due to solar particle events. This wide time window indeed enables astronauts to firstly evaluate their radiation doses before making any decision on the type of intervention. As major solar particle events last for hours, astronauts will be able to consult distinguished radiation biologists via satellite telecommunication before choosing any medical intervention.

  19. Chronic xerostomia increases esophageal acid exposure and is associated with esophageal injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsten, M.A.; Rosman, A.S.; Fishbein, S.; Shlein, R.D.; Goldberg, H.E.; Biener, A. (Gastrointestinal Section, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bronx, New York (USA))

    1991-06-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chronic xerostomia on parameters of gastroesophageal reflux and esophagitis. DESIGN: Observational study of a cohort of male patients with xerostomia and age-matched control subjects. SETTING: Tertiary-care Veterans Affairs Medical Center. SUBJECTS: Sixteen male patients with chronic xerostomia secondary to radiation for head and neck cancers or medications. Nineteen age-matched male control subjects with comparable alcohol and smoking histories. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Esophageal motility was similar in patients with xerostomia and controls. Clearance of acid from the esophagus and 24-hour intraesophageal pH were markedly abnormal in patients with xerostomia. Symptoms and signs of esophagitis were significantly more frequent in subjects with xerostomia. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic xerostomia may predispose to esophageal injury, at least in part, by decreasing the clearance of acid from the esophagus and altering 24-hour intraesophageal pH. Esophageal injury is a previously unreported complication of long-term salivary deficiency.

  20. [Determination of hyperregeneratory esophagopathy in dogs with clinical signs attributable to esophageal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, M; Kook, P; Araujo, R; Hörauf, A; Vieth, M

    2015-01-01

    It was hypothesized that typical characteristics of hyperregeneratory esophagopathy (HRE) in humans such as basal cell hyperplasia and elongation of stromal papillae are also histologically detectable in canine esophageal epithelium, and that these changes are associated with clinical signs and endoscopic findings suggesting gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Sixty-five adult dogs with clinical signs attributable to esophageal disease underwent esophagoscopy and biopsy. Clinical signs suggesting GER (regurgitation, ptyalism, painful discomfort) were prospectively evaluated through a questionnaire. Endoscopic mucosal alterations suggesting GER such as minimal endoscopic changes and obvious mucosal defects were assessed via video endoscopy. Biopsy specimens obtained from the esophageal squamous epithelium were evaluated histologically. The squamous epithelium's substructures of esophageal biopsies were quantitatively assessed through microscopic morphometry. Esophageal squamous epithelium was considered normal in 48 dogs, and HRE was detected histologically in 17 dogs; both pathognomonic changes (basal cell hyperplasia, elongation of stromal papillae) were consistently present. Morphometrically assessed stromal papillary length and basal cell layer thickness was significantly (each, p dogs with HRE than in the 48 dogs without HRE, respectively. Overall, clinical signs suggesting GER were significantly (p = 0.02) more frequently encountered and regurgitation was significantly (p = 0.009) more common in the 17 dogs with HRE than in the 48 dogs without HRE. Similarly, endoscopic changes were significantly (p = 0.002) more frequently observed and minimal endoscopic changes suggesting GER were significantly (p = 0.004) more common in 17 dogs with HRE than in the 48 dogs without HRE. Typical characteristics of hyperregeneratory esophagopathy in humans are also histologically detectable in canine esophageal epithelium. Histological changes are associated with clinical signs and

  1. The acquired radioresistance in HeLa cells under conditions mimicking hypoxia was attenuated by a decreased expression of HIF subunit genes induced by RNA interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Nobutaka [Department of Radiological Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); New Products Research & Development, Gene Engineering Division, NIPPON GENE Co., Ltd. (Japan); Ogawa, Ryohei, E-mail: ogawa@med.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Radiological Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Cui, Zheng-Guo [Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama (Japan); Morii, Akihiro; Watanabe, Akihiko [Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama (Japan); Kanayama, Shinji; Yoneda, Yuko [New Products Research & Development, Gene Engineering Division, NIPPON GENE Co., Ltd. (Japan); Kondo, Takashi [Department of Radiological Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    The cancer cells residing in the hypoxic layer are resistant to radiation and these are ones responsible for cancer recurrence after radiation therapy. One of the reasons why hypoxic cancer cells acquire radioresistance may be attributable to changes in the gene expression profile by the activation of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs). However, the details underlying this process remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of knockdown of HIF subunit genes to elucidate how HIF subunit genes may be involved in the radioresistance acquired by HeLa cells following exposure to a hypoxia mimic. Interestingly, HIF-1α and HIF-2α seemed mutually complementary for each other when either of them was suppressed. We thus suppressed the expression of both genes simultaneously. To do this, we developed a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting a high homology region between HIF-1α and HIF-2α. It was shown that the expression of the shRNA effectively suppressed the acquisition of radioresistance following the hypoxia mimic. Moreover, it was confirmed that suppression of both subunits resulted in the downregulation of stem cell markers and the suppression of spheroid formation during the hypoxia mimicking-conditions. This shRNA-mediated knockdown method targeting a common region shared by a family of genes may offer a new candidate cancer treatment. - Highlights: • Incubation with CoCl{sub 2} confers radioresistance to HeLa cells. • Both HIF-1α and HIF-2α are involved in the acquisition of radioresistance. • An shRNA to a homology region of HIF-1α and HIF-2α suppressed the radioresistance. • The shRNA decreased cells with stem cell markers and a stem cell phenotype.

  2. Refractory esophageal strictures: what to do when dilation fails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckel, P.G. van; Siersema, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    OPINION STATEMENT: Benign esophageal strictures arise from a diversity of causes, for example esophagogastric reflux, esophageal resection, radiation therapy, ablative therapy, or the ingestion of a corrosive substance. Most strictures can be treated successfully with endoscopic dilation using

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of erosive esophagitis in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Lin Ou

    2012-02-01

    Conclusion: The current prevalence of erosive esophagitis in Taiwan is 17.3%. Male sex, smoking, obesity, and hiatus hernia are four independent risk factors for the development of erosive esophagitis in the Taiwanese population.

  4. Nutrition in peri-operative esophageal cancer management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhagen, E.; Vulpen, J.K. van; Hillegersberg, R. van; May, A.M.; Siersema, P.D.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nutritional status and dietary intake are increasingly recognized as essential areas in esophageal cancer management. Nutritional management of esophageal cancer is a continuously evolving field and comprises an interesting area for scientific research. Areas covered: This review

  5. Hot and cold mate drinking and esophageal cancer in Paraguay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P A Rolón; X Castellsagué; M Benz; N Muñoz

    1995-01-01

    A hospital-based case-control study, including 131 cases of esophageal cancer and 381 controls, was carried out in Paraguay to investigate the role of hot and cold mate drinking in esophageal cancer risk...

  6. Association of esophageal candidiasis and squamous cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Delsing, C.E.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Tol, J.; van der Meer, J.W.M.; Kullberg, B. J.; Netea, M. G.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic esophageal candidiasis is an infection that is mostly seen in immunocompromised conditions, among which is chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Recently an association between CMC and esophageal carcinoma has been reported. Here we present two patients with chronic esophageal candidiasis who developed esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and we discuss the etiologic role of Candida-induced nitrosamine production, the loss of STAT1 function and impaired tumor surveillance and T-lymph...

  7. In vitro model for studying esophageal epithelial differentiation and allergic inflammatory responses identifies keratin involvement in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kc

    Full Text Available Epithelial differentiation is an essential physiological process that imparts mechanical strength and barrier function to squamous epithelia. Perturbation of this process can give rise to numerous human diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, in which antigenic stimuli can penetrate the weakened epithelial barrier to initiate the allergic inflammatory cascade. We recently described a simplified air-liquid interface (ALI culture system that facilitates the study of differentiated squamous epithelia in vitro. Herein, we use RNA sequencing to define the genome-wide transcriptional changes that occur within the ALI system during epithelial differentiation and in response to allergic inflammation. We identified 2,191 and 781 genes that were significantly altered upon epithelial differentiation or dysregulated in the presence of interleukin 13 (IL-13, respectively. Notably, 286 genes that were modified by IL-13 in the ALI system overlapped with the gene signature present within the inflamed esophageal tissue from patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE, an allergic inflammatory disorder of the esophagus that is characterized by elevated IL-13 levels, altered epithelial differentiation, and pro-inflammatory gene expression. Pathway analysis of these overlapping genes indicated enrichment in keratin genes; for example, the gene encoding keratin 78, an uncharacterized type II keratin, was upregulated during epithelial differentiation (45-fold yet downregulated in response to IL-13 and in inflamed esophageal tissue from patients. Thus, our findings delineate an in vitro experimental system that models epithelial differentiation that is dynamically regulated by IL-13. Using this system and analyses of patient tissues, we identify an altered expression profile of novel keratin differentiation markers in response to IL-13 and disease activity, substantiating the potential of this combined approach to identify relevant molecular processes that contribute to

  8. In vitro model for studying esophageal epithelial differentiation and allergic inflammatory responses identifies keratin involvement in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kc, Kiran; Rothenberg, Marc E; Sherrill, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial differentiation is an essential physiological process that imparts mechanical strength and barrier function to squamous epithelia. Perturbation of this process can give rise to numerous human diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, in which antigenic stimuli can penetrate the weakened epithelial barrier to initiate the allergic inflammatory cascade. We recently described a simplified air-liquid interface (ALI) culture system that facilitates the study of differentiated squamous epithelia in vitro. Herein, we use RNA sequencing to define the genome-wide transcriptional changes that occur within the ALI system during epithelial differentiation and in response to allergic inflammation. We identified 2,191 and 781 genes that were significantly altered upon epithelial differentiation or dysregulated in the presence of interleukin 13 (IL-13), respectively. Notably, 286 genes that were modified by IL-13 in the ALI system overlapped with the gene signature present within the inflamed esophageal tissue from patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), an allergic inflammatory disorder of the esophagus that is characterized by elevated IL-13 levels, altered epithelial differentiation, and pro-inflammatory gene expression. Pathway analysis of these overlapping genes indicated enrichment in keratin genes; for example, the gene encoding keratin 78, an uncharacterized type II keratin, was upregulated during epithelial differentiation (45-fold) yet downregulated in response to IL-13 and in inflamed esophageal tissue from patients. Thus, our findings delineate an in vitro experimental system that models epithelial differentiation that is dynamically regulated by IL-13. Using this system and analyses of patient tissues, we identify an altered expression profile of novel keratin differentiation markers in response to IL-13 and disease activity, substantiating the potential of this combined approach to identify relevant molecular processes that contribute to human allergic

  9. The role of oxidative stress in EBV lytic reactivation, radioresistance and the potential preventive and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianmin; Li, Hongde; Luo, Xiangjian; Li, Yueshuo; Bode, Ann; Cao, Ya

    2017-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an important cancer causing virus. Cancer associated with EBV account for approximately 1.5% of all cancers, and represent 1.8% of all cancer deaths worldwide. EBV reactivation plays an important role in the development of EBV-related diseases and is closely related with patients' survival and clinical stages of EBV-related cancers. The therapy regarding to EBV-related cancers is very urgent, especially in endemic areas. Generating oxidative stress is a critical mechanism by which host cells defend against infection by virus. In addition, ROS-mediated oxidative stress plays a significant but paradoxical role acting as a "double-edged sword" to regulate cellular response to radiation, which is the main therapy strategy for EBV-related cancers, especially nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Therefore, in this review we primarily discuss the possible interplay among the oxidative stress, EBV lytic reactivation and radioresistance. Understanding the role of oxidative stress in EBV lytic reactivation and radioresistance will assist in the development of effective strategies for prevention and treatment of EBV-related cancers. © 2017 UICC.

  10. Pharmacological Management of Esophageal Food Bolus Impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Mohammed Khayyat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Soft esophageal bolus impaction is an emergency that requires skilled endoscopic removal if persistent obstructive symptoms do not resolve spontaneously after careful observation. Expedited care of these patients is crucial to avoid respiratory and mechanical complications. Other possible options for management include medical agents used to manage it prior to performing endoscopy if access to endoscopy was not available or declined by the patient. Aim. To review the available pharmacological and other nonmedicinal options and their mechanism of relief for soft esophageal impaction. Method. Pubmed, Medline and Ovid were used for search of MESH terms pertinent including “foreign body, esophageal, esophageal bolus and medical” for pharmacological and non medicinial agents used for management of esophageal soft bolus impaction as well as manual review of the cross-references. Results. Several agents were identified including Buscopan, Glucagon, nitrates, calcium channel blockers, and papaveretum. Non medicinal agents are water, effervescent agents, and papain. No evidence was found to suggest preference or effectiveness of use of a certain pharmacological agent compared to others. Buscopan, Glucagon, benzodiazepines, and nitrates were studied extensively and may be used in selected patients with caution. Use of papain is obsolete in management of soft bolus impaction.

  11. Dilated intercellular spaces in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelli, Alberto; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Cadei, Moris; Fuoti, Maurizio; Gennati, Giada; Salemme, Marianna

    2014-11-01

    Dilated intercellular spaces (DIS) in the esophageal epithelium can be induced by acid and reduced by proton pump inhibitors (PPI), and are thus considered a marker of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Over the years, however, DIS have also been reported in esophagitis unrelated to GERD. Because DIS have never been formally measured in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), we aimed at detecting and measuring DIS in EoE before and after nutritional or pharmacological therapy. In 22 children with EoE, DIS were measured by morphometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), before and after treatment with topical steroids (n = 16) and/or exclusion diet (n = 13). A total of 30 children undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy for nonesophageal disorders acted as controls. In controls, the mean (± standard deviation [SD]) number of esophageal eosinophils was 0.91 (± 0.47) and the mean DIS values were 0.62 (± 0.08) μm at morphometry and 0.33 (± 0.24) μm at TEM. In patients with EoE, the mean (± SD) number of esophageal eosinophils decreased from 31.8 (± 6.96) to 6.64 (± 5.01) (P treatment. DIS are a prominent morphological feature of EoE, in which they can be significantly reduced by an appropriate non-PPI therapy.

  12. Use of glucagon in relieving esophageal food bolus impaction in the era of eosinophilic esophageal infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmapuram, Jayaram; Oosterveen, Scott; Grim, Rodney

    2013-06-01

    Esophageal food bolus impaction may require an urgent endoscopy. Glucagon is often administered to promote spontaneous passage of the food bolus. Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized as a cause of dysphagia, and food impaction is often the presenting symptom. Our study was aimed at determining the effectiveness of glucagon in relieving esophageal foreign body obstruction in general and in the setting of esophageal eosinophilic infiltration (EEI). A retrospective chart review was performed using the ICD codes and the emergency department database of adult patients presenting with symptoms of esophageal food bolus impaction from July 2004 to October 2010. Response to glucagon was defined as symptomatic relief of obstruction prior to endoscopic intervention. A total of 213 episodes of esophageal food bolus obstruction in 192 patients were identified during the study period. Glucagon was given in 125 cases of which 41 had a response (32.8 %). A total of 170 episodes had an Esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed either during the impaction event or at a later date. Of the 60 patients' biopsies, 45 had received glucagon (17 with EEI, 28 without EEI). None of the 17 episodes with EEI as compared to 8 of the 28 without EEI responded to glucagon (0 % vs. 28.5 %, p = 0.017). Glucagon is effective in about one third of patients with esophageal food bolus impaction, which is consistent with historical data. Patients with EEI appear less likely to respond to glucagon.

  13. Denture Mis-swallowing in the Sliding Esophageal Hiatal Hernia Mimics Esophageal Perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Yang Chen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Mis-swallowing of a foreign body in the esophagus coexisting with sliding hernia might be misdiagnosed as esophageal perforation with mediastinal abscess. We report an 89-year-old woman, bedridden for a long period in a nursing home after a previous cerebrovascular accident, who was sent to our emergency department in a state of sepsis because she had swallowed a radio-opaque partial denture. The retention of the denture as an esophageal foreign body was complicated with mediastinitis and bilateral pleural effusion. The inability of the patient to give a reliable clinical history delayed the diagnosis. This report highlights the difficulty in precisely locating a partial denture because of conflicting radiologic findings and the coexistence of esophageal sliding hernia, all of which led to a misdiagnosis of possible esophageal perforation. A right posterolateral thoracotomy with gastrostomy was performed to remove the lower esophageal foreign body after esophagoscopy failed. The surgical finding of a coincidental sliding esophageal hiatal hernia correlated well with the clinical presentation. Managing such a complicated esophageal foreign body in this elderly patient was challenging.

  14. Immunohistochemical assessment of NY-ESO-1 expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma resection specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Stephen J; Hng, Keng Ngee; Clark, Peter; Thistlethwaite, Fiona; Hawkins, Robert E; Ang, Yeng

    2014-04-14

    To assess NY-ESO-1 expression in a cohort of esophageal adenocarcinomas. A retrospective search of our tissue archive for esophageal resection specimens containing esophageal adenocarcinoma was performed, for cases which had previously been reported for diagnostic purposes, using the systematised nomenclature of human and veterinary medicine coding system. Original haematoxylin and eosin stained sections were reviewed, using light microscopy, to confirm classification and tumour differentiation. A total of 27 adenocarcinoma resection specimens were then assessed using immunohistochemistry for NY-ESO-1 expression: 4 well differentiated, 14 moderately differentiated, 4 moderate-poorly differentiated, and 5 poorly differentiated. Four out of a total of 27 cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma examined (15%) displayed diffuse cytoplasmic and nuclear expression for NY-ESO-1. They displayed a heterogeneous and mosaic-type pattern of diffuse staining. Diffuse cytoplasmic staining was not identified in any of these structures: stroma, normal squamous epithelium, normal submucosal gland and duct, Barrett's esophagus (goblet cell), Barrett's esophagus (non-goblet cell) and high grade glandular dysplasia. All adenocarcinomas showed an unexpected dot-type pattern of staining at nuclear, paranuclear and cytoplasmic locations. Similar dot-type staining, with varying frequency and size of dots, was observed on examination of Barrett's metaplasia, esophageal submucosal gland acini and the large bowel negative control, predominantly at the crypt base. Furthermore, a prominent pattern of apical (luminal) cytoplasmic dot-type staining was observed in some cases of Barrett's metaplasia and also adenocarcinoma. A further morphological finding of interest was noted on examination of haematoxylin and eosin stained sections, as aggregates of lymphocytes were consistently noted to surround submucosal glands. We have demonstrated for the first time NY-ESO-1 expression by esophageal

  15. Airway and esophageal stenting in patients with advanced esophageal cancer and pulmonary involvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Paganin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most inoperable patients with esophageal-advanced cancer (EGC have a poor prognosis. Esophageal stenting, as part of a palliative therapy management has dramatically improved the quality of live of EGC patients. Airway stenting is generally proposed in case of esophageal stent complication, with a high failure rate. The study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of scheduled and non-scheduled airway stenting in case of indicated esophageal stenting for EGC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study is an observational study conducted in pulmonary and gastroenterology endoscopy units. Consecutive patients with EGC were referred to endoscopy units. We analyzed the outcome of airway stenting in patients with esophageal stent indication admitted in emergency or with a scheduled intervention. Forty-four patients (58+/-\\-8 years of age with esophageal stenting indication were investigated. Seven patients (group 1 were admitted in emergency due to esophageal stent complication in the airway (4 fistulas, 3 cases with malignant infiltration and compression. Airway stenting failed for 5 patients. Thirty-seven remaining patients had a scheduled stenting procedure (group 2: stent was inserted for 13 patients with tracheal or bronchial malignant infiltration, 12 patients with fistulas, and 12 patients with airway extrinsic compression (preventive indication. Stenting the airway was well tolerated. Life-threatening complications were related to group 1. Overall mean survival was 26+/-10 weeks and was significantly shorter in group 1 (6+/-7.6 weeks than in group 2 (28+/-11 weeks, p<0.001. Scheduled double stenting significantly improved symptoms (95% at day 7 with a low complication rate (13%, and achieved a specific cancer treatment (84% in most cases. CONCLUSION: Stenting the airway should always be considered in case of esophageal stent indication. A multidisciplinary approach with initial airway evaluation improved prognosis and decreased

  16. A comparative analysis by SAGE of gene expression profiles of esophageal adenocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baal, Jantine W. P. M.; Milana, Francesco; Rygiel, Agnieszka M.; Sondermeijer, Carine M. T.; Spek, C. Arnold; Bergman, Jacques J. G. H. M.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.

    2008-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are the two main types of esophageal cancer. Despite extensive research the exact molecular basis of these cancers is unclear. Therefore we evaluated the transcriptome of EA in comparison to non-dysplastic Barrett's

  17. Herpetic esophagitis: a diagnosis to remember

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pinheiro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Herpetic esophagitis is a well-recognized infection in immunocompromised hosts, having been rarely described in immunocompetent individuals. Case report: The authors describe a case of a 16-year-old female adolescent admitted to the emergency room with a threeday history of fever, odynophagia, dysphagia for liquid and solid food and retrosternal pain. The upper endoscopy revealed linear and round erosions in the distal esophagus and the histologic findings were compatible with herpetic esophagitis. Discussion/conclusion: Herpetic esophagitis is an underdiagnosed condition in immunocompetent children and adolescents, but it should not be overlooked. An esophagoscopy is required to make a definitive diagnosis. It is usually a selflimited infection and the mainstay of treatment is supportive care. The use of acyclovir is still controversial but its early initiation may shorten the clinical course of the disease.

  18. Inhibitory effect of α-solanine on esophageal carcinoma in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Sun, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Du, Yu-Wen; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Zang, Wen-Qiao; Chen, Xiao-Nan; Zhao, Guo-Qiang

    2016-09-01

    α-solanine, a bioactive component and one of the major steroidal glycoalkaloids in potatoes, has been observed to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the antitumor efficacy of α-solanine on esophageal carcinoma has yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the antitumor efficacy of α-solanine against human esophageal carcinoma cells was investigated. It was determined that α-solanine inhibited the growth and proliferation of human esophageal EC9706 and Eca109 cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner, as well as the cell migration and invasion. In addition, the apoptotic rate was increased in the cancer cells treated with α-solanine in a dose-dependent manner, compared with that of the control group (Psolanine, as compared with the control group. Conversely, significantly higher expression levels of E-cadherin were detected in the α-solanine-treated groups, as compared with the control group (Psolanine, and suggest that α-solanine is a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of esophageal carcinoma.

  19. Surgical treatment analysis of idiopathic esophageal achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, José Luis Braga de; Said, Marcelo Manzano; Pereira, Douglas Rizzanti; Amaral, Paula Casals do; Lima, Juliana Carolina Alves; Leandro-Merhi, Vânia Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic esophageal achalasia is an inflammatory disease of unknown origin, characterized by aperistalsis of the esophageal body and failure of the lower esophageal sphincter in response to swallowing, with consequent dysphagia. To demonstrate the results of surgical therapy in these patients, evaluating the occurred local and systemic complications. Were studied retrospectively 32 patients, 22 of whom presented non-advanced stage of the disease (Stage I/II) and 10 with advanced disease (Stage III/IV). All of them had the clinical conditions to be submitted to surgery. The diagnoses were done by clinical, endoscopic, cardiological, radiological and esophageal manometry analysis. Pre-surgical evaluation was done with a questionnaire based on the most predisposing factors in the development of the disease and the surgical indication was based on the stage of the disease. The patients with non-advanced stages were submitted to cardiomyotomy with fundoplication, wherein in the post-surgical early assessment, only one (4,4%) presented pulmonary infection, but had a good outcome. In patients with advanced disease, seven were submitted to esophageal mucosectomy preserving the muscular layer, wherein one patient (14,2%) presented dehiscence of gastric cervical esophagus anastomosis as well as pulmonary infection; all of these complications were resolved with proper specific treatment; the other three patients with advanced stage were submitted to transmediastinal esophagectomy; two of them presented hydropneumothorax with good evolution, and one of them also presented fistula of the cervical esophagogastric anastomosis, but with spontaneous healing after conservative treatment and nutritional support. The two patients with fistula of the cervical anastomosis progressed to stenosis, with good results after endoscopic dilations. In the medium and long term assessment done in 23 patients, all of them reported improvement in life quality, with return to swallowing. The

  20. Technological advances in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosmik, Milan; Petera, Jiri; Sirak, Igor; Hodek, Miroslav; Paluska, Petr; Dolezal, Jiri; Kopacova, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy and surgery represent the main treatment modalities in esophageal cancer. The goal of modern radiotherapy approaches, based on recent technological advances, is to minimize post-treatment complications by improving the gross tumor volume definition (positron emission tomography-based planning), reducing interfraction motion (image-guided radiotherapy) and intrafraction motion (respiratory-gated radiotherapy), and by better dose delivery to the precisely defined planning target volume (intensity-modulated radiotherapy and proton therapy). Reduction of radiotherapy-related toxicity is fundamental to the improvement of clinical results in esophageal cancer, although the dose escalation concept is controversial. PMID:21105188

  1. Management guidelines of eosinophilic esophagitis in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadopoulou, A; Koletzko, S; Heuschkel, R

    2014-01-01

    at providing practical guidelines for the management of children and adolescents with EoE. METHODS: Relevant literature from searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and recent guidelines was reviewed. In the absence of an evidence base, recommendations reflect the expert opinion of the authors. Final consensus...... for severe symptoms requiring rapid relief or where other treatments have failed. Esophageal dilatation is an option in children with EoE who have esophageal stenosis unresponsive to drug therapy. Maintenance treatment may be required in case of frequent relapse, although an optimal regimen still needs...

  2. Influence of Ionizing Radiation on Stromal-Epithelial Communication in Esophageal Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Janice; Patel, Zarana; Grugan, Katharine; Rustgi, Anil; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    Esophageal cancer is the 6th leading cause of cancer death worldwide and is associated with a variety of risk factors including tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, human papilloma virus infection, and certain dietary factors such as trace mineral and vitamin deficiencies. A connection with ionizing radiation exposure is revealed by the high excess relative risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma observed in the survivors of the atomic bomb detonations in Japan. Esophageal carcinomas are also seen as secondary malignancies in patients who received radiotherapy for breast and thoracic cancers; additionally, patients with head/neck and oral squamous cell cancers are at increased risk for metachronous esophageal squamous cell cancers. This malignancy is rapidly fatal, mainly because it remains asymptomatic until late, advanced stages when the disease is rarely responsive to treatment. In normal epithelium, the stromal microenvironment is essential for the maintenance and modulation of cell growth and differentiation. Cross talk between the epithelial and stromal compartments can influence many aspects of malignant progression, including tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion and recruitment of new blood vessels. To test the hypothesis that radiation exposure plays a role in esophageal carcinogenesis via non-targeted mechanisms involving stromal-epithelial cell communication, we are studying radiation effects on hTERT-immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells and genetic variants grown in co-culture with human esophageal stromal fibrob-lasts (Okawa et al., Genes Dev. 2007. 21: 2788-2803). We examined how irradiation of stromal fibroblasts affected epithelial migration and invasion, behaviors associated with cancer promotion and progression. These assays were conducted in modified Boyden chambers using conditioned media from irradiated fibroblasts. Our results using low LET gamma radiation showed a dose-dependent increase in migration of epithelial

  3. MiR-20a Induces Cell Radioresistance by Activating the PTEN/PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuqin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Zheng, Lin [Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Department of Pathology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Ding, Yi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Li, Qi [Department of Gastroenterology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Wang, Rong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Liu, Tongxin; Sun, Quanquan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Yang, Hua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanhai Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Peng, Shunli [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Wang, Wei, E-mail: wangwei9500@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China); Chen, Longhua, E-mail: chenlhsmu@126.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province (China)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of miR-20a in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell radioresistance, which may reveal potential strategies to improve treatment. Methods and Materials: The expression of miR-20a and PTEN were detected in HCC cell lines and paired primary tissues by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cell radiation combined with colony formation assays was administrated to discover the effect of miR-20a on radiosensitivity. Bioinformatics prediction and luciferase assay were used to identify the target of miR-20a. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 was used to inhibit phosphorylation of Akt, to verify whether miR-20a affects HCC cell radioresistance through activating the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway. Results: MiR-20a levels were increased in HCC cell lines and tissues, whereas PTEN was inversely correlated with it. Overexpression of miR-20a in Bel-7402 and SMMC-7721 cells enhances their resistance to the effect of ionizing radiation, and the inhibition of miR-20a in HCCLM3 and QGY-7701 cells sensitizes them to it. PTEN was identified as a direct functional target of miR-20a for the induction of radioresistance. Overexpression of miR-20a activated the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Additionally, the kinase inhibitor LY294002 could reverse the effect of miR-20a–induced radioresistance. Conclusion: MiR-20a induces HCC cell radioresistance by activating the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway, which suggests that miR-20a/PTEN/PI3K/Akt might represent a target of investigation for developing effective therapeutic strategies against HCC.

  4. Esophageal Granular Cell Tumor and Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Two Interesting Entities Identified in the Same Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Lucendo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We illustrate the case of a 41-year-old male with allergic manifestations since childhood. He sought medical attention for intermittent, progressive dysphagia from which he had been suffering for a number of years, having felt the sensation of a retrosternal lump and a self-limited obstruction to the passage of food. Endoscopy detected a submucosal tumor in the upper third of the esophagus, which was typified, via biopsy, as a granular cell tumor with benign characteristics and probably responsible for the symptoms. Two years later, the patient sought medical attention once again as these symptoms had not abated, hence digestive endoscopy was repeated. This revealed stenosis of the junction between the middle and lower thirds of the organ which had not been detected previously but was passable under gentle pressure. Eosinophilic esophagitis was detected after biopsies were taken. Esophageal manometry identified a motor disorder affecting the esophageal body. Following three months of treatment using fluticasone propionate applied topically, the symptoms went into remission, esophageal stenosis disappeared and the esophageal biopsies returned to normal. This is the first documented case of the link between granular cell tumors and Eosinophilic esophagitis, two different disorders which could cause dysphagia in young patients.

  5. esophageal carcinoma complicating achalasia, 25 years post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mine

    Wychulis and associates 9 reported on. 1,318 patients treated for esophageal achalasia at the Mayo clinic for an average of 13 years per patient. Carcinoma developed in seven of these patients, an incidence almost seven times that in the general population. In Nigeria, Pindiga 10 retrospectively analysed 177 histologically.

