WorldWideScience

Sample records for radionuclide ingestion lessons

  1. Estimates of internal-dose equivalent from inhalation and ingestion of selected radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents internal radiation dose conversion factors for radionuclides of interest in environmental assessments of nuclear fuel cycles. This volume provides an updated summary of estimates of committed dose equivalent for radionuclides considered in three previous Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports. Intakes by inhalation and ingestion are considered. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Task Group Lung Model has been used to simulate the deposition and retention of particulate matter in the respiratory tract. Results corresponding to activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMAD) of 0.3, 1.0, and 5.0 ..mu..m are given. The gastorintestinal (GI) tract has been represented by a four-segment catenary model with exponential transfer of radioactivity from one segment to the next. Retention of radionuclides in systemic organs is characterized by linear combinations of decaying exponential functions, recommended in ICRP Publication 30. The first-year annual dose rate, maximum annual dose rate, and fifty-year dose commitment per microcurie intake of each radionuclide is given for selected target organs and the effective dose equivalent. These estimates include contributions from specified source organs plus the systemic activity residing in the rest of the body; cross irradiation due to penetrating radiations has been incorporated into these estimates. 15 references.

  2. Identification of Ambiguous Activities in Radionuclide Cisternography Using SPECT/CT: Aspirated and Ingested CSF Rhinorrhea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Yun; Kim, Jae Seung [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    A 2 year-old little girl underwent Tc-99m diethylenthriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) radionuclide cisternography to evaluate CSF rhinorrhea (Fig. 1). Cisternography clearly showed consecutive tracer activity in the nasal cavity and nasal tip, reflecting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. However, several unexpected activities appeared on the bilateral mid- and unilateral lower thorax on delayed images, respectively. We performed additional SPECT/CT to delineate the CSF leakage tract and identify the unexpected activities. Through SPECT/CT, we could confirm that the mid-thoracic activity was in the lung parenchyma, while the lower thoracic activity was in the stomach. Thus, we speculated that these unexpected activities were the result of aspirated and ingested CSF rhinorrhea. CSF rhinorrhea occurs when there is a fistula between the dura mater and the skull base and discharge of CSF from the nose. A spinal fluid leak from the intracranial space to the nasal respiratory tract is potentially very serious because of the risk of an ascending infection that could produce fulminant meningitis. Therefore, identification of the fistulous tract is helpful for patient management. Radionuclide cisternography is an important imaging modality to detect the site of leakage in patients with CSF rhinorrhea. The combination of radionuclide cistenography and SPECT/CT has led to a major improvement in the diagnostic accuracy for localization of CSF leakage. This case also shows an important role for SPECT/CT fusion imaging in radionuclide cisternography not only for localizing the primary CSF fistula tract, but also for evaluating ambiguous radiotracer activities in planar imaging; these ultimately turned out to be aspirated and ingested CSF rhinorrhea.

  3. Level of natural radionuclides in foodstuffs and resultant annual ingestion radiation dose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The natural radioactivities in three major groups of foodstuff widely consumed in Upper Egypt were determined. The specific activities of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in cereals, leguminosae, and flour were measured using γ-ray spectroscopy. Another group of hay, water, and soil samples from the same location were also analyzed. Hay samples were found to contain the highest radioactivity concentration among all the samples that were investigated. This increment could be due to the high water content in the shoots which tends to accumulate soluble radionuclides. The average calculated concentrations of soil samples in the present study exhibits the lowest values with respect to those from different countries. In the case of water samples, the average activities of both 232Th and 40K were similar to those for soil while 226Ra was twice that of water sample. The annual ingestion dose from each radionuclide was calculated. The computed annual dose owing to daily intake of radium, thorium, and potassium via wheat flour, lentils,and bean in the present study (214.8 μSv) is ten times lower than the global average annual radiation dose (2400 μSv)from the natural radiation sources as proposed by UNSCEAR. The obtained results show that the dose values are quite low and carry insignificant radiation dose to the public.

  4. REDIQ: a computer program for estimating health effects from inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D.L.; Watson, E.C.; Kennedy, W.E.

    1976-12-01

    The computer program REDIQ calculates the risk equivalence of dosage from internally deposited radionuclides to dosage from external whole-body irradiation. The calculation gives an estimate of the microcurie intake per nuclide that would result in a risk equivalent to receiving 1 rem of external whole-body irradiation. The program allows for internal deposition resulting from either inhalation of radioactive aerosols or ingestion of contaminated food. The inhalation portion of REDIQ was taken from the computer program DACRIN, which uses the models of the respiratory tract adopted by the Task Group on Lung Dynamics. REDIQ also uses a simple exponential model for retention by an organ of interest, and the gastrointestinal tract model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). For each nuclide specified, the program first calculates the radiation dose per microcurie intake by inhalation or ingestion to any of 23 organs and tissues. A maximum of 10 organs may be specified for any one case. The values for dose per microcurie intake are then coupled with relative risk values for each organ being considered, to arrive at the estimated intake equivalent to 1 rem of external whole-body irradiation.

  5. Fukushima radionuclides in the NW Pacific, and assessment of doses for Japanese and world population from ingestion of seafood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinec, Pavel P.; Hirose, Katsumi

    2015-03-01

    Variations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides (90Sr, 134Cs and 137Cs) in seawater and biota offshore Fukushima and in the NW Pacific Ocean were investigated and radiation doses to the Japanese and world population from ingestion of seafood contaminated by Fukushima radionuclides were estimated and compared with those from other sources of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides. The total effective dose commitment from ingestion of radionuclides in fish, shellfish and seaweed caught in coastal waters off Fukushima was estimated to be 0.6 +/- 0.4 mSv/y. The individual effective dose commitment from consumption of radioactive-contaminated fish caught in the open Pacific Ocean was estimated to be 0.07 +/- 0.05 mSv/y. These doses are comparable or much lower than doses delivered from the consumption of natural 210Po in fish and in shellfish (0.7 mSv/y). The estimated individual doses have been below the levels when any health damage of the Japanese and world population could be expected.

  6. Radionuclides in food and the radiation exposure due to ingestion; Radionuklide in Lebensmitteln und die Strahlenexposition durch Ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, Rolf

    2015-06-01

    As a consequence of the reactor accidents in Fukushima Daiichi high amounts of radioactive iodine and cesium isotopes were released into the terrestrial and marine Japanese environment. The largest release occurred on March 15, 2011 as a consequence of the containment failure of unit 2. Due to the meteorological conditions large area fallout occurred in the district of Fukushima. Other prefectures in the north of Japan were also contaminated. As a consequence of the high surface contamination the dose limits for drinking water, milk and milky products and food were increased to 200 Bq/kg.It turned out that the contamination of rice was marginal, the contamination of predatory fish higher than that of non-predatory fish. A systematic investigation of food samples could allow a better estimation of ingestion induced exposure.

  7. Estimation of the committed radiation dose resulting from gamma radionuclides ingested with food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godyń, Piotr; Dołhańczuk-Śródka, Agnieszka; Ziembik, Zbigniew; Moliszewska, Ewa

    The objective of the study was to estimate the value of the radiation dose absorbed in consequence of consumption of popular food products for individual age groups. Potatoes, corn and sugar beet were selected for the study. Edible parts of these plants were collected in experimental fields of the KWS Lochów Polska Sp. z o.o. seeding company in Kondratowice (Poland). On the basis of the obtained study results, it can be stated that in consequence of consumption of the selected food products, people may receive increased doses from both natural and artificial radioactive isotopes. The doses calculated for several age groups do not show any health hazards in consequence of consumption of the tested food. One of the determined radionuclides was (137)Cs; however, its presence in the absorbed dose is lower than the doses from natural radioactive isotopes, in particular (40)K.

  8. A pilot study to assess the feasibility of using naturally-occurring radionuclides as mass balance tracers to estimate soil ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, J R; White, P A; Blais, J M

    2012-09-01

    The relatively few soil ingestion studies that have been conducted to date to support soil ingestion rate values used for contaminated site human health risk assessments (HHRAs) typically have measured mass balance elemental tracers (e.g., Al, Si, Ba, Ce, Mn, Ti, V, Zr), found in soil to estimate soil ingestion. This pilot study, involving a canine subject fed a known amount of tracer on a daily basis, assessed the use of alternative mass balance tracers, specifically naturally occurring radionuclides of the (238)U and (232)Th decay series, to estimate soil ingestion. A novel method of estimating soil ingestion via difference in isotopic ratios between the two decay series in food and soil was also assessed. The results of the study showed that the mean (214)Pb and (212)Pb activities measured in fecal samples were greater than what was contained in the soil inoculant, suggesting that the tracers were not being significantly absorbed in the GI tract. The mean daily soil ingestion rates, calculated after subtracting the contribution of tracers in the soil inoculant, were 3.9 g d(-1) (standard deviation 3.6 g d(-1)) for the isotope tracers, and 1.9 g(-1) (standard deviation 2.1 g d(-1)) for the 3 most reliable elemental tracers. The differences were not statistically significant and further evaluation of isotopic tracers for soil ingestion studies is warranted. Similarly, soil ingestion estimates calculated using the Isotope Ratio Method were not significantly different than when calculated using (212)Pb; however, the Isotope Ratio Method was observed to positively bias the soil ingestion estimates by approximately 50%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radionuclides in deer and elk from Los Alamos National Laboratory and the doses to humans from the ingestion of muscle and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresquez, P R; Biggs, J R; Bennett, K D; Kraig, D H; Mullen, M A; Ferenbaugh, J K

    1999-09-01

    This paper summarizes radionuclide concentrations (3H, 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, and totU) in muscle and bone tissue of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) collected from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico, lands from 1991 through 1998. Also, the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) and the risk of excess cancer fatalities (RECF) to people who ingest muscle and bone from deer and elk collected from LANL lands were estimated. Most radionuclide concentrations in muscle and bone from individual deer (n = 11) and elk (n = 22) collected from LANL lands were either at less than detectable quantities (where the analytical result was smaller than two counting uncertainties) and/or within upper (95%) level background (BG) concentrations. As a group, most radionuclides in muscle and bone of deer and elk from LANL lands were not significantly higher (p < 0.10) than in similar tissues from deer (n = 3) and elk (n = 7) collected from BG locations. Also, elk that had been radio collared and tracked for two years and spent an average time of 50% of LANL lands were not significantly different in most radionuclides from road kill elk that have been collected as part of the environmental surveillance program. Overall, the upper (95%) level net CEDEs (the CEDE plus two sigma for each radioisotope minus background) at the most conservative ingestion rate (50 lbs of muscle and 13 lbs of bone) were as follows: deer muscle = 0.22 mrem y-1 (2.2 microSv y-1), deer bone = 3.8 mrem y-1 (38 microSv y-1), elk muscle = 0.12 mrem y-1 (1.2 microSv y-1), and elk bone = 1.7 mrem y-1 (17 microSv y-1). All CEDEs were far below the International Commission on Radiological Protection guideline of 100 mrem y-1 (1000 microSv y-1), and the highest muscle plus bone net CEDE corresponded to a RECF of 2E-06, which is far below the Environmental Protection Agency upper level guideline of 1E-04.

  10. Radionuclide migration at the Koongarra uranium deposit, Northern Australia Lessons from the Alligator Rivers analogue project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Timothy E.; Airey, Peter L.

    The Koongarra uranium deposit in Northern Australia provides a ‘natural analogue’ for processes that are of relevance for assessing the safety of radioactive waste disposal. In an international project extending over two decades, the Koongarra ore body was studied to increase the understanding of radionuclide migration and retention mechanisms that might occur in the vicinity of a geological repository. The research effort included extensive characterisation of the geological, hydrological and geochemical conditions at the site. Patterns of the distribution of radionuclides (predominantly members of the 238U decay chain, but also the rare isotopes 239Pu, 99Tc and 129I) were studied in both solid and groundwater phases. The project included detailed studies of uranium adsorption on mineral surfaces, and of subsequent processes that may lead to long-term uranium immobilisation. Numerous models for uranium migration were developed during the project. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the research at Koongarra, and assesses the value of the site for integrating the results of a complex series of laboratory, modelling and field studies. The insights gained from this review of the Koongarra project may assist in maximising the potential scientific benefit of future natural analogue studies.

  11. Lessons Learned from WIPP Site Characteriztion, Performance Assessment, and Regulatory Review Related to Radionuclide Migration through Water-Conducting Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauheim, R.L.: Larson. K.W.

    1998-11-11

    Many lessons have been learned over the past 24 years as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project has progressed from initial site characterization to final licensing that may be of relevance to other nuclear-waste-disposal projects. These lessons pertain to the manner in which field and laboratory investigations are planned, how experiments are interpreted, how conceptual and numerical models are developed and simplified~ and how defensibility and credibility are achieved and maintained. These lessons include 1) Site characterization and performance assessment (PA) should evolve together through an iterative process, with neither activity completely dominating the other. 2) Defensibility and credibility require a much greater depth of understanding than can be represented in PA models. 3) Experimentalists should be directly involved in model and parameter abstraction and simplification for PA. 4) External expert review should be incorporated at all stages of a project~ not just after an experiment or modeling activity is completed. 5) Key individuals should be retained for the life of a project or a process must be established to transfer their working knowledge to new individuals. 6) An effective QA program needs to be stable and consistent for the duration of a project and rests on best scientific practices. All of these lessons relate to the key point that consideration must be given from the earliest planning stages to maximizing the defensibility and credibility of all work.

  12. Plastic ingestion by Masked booby, Sula dactylatra Lesson, 1831, on Biological Reserve of Rocas Atoll, RN, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich de Freitas Mariano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Plastic particles are one of the most common pollutants in the marine environment and it is reaching regions with low human population density. These particles are frequently ingested by many marine organisms, causing digestive problems, which may lead to the weakening and death of the animal. In a research on the feeding of 631-masked boobies, Sula dactylatra from the Biological Reserve of Atol das Rocas, plastic particles were found in stomach contents of four adults. The artifacts found were made of transperant plastic, a piece of label of a mineral water bottle, two pieces of black plastic and a small hard and red piece. The flow of fishing and tourism boats on the Atol das Rocas Biological Reserve may be the source of origin of the plastic parts in both the stomach contents and those found on the islands of the reserve, which suggests that anthropogenic behaviour has already reached isolated areas which should have a high degree of biodiversity protection. Several measures can be taken to avoid deleterious events in the marine biota, but there is great difficulty in avoiding waste dumping from fishing and tourism ships/boats, in addition to that, there are many materials from the mainland, which requires an increase in awareness and supervision.

  13. [Caustic ingestions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adukauskiene, Dalia; Mazeikiene, Sandra; Rumba, Arvydas; Vizgirdaite, Venta

    2009-01-01

    Caustic ingestions (alkalis, acids) may cause severe chemical burns and lifelong complications, which worsen life quality. Approximately 80% of caustic ingestions occur in children. They mostly intoxicate because of chemical substances kept insecurely or in inappropriate containers. Until now, there is no general opinion about diagnostics and management of caustic ingestions. Therefore, the main aim of this article is accurately represent diagnostic and treatment options believing that this information would help physicians to diagnose caustic ingestions easier and faster, to provide emergency management correctly, and to avoid acute and chronic complications.

  14. Radionuclide cystogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003832.htm Radionuclide cystogram To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A radionuclide cystogram is a special imaging test called a nuclear ...