  6. [Corrosive esophagitis in children (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, P; Guerguerian, A J

    1982-01-01

    The treatment of corrosive esophagitis in children remains a controversial subject. A review of the literature and the various forms of treatment is presented with a retrospective study done a the Ste-Justine Hospital in Montreal. We studied the charts (327) of patients hospitalized for ingestion of corrosive substances for the period extending between 1970 to 1976 inclusively. The mean age of the patients involved was 2 years 4 months with a slight male predominance (60%). Javel water, sodium hydroxide, Chlorine, ammoniac and different acids were, in this order, the agents most frequently encountered. Esophageal burns proven by endoscopy was noted in 81 cases. Even in the absence of oropharyngeal burns, esophageal involvement was still present in 46% of cases. The low incidence of stenosis (9%) tends to confirm the beneficial role of steroids in the treatment of corrosive esophagitis. This is particularly true for 1st and 2nd degree burns whereas their administration in severe 3rd degree burn remains controversial.

  7. Epidemiology and histopathological features of esophageal cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... frequent site of origin of these tumors. Squamus cell carcinoma was commonest histologic type of tumor. In 15.2% of cases tumor was metastasis to other organs. In 46.6% were in advanced stage at diagnosis. Discussion: Based on result of present study, esophageal cancer in our country more presented in Squamus cell ...

  8. Esophageal Sphincter Device for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganz, Robert A.; Peters, Jeffrey H.; Horgan, Santiago; Bemelman, Willem A.; Dunst, Christy M.; Edmundowicz, Steven A.; Lipham, John C.; Luketich, James D.; Melvin, W. Scott; Oelschlager, Brant K.; Schlack-Haerer, Steven C.; Smith, C. Daniel; Smith, Christopher C.; Dunn, Dan; Taiganides, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease who have a partial response to proton-pump inhibitors often seek alternative therapy. We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of a new magnetic device to augment the lower esophageal sphincter. METHODS We prospectively assessed 100 patients

  9. Esophageal achalasia in adolescence - two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Vaz Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Achalasia is a rare disorder, particularly in pediatrics, characterized by esophageal aperistalsis and inadequate relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. Its etiology remains unclear. Cases: We describe two adolescents with dysphagia for solids and liquids, vomiting, weight loss and nocturnal cough for a few months. Initially it was considered to be an eating disorder, and the diagnosis of achalasia was reached later by esophageal manometry in one case and by intraoperative biopsy in another. The patients were submitted to Heller myotomy with an antireflux procedure, laparoscopically in one case, and by laparotomy in another, both with a favorable outcome. Discussion/Conclusions: We emphasize the rarity and diagnostic challenge of these cases. The nonspecific symptoms often lead to the diagnosis of an eating disorder, delaying the correct treatment. If symptoms persist achalasia must be considered and the esophageal manometry is the diagnostic test of choice. The gold standard in treatment is surgical, and we highlight the effectiveness of the techniques applied.

  10. Candida Esophagitis in an Immunocompetent Pregnant Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Greenspoon

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nausea and vomiting are common during the first half of pregnancy and usually require only supportive measures. When symptoms are progressive and weight loss occurs, treatable causes should be sought by means of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We report a case of an immunocompetent gravida with invasive Candida albicans esophagitis.

  11. Avoiding complications in esophageal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Michael Bau

    2013-01-01

    as a direct consequence of complications related to the esophagectomy procedure. Primarily based on results from randomized studies published after 2000 this review describes some of the factors that may contribute to the development of postoperative complications following esophageal cancer surgery as well...... as studies intended to finding ways of reducing the complication rate....

  12. Prevalence of reflux esophagitis among patients undergoing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most prevalent diseases seen in western countries. The prevalence of GERD is lower in the Asian population and the spectrum of the disease is mild. Data from Africa and the Middle East are sparse. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the ...

  13. [Eosinophilic esophagitis: increasing incidence in paediatric population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga-Tavares, Hugo; Teles, Andreia; Nogueira, Rosete; Cardoso Rodrigues, Fernando; Costa, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic Esophagitis has been increasingly diagnosed and results from a chronic esophagic inflammation with eosinophilic infiltrate. Evaluation of the diagnosed paediatric cases in our centre between 2004 and 2008 and revision of current literature on this subject. Four caucasian boys, aged eight to fifteen years old, were diagnosed with Eosinophilic Esophagitis. They presented with disphagia and food impaction and endoscopic findings included multiple concentric rings (pseudo-trachea pattern) and friable mucosa. All of them had mucosal eosinophil counts higher than 20 eosinophils/high-powered field and were given corticosteroids, either topic or systemic (one case) with therapeutic success. The diagnosis of Eosinophilic Esophagitis must be considered in presence of disphagia, food impaction or gastroesophageal reflux symptoms refractory to treatment. Endoscopic evaluation may be normal and the diagnosis is based on histological findings, making biopsy mandatory whenever clinically suspected. The increasing incidence of the last years associated with the high recurrence rate will lead to future prevalence increased both in child and adulthood.

  14. [Esophageal atresia in the Goldenhar syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso Velasco, R; Torres Aguirre, A; Enríquez Zarabozo, E; Galán Gómez, E; Blesa Sánchez, E

    2010-01-01

    Among the multiple congenital defects associated to esophagueal atresia, the characteristic ones of the Goldenhar syndrome usually are not included. The high incidence has been reported, about 5% of esophagueal atresia in patients with Goldenhar syndrome. Our experience includes two patients with this association who presented anesthetic problems and surgical complications associated with gastroesophageal reflux and esophageal anastomosis.

  15. Stent placement for esophageal strictures : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirdes, Meike Madeleine Catharine; Vleggaar, Frank Paul; Siersema, Peter Derk

    2011-01-01

    The use of stents for esophageal strictures has evolved rapidly over the past 10 years, from rigid plastic tubes to flexible self-expanding metal (SEMS), plastic (SEPS) and biodegradable stents. For the palliative treatment of malignant dysphagia both SEMS and SEPS effectively provide a rapid relief

  16. Upregulation of Long Noncoding RNA Small Nucleolar RNA Host Gene 18 Promotes Radioresistance of Glioma by Repressing Semaphorin 5A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Rong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Yao, Qiwei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Provincial Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Ren, Chen; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongli; Xie, Guozhu; Du, Shasha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Yang, Kaijun [Department of Neurosurgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Yuan, Yawei, E-mail: yuanyawei2015@outlook.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital Center of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: Although increasing evidence has shown that long noncoding RNAs play an important regulatory role in carcinogenesis and tumor progression, little is known about the role of small nucleolar RNA host gene 18 (SNHG18) in cancer. The goal of this study was to investigate the expression of SNHG18 and its clinical significance in glioma. Methods and Materials: Differences in the lncRNA expression profile between M059K and M059J cells were assessed by lncRNA expression microarray analysis. The expression and localization of SNHG18 in glioma cells or tissues was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH), respectively. the clinical associations of SNHG18 in glioma was evaluated by qRT-PCR, ISH and immunohistochemistry. The role of SNHG18 in glioma radiosensitivity was evaluated by colony formation assays, immunofluorescence, Western blot and tumor growth inhibition study. Results: The present study investigated the clinical associations of SNHG18 and its role in glioma. Our results showed that the expression of SNHG18 was remarkably upregulated in clinical glioma tissues compared with normal brain tissues. SNHG18 expression was associated with the clinical tumor grade and correlated negatively with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation. In addition, knockdown of SNHG18 with short hairpin RNA suppressed the radioresistance of glioma cells, and transgenic expression of SNHG18 had the opposite effect. Furthermore, xenograft tumors grown from cells with SNHG18 deletion were more radiosensitive than tumors grown from control cells. Further studies revealed that SNHG18 promotes radioresistance by inhibiting semaphorin 5A and that inhibition of semaphorin 5A expression abrogated the radiosensitizing effect caused by SNHG18 deletion. Conclusions: Our findings provide new insights into the role of SNHG18 in glioma and suggest its potential as a target for glioma therapy.

  17. with esophageal squamous cell cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to retrospectively observe and analyze the long-term treatment outcomes of 191 elderly patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC who were treated with californium-252 (252Cf neutron brachytherapy (NBT in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT. Material and methods : From January 2002 to November 2012, 191 patients with ESCC underwent NBT in combination with EBRT. The total radiation dose to the reference point via NBT was 8-25 Gy-eq in two to five fractions with one fraction per week. The total dose via EBRT was 50-60 Gy, which was delivered over a period of 5 to 6 weeks with normal fractionation. Results : The median survival time for the 191 patients was 23.6 months, and the 5-year rates for overall survival (OS and local-regional control (LRC were 28.7% and 54.2%, respectively. The patients’ age was a factor that was significantly associated with OS (p = 0.010, according to univariate analysis. The 5-year OS (LRC was 37.3% (58.6% for patients aged 70-74 years and 14.5% (47.9% for patients aged > 74 years (p = 0.010 and p = 0.038. In multivariate analysis, age and clinical N stage were associated with OS and LRC (p = 0.011 [0.041] and p = 0.005 [0.005]. From the time of treatment completion to the development of local-regional recurrence or death, 5 (2.6% patients experienced fistula and 15 (7.9% experienced massive bleeding. The incidence of severe late complications was related to older age (p = 0.027, higher NBT dose/fraction (20-25 Gy/5 fractions, and higher total dose (> 66 Gy. Conclusions : The clinical data indicated that NBT in combination with EBRT produced favorable local control and long-term survival rates for elderly patients with ESCC, and that the side effects were tolerable. Patient’s age, clinical stage N status, and radiation dose could be used to select the appropriate treatment for elderly patients.

  18. Patch esophagoplasty: esophageal reconstruction using biologic scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieponice, Alejandro; Ciotola, Franco F; Nachman, Fabio; Jobe, Blair A; Hoppo, Toshitaka; Londono, Ricardo; Badylak, Stephen; Badaloni, Adolfo E

    2014-01-01

    Standard techniques for surgical reconstruction of the esophagus remain suboptimal. Primary closure of diseased or injured esophagus has been associated with high morbidity, primarily due to leak and stricture, and synthetic materials are contraindicated due to the high risk of erosion and infection. Degradable bioscaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) have recently shown promising results in both pre-clinical and clinical settings to prevent stricture after extended endoscopic mucosal resection. We propose a novel surgical technique that utilizes an ECM scaffold as a reconstructive patch to augment the esophageal diameter during primary repair. Four patients requiring esophageal reconstruction underwent a patch esophagoplasty using an ECM scaffold composed of porcine urinary bladder ECM. The full thickness wall of the esophagus was replaced with an ECM patch that was sutured to the edges of the remaining esophagus, similar to the patch angioplasty performed in vascular procedures. All patients had a favorable clinical outcome with immediate recovery from the procedure and reinstated oral intake after 7 days. One patient had a micro leak at day 5 that closed spontaneously 2 days after drainage. Follow-up studies including barium swallow and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) showed adequate esophageal emptying through the surgical segment in all patients. The EGD showed complete mucosal remodeling at 2 months, with approximately 20% area contraction at the patch level. The area of the defect was indistinguishable from surrounding healthy tissue. Biopsy of the patch area showed normal squamous epithelium. One of the patients had a separate intrathoracic stricture that required further surgery. Clinical outcomes were otherwise favorable in all cases. An alternative for the treatment of esophageal stenosis is presented which uses a biological scaffold and an innovative surgical procedure. Additional work, including prospective studies and long-term follow

  19. Effect of age on proximal esophageal response to swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Oliveira Dantas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: It has been demonstrated that the ageing process affects esophageal motility. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the age on the proximal esophageal response to wet swallows. METHOD: We measured the proximal esophageal response to swallows of a 5 mL bolus of water in 69 healthy volunteers, 20 of them aged 18-30 years (group I, 27 aged 31-50 years (group II, and 22 aged 51-74 years (group III. We used the manometric method with continuous perfusion. The proximal esophageal contractions were recorded 5 cm from a pharyngeal recording site located 1 cm above the upper esophageal sphincter. The time between the onset of the pharyngeal and of the proximal esophageal recording (pharyngeal-esophageal time and the amplitude, duration and area under the curve of the proximal esophageal contraction were measured. RESULTS: The pharyngeal-esophageal time was shorter in group I subjects than in group II and III subjects (P<0.05. The duration of proximal esophageal contractions was longer in group I than in groups II and III (P<0.001. There was no differences between groups in the amplitude or area under the curve of contractions. There were no differences between groups II and III for any of the measurements. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the age may affects the response of the proximal esophagus to wet swallows.

  20. Reflux esophagitis and its relationship to hiatal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, J. S.; Park, H. J.; Cho, J. S.; Lee, S. I.; Park, I. S.

    1999-01-01

    We performed this study to evaluate the prevalence of reflux esophagitis and/or hiatal hernia in patients referred to a medical center and to examine the relationship between endoscopic reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia. The study was carried out in 1,010 patients referred to Yong Dong Severance Hospital for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of symptoms related to the gastrointestinal tract from September 1994 to March 1996. The presence of hiatal hernia was defined as a circular extension of the gastric mucosa of 2 cm or more above the diaphragmatic hiatus. Reflux esophagitis was found in 5.3% of patients, hiatal hernia in 4.1%, duodenal ulcer in 7.2% and gastric ulcer in 8.2%. The prevalence rates of reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia in males were significantly higher than those in females. Thirty-two percent of patients with reflux esophagitis had hiatal hernia. In patients without reflux esophagitis, hiatal hernia was found in only 2.5% (phiatal hernia and the degree of esophagitis on endoscopy. Duodenal ulcer was the second most common endoscopic abnormality found in patients with reflux esophagitis. The prevalence rate of reflux esophagitis and/or hiatal hernia at a medical center is relatively low compared to peptic ulcer disease and other reports from the Western countries. Our study confirms the close association between reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia. PMID:10402166

  1. Screening pre-bariatric surgery patients for esophageal disease with esophageal capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashish; Boettcher, Erica; Fahmy, Marianne; Savides, Thomas; Horgan, Santiago; Jacobsen, Garth R; Sandler, Bryan J; Sedrak, Michael; Kalmaz, Denise

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine if esophageal capsule endoscopy (ECE) is an adequate diagnostic alternative to esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in pre-bariatric surgery patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective pilot study to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ECE (PillCam ESO2, Given Imaging) vs conventional EGD in pre-bariatric surgery patients. Patients who were scheduled for bariatric surgery and referred for pre-operative EGD were prospectively enrolled. All patients underwent ECE followed by standard EGD. Two experienced gastroenterologists blinded to the patient’s history and the findings of the EGD reviewed the ECE and documented their findings. The gold standard was the findings on EGD. RESULTS: Ten patients with an average body mass index of 50 kg/m2 were enrolled and completed the study. ECE identified 11 of 14 (79%) positive esophageal/gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) findings and 14 of 17 (82%) combined esophageal and gastric findings identified on EGD. Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the findings and no significant difference was found between ECE and EGD (P = 0.64 for esophageal/GEJ and P = 0.66 for combined esophageal and gastric findings respectively). Of the positive esophageal/GEJ findings, ECE failed to identify the following: hiatal hernia in two patients, mild esophagitis in two patients, and mild Schatzki ring in two patients. ECE was able to identify the entire esophagus in 100%, gastric cardia in 0%, gastric body in 100%, gastric antrum in 70%, pylorus in 60%, and duodenum in 0%. CONCLUSION: There were no significant differences in the likelihood of identifying a positive finding using ECE compared with EGD in preoperative evaluation of bariatric patients. PMID:24115815

  2. Incremental change in acute esophageal necrosis: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Ho; Wu, Han-Yun

    2014-02-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis, also called "black esophagus" because of its characteristic appearance on endoscopy, is a life-threatening disease; however, its temporal evolution on endoscopy is not well understood. We describe the serial changes in acute esophageal necrosis in two patients, who underwent four upper endoscopic examinations each. Serial endoscopy demonstrated progressive necrosis extending from the lower esophagus proximally to involve the middle or upper thoracic esophagus in both patients. The first patient was treated with transhiatal esophagectomy, followed by esophageal reconstruction, and medical control of repeated duodenal ulcer bleeding. The second patient died of esophageal perforation, as a complication of Sengstaken-Blakemore tube stent placement to control esophageal bleeding. We report these cases to demonstrate the importance of early detection and prompt surgical treatment of acute esophageal necrosis.

  3. Esophageal clearance scintigraphy in, diabetic patients; A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karayalcin, B.; Karayalcin, U.; Aburano, Tamio; Nakajima, Kenichi; Hisada, Kinichi; Morise, Toshio; Okada, Toshihide; Takeda, Ryoyu (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-05-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the predictive value of esophageal clearance scintigraphy (ECS) in the diagnosis of esophageal autonomic neuropathy in diabetic patients without any esophageal symptoms. A single swallon ECS was performed in 12 diabetic patients and 15 normal volunteers, and esophageal transit time (ETT) and esophageal (Es) T 1/2 values were calculated. ETT and Es 1/2 were found to be significantly prolonged in the diabetic group (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). In this preliminary study, our results strongly suggest that ECS may be an important noninvasive diagnostic tool in the evaluation of diabetic patients with asymptomatic esophageal autonomic neuropathy. (author).

  4. Esophageal eosinophilia in pediatric patients with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nápolis, Ana Carolina Ramos de; Alves, Flavia Araujo; Rezende, Erica Rodrigues Mariano de Almeida; Segundo, Gesmar Rodrigues Silva

    2015-01-01

    To describe the clinical picture, test results, and clinical evolution of patients with cerebral palsy associated with diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis, monitored at tertiary centre. Cross-sectional, retrospective and descriptive study that evaluated the medical records data of pediatric patients with diagnosis of cerebral palsy and eosinophilic esophagitis in a tertiary center of pediatric gastroenterology between August 2005 and August 2013. Seven out of 131 patients with cerebral palsy had the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis. The mean age at diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis was 52.3 months and the mean number of eosinophils in esophagus was 35 per high-power field. Symptoms more frequent were recurrent vomiting and disphagia. Endoscopic alterations found were mucosal thickening, vertical lines, mucosal opacificacion and white plaques. The frequency of eosinophilic esophagitis found was higher than in general pediatric population. The investigation of eosinophilic esophagitis should be done regularly in those patients, once this entity could overlap other gastrointestinal diseases.

  5. Esophageal motility disorders; Motilitaetsstoerungen des Oesophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannig, C.; Rummeny, E. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Muenchen (Germany); Wuttge-Hannig, A. [Gemeinschaftspraxis fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Strahlentherapie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    For the better understanding of esophageal motility, the muscle texture and the distribution of skeletal and smooth muscle fibers in the esophagus are of crucial importance. Esophageal physiology will be shortly mentioned as far as necessary for a comprehensive understanding of peristaltic disturbances. Besides the pure depiction of morphologic criteria, a complete esophageal study has to include an analysis of the motility. New diagnostic tools with reduced radiation for dynamic imaging (digital fluoroscopy, videofluoroscopy) at 4-30 frames/s are available. Radiomanometry is a combination of a functional pressure measurement and a simultaneous dynamic morphologic analysis. Esophageal motility disorders are subdivided by radiologic and manometric criteria into primary, secondary, and nonclassifiable forms. Primary motility disorders of the esophagus are achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus, and the hypertonic lower esophageal sphincter. The secondary motility disorders include pseudoachalasia, reflux-associated motility disorders, functionally caused impactions, Boerhaave's syndrome, Chagas' disease, scleroderma, and presbyesophagus. The nonclassificable motility disorders (NEMD) are a very heterogeneous collective. (orig.) [German] Zum Verstaendnis der Motilitaet des Oesophagus sind muskulaere Architektur und Verteilung der quergestreiften und glatten Muskelfasern von Bedeutung. Die Physiologie des Oesophagus wird in soweit kurz dargestellt, als sie fuer das Verstaendnis von peristaltischen Stoerungen notwendig ist. Neben der Erfassung rein morphologischer Kriterien ist bei der Untersuchung der Speiseroehre eine diagnostische Bewertung der Motilitaet erforderlich. Es stehen uns heute strahlungsarme dynamische Aufzeichnungsverfahren (digitale dynamische Aufzeichnung, Videofluoroskopie) mit Bildsequenzen von 4-30 Bildern/s zur Verfuegung. Die Kombination einer funktionellen Methode zur Darstellung der Morphologie und der

  6. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for nutritional palliation of upper esophageal cancer unsuitable for esophageal stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Grilo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis. Most patients with advanced esophageal cancer have significant dysphagia that contributes to weight loss and malnutrition. Esophageal stenting is a widespread palliation approach, but unsuitable for cancers near the upper esophageal sphincter, were stents are poorly tolerated. Generally, guidelines do not support endoscopic gastrostomy in this clinical setting, but it may be the best option for nutritional support. OBJECTIVE: Retrospective evaluation of patients with dysphagia caused advanced esophageal cancer, no expectation of resuming oral intake and with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for comfort palliative nutrition. METHOD: We selected adult patients with unresecable esophageal cancer histological confirmed, in whom stenting was impossible due to proximal location, and chemotherapy or radiotherapy were palliative, using gastrostomy for enteral nutrition. Clinical and nutritional data were evaluated, including success of gastrostomy, procedure complications and survival after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, and evolution of body mass index, albumin, transferrin and cholesterol. RESULTS: Seventeen males with stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Mean age was 60.9 years. Most of the patients had toxic habits. All underwent palliative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Gastrostomy was successfully performed in all, but nine required prior dilatation. Most had the gastrostomy within 2 months after diagnosis. There was a buried bumper syndrome treated with tube replacement and four minor complications. There were no cases of implantation metastases or procedure related mortality. Two patients were lost and 12 died. Mean survival of deceased patients was 5.9 months. Three patients are alive 6, 14 and 17 months after the gastrostomy procedure, still increasing the mean survival. Mean body mass index and laboratory

  7. Phlegmonous Esophagitis Treated with Internal Drainage and Feeding Jejunostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Gi Woo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with epigastric pain. Computed tomography identified diffuse phlegmonous esophagitis. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed multiple perforations in the mucosal layer of the esophagus. A large amount of pus was drained internally through the gut. The patient was treated with antibiotics and early jejunostomy feeding. Although phlegmonous esophagitis is a potentially fatal disease, the patient was successfully treated medically with only a minor complication (esophageal stricture.

  8. Two-Stage Explantation of a Magnetic Lower Esophageal Sphincter Augmentation Device Due to Esophageal Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Abhishek D; Tessler, Robert A; Chang, Howard Y; Svahn, Jonathan D

    2017-08-01

    Implanting a magnetic lower esophageal sphincter augmentation device (LINX, Torax Medical) has become an increasingly common option in the surgical management of gastroesophageal reflux disease. As the enthusiasm for placing this device increases, experience in the management of device-related complications-including erosion-is necessary. We report a staged approach to LINX removal in a 64-year-old female with symptoms of odynophagia secondary to partial erosion of a LINX device into the esophagus. The patient had a 12-bead LINX device placed in 2011 at an outside, international facility. In late 2013, she began experiencing symptoms of odynophagia. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy at our institution in October 2015 demonstrated two metallic beads eroding through the distal esophageal lumen. An elective endoscopic removal of the two visible beads was performed. A postoperative esophagram confirmed that there was no resulting esophageal perforation. The patient noted mild improvement in her symptoms. After a 12-week period to allow for complete healing, the remaining 10 beads of the LINX device were explanted laparoscopically without complication. No further procedures were undertaken. At 2 months' follow-up, the patient noted complete resolution of her symptoms. Transmural erosion of the LINX device into the esophageal lumen is a rare occurrence, with only five such complications reported in the published literature. We present the first account of LINX explantation for esophageal erosion in the United States. We demonstrated that a staged laparoendoscopic approach to LINX removal in these cases is feasible with minimal morbidity.

  9. Abnormal Responses to Local Esophageal Food Allergen Injections in Adult Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warners, Marijn J; Terreehorst, Ingrid; van den Wijngaard, René M; Akkerdaas, Jaap; van Esch, Betty C A M; van Ree, Ronald; Versteeg, Serge A; Smout, Andreas J P M; Bredenoord, Albert J

    2017-09-01

    Skin tests and measurement of serum levels of immunoglobulin E do not accurately identify foods for elimination from the diets of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). We investigated whether an esophageal prick test (EPT), in which the esophageal mucosa is challenged by local injection of allergen extracts, could identify individuals with esophageal sensitization. During endoscopy 6 allergens were injected in the esophagus of 8 patients with EoE and 3 patients without EoE (controls). A second endoscopy was performed after 24 hrs to evaluate delayed responses. Five of the 8 patients with EoE had evidence for an acute response (luminal obstruction and mucosal blanching); 2 other patients had a delayed wheal or flare reaction. No responses were observed in controls. We conclude that esophageal mucosal food allergen injections induce acute and/or delayed responses in patients with EoE but not controls. The EPT deserves further exploration because it might guide elimination diets. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of cimetidine and ranitidine on interdigestive and postprandial lower esophageal sphincter pressures and plasma gastrin levels in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, A. J.; Bogaard, J. W.; van Hattum, J.; Akkermans, L. M.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cimetidine and ranitidine on human lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) and plasma levels of gastrin in all phases of the interdigestive motor complex and after a test meal. In a random, double-blind manner, placebo, cimetidine (1.0

  11. Sarcopenia and Visceral Obesity in Esophageal and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-17

    Esophageal Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Sarcopenia; Sarcopenic Obesity; Obesity; Visceral Obesity; Quality of Life; Surgery; Complication of Treatment; Chemotherapeutic Toxicity; Physical Activity; Oncology

  12. Intramural esophagic hematoma secondary to coumarinic anticoagulation: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Esophagic Intramural Hematoma is an uncommon clinical condition, with a prognosis which is essentially benign. On most cases, a predisposing or precipitating factor may be seen, with the most common ones being the history of esophagic instrumentation, food impactations and thrombocytopenia. In the following manuscript, the authors present the case of a 54-years-old male with history of valve replacement surgery, who was treated at the Clinica Cardiovascular (Medellin, Colombia), with a clinical case of Intramural Esophagic Hematoma that was later confirmed to be due to a Coumarinic overanticoagulation. On this case, it is evidenced that Intramural Esophagic Hematoma is an unrecognized complication of Courmarinic anticoagulation therapy. PMID:20069068

  13. Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis characterized by barium esophagography: a case report

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Owen J

    2010-05-21

    Abstract Introduction Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis is a rare condition characterized by the dilatation of the submucosal glands. Case presentation We present a case of esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis in a 72-year-old Caucasian man who presented with dysphagia and with a background history of alcohol abuse. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy of our patient showed an esophageal stricture with abnormal mucosal appearances, but no malignant cells were seen at biopsy. Appearances on a barium esophagram were pathognomonic for esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis. Conclusion We demonstrate the enduring usefulness of barium esophagography in the characterization of abnormal mucosal appearances at endoscopy.

  14. Esophageal Cancer and the Importance of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGFR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Anvari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC is one of the most frequent malignancies, worldwide. It is important to find out what prognostic factors can facilitate diagnosis, optimize therapeutic decisions, and improve the survival of these patients. Despite improvements in surgical techniques combined with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, the novel therapies such as small molecule inhibitors of tyrosine kinases (TKIs and humanized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs are very much needed. On the other hand, neoadjuvant chemotherapy which may improve the outcome is accompanied by toxicity by destruction of normal cells. Side effects may be avoided by developing therapies that specifically target molecular characteristics of tumors. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is one of tyrosine kinases receptors widely distributed in human epithelial cell membrane. Genetic polymorphisms in EGFR genes influence cell cycle progression, angiogenesis, apoptosis and metastasis. EGFR mutations are mostly observed in lung tumors; curiously they are more prevalent in Asian women diagnosed with adenocarcinoma. Also, esophageal SCC shows a relatively high incidence of EGFR (33% and/or HER2 (31% overexpression. Patients who carry these mutations in EGFR have been founded tending to have a better response to gefitinib, an EGFR-TKI, whereas patients with the wild-type genotype show a better response to conventional chemotherapy. Therefore, finding clinical characteristics and environmental interactions with EGFR can affect on investigations about novel anti-cancer therapies like monoclonal antibodies and gene therapy and studies which identify patients who may benefit from EGFR targeted therapies. Hence, it may be effective on the improvement of prognosis in these patients.

  15. Pedunculated esophageal leiomyosarcoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiko, S; Yoshizumi, Y; Sugiura, Y; Koike, H; Marui, T; Aida, S; Sato, K; Tanaka, S

    1998-10-01

    We report a case of esophageal leiomyosarcoma that possibly arose from the muscularis mucosae, thereby showing a particularly unusual appearance. A large polypoid intraluminal lesion in the distal esophagus was found on an endoscopic examination of a 68-year-old man with a 3-month history of dysphagia. Although the histological examination of biopsy specimens clearly revealed leiomyosarcoma, the absence of an exophytic component on computed tomography (CT) scan caused us to suspect that the tumor was carcinosarcoma. The tumor was resected by a subtotal esophagectomy. Microscopic evaluation revealed no involvement in the layer of the muscularis propria and no component of carcinoma. Clinical features of the pedunculated esophageal leiomyosarcoma shown in this case and three additional cases previously reported in the literature are reviewed.