  15. Determination of the equivalent doses due to the ingestion of radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series presents in drinking waters of the region of Santa Luzia, Paraiba state, Brazil; Determinacao das doses equivalentes devido a ingestao de radionuclideos das series do uranio e torio presentes em aguas de consumo do municipio de Santa Luzia, estado da Paraiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastura, Valeria F. da S., E-mail: vpastura@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (DRSN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear. Coordenacao de Materias Primas e Minerais; Campos, Thomas F. da C.; Petta, Reinaldo A., E-mail: thomascampos@geologia.ufrn.b, E-mail: petta@geologia.ufrn.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (LARANA/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Radioatividade Natural

    2011-10-26

    This paper determined the original dose equivalents from radionuclides of uranium and thorium series in a drinking water of well which is supplied to the population of Santa Luzia, Paraiba state, Brazil. The collected waters are near to the mineralized phlegmatic bodies in rose quartz and amazonite feldspar. Radiometric measurements performed on the feldspar vein point out counting ratios surrounding 30000 cps and the analysis of collected samples of minerals presented tenors for the {sup 226}Ra and {sup 219}Pb varying from 0.50 to 2.30 Bq/sw. For determination of concentration of radionuclides U{sub Total}, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 219}Pb, found in the not desalinated, two methods were used, spectrophotometry with arsenazo and radiochemistry, both realized in the CNEN-LAPOC laboratories. For the calculation of dose equivalent it was taken into consideration the following parameters: the dose coefficients for incorporation by ingestion for public individuals with ages over 17 years (Norma CNEN-NN-3.01, Regulatory Position 3.01/011) and daily ingestion of 4 liters of water, which is over the recommended by the WHO of 2L/day - 1993. The obtained values were compared with the reference value for compromised dose equivalent established by WHO for evaluate the risk potential to the health of population, by ingestion. The radionuclide concentrations in the wells varies from 0.054 to 0.21 Bq/L, resulting dose equivalents of 3.94 x 10{sup -3} mSv/year and 0.17 mSv/year in the studied population

  16. Cosmogenic radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Beer, Jürg; Von Steiger, R

    2012-01-01

    Cosmogenic radionuclides are radioactive isotopes which are produced by natural processes and distributed within the Earth system. With a holistic view of the environment the authors show in this book how cosmogenic radionuclides can be used to trace and to reconstruct the history of a large variety of processes. They discuss the way in which cosmogenic radionuclides can assist in the quantification of complex processes in the present-day environment. This book aims to demonstrate to the reader the strength of analytic tools based on cosmogenic radionuclides, their contribution to almost any f

  17. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dercon, G; Mabit, L; Hancock, G; Nguyen, M L; Dornhofer, P; Bacchi, O O S; Benmansour, M; Bernard, C; Froehlich, W; Golosov, V N; Haciyakupoglu, S; Hai, P S; Klik, A; Li, Y; Lobb, D A; Onda, Y; Popa, N; Rafiq, M; Ritchie, J C; Schuller, P; Shakhashiro, A; Wallbrink, P; Walling, D E; Zapata, F; Zhang, X

    2012-05-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002-2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on "Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides" (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of different soil conservation measures on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of ¹³⁷Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), ²¹⁰Pb(ex) (half-life of 22.3 years) and ⁷Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably--a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation.

  18. Radionuclide transfer. Radionuklid Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG)

  19. Development of an Ingestion Pathway Model for AXAIRQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpkins, A.A.

    1999-01-13

    AXAIRQ is a dose mode code used for prospective accident assessment at the Savannah River Site and is primarily used to show regulatory compliance. For completeness of pathway analysis, an ingestion model, AXINGST, has been developed for use with, and incorporation in, AXAIRQ. Currently available ingestion models were referenced as a basis for AXINGST. AXINGST calculates a conservative ingestion dose following an atmospheric release of radionuclides and includes site specific variables where applicable.

  20. TRANSPORT OF RADIONUCLIDES ALONG MARINE FOODCHAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国斌; 余君岳; 等

    1995-01-01

    A compartment model is employed to calculate the radionuclide concentrations in the ocean currents for a nuclear accient scenario where the long-lived 137 Cs is totally discharged into the sea.The radionuclide concentrations in both the waters of Daya Bay and the adjacent south China Sea are considered.Using the concentration factors for the marine organisms:fish,crustacea and mollusca,their radionuclide concentrations are also estimated.In this way,the whole body radiation doses received by an individual due to ingestion of marine organisms from the Daya Bay and the South China Sea are calculated.

  1. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to cumulative dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 004) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to cumulative dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows' milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in calculation 002. This calculation specifically addresses cumulative radiation doses to infants and adults resulting from releases occurring over the period 1945 through 1972.

  2. POTRE: A computer code for the assessment of dose from ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanusik, V.; Mitro, A.; Niedel, S.; Grosikova, B.; Uvirova, E.; Stranai, I. (Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques, Kosice (Czechoslovakia))

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the computer code PORET and the auxiliary database system which allow to assess the radiation exposure from ingestion of foodstuffs contaminated by radionuclides released from a nuclear facility during normal operation into the atmosphere. (orig.).

  3. Post-accidental riverine dispersion of sediments contaminated by radionuclides: confrontation of lessons learnt from Chernobyl and Fukushima case studies in catchments from Russia (1986-2009) and Japan (2011-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Olivier; Belyaev, Vladimir; Onda, Yuichi; Chartin, Caroline; Patin, Jeremy; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie; Ivanova, Nadezda; Bonté, Philippe; Golosov, Valentin

    2013-04-01

    Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011) nuclear power plant accidents led to the release of important quantities of radionuclides (e.g., Cs-134; Cs-137) into the environment, and to the formation of severe contamination plumes (with initial Cs-137 activities exceeding typically 400 kBq m-2) on soils of the regions exposed to the radioactive fallout. This leads to important consequences for agriculture in strongly contaminated areas where the most affected fields should not be cultivated anymore during long periods of time, depending on the half life of the emitted radionuclides. Furthermore, sediment transfer in rivers can lead to the dispersion of radioactive contamination into larger areas over time. In this paper, we propose a methodology to trace and model radioactive contamination in river catchments over the short (2 yrs) and the longer term (25 yr) after major nuclear power plant accidents. This methodology is established and confronted to two case studies. The most recent study was conducted in the coastal catchments of the Rivers Nitta, Mano and Ota (ca. 600 km²) draining the main part of the radioactive pollution plume that deposited across Fukushima Prefecture. Three field campaigns were conducted to sample riverbed sediment along those rivers after the summer typhoons and the spring snowmelt (i.e., in Nov 2011, April 2012 and Nov 2012). Based on their analysis in gamma spectrometry, we show the rapid dispersion of the inland contamination and its progressive export by coastal rivers to the Pacific Ocean. This is confirmed by measurements of the Ag-110m: Cs-137 ratio. Analysis of sediment sequences that accumulated in reservoirs of the region provides additional information on the magnitude on sediment transfers in those areas. This rapid dispersion of radioactive contamination in Japan is confronted to lessons learnt from a case study conducted in the Plava River catchment (ca. 2000 km²) located in the so-called "Plavsk contamination hotspot", in

  4. THE CONSEQUENCES OF INGESTION BY MAN OF REAL AND SIMULATED FALLOUT,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ingested radioactivity was measured by whole body counting using the gamma-ray spectrometer at the Argonne Cancer Research Hospital. An average of 3 per...strontium, cesium and barium following ingestion of fallout, and retention of the radionuclides of these elements. (Author)

  5. The applicability and limitations of the geochemical models and tools used in simulating radionuclide behaviour in natural waters. Lessons learned from the Blind Predictive Modelling exercises performed in conjunction with Natural Analogue studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, J.; Duro, L.; Grive, M. [QuantiSci SL, Parc Tecnologic del Valles (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    One of the key applications of Natural Analogue studies to the Performance Assessment (PA) of nuclear waste disposal has been the possibility to test the geochemical models and tools to be used in describing the migration of radionuclides in a future radioactive waste repository system. To this end, several geochemical modelling testing exercises (commonly denoted as Blind Predictive Modelling), have formed an integral part of Natural Analogue Studies over the last decade. Consequently, we thought that this is a timely occasion to make an evaluation of the experience gained and lessons learnt. We have reviewed, discussed and compared the results obtained from the Blind Prediction Modelling (BPM) exercises carried out within 7 Natural Analogue Studies: Oman, Pocos de Caldas, Cigar Lake, Maqarin, El Berrocal, Oklo and Palmottu. To make this comparison meaningful, we present the main geochemical characteristics of each site in order to highlight the most relevant mineralogical and hydrochemical differences. From the complete list of elements studied at all the investigated sites we have made a selection based on the relevance of a given element from a PA viewpoint and on the frequency this element has been included in the BPM exercises. The elements selected for discussion are: Sr, Ba, Sn, Pb, Se, Ni, Zn, REEs, Th and U. We have based our discussion on the results obtained from the speciation as well as solubility calculations. From the comparison of the results it is concluded that we can differentiate between three element categories: 1. Elements whose geochemical behaviour can be fairly well described by assuming solubility control exerted by pure solid phases of the given element (i.e. Th, U under reducing conditions and U in some sites under oxidising conditions); 2. Elements for which the association to major geochemical components of the system must be considered in order to explain their concentrations in groundwaters (i.e. Sr, Ba, Zn, Se, REEs and U under

  6. Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function.

  7. Microplastic ingestion by zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew; Lindeque, Pennie; Fileman, Elaine; Halsband, Claudia; Goodhead, Rhys; Moger, Julian; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-06-18

    Small plastic detritus, termed "microplastics", are a widespread and ubiquitous contaminant of marine ecosystems across the globe. Ingestion of microplastics by marine biota, including mussels, worms, fish, and seabirds, has been widely reported, but despite their vital ecological role in marine food-webs, the impact of microplastics on zooplankton remains under-researched. Here, we show that microplastics are ingested by, and may impact upon, zooplankton. We used bioimaging techniques to document ingestion, egestion, and adherence of microplastics in a range of zooplankton common to the northeast Atlantic, and employed feeding rate studies to determine the impact of plastic detritus on algal ingestion rates in copepods. Using fluorescence and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy we identified that thirteen zooplankton taxa had the capacity to ingest 1.7-30.6 μm polystyrene beads, with uptake varying by taxa, life-stage and bead-size. Post-ingestion, copepods egested faecal pellets laden with microplastics. We further observed microplastics adhered to the external carapace and appendages of exposed zooplankton. Exposure of the copepod Centropages typicus to natural assemblages of algae with and without microplastics showed that 7.3 μm microplastics (>4000 mL(-1)) significantly decreased algal feeding. Our findings imply that marine microplastic debris can negatively impact upon zooplankton function and health.

  8. Modeling Considerations for Ingestion Pathway Dose Calculations Using CAP88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuenkel, David

    2017-04-01

    The CAP88-PC computer model was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to demonstrate compliance under the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS). The program combines atmospheric transport models with the terrestrial food chain models in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.109 to compute the radionuclide concentrations in the air, on ground surfaces and plants, and the concentrations in food to estimate the dose to individuals living in the area around a facility emitting radionuclides into the atmosphere. CAP88 allows the user to select the size of the assessment area and the receptor locations used to calculate the radionuclide concentrations in non-leafy vegetables, leafy vegetables, milk, and meat consumed by the receptors. Depending on the food scenario selected and the type of calculation ("Population" or "Individual") chosen, the annual effective dose from ingestion can depend on both the size of the assessment area and the location of the receptors. Illustrative examples demonstrate the effect of the choice of these input parameters on the annual effective dose from ingestion. An understanding of the model used in CAP88 and the differences between "Population" and "Individual" run types will enable the CAP88 user to better model the ingestion dose.

  9. PATHWAY: a simulation model of radionuclide-transport through agricultural food chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, T.B.; Whicker, F.W.; Otis, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    PATHWAY simulates the transport of radionuclides from fallout through an agricultural ecosystem. The agro-ecosystem is subdivided into several land management units, each of which is used either for grazing animals, for growing hay, or for growing food crops. The model simulates the transport of radionuclides by both discrete events and continuous, time-dependent processes. The discrete events include tillage of soil, harvest and storage of crops,and deposition of fallout. The continuous processes include the transport of radionuclides due to resuspension, weathering, rain splash, percolation, leaching, adsorption and desorption of radionuclides in the soil, root uptake, foliar absorption, growth and senescence of vegetation, and the ingestion assimilation, and excretion of radionuclides by animals. Preliminary validation studies indicate that the model dynamics and simulated values of radionuclide concentrations in several agricultural products agree well with measured values when the model is driven with site specific data on deposition from world-wide fallout.

  10. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to cumulative dose. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Dose code recovery activities, Calculation 004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 004) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to cumulative dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows` milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in calculation 002. This calculation specifically addresses cumulative radiation doses to infants and adults resulting from releases occurring over the period 1945 through 1972.

  11. Radionuclides in US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  12. Paraffin ingestion - the problem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mistake it for liquid refreshment. Rom et al.5 ... These are containers used to dispense paraffin into appliances. ... This is because children's fluid intake increases on hotter days. .... Modernisation, determined by economic systems, level of education .... Effect of safety packaging on aspirin ingestion by children. Pediatrics ...

  13. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A. [Centro Universitário da FEI, São Bernardo do Campo (Brazil); Medina, Nilberto H. [Instituto de Física da USP, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-11-11

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year.

  14. Pediatric safety pin ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarihan, H; Kaklikkaya, I; Ozcan, F

    1998-08-01

    Fifteen consecutive children with ingested safety pins were evaluated retrospectively. Eight patients were males and seven were girls. The mean age of the patients was 5.4 years ranging from 7 months to 16 years. Two of 15 patients were mentally retarded Seven safety pins ingestion were noted by parents, three older children applied with safety pin swallowing. Three infants referred with hypersalivation and swallowing difficulty. One of two mentally retarded patients had recurrent aspiration pneumonia, the other had neck abscess. These patients' lesions were detected incidentally by thoracic X-ray. Nine safety pins were at the level of the cricopharyngeus, one at the level of the aortic arch and five at the esophagogastric junction. A right esophagoscopy was used for extraction of safety pins under general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation were used. Before esophagoscopy control plain X-ray was obtained for location of safety pin. Nine safety pins were extracted by esophagoscopy. Three safety pins spontaneously and three during anesthesia induction passed through the esophagus falling down the stomach. Five of these six safety pins were spontaneously extracted without complication. However one open safety pin lodged at the duodenum and laparotomy was required. In this article, etiology and management of safety pin ingestion in children are discussed.

  15. Planning Lessons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda Jensen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Jensen's "Lesson Planning"article serves aS a guide fOr novice teachers who need to create formalized lesson plans.The article covers why,when,and how teachers plan lessons,as well aS basic lesson plan principles and a lesson plan template.

  16. Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ragan

    2002-08-09

    pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and high-level waste (HLW). Average and outlying (high burnup, high initial enrichment, low age, or otherwise exceptional) forms of each waste-form type are considered. This analysis has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (BSC 2002c). In a review of Revision 00 of this radionuclide screening analysis, the NRC found that ''processes that affect transport in the biosphere, such as uptake by plants and bioaccumulation are not accounted for'' and that ''the direct exposure pathway is not accounted for'' (Beckman 2001, Section 5.3.2.1). The NRC also found that the solubility and sorption classes were too broadly defined, noting, for example, that Se is in the same solubility and sorptivity groups as Np and U, yet is ''more soluble than Np and U by several orders of magnitude'' (Beckman 2001, Section 5.3.2.1). This revision seeks to build upon the strengths of the earlier screening method while responding to the specific concerns raised by the NRC and other reviewers. In place of simple inhalation and ingestion dose conversion factors, the revised radionuclide screening uses screening factors that also take into account soil accumulation, uptake by plants, exposure to contaminated ground, and other features of the biosphere that were neglected in the previous screening. Whereas the previous screening analysis allowed only two solubility classes (soluble and insoluble), the revised screening introduces an intermediate solubility class to better segregate the radionuclides into transport groups.

  17. Radionuclide therapy revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefnagel, C.A. (Nederlands Kanker Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1991-06-01

    Apart from its use in endocrinology and rheumatology, therapeutic nuclear medicine is developing rapidly as an additional treatment modality in oncology. Many different specific tumour-seeking radiopharmaceuticals are being applied both for diagnostic scintigraphy and treatment, using multiple routes and mechanisms to target radionuclides at tumours. After a brief introduction of some basic principles of radionuclide targeting, the therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals available are reviewed according to the accumulation site in relation to the cell nucleus; the results of their current clinical use for therapy are also reviewed. The response observed to a number of these applications, the non-invasiveness of the procedure and the relative lack of toxicity and late effects in comparison with chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy make radionuclide therapy an attractive and realistic alternative in the management of malignant disease, as well as in the treatment of a few benign disorders. (orig.).

  18. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  19. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  20. Radionuclides in drinking water: the recent legislative requirements of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Sveva; Risica, Serena

    2015-03-01

    In November 2013, a new EURATOM Directive was issued on the protection of public health from the radionuclide content in drinking water. After introducing the contents of the Directive, the paper analyses the hypotheses about drinking water ingestion adopted in documents of international and national organizations and the data obtained from national/regional surveys. Starting from the Directive's parametric value for the Indicative Dose, some examples of derived activity concentrations of radionuclides in drinking water are reported for some age classes and three exposure situations, namely, (i) artificial radionuclides due to routine water release from nuclear power facilities, (ii) artificial radionuclides from nuclear medicine procedures, and (iii) naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water or resulting from existing or past NORM industrial activities.

  1. Methodology of radionuclides dis incorporation in people related to nuclear and radiological accidents; Metodologia de desincorporacion de radinuclidos en personas relacionadas con accidentes nucleares y radiologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez F, E. A.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper a classification of the radiological and nuclear accidents is presented, describing which the activities are, where they have occurred, their incidence and the learned lessons in these successes. The radiological accidents in which radioactive materials intervene can occur anywhere, and they are related to no controlled dangerous sources (abandoned, lost, stolen, or found sources), improper use of dangerous industrial and medical sources, exposition and contamination of people in general by an unknown origin, serious over expositions, menaces and willful misconduct, emergencies during transportation of radioactive material. A person can receive a dose of radiation from an external source, because of radioactive material placed on skin or on equipment, or because of ingestion or inhalation of radiological particles. The ingestion or the inhalation of radioactive material can cause an internal dose to the whole body or to a specific organ during a period of time. That is why a description of the processes of incorporation, the stages of incorporation and a description of the biokinetic models are also realized to understand the ingestion, transference and the excretion of the radioactive elements. In order to offer help to a victim of internal contamination, the dosimetric and medical diagnosis is very important. The most important techniques of dosimetric diagnosis are the dosimetry in vivo (cytogenetics and the counting in vivo of the whole body) and the bioassays. These techniques allow obtain data such as the radionuclide, the target organ, the absorbed dose, etc. At the same time, the doctor in charge must be attentive to the patients symptoms and their manifestation time, since they are an indicator, first, the patient suffered an irradiation, and second, of the range esteem of the received radiation dose. These are the parameters that are useful as criterion to decide if a person has to receive some treatment and select the methodologies that

  2. Pediatric Ingestions: Emergency Department Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarango Md, Stacy M; Liu Md, Deborah R

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric ingestions present a common challenge for emergency clinicians. Each year, more than 50,000 children aged less than 5 years present to emergency departments with concern for unintentional medication exposure, and nearly half of all calls to poison centers are for children aged less than 6 years. Ingestion of magnetic objects and button batteries has also become an increasing source of morbidity and mortality. Although fatal pediatric ingestions are rare, the prescription medications most responsible for injury and fatality in children include opioids, sedative/hypnotics, and cardiovascular drugs. Evidence regarding the evaluation and management of common pediatric ingestions is comprised largely of case reports and retrospective studies. This issue provides a review of these studies as well as consensus guidelines addressing the initial resuscitation, diagnosis, and treatment of common pediatric ingestions. Also discussed are current recommendations for decontamination, administration of antidotes for specific toxins, and management of ingested foreign bodies.

  3. Reliability of Current Biokinetic and Dosimetric Models for Radionuclides: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Meck, Robert A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot study of the reliability of the biokinetic and dosimetric models currently used by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as predictors of dose per unit internal or external exposure to radionuclides. The study examines the feasibility of critically evaluating the accuracy of these models for a comprehensive set of radionuclides of concern to the NRC. Each critical evaluation would include: identification of discrepancies between the models and current databases; characterization of uncertainties in model predictions of dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; characterization of variability in dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; and evaluation of prospects for development of more accurate models. Uncertainty refers here to the level of knowledge of a central value for a population, and variability refers to quantitative differences between different members of a population. This pilot study provides a critical assessment of models for selected radionuclides representing different levels of knowledge of dose per unit exposure. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) To optimize the use of available NRC resources, the full study should focus on radionuclides most frequently encountered in the workplace or environment. A list of 50 radionuclides is proposed. (2) The reliability of a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide (i.e., an estimate of dose per unit intake) may depend strongly on the specific application. Multiple characterizations of the uncertainty in a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide may be needed for different forms of the radionuclide and different levels of information of that form available to the dose analyst. (3) A meaningful characterization of variability in dose per unit intake of a radionuclide requires detailed information on the biokinetics of the radionuclide and hence is not feasible for many infrequently

  4. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  5. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Schreiner

    2001-06-27

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations

  6. Simplified method of evaluation of radionuclides migration in soil; Methode simplifiee d'evaluation de la migration de radionucleides dans le sol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozel, Ch

    1998-06-01

    In the frame of safety studies, it is useful to know the advance of an eventual release of radionuclides in ground water to determine the radiological impact on man by water ingestion, by irrigated plants ingestion and animals production ingestion (such milk or meat). The objectives of this report are to present the different physics phenomenons encountered during the migration, to list the different methods of doing ( to determine the radionuclides migration in soil), to choose one method and to check the results coherence with experience return. (N.C.)

  7. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  8. THRUST REVERSER PERFORMANCE AND THE INGESTION PROBLEM,

    Science.gov (United States)

    THRUST REVERSAL, INGESTION ), (*JET TRANSPORT PLANE, THRUST), (*TURBOJET ENGINES, INGESTION ), JET TRANSPORT PLANES, PELLETS, ROCK (GEOLOGY), PARTICLES, DESIGN, MODEL, INSTALLATION, EFFECTIVENESS, COMMERICAL.

  9. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  10. Natural Radionuclides in Meadow and Pasture land in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosén, Klas; Villanueva, José - Luis Gutiérrez; Sundell-Bergman, Synnöve

    The amount of natural radionuclides in the environment differs between the Nordic countries as shown by previous investigations and also by this study. Agricultural areas of high natural background are predominantly found in Sweden, Southern Finland and Norway while low background areas are typical...... transfer for pasture land under the different conditions that prevail in the Nordic countries. The potential health hazards due to chronic ingestion of low concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides are fairly unknown but the results of this study may provide valuable background information...... for assessing these radiation risks. The aim of this project has been to gain knowledge on the status of natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land and in grassland plants in different Nordic countries and on the transfer of these radionuclides from soil/water to man via the milk/food chain (soil- meadow...

  11. Comparison of Different Internal Dosimetry Systems for Selected Radionuclides Important to Nuclear Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Manger, Ryan P [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    This report compares three different radiation dosimetry systems currently applied by various U.S. Federal agencies and dose estimates based on these three dosimetry systems for a set of radionuclides often identified in power reactor effluents. These dosimetry systems were developed and applied by the International Commission on Radiological Protection at different times over the past six decades. Two primary modes of intake of radionuclides are addressed: ingestion in drinking water and inhalation. Estimated doses to individual organs and to the whole body based on each dosimetry system are compared for each of four age groups: infant, child, teenager, and adult. Substantial differences between dosimetry systems in estimated dose per unit intake are found for some individual radionuclides, but differences in estimated dose per unit intake generally are modest for mixtures of radionuclides typically found in nuclear power plant effluents.

  12. Osteopetrosis: Radiological & Radionuclide Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis. PMID:25589808

  13. Osteopetrosis: radiological & radionuclide imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis.

  14. Doses from intakes of radionuclides by adults and young people

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhalgh, J R; Fell, T P

    1985-01-01

    This report describes a methodology for calculating doses from ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides by adults, children (aged 10) and infants (aged 1). The calculation scheme follows the procedures and uses the models described in ICRP Publication 30, except in a few instances which are discussed in detail. The methods described in this report have been used to calculate organ doses and effective doses per unit intake for a wide variety of nuclides and compounds. A selection of these doses is given in this report. It is intended that the full dose data base should be made generally available in due course.

  15. Radionuclides in nephrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lausanne, A.B.D.

    1987-01-01

    In 47 expert contributions, this volume provides a summary of the latest research on radionuclides in nephro-urology together with current and new clinical applications especially in renovascular hypertension, kidney transplantation, and metabolic and urological diseases. In addition, attention is given to aspects of basic renal physiology and function and possible applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy in nephro-urology. New testing procedures which promise to improve diagnosis, and new radiopharmaceuticals are described. The reports are divided into eight sections, the first of which features studies on the renin-angiotensin system, cisplatin, atrial natriuretic factor and determining plasma oxalate. Four papers describe a number of new radiopharmaceuticals which have the potential to replace hippuran. In the third section, radionuclide methods for the measurement of renal function parameters are discussed. The book then focuses on the potential role of captopril in the improved diagnosis of renovascular hypertension. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy are demonstrated in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis, kidney assessment after lithotripsy, kidney evaluation prior to transplantation, and in monitoring renal ischemia during hypotension.

  16. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  17. Radionuclide contaminant analysis of small mammels, plants and sediments within Mortandad Canyon, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.; Fresquez, P.

    1996-01-01

    Small mammals, plants and sediments were sampled at one upstream location (Site 1) and two downstream locations (Site 2 and Site 3) from the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System outfall {number_sign}051-051 in Mortandad Canyon, Los Alamos County, New Mexico. The purpose of the sampling was to identify radionuclides potentially present, to quantitatively estimate and compare the amount of radionuclide uptake at specific locations (Site 2 and Site 3) within Mortandad Canyon to an upstream site (Site 1), and to identify the primary mode (inhalation ingestion, or surface contact) of contamination to small mammals. Three composite samples of at least five animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. In addition, three composite samples were also collected for plants and sediments at each site. Samples were analyzed for {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total U. With the exception of total U, all mean radionuclide concentrations in small mammal carcasses and sediments were significantly higher at Site 2 than Site 1 or Site 3. No differences were detected in the mean radionuclide concentration of plant samples between sites. However, some radionuclide concentrations found at all three sites were higher than regional background. No differences were found between mean carcass radionuclide concentrations and mean pelt radionuclide concentrations, indicating that the two primary modes of contamination may be equally occurring.

  18. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  19. Natural radionuclides in the aquatic environment of a phosphogypsum disposal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridasan, P P; Paul, A C; Desai, M V

    2001-01-01

    Rock phosphate ore processing and disposal of phosphogypsum contribute to enhanced levels of natural radionuclides in the environment. Studies on the distribution of U-series nuclides were carried out in the Chitrapuzha River, near Cochin, in the southern part of India. The concentrations of radionuclides, especially 226Ra, in the river waters showed enhancement by an order of magnitude relative to the levels in nearby water bodies. The concentrations were influenced by seasonal changes in the river flows during monsoon and summer periods. Ingestion doses via fish and milk have an upper estimate of 18 microSv for the critical population.

  20. Hadoop Tutorial - Efficient data ingestion

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Baranowski, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The Hadoop ecosystem is the leading opensource platform for distributed storage and processing of "big data". The Hadoop platform is available at CERN as a central service provided by the IT department. Real-time data ingestion to Hadoop ecosystem due to the system specificity is non-trivial process and requires some efforts (which is often underestimated) in order to make it efficient (low latency, optimize data placement, footprint on the cluster). In this tutorial attendees will learn about: The important aspects of storing the data in Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS).  Data ingestion techniques and engines that are capable of shipping data to Hadoop in an efficient way. Setting up a full data ingestion flow into a Hadoop Distributed Files System from various sources (streaming, log files, databases) using the best practices and components available around the ecosystem (including Sqoop, Kite, Flume, Kafka...

  1. Foreign bodies ingestion: what responsibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Serafino; Massoni, Francesco; Schiffino, Luigi; Pelosi, Marcello; Salesi, Marialucia

    2014-03-01

    The ingestion of foreign bodies is one of the most important and difficult emergencies for a physician to diagnose. Accidental ingestion is more common in children, in patients with dental implants, in individuals with mental disability and in drug users. Voluntary ingestion is found in patients who are psychologically unstable, in prisoners or those who attempt suicide. Foreign bodies may be divided into food as fish bones, chicken bones, food bolus, meat, etc. or real foreign bodies such as orthodontic implants, needles, pins, glass, coins, etc. The authors present a case of management, from the medicolegal point of view, of a female patient age 80, who complained, for some weeks of modest pain in the left iliac fossa, and afterwards the endoscopy showed a toothpick into the wall of the sigmoid colon. Assessed of the clinical status of the patient presented severe cardiac comorbidities so that before processing the patient to a second resolutive endoscopy, it was necessary to obtain the hemodynamic stability. However the management of cases of accidental ingestion of foreign bodies is particularly difficult. Medical errors can arise from the very first contact with the patient resulting in delays in appropriate treatment. The doctor to avoid compromising its position on medical liability, must use all the knowledge and diligence known by the art and science of medicine.