  16. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Brazilian Pediatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Mayra Isabel Correia; de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona; Honório, Rodrigo Schuler; de Alencar Moreno, Luís Hélder; Fortes, Mayara Carvalho; da Silva, Carlos Antônio Bruno

    2013-01-01

    We examined 11 pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis with a tardy diagnosis. The symptoms were initially thought to be related to other diseases, leading to the use of inadequate therapeutic approaches. The patients were between 3 and 17 years old (mean 7.8 ± 3.8 years), and 8 of the patients were male. Common symptoms included abdominal pain, regurgitation, difficulty in gaining weight, vomiting, dysphagia, and coughing. The mean age for the onset of symptoms was 4.3 ± 2.9 years. Endoscopic findings included normal mucosa in five (45%) patients, thickening of the mucosa with longitudinal grooves in three (27%), erosive esophagitis in two (18%), and a whitish stippling in one (9%) patient. Treatment included the use of a topical corticosteroid for 10 patients. In eight (73%) cases, the treatment made the symptoms disappear. Ten patients underwent histopathological management after treatment, with a decrease in the number of eosinophils. PMID:24106430

  17. Giant esophageal epiphrenic diverticulum: presentation and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marcelo Protásio Dos; Akerman, Denise; Santos, Caio Pasquali Dias Dos; Santos, Paulo Vicente Dos; Radtke, Marcos Claudio; Beraldo, Fernando Bray; Gonçalves, José Eduardo

    2017-09-21

    Epiphrenic diverticulum is a rare disease associated with esophageal motor disorders that is usually asymptomatic and has a well-established surgical indication. We report a case of giant epiphrenic diverticulum in a 59-year-old symptomatic woman who was diagnosed after underwent complementary exams. Because of her symptoms, the surgical treatment was chosen, and esophageal diverticulectomy was performed along with laparoscopic cardiomyotomy and anterior partial fundoplication. RESUMO O divertículo epifrênico é uma patologia rara associada a distúrbios motores esofágicos e, frequentemente, assintomática, tendo indicações cirúrgicas bem estabelecidas. Relatamos um caso de divertículo epifrênico gigante em paciente de 59 anos, sexo feminino, sintomática, diagnosticada por exames complementares. Devido à sintomatologia, optou-se por tratamento cirúrgico, sendo realizada a diverticulectomia esofágica com cardiomiotomia e fundoplicatura parcial anterior laparoscópica.

  18. Esophageal cancer associated with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Could chronic candidiasis lead to esophageal cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues-Ferreira, Mauricio; Grumach, Anete Sevciovic; Duarte, Alberto Jose Da Silva; De Moraes-Vasconcelos, Dewton

    2009-03-01

    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is a rare disease associated with immunodeficiency and characterized by persistent and refractory infections of the skin, appendages and mucous membranes caused by members of the genus Candida. Several different disorders are classified under this common denominator, including chronic and recurrent mucocutaneous infections due to Candida spp., which are sometimes linked to autoimmune endocrinopathies. These fungal infections are usually confined to the mucocutaneous surface, with little propensity for systemic disease or septicemia. We describe a patient with CMC who had an esophageal candidiasis refractory to treatment for decades and who developed an epidermoid esophageal cancer. No risk factors such as familiar susceptibility, smoking, alcohol drinking, or living in an endemic area were verified. This case report suggests the participation of nitrosamine compounds produced by chronic Candida infections as a risk factor for esophageal cancer in a patient with autosomal-dominant chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

  19. Advances in Clinical Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellon, Evan S.; Liacouras, Chris A.

    2014-01-01

    EoE is a chronic immune/antigen-mediated clinicopathologic condition that has become an increasingly important cause of upper gastrointestinal morbidity in adults and children over the past 2 decades. It is diagnosed based on symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, the presence of at least 15 eosinophils/high-power field in esophageal biopsies, and exclusion of competing causes of esophageal eosinophilia, including proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE). We review what we have recently learned about the clinical aspects of EoE, discussing the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of EoE in adults and children. We explain the current diagnostic criteria and challenges to diagnosis, including the role of gastroesophageal reflux disease and PPI-REE. It is also important to consider the epidemiology of EoE (current incidence of 1/10,000 new cases per year and prevalence of 0.5-1/1,000 cases per year) and disease progression. We review the main treatment approaches and new treatment options; EoE can be treated with topical corticosteroids such as fluticasone and budesonide, or dietary strategies, such as amino acid-based formulas, allergy test-directed elimination diets, and non-directed empiric elimination diets. Endoscopic dilation has also become an important tool for treatment of fibrostenostic complications of EoE. There are number of unresolved issues in EoE, including phenotypes, optimal treatment endpoints, the role of maintenance therapy, and treatment of refractory EoE. The care of patients with EoE and the study of the disease span many disciplines—EoE is ideally managed by a multidisciplinary team of gastroenterologists, allergists, pathologists, and dieticians. PMID:25109885

  20. Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for esophageal achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, H; Minami, H; Kobayashi, Y; Sato, Y; Kaga, M; Suzuki, M; Satodate, H; Odaka, N; Itoh, H; Kudo, S

    2010-04-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) was developed by our group to provide a less invasive permanent treatment for esophageal achalasia. POEM was performed in 17 consecutive patients with achalasia (10 men, 7 women; mean age 41.4 years). A long submucosal tunnel was created (mean length 12.4 cm), followed by endoscopic myotomy of circular muscle bundles of a mean total length of 8.1 cm (6.1 cm in distal esophagus and 2.0 cm in cardia). Smooth passage of an endoscope through the gastroesophageal junction was confirmed at the end of the procedure. In all cases POEM significantly reduced the dysphagia symptom score (from mean 10 to 1.3; P = 0.0003) and the resting lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure (from mean 52.4 mmHg to 19.9 mmHg; P = 0.0001). No serious complications related to POEM were encountered. During follow-up (mean 5 months), additional treatment or medication was necessary in only one patient (case 17) who developed reflux esophagitis (Los Angeles classification B); this was well controlled with regular intake of protein pump inhibitors (PPIs). The short-term outcome of POEM for achalasia was excellent; further studies on long-term efficacy and on comparison of POEM with other interventional therapies are awaited. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.

  1. Esophageal button battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şencan, Arzu; Genişol, İncinur; Hoşgör, Münevver

    2017-07-01

    Button battery lodged in the esophagus carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to present cases of patients with esophageal button battery ingestion treated at our clinic and to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. Records of patients admitted to our hospital for foreign body ingestion between January 2010 and May 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Cases with button battery lodged in the esophagus were included in the study. Patient data regarding age, sex, length of time after ingestion until admission, presenting clinical symptoms, type and localization of the battery, management, and prognosis were analyzed. Among 1891 foreign body ingestions, 71 were localized in the esophagus, and 8 of those (11.2%) were cases of button battery ingestion. Mean age was 1.7 years. Admission was within 6 hours of ingestion in 5 cases, after 24 hours had elapsed in 2, and 1 month after ingestion in 1 case. All patients but 1 knew the history of ingestion. Prompt endoscopic removal was performed for all patients. Three patients developed esophageal stricture, which responded to dilatation. Early recognition and timely endoscopic removal is mandatory in esophageal button battery ingestion. It should be suspected in the differential diagnosis of patients with persistent respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  2. Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conteduca, Vincenza; Sansonno, Domenico; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Marangi, Stefania; Russi, Sabino; Lauletta, Gianfranco; Dammacco, Franco

    2012-08-01

    Although esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth most common cancer in several European countries, it is one of deadliest worldwide. The most frequent predisposing factor implicated in its development is Barrett's esophagus (BE), an acquired metaplastic transformation of the esophageal lining cells from normal squamous epithelium into specialised or intestinal-like columnar epithelium. The major risk factor for BE is gastroesophageal reflux disease. Although BE is in itself a benign and often asymptomatic disorder, its clinical importance stems from the recognition that it represents the main precursor lesion for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (AC), a tumor that is rapidly increasing especially in developed countries and is associated with a low survival rate. This paper provides an overview of the epidemiology and natural history of BE as well as of the possible pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the development of BE and its progressive transition to AC. New diagnostic tests are described, recommendations for screening and surveillance are provided and surgical and ablative procedures to treat dysplastic lesions and early neoplasia are discussed. Claimed chemopreventive agents and biomarkers that in the near future may help identify people with a higher risk of EC are also considered.

  3. Robotic technological aids in esophageal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecchi, Fabrizio; Allaix, Marco E; Morino, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Robotic technology is an emerging technology that has been developed in order to overcome some limitations of the standard laparoscopic approach, offering a stereoscopic three-dimensional visualization of the surgical field, increased maneuverability of the surgical tools with consequent increased movement accuracy and precision and improved ergonomics. It has been used for the surgical treatment of most benign esophageal disorders. More recently, it has been proposed also for patients with operable esophageal cancer. The current evidence shows that there are no real benefits of the robotic technology over conventional laparoscopy in patients undergoing a fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), hiatal closure for giant hiatal hernia, or Heller myotomy for achalasia. A few small studies suggest potential advantages in patients undergoing redo surgery for failed fundoplication or Heller myotomy, but large comparative studies are needed to better clarify the role of the robotic technology in these patients. Robot-assisted esophagectomy seems to be safe and effective in selected patients; however, there are no data showing superiority of this approach over both conventional laparoscopic and open surgery. The short-term and long-term oncologic results of ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are awaited to validate this approach for the treatment of esophageal cancer.

  4. [Laparoscopic Heller myotomy for esophageal achalasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Luis; Butte, Jean Michel; Pimentel, Fernando; Escalona, Alex; Pérez, Gustavo; Crovari, Fernando; Guzmán, Sergio; Llanos, Osvaldo

    2007-04-01

    Achalasia is characterized by an incomplete relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. The best treatment is surgical and the laparoscopic approach may have good results. To assess the results of laparoscopic Heller myotomy among patients with achalasia. Prospective study of patients subjected to a laparoscopic Heller myotomy between 1995 and 2004. Clinical features, early and late operative results were assessed. Twenty seven patients aged 12 to 74 years (12 females) were operated. All had disphagia lasting for a mean of 32 months. Mean lower esophageal sphincter pressure ranged from 18 to 85 mmHg. Eight patients received other treatments prior to surgery but symptoms persisted or reappeared. The preoperative clinical score was 7. No patient died and no procedure had to be converted to open surgery. In a follow up of 21 to 131 months, all patients are satisfied with the surgical results and the postoperative clinical score is 1. Only one patient with a mega esophagus maintained a clinical score of six. In this series of patients, laparoscopic Heller myotomy was an effective and safe treatment for esophageal achalasia.

  5. Results of radiotherapy for esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuki, Kazuhiko; Koga, Kenji; Nishikawa, Kiyoshi; Ebihara, Hiroaki; Futami, Shigemi; Watanabe, Katsushi

    1988-05-01

    The results of radiotherapy for esophageal cancer are described in 80 patients treated between January 1978 and December 1985. Five-year survival rates were 3 % in all the patients and 5 % in 42 patients without distant metastasis, who were irradiated a dose of 50 Gy or more. There were 4 survivors more than 3 years, who showed tumorous type and length of less than 5 cm in all. Median survival months correlated with length and radiological types of tumor (p < 0.05), but no with sex and age. Combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy did not give any impact on survival times. Optimal tumor dose was estimated to be 50 to 70 Gy. Esophageal bypass prolonged survival times and provided real palliation (p < 0.1). Four patients with advanced stage were treated by intracavitary irradiation following external irradiation. Radiation myelopathy and radiation pericarditis were observed in one patient, respectively. The problem of the intracavitary irradiation and the treatment method of esophageal cancer with respiratory tract fistula are discussed in this paper.

  6. Complications of endoscopic dilation for esophageal stenosis after endoscopic submucosal dissection of superficial esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Yoshihiro; Kakushima, Naomi; Kawata, Noboru; Tanaka, Masaki; Takizawa, Kohei; Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    Endoscopic dilation (ED) is used for the treatment of benign strictures caused by reflux esophagitis or anastomotic stenosis after esophagectomy. Esophageal stenosis is a major complication after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of large superficial esophageal cancer, but little is known regarding the incidence of complications of ED for stenosis caused by esophageal ESD. This was a retrospective study conducted at a single institution. From September 2002 to December 2012, a total of 1,337 ED procedures were performed for stenosis after esophageal ESD in 121 patients. The incidence of complications of ED and related clinical characteristics were analyzed. The incidence of bleeding was 0.8 % (1/121) per patient and 0.07 % (1/1,337) per procedure. The incidence of perforation was 4.1 % (5/121) per patient and 0.37 % (5/1,337) per procedure. Perforation occurred at a median of third time of ED procedures (range 2-9 procedures) and at a median of 18 days (range 8-29 days) after ESD. There were no significant characteristics correlated to perforation, such as location, circumferential extent, or diameter of mucosal defect after ESD. The total number of ED procedures was significantly larger among perforation cases (37, range 6-57) compared with those without perforation (7, range 1-70) (p = 0.01), and the treatment duration tended to be longer (190 vs. 69 days, respectively). The incidence of bleeding caused by ED for esophageal stenosis after ESD was very low. Relevant risk of perforation should be considered for patients requiring multiple ED procedures.

  7. Congenital esophageal stenosis associated with esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula: clinical and radiologic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Woo Sun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Shin, Su-Mi; Kim, In-One; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National University College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Yoo, So-Young [Seoul National University College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Park, Kwi-Won; Jung, Sung-Eun [Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) can be associated with esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF). Because there are a variety of degrees of obstruction and symptoms of CES, it is frequently difficult to make a pre- and post-operative diagnosis of the distal CES associated with EA/TEF. To evaluate the clinical and radiologic features of congenital esophageal stenosis associated with esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula. We retrospectively reviewed postoperative esophagograms and medical records of 187 children (107 boys, 80 girls) who had primary repair of EA/TEF from 1992 to 2009 at our institution. We evaluated the incidence of CES, clinical findings, radiologic features and management of CES in these children. CES was diagnosed in 22 of 187 EA/TEF children (12%); one child had double CES lesions, for a total of 23 lesions. Ten of those 22 children (45%) had presented with significant symptoms of esophageal obstruction. The diagnosis of CES was delayed in 10 children (45%) until 1-10 years of age. On esophagogram, CES (n = 23) was located in the distal esophagus (n = 20, 87%) or mid-esophagus (n = 3, 13%). The degree of stenosis was severe (n = 6, 26%), moderate (n = 10, 43%), or mild (n = 7, 30%). Eight children, including two with unsuccessful esophageal balloon dilatation of CES, were treated surgically. Histologic examination revealed tracheobronchial remnant (n = 7) or fibromuscular hyperplasia (n = 1). One child with surgically treated CES developed achalasia at the age of 3 years 9 months. Esophagography after EA/TEF repair should be performed with a high index of suspicion for the presence of distal CES, because the diagnosis and adequate management of CES can often be delayed. (orig.)

  8. Genetic studies in the radioresistant RoeVI population of Drosophilia melanogaster. Genetische Untersuchung an der strahlenresistenten Population RoeVI von Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graetschel, G.

    1982-10-05

    The study described here was carried out in the RoeVI population of Drosophilia melanogaster, a captivity-bred group of animals raised to produce radioresistant offspring, as well as in the original Berlin-wild +S population and a further few radioresistant populations (RoeI{sub 2}, RoeI{sub 40}, RoeI{sub 41}, RoeI{sub 42}). A relative resistance to radiation of the RoeVI population could first be detected after some 50 generations had been raised. This resistance is owing to one particular factor in the distal part of the left branch of chromosome no. 3. This factor is of a dominant nature and acts to reduce the number of induced lethal factors that are also dominant. It influences the radiosensitivity of immature oocytes, although any such effects in males can definitely by ruled out. Experiments carried out to determine the extent of enzyme polymorphism in radioresistant populations subjected to different methods of irradiation did not point to any notable variability here. The latter was lower than that observed for natural populations not subjected to irradiation. One enzyme was associated with markedly pronounced frequency changes to the favour of one specific allele, which was the almost genuine allele of {alpha}-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase ({alpha}-GPDH). It remains to be investigated whether this may be of any value for further selection processes. Studies into the extent of eye colour polymorphism pointed to an increased variability in the RoeVI population as compared to the wild +S population. The higher frequency of mutants with white eyes is thought to be attributable to the heterosis brought about by the induced white-allele. The specific problems associated with relative radio-resistance are discussed for the Rer-3 factor investigated here and the related genetic changes regarding phenotype and population characteristics. (orig./MG).

  9. Increased Risk of Esophageal Eosinophilia and Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Patients With Active Celiac Disease on Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Elizabeth T; Eluri, Swathi; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Genta, Robert M; Dellon, Evan S

    2015-08-01

    The possible association between eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and celiac disease is controversial because prior results have been contradictory. We aimed to determine the relationship between EoE and celiac disease among patients with concomitant esophageal and duodenal biopsies. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a U.S. national pathology database by using data from January 2009 through June 2012. Our primary case definition was defined by the presence of esophageal eosinophilia with ≥15 eosinophils per high-power field. The crude and adjusted (for age and sex) odds of esophageal eosinophilia for patients with active celiac disease were compared with those without celiac disease. Sensitivity analyses were performed by using more stringent case definitions and by estimating the associations between celiac disease and reflux esophagitis and celiac disease and Barrett's esophagus. Of 292,621 patients in the source population, 88,517 with both esophageal and duodenal biopsies were studied. Four thousand one hundred one (4.6%) met criteria for EoE, and 1203 (1.4%) met criteria for celiac disease. Odds of EoE were 26% higher in patients with celiac disease than in patients without celiac disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98-1.60). The magnitude of association varied according to EoE case definition, but all definitions showed a weak positive association between the 2 conditions. There was no association between celiac disease and reflux esophagitis (aOR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.85-1.07) or Barrett's esophagus (aOR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.69-1.14) and celiac disease. There is a weak increase in EoE in patients with celiac disease. This association strengthened with increasingly stringent definitions of EoE and was not observed for other esophageal conditions. In patients with celiac disease, concomitant EoE should be considered in the correct clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Monitoring Neutrophil-Expressed Cell Surface Esophageal Cancer Related Gene-4 after Severe Burn Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Todd W; Coimbra, Raul; Lopez, Nicole E; Lee, Jeanne G; Potenza, Bruce; Smith, Alan; Baird, Andrew; Eliceiri, Brian P

    2015-12-01

    We identified recently esophageal cancer related gene-4 (ECRG4) as a candidate cytokine that is expressed on the surface of quiescent polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and shed in response to ex vivo treatment with lipopolysaccharide. To investigate the potential biologic relevance of changes in cell surface ECRG4 in human samples, we performed a pilot study to examine a population of burn patients in whom blood could be analyzed prospectively. We hypothesized that cutaneous burn injury would alter cell surface expression of ECRG4 on PMNs. Patients admitted with more than 20% total burn surface area (TBSA) (n = 10) had blood collected at the time of admission and weekly thereafter. For comparison, blood was obtained from a control group of healthy human volunteers (n = 4). We used flow cytometry to measure changes in ECRG4(+) PMNs from patients during recovery from injury. Esophageal cancer related gene-4 expression at each time point was compared with the patient's clinical status based on a Multiple Organ Dysfunction (MOD) score. Esophageal cancer related gene-4 was detected on the PMN surface of cells collected from healthy volunteers, however, within 48 h of admission after burn injury (n = 10 patients), the number of PMNs with cell surface ECRG4 was decreased. Esophageal cancer related gene-4 expression in PMNs was re-established over the course of patient recovery, unless complications occurred. In this case, the decrease in cell surface ECRG4(+) PMNs preceded the clinical diagnosis of infectious complications and was reflected by increased organ injury scores. From a small sample set, we were able to determine that PMN cell surface ECRG4 expression was decreased after burn injury and returned to baseline during recovery from injury. Although larger studies are needed to define the role of ECRG4 in human PMNs further, this report is the first assessment of cell surface ECRG4 protein in a patient population to support analogous findings in

  11. Attributable causes of esophageal cancer incidence and mortality in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Bing Wang

    Full Text Available To estimate the contribution of tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake to esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in China.We calculated the proportion of esophageal cancer attributable to four known modifiable risk factors [population attributable fraction (PAF]. Exposure data was taken from meta-analyses and large-scale national surveys of representative samples of the Chinese population. Data on relative risks were also from meta-analyses and large-scale prospective studies. Esophageal cancer mortality and incidence came from the 3(rd national death cause survey and population-based cancer registries in China. We estimated that 87,065 esophageal cancer deaths (men 67,686; women: 19,379 and 108,206 cases (men: 83,968, women: 24,238 were attributable to tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake in China in 2005. About 17.9% of esophageal cancer deaths among men and 1.9% among women were attributable to tobacco smoking. About 15.2% of esophageal cancer deaths in men and 1.3% in women were caused by alcohol drinking. Low vegetable intake was responsible for 4.3% esophageal cancer deaths in men and 4.1% in women. The fraction of esophageal cancer deaths attributable to low fruit intake was 27.1% in men and 28.0% in women. Overall, 46% of esophageal cancers (51% in men and 33% in women were attributable to these four modifiable risk factors.Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake were responsible for 46% of esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in China in 2005. These findings provide useful data for developing guidelines for esophageal cancer prevention and control in China.

  12. The MUC4 membrane-bound mucin regulates esophageal cancer cell proliferation and migration properties: Implication for S100A4 protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruyere, Emilie; Jonckheere, Nicolas; Frenois, Frederic [Inserm, UMR837, Jean-Pierre Aubert Research Center, Team 5 ' Mucins, Epithelial Differentiation and Carcinogenesis' , rue Polonovski, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Universite Lille-Nord de France, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Mariette, Christophe [Inserm, UMR837, Jean-Pierre Aubert Research Center, Team 5 ' Mucins, Epithelial Differentiation and Carcinogenesis' , rue Polonovski, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Universite Lille-Nord de France, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Department of Digestive and Oncological Surgery, University Hospital Claude Huriez, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Van Seuningen, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.vanseuningen@inserm.fr [Inserm, UMR837, Jean-Pierre Aubert Research Center, Team 5 ' Mucins, Epithelial Differentiation and Carcinogenesis' , rue Polonovski, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Universite Lille-Nord de France, 1 place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France)

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} Loss of MUC4 reduces proliferation of esophageal cancer cells. {yields} MUC4 inhibition impairs migration of esophageal cancer cells but not their invasion. {yields} Loss of MUC4 significantly reduces in vivo tumor growth. {yields} Decrease of S100A4 induced by MUC4 inhibition impairs proliferation and migration. -- Abstract: MUC4 is a membrane-bound mucin known to participate in tumor progression. It has been shown that MUC4 pattern of expression is modified during esophageal carcinogenesis, with a progressive increase from metaplastic lesions to adenocarcinoma. The principal cause of development of esophageal adenocarcinoma is the gastro-esophageal reflux, and MUC4 was previously shown to be upregulated by several bile acids present in reflux. In this report, our aim was thus to determine whether MUC4 plays a role in biological properties of human esophageal cancer cells. For that stable MUC4-deficient cancer cell lines (shMUC4 cells) were established using a shRNA approach. In vitro (proliferation, migration and invasion) and in vivo (tumor growth following subcutaneous xenografts in SCID mice) biological properties of shMUC4 cells were analyzed. Our results show that shMUC4 cells were less proliferative, had decreased migration properties and did not express S100A4 protein when compared with MUC4 expressing cells. Absence of MUC4 did not impair shMUC4 invasiveness. Subcutaneous xenografts showed a significant decrease in tumor size when cells did not express MUC4. Altogether, these data indicate that MUC4 plays a key role in proliferative and migrating properties of esophageal cancer cells as well as is a tumor growth promoter. MUC4 mucin appears thus as a good therapeutic target to slow-down esophageal tumor progression.

  13. Non-surgical interventions for eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Elizabeth J; Thomas, Diana; Markowitz, Jonathan E

    2010-03-17

    People with eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) have clinical symptoms of esophageal disease, an elevated intraepithelial eosinophil count (15 in one or more high power field at endoscopy), consistent endoscopic findings and failure to respond to gastric acid suppressants. The cause of EE is unknown, however dietary, environmental and immunological factors may contribute. Current medical therapies include steroids, dietary manipulation, mast cell inhibitors, leukotriene receptor antagonists and immune modulators; however there is no universal approach to treatment. To evaluate the benefits and harms of medical interventions for EE. We searched the Cochrane Upper Gastrointestinal and Pancreatic Diseases Group trials register (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2009), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2009), MEDLINE (1966 to February 2009) and EMBASE (1980 to February 2009). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing a medical or dietary intervention for EE with a placebo or with another medical intervention. Two reviewers independently screened the titles of abstracts. Three RCTs fulfilled inclusion criteria, two in children and one in adults. In one trial, topical fluticasone decreased vomiting more than placebo (67% versus (vs) 27%, Pcandidiasis. In trial comparing fluticasone with oral prednisone, symptom resolution and improvement of esophagitis were similar. Majority of participants were symptom free at four weeks with no difference between groups (RR 1.03, 95%CI 0.95 to 1.11). Symptom relapse usually occurred within six weeks of stopping therapy and 45% had symptom relapse at six month follow-up with no difference between groups. With prednisone, 40% suffered adverse effects and three withdrew early from treatment with severe adverse effects (hyperphagia, weight gain, cushingoid features). With fluticasone, 15% developed esophageal candidiasis and 45% had relapse in symptoms at week 24. Histological improvement occurred

  14. The candidate tumor suppressor gene ECRG4 inhibits cancer cells migration and invasion in esophageal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu ShihHsin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The esophageal cancer related gene 4 (ECRG4 was initially identified and cloned in our laboratory from human normal esophageal epithelium (GenBank accession no.AF325503. ECRG4 was a new tumor suppressor gene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC associated with prognosis. In this study, we investigated the novel tumor-suppressing function of ECRG4 in cancer cell migration, invasion, adhesion and cell cycle regulation in ESCC. Methods Transwell and Boyden chamber experiments were utilized to examined the effects of ECRG4 expression on ESCC cells migration, invasion and adhesion. And flow cytometric analysis was used to observe the impact of ECRG4 expression on cell cycle regulation. Finally, the expression levels of cell cycle regulating proteins p53 and p21 in human ESCC cells transfected with ECRG4 gene were evaluated by Western blotting. Results The restoration of ECRG4 expression in ESCC cells inhibited cancer cells migration and invasion (P P > 0.05. Furthermore, ECRG4 could cause cell cycle G1 phase arrest in ESCC (P Conclusion ECRG4 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene which suppressed tumor cells migration and invasion without affecting cell adhesion ability in ESCC. Furthermore, ECRG4 might cause cell cycle G1 phase block possibly through inducing the increased expression of p53 and p21 proteins in ESCC.

  15. Speciation and antifungal susceptibility of esophageal candidiasis in cancer patients in a tertiary care hospital in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abirami Lakshmy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection in patients with altered immunity such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection, cancer patients on chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Neutropenia, irradiation and chemotherapy will facilitate deeper mucosal invasion leading to esophageal candidiasis. Empirical treatment of esophageal candidiasis without antifungal susceptibility testing will lead to the emergence of drug resistant species increasing the morbidity and mortality associated with cancer. The present study aimed to study the frequency of esophageal candida in individuals with cancer, species level identification and antifungal susceptibility pattern. Scrapings of whitish appearing lesions were obtained from a total of thirty five cases of endoscopically identified esophageal candidiasis were obtained from cancer patients. Identification of the Candida isolates were done by cultivation in Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA, Gram staining, germ tube test, colony morphology in Chrom agar and corn meal agar, sugar assimilation and fermentation tests. Antifungal susceptibility was done by Microbroth dilution method for Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericin B. We found that Candida albicans was the predominant species isolated followed by Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata. Sensitivity rates were 94%, 96% and 100% for Fluconazole, Itraconazole and Amphotericin B. Species level identification of Candida isolated from esophageal candidiasis and their antifungal sensitivity testing should be performed for early identification of resistant strains and for promptly treating the cases there by preventing the dissemination of infection in case of immune-compromised individuals. Further the susceptibility pattern will facilitate therapeutic guidance especially in individuals prone to relapse. [J Med Allied Sci 2016; 6(1: 29-34

  16. Mitomycin C application in resistant caustic esophageal stricture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    –e3. 3 Turkyilmaz Z, Sonmez K, Demirtola A, Karabulut R, Poyraz A, Gulen S, et al. Mitomycin C prevents strictures in caustic esophageal burns in rats. J Surg. Res 2005; 123:182–187. Table 2 Summary of cases with resistant esophageal ...

  17. Acute esophageal necrosis: a case report and review | Lahbabi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute esophageal necrosis, commonly referred to as "black esophagus" or "acute necrotizing esophagitis", is a rare clinical disorder with an unclear etiology. The definition excludes patients with a history of recent caustic ingestion. Oesophageal necrosis can be diagnosed at endoscopy by the presence of black necroting ...

  18. Laparoscopic surgery for gastro-esophageal acid reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijven, Marlies P.; Gisbertz, Suzanne S.; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I.

    2014-01-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease is a troublesome disease for many patients, severely affecting their quality of life. Choice of treatment depends on a combination of patient characteristics and preferences, esophageal motility and damage of reflux, symptom severity and symptom correlation to acid

  19. Challenges in oral drug delivery in patients with esophageal dysphagia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, W.F.; Siersema, P.D.; Bogte, A.; Vleggaar, F.P.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Esophageal dysphagia is a commonly reported symptom with various benign and malignant causes. Esophageal dysphagia can impede intake of oral medication, which often poses a major challenge for both patients and physicians. The best way to address this challenge depends of the cause of

  20. Submucosal esophageal hematoma precipitated by chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Sharma, MBBS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Submucosal esophageal hematoma is an uncommon clinical entity. It can occur spontaneously or secondary to trauma, toxins, medical intervention, and in this case, coagulopathy. Management of SEH is supportive and aimed at its underlying cause. This article reports an 81-year-old male patient with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and hypertension that develops a submucosal esophageal hematoma.

  1. External beam radiotherapy combined with intraluminal brachytherapy in esophageal carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijs, Christina T.; Beukema, Jannet C.; Mul, Veronique E.; Plukker, John Th; Sijtsema, Nanna M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    Purpose: To assess the effectiveness of definitive radiation therapy in patients with potentially curable esophageal cancer and to evaluate the side-effects of this treatment. Methods and materials: Sixty-two patients with esophageal cancer, who were treated with definitive, curatively intended

  2. Esophageal cancer awareness in Bomet district, Kenya | Duron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    33% thought that cancer is a virus and 35% thought that it is contagious. 47% did not think that family history is a risk factor. 79% accurately claimed dysphagia as the most common symptom for esophageal cancer. 40% thought that herbal therapy is the optimal treatment for esophageal cancer. Cost and fear of diagnosis ...

  3. Traumatic upper cervical esophageal perforation in childhood with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    morbidity and mortality if misdiagnosed. There is still no consensus on the assessment and elective management of children with trauma and esophageal rupture .... saliva aspiration may lead to complications ranging from mild aspiration pneumonia to severe respiratory distress. In cases of cervical esophageal perforations ...