  2. Physiological Responses to Cola Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Handel, Peter J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Data from testing suggest that the ingestion of caffeine in the amount typically found in a single bottle of commercially available cola drink does not increase factors associated with coronary risk nor will it have an enhancing effect upon athletic performance. (MB)

  3. Ingestion of cylindrical batteries and its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Tony; Tanwar, Sudeep

    2017-01-17

    In contrast to the ingestion of coin batteries, the ingestion of cylindrical batteries is an uncommon medical presentation. Owing to their larger size, cylindrical battery ingestion can lead to serious complications including intestinal haemorrhage, bowel obstruction, bowel perforation, peritonitis and even death. We discuss the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented after swallowing three cylindrical batteries. Her medical history included depression and previous battery ingestion that required surgical removal. During this presentation however, these ingested batteries were removed endoscopically at oesophagogastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy. The patient was subsequently discharged without complication. This paper discusses the complications and management of cylindrical battery ingestion. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  5. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  6. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food and drinking water from a thorium-rich area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Lauria, Dejanira; Rochedo, Elaine R R; Godoy, Maria Luisa D P; Santos, Eliane E; Hacon, Sandra S

    2012-11-01

    This paper focuses on a survey of uranium and thorium decay chain radionuclides in food and drinking water from the thorium-rich (monazite-bearing) region of Buena, which is located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The radionuclide concentration values in the food and drinking water from Buena reached values higher than 100-fold the international reference values. The daily intake of radionuclides by the local population is similar to that of another high background radiation area in Brazil, but the intake is higher than that of residents from a normal background radiation area. Approximately 58 % of the food consumed by Buena inhabitants is produced locally. Based on that figure, locally produced food and the dilution of total radionuclides in the diet of residents caused by food importation are both highly relevant to a population's intake of radionuclides. The concentration values for (210)Pb and the radium isotopes in drinking water from Buena are among the highest values to be reported in the literature. (228)Ra is the most important radionuclide ingested with both food and water among the inhabitants of Buena.

  7. Ingestion of swimming pool water by recreational

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Swimming pool water ingestion data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Dufour, A., L. Wymer, M. Magnuson, T. Behymer, and R. Cantu. Ingestion...

  8. Intestinal perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergul Corduk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can cause serious gastrointestinal complications. We report a case of 7-year-old girl with multiple intestinal perforations caused by multiple magnet ingestion. The aim of this report is to draw attention to magnetic toys, results of magnet ingestion and the importance of timing of operation.

  9. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird ingestion. 33.76 Section 33.76... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.76 Bird ingestion. (a... following: (1) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this section, all ingestion tests must be conducted...

  10. Button battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Michael J; Ricca, Robert L; Gallagher, Thomas Q

    2017-08-30

    As the demand for small electronics continues to grow so does the risk of oesophageal ingestion of button batteries. These small but powerful sources of energy are ubiquitous in every household and when swallowed, especially in small children, have been shown to create significant injury in a short amount of time leading to long-term morbidity and possible death. This review highlights the latest findings regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of ingested button batteries. Updated epidemiology from the National Capital Poison Center, new bench research looking at injury patterns and possible mitigation strategies, updated ideas on management algorithms including the use of a trauma protocol, close-look second endoscopy and management of button batteries in the lower gastrointestinal tract are reviewed in this paper. Despite advances in the understanding of injury mechanics and innovations leading to early diagnosis and improved management of button battery ingestion, parental and provider education remain the most important tools to keep children well tolerated from the sequelae of these potentially fatal events. Collaboration between healthcare experts, public health and industry is essential to find a safe answer to this ongoing threat.

  11. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  12. 100 years of radionuclide metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, S M; Arnold, D; Chauvenet, B; Collé, R; De Felice, P; García-Toraño, E; Wätjen, U

    2014-05-01

    The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics.

  13. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    The radionuclides of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10{sup −3} (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  14. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    The radionuclides of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10-3 (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  15. Influence of speciation on the radionuclide uptake of plants; Einfluss der Speziation auf die Radionuklidaufnahme von Pflanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawussi, Frank

    2017-01-25

    The bioavailability for plants and uptake of radionuclides depend on various factors. The knowledge of the chemical and physical processes serves as basis for the transfer to different plant parts and finally for the estimation of the ingestion dose after consumption by man. Within the scope of the present work, the uptake of radionuclides was investigated in pea plants (Pisum sativum), paprika plants (Capsicum annuum) and potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) at low concentration (10{sup -5} to 10{sup -7} mol l{sup -1} for uranium and 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -9} mol l{sup -1} for plutonium) in hydroponic solution. Particular attention was paid to the speciation of radionuclides within the solution which was measured by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), capillary electrophoresis coupled to inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry (CE-ICP-MS), and theoretically calculated by the speciation code PHREEQC. The speciation, the solubility and therefore the plant availability of radionuclides mainly depend on the pH value and the redox potential of the solution. These parameters were monitored regularly. During the contamination period, the redox potential did not chance significantly. In contrast, the pH value showed characteristic changes depending on plants species. Especially in case of potato plants, the dissolved radionuclide fraction correlated with the changes of the pH value. In the plant roots, high amounts of radionuclides (10% to 50% of the added total quantity) were measured. Besides the uptake in the roots, the radionuclides can also adsorb to the exterior root surface. The transfer factor, which describes the Pu uptake ratio from the nutrient solution into the plant parts (dry mass), showed for the potato tubers values between 0.03 and 0.80 (Bq kg{sup -1}/ Bq l{sup -1}), depending on the initial Pu concentration. In addition of the complexing agent EDTA in solution (10{sup -4} mol l{sup -1}), the plutonium uptake increases up to 58

  16. Radionuclide Sensors for Subsurface Water Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy DeVol

    2006-06-30

    Contamination of the subsurface by radionuclides is a persistent and vexing problem for the Department of Energy. These radionuclides must be measured in field studies and monitoed in the long term when they cannot be removed. However, no radionuclide sensors existed for groundwater monitoring prior to this team's research under the EMSP program Detection of a and b decays from radionuclides in water is difficult due to their short ranges in condensed media.

  17. Method for evaluation of doses from ingestion of polonium, bismuth and lead as natural radioactive material(NORM); Metodo de evaluacion de dosis por ingestion de polonio, bismuto y plomo como materiales radiactivos naturales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, Vanessa; Puerta, Anselmo; Morales, Javier, E-mail: vpenam@ullal.edu.co, E-mail: japuerta@unal.edu.co, E-mail: jmorales@unal.cdu.co [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Grupo de Fisica Radiologica

    2013-07-01

    In this work was carried out an evaluation of dose from ingestion of radioactive daughters of radon (lead, bismuth and polonium), taking into account ages from three months up to adult men, using the new model of the human alimentary tract HATM and methodology of calculating doses proposed by the ICRP publication 103, which allows the estimation of dose based on the concentration of the radionuclide present in the diet or in the water of consumption.

  18. Familial Anaphylaxis after Silkworm Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautreau, Marc; Restuccia, Marc; Senser, Kevin; Weisberg, Stacy N

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we present a case of anaphylaxis in multiple family members after ingesting silkworms, an Asian delicacy. While food allergies, including anaphylaxis are unfortunately common, there are no previous reports of multiple family members suffering an anaphylactic reaction after eating silkworms. In addition, both family members required multiple doses of epinephrine and eventually an epinephrine infusion to improve their blood pressures. All interventions, including the epinephrine infusions, were started by emergency medical services (EMS) with on-line medical direction. Both the reaction and the required treatment are not extensively documented in the medical literature.

  19. Ingested and Aspirated Foreign Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, S Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Esophageal and aspirated foreign bodies have important clinical significance, and both should be considered carefully when the history or physical examination findings raise sufficient suspicion. The published evidence regarding the diagnosis and management of foreign body ingestion or aspiration is weighted disproportionately with observational studies, case controls, expert opinion, and systematic reviews. Most of the publications would receive a categorization of C (observational studies including case-control and cohort design) and D (expert opinion, case reports, and clinical reasoning). One of the few prospective studies examining the diagnostic evaluation of foreign body aspiration in children could be considered level B evidence (randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews, or diagnostic studies with minor limitations). This study found that the medical history is the most important predictive part of the evaluation. There is evidence for considering bronchoscopy if there is significant history suggestive of foreign body aspiration, even in the setting of normal physical examination findings. (28). Most ingested foreign bodies spontaneously pass without incident. However, special attention should be paid to objects in the esophagus as well as to batteries and magnets. Based on a systematic review of the literature (level B evidence) and the potential for rapid and life-threatening damage, batteries in the esophagus should be removed immediately. (10) Other objects, such as coins, may be observed for passage in an asymptomatic patient. In addition, given the high risk of significant complications, ingestion of high-powered magnets should be quickly and carefully evaluated. Although single magnets are likely to pass without complication, multiple magnets or magnets ingested with other metal objects can cause significant damage and should be removed if there is any concern for mural entrapment, bowel perforation, or failure to progress. (10

  20. Ingestion intakes of (137)Cs by the Czech population: Comparison of different approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrkal, Jan; Fojtík, Pavel; Malátová, Irena; Bartusková, Miluše

    2017-05-01

    Ingestion intakes of (137)Cs of the Czech population were calculated in two different ways - either from the measured activity of (137)Cs in components of food in combination with statistical data about consumption rates or from retention of (137)Cs in the human body obtained by whole body counting or calculated from daily urinary excretion of (137)Cs. Data from the time period since 1986 to 2015 are used. The daily ingestion intake was about 25 Bq d(-1) in 1986 and is around 0.1 Bq d(-1) at present. Both approaches of ingestion intake calculation have their advantages and disadvantages. Ingestion intake calculated from (137)Cs body content was assumed to be the most accurate as it requires fewer assumptions than the calculation from food consumption. However, calculation of (137)Cs intake from food consumption is an important tool for prediction doses after the release of radionuclides into environment. The best agreement exceeding the intakes from urine measurement 5 times at maximum was achieved when intakes calculated from food also included products from the natural environment. Without this, the ingestion intake could be under-predicted seriously up to 6 times, especially in the longer time after the release of (137)Cs into environment. Ingestion intakes up to 11 Bq d(-1) in a group of people with significant consumption of game meat containing elevated activity of (137)Cs activity were included as a special case. Various groups of foodstuffs had varying effects on the total committed effective dose from (137)Cs. Dose estimates for the Czech population from (137)Cs ingestion intake achieved 80 μSv in 1986 and not more than 2 μSv currently and were similar to those incurred by the population of neighbouring countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land in the Nordic countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K.; Gutierrez Villanueva, J.-L.; Sundell-Bergman, S. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) (Sweden)] [and others

    2012-06-15

    The amount of natural radionuclides in the environment differs between the Nordic countries as shown by previous investigations and also by this study. Agricultural areas of high natural background are predominantly found in Sweden, Southern Finland and Norway while low background areas are typical for Iceland and Denmark. Thus, this study offers possibilities for studying behaviour of natural radionuclides under different conditions such as the influence of different soil types as well as the husbandry. Furthermore the areas also enable studying environmental behaviour of radium and other natural radionuclides under seemingly steady state conditions. However, migration and accumulation of natural radionuclides in cultivated soil is complex involving various processes. Thus, a long term goal of this study was to identify the implications of some of these processes by determining the soil to plant transfer for pasture land under the different conditions that prevail in the Nordic countries. The potential health hazards due to chronic ingestion of low concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides are fairly unknown but the results of this study may provide valuable background information for assessing these radiation risks. The aim of this project has been to gain knowledge on the status of natural radionuclides in meadow and pasture land and in grassland plants in different Nordic countries and on the transfer of these radionuclides from soil/water to man via the milk/food chain (soil- meadow/pasture grass -cow-milk). Limited data are available on the mobility and the transfer of naturally occurring radionuclides in the ecosystems of the agricultural land. In addition, information concerning the concentrations in meat and dairy products is of interest for assessing exposures of humans to natural radionuclides. Soil characteristics are known to have significant impact on the mobility and uptake of natural radionuclides. Therefore, the uptake in relation to

  2. Modeling radionuclide migration from underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Viswanathan, Hari S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, Satish [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pandey, Sachin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O' Malley, Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anderson, Dale [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    The travel time of radionuclide gases to the ground surface in fracture rock depends on many complex factors. Numerical simulators are the most complete repositories of knowledge of the complex processes governing radionuclide gas migration to the ground surface allowing us to verify conceptualizations of physical processes against observations and forecast radionuclide gas travel times to the ground surface and isotopic ratios

  3. Chemistry and analysis of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Lehto, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Written by chemists for chemists, this is a comprehensive guide to the important radionuclides as well as techniques for their separation and analysis. It introduces readers to the important laboratory techniques and methodologies in the field, providing practical instructions on how to handle nuclear waste and radioactivity in the environment.

  4. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality.

  5. Radionuclide Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Søren; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging plays an integral role in the diagnostic workup of suspected pulmonary embolism, and several modalities have been employed over the years. In recent years, the choice has been narrowed to either computer tomographic or radionuclide based methods, i.e. computer tomographic angio...

  6. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra), radium-228 (228Ra) and potassium-40 (40K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (Hin), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  7. Accidental cell phone ingestion with pharyngeal impaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammed M; Bahl, Kazal; Dross, Matthew; Farooqui, Shoheb; Dross, Peter

    2014-09-01

    35 year old intoxicated male ingested an unusual, large foreign object (cell phone). To report the ingestion of an unusual large foreign object with hypopharyngeal impaction, complications, and treatment. Foreign body ingestion in the adult population is more prevalent in those who engage in drug or alcohol abuse. Impaction and perforation of the upper aerodigestive tract can lead to significant and potentially fatal complications including parapharyngeal/retropharyngeal abscess, mediastinitis, and aortoesophageal fistula. The treatment of foreign object ingestion is dependent on the type of foreign object ingested, its location, and potential for perforation. Endoscopic removal under general anesthesia is the treatment method recommended for foreign bodies impacted at the cricopharyngeus or esophagus. We report the only case of the accidental ingestion of an entire cell phone with casing. A plain film x-ray of the neck can be used in the assessment of the location of radiopaque foreign objects and in diagnosing potential complication.

  8. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of host rocks, secondary minerals, and fluids would affect the transport of radionuclides from a previously proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Minerals in the Yucca Mountain tuffs that are important for retarding radionuclides include clinoptilolite and mordenite (zeolites), clay minerals, and iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides. Water compositions along flow paths beneath Yucca Mountain are controlled by dissolution reactions, silica and calcite precipitation, and ion-exchange reactions. Radionuclide concentrations along flow paths from a repository could be limited by (1) low waste-form dissolution rates, (2) low radionuclide solubility, and (3) radionuclide sorption onto geological media.

  9. RADIONUCLIDES IN NOODLES AND BREAD CONSUMED IN HONG KONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余君岳; 茅瑞恩

    1995-01-01

    Most of the natural occurring radionuclides in both noodles and bread are found to have specific activities below the detectable limit of the high purity germaium(n-type )spectrometer system of the EG&G Orterc company.For dried bread,40K,137Cs and 60Co are found to be 44.45-84.52,<0.012-0.052,<0.018-0.054Bq/kg;for noodles,to be 29.55-64.54,<0.01-0.069and <9.8×10-3-0.074Bq/kg,respectively,The weighted committed dose equivalents due to the ingestion of 137Cs from noodles and bread for a male and female adults have been estimated to be 0.5 and 0.6μSv,respectively,being less than the values recommended by ICRP.

  10. Liquid nitrogen ingestion followed by gastric perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrizbeitia, Luis D; Calello, Diane P; Dhir, Nisha; O'Reilly, Colin; Marcus, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Ingestion of liquid nitrogen is rare but carries catastrophic complications related to barotrauma to the gastrointestinal tract. We describe a case of ingestion of liquid nitrogen followed by gastric perforation and respiratory insufficiency and discuss the mechanism of injury and management of this condition. Liquid nitrogen is widely available and is frequently used in classroom settings, in gastronomy, and for recreational purposes. Given the potentially lethal complications of ingestion, regulation of its use, acquisition, and storage may be appropriate.