  4. The changing epidemiology of esophageal cancer in sub-Saharan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Esophageal cancer portends a grim prognosis. Most patients present with incurable disease. Scanty epidemiologic data on the disease has contributed to its low priority on the national. We sought to evaluate the current national trend in the presentation and outcome of esophageal cancer using our institutional ...

  5. Left sided trans-thoracic esophagectomy for resectable esophageal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Surgery is the main stay of treatment for Esophageal Cancer but there is no standard Esophagectomy accepted by all authorities to be superior. The main objective of this study is to present our experience with the left sided trans-thoracic approach in patients with a lower third Esophageal and ...

  6. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors... stethoscope with electrical conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors is a device that is inserted into the esophagus to listen to a patient's heart and breath sounds...

  7. [Angina-like chest pain and exertional esophageal ph monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romand, F; Vincent, E; Potier, V; Claudel, N; Galoo, E; Desbaumes, J

    1999-03-01

    Spontaneous chest pain attacks are uncommon during 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring in patients suffering from angina-like chest pain suspected to be acid-related. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of exertional esophageal pH monitoring and to prove that exercise testing induces chest pain and gastro-esophageal reflux and therefore improves symptomatic correlation study. Forty three patients suffering from angina-like chest pain underwent treadmill exercise testing during a 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Symptom analysis was made using the symptom-association probability described by Weusten. During the 24-hour pH monitoring, 10 patients (23%) had a pathologic esophageal acid exposure, 20 (46%) experienced chest pain and 3 (7%) had a symptom association probability > 95%. During the exercise testing on a treadmill, 19 patients (44%) had gastro-esophageal reflux, and 14 (32%) experienced chest pain, coinciding with a gastro-esophageal reflux in 8 (19%). After exercise testing, the symptom-association probability analysis was significantly changed in 9 patients (21%), > 95% in 6 patients (14%). Exercise testing on a treadmill induces chest pain episodes during a 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring and therefore improves symptomatic correlation study in patients suffering from angina-like chest pain.

  8. The lower esophageal sphincter shown by a computerized representation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelman, W. A.; van der Hulst, V. P.; Dijkhuis, T.; van der Hoeven, C. W.; Klopper, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The clinical application of manometry of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) remains controversial. This is because of the large variability in recorded lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP). In this paper a computerized method providing a three-dimensional image of the LES is described. In 12

  9. Traumatic upper cervical esophageal perforation in childhood with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical esophageal rupture due to trauma in childhood is an extremely rare entity associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality if misdiagnosed. There is still no consensus on the assessment and elective management of children with trauma and esophageal rupture. Surgical primary repair is usually not feasible in ...

  10. Krt19(+)/Lgr5(-) Cells Are Radioresistant Cancer-Initiating Stem Cells in the Colon and Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaha, Samuel; Hayakawa, Yoku; Muley, Ashlesha; Stokes, Sarah; Graham, Trevor A; Ericksen, Russell E; Westphalen, Christoph B; von Burstin, Johannes; Mastracci, Teresa L; Worthley, Daniel L; Guha, Chandhan; Quante, Michael; Rustgi, Anil K; Wang, Timothy C

    2015-06-04

    Epithelium of the colon and intestine are renewed every 3 days. In the intestine there are at least two principal stem cell pools. The first contains rapid cycling crypt-based columnar (CBC) Lgr5(+) cells, and the second is composed of slower cycling Bmi1-expressing cells at the +4 position above the crypt base. In the colon, however, the identification of Lgr5(-) stem cell pools has proven more challenging. Here, we demonstrate that the intermediate filament keratin-19 (Krt19) marks long-lived, radiation-resistant cells above the crypt base that generate Lgr5(+) CBCs in the colon and intestine. In colorectal cancer models, Krt19(+) cancer-initiating cells are also radioresistant, while Lgr5(+) stem cells are radiosensitive. Moreover, Lgr5(+) stem cells are dispensable in both the normal and neoplastic colonic epithelium, as ablation of Lgr5(+) stem cells results in their regeneration from Krt19-expressing cells. Thus, Krt19(+) stem cells are a discrete target relevant for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of ataxia-telangiectasia and Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome by the assay of radioresistant DNA synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleijer, W.J.; Kraan, M. van der; Los, F.J. [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Clinical Genetics; Jaspers, N.G.J. [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands). Lab. of Cell Biology and Genetics

    1994-12-01

    Prenatal diagnosis was performed in 16 pregnancies at risk of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) or Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS). Radioresistant DNA synthesis (RDS) was investigated in cultured chorionic villus (CV) cells and/or amniotic fluid (AF) cells. In four pregnancies, an affected foetus was diagnosed with increased RDS in cultured CV cells. In three of the four cases confirmation of the diagnosis was obtained by analysis of AF cells and/or skin fibroblasts from the foetus cultured after termination of the pregnancy; in the fourth case a fibroblast culture from the aborted foetus failed. In one case, only AF cells could be analysed in a late stage of pregnancy; pregnancy was terminated due to intermediate/equivocal results but the foetus fibroblasts showed normal RDS. Normal RDS was demonstrated in the other 11 pregnancies at 25% risk either by analysis of CB cells (nine cases) or of AF cells (two cases). In some cases the (normal) results on the CV cells were corroborated by subsequent analysis of Af cells. The results suggest that RDS analysis of CV cells allows reliable prenatal diagnosis of A-T/NBS. However, amniocentesis may be necessary to confirm normal results on CV cells if the foetus is female (because of the risk of maternal cell contamination) or in the rare case of equivocal results. (author).

  12. Identification of new genes contributing to the extreme radioresistance of Deinococcus radiodurans using a Tn5-based transposon mutant library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulermo, Rémi; Onodera, Takefumi; Coste, Geneviève; Passot, Fanny; Dutertre, Murielle; Porteron, Martine; Confalonieri, Fabrice; Sommer, Suzanne; Pasternak, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Here, we have developed an extremely efficient in vivo Tn5-based mutagenesis procedure to construct a Deinococcus radiodurans insertion mutant library subsequently screened for sensitivity to genotoxic agents such as γ and UV radiations or mitomycin C. The genes inactivated in radiosensitive mutants belong to various functional categories, including DNA repair functions, stress responses, signal transduction, membrane transport, several metabolic pathways, and genes of unknown function. Interestingly, preliminary characterization of previously undescribed radiosensitive mutants suggests the contribution of cyclic di-AMP signaling in the recovery of D. radiodurans cells from genotoxic stresses, probably by modulating several pathways involved in the overall cell response. Our analyses also point out a new transcriptional regulator belonging to the GntR family, encoded by DR0265, and a predicted RNase belonging to the newly described Y family, both contributing to the extreme radioresistance of D. radiodurans. Altogether, this work has revealed new cell responses involved either directly or indirectly in repair of various cell damage and confirmed that D. radiodurans extreme radiation resistance is determined by a multiplicity of pathways acting as a complex network.

  13. Prognostic factors for outcomes after whole-brain irradiation of brain metastases from relatively radioresistant tumors: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schild Steven E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated potential prognostic factors in patients treated with whole-brain irradiation (WBI alone for brain metastases from relatively radioresistant tumors such as malignant melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and colorectal cancer. Additionally, a potential benefit from escalating the radiation dose was investigated. Methods Data from 220 patients were retrospectively analyzed for overall survival and local control. Nine potential prognostic factors were evaluated: tumor type, WBI schedule, age, gender, Karnofsky performance score, number of brain metastases, extracerebral metastases, interval from diagnosis of cancer to WBI, and recursive partitioning analysis (RPA class. Results Survival rates at 6 and 12 months were 32% and 19%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, WBI doses >30 Gy (p = 0.038, KPS ≥70 (p Conclusions Improved outcomes were associated with WBI doses >30 Gy, better performance status, fewer brain metastases, lack of extracerebral metastases, and lower RPA class. Patients receiving WBI alone appear to benefit from WBI doses >30 Gy. However, such a benefit is limited to RPA class 1 or 2 patients.

  14. Identification of new genes contributing to the extreme radioresistance of Deinococcus radiodurans using a Tn5-based transposon mutant library.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Dulermo

    Full Text Available Here, we have developed an extremely efficient in vivo Tn5-based mutagenesis procedure to construct a Deinococcus radiodurans insertion mutant library subsequently screened for sensitivity to genotoxic agents such as γ and UV radiations or mitomycin C. The genes inactivated in radiosensitive mutants belong to various functional categories, including DNA repair functions, stress responses, signal transduction, membrane transport, several metabolic pathways, and genes of unknown function. Interestingly, preliminary characterization of previously undescribed radiosensitive mutants suggests the contribution of cyclic di-AMP signaling in the recovery of D. radiodurans cells from genotoxic stresses, probably by modulating several pathways involved in the overall cell response. Our analyses also point out a new transcriptional regulator belonging to the GntR family, encoded by DR0265, and a predicted RNase belonging to the newly described Y family, both contributing to the extreme radioresistance of D. radiodurans. Altogether, this work has revealed new cell responses involved either directly or indirectly in repair of various cell damage and confirmed that D. radiodurans extreme radiation resistance is determined by a multiplicity of pathways acting as a complex network.

  15. Mediastinal abscess and esophageal stricture following voice prosthesis insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzo, Corrado; Meloni, Francesco; Trignano, Mario; Profili, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    The use of a tracheo-esophageal voice prosthesis is a well-established procedure to restore the voice in total laryngectomees. The insertion of the prosthesis is not a risk-free procedure, various complications having been reported especially in irradiated patients. Here described is a case of an esophageal rupture after secondary tracheo-esophageal puncture with mediastinal abscess in a patient previously treated with pharyngo-laryngectomy and subsequent radiotherapy for a left pyriform sinus carcinoma, which required immediate surgical drainage through a left cervical approach. Few weeks after surgical drainage an esophageal stricture at the site of the rupture developed, which was only temporarily resolved after the insertion of biodegradable esophageal stents, followed by re-stenosis once the reabsorption of the stent took place. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microscopic esophagitis in gastro-esophageal reflux disease: individual lesions, biopsy sampling, and clinical correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastracci, Luca; Spaggiari, Paola; Grillo, Federica; Zentilin, Patrizia; Dulbecco, Pietro; Ceppa, Paola; Baccini, Paola; Mansi, Carlo; Savarino, Vincenzo; Fiocca, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Patients with non-erosive reflux disease may show microscopic damage. This study is aimed to describe distribution, sensitivity, and specificity of histological lesions (i.e., basal cell hyperplasia-BH, papillae elongation-PE, dilatation of intercellular spaces-DIS, intraepithelial eosinophils-IE, neutrophils, and erosions) and sampling criteria. Four groups were identified on the basis of symptoms, endoscopy, and pH monitoring: (1) erosive esophagitis (n = 48), (2) non-erosive esophagitis with abnormal pH (n = 59), (3) non-erosive esophagitis with normal pH (n = 12), and (4) controls (n = 20). Biopsies were taken at the Z-line and 2 and 4 cm above it. BH, PE, DIS, IE, neutrophils, and erosions were assessed. A global severity score was calculated on the basis of the above parameters and allowed the distinction of patients from controls with 80% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Lesions were more severe at Z-line than proximally and more expressed in erosive than in non-erosive disease, although more than 70% of latter patients still showed histological damage. Esophageal biopsy seems very attractive in non-erosive disease where it may contribute to diagnosis and play a role in the comparative evaluation of different therapies.

  17. Comparative evaluation of esophageal Barrett's epithelium through esophageal capsule endoscopy and methylene blue chromoendoscop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Domingos

    2013-04-01

    Conclusions: ECE appears to be a good method for detecting lesions in which there is suspicion of esophageal cancer and it had modest results in regard to the accurate identification of BE length and pattern. ECE is not a good method for detecting hiatal hernia. Further studies are needed in order to define the definitive role of ECE in BE monitoring.

  18. Effect of SATB1 silencing on the proliferation, invasion and apoptosis of TE-1 esophageal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Xiong, Fei; Wang, Siwang; Lang, Xianping; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Hongli

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of special AT-rich sequence-binding protein-1 (SATB1)-targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the proliferation, invasion and apoptosis of TE-1 human esophageal cancer cells. SATB1 has been correlated with the metastasis and poor prognosis of colon and breast cancer, but the role of SATB1 in esophageal cancer remains unknown. Therefore, the present study constructed and transfected SATB1-siRNA into TE-1 cells in order to knockdown the expression of the SATB1 gene. Western blot analysis, a cell counting kit, transwell chamber assays and flow cytometry were used to assess the effect of SATB1-siRNA on the proliferation, invasion and apoptosis of cells. The results demonstrated that the expression of the SATB1 gene was efficiently knocked down by SATB1-siRNA, and that SATB1-siRNA inhibited the proliferation, invasion and apoptosis of TE-1 cells. Therefore, it was concluded that the SATB1 gene is important in the pathogenesis of human esophageal cancer, and may present a novel therapeutic target for esophageal cancer.

  19. [Incidence and trend analysis of esophageal cancer in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, T T; Zheng, R S; Zeng, H M; Zhang, S W; Chen, W Q; He, J

    2016-09-23

    Incidence data retrieved from population-based cancer registration were used to analyze the esophageal cancer incidence and trend in China. The results can provide basic information for prevention and control of esophageal cancer. Esophageal cancer incidence data in 2012 were retrieved from the National Central Cancer Registry, nationwide new esophageal cancer cases were estimated using age-specific rate by urban or rural and gender and national population in 2012. Esophageal cancer incidence data from 22 cancer registries were used to analyze the trend during 2000-2011. The estimates of new cases of esophageal cancer were about 286.7 thousand in 2012 in China. The incidence rate was 21.17/10(5,) the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population and by world population were 14.73/10(5) and 14.93/10(5,) respectively, and the cumulative incidence rate was 1.91%.There was a decreasing trend of incidence rate of esophageal cancer in registration areas of China during 2000-2011 with an average annual percentage change (AAPC) of 0.9% (95%CI: -1.6% to -0.1%), no significant differences were observed in urban area and an increasing trend with AAPC of 1.3% (95%CI: 0.2% to 2.5%) in rural area. After age standardization, the incidence rate was significantly decreased, with AAPC of -4.0% (95%CI: -5.5% to -2.6%) overall, -3.8% (95%CI: -4.9% to -2.7%) in urban and -1.7% (95%CI: -3.0% to -0.4%) in rural areas. Esophageal cancer is one of the most common cancers in China and is an emphasis for cancer control. After effective control of risk factors and development of esophageal cancer screening techniques in high-risk areas for years, esophageal cancer incidence appears to have a significant decreasing trend.

  20. Bevacizumab and Combination Chemotherapy Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Esophageal or Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-24

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus; Stage IA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer

  1. Esophageal sphincter device for gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Robert A; Peters, Jeffrey H; Horgan, Santiago; Bemelman, Willem A; Dunst, Christy M; Edmundowicz, Steven A; Lipham, John C; Luketich, James D; Melvin, W Scott; Oelschlager, Brant K; Schlack-Haerer, Steven C; Smith, C Daniel; Smith, Christopher C; Dunn, Dan; Taiganides, Paul A

    2013-02-21

    Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease who have a partial response to proton-pump inhibitors often seek alternative therapy. We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of a new magnetic device to augment the lower esophageal sphincter. We prospectively assessed 100 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease before and after sphincter augmentation. The study did not include a concurrent control group. The primary outcome measure was normalization of esophageal acid exposure or a 50% or greater reduction in exposure at 1 year. Secondary outcomes were 50% or greater improvement in quality of life related to gastroesophageal reflux disease and a 50% or greater reduction in the use of proton-pump inhibitors at 1 year. For each outcome, the prespecified definition of successful treatment was achievement of the outcome in at least 60% of the patients. The 3-year results of a 5-year study are reported. The primary outcome was achieved in 64% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 54 to 73). For the secondary outcomes, a reduction of 50% or more in the use of proton-pump inhibitors occurred in 93% of patients, and there was improvement of 50% or more in quality-of-life scores in 92%, as compared with scores for patients assessed at baseline while they were not taking proton-pump inhibitors. The most frequent adverse event was dysphagia (in 68% of patients postoperatively, in 11% at 1 year, and in 4% at 3 years). Serious adverse events occurred in six patients, and in six patients the device was removed. In this single-group evaluation of 100 patients before and after sphincter augmentation with a magnetic device, exposure to esophageal acid decreased, reflux symptoms improved, and use of proton-pump inhibitors decreased. Follow-up studies are needed to assess long-term safety. (Funded by Torax Medical; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00776997.).

  2. Autoreactive T Cells and Chronic Fungal Infection Drive Esophageal Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Willette-Brown, Jami; Song, Na-Young; Lomada, Dakshayani; Song, Yongmei; Xue, Liyan; Gray, Zane; Zhao, Zitong; Davis, Sean R; Sun, Zhonghe; Zhang, Peilin; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhan, Qimin; Richie, Ellen R; Hu, Yinling

    2017-04-12

    Humans with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), a T cell-driven autoimmune disease caused by impaired central tolerance, are susceptible to chronic fungal infection and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the relationship between autoreactive T cells and chronic fungal infection in ESCC development remains unclear. We find that kinase-dead Ikkα knockin mice develop APECED-like phenotypes, including impaired central tolerance, autoreactive T cells, chronic fungal infection, and ESCCs expressing specific human ESCC markers. Using this model, we investigated the link between ESCC and fungal infection. Autoreactive CD4 T cells permit fungal infection and incite tissue injury and inflammation. Antifungal treatment or autoreactive CD4 T cell depletion rescues, whereas oral fungal administration promotes, ESCC development. Inhibition of inflammation or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity decreases fungal burden. Fungal infection is highly associated with ESCCs in non-autoimmune human patients. Therefore, autoreactive T cells and chronic fungal infection, fostered by inflammation and epithelial injury, promote ESCC development. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Eponyms in esophageal surgery, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbella, F A M; Matone, J; Del Grande, J C

    2005-01-01

    Eponyms in medicine are frequently criticized because they may not represent the person who first described a syndrome or disease. Although eponyms are very commonly used, most readers are probably unaware of who it was that named the diseases and whether the original description of the disease still corresponds to the modern definition. The 10 most common eponyms in esophageal diseases were revisited. The men and the disease behind Barrett's esophagus, Boerhaave's syndrome, Mallory-Weiss syndrome, Cameron ulcer, Schatzki ring, Paterson-Kelly syndrome, Plummer-Vinson, Chagas's disease, Zenker diverticulum and Killian diverticulum are reviewed here.

  4. Misdiagnosed Chest Pain: Spontaneous Esophageal Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inci, Sinan; Gundogdu, Fuat; Gungor, Hasan; Arslan, Sakir; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Eroglu, Atila

    2013-01-01

    Chest pain is one of themost common complaints expressed by patients presenting to the emergency department, and any initial evaluation should always consider life-threatening causes. Esophageal rupture is a serious condition with a highmortality rate. If diagnosed, successful therapy depends on the size of the rupture and the time elapsed between rupture and diagnosis.We report on a 41-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department complaining of left-sided chest pain for two hours. PMID:27122690

  5. Comparative study of esophageal stent and feeding gastrostomy/jejunostomy for tracheoesophageal fistula caused by esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Hao; Li, Shau-Hsuan; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Lu, Hung-I; Huang, Cheng-Hua; Rau, Kun-Ming; Liu, Chien-Ting

    2012-01-01

    A malignant tracheoesophageal/bronchoesophageal fistula (TEF) is a life-threatening complication of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. A feeding gastrostomy/jejunostomy had been the most common treatment method for patients with TEF before the era of stenting. The aim of this retrospective study is to compare the prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients with TEF treated with an esophageal metallic stent to those treated with a feeding gastrostomy/jejunostomy. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 1011 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma between 1996 and 2011 at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, and 86 patients with TEF (8.5%) were identified. The overall survival and other clinical data were compared between 30 patients treated with an esophageal metallic stent and 35 patients treated with a feeding gastrostomy/jejunostomy. Among the 65 patients receiving either an esophageal metallic stent or a feeding gastrostomy/jejunostomy, univariate analysis showed that treatment modality with an esophageal metallic stent (P = 0.007) and radiotherapy treatment after fistula diagnosis (P = 0.04) were predictive of superior overall survival. In the multivariate comparison, treatment modality with an esophageal metallic stent (P = 0.026, odds ratio: 1.859) represented the independent predictive factor of superior overall survival. There were no significant differences between groups in mean decrease in serum albumin or mean body weight loss. Compared to the feeding gastrostomy/jejunostomy group, a significantly higher proportion of patients in the stenting group (53% versus 14%, P = 0.001) were able to receive chemotherapy within 30 days after fistula diagnosis, indicating better infection control in the stenting group. Compared with a feeding gastrostomy/jejunostomy, an esophageal metallic stent significantly improves overall survival in patients with malignant TEF in our retrospective analysis. Esophageal metallic stent placement may be

  6. Comparative study of esophageal stent and feeding gastrostomy/jejunostomy for tracheoesophageal fistula caused by esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hao Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A malignant tracheoesophageal/bronchoesophageal fistula (TEF is a life-threatening complication of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. A feeding gastrostomy/jejunostomy had been the most common treatment method for patients with TEF before the era of stenting. The aim of this retrospective study is to compare the prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients with TEF treated with an esophageal metallic stent to those treated with a feeding gastrostomy/jejunostomy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a total of 1011 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma between 1996 and 2011 at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, and 86 patients with TEF (8.5% were identified. The overall survival and other clinical data were compared between 30 patients treated with an esophageal metallic stent and 35 patients treated with a feeding gastrostomy/jejunostomy. RESULTS: Among the 65 patients receiving either an esophageal metallic stent or a feeding gastrostomy/jejunostomy, univariate analysis showed that treatment modality with an esophageal metallic stent (P = 0.007 and radiotherapy treatment after fistula diagnosis (P = 0.04 were predictive of superior overall survival. In the multivariate comparison, treatment modality with an esophageal metallic stent (P = 0.026, odds ratio: 1.859 represented the independent predictive factor of superior overall survival. There were no significant differences between groups in mean decrease in serum albumin or mean body weight loss. Compared to the feeding gastrostomy/jejunostomy group, a significantly higher proportion of patients in the stenting group (53% versus 14%, P = 0.001 were able to receive chemotherapy within 30 days after fistula diagnosis, indicating better infection control in the stenting group. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with a feeding gastrostomy/jejunostomy, an esophageal metallic stent significantly improves overall survival in patients with malignant TEF in our retrospective

  7. The Role of Acid and Bile Reflux in Esophagitis and Barrett’s Metaplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Rhonda F.

    2010-01-01

    The precise mechanisms whereby gastroesophageal reflux disease causes reflux esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus are not clear, even though these diseases have been known to be linked for many years. Recent studies indicate a role for the reflux-induced inflammatory response of esophageal squamous epithelial cells and the immune cells in the pathogenesis of reflux esophagitis. Although reflux esophagitis commonly heals with esophageal squamous cell regeneration, in some individuals the esopha...

  8. Influence of Ionizing Radiation on Stromal-Epithelial Intercellular Communication in Esophageal Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Zarana S.; Kalabis, Jiri; Rustgi, Anil K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Huff, Janice L.

    2010-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the 6th leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Its development is associated with a variety of risk factors including tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, human papilloma virus infection, and certain dietary factors such as trace mineral and vitamin deficiencies. An association with ionizing radiation exposure is revealed by the high excess relative risk for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus observed in the survivors of the atomic bomb detonations in Japan. It is also seen as a secondary malignancy in patients who received radiotherapy for breast and thoracic cancers; additionally, patients with head/neck and oral squamous cell cancers are at increased risk for metachronous esophageal squamous cell cancers. This malignancy is rapidly fatal, mainly because it remains asymptomatic until late, advanced stages when the disease is rarely curable. The stromal microenvironment plays an essential role in the maintenance and modulation of normal epithelial cell growth and differentiation and cross talk between the epithelial and stromal compartments can influence many aspects of malignant progression, including tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion and recruitment of new blood vessels. To test the hypothesis that radiation exposure plays a role in esophageal carcinogenesis via non-targeted mechanisms involving stromal-epithelial cell communication, we are studying radiation effects on hTERT-immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells and genetic variants grown in co-culture with human esophageal stromal fibroblasts (Okawa et al., Genes & Dev. 2007. 21: 2788-2803). We examined how radiation treatment of stromal fibroblasts affected epithelial migration and invasion, behaviors associated with cancer promotion and progression. Chemotactic and haptotactic migration of epithelial cells stimulated by conditioned media from irradiated fibroblasts was measured using assays conducted in Transwell cell culture chambers. Our results using

  9. EFFECT OF BOLUS SIZE ON DEGLUTITION AND ESOPHAGEAL TRANSIT IN HEALTHY DOGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Diane M; Marks, Stanley L; Pollard, Rachel E

    2016-07-01

    Contrast videofluoroscopy is the gold standard procedure for evaluating dysphagia in humans, but quantitative measures vary depending on bolus size and consistency. We hypothesized that quantitative measures made during videofluoroscopy of swallowing in dogs would differ between bolus sizes and consistencies. Ten healthy adult dogs were enrolled a prospective, crossover experimental study and underwent contrast videofluoroscopy while swallowing liquid (5, 10, and 15 ml) and canned food (3, 8, and 12 g) boluses. Maximum pharyngeal contraction occurred significantly later with medium solid boluses than with medium liquid boluses, with a mean difference of 0.021 s (adjusted P = 0.042). Upper esophageal sphincter opening occurred significantly earlier with large solid boluses than with medium solid boluses, with a mean difference of 0.018 s (adjusted P = 0.025). Thoracic esophageal transit time was significantly longer with small solid boluses than with small liquid boluses, with a mean difference of 0.68 s (adjusted P = 0.004). Odds of primary esophageal peristalsis occurring were significantly (18.5 times) higher with large solid vs. large liquid boluses (adjusted P = 0.031). No other statistical comparisons reached significance. Based on these results, we recommend a standardized approach to videofluoscopy in dogs with determination of quantitative measures using medium liquid and soft food boluses to minimize effects of size. Furthermore, we conclude that measurements made on liquid swallows should not be directly compared to measurements made on soft food boluses. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  10. Protective effect of dimethyl sulfoxide on stricture formation in corrosive esophageal burns in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilincaslan, Huseyin; Karatepe, Hande Ozgun; Sarac, Fatma; Olgac, Vakur; Kemik, Ahu Sarbay; Gedik, Ahmet Hakan; Uysal, Omer

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on stricture formation in corrosive esophageal burns. A total of 21 male rats were divided equally into three groups. In Group 1 (burn) and Group 2 (burn + DMSO) burns were induced in the distal esophagi with a 30% NaOH solution. In Group 3 (control), a saline solution was applied to the esophageal lumen. In Group 2, DMSO was administered intraperitoneally (3 mg/kg) 15 minutes after the burn was induced and then every 24 hours for 7 days. All rats were humanely killed at the end of Day 22. Distal esophagi were harvested for analysis. The stenosis index (SI) and histopathologic damage score were evaluated in addition to malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. DMSO significantly decreased the levels of MDA, NO, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the rats with burned esophagi. Furthermore, the SI and histopathologic scores decreased significantly in the burn + DMSO group relative to the burn group (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that DMSO can decrease the occurrence of stricture formation and could represent a beneficial alternative therapy for the treatment of corrosive esophagitis. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Cigarette smoke mediates epigenetic repression of miR-217 during esophageal adenocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, S; Inchauste, S; Guo, H; Shan, J; Xiao, Z; Xu, H; Miettenen, M; Zhang, M R; Hong, J A; Raiji, M T; Altorki, N K; Casson, A G; Beer, D G; Robles, A I; Bowman, E D; Harris, C C; Steinberg, S M; Schrump, D S

    2015-10-29

    Although microRNAs (miRs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various human malignancies, limited information is available regarding mechanisms by which these noncoding RNAs contribute to initiation and progression of tobacco-induced esophageal cancers. In this study, array and quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR techniques were used to examine miR expression in immortalized esophageal epithelia (IEE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) cells cultured in normal media with or without cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Under relevant exposure conditions, CSC significantly decreased miR-217 expression in these cells. Endogenous levels of miR-217 expression in cultured EAC cells (EACC)/primary EACs were significantly lower than those observed in IEE/ paired normal esophageal tissues. RNA crosslink immunoprecipitation, quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunoblot experiments demonstrated direct interaction of miR-217 with kallikrein 7 (KLK7), encoding a putative oncogene not previously implicated in EAC. Repression of miR-217 correlated with increased levels of KLK7 in primary EACs, particularly those from smokers. Chromatin and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that CSC-mediated repression of miR-217 coincided with DNMT3b-dependent hypermethylation and decreased occupancy of nuclear factor 1 within the miR-217 genomic locus. Deoxyazacytidine induced miR-217 expression and downregulated KLK7 in EACC; deoxyazacytidine also attenuated CSC-mediated miR-217 repression and upregulation of KLK7 in IEE and EACC. Overexpression of miR-217 significantly decreased, whereas overexpression of KLK7 increased proliferation, invasion and tumorigenicity of EACC. Collectively, these data demonstrate that epigenetic repression of miR-217 contributes to the pathogenesis of EAC via upregulation of KLK7 and suggest that restoration of miR-217 expression may be a novel treatment strategy for these malignancies.

  12. Association of Schatzki ring with eosinophilic esophagitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurko, Samuel; Teitelbaum, Jonathan E; Husain, Khaled; Buonomo, Carlo; Fox, Victor L; Antonioli, Donald; Fortunato, Christine; Badizadegan, Kamran; Furuta, Glenn T

    2004-04-01

    To describe the clinicopathologic characteristics of children with Schatzki ring and to determine if Schatzki ring is associated with eosinophilic esophagitis. The authors report 18 adolescents with radiographically diagnosed Schatzki ring (SR). Their clinical and histologic characteristics were reviewed in a blinded fashion. The mean age of the patients was 15.8 +/- 0.8 years and mean duration of symptoms was 2.6 +/- 0.4 years. By histologic criteria, two groups of patients were defined. Eight had clinical and histologic criteria of eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) and 10 of peptic esophagitis. There were no differences in the symptoms or radiographic findings in the two groups. The SR was not identified by endoscopy in any EE patient and was identified in 70% of peptic esophagitis patients. Grossly apparent mucosal features associated with EE were significantly more common in those with EE. Those with peptic esophagitis had a significantly higher acid exposure than did those with EE (12.6 +/- 2.9 v 2.0 +/- 1.1%; P < 0.01) by esophageal pH probe. Patients with peptic esophagitis responded to proton pump inhibitors and/or dilatation, whereas those with EE did not have good response and required specific therapy for EE. EE may play a role in the pathogenesis of some patients with SR.

  13. An optimized lead system for long-term esophageal electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhauser, T; Haeberlin, A; Marisa, T; Mattle, D; Abächerli, R; Goette, J; Jacomet, M; Vogel, R

    2014-04-01

    Long-term electrocardiography (ECG) featuring adequate atrial and ventricular signal quality is highly desirable. Routinely used surface leads are limited in atrial signal sensitivity and recording capability impeding complete ECG delineation, i.e. in the presence of supraventricular arrhythmias. Long-term esophageal ECG might overcome these limitations but requires a dedicated lead system and recorder design. To this end, we analysed multiple-lead esophageal ECGs with respect to signal quality by describing the ECG waves as a function of the insertion level, interelectrode distance, electrode shape and amplifier's input range. The results derived from clinical data show that two bipolar esophageal leads, an atrial lead with short (15 mm) interelectrode distance and a ventricular lead with long (80 mm) interelectrode distance provide non-inferior ventricular signal strength and superior atrial signal strength compared to standard surface lead II. High atrial signal slope in particular is observed with the atrial esophageal lead. The proposed esophageal lead system in combination with an increased recorder input range of ±20 mV minimizes signal loss due to excessive electrode motion typically observed in esophageal ECGs. The design proposal might help to standardize long-term esophageal ECG registrations and facilitate novel ECG classification systems based on the independent detection of ventricular and atrial electrical activity.

  14. Endoscopic Balloon Dilation of Esophageal Strictures in 9 Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prutton, J S W; Marks, S L; Aleman, M

    2015-01-01

    Medical treatment of esophageal strictures in horses is limited and the use of balloon dilatation is described in few cases. Long-term follow up after balloon dilatation and the use of intralesional corticosteroids has not been evaluated. To describe the use of endoscopic guided, esophageal balloon dilatation in horses for cervical and thoracic esophageal strictures and administration of intralesional corticosteroids at the time of dilatation. Nine horses from the hospital population with benign esophageal strictures. Retrospective study: Medical records were reviewed from horses presented to the William R. Pritchard, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at UC Davis from 2002 to 2013. Records were searched using the key words: equine, horse, balloon dilatation, bougienage, and esophageal stricture. Nine horses with esophageal strictures were treated with esophageal balloon dilatation. Five horses survived (survival at writing ranged from 2 to 11 years after discharge) and all nonsurvivors were dilatation. Intralesional corticosteroids might reduce the incidence of recurrent strictures. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Chronic esophageal foreign bodies in pediatric patients: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert Sean; Willging, J Paul; Rutter, Michael J; Rookkapan, Korpong

    2004-03-01

    Chronic esophageal foreign bodies (CEFB) are associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality in adults. However, the presentation, management and outcome of chronic esophageal foreign bodies in children are not well described. We performed a retrospective chart review of children with chronic esophageal foreign bodies admitted to the Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, between May 1990 and January 2002. A chronic esophageal foreign body was defined as a foreign body estimated to have been present for over 1 week. Over the inclusion period, 522 children were admitted with esophageal foreign bodies, 41 (8%) of which were chronic. The most common foreign bodies were coins. Seventy-six percent of patients presented with a primary complaint of respiratory symptoms, with respiratory distress being the most common followed by asthmatic symptoms and cough. Twenty-two percent of patients had primarily gastrointestinal symptoms including nausea/vomiting and dysphagia. One patient was asymptomatic on presentation. A perforated esophagus was identified in 18 patients, with 17 of these being a technically perforated esophagus and one case being a classic esophageal perforation. There were no deaths or permanent morbidity in this series. Respiratory symptoms are more common than gastrointestinal symptoms in pediatric patients with chronic esophageal foreign bodies. Removal by rigid esophagoscopy is recommended. A small proportion of cases require open removal of the foreign body. Conservative management is appropriate for the technically perforated esophagus. A good outcome should be anticipated for the majority of cases.

  16. Identification of intramural metastasis in esophageal cancer using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Kang, Deyong; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Lin, jiangbo; Chen, Jianxin

    2017-02-01

    Intramural metastasis (IM) of esophageal cancer is defined as metastasis from a primary lesion to the esophageal wall without intraepithelial cancer extension. Esophageal cancer with IM is more common and such cases indicate a poor prognosis. In esophageal surgery, if curative resection is possible, the complete removal of both primary tumor and associated IMs is required. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of IMs in esophageal cancer prior to surgery is of particular importance. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) with subcellular resolution is well-suited for deep tissue imaging since many endogenous fluorophores of fresh biological tissues are excited through two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG). Here, a study to identify IM in fresh tissue section using MPM is reported. In this study, the morphological and spectral differences between IM and surrounding tissue are described. These results show that MPM has the ability to accurately identify IM in esophageal tissues. With improvement of the penetration depth of MPM and the development of multiphton microendoscope, MPM may be a promising imaging technique for preoperative diagnosis of IMs in esophageal cancer in the future.

  17. Radionuclide esophageal transit test to detect esophageal disorders in patients with mitral valve prolapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao Chiahung [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan); Tsai Shihchuan [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Show-Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua (Taiwan); Hsieh Jihfang [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chi-Mei Foundation Hospital, Tainan (Taiwan); Ho Yungjen [Dept. of Radiology, Jen-Ai Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan); Ding Hueischjy [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kaohsiung Medicine Coll. (Taiwan)

    2000-06-01

    Aim: The origin of chest discomfort in patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is controversial. Our aim was to prospectively determine the incidence of esophageal disorders in MVP patients with or without chest pain. Methods: Twenty-five MVP patients with chest pain (group A) and 25 MVP patients without chest pain (group B) underwent evaluation of esophageal motility. None of the total of 50 MVP patients had significant coronary artery disease on cardiac catheterization. Esophageal motility including esophageal mean transit time (MTT), residual fraction (RF), and retrograde index (RI) was analyzed by the radionuclide esophageal transit test (RETT). Results: In comparison with 25 age and sex-matched healthy volunteers, the results showed that: (1) 19 patients in group A (76%) had abnormal RETT findings (48% of cases with prolonged MTT, 44% of cases with higher RF, and 60% of cases with higher RI); (2) 3 patients in group B (12%) had abnormal RETT findings (8% of cases with prolonged MTT, 4% of cases with higher RF, and 8% of cases with higher RI). In addition, mean values of MTT, RF, and RI in group A patients were significantly higher than in group B patients and healthy volunteers. Conclusion: We found that the chest pain in some MVP patients may be related to abnormal esophageal motility, based on the evidence from a simple and noninvasive RETT. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Die Ursache thorakaler Beschwerden bei Patienten mit Mitralklappenprolaps (MVP) wird kontrovers diskutiert. Wir bestimmten prospektiv die Haeufigkeit oesophagealer Stoerungen in MVP-Patienten mit oder ohne thorakale Beschwerden. Methode: Bei jeweils 25 MVP-Patienten mit thorakalen Beschwerden (Gruppe A) und 25 MVP-Patienten ohne thorakale Beschwerden (Gruppe B) wurde die oesophageale Motilitaet untersucht. Keiner der 50 MVP-Patienten hatte eine koronarangiographisch nachweisbare koronare Herzkrankheit. Mittels der Oesophagus-Funktionsszintigraphie (OeFZ) wurden oesophageale Motilitaet inklusive

  18. Appropriateness of using patient-derived xenograft models for pharmacologic evaluation of novel therapies for esophageal/gastro-esophageal junction cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorin Dodbiba

    Full Text Available The high morbidity and mortality of patients with esophageal (E and gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ cancers, warrants new pre-clinical models for drug testing. The utility of primary tumor xenografts (PTXGs as pre-clinical models was assessed. Clinicopathological, immunohistochemical markers (p53, p16, Ki-67, Her-2/neu and EGFR, and global mRNA abundance profiles were evaluated to determine selection biases of samples implanted or engrafted, compared with the underlying population. Nine primary E/GEJ adenocarcinoma xenograft lines were further characterized for the spectrum and stability of gene/protein expression over passages. Seven primary esophageal adenocarcinoma xenograft lines were treated with individual or combination chemotherapy. Tumors that were implanted (n=55 in NOD/SCID mice had features suggestive of more aggressive biology than tumors that were never implanted (n=32. Of those implanted, 21/55 engrafted; engraftment was associated with poorly differentiated tumors (p=0.04 and older patients (p=0.01. Expression of immunohistochemical markers were similar between patient sample and corresponding xenograft. mRNA differences observed between patient tumors and first passage xenografts were largely due to loss of human stroma in xenografts. mRNA patterns of early vs late passage xenografts and of small vs large tumors of the same passage were similar. Complete resistance was present in 2/7 xenografts while the remaining tumors showed varying degrees of sensitivity, that remained constant across passages. Because of their ability to recapitulate primary tumor characteristics during engraftment and across serial passaging, PTXGs can be useful clinical systems for assessment of drug sensitivity of human E/GEJ cancers.

  19. Primary esophageal melanoma: report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Granel-Villach

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus is a rare tumor representing only 0.1-0.2% of esophageal malignancies. The goal of the study was to report on the management of a new case diagnosed and treated in our site. Case report: A 67-year-old patient presented with dysphagia to solids with no other remarkable history or associated skin lesions. He underwent gastroscopy, which revealed a polypoid mass suggestive of neoplasm in the distal third of the esophagus. Biopsy indicated melanoma with positive immunohistochemical markers S100 and HMB45, and negative cytokeratins and CEA. Computerized tomography (CT and positron-emission tomography (PET scans showed no local infiltration or distant metastases. An Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy procedure was performed with regional lymphadenectomy. Postoperative stay lasted for three weeks, and no remarkable postsurgical complications arose. The pathological study of the specimen confirmed the diagnosis of primary esophageal melanoma. Discussion: Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus has an unfortunate prognosis as it is an aggressive tumor usually diagnosed at an advanced stage, with local invasion and metastatic disease. Currently, surgery is the treatment of choice, with the remaining adjuvant therapies obtaining limited results.

  20. Postoperative radiation therapy for esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yasumasa; Ono, Koji; Imamura, Masayuki; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Takahashi, Masaji; Abe, Mitsuyuki; Ohishi, Ken; Yanagibashi, Ken; Tobe, Takayoshi (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-04-01

    The value of postoperative radiation therapy (RT) was investigated in 77 patients with esophageal cancer resected between 1977 and 1986. Surgical resection was palliative in 13 of these patients. Although seven of them underwent postoperative irradiation to the residual tumor, all of the patients died within one year. Following potentially curative resection performed in 64 patients, 31 patients received 50 Gy of postoperative RT to the lower neck and the mediastinum (group Ia), seven were unable to receive full-dose postoperative RT (group Ib), and 26 were not treated with postoperative RT (group II). The 5-year survival rate estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method was 54% for group Ia, 29% for group Ib, and 33% for group II, with the difference between groups Ia and II being significant (p<0.025). The local recurrence rate in the mediastinum was lower in group Ia than in group II. Prophylactic postoperative RT for esophageal cancer is a safe and effective regimen for patients with resected disease. (author).

  1. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ESOPHAGITIS GRADES AND HELICOBACTER PYLORI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Patrícia Fernanda Saboya; Kubrusly, Luiz Fernandao; Nassif, Paulo Afonso Nunes; Ribeiro, Irma Cláudia Saboya; Bertoldi, Andressa de Souza; Batistão, Venessa Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The Helicobacter pylori infection (HP) is related to the development of gastric lesions and lymphoma; however, it is not known if there is a relation with gastroesophageal reflux disease and reflux esophagitis. To evaluate HP's relationship with esophagitis in patients undergoing upper endoscopy. Observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study, being evaluated 9576 patients undergoing outpatient endoscopic examination during the period between January and December 2015. Were included patients with any esophageal alteration at the examination; greater than 18; of both genders; independent of the complaint or the reason for the examination, illness or drug use. Were excluded those with active bleeding during the examination and in use of anticoagulants. The variables gender, age, esophagitis and result of the urease test, were studied. For statistical analysis was used the Epi Info software 7.1.5.2. Most of the samples consisted of women and the overall average age was 46.54±16.32 years. The presence of infection was balanced for gender: 1204 (12.56%) women and 952 (13.92%) men. Relating degree of esophagitis HP- and HP+ was observed that the type A was the most common (58.79%, n=1460); 604 (24.32%) had grade B; 334 (13.45%) grade C, and 85 (3.42%) grade D. In the relation between the grade of esophagitis with gender, esophagitis A was predominant in women and present in 929 (63.33%), followed by type B, 282 (46.68%), 136 C (40.71%) and D 30 (35.29%). In men 531 (36.36%) showed type A, 322 (53.31%) B, 198 (59.28%) C, and 55 (64.70%) D. Among the groups 40-50 and over 60 years there was a significant difference in whether have or not have HP+. There is no significant difference between HP infection and the different grades of esophagitis. A infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori (HP) é relacionada com o desenvolvimento de lesões e linfoma gástricos; porém, ainda não se sabe ao certo se há relação dele com a doença do refluxo gastroesofágico e esofagite

  2. Esophageal thermal injury by hot adlay tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Hoon; Yang, Hyeon Woong; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Young A; Lee, Jung Yun; Kim, Sae Hee; Lim, Sin Hyung

    2007-03-01

    Reversible thermal injury to the esophagus as the result of drinking hot liquids has been reported to generate alternating white and red linear mucosal bands, somewhat reminiscent of a candy cane. This phenomenon is associated with chest pain, dysphagia, odynophagia, and epigastric pain. Here, we report a case of thermal injury to the esophageal and oral cavity due to the drinking of hot tea, including odynophagia and dysphagia. A 69-year-old man was referred due to a difficulty in swallowing which had begun a week prior to referral. The patient, at the time of admission, was unable to swallow even liquids. He had recently suffered from hiccups, and had consumed five cups of hot adlay tea one week prior to admission, as a folk remedy for the hiccups. Upon physical examination, the patient's oral cavity evidenced mucosal erosion, hyperemia, and mucosa covered by a whitish pseudomembrane. Nonspecific findings were detected on the laboratory and radiological exams. Upper endoscopy revealed diffuse hyperemia, and erosions with thick and whitish pseudomembraneous mucosa on the entire esophagus. The stomach and duodenum appeared normal. We diagnosed the patient with thermal esophageal injury inflicted by the hot tea. He was treated with pantoprazole, 40 mg/day, for 14 days, and evidenced significant clinical and endoscopic improvement.

  3. Rare cause of odynophagia: Giant esophageal ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veroux, Massimiliano; Aprile, Giuseppe; Amore, Francesca F; Corona, Daniela; Giaquinta, Alessia; Veroux, Pierfrancesco

    2016-04-14

    Gastrointestinal complications are a frequent cause of morbidity after transplantation and may affect up to 40% of kidney transplant recipients. Here we report a rare case of idiopathic giant esophageal ulcer in a kidney transplant recipient. A 37-year-old female presented with a one-week history of odynophagia and weight loss. Upon admission, the patient presented cold sores, and a quantitative cytomegalovirus polymerase chain reaction was positive (10(5) copies/mL). An upper endoscopy demonstrated the presence of a giant ulcer. Serological test and tissue biopsies were unable to demonstrate an infectious origin of the ulcer. Immunosuppression was reduced and everolimus was introduced. An empirical i.v. therapy with acyclovir was started, resulting in a dramatic improvement in symptoms and complete healing of the ulcer. Only two cases of idiopathic giant esophageal ulcer in kidney transplant recipients have been reported in the literature; in both cases, steroid therapy was successful without recurrence of symptoms or endoscopic findings. However, this report suggests that correction of immune imbalance is mandatory to treat such a rare complication.

  4. microRNA-32 induces radioresistance by targeting DAB2IP and regulating autophagy in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Haiqiu; Xiao, Yang; Hu, Yingbin; Xiao, Yangming; Yin, Zhaofa; Liu, Liang

    2015-10-01

    The aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) has been found in numerous cancer types. miR-32 is an oncomiR in prostate cancer (PCa), however, the mechanisms by which miR-32 functions as a regulator of radiotherapy response and resistance in PCa are largely unknown. In the present study, it was found that DAB2 interacting protein (DAB2IP), the miR-32-dependent tumor-suppressor gene, was downregulated and induced autophagy and inhibited radiotherapy-induced apoptosis in PCa cells. miR-32 expression was upregulated or overexpressed in PCa, and miR-32 inhibited DAB2IP expression through a direct binding site within the DAB2IP 3' untranslated region. miR-32 mimics enhanced tumor cell survival and decreased radiosensitivity in the PCa cells, which were reversed by miR-32 inhibitor. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that overexpressed miR-32, consistent with the DAB2IP-knockdown results, reduced ionizing radiation (IR)-induced cell apoptosis, which was restored by 4 nM brefeldin A treatment. More significantly, the overexpression of miR-32 and the knockdown of DAB2IP enhanced autophagy in the IR-treated PCa cells. miR-32 regulated the expression of autophagy-related proteins, such as DAB2IP, Beclin 1 and Light chain 3β I/II, as well as phosphorylation of S6 kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin. In conclusion, these data provide novel insights into the mechanisms governing the regulation of DAB2IP expression by miR-32 and their possible contribution to autophagy and radioresistance in PCa.

  5. Inhibition of Notch signaling enhances transdifferentiation of the esophageal squamous epithelium towards a Barrett's-like metaplasia via KLF4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Maria E; Giroux, Véronique; Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Liu, Mingen; Klein-Szanto, Andres J; Stairs, Douglas B; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Wang, Kenneth K; Wang, Timothy C; Lynch, John P; Rustgi, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is defined as an incomplete intestinal metaplasia characterized generally by the presence of columnar and goblet cells in the formerly stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus. BE is known as a precursor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Currently, the cell of origin for human BE has yet to be clearly identified. Therefore, we investigated the role of Notch signaling in the initiation of BE metaplasia. Affymetrix gene expression microarray revealed that BE samples express decreased levels of Notch receptors (NOTCH2 and NOTCH3) and one of the the ligands (JAG1). Furthermore, BE tissue microarray showed decreased expression of NOTCH1 and its downstream target HES1. Therefore, Notch signaling was inhibited in human esophageal epithelial cells by expression of dominant-negative-Mastermind-like (dnMAML), in concert with MYC and CDX1 overexpression. Cell transdifferentiation was then assessed by 3D organotypic culture and evaluation of BE-lineage specific gene expression. Notch inhibition promoted transdifferentiation of esophageal epithelial cells toward columnar-like cells as demonstrated by increased expression of columnar keratins (K8, K18, K19, K20) and glandular mucins (MUC2, MUC3B, MUC5B, MUC17) and decreased expression of squamous keratins (K5, K13, K14). In 3D culture, elongated cells were observed in the basal layer of the epithelium with Notch inhibition. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of KLF4, a potential driver of the changes observed by Notch inhibition. Interestingly, knockdown of KLF4 reversed the effects of Notch inhibition on BE-like metaplasia. Overall, Notch signaling inhibition promotes transdifferentiation of esophageal cells toward BE-like metaplasia in part via upregulation of KLF4. These results support a novel mechanism through which esophageal epithelial transdifferentiation promotes the evolution of BE.

  6. Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Study of Caspofungin versus Amphotericin B for Treatment of Oropharyngeal and Esophageal Candidiases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arathoon, Eduardo G.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Noriega, L. Miguel; Berman, Rayanne S.; DiNubile, Mark J.; Sable, Carole A.

    2002-01-01

    Caspofungin is an antifungal agent of the novel echinocandin class. We investigated its efficacy, safety, and tolerability as therapy for oropharyngeal and/or esophageal candidiasis in a phase II dose-ranging study. Patients were randomized in a double-blind manner to receive either caspofungin acetate (35, 50, or 70 mg) or amphotericin B (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) intravenously once daily for 7 to 14 days. A favorable response required both complete resolution of symptoms and quantifiable improvement of mucosal lesions 3 to 4 days after discontinuation of study drug. Efficacy was assessed using a modified intent-to-treat analysis. No hypothesis testing of efficacy was planned or performed. Of 140 enrolled patients, 63% had esophageal involvement and 98% were infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (median CD4 count, 30/mm3). A modestly higher proportion of patients in each of the caspofungin groups (74 to 91%) achieved favorable responses compared to amphotericin B recipients (63%), but there was considerable overlap in the 95% confidence intervals surrounding these point estimates. Similar trends were found in the subgroups with esophageal involvement, a history of fluconazole failure, and CD4 counts of ≤50/mm3. A smaller proportion of patients receiving any dose of caspofungin experienced drug-related adverse events compared to patients given standard doses of conventional amphotericin B (P esophageal candidiasis in this study. PMID:11796357

  7. [Analysis of results of endoscopic screening of esophageal, gastric cardia and gastric cancers in high risk population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiangong; Wang, Furang; Zhang, Yabing; Quan, Peiliang; Liu, Shuzheng; Sun, Xibin; Lu, Jianbang

    2014-02-01

    To summarize the results of endoscopic screening of esophageal, gastric cardiac and gastric cancers in the high-risk population, and analyze the influencing factors such as age, gender and biopsy rate on their detection and early diagnosis rates. Nine high incidence cities and counties of esophageal cancer in Henan province were included in this study. People aged 40-69 years were set to the target population. Excluding contraindications for gastroscopy, in accordance with the national technical scheme of early cancer diagnosis and treatment, gastroscopic screening and biopsy pathology for human esophageal, cardiac and gastric cancers were carried out. During the 3-year period, a total of 40 156 subjects were screened. Among them, 18 459 cases of various precancerous lesions (46.0%) were detected. The cancer detection rate was 2.3% (916 cases), including 763 cases of early cancers. The diagnosis rate of early cancers was 83.3%. Precancerous lesions were detected in 9297 cases (23.2%) for esophagus and 9162 cases (22.8%) for gastric cardia as well as stomach, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate that endoscopic screening is feasible for early detection, diagnosis and treatment of esophageal, gastric cardia and gastric cancers among high risk population in high incidence area. Exploration analysis of relevant affecting factors may help to further improve the screening project for early diagnosis and treatment of those cancers.

  8. Tumor-specific expression of shVEGF and suicide gene as a novel strategy for esophageal cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Wu, Hai-Jun; Liang, Yu; Liang, Xu-Jun; Huang, Hui-Chao; Zhao, Yan-Zhong; Liao, Qing-Chuan; Chen, Ya-Qi; Leng, Ai-Min; Yuan, Wei-Jian; Zhang, Gui-Ying; Peng, Jie; Chen, Yong-Heng

    2016-06-21

    To develop a potent and safe gene therapy for esophageal cancer. An expression vector carrying fusion suicide gene (yCDglyTK) and shRNA against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was constructed and delivered into EC9706 esophageal cancer cells by calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CPNP). To achieve tumor selectivity, expression of the fusion suicide gene was driven by a tumor-specific human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter. The biologic properties and therapeutic efficiency of the vector, in the presence of prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Both in vitro and in vivo testing showed that the expression vector was efficiently introduced by CPNP into tumor cells, leading to cellular expression of yCDglyTK and decreased VEGF level. With exposure to 5-FC, it exhibited strong anti-tumor effects against esophageal cancer. Combination of VEGF shRNA with the fusion suicide gene demonstrated strong anti-tumor activity. The shVEGF-hTERT-yCDglyTK/5-FC system provided a novel approach for esophageal cancer-targeted gene therapy.

  9. Pathophysiology of acute acid injury in rabbit esophageal epithelium.

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando, R C; Powell, D. W.; Carney, C N

    1981-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the pathophysiology of reflux esophagitis, we sought the early sequence of changes in mucosal structure and function in acutely acid-damage rabbit esophagus. Using a perfused catheter technique esophageal potential difference (PD) profiles were obtained in anesthetized rabbits before, during, and after perfusion of the lower one-half of the esophagus with phosphate-buffered saline or 80 mM NaCl. When acid perfusion reduced the lower esophageal PD by 40-50% or ...

  10. Dumping syndrome after esophageal atresia repair without antireflux surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Laurent; Sfeir, Rony; Couttenier, Frédéric; Turck, Dominique; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2010-04-01

    In childhood, the surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux is the main cause of dumping syndrome. We report the cases of 2 children with esophageal atresia who presented with dumping syndrome without any precipitating known factors, such as gastroesophageal reflux surgery or associated microgastria. Our data suggest (1) that dumping syndrome can occur after primary anastomosis of esophageal atresia without antireflux surgery and (2) that dumping syndrome should be considered in every child treated surgically for esophageal atresia presenting with digestive symptoms, malaise, failure to thrive, or refusal to eat. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Esophageal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: Diagnostic Complexity and Management Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos G. Markakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the esophagus are rare. Case Presentation. This is a case of a 50-year-old male patient who was referred to our department complaining of atypical chest pain. A chest computed tomographic scan and endoscopic ultrasound revealed a submucosal esophageal tumor measuring 5 cm in its largest diameter. Suspecting a leiomyoma, we performed enucleation via right thoracotomy. The pathology report yielded a diagnosis of an esophageal gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The patient has shown no evidence of recurrence one year postoperatively. Conclusions. This report illustrates the complexity and dilemmas inherent in diagnosing and treating esophageal GISTs.

  12. Esophageal replacement in patients under 3 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Gomez, M

    1994-04-01

    From 1985 to 1991, esophageal replacement was performed in seven patients with esophageal atresia without fistula. In four, the operation was performed in the neonatal period; three of these patients are alive. The other three patients were operated on between 2 and 3 months of age; two of them are alive. Six of the patients had colonic interposition, and the other had gastric interposition. Of the two patients who died, one had multiple associated malformations; the other one had a massive barium bronchoaspiration before the esophageal replacement.

  13. The impact of bariatric surgery on esophageal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolone, Salvatore; Savarino, Edoardo; Yates, Robert B

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic. There is increasing evidence that obesity is associated with benign gastroesophageal disease, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and esophageal dysmotility. Bariatric surgery-including sleeve gastrectomy, gastric bypass, and adjustable gastric band placement-can effectively result in weight loss and control of obesity-related conditions, including GERD. However, there is increasing evidence that bariatric surgery itself can have a deleterious effect on esophageal function. In this review, we address the effect of obesity and bariatric surgery on esophageal dysfunction. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Reciprocal Regulation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2α and GLI1 Expression Associated With the Radioresistance of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jiancheng [Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Department of Urology, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Wu, Kaijie [Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Gao, Dexuan [Department of Urology, Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated with Shandong University, Ji' nan (China); Zhu, Guodong; Wu, Dapeng; Wang, Xinyang; Chen, Yule; Du, Yuefeng; Song, Wenbin; Ma, Zhenkun [Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Authement, Craig; Saha, Debabrata [Department of Urology, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Hsieh, Jer-Tsong, E-mail: jt.hsieh@utsouthwestern.edu [Department of Urology, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); He, Dalin, E-mail: dalinhe@yahoo.com [Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is often considered a radioresistant tumor, but the molecular mechanism underlying its radioresistance is poorly understood. This study explored the roles of hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF2α) and sonic hedgehog (SHH)-GLI1 signaling in mediating the radioresistance of RCC cells and to unveil the interaction between these 2 signaling pathways. Methods and Materials: The activities of SHH-GLI1 signaling pathway under normoxia and hypoxia in RCC cells were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and luciferase reporter assay. The expression of HIF2α and GLI1 in RCC patients was examined by immunohistochemistry, and their correlation was analyzed. Furthermore, RCC cells were treated with HIF2α-specific shRNA (sh-HIF2α), GLI1 inhibitor GANT61, or a combination to determine the effect of ionizing radiation (IR) on RCC cells based on clonogenic assay and double-strand break repair assay. Results: RCC cells exhibited elevated SHH-GLI1 activities under hypoxia, which was mediated by HIF2α. Hypoxia induced GLI1 activation through SMO-independent pathways that could be ablated by PI3K inhibitor or MEK inhibitor. Remarkably, the SHH-GLI1 pathway also upregulated HIF2α expression in normoxia. Apparently, there was a positive correlation between HIF2α and GLI1 expression in RCC patients. The combination of sh-HIF2α and GLI1 inhibitor significantly sensitized RCC cells to IR. Conclusions: Cross-talk between the HIF2α and SHH-GLI1 pathways was demonstrated in RCC. Cotargeting these 2 pathways, significantly sensitizing RCC cells to IR, provides a novel strategy for RCC treatment.

  15. [Esophageal diseases: gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett's esophagus, achalasia and eosinophilic esophagitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Xavier; Villoria, Albert

    2013-10-01

    Important new advances were presented in esophageal disease in Digestive Disease Week 2013. A highlight was confirmation of the high efficacy of weight loss to treat symptoms of reflux and an interesting pilot study suggesting that a simple ligature with supra- and infracardial bands could be an effective technique in esophageal reflux. If the excellent results and safety and efficacy of this technique are confirmed in the long term, it could revolutionize the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Also of note this year was the presentation of multiple studies validating a new technique, peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for the endoscopic treatment of achalasia. This technique seems to have excellent efficacy and safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Intestinal and gastric permeability in children with eosinophilic esophagitis and reflux esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Aldrich J T; Persad, Sujata; Slae, Mordechai; Abdelradi, Amr; Kluthe, Cheryl; Shirton, Leanne; Danchuk, Ronda; Persad, Rabin; Meddings, Jon; Huynh, Hien Q

    2015-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic and immune-mediated entity that leads to a characteristic inflammation of esophageal mucosa. Patients complain of dysphagia and reflux-like symptoms. As many as 80% of patients with EoE may also have a history of atopy, and patients with asthma and eczema have previously been shown to have increased intestinal permeability. This study was designed to assess small intestinal and gastric permeability in patients with EoE and to see whether it differed from healthy individuals and patients with reflux esophagitis (RE). Gastric and small intestinal permeability was measured using sugar probe tests containing lactulose, mannitol, and sucrose. Lactulose-to-mannitol (L/M) ratios in the patient's urine were a measure for intestinal permeability, and total sucrose was a measure for gastric permeability. We analyzed samples from 23 patients with EoE, 20 RE, 14 normal upper endoscopy with gastrointestinal symptoms, and 26 healthy controls. All of the 4 groups had L/M ratios less than the upper limit of normal (<0.025). There was no statistically significant difference in gastric permeability between the 4 groups (L/M P = 0.26, sucrose P = 0.46). Our data suggest that an alteration in gastric and intestinal permeability does not play a role in EoE or RE pathogenesis.