  11. Toxicity following laundry detergent pod ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneir, Aaron B; Rentmeester, Landen; Clark, Richard F; Cantrell, F Lee

    2013-06-01

    Laundry detergent pods (LDPs) have only recently become available in the United States, and there has been increasing concern regarding pediatric ingestions of them. We describe a 15-month-old female infant who ingested an LDP and had a depressed level of consciousness, metabolic acidosis, pulmonary toxicity, and swallowing difficulties. It is currently unclear what the exact etiologic agent(s) is responsible for the toxicity associated with LDPs. The case demonstrates the potential for significant toxicity following the ingestion of an LDP. Clearly, measures should be taken to avoid ingestions of these products.

  12. Management of ingested magnets in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sunny Z; Bousvaros, Athos; Gilger, Mark; Mamula, Petar; Gupta, Sandeep; Kramer, Robert; Noel, R Adam

    2012-09-01

    We describe a comprehensive algorithm for the management of ingested rare-earth magnets in children. These newer and smaller neodymium magnets sold as adult toys are much stronger than the traditional magnets, and can attract each other with formidable forces. If >1 magnet is swallowed at the same time, or a magnet is co-ingested with another metallic object, the loops of intestine can be squeezed between them resulting in bowel damage including perforations. An algorithm that uses the number of magnets ingested, location of magnets, and the timing of ingestion before intervention helps to delineate the roles of the pediatric gastroenterologists and surgeons in the management of these cases.

  13. Esophageal button battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şencan, Arzu; Genişol, İncinur; Hoşgör, Münevver

    2017-07-01

    Button battery lodged in the esophagus carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to present cases of patients with esophageal button battery ingestion treated at our clinic and to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. Records of patients admitted to our hospital for foreign body ingestion between January 2010 and May 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Cases with button battery lodged in the esophagus were included in the study. Patient data regarding age, sex, length of time after ingestion until admission, presenting clinical symptoms, type and localization of the battery, management, and prognosis were analyzed. Among 1891 foreign body ingestions, 71 were localized in the esophagus, and 8 of those (11.2%) were cases of button battery ingestion. Mean age was 1.7 years. Admission was within 6 hours of ingestion in 5 cases, after 24 hours had elapsed in 2, and 1 month after ingestion in 1 case. All patients but 1 knew the history of ingestion. Prompt endoscopic removal was performed for all patients. Three patients developed esophageal stricture, which responded to dilatation. Early recognition and timely endoscopic removal is mandatory in esophageal button battery ingestion. It should be suspected in the differential diagnosis of patients with persistent respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  14. The ingestible thermal monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutchis, Protagoras N.; Hogrefe, Arthur F.; Lesho, Jeffery C.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal monitoring system for measuring body core temperatures was developed that contains an ingestible pill which is both commandable and rechargeable, and which uses magnetic induction for command and telemetry as well as for recharging. The pill electronics consist of a battery power source, a crystal-controlled oscillator that drives a small air coil, and a command detection circuit. The resulting 262-kHz magnetilc field can be easily detected from a distance of 1 m. The pill oscillator functions at voltages less than 1 V, supplied by a single Ni-Cd battery, which must be recharged after 72 h of continuous transmission. The pill can be recalibrated periodically to compensate for long-term drift.

  15. Radionuclide synovectomy - essentials for rheumatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnowski, Marek M; Felis-Giemza, Anna; Kobylecka, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide synovectomy is a minimally invasive method of treating persistent joint inflammation. It involves intra-articular injection of radioactive colloids which induce necrosis and fibrosis of hypertrophic synovial membrane. The most common indication for radiosynovectomy is rheumatoid arthritis, although patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies, unclassified arthritis, haemophilic arthropathy and other less common arthropathies can also benefit from this method. Radiosynovectomy is safe, well tolerated and efficacious. About 70-80% of patients respond well to the therapy. However, the therapeutic effects are considerably worse in patients with co-existent osteoarthritis and advanced joint degeneration. Despite its advantages, radionuclide synovectomy is not performed as often as it could be, so greater knowledge and understanding of this method are needed. The authors present the most important facts about radiosynovectomy that may help rheumatologists in their daily clinical practice.

  16. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  17. [Radionuclide diagnosis of kidney calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlakhov, N; Penkova, D

    1986-09-01

    Radionuclide investigations were conducted in 322 patients with nephrolithiasis. Unilateral calculosis was established in 46.3% of the patients, bilateral calculosis in 50.6%. The nature of changes on renograms, scintigrams and in clearance values was shown to depend on the localization of concrements, their size and the presence of concomitant infection. A conclusion has been made as to the usefulness of the methods with relation to operative treatment, especially in a bilateral localization of a pathological renal process.

  18. Chernobyl radionuclide distribution and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izrael, Yury A

    2007-11-01

    The accident at Unit No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on 26 April 1986 presented severe challenges in radiation protection. Early activity measurements defined the contaminated areas in order to determine what persons should be evacuated on the basis of the exposure limit at that time of 100 mSv (10 rem) for accidents. The immediate definition of these areas was accomplished with specially equipped aircraft capable of measuring external gamma-exposure rate and radionuclide spectra. Over time, maps of 137Cs contamination (the most important long-lived radionuclide) have become more and more sophisticated and have been used for further determinations of the control of the consequences of the accident. About 70% of the total release of 137Cs was deposited in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine; but there was also widespread deposition throughout the countries of Western Europe. Two atlases of contamination throughout Europe were prepared, and the Russian atlas included data on other radionuclides and on external gamma-exposure rates. The radiocesiums behaved as volatile radionuclides because of the volatility of cesium. In contrast to the typical pattern after nuclear weapons tests, 90Sr behaved only as a refractory element, as its volatile precursors krypton and rubidium had already decayed within the reactor. Nearly all of the refractory elements (strontium, plutonium, etc.) released by the accident were confined to the 30-km zone around the reactor. A proposal is made to develop a more complete atlas of 137Cs deposition from the accident that would include the entire Northern Hemisphere. Water was not an important vector of exposure to human beings following the accident.

  19. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveten, U. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway))

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

  20. Improved Resistance to Engine Bird Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    method was used to design blades having sufficient tolerance to meet the bird- ingestion requirements of FAR 33.77 for turbofan engines in the 6800 to...the 6800 lbf thrust class engine. In addition, two protective devices designed to prevent an ingested bird from striking sensitive engine parts were presented. (Author)

  1. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  2. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Human Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Gudkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radionuclide therapy is one of the most intensively developing directions of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, the targeted radionuclide therapy causes less collateral damage to normal tissues and allows targeted drug delivery to a clinically diagnosed neoplastic malformations, as well as metastasized cells and cellular clusters, thus providing systemic therapy of cancer. The methods of targeted radionuclide therapy are based on the use of molecular carriers of radionuclides with high affinity to antigens on the surface of tumor cells. The potential of targeted radionuclide therapy has markedly grown nowadays due to the expanded knowledge base in cancer biology, bioengineering, and radiochemistry. In this review, progress in the radionuclide therapy of hematological malignancies and approaches for treatment of solid tumors is addressed.

  3. MIRD radionuclide data and decay schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2007-01-01

    For all physicians, scientists, and physicists working in the nuclear medicine field, the MIRD: Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes updated edition is an essential sourcebook for radiation dosimetry and understanding the properties of radionuclides. Includes CD Table of Contents Decay schemes listed by atomic number Radioactive decay processes Serial decay schemes Decay schemes and decay tables This essential reference for nuclear medicine physicians, scientists and physicists also includes a CD with tabulations of the radionuclide data necessary for dosimetry calculations.

  4. Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Laali, Abolghasem; Nosrati, Nazanin; Jahani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 μg/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS) lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 20-25 cc) lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure.

  5. Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Aminiahidashti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 μg/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 20-25 cc lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure.

  6. Microorganisms and radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshitomo [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    The influence of microorganisms on the behavior of radionuclides in the subsurface environment is one of the factors to be concerned with for the safety assessment of the geological disposal of radioactive waste. It is considered that the important microbiological aspects with respect to radionuclide behavior are biological adsorption, oxidation-reduction and complex formation between organic matter and radionuclides. These phenomena with respect to radionuclides, especially actinides, in the environment should be understood. A description of two studies, illustrating these points are presented. (author)

  7. Assessment of Dose to the Nursing Infant from Radionuclides in Breast Milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    A computer software package was developed to predict tissue doses to an infant due to intake of radionuclides in breast milk based on bioassay measurements and exposure data for the mother. The package is intended mainly to aid in decisions regarding the safety of breast feeding by a mother who has been acutely exposed to a radionuclide during lactation or pregnancy, but it may be applied to previous intakes during the mother s adult life. The package includes biokinetic and dosimetric information needed to address intake of Co-60, Sr-90, Cs-134, Cs-137, Ir-192, Pu-238, Pu-239, Am-241, or Cf-252 by the mother. It has been designed so that the library of biokinetic and dosimetric files can be expanded to address a more comprehensive set of radionuclides without modifying the basic computational module. The methods and models build on the approach used in Publication 95 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 2004), Doses to Infants from Ingestion of Radionuclides in Mothers Milk . The software package allows input of case-specific information or judgments such as chemical form or particle size of an inhaled aerosol. The package is expected to be more suitable than ICRP Publication 95 for dose assessment for real events or realistic planning scenarios in which measurements of the mother s excretion or body burden are available.

  8. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Ingest Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, A. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for ingests maintained by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new ingests for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing ingests, (3) future ingests that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to an ingest, and (5) top requested ingests from the ARM Data Archive. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  9. ARM Climate Research Facility Quarterly Ingest Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, A. [ARM Climate Reesearch Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [ARM Climate Reesearch Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise status update for ingests maintained by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) new ingests for which development has begun, (2) progress on existing ingests, (3) future ingests that have been recently approved, (4) other work that leads to an ingest, and (5) top requested ingests from the ARM Data Archive. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  10. Bird Ingestion into Large Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    AD-A255 863 DOT/FA°• I•T91/17 Bird Ingestion into Large FAA Technical Center AtlanticCity International AirportN 4urbofan Engines L -TIC ýEP 1992...Gov.ernm.nt Accistton No, 3, Rec.p.ent’s Catalog No. DOT/FAA/CT-91/1 7 4. Title and Subtitle 5. Report fote May 1992 BIRD INGESTION INTO LARGE TURBOFAN...study of bird ingestion into certain modern, large high bypass turbofan engines. The engines under consideration were certificated to current FAA

  11. Water Ingestion Into Axial Flow Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    AFAPL-TR-76-77 WATER INGESTION INTO AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS PURDUE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONA UTICS S WEST LAFAYETTE, INDIANA 47907...CIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER TITL _07" 0 EREO Final i-7 0 Water Ingestion Into Axial Flow Compressorse 1 Auq 75 -: 31 Au0 a6 114o’ H-WPAFB-T-76-l:P ."CO TACT...necessary and Idenify by block number) Water ingestion , turbomachinery, and jet engines. 20 ABSTRACT (Contlinue on tov.ras side Hi necessary and Identify

  12. Lead Ingestion Hazard in Hand Soldering Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    RD-Ai45 663 LEAD INGESTION HAZARD IN HAND SOLDERING ENVIRONMENTS i/i (U) NAVAL WEAPONS CENTER CHINA LAKE CA E R MONSALVE MAY 84 NWC-TP-6545...6545 Lead Ingestion Hazard in Hand Soldering Environments (JD CD I) by Elisabeth R. Monsalve a y- Safety and Security Department I MAY 1984 NAVAL...COVERED LEAD INGESTION HAZARD IN HAND SOLDERING ENVIRONMENTS A summary report 6. PERFORMING ONG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(q) I. CONTRACT O GRANT NUM6ERt

  13. Equation reliability of soil ingestion estimates in mass-balance soil ingestion studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek Iii, Edward J; Xu, Bo; Calabrese, Edward J

    2012-03-01

    Exposure to chemicals from ingestion of contaminated soil may be an important pathway with potential health consequences for children. A key parameter used in assessing this exposure is the quantity of soil ingested, with estimates based on four short longitudinal mass-balance soil ingestion studies among children. The estimates use trace elements in the soil with low bioavailability that are minimally present in food. Soil ingestion corresponds to the excess trace element amounts excreted, after subtracting trace element amounts ingested from food and medications, expressed as an equivalent quantity of soil. The short duration of mass-balance studies, different concentrations of trace elements in food and soil, and potential for trace elements to be ingested from other nonsoil, nonfood sources contribute to variability and bias in the estimates. We develop a stochastic model for a soil ingestion estimator based on a trace element that accounts for critical features of the mass-balance equation. Using results from four mass-balance soil ingestion studies, we estimate the accuracy of soil ingestion estimators for different trace elements, and identify subjects where the difference between Al and Si estimates is larger (>3 RMSE) than expected. Such large differences occur in fewer than 12% of subjects in each of the four studies. We recommend the use of such criteria to flag and exclude subjects from soil ingestion analyses. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Ice crystal ingestion by turbofans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Pabon, Manuel A.

    This Thesis will present the problem of inflight icing in general and inflight icing caused by the ingestion of high altitude ice crystals produced by high energy mesoscale convective complexes in particular, and propose a new device to prevent it based on dielectric barrier discharge plasma. Inflight icing is known to be the cause of 583 air accidents and more than 800 deaths in more than a decade. The new ice crystal ingestion problem has caused more than 100 flights to lose engine power since the 1990's, and the NTSB identified it as one of the causes of the Air France flight 447 accident in 1-Jun2008. The mechanics of inflight icing not caused by ice crystals are well established. Aircraft surfaces exposed to supercooled liquid water droplets will accrete ice in direct proportion of the droplet catch and the freezing heat transfer process. The multiphase flow droplet catch is predicted by the simple sum of forces on each spherical droplet and a droplet trajectory calculation based on Lagrangian or Eulerian analysis. The most widely used freezing heat transfer model for inflight icing caused by supercooled droplets was established by Messinger. Several computer programs implement these analytical models to predict inflight icing, with LEWICE being based on Lagrangian analysis and FENSAP being based on Eulerian analysis as the best representatives among them. This Thesis presents the multiphase fluid mechanics particular to ice crystals, and explains how it differs from the established droplet multiphase flow, and the obstacles in implementing the former in computational analysis. A new modification of the Messinger thermal model is proposed to account for ice accretion produced by ice crystal impingement. Because there exist no computational and experimental ways to fully replicate ice crystal inflight icing, and because existing ice protections systems consume vast amounts of energy, a new ice protection device based on dielectric barrier discharge plasma is

  15. INVESTIGATION OF TURBOPROP ENGINE CHARACTERISTICS DURING BIRD INGESTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TURBOPROP ENGINES, * INGESTION (ENGINES), *BIRDS, * INGESTION (ENGINES), PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), RECOVERY, STABILIZATION, TURBOJET INLETS, FLAMEOUT, DAMAGE, INLET GUIDE VANES, IMPACT, AVIATION SAFETY.