  17. Vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steevens, J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2011-01-01

    Prospective epidemiologic data on vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer are sparse. We studied the association between vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), gastric

  18. Increased Artemis levels confer radioresistance to both high and low LET radiation exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridharan Deepa M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemis has a defined role in V(DJ recombination and has been implicated in the repair of radiation induced double-strand breaks. However the exact function(s of Artemis in DNA repair and its preferred substrate(s in vivo remain undefined. Our previous work suggests that Artemis is important for the repair of complex DNA damage like that inflicted by high Linear Energy Transfer (LET radiation. To establish the contribution of Artemis in repairing DNA damage caused by various radiation qualities, we evaluated the effect of over-expressing Artemis on cell survival, DNA repair, and cell cycle arrest after exposure to high and low LET radiation. Results Our data reveal that Artemis over-expression confers marked radioprotection against both types of radiation, although the radioprotective effect was greater following high LET radiation. Inhibitor studies reveal that the radioprotection imparted by Artemis is primarily dependent on DNA-PK activity, and to a lesser extent on ATM kinase activity. Together, these data suggest a DNA-PK dependent role for Artemis in the repair of complex DNA damage. Conclusions These findings indicate that Artemis levels significantly influence radiation toxicity in human cells and suggest that Artemis inhibition could be a practical target for adjuvant cancer therapies.

  19. Esophageal variceal ligation for hemostasis of acute variceal bleeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esophageal variceal ligation for hemostasis of acute variceal bleeding: efficacy and safety. Mounia Lahbabi, Mounia Elyousfi, Nouredine Aqodad, Mohammed Elabkari, Ihssane Mellouki, Sidi Adil Ibrahimi, Dafr Allah Benaja ...

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Esophagitis in a Young Immunocompetent Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadayakkara, Deepak K; Candelaria, Angela; Kwak, Ye Eun; Loeser, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex esophagitis (HSE) is commonly identified in immunosuppressed patients. It is rare among immunocompetent patients and almost all of the reported cases are due to HSV-1 infection. HSV-2 esophagitis is extremely rare. We report the case of a young immunocompetent male who presented with dysphagia, odynophagia, and epigastric pain. Endoscopy showed multitudes of white nummular lesions in the distal esophagus initially suspected to be candida esophagitis. However, classic histopathological findings of multinucleated giant cells with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions and positive HSV-2 IgM confirmed the diagnosis of HSV-2 esophagitis. The patient rapidly responded to acyclovir treatment. Although HSV-2 is predominantly associated with genital herpes, it can cause infections in other parts of the body previously attributed to only HSV-1 infection.

  1. Validity of utilities of patients with esophageal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalmeier, P.F.M.; Boer, A.G.E.M. de; Sprangers, M.A.G.; Haes, J.C.J.M. de; Lanschot, J.J.B. van

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The convergent validity between utility assessment methods was assessed. METHODS: Investigated were patients with esophageal cancer treated surgically with curative intent. Patients were interviewed in a period from 3 to 12 months after surgical resection. Patients evaluated their actual

  2. A comparison of multimodal therapy and surgery for esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, T N

    1996-08-15

    Uncontrolled studies suggest that a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy improves the survival of patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma. We conducted a prospective, randomized trial comparing surgery alone with combined chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery.

  3. Radiologic staging of esophageal and gastroesophageal junction carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Overhagen (Hans)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractPretreatment radiologic staging can, theoretically, improve the effectiveness and results of surgical treatment in esophageal and gastroesophageal junction carcinoma. Ideally, on these studies it is possible to select only patients with limited local disease for surgery, whereas those

  4. Preoperative Chemotherapy, Radiation Improve Survival in Esophageal Cancer (Updated)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with esophageal cancer who received chemotherapy and radiation before surgery survived, on average, nearly twice as long as patients treated with surgery alone, according to results of a randomized clinical trial published May 31, 2012, in NEJM.

  5. Esophageal and gastric cancer incidence and mortality in alendronate users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Pazianas, Michael; Eiken, Pia Agnete

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have reached conflicting conclusions regarding the risk of esophageal cancer with oral bisphosphonates. Prior studies did not record the number of cancer deaths or endoscopy rates, which could be higher in bisphosphonate users and lead to more cancers being diagnosed at a stage when...... their esophageal or gastric location could be accurately distinguished. We conducted a register-based, open cohort study using national healthcare data for Denmark. Upper endoscopy frequency, cancer incidence and mortality was examined in 30,606 alendronate users (female, age 50¿+¿) and 122,424 matched controls....... Primary outcomes were esophageal cancer incidence and death due to esophageal cancer. The analysis showed that alendronate users were more likely to have undergone recent upper endoscopy (4.1 vs 1.7%, p¿...

  6. Study Points to Genetic Subtypes of Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Cancer Currents blog post about a study by The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network that identified distinct genetic and molecular changes in esophageal cancers that could improve their classification and identify potential new treatments.

  7. Drug-induced acute esophageal lesions and use of ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V M; Carneiro, M V; Cruz, L R; Paixao, G T G

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a 95-year-old woman who had acute esophageal lesions while being treated with oral ciprofloxacin for an acute cystitis. On day 2 of treatment, she reported retroesternal pain with a globus sensation, and presented hematemesis and melena. There was no history of gastric or esophageal disturbances. An upper digestive endoscopy showed bleeding lesions on the middle third of the esophagus. Ciprofloxacin was discontinued and a proton pump inhibitor was administered. One week later, the endoscopic aspect of the esophagus was normal. Only two cases of ciprofloxacin-induced esophageal lesions have been reported previously. A short review of this kind of esophageal injuries is presented, focusing on the main risk factors and preventive measures.

  8. [Esophageal candidiasis as complication of inhaled steroid therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuto, Hiroshi; Nagata, Makoto; Terashi, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Michiya; Takizawa, Takao; Shuto, Chizuru; Watanabe, Kensuke; Tosaka, Kaoru; Okano, Masahiko; Noguchi, Hisashi

    2003-11-01

    Gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in two bronchial asthma patients using inhaled corticosteroid who complained of odynophagia. The endoscopic finding was high grade with white moss (Grade III) in both patients. Esophageal candidiasis is often recognized in bronchial asthmatic patients receiving long-term fluticasone propionate (FP) dry powder (Diskhaler) inhalation. We therefore examined the complicated context of esophageal candidiasis in patients with long-term FP inhalation. Out of 20 bronchial asthmatic patients who had been using FP inhalation long-term, seven showed signs of esophageal candidiasis. Three patients had mild grade (Grade I), one middle grade (Grade II) and three high grade (Grade III) candidiasis, with a frequency of 35%. This rate is higher than the usual spontaneous occurrence rate of esophageal candidiasis, and it is suggested that inhalation of corticosteroid medication can penetrate into the esophagus after deep inhalation. We tested this hypothesis in two studies. 1) To measure the esophageal concentration of FP, four healthy adults inhaled 200 microg FP once. Right after inhalation, FP concentration in the esophageal washing fluid was 3.3 microg. On another day, 30 minutes after the same dose of inhaled FP, one FP concentration in the esophageal washing fluid was 0.67 microg (immediately laydown), and another was 0.11 microg (remained standing). This indicates that even though FP dissipates quickly, it remains in the esophagus 30 minutes after inhalation. 2) We observed the process in one patient with high grade (Grade III) esophageal candidiasis. The time of inhalation was changed from just after getting up and just before going to bed to before breakfast and before dinner. Under this regimen, the signs of esophageal candidiasis improved from high to middle grade. If asthmatic patients do not go to sleep immediately after FP inhalation, the remaining FP in the esophagus decreases rapidly, thereby decreasing the risk of esophageal

  9. BEMER Electromagnetic Field Therapy Reduces Cancer Cell Radioresistance by Enhanced ROS Formation and Induced DNA Damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Storch

    Full Text Available Each year more than 450,000 Germans are expected to be diagnosed with cancer subsequently receiving standard multimodal therapies including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. On top, molecular-targeted agents are increasingly administered. Owing to intrinsic and acquired resistance to these therapeutic approaches, both the better molecular understanding of tumor biology and the consideration of alternative and complementary therapeutic support are warranted and open up broader and novel possibilities for therapy personalization. Particularly the latter is underpinned by the increasing utilization of non-invasive complementary and alternative medicine by the population. One investigated approach is the application of low-dose electromagnetic fields (EMF to modulate cellular processes. A particular system is the BEMER therapy as a Physical Vascular Therapy for which a normalization of the microcirculation has been demonstrated by a low-frequency, pulsed EMF pattern. Open remains whether this EMF pattern impacts on cancer cell survival upon treatment with radiotherapy, chemotherapy and the molecular-targeted agent Cetuximab inhibiting the epidermal growth factor receptor. Using more physiological, three-dimensional, matrix-based cell culture models and cancer cell lines originating from lung, head and neck, colorectal and pancreas, we show significant changes in distinct intermediates of the glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways and enhanced cancer cell radiosensitization associated with increased DNA double strand break numbers and higher levels of reactive oxygen species upon BEMER treatment relative to controls. Intriguingly, exposure of cells to the BEMER EMF pattern failed to result in sensitization to chemotherapy and Cetuximab. Further studies are necessary to better understand the mechanisms underlying the cellular alterations induced by the BEMER EMF pattern and to clarify the application areas for human disease.

  10. BEMER Electromagnetic Field Therapy Reduces Cancer Cell Radioresistance by Enhanced ROS Formation and Induced DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Katja; Dickreuter, Ellen; Artati, Anna; Adamski, Jerzy; Cordes, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Each year more than 450,000 Germans are expected to be diagnosed with cancer subsequently receiving standard multimodal therapies including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. On top, molecular-targeted agents are increasingly administered. Owing to intrinsic and acquired resistance to these therapeutic approaches, both the better molecular understanding of tumor biology and the consideration of alternative and complementary therapeutic support are warranted and open up broader and novel possibilities for therapy personalization. Particularly the latter is underpinned by the increasing utilization of non-invasive complementary and alternative medicine by the population. One investigated approach is the application of low-dose electromagnetic fields (EMF) to modulate cellular processes. A particular system is the BEMER therapy as a Physical Vascular Therapy for which a normalization of the microcirculation has been demonstrated by a low-frequency, pulsed EMF pattern. Open remains whether this EMF pattern impacts on cancer cell survival upon treatment with radiotherapy, chemotherapy and the molecular-targeted agent Cetuximab inhibiting the epidermal growth factor receptor. Using more physiological, three-dimensional, matrix-based cell culture models and cancer cell lines originating from lung, head and neck, colorectal and pancreas, we show significant changes in distinct intermediates of the glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways and enhanced cancer cell radiosensitization associated with increased DNA double strand break numbers and higher levels of reactive oxygen species upon BEMER treatment relative to controls. Intriguingly, exposure of cells to the BEMER EMF pattern failed to result in sensitization to chemotherapy and Cetuximab. Further studies are necessary to better understand the mechanisms underlying the cellular alterations induced by the BEMER EMF pattern and to clarify the application areas for human disease.

  11. Characterization of esophageal physiology using mechanical state analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Eduard Leibbrandt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The esophagus functions to transport swallowed fluids and food from the pharynx to the stomach. The esophageal muscles governing bolus transport comprise circular striated muscle of the proximal esophagus and circular smooth muscle of the distal esophagus. Longitudinal smooth muscle contraction provides a mechanical advantage to bolus transit during circular smooth muscle contraction. Esophageal striated muscle is directly controlled by neural circuits originating in the central nervous system, resulting in coordinated contractions. In contrast, the esophageal smooth muscle is controlled by enteric circuits modulated by extrinsic central neural connections resulting in neural relaxation and contraction. The esophageal muscles are modulated by sensory information arising from within the lumen. Contraction or relaxation, which changes the diameter of the lumen, alters the intraluminal pressure and ultimately inhibits or promotes flow of content. This relationship that exists between the changes in diameter and concurrent changes in intraluminal pressure has been used previously to identify the ‘mechanical states’ of the circular muscle; that is when the muscles are passively or actively, relaxing or contracting. Detecting these changes in the mechanical state of the muscle has been difficult and, as the current interpretation of esophageal motility is based largely upon pressure measurement (manometry, subtle changes in the muscle function during peristalsis can be missed. We hypothesized that quantification of mechanical states of the esophageal circular muscles and the pressure-diameter properties that define them, would allow objective characterization of the mechanisms that govern esophageal peristalsis. To achieve this we analyzed barium swallows captured by simultaneous videofluoroscopy and pressure with impedance recording. From these data we demonstrated that intraluminal impedance measurements could be used to determine changes in the

  12. Is the Schatzki ring a unique esophageal entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Michaela; Gockel, Ines; Hedwig, Philip; Eckardt, Alexander J; Kuhr, Kathrin; König, Jochem; Eckardt, Volker F

    2011-06-21

    To study, whether the association of Schatzki rings with other esophageal disorders support one of the theories about its etiology. From 1987 until 2007, all patients with newly diagnosed symptomatic Schatzki rings (SRs) were prospectively registered and followed. All of them underwent structured interviews with regards to clinical symptoms, as well as endoscopic and/or radiographic examinations. Endoscopic and radiographic studies determined the presence of an SR and additional morphological abnormalities. One hundred and sixty-seven patients (125 male, 42 female) with a mean age of 57.1 ± 14.6 years were studied. All patients complained of intermittent dysphagia for solid food and 113 (79.6%) patients had a history of food impaction. Patients experienced symptoms for a mean of 4.7 ± 5.2 years before diagnosis. Only in 23.4% of the 64 patients who had endoscopic and/or radiological examinations before their first presentation to our clinic, was the SR previously diagnosed. At presentation, the mean ring diameter was 13.9 ± 4.97 mm. One hundred and sixty-two (97%) patients showed a sliding hiatal hernia. Erosive reflux esophagitis was found in 47 (28.1%) patients. Twenty-six (15.6%) of 167 patients showed single or multiple esophageal webs; five (3.0%) patients exhibited eosinophilic esophagitis; and four (2.4%) had esophageal diverticula. Four (7%) of 57 patients undergoing esophageal manometry had non-specific esophageal motility disorders. Schatzki rings are frequently associated with additional esophageal disorders, which support the assumption of a multifactorial etiology. Despite typical symptoms, SRs might be overlooked.

  13. [Endoscopic implantation of endoprostheses in incurable esophageal and cardia cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesenhaken, U; Rogos, R

    1990-03-01

    The palliative treatment of tumorous stenosis of the esophagus and cardio-esophageal region by intubation with an endoprosthesis leads to an improved quality of life. The used endoscopic positioning provides better results than the surgical procedure. This method is easy in handling and has only few complications. The endoscopic positioning of endoprosthesis is also a really alternative of alimentary fistula. The positioning of plastic prosthesis under endoscopic control should be given preference in the palliative treatment of obstructing cardio-esophageal malignancy.

  14. [Efficacy of sorption therapy in patients with cicatricial esophageal stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikinev, Iu V; Antonov, A R; Korobeĭnikov, A V

    2006-01-01

    We examined 110 patients treated conservatively for cicatricial esophageal stenosis including expansion on the string. The patients were divided into three groups: controls (n = 35), receiving adjuvant SUMS-1 (n = 38) and given adjuvant enterosgel (n = 37). According to electron microscopy, enterosorbents make esophageal mucosa denser by decreasing interstitial spaces as a result of microcirculatory improvement and reduction of edema. Enterosorbents elevate total protein and sugar in the blood.

  15. Esophageal Lichen Planus: Clinical and Radiographic Findings in Eight Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschecker, Andreas M; Levine, Marc S; Whitson, Matthew J; Tondon, Rashmi; Rubesin, Stephen E; Furth, Emma E; Metz, David C

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present the clinical and radiographic findings of esophageal lichen planus. A search of computerized medical records identified 15 patients with pathologic findings of esophageal lichen planus on endoscopic biopsy specimens. Three other patients had presumed esophageal lichen planus, although no biopsy specimens were obtained. Twelve of these 18 patients (67%) had double-contrast esophagography performed at our institution; for eight of the 12 patients (67%), the studies revealed abnormalities in the esophagus. These eight patients constituted our study group. The barium esophagrams and medical records of these eight patients were reviewed to determine the clinical, radiographic, and endoscopic findings of esophageal lichen planus as well as the treatment and patient outcome. All eight patients were women (median age, 66.5 years), and all eight presented with dysphagia (mean duration, 3.2 years). Four patients had previous lichen planus that involved the skin (n = 1), the oral cavity (n = 2), or both (n = 1), and one patient later had lichen planus that involved the vagina. Five patients had a small-caliber esophagus with diffuse esophageal narrowing. The remaining three patients had segmental strictures in the cervical (n = 1), upper thoracic (n = 1), and distal thoracic (n = 1) esophagus. Esophageal lichen planus typically occurs in older women with longstanding dysphagia and often develops in the absence of extraesophageal disease. Barium esophagrams may reveal a small-caliber esophagus or, less commonly, segmental esophageal strictures. Greater awareness of the radiographic findings of esophageal lichen planus hopefully will lead to earlier diagnosis and better management of this condition.

  16. Esophageal foreign bodies in dogs: 34 cases (2004-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Holly C; Cortes, Yonaira; Gannon, Kristi; Bailey, Dennis; Freer, Sean

    2012-04-01

    To characterize the clinical and radiographic signs, endoscopic findings, treatment, and outcome for dogs that present with esophageal foreign bodies (EFBs), and to identify factors associated with the severity of secondary esophagitis and length of hospitalization (LOH). Retrospective case series. Private referral veterinary center. Client-owned dogs. None. Medical records for 34 client-owned dogs with EFBs that had esophageal radiographs and that had undergone esophagoscopy were evaluated retrospectively. Information regarding clinical history, radiographic signs, findings at esophagoscopy, and outcome were recorded. The most common EFBs were bone (29.7%) and rawhides (29.7%). The median duration of clinical signs prior to initial presentation was 2.75 hours. Radiographically, EFBs were identified definitively in 30 dogs and questionably in 1. The most common location was in the caudal esophagus (59.3%). Esophagitis was not identified in 6 dogs; and was assessed as mild in 14, moderate in 9, and severe in 4. In 1 dog the degree of esophagitis could not be determined due to the presence of contrast agent. Dogs with longer duration of clinical signs and longer anesthesia times were more likely to have moderate or severe esophagitis. Median LOH was 19 hours. Dogs with longer duration of clinical signs, EFBs located in the caudal esophagus, and moderate or severe esophagitis had longer hospital stays. No dogs experienced long-term complications. Complication rate was 82.5% with 8 patients having more than 1 complication. While long-term prognosis is excellent, early intervention helps reduce short-term esophagitis and LOH. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  17. Darier disease with oral and esophageal involvement: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magesh Karuppur Thiagarajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old man presented with itchy papular eruptions all over the body since 15 years. Intraoral examination revealed raised papular lesions on the labial mucosa, hard palate, and tongue. The histopathology of the oral and skin lesions was confirmative of Darier disease (DD. This patient also showed esophageal involvement, which was confirmed histopathologically. Such a presentation of DD, with oral and esophageal involvement, is rare.

  18. Genes Associated with Food Allergy and Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    dysfunction including dysphagia , chest pain, abdominal pain, and food impactions (1, 2). Food impactions are related to esophageal strictures which develop...consensus recommendations for children and adults. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011;128(1):3-20. 2. Sherrill JD, Rothenberg ME. Genetic dissection of...D, Attwood SE, Bonis PA, et al. Eosinophilic esophagitis: updated consensus recommendations for children and adults. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011;128

  19. Changes in Swallowing Symptoms and Esophageal Motility After Thyroid Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Markoew, Simone; Døssing, Helle

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Swallowing difficulties, the pathophysiology behind which is incompletely understood, have been reported in 47-83% of goiter patients referred for thyroidectomy. We aimed at examining the influence of thyroid surgery on swallowing symptoms and esophageal motility. METHODS: Thirty-th...... to esophageal motility disturbances. This information is essential when interpreting dysphagia in patients with nodular goiter, and when balancing patients' expectations to surgical goiter therapy. REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03100357 ( www.clinicaltrials.org )....

  20. Novel mechanisms and signaling pathways of esophageal ulcer healing: the role of prostaglandin EP2 receptors, cAMP, and pCREB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Amrita; Baatar, Dolgor; Jones, Michael K; Tarnawski, Andrzej S

    2014-09-15

    Clinical studies indicate that prostaglandins of E class (PGEs) may promote healing of tissue injury e.g., gastroduodenal and dermal ulcers. However, the precise roles of PGEs, their E-prostanoid (EP) receptors, signaling pathways including cAMP and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and their relation to VEGF and angiogenesis in the tissue injury healing process remain unknown, forming the rationale for this study. Using an esophageal ulcer model in rats, we demonstrated that esophageal mucosa expresses predominantly EP2 receptors and that esophageal ulceration triggers an increase in expression of the EP2 receptor, activation of CREB (the downstream target of the cAMP signaling), and enhanced VEGF gene expression. Treatment of rats with misoprostol, a PGE1 analog capable of activating EP receptors, enhanced phosphorylation of CREB, stimulated VEGF expression and angiogenesis, and accelerated esophageal ulcer healing. In cultured human esophageal epithelial (HET-1A) cells, misoprostol increased intracellular cAMP levels (by 163-fold), induced phosphorylation of CREB, and stimulated VEGF expression. A cAMP analog (Sp-cAMP) mimicked, whereas an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (Rp-cAMP) blocked, these effects of misoprostol. These results indicate that the EP2/cAMP/protein kinase A pathway mediates the stimulatory effect of PGEs on angiogenesis essential for tissue injury healing via the induction of CREB activity and VEGF expression.

  1. Effects of Morinda citrifolia aqueous fruit extract and its biomarker scopoletin on reflux esophagitis and gastric ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahattanadul, Sirima; Ridtitid, Wibool; Nima, Sawpheeyah; Phdoongsombut, Narubodee; Ratanasuwon, Pranee; Kasiwong, Srirat

    2011-03-24

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dried mature unripe Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae) fruit, commonly known as "Noni", in an aqueous extract preparation (AFE) as used in Thai traditional medicine and its biomarker scopoletin on gastro-esophageal inflammatory models that are related to the claimed pharmacological properties of AFE and/or resembled the human esophagitis or gastric ulcer. The powder of dried mature unripe Noni fruit was boiled in water until it became a sticky paste and was then dried into a powder by lyophilization. The pharmacological activity of AFE and pure scopoletin at the same equivalent dose present in AFE was investigated in rat on gastro-esophageal inflammatory models (acid reflux esophagitis, acute gastritis induced by ethanol and serotonin, and chronic gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid); gastric biochemical parameters and gastrointestinal motility. AFE (0.63-2.50 g/kg) significantly prevented the formation of acid reflux esophagitis, reduced the formation of ethanol-induced acute gastric lesions, suppressed the development of gastric lesions in response to serotonin, and accelerated the healing of acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcer in rats with equal potency to those obtained by standard antisecretory agents (ranitidine and lansoprazole). AFE also significantly inhibited gastric acid secretion and pepsin activity in pylorus ligated rats. Additionally, AFE strongly increased the gastrointestinal transit of charcoal meal with a higher potency than cisapride. Pure scopoletin, when compared at the same equivalent dose containing in AFE, possessed similar antiulcer and antisecretory properties to that of AFE although it exerted a less prokinetic activity than AFE. The findings indicated that AFE as well as its biomarker: scopoletin may be beneficial as a potential preventive and therapeutic agent for gastro-esophageal inflammatory diseases, mainly through its antisecretory and prokinetic activities

  2. Overexpression of DNA damage-induced 45 α gene contributes to esophageal squamous cell cancer by promoter hypomethylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Bao xiang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental factors-induced dysfunction of esophageal squamous epithelium, including genomic DNA impairment and apoptosis, play an important role in the pathogenesis of esophageal squamous cell cancer. DNA damage-induced 45α (GADD45α has been found promoting DNA repair and removing methylation marker, Therefore, in this study we will investigate whether GADD45α expression is induced and its mechanism in esophageal squamous cell cancer. Methods Two human esophageal squamous cell lines (ESCC, ECA109 and KYSE510 were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS. Lipofectamine 2000 was used to transfect cells. mRNA level of GADD45α was measured by reverse transcription-quantitive PCR (RT-qPCR, protein level of GADD45α was detected by western blot and Immunohistochemistry. Global DNA methylation of tissue sample was measured using the Methylamp Global DNA Methylation Quantification Ultra kit (Epigentek Group and promoter methylation was measured by bisulfite sequencing. Results GADD45a mRNA and protein levels were increased significantly in tumor tissue than that in adjacent normal tissue. Hypomethylation of global genomic DNA and GADD45α promoter were found in ESCC. The cell sensitivity to Cisplatin DDP was decreased significantly in Eca109 and Kyse510 cells, in which GADD45α expression was down-regulated by RNA interference (RNAi. In addition, silence of GADD45a expression in ESCC cells inhibited proliferation and promoted apoptosis. Conclusion Overexpression of GADD45α gene is due to DNA hypomethylation in ESCC. GADD45α may be a protective factor in DDP chemotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

  3. Management of eosinophilic esophagitis and celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, Rok Seon; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Katzka, David A; Murray, Joseph A

    2017-12-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and celiac disease (CeD) are chronic immune mediated gastrointestinal disorders characterized by mucosal inflammation, both of which are related to food antigens, but with differences in clinical and histopathological features. When untreated, both diseases lead to destruction of the epithelium. While a strict gluten-free diet is the only effective therapy for CeD, several therapeutic options, such as proton pump inhibitors, topical steroids and diet elimination therapy are available for EoE. For EoE patients, all can be efficacious in achieving remission, but the looming question is whether all patients should be on maintenance therapy. New biologic therapies are being studied under study in both diseases, but none are ready for clinical use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Generation and characterization of an inducible transgenic model for studying mouse esophageal biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth Sabrina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To facilitate the in vivo study of esophageal (stem cell biology in homeostasis and cancer, novel mouse models are necessary to elicit expression of candidate genes in a tissue-specific and inducible fashion. To this aim, we developed and studied a mouse model to allow labeling of esophageal cells with the histone 2B-GFP (H2B-GFP fusion protein. Results First, we generated a transgenic mouse model expressing the reverse tetracycline transactivator rtTA2-M2 under control of the promoter (ED-L2 of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV gene encoding the latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1. The newly generated ED-L2-rtTA2-M2 (ED-L2-rtTA mice were then bred with the previously developed tetO-HIST1H2BJ/GFP (tetO-H2B-GFP model to assess inducibility and tissue-specificity. Expression of the H2B-GFP fusion protein was observed upon doxycycline induction but was restricted to the terminally differentiated cells above the basal cell layer. To achieve expression in the basal compartment of the esophagus, we subsequently employed a different transgenic model expressing the reverse transactivator rtTA2S-M2 under the control of the ubiquitous, methylation-free CpG island of the human hnRNPA2B1-CBX3 gene (hnRNP-rtTA. Upon doxycycline administration to the compound hnRNP-rtTA/tetO-H2B-GFP mice, near-complete labeling of all esophageal cells was achieved. Pulse-chase experiments confirmed that complete turnover of the esophageal epithelium in the adult mouse is achieved within 7–10 days. Conclusions We show that the esophagus-specific promoter ED-L2 is expressed only in the differentiated cells above the basal layer. Moreover, we confirmed that esophageal turn-over in the adult mouse does not exceed 7–10 days.

  5. Lugol staining and histological evaluation of esophageal mucosa in achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Elisa Miki; Cecconello, Ivan; Iriya, Kiyoshi; El Ibrahim, Roberto; Rodrigues, Joaquim Gama; Pinotti, Henrique Walter

    2006-01-01

    Esophageal cancer in achalasia is often diagnosed in the advanced stage, which makes for a poor prognosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the macroscopic and histological features of the esophageal mucosa in order to improve the early detection of cancer. We studied the macroscopic features of esophageal mucosa using Lugol's solution and compared them with histological analysis of the entire mucosa in 20 esophagectomy specimens resected for achalasia. Intraepithelial neoplasia, when detected, was selected for DNA ploidy analysis through static cytometry. Macroscopically, the mucosa showed opacification and/or diffuse irregularities in 19 specimens. Advanced squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed in 2 cases. Using Lugol, the esophageal mucosa acquired irregular brownish color. Clear unstained areas were circumscribed in 5 esophagi. They were macroscopically defined as ulcer, neoplasia (2 cases) and mucosal irregularities (2 cases). The histological analysis showed ulcer, squamous cell carcinoma (2 cases), Barrett's esophagus and esophagitis, respectively. The histological study of the stained mucosa revealed minute foci of DNA aneuploid intraepithelial neoplasia in 4 cases. Macroscopic examination using Lugol failed to identify minute foci of early carcinoma. The stained mucosa does not exclude the esophageal cancer risk in achalasia.

  6. Pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis: radiologic findings with pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkovitz, Larry A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Mayo Clinic, Division of Pediatric Radiology, E-2, Rochester, MN (United States); Lorenz, Emily A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Di Lorenzo, Carlo [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Columbus, OH (United States); Kahwash, Samir [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized as a cause of dysphagia or food impaction in pediatric patients. It has a high male predominance and is often associated with a history of allergy or asthma. To correlate fluoroscopic findings in eosinophilic esophagitis with the endoscopic and histologic findings. We retrospectively reviewed the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) findings of eosinophilic esophagitis and correlated them with the clinical, endoscopic and histologic findings in a series of 17 children (12 boys, 5 girls). UGI findings were normal in 12 children, including 4 who had a normal UGI exam after endoscopic disimpaction for an obstructing food bolus. Five children had strictures identified on UGI: one was demonstrated with endoscopy. This suggests that the impactions and strictures were due to an esophageal dysmotility rather than a fixed anatomic abnormality. Because the UGI findings are frequently normal in eosinophilic esophagitis, radiologists need to have a high index of suspicion for this disease. In children with a strong clinical history, especially impaction in the absence of an esophageal stricture, endoscopy and biopsy are indicated for further evaluation. (orig.)

  7. Video-thoracoscopic enucleation of esophageal leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luh Shi-Ping

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of the esophagus. Surgical enucleation is indicated in case of symptoms or an unclear diagnosis, and open thoracotomy has long been the standard approach for this procedure. However, enucleation through video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS has been developed as a preferred approach for most lesions in recent years. Method Herein we report our twelve patients (seven men and five women, with median age of 42 years from 2001 to 2009, who underwent enucleation through VATS for esophageal leiomyomas, with a size from 1 to 8 cm in diameter (median: 5, and at different locations, from the thoracic outlet to near the diaphragmatic level of the thoracic esophagus. Intraoperative fiberoptic esophagoscopy was performed in two patients for localization by illumination. A right-sided approach was performed in eight cases (upper two thirds of esophagus and the left-sided in another four cases (lower third of esophagus. Result The median operative time was 95 minutes (70 to 230 minutes. Four of them required small utility incisions (4-6 cm for better exploration and manipulation. There were no major complications, such as death or empyema due to leaks from mucosal tears, and the presenting symptoms were improved during the follow-up period, from 12 to 98 months. Conclusion VATS can be considered as an initial approach for most patients with esophageal leiomyomas, even large in size, irregular in shape, or at unfavorable location. It is a safe, minimally invasive, and effective treatment. However, conversion to open thoracotomy should be required for the sake of clinical or technical concern.

  8. [Laparoscopic treatment of para-esophageal hernias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, D; Wagner, T; Sa Cunha, A; Rault, A; Masson, B

    2006-10-01

    This retrospective study aims at analyzing the functional results obtained in patients operated by laparoscopy for a para-esophageal hernia. From 1994 to 2004, 38 patients underwent a laparoscopic procedure for a symptomatic para-esophageal hiatal hernia of at least 3/4 of the proximal stomach: 27 females and 11 males, mean age 65 years (extreme: 22-84). There was no case on emergency, 4 patients had have at least one episode of intrathoracic volvulus. The operation consisted in gastric reduction into the abdominal cavity, excision of the sac, suture of the crura reinforced with a mesh in 6 patients and the construction of a gastric wrap. A postoperative barium swallow was performed on POD 3 in order to confirm the anatomical result. Mean operating time was 157 minutes (75-480), no case was converted into laparotomy. Four postoperative complications were observed (morbidity 10.8%): one gastric perforation diagnosed on POD 1, 2 severe dysphagias linked to the wrap, and one atelectasia. There was no death in this series. Functional results were evaluated by the mean of a questionnaire in 33 patients who had a follow up more than 6 months. Thirty-three questionnaires have been sent, 3 patients were lost and one was dead. Among the 29 patients analyzed, 14 were very satisfied, 11 were satisfied and 3 were deceived by the operation. Best results are obtained in patients with GERD, dysphagia or postprandial cardiothoracic symptoms. These results compared to the published data allow us to discuss about indications of surgery, the necessity to removal the hernia sac, and the advantages to reinforce the crura by the mean of a non absorbable mesh.

  9. The Interplay between Radioresistant Caco-2 Cells and the Immune System Increases Epithelial Layer Permeability and Alters Signaling Protein Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morini, Jacopo; Babini, Gabriele; Barbieri, Sofia; Baiocco, Giorgio; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent type of cancer, with a higher incidence in the developed countries. Colorectal cancer is usually managed with both surgeries, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Radiotherapy has the well-known advantage of targeting the tumor, minimizing normal tissue exposure. Nevertheless, during radiation treatment, exposure of healthy tissues is of great concern, in particular because of the effects on the intestinal barrier functions and on cells belonging to the immune system. The functional role of intestinal barrier in avoiding paracellular trafficking and controlling bacterial spread from gut it is well known and it is due to the presence of tight junction complexes. However, intestinal barrier is fundamental in participating to the interplay with immune system, especially considering the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Until few years ago, radiotherapy was considered to bear only a depressive action on the immune system. However, it is now recognized that the release of pro-inflammatory signals and phenotypic changes in tumoral cells due to ionizing radiation could trigger the immune system against the tumor. In this work, we address how intestinal barrier functions are perturbed by X-ray doses in the range 0–10 Gy, focusing on the interplay between tumoral cells and the immune system. To this aim, we adopted a coculture model in which Caco-2 cells can be grown in presence/absence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We focused our attention on changes in the proliferation, trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), cytokine release, and proteins of the junctional complexes. Our results indicate a high radioresistance of Caco-2 in the investigated dose range, and an increased permeability of the tumoral cell layer due to the presence of PBMC. This is found to be correlated with activation of PBMC, inhibiting the apoptotic pathway, with the enhancement of cytokine release and with variation of tight junction

  10. Ultrasound-Guided Phrenic Nerve Block for Intractable Hiccups following Placement of Esophageal Stent for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsanious, David; Khoury, Spiro; Martinez, Edgar; Nawras, Ali; Filatoff, Gregory; Ajabnoor, Hossam; Darr, Umar; Atallah, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Hiccups are actions consisting of sudden contractions of the diaphragm and intercostals followed by a sudden inspiration and transient closure of the vocal cords. They are generally short lived and benign; however, in extreme and rare cases, such as esophageal carcinoma, they can become persistent or intractable, up to and involving significant pain, dramatically impacting the patient's quality of life. This case involves a 60-year-old man with a known history of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. He was considered to have high surgical risk, and therefore he received palliative care through the use of fully covered metallic esophageal self-expandable stents due to a spontaneous perforated esophagus, after which he developed intractable hiccups and associated mediastinal pain. Conservative treatment, including baclofen, chlorpromazine, metoclopramide, and omeprazole, provided no relief for his symptoms. The patient was referred to pain management from gastroenterology for consultation on pain control. He ultimately received an ultrasound-guided left phrenic nerve block with bupivacaine and depomedrol, and 3 days later underwent the identical procedure on the right phrenic nerve. This led to complete resolution of his hiccups and associated mediastinal pain. At follow-up, 2 and 4 weeks after the left phrenic nerve block, the patient was found to maintain complete alleviation of the hiccups. Esophageal dilatation and/or phrenic or vagal afferent fiber irritation can be suspected in cases of intractable hiccups secondary to esophageal stenting. Regional anesthesia of the phrenic nerve through ultrasound guidance offers a long-term therapeutic option for intractable hiccups and associated mediastinal pain in selected patients with esophageal carcinoma after stent placement. Esophageal stent, esophageal stenting, intractable hiccups, intractable singultus, phrenic nerve block, phrenic nerve, ultrasound, palliative care, esophageal carcinoma.

  11. The association between reflux esophagitis and airway hyper-reactivity in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Karbasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER with a wide variety of pulmonary disorders was recognized. We aimed to evaluate the effect of GER-induced esophagitis on airway hyper-reactivity (AHR in patients and the response to treatment. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, 30 patients attending the gastrointestinal clinic of a university hospital with acid reflux symptoms were included. All patients were evaluated endoscopically and divided into case group with esophagitis and control group without any evidence of esophagitis. Spirometry and methacholine test were done in all patients before and after treatment of GER with pantoprazole 40 mg daily for six months. Results: There was a significant difference in the rate of positive methacholine test between the cases (40% and the controls (6.7% prior to anti-acid therapy (P < 0.0001. After six months of treatment, the frequency of positive methacholine test diminished from 40 to 13.3% in the case group (P < 0.05 but did not change in the controls (P = 0.15. Conclusion: The presence of esophagitis due to GER would increase the AHR and treatment with pantoperazole would decrease AHR in patients with proved esophagitis and no previous history of asthma after six months.

  12. Training in peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for esophageal achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadis, Nicholas; Inoue, Haruhiro; Ikeda, Haruo; Onimaru, Manabu; Yoshida, Akira; Hosoya, Toshihisa; Maselli, Roberta; Kudo, Shin-Ei

    2012-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been developed in the context of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) as a minimally invasive endoscopic treatment for symptomatic esophageal achalasia, which is a chronic progressive benign disease with severe morbidity and difficult management. Since September 2008, POEM has been successfully performed in more than 200 consecutive patients with symptomatic achalasia at the Digestive Disease Center of Showa University, Northern Yokohama Hospital, Yokohama, Japan, with excellent short- and long-term results and absence of serious complications. International experience of POEM within clinical studies is also promising. According to these results, POEM is considered as a safe procedure that can be applied to all achalasia patients. However, the low incidence of achalasia (0.3%-1% per 100,000 population), in combination with the potential serious complications related to the technically demanding POEM procedure, has made training difficult. There is therefore an urgent need for an animal model for training to decrease the learning curve. Further, there are other ethical and training issues to address. The pig is the most appropriate animal model for training in POEM due to its anatomy being similar to that of humans. The porcine esophagus has the advantage of easy mobilization due to absence of tight junctions to surrounding organs. A non-survival porcine model would be a simple, inexpensive, and reproducible animal model for training in POEM, without the need for concern about complications. A possible training process might first involve observation of POEM performed by specialists, then training on non-survival and survival porcine models, followed by training in humans under specialist guidance and finally, performance of POEM in humans.

  13. Endoscopic Mucosal Resection of Early Esophageal Carcinoma—Experience of 9 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien-Fu Lin

    2008-07-01

    Conclusion: Early esophageal cancer can be diagnosed by meticulous examination of the esophageal mucosa with conventional endoscopy, facilitated by Lugol's iodine staining, and can be treated by EMR, which is safe. Recurrence can occur after piecemeal EMR.

  14. Does Impaired Gallbladder Function Contribute to the Development of Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nassr, Ayman O

    2011-06-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma is aetiologically associated with gastro-esophageal reflux, but the mechanisms responsible for the metaplasia-dysplasia sequence are unknown. Bile components are implicated. Impaired gallbladder function may contribute to duodenogastric reflux (DGR) and harmful GERD.

  15. Esophageal mucosal integrity improves after laparoscopic antireflux surgery in children with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauritz, F.A.; Rinsma, N.F.; Heurn, E.L. van; Sloots, C.E.; Siersema, P.D.; Houwen, R.H.; Zee, D.C. van der; Masclee, A.A.M.; Conchillo, J.M.; Herwaarden-Lindeboom, M.Y. van

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal intraluminal baseline impedance reflects the conductivity of the esophageal mucosa and may be an instrument for in vivo evaluation of mucosal integrity in children with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Laparoscopic antireflux surgery (LARS) is a well-established

  16. Aerodynamics of esophageal voice production with and without a groningen voice prosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, HK; Nieboer, GJ

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Aerodynamic aspects of esophageal voice production in laryngectomees have been studied to clarify and compare the physiology of injection (IE) and button-assisted (TE) esophageal voice. Methods: Simultaneous measurements of intratracheal, sub- and suprapseudoglottic pressure,

  17. Nondestructive measurement of esophageal biaxial mechanical properties utilizing sonometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Johnathon M.; Qiang, Bo; Wigle, Dennis A.; Tschumperlin, Daniel J.; Urban, Matthew W.

    2016-07-01

    Malignant esophageal pathology typically requires resection of the esophagus and reconstruction to restore foregut continuity. Reconstruction options are limited and morbid. The esophagus represents a useful target for tissue engineering strategies based on relative simplicity in comparison to other organs. The ideal tissue engineered conduit would have sufficient and ideally matched mechanical tolerances to native esophageal tissue. Current methods for mechanical testing of esophageal tissues both in vivo and ex vivo are typically destructive, alter tissue conformation, ignore anisotropy, or are not able to be performed in fluid media. The aim of this study was to investigate biomechanical properties of swine esophageal tissues through nondestructive testing utilizing sonometry ex vivo. This method allows for biomechanical determination of tissue properties, particularly longitudinal and circumferential moduli and strain energy functions. The relative contribution of mucosal-submucosal layers and muscular layers are compared to composite esophagi. Swine thoracic esophageal tissues (n  =  15) were tested by pressure loading using a continuous pressure pump system to generate stress. Preconditioning of tissue was performed by pressure loading with the pump system and pre-straining the tissue to in vivo length before data was recorded. Sonometry using piezocrystals was utilized to determine longitudinal and circumferential strain on five composite esophagi. Similarly, five mucosa-submucosal and five muscular layers from thoracic esophagi were tested independently. This work on esophageal tissues is consistent with reported uniaxial and biaxial mechanical testing and reported results using strain energy theory and also provides high resolution displacements, preserves native architectural structure and allows assessment of biomechanical properties in fluid media. This method may be of use to characterize mechanical properties of tissue engineered esophageal

  18. Does Dysphagia Indicate Recurrence of Benign Esophageal Strictures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olle Ekberg

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal dilatation in dysphagic patients with benign strictures is usually considered successful if the patients' dysphagia is alleviated. However, the relation between dysphagia and the diameter of a stricture is not well understood. Moreover, the dysphagia may also be caused by an underlying esophageal motor disorder. In order to compare symptoms and objective measurements of esophageal stricture, 28 patients were studied with interview and a radiologic esophagram. The latter included swallowing of a solid bolus. All patients underwent successful balloon dilatation at least one month prior to this study. Recurrence of a stricture with a diameter of less than 13 mm was diagnosed by the barium swallow in 21 patients. Recurrence of dysphagia was seen in 15 patients. Thirteen patients denied any swallowing symptoms. Chest pain was present in 9 patients. Of 15 patients with dysphagia 2 (13% had no narrowing but severe esophageal dysmotility. Of 13 patients without dysphagia 9 (69% had a stricture with a diameter of 13 mm or less. Of 21 patients with a stricture of 13 mm or less 14 (67% were symptomatic while 7 (33% were asymptomatic. Four of 11 patients with retrosternal pain had a stricture of less than 10 mm. Three patients with retrosternal pain and obstruction had severe esophageal dysmotility. Whether or not the patients have dysphagia may be more related to diet and eating habits than to the true diameter of their esophageal narrowing. We conclude that the clinical history is non-reliable for evaluating the results of esophageal stricture dilatation. In order to get an objective measurement of therapeutic outcome, barium swallow including a solid bolus is recommended.

  19. VIDEOFLUOROSCOPIC SWALLOWING STUDY: esophageal alterations in patients with dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina SCHEEREN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Videofluoroscopic swallowing study is a dynamic exam and allows the evaluation of the complete swallowing process. However, most published studies have only reported alterations in the oropharynx and pharyngoesophageal transition, leaving the analysis of the esophagus as a secondary goal. Objectives The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of alterations in the esophageal phase thorough videofluoroscopic swallowing study in patients with dysphagia. Methods Consecutive patients with dysphagia who underwent videofluoroscopic swallowing study including esophageal analysis between May 2010 and May 2012 had their exams retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified into two groups: Group I - without a pre-established etiological diagnosis and Group II - with neurological disease. During the exam, the patients ingested three different consistencies of food (liquid, pasty and solid contrasted with barium sulfate and 19 items were analyzed according to a protocol. The esophageal phase was considered abnormal when one of the evaluated items was compromised. Results Three hundred and thirty-three (n = 333 consecutive patients were studied - 213 (64% in Group I and 120 (36% in Group II. Esophageal alterations were found in 104 (31% patients, with a higher prevalence in Group I (36.2%, especially on the items esophageal clearance (16.9% and tertiary contractions (16.4%. It was observed that 12% of individuals in Group I only presented alterations on the esophageal phase. Conclusion Evaluation of the esophageal phase of swallowing during videofluoroscopic swallowing study detects abnormalities in patients with cervical dysphagia, especially in the group without pre-established etiological diagnosis.

  20. Gastric mucosal status in patients with reflux esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyadh Mohamad Hasan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Reflux esophagitis and atrophic gastritis has increased in its frequency in patients with dyspepsia, heartburn and regurgitation. Aims To determine the association of reflux esophagitis, endoscopic gastric mucosal atrophy and histolopathologic atrophy of the gastric mucosa in patients living in Iraq. Methods A group of 130 consecutive patients who were referred to Gastrointestinal Tract Center at Al-Kindy Teaching Hospital (Baghdad-Iraq from January 2015 to January 2016. The presence or absence of reflux esophagitis, hiatal hernia and atrophic gastritis were determined by endoscopist. Collected gastric biopsy specimens from those patients were examined by for assessment gastric mucosal status and the presence of atrophic gastritis. Results A total of 130 patients were included: 91 men and 39 women, and with mean age of 42.5±6.7 years. According to patients profile, endoscope and histopathological examination of gastric biopsies; there was a significant increase (P=0.0001 in number of patients with diffuse antral gastritis (84(70 per cent compared to environmental metaplastic atrophic gastritis (36(30 per cent. There was a significant increase (P=0.041 in the frequency of reflux esophagitis in patients with diffuse antral gastritis (76.19 per cent than environmental metaplastic atrophic gastritis (55.55 per cent. There was no significant difference (P=0.479 in the assessment of gastric atrophy between endoscopy or histopathology in patients with reflux esophagitis. Conclusion The endoscopic investigation of atrophic gastritis was inversely associated with reflux esophagitis. Endoscopy investigates patients with symptoms of reflux esophagitis because it can confirm or exclude this disease with or without gastric atrophy with certainty.

  1. [Video-assisted thoracoscopic esophagectomy for esophageal carcinoma and gastro-esophageal anastomosis in thoracic cavity: analysis of 60 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang-xiang; Xu, Mei-qing; Guo, Ming-fa; Liu, Chang-qing; Xu, Shi-bin; Mei, Xin-yu; Tian, Jie-yong; Zhang, Zheng-hua; Wei, Da-zhong

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the feasibility and safety of video-assisted thoracoscopic esophagectomy for esophageal carcinoma and gastro-esophageal anastomosis in right thoracic cavity. The clinical data of 120 patients who underwent esophagectomy for esophageal carcinoma and gastro-esophageal anastomosis in right thoracic cavity from March to December 2011 was analyzed retrospectively. In the video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery group, there were 60 patients [41 male and 19 female patients with aver age of (62 ± 7) years old] who underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic esophagectomy for esophageal carcinoma and gastro-esophageal anastomosis in right thoracic cavity. In the routine thoracotomy group, there were 60 patients [39 male and 21 female patients with aver age of (62 ± 9) years old] who underwent routine thoracotomy esophagectomy for esophageal carcinoma and gastro-esophageal anastomosis in right thoracic cavity. Operation time, intra-operative blood loss, postoperative total thoracic drainage in 3 days, total number of harvested lymph nodes, hospitalization, cost of hospitalization and complications were compared between the two groups. The operations were carried out successfully in two groups. There was no perioperative death in all patients. There was no statistical difference in intra-operative blood loss, postoperative total thoracic drainage and cost of hospitalization between the two groups. Operation time of rideo-assisted thoracoscopic surgery group was significantly longer than that of thoracotomy group ((188 ± 38) minutes vs. (138 ± 50) minutes, t = 6.171, P = 0.000), but postoperative hospitalization was significantly lower ((14 ± 3) d vs. (18 ± 6) d, t = -4.093, P = 0.000) and total number of harvested lymph nodes was lower (17 ± 9 vs. 21 ± 11, t = -2.058, P = 0.042). There was significantly statistical difference in total postoperative main complication (25.0% vs. 48.3%, χ(2) = 7.033, P = 0.008). And postoperative incisional infection of VATE

  2. Changes in esophageal and lower esophageal sphincter motility with healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besanko, Laura K; Burgstad, Carly M; Cock, Charles; Heddle, Richard; Fraser, Alison; Fraser, Robert J L

    2014-09-01

    Swallowing difficulties become increasingly prevalent in older age. Differences exist in lower esophageal sphincter (LES) function between older and younger patients with dysphagia, but the contribution of aging per se to these is unclear. Esophageal motor function was measured using high resolution manometry in older (aged 81+/-1.7 yrs) and younger (23+/-1.7 yrs) asymptomatic healthy adults. After baseline recording, motility was assessed by swallowing boluses of liquid (right lateral and upright postures) and solids. Basal LES pressure, integrated relaxation pressure, distal esophageal peristaltic amplitude, distal contractile integral and velocity were measured. Data are presented as mean +/- SEM. Despite a trend for lower basal LES pressure (15.8+/-2.9 mmHg vs. 21.0+/-0.2 mmHg; P=0.08), completeness of LES relaxation was reduced in older subjects (liquid RL: P=0.003; UR: P=0.007; solid: P=0.03), with higher integrated relaxation pressure when upright (liquid: 6.9+/-1.1 vs. 3.1+/-0.4 mmHg; P=0.01; solids: 8.1+/-1.1 vs. 3.6+/-0.3 mmHg; P=0.001) and a longer time to recovery after liquid boluses (right lateral: P=0.01; upright: P=0.04). In young, but not older adults, esophageal peristaltic velocity was increased when upright (3.6+/-0.2 cm/sec; P=0.04) and reduced with solids (3.0+/-0.1 cm-s; P=0.03). Distal contraction amplitude was higher with solid cf. liquid in the younger individuals (51.8+/-7.9 mmHg vs. 41.4+/-6.2 mmHg; P=0.03). In elderly subjects, the distal contractile integral was higher with liquid swallows in the upright posture (P=0.006). There are subtle changes in LES function even in asymptomatic older individuals. These age-related changes may contribute to the development of dysphagia.

  3. Reliable temperature probe monitoring - Favorable esophageal motion for consistent probe contact during atrial fibrillation catheter ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Esato

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial-esophageal (LA-Eso fistula is now a well-recognized and fatal complication of percutaneous catheter ablation performed using radiofrequency energy for atrial fibrillation (AF. We noted an important esophageal motion during temperature monitoring by a multipolar sensing probe, which could resolve several potential concerns of accurate esophageal temperature measurement and could consequently minimize esophageal injuries including LA-Eso fistulas during catheter ablation for AF.

  4. Computed tomography and upper gastrointestinal series findings of esophageal bronchi in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colleran, Gabrielle C. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Our Lady' s Children' s Hospital Crumlin, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Ryan, Ciara E. [Our Lady' s Children' s Hospital Crumlin, Department of Pathology, Dublin (Ireland); Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Sweeney, Brian [Our Lady' s Children' s Hospital Crumlin, Department of Surgery, Dublin (Ireland); Rea, David; Brenner, Clare [Our Lady' s Children' s Hospital Crumlin, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2017-02-15

    Esophageal bronchus is a rare form of communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformation and a rare but important cause of an opaque hemithorax on chest radiography. A higher incidence of esophageal bronchus is associated with esophageal atresia, tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF) and VACTERL (vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities) association. In the presence of these conditions, the pediatric radiologist may be the first to consider the diagnosis of esophageal bronchus or esophageal lung. To describe the imaging features in five children with esophageal bronchus. We reviewed hospital records and teaching files at two large pediatric tertiary referral centers over the 24-year period from January 1992 to January 2016. We reviewed all imaging studies and tabulated findings on radiography, fluoroscopic upper gastrointestinal (GI) series and CT. We then described the imaging features of esophageal bronchi with emphasis on CT and upper GI findings in four infants and one toddler. Three cases were identified from one institution (cases 2, 3, 4) and two from another (cases 1, 5). All five cases occurred in association with other midline malformations: four of the five had VACTERL association and three of the five had esophageal atresia and TEF. Lung opacification, ipsilateral mediastinal shift, and an abnormal carina and anomalous vascular anatomy suggest an esophageal bronchus or an esophageal lung on CT. While esophageal bronchus is a rare cause of an opaque hemithorax, CT and upper GI imaging play key roles in its diagnosis. Associations with esophageal atresia with tracheo-esophageal fistula and VACTERL association are particularly pertinent. Early diagnosis of esophageal bronchus might prevent complications such as aspiration and infection, which can allow for parenchymal sparing surgery as opposed to pneumonectomy. (orig.)

  5. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Sang Jun; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Ok Bae; Song, Hong Suk [Dongsan Medical Center, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the results of local control, survival rate, prognostic factors, and failure pattern in locally advanced esophageal cancer. We retrospectively studied 50 patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy at Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center from June of 1999 to August of 2008. Seven patients with inappropriate data were excluded, and 43 patients were analyzed. There were 39 males and four female patients ranging in age from 43 to 78 years (median, 63 years). There were seven patients with stage IIA and 36 with stage III. Irradiation from 46 Gy to 63 Gy (median, 54 Gy) was carried out 5 days per week, 1.8 Gy once a day. There were eight patients with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, and we mostly used 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin with 3 cycles for concurrent chemotherapy. The range of follow up periods was from 2 to 82 months (median, 15.5). There were nine patients that exhibited a complete response, 23 that exhibited a partial response, 9 that exhibited no response, and 2 that exhibited disease progression. The median survival time was 15 months. Two-year and 5-year survival rates were 36.5% and 17.3%, respectively. Two-year and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 32.4% and 16%, respectively. Treatment failure occurred in 22 patients (51.2%). Patterns of failure were categorized as local failure in 18 patients and distant metastasis in four patients. In a univariate analysis for prognostic factors related to overall survival and disease-free survival, the hemoglobin levels during chemoradiotherapy ({>=}12 vs. <12, p=0.02/p=0.1) and the response to the treatments (CR/PR vs. NR/PD, p=0.002/p <0.0001) were statistically significant. In a multivariate analysis, only response to the treatments was revealed to be statistically significant. There was no statistical significance associated with patient age, gender, disease stage, T-stage, smoking history, tumor location, or neo

  6. Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor causes esophageal epithelial hyperplasia in pigs and rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, C O; Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1995-01-01

    . Subcutaneously administered EGF was visualized on cells located basally in the esophageal epithelium. In rats, EGF-treatment increased the esophageal volume of the epithelium, the lamina propria of the mucosa, and the submucosa. In conclusion, systemic EGF challenge induces growth of the esophageal epithelium...

  7. Imaging the morphological change of tissue structure during the early phase of esophageal tumor progression using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Kang, Deyong; Xu, Meifang; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2012-12-01

    Esophageal cancer is a common malignancy with a very poor prognosis. Successful strategies for primary prevention and early detection are critically needed to control this disease. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is becoming a novel optical tool of choice for imaging tissue architecture and cellular morphology by two-photon excited fluorescence. In this study, we used MPM to image microstructure of human normal esophagus, carcinoma in situ (CIS), and early invasive carcinoma in order to establish the morphological features to differentiate these tissues. The diagnostic features such as the appearance of cancerous cells, the significant loss of stroma, the absence of the basement membrane were extracted to distinguish between normal and cancerous esophagus tissue. These results correlated well with the paired histological findings. With the advancement of clinically miniaturized MPM and the multi-photon probe, combining MPM with standard endoscopy will therefore allow us to make a real-time in vivo diagnosis of early esophageal cancer at the cellular level.

  8. Nutrition in peri-operative esophageal cancer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhagen, Elles; van Vulpen, Jonna K; van Hillegersberg, Richard; May, Anne M; Siersema, Peter D

    2017-07-01

    Nutritional status and dietary intake are increasingly recognized as essential areas in esophageal cancer management. Nutritional management of esophageal cancer is a continuously evolving field and comprises an interesting area for scientific research. Areas covered: This review encompasses the current literature on nutrition in the pre-operative, peri-operative, and post-operative phases of esophageal cancer. Both established interventions and potential novel targets for nutritional management are discussed. Expert commentary: To ensure an optimal pre-operative status and to reduce peri-operative complications, it is key to assess nutritional status in all pre-operative esophageal cancer patients and to apply nutritional interventions accordingly. Since esophagectomy results in a permanent anatomical change, a special focus on nutritional strategies is needed in the post-operative phase, including early initiation of enteral feeding, nutritional interventions for post-operative complications, and attention to long-term nutritional intake and status. Nutritional aspects of pre-optimization and peri-operative management should be incorporated in novel Enhanced Recovery After Surgery programs for esophageal cancer.

  9. Endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection for large esophageal neoplastic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioche, Mathieu; Mais, Laetitia; Guillaud, Olivier; Hervieu, Valérie; Saurin, Jean-Christophe; Ponchon, Thierry; Lepilliez, Vincent

    2013-12-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is recommended for en bloc R0 resection of superficial esophageal neoplasms larger than 20  mm, but is high risk and time-consuming. In the tunnel technique, incisions at the lower and upper lesion edges are joined by a submucosal tunnel and then lateral incisions are made. The mucosa is thereby easily separated from the muscular layer. We report our experience of esophageal tunnel ESD. We retrospectively reviewed all consecutive esophageal tunnel ESDs performed at our unit between January 1 2010 and January 11 2013. Lesions were superficial esophageal neoplasms, UT1N0 at EUS.  11 patients underwent tunnel ESD (nine squamous cell carcinomas, two adenocarcinomas). Mean dissected surface area was 13.25 cm(2). Mean procedure duration was 76.7 minutes. All 11 resections were en bloc and 9/11 were R0. Complications were one subcutaneous emphysema with spontaneous resolution, and stenosis in 4/11 patients (36.4%) with resolution after 1-5 dilations. Tunnel ESD of superficial esophageal neoplasms is an interesting option, seeming to be faster and more effective than standard ESD, without higher morbidity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Epidemiology of esophageal cancer in Japan and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingsong; Totsuka, Yukari; He, Yutong; Kikuchi, Shogo; Qiao, Youlin; Ueda, Junko; Wei, Wenqiang; Inoue, Manami; Tanaka, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for a collaborative multidisciplinary study of the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer, the authors reviewed the published literature to identify similarities and differences between Japan and China in esophageal cancer epidemiology. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant histologic type, while the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma remains extremely low in both countries. Numerous epidemiologic studies in both countries show that alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are contributing risk factors for ESCC. There are differences, however, in many aspects of esophageal cancer between Japan and China, including cancer burden, patterns of incidence and mortality, sex ratio of mortality, risk factor profiles, and genetic variants. Overall incidence and mortality rates are higher in China than in Japan, and variation in mortality and incidence patterns is greater in China than in Japan. During the study period (1987-2000), the decline in age-adjusted mortality rates was more apparent in China than in Japan. Risk factor profiles differed between high- and low-incidence areas within China, but not in Japan. The association of smoking and drinking with ESCC risk appears to be weaker in China than in Japan. Genome-wide association studies in China showed that variants in several chromosome regions conferred increased risk, but only genetic variants in alcohol-metabolizing genes were significantly associated with ESCC risk in Japan. A well-designed multidisciplinary epidemiologic study is needed to examine the role of diet and eating habits in ESCC risk.