  16. Radionuclide scintigraphy of the scrotum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Hyung; Park, Young Hee; Lee, Soon Jin; Lee, Sun Wha; Ko, Young Tae; Kim, Soon Yong [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-12-15

    Radionuclide scrotal scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate is an easy, well established, useful and readily available technique for evaluation of acute scrotum. We studied 41 cases of radionuclide scrotal scintigraphy and the results were as follows: 1. The over all diagnostic accuracy of scrotal scintigraphy was 93% (38/41 cases). 2. Scrotal scintigraphy was very useful and accurate in differential diagnosis of epididymo-orchitis and testticular torsion in patient with acute scrotal pain and swelling, while there was some limitation in differential diagnosis of hematoma from acute epididymo-orchitis or torsion. 3. Scintigraphy of epididymo-orchitis showed increased perfusion and radioactivity in the epididymis and/or testis and its diagnosis accuracy was 90% (19/21 cases). 4. Acute testicular torsion showed normal flow in perfusion and cold defect occupying affected testis in static image, while missed torsion showed slightly increased flow in perfusion image and cold defect surrounded by an uniform rim of hyperactivity (halo sign). Diagnostic accuracy of testicular torsion was 86% (6/7 cases)

  17. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  18. Entrapment of Radionuclides in Nanoparticle Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    such as radionuclides,for example 61Cu and 64Cu copper isotopes. The invention further relates to a novel method for loading delivery systems, such as liposome compositions, with metal entities such as radionuclides, and the use of liposomes for targeted diagnosis and treatment of a target site, such as cancerous...

  19. Autonomous Preservation Tools in Minimal Effort Ingest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette Ammitzbøll; Blekinge, Asger Askov; Andersen, Thorbjørn Ravn

    2016-01-01

    This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after...... content is ingested for preservation, rather than before. We present our Newspaper Digitisation Project as a case-study of real-world implementations of Autonomous Preservation Tools....

  20. Successful Laparoscopic Removal of an Ingested Toothbrush

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal, Karim; Shaunak, Shalin; Kalsi, Sarandeep; Nehra, Dhiren

    2013-01-01

    Most ingested foreign bodies will pass through the gastrointestinal tract without any problems. On the other hand long, slender objects such as a toothbrush will rarely be able to negotiate the angulated and fixed retroperitoneal duodenal loop. Spontaneous toothbrush passage has never been described and therefore endoscopic or surgical removal is always required. Here we describe an asymptomatic young female presenting to out-patient clinic with a history of unintentional toothbrush ingestion...

  1. Radionuclide characterization and associated dose from long-lived radionuclides in close-in fallout delivered to the marine environment at Bikini and Enewetak Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V. E.; Robison, W. L.

    1998-09-01

    Between June 1946 and October 1958, Enewetak and Bikini Atolls were used by the United States as testing grounds for 66 nuclear devices. The combined explosive yield from these tests was 107 Mt (Mt TNT equivalents). This testing produced close-in fallout debris that was contaminated with quantities of radioactive fission and particle activated products, and unspent radioactive nuclear fuel that entered the aquatic environment of the atolls. Today, the sediments in the lagoons are reservoirs for 10's of TBq of the transuranics and some long-lived fission and activation products. The larger amounts of contamination are associated with fine and coarse sediment material adjacent to the locations of the high yield explosions. Radionuclides are also distributed vertically in the sediment column to various depths in all regions of the lagoons. Concentrations greater than fallout background levels are found in filtered water sampled over several decades from all locations and depths in the lagoons. This is a direct indication that the radionuclides are continuously mobilized to solution from the solid phases. Of particular importance is the fact that the long-lived radionuclides are accumulated to different levels by indigenous aquatic plants and organisms that are used as food by resident people. One might anticipate finding continuous high contamination levels in many of the edible marine organisms from the lagoons, since the radionuclides associated with the sediments are not contained and are available to the different organisms in a relatively shallow water environment. This is not the case. We estimate that the radiological dose from consumption of the edible parts of marine foods at Enewetak and Bikini is presently about 0.05% of the total 50-year integral effective dose from all other exposure pathways that include ingestion of terrestrial foods and drinking water, external exposure and inhalation. The total radiological dose from the marine pathway is

  2. Radionuclide characterization and associated dose from long-lived radionuclides in close-in fallout delivered to the marine environment at Bikini and Enewetak Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V. E.; Robison, W. L.

    1998-09-01

    Between June 1946 and October 1958, Enewetak and Bikini Atolls were used by the United States as testing grounds for 66 nuclear devices. The combined explosive yield from these tests was 107 Mt (Mt TNT equivalents). This testing produced close-in fallout debris that was contaminated with quantities of radioactive fission and particle activated products, and unspent radioactive nuclear fuel that entered the aquatic environment of the atolls. Today, the sediments in the lagoons are reservoirs for 10's of TBq of the transuranics and some long-lived fission and activation products. The larger amounts of contamination are associated with fine and coarse sediment material adjacent to the locations of the high yield explosions. Radionuclides are also distributed vertically in the sediment column to various depths in all regions of the lagoons. Concentrations greater than fallout background levels are found in filtered water sampled over several decades from all locations and depths in the lagoons. This is a direct indication that the radionuclides are continuously mobilized to solution from the solid phases. Of particular importance is the fact that the long-lived radionuclides are accumulated to different levels by indigenous aquatic plants and organisms that are used as food by resident people. One might anticipate finding continuous high contamination levels in many of the edible marine organisms from the lagoons, since the radionuclides associated with the sediments are not contained and are available to the different organisms in a relatively shallow water environment. This is not the case. We estimate that the radiological dose from consumption of the edible parts of marine foods at Enewetak and Bikini is presently about 0.05% of the total 50-year integral effective dose from all other exposure pathways that include ingestion of terrestrial foods and drinking water, external exposure and inhalation. The total radiological dose from the marine pathway is

  3. Ingested foreign bodies in the paediatric patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, G C

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Paediatric foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common problem and while most can be managed conservatively, a sub-population require intervention. AIMS: To establish clear guidelines for management of paediatric FB ingestion. METHODS: A retrospective chart review analysing all paediatric admissions with FB ingestion over a 10-year period from 1990 to 1999. RESULTS: Of 339 patients presenting to the accident and emergency department with FB ingestion, 59 required admission. Ingestion was accidental in 93.0% of patients. The reasons for admission were as follows: large FBs; dangerous FBs; and living far from the hospital. Nineteen patients (32.2%) were discharged without intervention. Thirty-seven (62.7%) required endoscopic retrieval. In two, the FB was not identified at endoscopy. Only three (5%) required surgery. CONCLUSION: Conservative management of FB ingestion in the paediatric population is possible in the majority of cases. However, a minority require intervention. While guidelines for intervention are ill-defined, definitive indications include symptomatic patients, or dangerous objects.

  4. Prolonged psychosis after Amanita muscaria ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brvar, Miran; Mozina, Martin; Bunc, Matjaz

    2006-05-01

    Amanita muscaria has a bright red or orange cap covered with small white plaques. It contains the isoxazole derivatives ibotenic acid, muscimol and muscazone and other toxins such as muscarine. The duration of clinical manifestations after A. muscaria ingestion does not usually exceed 24 hours; we report on a 5-day paranoid psychosis after A. muscaria ingestion. A 48-year-old man, with no previous medical history, gathered and ate mushrooms he presumed to be A. caesarea. Half an hour later he started to vomit and fell asleep. He was found comatose having a seizure-like episode. On admission four hours after ingestion he was comatose, but the remaining physical and neurological examinations were unremarkable. Creatine kinase was 8.33 microkat/l. Other laboratory results and brain CT scan were normal. Toxicology analysis did not find any drugs in his blood or urine. The mycologist identified A. muscaria among the remaining mushrooms. The patient was given activated charcoal. Ten hours after ingestion, he awoke and was completely orientated; 18 hours after ingestion his condition deteriorated again and he became confused and uncooperative. Afterwards paranoid psychosis with visual and auditory hallucinations appeared and persisted for five days. On the sixth day all symptoms of psychosis gradually disappeared. One year later he is not undergoing any therapy and has no symptoms of psychiatric disease. We conclude that paranoid psychosis with visual and auditory hallucinations can appear 18 hours after ingestion of A. muscaria and can last for up to five days.

  5. Uncertainties in Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides. An Uncertainty Analysis for Risk Coefficients Reported in Federal Guidance Report No. 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, David [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Nelson, Christopher [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2007-01-01

    Federal Guidance Report No. 13 (FGR 13) provides risk coefficients for estimation of the risk of cancer due to low-level exposure to each of more than 800 radionuclides. Uncertainties in risk coefficients were quantified in FGR 13 for 33 cases (exposure to each of 11 radionuclides by each of three exposure pathways) on the basis of sensitivity analyses in which various combinations of plausible biokinetic, dosimetric, and radiation risk models were used to generate alternative risk coefficients. The present report updates the uncertainty analysis in FGR 13 for the cases of inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides and expands the analysis to all radionuclides addressed in that report. The analysis indicates that most risk coefficients for inhalation or ingestion of radionuclides are determined within a factor of 5 or less by current information. That is, application of alternate plausible biokinetic and dosimetric models and radiation risk models (based on the linear, no-threshold hypothesis with an adjustment for the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor) is unlikely to change these coefficients by more than a factor of 5. In this analysis the assessed uncertainty in the radiation risk model was found to be the main determinant of the uncertainty category for most risk coefficients, but conclusions concerning the relative contributions of risk and dose models to the total uncertainty in a risk coefficient may depend strongly on the method of assessing uncertainties in the risk model.

  6. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, Filip [Ghent Maria-Middelares, General Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Medical Center Leeuwarden (MCL), Division of Nuclear Medicine, Henri Dunantweg 2, Postbus 888, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Dumarey, Nicolas [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Brussels (Belgium); Palestro, Christopher J. [Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Long Island, NY (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor {sup 99m}Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and {sup 67}Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including

  7. Estimates of soil ingestion by wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Connor, E.E.; Gerould, S.

    1994-01-01

    Many wildlife species ingest soil while feeding, but ingestion rates are known for only a few species. Knowing ingestion rates may be important for studies of environmental contaminants. Wildlife may ingest soil deliberately, or incidentally, when they ingest soil-laden forage or animals that contain soil. We fed white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing 0-15% soil to relate the dietary soil content to the acid-insoluble ash content of scat collected from the mice. The relation was described by an equation that required estimates of the percent acid-insoluble ash content of the diet, digestibility of the diet, and mineral content of soil. We collected scat from 28 wildlife species by capturing animals, searching appropriate habitats for scat, or removing material from the intestines of animals collected for other purposes. We measured the acid-insoluble ash content of the scat and estimated the soil content of the diets by using the soil-ingestion equation. Soil ingestion estimates should be considered only approximate because they depend on estimated rather than measured digestibility values and because animals collected from local populations at one time of the year may not represent the species as a whole. Sandpipers (Calidris spp.), which probe or peck for invertebrates in mud or shallow water, consumed sediments at a rate of 7-30% of their diets. Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, soil = 17% of diet), American woodcock (Scolopax minor, 10%), and raccoon (Procyon lotor, 9%) had high rates of soil ingestion, presumably because they ate soil organisms. Bison (Bison bison, 7%), black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus, 8%), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis, 8%) consumed soil at the highest rates among the herbivores studied, and various browsers studied consumed little soil. Box turtle (Terrapene carolina, 4%), opossum (Didelphis virginiana, 5%), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, 3%), and wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo, 9%) consumed soil

  8. Evaluation of effective dose in consequence of Para chestnut ingestion; Avaliacao da dose efetiva em consequencia da ingestao de castanha do Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellintani, Sandra A.; Oliveira, Joselens de; Carvalho, Jurandyr S. de; Hiromoto, Goro [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    Commercial samples of Brazil nut tree seed (Bertholletia excelsa) were analysed for the presence or uranium and thorium series of natural radionuclides. The samples were analysed for the content of {sup 238} U, {sup 226} Ra, {sup 210} Pb, {sup 232} Th, {sup 228} Th. Mean values 1.4 {+-} 0.4 Bq/kg for {sup 238} U, 26.3{+-}4.1 Bq/kG for {sup 226} Ra, 4.7{sup {+-}}1.8 Bq/kg for {sup 210} Pb, 16.5{+-}4.3 Bq/kg for {sup 232} Th, 31.3{+-}6.4 Bq/Kg for {sup 228} Ra and 12.3{+-}5.1 Bq/kg for {sup 228} Th. The effective dose due to the ingestion of natural radionuclides contained in the Brazil nuts, is 2.6 x 10{sup -2} mSv/kg ingested per year. (author). 9 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Lesson Learning at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhettinger, David

    2011-01-01

    A lessons learned system is a hallmark of a mature engineering organization A formal lessons learned process can help assure that valuable lessons get written and published, that they are well-written, and that the essential information is "infused" into institutional practice. Requires high-level institutional commitment, and everyone's participation in gathering, disseminating, and using the lessons

  10. Lesson Learning at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhettinger, David

    2011-01-01

    A lessons learned system is a hallmark of a mature engineering organization A formal lessons learned process can help assure that valuable lessons get written and published, that they are well-written, and that the essential information is "infused" into institutional practice. Requires high-level institutional commitment, and everyone's participation in gathering, disseminating, and using the lessons

  11. Lipid metabolism of orchiectomised rats was affected by fructose ingestion and the amount of ingested fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Satoru; Kishida, Taro; Ebihara, Kiyoshi

    2012-03-01

    We examined whether lipid metabolism in orchiectomised (ORX) rats was affected by fructose ingestion and the amount of ingested fructose. Sucrose was used as a fructose source. Sham-operated and ORX rats were fed one of the following three diets for 28 d: a maize starch-based diet without sucrose (SU0), a diet by which half or all of maize starch was replaced by sucrose (SU50 or SU100). Body-weight gain and food intake were increased by sucrose ingestion, but decreased by ORX. Plasma total cholesterol concentration was increased by ORX and dose-dependently by sucrose ingestion. Plasma TAG concentration was decreased by ORX, but was increased dose-dependently by sucrose ingestion. Plasma insulin concentration was decreased by ORX, but was not affected by sucrose ingestion. Liver TAG was increased by sucrose ingestion and ORX; however, liver cholesterol concentration was not affected by sucrose ingestion and ORX. The hepatic activity of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase 1 was not affected by sucrose ingestion and ORX; however, faecal excretion of bile acids was decreased. The mRNA level of microsomal TAG transfer protein, which is the gene related to hepatic VLDL production, was increased by ORX and sucrose ingestion. The mRNA level of uncoupling protein-1 was decreased by ORX, but not by sucrose ingestion. Plasma insulin concentration tended to correlate with the level of sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-1c mRNA (r 0·747, P = 0·088). These results show that lipid metabolism in ORX rats would be affected by the consumption of fructose-rich sweeteners such as sucrose and high-fructose syrup.

  12. Radionuclide Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Søren; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging plays an integral role in the diagnostic workup of suspected pulmonary embolism, and several modalities have been employed over the years. In recent years, the choice has been narrowed to either computer tomographic or radionuclide based methods, i.e. computer tomographic angiography (CTA) and ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy (V/Q-scan). Both methods display advantages and shortcomings, and while we provide some insights into CTA and alternative methods, the paper's main focus is a review of the V/Q-scan. We discuss basic considerations, interpretation criteria, clinical value, and controversies of conventional planar lung scintigraphy as well as the more contemporary 3-dimensional imaging technique of single photon emission tomography (SPECT) with or without CT.