  11. Herpes Simplex Esophagitis in Immunocompetent Host: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Geraci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Herpes simplex esophagitis is well recognized in immunosuppressed subjects, but it is infrequent in immunocompetent patients. We present a case of HSE in a 53-year-old healthy man. Materials and Methods. The patient was admitted with dysphagia, odynophagia, and retrosternal chest pain. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed minute erosive area in distal esophagus and biopsies confirmed esophagitis and findings characteristic of Herpes Simplex Virus infection. Results. The patients was treated with high dose of protonpump inhibitor, sucralfate, and acyclovir, orally, with rapid resolution of symptoms. Discussion. HSV type I is the second most common cause of infectious esophagitis. The majority of symptomatic immunocompetent patients with HSE will present with an acute onset of esophagitis. Endoscopic biopsies from the ulcer edges should be obtained for both histopathology and viral culture. In immunocompetent host, HSE is generally a self-limited condition. Conclusions. HSE should be suspected in case of esophagitis without evident cause, even if the patient is immunocompetent. When the diagnosis of HSE is confirmed, careful history and assessment for an immune disorder such as HIV infection is crucial, to look for underlying immune deficiency.

  12. Esophageal lipomatosis: another consequence of the use of steroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogaert, J.; Rosseel, F.; Verhaegen, S.; Verschakelen, J. [University Hospitals Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology

    2000-09-01

    After we incidentally found on CT extensive esophageal fat accumulations in a patient with long-term use of steroids, we prospectively evaluated during a 6-month period all CT studies of the chest for esophageal lipomatosis and related the findings to the possible use of steroids. The diagnosis of esophageal fat on CT was made by density measurements or if too small for reliable density measurements by comparison with mediastinal fat. In 21 of 1320 exclusively older male patients the diagnosis of esophageal lipomatosis was definite in 7 and likely in 14 patients. All fat accumulations were located in the upper third of the esophagus (mean length 22 {+-} 6 mm) and presented ring-like (n = 10), irregular (n = 3), or as a horseshoe sparing the posterior border (n = 8). In 20 patients there was an unequivocal history of steroid treatment. Associated centripetal fat infiltration was found in 11 patients. None of the patients had swallowing problems. Prolonged use of steroids, either orally or inhalationally administered, is associated with esophageal lipomatosis. The predisposition for the upper esophagus might be related to the presence of striated muscle cells in this part of the esophagus; moreover, inhalational steroid therapy may adversely affect the upper esophagus. (orig.)

  13. A murine model of esophageal candidiasis with local characteristic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Hiroko; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Hu, Weimin; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Abe, Shigeru

    2007-01-01

    A simple method to establish a murine esophageal candidiasis model that displayed characteristic symptoms of the condition was developed using the sedative agent, chlorpromazine. Mice were immunosuppressed with prednisolone and were given tetracycline hydrochloride. One day later, the mice received chlorpromazine to keep them in a sedated state for about 3 hr. Under the sedated condition, they were infected with 4 x 10(7) viable cells of Candida albicans by intra-esophageal injection with a round-head needle on syringe. From day 3 to day 6 post inoculation, 10(5)-10(6) colony forming units of C. albicans were recovered from the esophageal tube of each mouse and whitish, curd-like patches were observed on most of the inner surface of the tube. Histological examination showed that C. albicans in esophageal lesions grew mainly in mycelial form. In this experimental model, intragastric administration of an itraconazole oral solution (20 mg/kg/day) was clearly effective. This model would provide a useful tool to investigate the pathogenesis of C. albicans esophageal infection and the efficacy of various antifungal agents microbiologically and symptomatically.

  14. Esophageal candidiasis--an adverse effect of inhaled corticosteroids therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aun, Marcelo Vivolo; Ribeiro, Marisa Rosimeire; Costa Garcia, Cláudia Leite; Agondi, Rosana Câmara; Kalil, Jorge; Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro

    2009-05-01

    Over the last few decades, inhaled corticosteroids (ICs) became the cornerstone in the treatment of persistent asthma. Their use improved asthma control, decreased mortality and also minimized adverse reactions associated with systemic steroid. Esophageal candidiasis is a rare complication resulting from the use of ICs. Although, in recent years, as their prescriptions has increased, more cases have been reported, especially in Japan. Listed are 4 case reports regarding esophageal candidiasis in asthmatic patients associated with inhaled budesonide administration. In the cases reported herein, the use of a different device of dry powder budesonide might have favored esophageal drug deposition and Candida infection. Patients denied using systemic corticosteroids in the previous 6 months. Furthermore, none of the patients presented Diabetes mellitus, malignant disease, HIV infection, or other immunosuppressive conditions. We conclude that patients treated with high doses of ICs are at higher risk of developing esophageal candidiasis. These patients should undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy whenever they present symptoms. Nevertheless, we must keep in mind that infection might also be asymptomatic and esophageal candidiasis prevalence may be higher than that reported thus far.

  15. Neglected Esophageal Injury Presenting With Spontaneously Shrunken Retroesophageal Pocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chih Chang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical stab wounds with a thoracic-inlet esophageal injury are extremely rare. A 30-year-old man presented with dysphagia and stridor. He had attempted suicide by stabbing his neck with a screwdriver followed by jumping from a building 10 days previously, when a cervical tracheal injury was found and surgically repaired. Physical examination was unremarkable. Lateral cervical radiography revealed an air-fluid level within an extensive retropharyngeal pocket. Follow-up radiography showed that the retropharyngeal lesion had shrunk spontaneously. Contrast esophagography demonstrated an extravasation at the thoracic inlet. The patient underwent surgical exploration of the esophagus via a lower neck incision. A thoracic-inlet esophageal slit was found and primary repair was performed. He resumed oral intake uneventfully on the 8th postoperative day. This was a rare case of esophageal injury secondary to cervical stabbing wounds, presenting with delayed occurrence and spontaneously shrunken retroesophageal pocket. Esophageal perforation can be easily missed if tracheal lesion is found. Both bronchoscopy and esophagoscopy are mandatory. In patients highly suspected to have esophageal injury but with a negative esophagoscopy result, contrast esophagography is indicated and can decrease the incidence of false-negative results.

  16. Doxycyclin induced esophageal injury: A Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Demiryılmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some drugs have been known to damage to esophagusfor a long time. Half of the cases reported are of tetracyclineand its derivatives. The damage caused by thesedrugs is depends on the drug itself and the patient.In this paper we present 5 patients having diagnosedesophageal damage endoscopically after due to doxycyclinuse. The mean age of the patients was 26 years.Three of them for acne and 2 for heir complaints gynecologicalinfection were taking these drugs. Lesions werelocated at the middle in 4 cases and lover part in 1 patient.The common complaint was retrosternal pain and heartburnafter taking the drug with insufficient water or withoutwater. All the patients were relieved by symtomatic teratment.Esophageal damage is to be remembered in patientscomplaning sudden pain and difficult swallowing on doxycyclintreatment and endoscopic procedure should beemployed for definition of diagnosis and evaluation of theseverity of the damage. After treatment, endoscopic controlis not necessary. Physicians must not forget to advicethe patients to take these drugs with splendid amount ofwater.Key words: Doxycycline, esophagus damage, endoscopy

  17. Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Caitlin M; Long, Millie D; Dellon, Evan S

    2016-07-01

    There are currently limited data on the management of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) during pregnancy. At our center, however, we have followed several pregnant women with EoE and others have asked pertinent questions in pre-pregnancy counseling. The relatively young age of patients with EoE implies that many practitioners will also encounter patients with these questions. In this review, we use four cases to prompt a discussion about concerns focused on the safety of steroids and diet therapy during pregnancy and breast-feeding, potential nutritional risks with dietary elimination, how to optimize therapy, and whether endoscopic evaluation for monitoring of disease activity is safe during pregnancy and breast-feeding. An additional concern is whether the disease could progress during pregnancy and breast-feeding if no therapies are used. Although there are no studies specifically examining pregnant EoE patients, we have reviewed the literature relevant to this population as informed by the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease patients during pregnancy, where these issues have been studied in more depth. Providers who care for EoE patients who could become pregnant should familiarize themselves with these issues.

  18. Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Joel H.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is rapidly increasing in incidence in Western cultures. Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is the presumed precursor lesion for this cancer. Several other risk factors for this cancer have been described, including chronic heartburn, tobacco use, Caucasian race, and obesity. Despite these known associations, most patients with EAC present with symptoms of dysphagia from late-stage tumors—only a small minority of patients are identified in screening and surveillance programs. Diagnostic analysis of EAC usually commences with upper endoscopy, followed by cross-sectional imaging. Endoscopic ultrasound is useful to assess local extent of disease as well as the involvement regional lymph nodes. T1a EAC may be treated endoscopically; some patients with T1b disease might also benefit from endoscopic therapy. Locally advanced disease is generally managed with esophagectomy, often accompanied by neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy. The prognosis is based on tumor stage: patients with T1a tumors have an excellent prognoses, whereas few patients with advanced disease have longterm survival. PMID:25957861

  19. Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis of the residual esophagus after esophagectomy for esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Nobuyoshi; Kanda, Naoki; Fukunaga, Toru; Kimura, Masayuki; Sugamoto, Yuji; Tasaki, Kentaro; Uesato, Masaya; Sazuka, Tetsutaro; Maruyama, Tetsuro; Aida, Naohiro; Tamachi, Tomohide; Hosokawa, Takashi; Asai, Yo; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2015-08-14

    A 91-year-old man was referred to our hospital with intermittent dysphagia. He had undergone esophagectomy for esophageal cancer (T3N2M0 Stage III) 11 years earlier. Endoscopic examination revealed an anastomotic stricture; signs of inflammation, including redness, erosion, edema, bleeding, friability, and exudate with white plaques; and multiple depressions in the residual esophagus. Radiographical examination revealed numerous fine, gastrografin-filled projections and an anastomotic stricture. Biopsy specimens from the area of the anastomotic stricture revealed inflammatory changes without signs of malignancy. Candida glabrata was detected with a culture test of the biopsy specimens. The stricture was diagnosed as a benign stricture that was caused by esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis. Accordingly, endoscopic balloon dilatation was performed and anti-fungal therapy was started in the hospital. Seven weeks later, endoscopic examination revealed improvement in the mucosal inflammation; only the pseudodiverticulosis remained. Consequently, the patient was discharged. At the latest follow-up, the patient was symptom-free and the pseudodiverticulosis remained in the residual esophagus without any signs of stricture or inflammation.

  20. Radial distribution of esophageal peristaltic pressure in normal subjects and patients with esophageal diverticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, W J; Stef, J J; Hogan, W J; Hoke, S E; Stewart, E T; Arndorfer, R C

    1975-09-01

    This study was designed to determine the radial profile of peristaltic pressure waves in the esophageal body of normal subjects and patients with isophageal diverticulum. We used a manometric assembly featuring four radial side hole recording orifices oriented at equidistant 90 degree angles. Each recording catheter was infused with water at a rate (6.1 ml per min) which provided high fidelity pressure recording. In normal subjects, the radially recorded peristaltic pressure complexes were similar in peak amplitude and wave form. The range of pressure differences between the four radial recordings averaged 9.0 +/- 4 SD mm Hg A range is less than or greater to 25 mm Hg occurring in 99% of observations. These variations in pressure amplitude showed no consistant spacial orientation. In 5 of the 6 patients with esophageal diverticulum, the range of radial peristaltic pressure differences exceeded 25 mm Hg in the region of the diverticulum, the lowest pressure occurring at the recording orifice facing the diverticulum mouth. In occasional peristaltic sequences abnormal wave forms featuring abrupt onsets or offsets were observed. These bizarre wave forms were probably caused by oralaboral diverticulum movement relative to the recording sensor during peristalsis. Two patients had abnormally high peristaltic pressure amplitudes, greater than 250 mm Hg. This latter finding introduces the possibility that hypertensive peristaltic contractions may contribute to diverticulum production in some patients.

  1. A second primary esophageal cancer developing 7 years after chemoradiotherapy for advanced esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suto, Ryuichiro; Enjoji, Akihito; Okudaira, Sadayuki; Furui, Junichiro; Kanematsu, Takashi [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Matsuo, Takeshi

    2001-07-01

    We report a rare case of advanced carcinoma and a second primary carcinoma of the esophagus, both of which were successfully cured by chemotherapy and operation at different times. In 1991, a 38-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed with advanced esophageal cancer, which was unresectable because of the bronchial invasion of the tumor. He was given chemotherapy with cisplatin (CDDP), combined with radiotherapy. During a 4-year follow-up, neither regrowth of the primary tumor nor distant metastasis occurred. In 1995, esophagoscopy demonstrated a lugol-unstained region located 3 cm distal from the area of radiation to the primary lesion shown by esophagography. Histological examination of a biopsy specimen showed the mucosa to be normal. Nevertheless, yearly surveillance by endoscopy and histological examinations showed that the mucosa of the esophagus gradually began to demonstrate mild dysplasia, followed by severe dysplasia; in 1998, a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was made. Esophagectomy with lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopic examination revealed that there had been pathologic complete response for the original advanced esophageal cancer. (author)

  2. C-Met Inhibitor AMG 337, Oxaliplatin, Leucovorin Calcium, and Fluorouracil in Treating Patients With Advanced Stomach or Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-17

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Gastrointestinal Cancer; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Stage IIIA Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  3. Improving Outcomes for Esophageal Cancer using Proton Beam Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuong, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hallemeier, Christopher L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Jabbour, Salma K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Yu, Jen; Badiyan, Shahed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Merrell, Kenneth W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mishra, Mark V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Li, Heng [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Verma, Vivek [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Lin, Steven H., E-mail: shlin@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) plays an essential role in the management of esophageal cancer. Because the esophagus is a centrally located thoracic structure there is a need to balance the delivery of appropriately high dose to the target while minimizing dose to nearby critical structures. Radiation dose received by these critical structures, especially the heart and lungs, may lead to clinically significant toxicities, including pneumonitis, pericarditis, and myocardial infarction. Although technological advancements in photon RT delivery like intensity modulated RT have decreased the risk of such toxicities, a growing body of evidence indicates that further risk reductions are achieved with proton beam therapy (PBT). Herein we review the published dosimetric and clinical PBT literature for esophageal cancer, including motion management considerations, the potential for reirradiation, radiation dose escalation, and ongoing esophageal PBT clinical trials. We also consider the potential cost-effectiveness of PBT relative to photon RT.

  4. Conservative therapy for missed esophageal perforation after blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C E; Splittgerber, F; Ledgerwood, A M

    1986-11-01

    An 80-year-old man was treated, non-operatively, for a distal esophageal perforation, diagnosed nine days after blunt thoracic trauma. Emergency department diagnosis was impeded by absence of mediastinal air; right chest-wall emphysema was thought to result from associated rib fractures. Conservative therapy consisting of nasogastric suction, intravenous antibiotics, right-chest tube drainage of a large communicating empyema cavity, temporary nasotracheal intubation with ventilatory support, total parenteral nutrition, and, finally, nasoduodenal intubation for elemental feeding were employed. This mode of therapy may be best in comparable elderly patients with esophageal perforation that is overlooked during the initial 24 hours after injury. Possibly, routine barium swallow in all patients with chest-wall emphysema and rib fractures would circumvent missed esophageal rupture after blunt trauma.

  5. Esophageal morphometric and biomechanical changes during aging in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Gregersen, Hans

    Background The function of the esophagus have obvious changes during the aging, this functional change is important in relation to the concept of “the form follows function”. It is therefore of great interest to study the aging changes of the esophageal biomechanical properties. Aim The aim...... of the present study is to investigate the esophageal geometry and biomechanical changes during aging in rats. Materials and methods Twenty-four male Wistar rats, aged from 6 to 22 months, were used in the study. The body weight and the wet weight per length of esophageal segment were measured at the termination......, the wall thickness and the wall cross-sectional area increased about 17%, 18% and 35% respectively. The opening angle was gradually decreased from 90 degrees to 67 degrees during aging. The circumferential stress-strain curves shifted to the left after 12 month (p

  6. Esophageal Perforation due to Transesophageal Echocardiogram: New Endoscopic Clip Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Robotis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal perforation due to transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE during cardiac surgery is rare. A 72-year-old female underwent TEE during an operation for aortic valve replacement. Further, the patient presented hematemesis. Gastroscopy revealed an esophageal bleeding ulcer. Endoscopic therapy was successful. Although a CT scan excluded perforation, the patient became febrile, and a second gastroscopy revealed a big perforation at the site of ulcer. The patient's clinical condition required endoscopic intervention with a new OTSC® clip (Ovesco Endoscopy, Tübingen, Germany. The perforation was successfully sealed. The patient remained on intravenous antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors and parenteral nutrition for few days, followed by enteral feeding. She was discharged fully recovered 3 months later. We clearly demonstrate an effective, less invasive treatment of an esophageal perforation with a new endoscopic clip.

  7. Esophageal Achalasia: An Uncommon Complication during Pregnancy Treated Conservatively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Spiliopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old Caucasian woman, gravida 3 para 2, was admitted at 29 weeks of gestation because of vomiting, dysphagia for solids and liquids, and loss of weight. An enlargement of the anterior left neck region was noted on the palpation of the thyroid gland. An MRI of the neck showed a marked esophageal dilatation with the presence of food remnants along its length and the displacement of the trachea to the right. The findings of the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and manometry were suggestive of esophageal achalasia. Conservative management with total parenteral nutrition (TPN through a peripheral line proved to be successful. A healthy male baby was born by a cesarean section at 37 weeks. The patient underwent laparoscopic esophageal myotomy and fundoplication seven days postpartum.

  8. Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis treated by endoscopic balloon dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Osamu; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu; Kondo, Yasumasa; Nakamura, Tomoki; Tanaka, Yoichi; Hanashi, Tomoko; Yokoyama, Daiki; Kajiwara, Hiroshi

    2014-09-20

    We here report a rare case of esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis with dysphagia. A 65-year-old man was suffering from intermittent dysphagia for 10 years, which had been worsening in recent months. Endoscopic examination revealed multiple, small, saccular diverticula and mild annular stricture with numerous white plaques from the cervical esophagus to the middle thoracic esophagus. Barium esophagography revealed stricture of the upper thoracic esophagus with multiple tiny flask-shaped outpouchings. Based on this characteristic appearance, we diagnosed esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis and inflammation of a narrow segment of the esophagus. Biopsy specimen showed acute and chronic esophagitis with Candida infection. Dysphagia persisted despite resolution of candidiasis, for which we successfully performed endoscopic balloon dilatation of the stricture. After the treatment, the patient has been well and has not been suffering from dysphagia.

  9. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: an Emerging Clinicopathologic Disease of Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophililc esophagitis is a clinicopathologic disease characterized clinically by dysphagia and food impaction in adults and nonspecific symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children, and histologically by large numbers of eosinophils in the proximal and distal esophageal epithelium. Importantly, these symptoms and histologic abnormalities appear to be unresponsive to proton pump inhibition. Recent clinical and basic studies suggest an allergic etiology but the precise allergen remains unknown and is likely unique for each patient. Endoscopic features suggest ongoing inflammation and range from linear furrowing with whitish exudation to long-segment stricture formation, to a fragile, crepe paper–like mucosa that is easily split open. Treatments include nutritional restrictions, medical management with topical steroids, and, in stenotic circumstances, esophageal dilation. The long-term outcome is still not certain. PMID:28289340

  10. Rapidly Growing Esophageal Carcinosarcoma Reduced by Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy Alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naotaka Ogasawara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal carcinosarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm consisting of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. It is generally treated by surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy according to the protocols used for other esophageal cancers. However, the treatment of esophageal carcinosarcoma by radiotherapy alone before surgery has not been previously described. We report a patient with a rapidly growing esophageal carcinosarcoma that was efficiently reduced by neoadjuvant radiotherapy alone. A previously healthy 69-year-old man was admitted with dysphagia. Initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD revealed a small nodular polypoid lesion of about 10 mm in the middle esophagus. A second EGD 1 month later showed that the tumor had expanded into a huge mass. A biopsy specimen revealed that the tumor comprised squamous cell carcinoma with spindle cell components, and the tumor was diagnosed as carcinosarcoma which was diagnosed as stage I (T1bN0M0. Due to renal dysfunction, the patient was treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy (40 Gy without chemotherapy. A third EGD 1 month later revealed remarkable tumor reduction. He then underwent total esophagectomy with regional lymph node dissection (pStage 0, pT1aN0M0. After surgical operation, the patient was followed up without adjuvant therapy. Whole body computed tomography revealed lung metastasis 14 months after surgery, and the patient died 2 months later. The neoadjuvant radiotherapy for esophageal carcinosarcoma was considered to have contributed to the subsequent surgery and his prolonged survival time. Thus, radiotherapy alone might be a suitable neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal carcinosarcomas.

  11. Radiation-Induced Esophagitis is Mitigated by Soy Isoflavones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Fountain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lung cancer patients receiving radiotherapy present with acute esophagitis and chronic fibrosis, as a result of radiation injury to esophageal tissues. We have shown that soy isoflavones alleviate pneumonitis and fibrosis caused by radiation toxicity to normal lung. The effect of soy isoflavones on esophagitis histopathological changes induced by radiation was investigated. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were treated with 10 Gy or 25 Gy single thoracic irradiation and soy isoflavones for up to 16 weeks. Damage to esophageal tissues was assessed by H&E, Masson’s Trichrome and Ki-67 staining at 1, 4, 10, 16 weeks after radiation. The effects on smooth muscle cells and leukocyte infiltration were determined by immunohistochemistry using anti-αSMA and anti-CD45 respectively. Results: Radiation caused thickening of esophageal tissue layers that was significantly reduced by soy isoflavones. Major radiation alterations included hypertrophy of basal cells in mucosal epithelium and damage to smooth muscle cells in muscularis mucosae as well as disruption of collagen fibers in lamina propria connective tissue with leukocyte infiltration. These effects were observed as early as one week after radiation and were more pronounced with a higher dose of 25 Gy. Soy isoflavones limited the extent of tissue damage induced by radiation both at 10 and 25 Gy.Conclusions: Soy isoflavones have a radioprotective effect on the esophagus, mitigating the early and late effects of radiation injury in several esophagus tissue layers. Soy could be administered with radiotherapy to decrease the incidence and severity of esophagitis in lung cancer patients receiving thoracic radiation therapy.

  12. The efficacy of ozone therapy in experimental caustic esophageal burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Ahmet; Gundogdu, Gokhan; Sadir, Serdar; Topal, Turgut; Erdogan, Esra; Korkmaz, Ahmet; Surer, Ilhami; Ozturk, Haluk

    2008-09-01

    Ozone has been proposed as an antioxidant enzyme activator, immunomodulator and cellular metabolic activator. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of ozone therapy in the prevention of esophageal damage and stricture formation developed after esophageal caustic injuries in the rat. Forty-five rats were allocated into three groups; sham-operated, un-treatment and treatment groups. Caustic esophageal burn was created by instilling 15% NaOH in the distal esophagus. The rats were left untreated or treated with 1 mg/kg/day ozone intraperitoneally. All rats were sacrificed at 28 days. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed by measuring the stenosis index (SI) and histopathologic damage score, and biochemically by determining tissue hydroxyproline content (HP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl content (PCC) in esophageal homogenates. Whereas seven (47%) rats died in the un-treatment group, all rats in the sham-operated and the treatment group survived during the study. SI, the histopathologic damage score, was significantly lower in the ozone-therapy group than the un-treatment group. HP levels were significantly higher in the un-treatment group than the group treated with ozone. Caustic esophageal burn increased MDA and PCC levels and also decreased SOD and GPx enzyme activities. In contrast, ozone therapy decreased the elevated MDA and PCC levels and also increased the reduced SOD and GPx enzyme activities. Ozone has a preventive effect in the development of fibrosis by decreasing tissue damage and increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity in an experimental model of corrosive esophageal injury.

  13. The resistance to fluconazole in patients with esophageal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilheim, Ana Botler; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito de Barros; Nogueira, Rodrigo Albuquerque; Rêgo, Rossana Sette de Melo; Lima, Kedma de Magalhães; Pereira, Leila Maria Moreira Beltrão

    2009-01-01

    Esophageal candidiasis is often observed in patients with risk factors for its development and fluconazole is the therapeutic choice for the treatment of this disease. To determine its frequency, by performing upper digestive endoscopy; to determine Candida species involved in its pathogenesis and verify their distribution according with the predisposing factors and to determine susceptibility to fluconazole in the samples. From March 2006 to April 2007, all patients submitted to esophagogastroduodenoscopy at the Digestive Endoscopy Unit in the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital, Recife, PE, Brazil, were eligible for the study. Samples were collected from patients who presented lesions consistent with esophageal candidiasis in order to identify Candida species and verify their susceptibility to fluconazole. The predisposing factors for the occurrence of esophageal candidiasis were described. Of 2,672 patients referred to upper endoscopy at the Digestive Endoscopy Unit, 40 (1.5%) had endoscopic findings compatible with esophageal candidiasis. The average age was 49.1 years. Twenty one patients (52.5%) were less than 50 years old, of which 82.6% were infected with HIV. Most of them (52.5%) were males and 65.0% were inpatients. Diseases were identified in 90% of the patients and 21 (52.5%) were HIV positive. Concerning endoscopic findings, severe forms of esophagitis were found in 50% of the patients with CD4 count Esophageal candidiasis prevalence was low, although within the results described by other authors. Male and inpatients were the most affected. The species isolated varied according to the characteristics of each group studied. Both, resistance and dose-depending susceptibility to fluconazole were considered high.

  14. Esophageal Motility Disorders: Current Concepts of Pathogenesis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Kahrilas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Current concepts of esophageal motility disorders are summarized. Primary data sources were located via MEDLINE or cross-citation. No attempt was made to be comprehensive or inclusive of the literature because fewer than 10% of citations are discussed. Instead, emphasis was placed on new developments in diagnosis, therapeutics, and practice patterns. Controlled therapeutic trials and pathophysiological observations are emphasized. Achalasia is a rare disease of failed lower sphincter relaxation and aperistalsis. Diffuse esophageal spasm (DES, an equally rare disease, is defined by non-propagated esophageal contractions. Nonspecific motility disorders, including nutcracker esophagus and hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter, are identified only by manometry and are ten times as prevalent. Neuromuscular pathology is evident only with achalasia (myenteric plexus neurons destruction. Pharmacological therapies have limited efficacy with achalasia; more limited with DES; and none with the nonspecific motility disorders. More efficacious therapies for the nonspecific disorders are directed at associated reflux disease or psychiatric disorders. Pneumatic dilation is effective therapy for achalasia 72% of instances, but frequently requires repeat dilation and is complicated by a 3% perforation rate. Surgical myotomy is effective in 88% of achalasics; morbidity from thoracotomy has been the major limitation but this has been sharply reduced with a laparoscopic approach. In conclusion, although it has been suggested that esophageal motility disorders are distinct clinical entities, critical review of the literature supports this only in the case of achalasia, a disease of well defined pathophysiology, functional disturbance, and therapies. This clarity diminishes progressively for DES and non-specific esophageal motility disorders.

  15. Hyperfractionated Concomitant Boost Proton Beam Therapy for Esophageal Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizumoto, Masashi [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sugahara, Shinji [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tokyo Medical University Ibaraki Medical Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Okumura, Toshiyuki; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Oshiro, Yoshiko; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakahara, Akira [Department of Gastroenterological Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Terashima, Hideo [Department of Surgery, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tsuboi, Koji [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki, E-mail: hsakurai@pmrc.tsukuba.ac.jp [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hyperfractionated concomitant boost proton beam therapy (PBT) for patients with esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: The study participants were 19 patients with esophageal cancer who were treated with hyperfractionated photon therapy and PBT between 1990 and 2007. The median total dose was 78 GyE (range, 70-83 GyE) over a median treatment period of 48 days (range, 38-53 days). Ten of the 19 patients were at clinical T Stage 3 or 4. Results: There were no cases in which treatment interruption was required because of radiation-induced esophagitis or hematologic toxicity. The overall 1- and 5-year actuarial survival rates for all 19 patients were 79.0% and 42.8%, respectively, and the median survival time was 31.5 months (95% limits: 16.7- 46.3 months). Of the 19 patients, 17 (89%) showed a complete response within 4 months after completing treatment and 2 (11%) showed a partial response, giving a response rate of 100% (19/19). The 1- and 5-year local control rates for all 19 patients were 93.8% and 84.4 %, respectively. Only 1 patient had late esophageal toxicity of Grade 3 at 6 months after hyperfractionated PBT. There were no other nonhematologic toxicities, including no cases of radiation pneumonia or cardiac failure of Grade 3 or higher. Conclusions: The results suggest that hyperfractionated PBT is safe and effective for patients with esophageal cancer. Further studies are needed to establish the appropriate role and treatment schedule for use of PBT for esophageal cancer.

  16. Subtotal esophageal resection in motility disorders of the esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockel, Ines; Kneist, Werner; Eckardt, Volker F; Oberholzer, Katja; Junginger, Theodor

    2004-01-01

    Esophagectomy for motility disorders is performed infrequently. It is indicated after failed medical therapy, pneumatic dilation, non-resecting surgical and redo procedures. Patient selection in this group is challenging and the operative risk has to be weighted carefully against the poor quality of life with persistent or recurrent dysphagia. Between September 1985 and April 2004, subtotal esophageal resections for advanced esophageal motility disorders of the esophagus not responding to previous therapy were carried out in 8 patients (6 females, 2 males). The median age of these patients was 59.5 (43-78) years. Six patients had a megaesophagus secondary to achalas