  13. Radionuclides in surface and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kate M.

    2009-01-01

    Unique among all the contaminants that adversely affect surface and water quality, radioactive compounds pose a double threat from both toxicity and damaging radiation. The extreme energy potential of many of these materials makes them both useful and toxic. The unique properties of radioactive materials make them invaluable for medical, weapons, and energy applications. However, mining, production, use, and disposal of these compounds provide potential pathways for their release into the environment, posing a risk to both humans and wildlife. This chapter discusses the sources, uses, and regulation of radioactive compounds in the United States, biogeochemical processes that control mobility in the environment, examples of radionuclide contamination, and current work related to contaminated site remediation.

  14. Radionuclide diagnosis of allograft rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, E.A.

    1982-10-01

    Interaction with one or more anatomical and physiopathological characteristics of the rejecting renal allograft is suggested by those radioagents utilized specifically for the diagnosis of allograft rejection. Rejection, the most common cause of declining allograft function, is frequently mimicked clinically or masked by other immediate or long term post transplant complications. Understanding of the anatomical pathological features and kinetics of rejection and their modification by immunosuppressive maintenance and therapy are important for the proper clinical utilization of these radioagents. Furthermore, in selecting these radionuclides, one has to consider the comparative availability, preparatory and procedural simplicity, acquisition and display techniques and the possibility of timely report. The clinical utilities of radiofibrinogen, /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga in the diagnosis of allograft rejection have been evaluated to a variable extent in the past. The potential usefulness of the recently developed preparations of /sup 111/In labeled autologous leukocytes and platelets are presently under investigation.

  15. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  16. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norain, Abdullah; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-05-01

    An estimated 60,000 individuals in the United States and 132,000 worldwide are yearly diagnosed with melanoma. Until recently, treatment options for patients with stages III-IV metastatic disease were limited and offered marginal, if any, improvement in overall survival. The situation changed with the introduction of B-RAF inhibitors and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 immunotherapies into the clinical practice. With only some patients responding well to the immune therapies and with very serious side effects and high costs of immunotherapy, there is still room for other approaches for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma could be divided into the domains of radioimmunotherapy (RIT), radiolabeled peptides, and radiolabeled small molecules. RIT of melanoma is currently experiencing a renaissance with the clinical trials of alpha-emitter (213)Bi-labeled and beta-emitter (188)Rhenium-labeled monoclonal antibodies in patients with metastatic melanoma producing encouraging results. The investigation of the mechanism of efficacy of melanoma RIT points at killing of melanoma stem cells by RIT and involvement of immune system such as complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The domain of radiolabeled peptides for targeted melanoma therapy has been preclinical so far, with work concentrated on radiolabeled peptide analogues of melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor and on melanin-binding peptides. The field of radiolabeled small molecule produced radioiodinated benzamides that cross the cellular membrane and bind to the intracellular melanin. The recent clinical trial demonstrated measurable antitumor effects and no acute or midterm toxicities. We are hopeful that the targeted radionuclide therapy of metastatic melanoma would become a clinical reality as a stand-alone therapy or in combination with the immunotherapies such as anti-PD1 programmed cell death protein 1 monoclonal antibodies

  17. Accumulation of 137Cs in the European Sea Bass Dicentrarchus Labrax (L.) in a salinity gradient: Importance of uptake via gills, diet and ingested water

    OpenAIRE

    Hattink, J.; Celis, N.; De Boeck, G.; Krijger, G.C.; Blust, R.

    2009-01-01

    Radio-caesium is an important radionuclide released considering food and feed products. In aquatic environments caesium tends to accumulate in fish, both through its diet and its gills. This presentation discusses the caesium accumulation in fish living in estuaries. The aim of this work is to conclude on the importance of potential uptake routes: via the gills, diet or ingested with water. It is suggested that the magnitude of caesium accumulation in fish is related to waterborne potassium c...

  18. Internal Dose from Food and Drink Ingestion in the Early Phase after the Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Masaki; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Hirakawa, Sachiko; Murakami, Kana; Takizawa, Mari; Sato, Osamu; Takagi, Shunji; Miyatake, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Gen

    2017-09-01

    Activity concentrations in food and drink, represented by water and vegetables, have been monitored continuously since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, with a focus on radioactive cesium. On the other hand, iodine-131 was not measured systematically in the early phase after the accident. The activity concentrations of iodine-131 in food and drink are important to estimate internal exposure due to ingestion pathway. When the internal dose from ingestion in the evacuation areas is estimated, water is considered as the main ingestion pathway. In this study, we estimated the values of activity concentrations in water in the early phase after the accident, using a compartment model as an estimation method. The model uses measurement values of activity concentration and deposition rate of iodine-131 onto the ground, which is calculated from an atmospheric dispersion simulation. The model considers how drinking water would be affected by radionuclides deposited into water. We estimated the activity concentrations of water on Kawamata town and Minamisouma city during March of 2011 and the committed effective doses were 0.08 mSv and 0.06 mSv. We calculated the transfer parameters in the model for estimating the activity concentrations in the areas with a small amount of measurement data. In addition, we estimated the committed effective doses from vegetables using atmospheric dispersion simulation and FARMLAND model in case of eating certain vegetables as option information.

  19. Radionuclides: Accumulation and Transport in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D K; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Voronina, A V; Walther, C

    Application of radioactive elements or radionuclides for anthropogenic use is a widespread phenomenon nowadays. Radionuclides undergo radioactive decays releasing ionizing radiation like gamma ray(s) and/or alpha or beta particles that can displace electrons in the living matter (like in DNA) and disturb its function. Radionuclides are highly hazardous pollutants of considerable impact on the environment, food chain and human health. Cleaning up of the contaminated environment through plants is a promising technology where the rhizosphere may play an important role. Plants belonging to the families of Brassicaceae, Papilionaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Poaceae, and Asteraceae are most important in this respect and offer the largest potential for heavy metal phytoremediation. Plants like Lactuca sativa L., Silybum marianum Gaertn., Centaurea cyanus L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Helianthus annuus and H. tuberosus are also important plants for heavy metal phytoremediation. However, transfer factors (TF) of radionuclide from soil/water to plant ([Radionuclide]plant/[Radionuclide]soil) vary widely in different plants. Rhizosphere, rhizobacteria and varied metal transporters like NRAMP, ZIP families CDF, ATPases (HMAs) family like P1B-ATPases, are involved in the radio-phytoremediation processes. This review will discuss recent advancements and potential application of plants for radionuclide removal from the environment.

  20. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Anisa, E-mail: coppering@ymail.com; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Saat, Ahmad [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alias, Masitah [TNB Reasearch Sdn. Bhd., Kawasan Institusi Penyelidikan, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra), radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra) and potassium-40 ({sup 40}K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H{sub in}), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  1. SOIL INGESTION COLLOQUIUM (2005) | Science Inventory ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    On May 24-25, 2005, the U.S. EPA Colloquium on Soil/Dust Ingestion Rates and Mouthing Behavior for Children and Adults (Colloquium) was held at the Holiday Inn National Airport in Crystal City, Virginia. The purpose of the Colloquium was to convene an expert panel to assess the state of knowledge on soil/dust ingestion research for children and adults. Because mouthing behavior is closely related to childrens soil and dust ingestion, mouthing behavior research also was included as a major topic. The Colloquium was designed to assist EPA in answering the following questions:What is the state of knowledge on soil/dust ingestion and mouthing behavior?Where should the state of knowledge be in order for EPA to make better decisions for the protection of children and adults from these pathways?How can EPA and the scientific community advance the science (i.e., what research is needed)?This summary report captures the major content of the presentations, breakout groups, and discussions/recommendations that occurred at the Colloquium. Presentation slides, organized sequentially by the order of presentation, the Colloquium agenda, and contact information of all the participants are included in this report as Appendices A, B, and C, respectively. The purpose of the Colloquium was to convene an expert panel to assess the state of knowledge on soil/dust ingestion research for children and adults.

  2. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  3. 2009 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2010-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2009. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  4. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  5. Disc battery ingestion; a single event with different outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sindi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body (FB ingestion is a common problem especially in children below the age of 5 years. This is fueled by their curiosity to explore their surroundings. The ingested foreign body finds its way out of the gastrointestinal tract without any serious consequences most of the time. On the other hand, disc battery ingestion has been reported to cause serious harm when ingested including death. We report two patients who had ingested disc batteries and their respective outcomes.

  6. Radiation dose and risk to recreational fishermen from ingestion of fish caught near eight oil platforms in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.

    1998-06-01

    Offshore production of oil and gas is accompanied by a saline wastewater, called produced water. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico often contain elevated concentrations of radionuclides that occur naturally in the geologic reservoir along with the oil and gas. These radionuclides may accumulate in organisms that live near offshore oil and gas structures. Because recreational fishing in the Gulf of Mexico is concentrated near oil and gas platforms, there is the potential for increased risks to recreational fishermen from the ingestion of radionuclides in fish caught near produced water discharges. This analysis investigated the potential risk to recreational fishermen from radium and lead-210 in offshore produced water discharged to the Gulf of Mexico.

  7. Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrenn, M.D.; Durbin, P.W.; Howard, B.; Lipsztein, J.; Rundo, J.; Still, E.T.; Willis, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Metabolic models for U and Ra are described to estimate the risks to human health from ingesting these elements in drinking water. Chemical toxicity, which is relevant to U in its natural, depleted or slightly enriched state, is addressed, as are the radiotoxicity and the radiobiological effects of the important alpha-emitting isotopes of Ra, including /sup 224/Ra, /sup 226/Ra, and /sup 228/Ra. This paper estimates the kinetics of skeletal U deposition, so that risk coefficients for bone cancer induction can be applied. Skeletal cancer is regarded as the major potential radiobiological effect of ingested alpha-emitting radioisotopes of Ra and the presumed radiobiological effect of U, if any. Best estimates of normal U metabolism are used, because even in extreme cases the amounts of U or Ra ingested in potable water are not great enough to chemically or radiobiologically modify their metabolic behavior.

  8. Caustic ingestion-a forensic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2015-05-01

    The ingestion of corrosive substances may produce severe burns to the upper aerodigestive tract and stomach, particularly if the pH is greater than 12 or less than two. There is a biphasic age grouping with adult cases most often involving self-harm and pediatric cases accidental ingestion. Three cases are reported to demonstrate characteristic features following the ingestion of potassium hydroxide, glacial acetic acid and Lysol(®) , respectively. All deaths were due to the effects of caustic burns to the upper aerodigestive tract, esophagus and stomach with perforation and/or hemorrhage. The extent of injuries in these cases depends on the nature, amount, and concentration of the agent and on the exposure time. A point to note at autopsy is that tissue damage may also occur from postmortem exposure. Typical injuries involve perioral, limb, and trunk burns, with extensive aerodigestive liquefactive/coagulative necrosis causing hemorrhage and perforation.

  9. Cyanide poisoning after bitter almond ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mouaffak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are responsible for 5% poisoning recorded by Poison Control Centers. Among all known toxic plants, some present a real danger if ingested. We report the case of a five years old child, who presented, after ten bitter almonds ingestion, consciousness disorders progressing to coma with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, miosis and metabolic acidosis. Bitter almonds and nuclei of stone fruits or other rosaceae (apricot, peach, plum contain cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin, that yields hydrogen cyanide when metabolized in the body. Swallowing six to ten bitter almonds may cause serious poisoning, while the ingestion of fifty could kill a man. The binding of cyanide ions on cytochrome oxidase lead to a non hypoxemic hypoxia by blocking the cellular respiratory chain. Therapeutic measures include, oxygen support, correction of acidosis and cyanide antidote by hydroxocobalamin in case of serious poisoning.

  10. Autonomous Preservation Tools in Minimal Effort Ingest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette Ammitzbøll; Blekinge, Asger Askov; Andersen, Thorbjørn Ravn

    2016-01-01

    This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after con...... content is ingested for preservation, rather than before. We present our Newspaper Digitisation Project as a case-study of real-world implementations of Autonomous Preservation Tools.......This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after...

  11. Acute rhabdomyolysis following synthetic cannabinoid ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demilade A Adedinsewo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Novel psychoactive substances, including synthetic cannabinoids, are becoming increasingly popular, with more patients being seen in the emergency room following acute ingestion. These substances have been associated with a wide range of adverse effects. However, identification of complications, clinical toxicity, and management remain challenging. Case Report: We present the case of a young African-American male who developed severe agitation and bizarre behavior following acute K2 ingestion. Laboratory studies revealed markedly elevated serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK with normal renal function. The patient was managed with aggressive intravenous (IV fluid hydration and treatment of underlying psychiatric illness. Conclusion: We recommend the routine evaluation of renal function and CPK levels with early initiation of IV hydration among patients who present to the emergency department following acute ingestion of synthetic cannabinoids to identify potential complications early as well as institute early supportive therapy.

  12. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kevin; Sue, Gloria R.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. PMID:26904700

  13. Seizures due to high dose camphor ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Hande Gazeteci; Gökben, Sarenur; Serdaroğlu, Gül

    2015-12-01

    Camphor is a cyclic ketone of the hydro aromatic terpene group. Today it is frequently used as a prescription or non-prescription topical antitussive, analgesic, anesthetic and antipruritic agent. Camphor which is considered an innocent drug by parents and physicians is a common household item which can lead to severe poisoning in children even when taken in small amounts. Neurotoxicity in the form of seizures can ocur soon after ingestion. A two-year old female patient who presented with a complaint of generalized tonic-clonic seizures after oral ingestion of camphor is presented.

  14. Accidental Ingestion of 35% Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Pritchett

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide is a commonly used oxidizing agent with a variety of uses depending on its concentration. Ingestion of hydrogen peroxide is not an uncommon source of poisoning, and results in morbidity through three main mechanisms: direct caustic injury, oxygen gas formation and lipid peroxidation. A case of a 39-year-old man who inadvertently ingested 250 mL of unlabelled 35% hydrogen peroxide intended for natural health use is presented. Hydrogen peroxide has purported benefits ranging from HIV treatment to cancer treatment. Its use in the natural health industry represents an emerging source for accidental poisonings.

  15. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Zbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-06-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea. The patient had significantly elevated levels of total IgE and IgE specific to kiwi fruit.

  16. [Near fatal attraction of ingested magnets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munchak, Itamar; Yardeni, Dan; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Soudack-Ben Nun, Michalle; Augarten, Arie

    2013-03-01

    We report a case of intestinal perforation in a 20 month old girl following the ingestion of 2 small magnets. Ingestion of multiple magnets constitutes a unique problem. Magnets in adjacent intestinal loops may forcefully attract each other and produce pressure necrosis of the bowel wall, leading to perforation, fistula formation or intestinal obstruction. Therefore, these children should be observed carefully. Early surgical intervention should be considered when clinical symptoms develop, especially when, on sequential abdominal radiographs, there is no change in the magnets' location. Since toys with small magnets are ubiquitous, efforts should be made to increase parents' awareness on the one hand, and to alert toy manufacturers on the other hand.

  17. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out.

  18. Long lived gamma emitting radionuclides in incense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrefae, Tareq

    2013-10-01

    A study of long-lived gamma emitters in incense was performed. The incense samples originated from seven different countries, and the investigated radionuclides were Ra, Ra, and K. Gamma spectroscopy revealed the presence of all three investigated radionuclides in all samples. Interestingly, the activity concentrations revealed a clear bimodal distribution that distinguished samples that were natural incense from others that were processed incense. The activity concentrations in the latter group were found to be one order of magnitude greater than in the former group. Consequently, the estimated annual effective dose from the latter group was one order of magnitude higher than that of the former group. Nonetheless, the doses from both groups were found to be some three orders of magnitude less than the average worldwide exposure to inhaled natural radionuclides. This finding suggests the radiological safety of incense for the investigated radionuclides.

  19. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Palestro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of "complicating osteomyelitis" such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose.Estudos através de imagens com o uso de radionuclídeos são rotineiramente usadas para avaliar pacientes suspeitos de terem infecção músculo-esquelética. A imagem óssea em tridimensional é facilmente avaliável, relativamente de baixo custo, e muito precisa na localização de alterações ósseas. Imagem com leucócito marcado poderia ser usada nos casos de "osteomielite com complicações" tais como infecção prostética articular. Esse teste também é útil na não suspeita clinica de osteomielite associada ao pé diabético tanto quanto nas junções neuropáticas. É sempre necessário, por outro lado, realizar imagem complementar da medula óssea para aumentar a precisão da imagem com leucócito marcado. Em contraste com outras regiões no esqueleto, imagem com leucócito marcado não é útil para diagnosticar osteomielite da coluna vertebral. Até agora, o gálio é o radionuclídeo preferido para

  20. 49 CFR 173.433 - Requirements for determining basic radionuclide values, and for the listing of radionuclides on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... radionuclide values, and for the listing of radionuclides on shipping papers and labels. (a) For individual radionuclides listed in the table in § 173.435 and § 173.436: (1) A1 and A2 values are given in the table in... values, and for the listing of radionuclides on shipping papers and labels. 173.433 Section...

  1. Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Scott [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bleuel, Darren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Johnson, Micah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rusnak, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soltz, Ron [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tonchev, Anton [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-05

    The Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS) will generate intense photon and neutron beams to address important gaps in the study of radionuclide science that directly impact Stockpile Stewardship, Nuclear Forensics, and Nuclear Material Detection. The co-location of MeV-scale neutral and photon sources with radiochemical analytics provides a unique facility to meet current and future challenges in nuclear security and nuclear science.

  2. Migration of radionuclides through a river system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    Migration behavior of several atmospherically-derived radionuclides in a river watershed was studied. A main interest was in their relocation from the ground soil of the watershed to a downstream region through a river. Studied radionuclides are: {sup 137}Cs generated by weapon tests in the atmosphere; {sup 210}Pb and {sup 7}Be of naturally occurring radionuclides; {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am released by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Dominance of the form in suspended solid in river water (particulate form) was qualified for the radionuclides in the Kuji river watershed. An importance of discharge in flooding was also confirmed. A historical budget analysis for weapon test derived {sup 137}Cs was presented for the Hi-i river watershed and its accompanied lake sediment (Lake Shinji). The work afforded a scheme of a fate of {sup 137}Cs after falling on the ground soil and on the lake surface. Several controlling factors, which can influence on the chemical form of radionuclides discharged to a river, were also investigated in the vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. A special attention was paid on the association of the radionuclides with dissolved species in water. Preferential association of Pu and Am isotopes to a large molecular size of dissolved matrices, probably of humic substances, was suggested. (author)

  3. Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozano J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS and liquid scintillation counters (LKB Quantulus 1220™ were used in order to determine the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were selected with different levels of influence from the installation, in such a way that they had different levels of radioactive contamination. The vertical profiles in the soils (down to 40 cm depth were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. The possible contamination of subsurface waters depends strongly on vertical migration, and the transfer to plants (herbs, shrubs, and trees also will depend on the distribution of the radionuclides in the root zone. The study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same series allowed us to assess the differing behaviour of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for these radionuclides were different at each sampling point, showing the local impact of the installation. However, the profiles per point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the 238TJ series (238U, 234U, 230Th, and 226Ra. Also, a major disequilibrium was observed between 210Pb and 226Ra in the surface layer, due to 222Rn emanation and subsequent surface deposition of 210Pb.

  4. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Linnea [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are produced, handled, store d, and potentially emitted . These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989a). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2012, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]) . These minor sources include d about 140 stack sources and no diffuse sources . T here were no unplanned airborne radionuclide emissions from Berkeley Lab operations . Emissions from minor sources were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building- specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA -approved computer code s, CAP88-PC and COMPLY , to calculate doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) at any offsite point where there is a residence, school, business, or office. Because radionuclides are used at three noncontiguous locations (the main site, Berkeley West Bio center, and Joint BioEnergy Institute), three different MEIs were identified.

  5. Global analysis of anthropogenic debris ingestion by sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2014-02-01

    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  7. In-vitro analysis of the dissolution kinetics and systemic availability of plutonium ingested in the form of 'hot' particles from the Semipalatinsk NTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, M. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Leon Vintro, L. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)], E-mail: luis.leon@ucd.ie; Mitchell, P.I. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Jimenez-Ramos, M.C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Burkitbayev, M. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Priest, N.D. [School of Health and Social Sciences, Middlesex University, Queensway, Enfield EN3 4SA (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    In-vitro leaching of radioactive 'hot' particles isolated from soils sampled at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site has been carried out in order to evaluate the fraction of plutonium activity released into simulated human stomach and small intestine fluids during digestion. Characterisation of the particles (10-100 Bq {sup 239,240}Pu) and investigation of their dissolution kinetics in simulated fluids has been accomplished using a combination of high-resolution alpha-spectrometry, gamma-spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting. The results of these analyses indicate that plutonium transfer across the human gut following the ingestion of 'hot' particles can be up to two orders of magnitude lower than that expected for plutonium in a more soluble form, and show that for areas affected by local fallout, use of published ingestion dose coefficients, together with bulk radionuclide concentrations in soil, may lead to a considerable overestimation of systemic uptake via the ingestion pathway.

  8. Redotex ingestions reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-09-01

    Although the multi-component weight loss supplement Redotex is banned in the United States, the supplement can be obtained in Mexico. The intent of this report was to describe the pattern of Redotex calls received by a statewide poison center system. Cases were all Redotex calls received by Texas poison centers during 2000-2008. The distribution of total calls and those involving ingestion of the supplement were determined for selected demographic and clinical factors. Of 34 total Redotex calls received, 55.9% came from the 14 Texas counties that border Mexico. Of the 22 reported Redotex ingestions, 77.3% of the patients were female and 45.5% 20 years or more. Of the 17 ingestions involving no co-ingestants, 52.9% were already at or en route to a health care facility, 41.2% were managed on site, and 5.9% was referred to a health care facility. The final medical outcome was no effect in 23.5% cases, minor effect in 5.9%, moderate effect in 11.8%, not followed but minimal clinical effects possible in 47.1%, and unable to follow but judged to be potentially toxic in 11.8%. Most Redotex calls to the Texas poison center system originated from counties bordering Mexico.

  9. Hedonic and homeostatic overlap following fat ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Begg, Denovan P.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of fatty foods increases dopamine release in the substantianigra producing a positive hedonic state. Tellez et al. (2013) demonstrate that an intestinal signal generated by fat consumption, oleoylethanolamide, stimulates central dopamine activity, thus regulating the reward value of fat and establishing a link between caloric-homeostatic and hedonic-homeostatic controllers.

  10. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F. S.; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. PMID:27818542

  11. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Cleve Nicolodi

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases, increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases, identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases, and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case. Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation.

  12. Duodenocolic fistula due to safety pin ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cay, Ali; Imamoğlu, Mustafa; Sarihan, Haluk; Sayil, Ozgür

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe the case of a 16-month-old boy with benign duodenocolic fistula due to safety pin ingestion who presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Etiology, symptomatology, diagnosis and management are discussed and the literature is reviewed. Early diagnosis and surgical management are necessary to avoid serious morbidity.

  13. Complete recovery after massive ethylene glycol ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, L; Kraner, J; Wine, H; Savitt, D; Abuelo, J G

    1992-06-01

    We treated a 64-year-old man who recovered completely from a massive antifreeze ingestion with ethylene glycol levels well above those of previously described survivors. Rapid and aggressive treatment of the patient with recognized methods, including hemodialysis, resulted in the favorable outcome.

  14. Sucrose ingestion induces rapid AMPA receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukey, David S; Ferreira, Jainne M; Antoine, Shannon O; D'amour, James A; Ninan, Ipe; Cabeza de Vaca, Soledad; Incontro, Salvatore; Wincott, Charlotte; Horwitz, Julian K; Hartner, Diana T; Guarini, Carlo B; Khatri, Latika; Goffer, Yossef; Xu, Duo; Titcombe, Roseann F; Khatri, Megna; Marzan, Dave S; Mahajan, Shahana S; Wang, Jing; Froemke, Robert C; Carr, Kenneth D; Aoki, Chiye; Ziff, Edward B

    2013-04-03

    The mechanisms by which natural rewards such as sugar affect synaptic transmission and behavior are largely unexplored. Here, we investigate regulation of nucleus accumbens synapses by sucrose intake. Previous studies have shown that AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking is a major mechanism for regulating synaptic strength, and that in vitro, trafficking of AMPARs containing the GluA1 subunit takes place by a two-step mechanism involving extrasynaptic and then synaptic receptor transport. We report that in rat, repeated daily ingestion of a 25% sucrose solution transiently elevated spontaneous locomotion and potentiated accumbens core synapses through incorporation of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors (CPARs), which are GluA1-containing, GluA2-lacking AMPARs. Electrophysiological, biochemical, and quantitative electron microscopy studies revealed that sucrose training (7 d) induced a stable (>24 h) intraspinous GluA1 population, and that in these rats a single sucrose stimulus rapidly (5 min) but transiently (<24 h) elevated GluA1 at extrasynaptic sites. CPARs and dopamine D1 receptors were required in vivo for elevated locomotion after sucrose ingestion. Significantly, a 7 d protocol of daily ingestion of a 3% solution of saccharin, a noncaloric sweetener, induced synaptic GluA1 similarly to 25% sucrose ingestion. These findings identify multistep GluA1 trafficking, previously described in vitro, as a mechanism for acute regulation of synaptic transmission in vivo by a natural orosensory reward. Trafficking is stimulated by a chemosensory pathway that is not dependent on the caloric value of sucrose.

  15. Atypical Presentation of Multiple Foreign Body Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Sultan; Ayan, Burak

    2017-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion is very common in childhood especially under 3 year of age. Pica syndrome is characterized by an appetite for substances that are largely non-nutritive. We present a 3-year old girl who presented to ER with symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction. PMID:28164004

  16. Odorous urine following asparagus ingestion in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S C; Waring, R H; Land, D; Thorpe, W V

    1987-04-15

    The production of odorous urine after the ingestion of asparagus has been shown to occur in 43% of 800 volunteers investigated. This characteristic is reproducible over a 12-month-period and has been shown to remain with individuals for virtually a lifetime. Family studies suggest that the ability to produce the odorous urine is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.

  17. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F.S.; Castro, Francisco Gomes de; Miller, Wagner Peitl; Lima, Raphael Rodrigues de; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle, E-mail: gabrielnicolodi@gmail.com [Hospital Sao Vicente - Funef, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. (author)

  18. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AS Koontz; S Choudhury; BD Ermold; NN Keck; KL Gaustad; RC Perez

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide status of the ingest software used to process instrument data for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF). The report is divided into four sections: (1) news about ingests currently under development, (2) current production ingests, (3) future ingest development plans, and (4) information on retired ingests. Please note that datastreams beginning in “xxx” indicate cases where ingests run at multiple ACRF sites, which results in a datastream(s) for each location.

  19. Bioaccessibility of Fukushima-Accident-Derived Cs in Soils and the Contribution of Soil Ingestion to Radiation Doses in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Shogo; Ikegami, Maiko; Yoneda, Minoru; Kondo, Hitoshi; Ishizaki, Azusa; Iijima, Masashi; Shimada, Yoko; Matsui, Yasuto

    2016-09-30

    Ingestion of contaminated soil is one potential internal exposure pathway in areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Doses from this pathway can be overestimated if the availability of radioactive nuclides in soils for the gastrointestinal tract is not considered. The concept of bioaccessibility has been adopted to evaluate this availability based on in vitro tests. This study evaluated the bioaccessibility of radioactive cesium from soils via the physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) and the extractability of those via an extraction test with 1 mol/L of hydrochloric acid (HCl). The bioaccessibility obtained in the PBET was 5.3% ± 1%, and the extractability in the tests with HCl was 16% ± 3%. The bioaccessibility was strongly correlated with the extractability. This result indicates the possibility that the extractability in HCl can be used as a good predictor of the bioaccessibility with PBET. In addition, we assessed the doses to children from the ingestion of soil via hand-to-mouth activity based on our PBET results using a probabilistic approach considering the spatial distribution of radioactive cesium in Date City in Fukushima Prefecture and the interindividual differences in the surveyed amounts of soil ingestion in Japan. The results of this assessment indicate that even if children were to routinely ingest a large amount of soil with relatively high contamination, the radiation doses from this pathway are negligible compared with doses from external exposure owing to deposited radionuclides in Fukushima Prefecture.

  20. Radionuclide gastric emptying studies in patients with anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domstad, P.A.; Shih, W.J.; Humphries, L.; DeLand, F.H.; Digenis, G.A.

    1987-05-01

    To evaluate gastric emptying in anorexia nervosa patients, 26 patients (17 females, two males, ranging in age from 13 to 40 yr) with upper GI symptoms ingested 150-200 microCi (/sup 99m/Tc)triethelenetetraamine polysterene resin in cereal and were imaged in the supine position. Data were accumulated at 5 min intervals to obtain the gastric emptying time (GET). The results of the studies were divided into three categories: prolonged, 13 patients; rapid, 11; and normal 3. Twelve of 13 patients with prolonged GET were given 10 mg metoclopramide i.v. injections; nine of the 12 patients had a good response and three had no response. Five of the nine patients underwent metoclopramide therapy and four of the patients showed benefit from the therapy. One patient discontinued metoclopramide therapy because of somnolence. Although all patients had subjective symptoms of gastric dysfunction, our results indicated only 50% had objectively prolonged GET, and another 50% showed normal or even rapid GET. Therefore, this radionuclide study enables quantitatively objective documentation of gastric emptying, separation of those patients with rapid or normal GET from those with prolonged GET, thereby avoiding the possible side effects from metoclopramide medication, and prediction of effectiveness of metoclopramide therapy in patients with prolonged GET.

  1. Gamma emitting radionuclides in fruits and vegetables produced in the Canary Islands: domestic consequences; Radionuclidos emisores gamma en frutas y hortalizas producidas en Canarias: consecuencias dosimetricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triguero-Perez, M.; Duarte-Rodriguez, X.; Lopez-Perez, M.; Hernandez-Armas, J.

    2011-07-01

    Determine the possible effects due to ingestion of radionuclides that can be found in health food is of interest from the viewpoint of radiation protection of the population. these determinations and analysis of the consequences on the health of people and jobs has led to studies that have had consequences in the form of rules to follow and values have to be attended to limit dictated by national and international agencies. (Author)

  2. Lessons in Ponapean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This volume contains 35 beginning Ponapean lessons for native English speakers. Each lesson consists of a dialogue structured around an aspect of Ponapean grammar and substitution exercises designed for drill. Vocabulary is introduced in the substitution exercises. (CLK)

  3. Evaluation of the anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in sediments and fauna collected in the Beaufort Sea and northern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efurd, D.W.; Miller, G.G.; Rokop, D.J. [and others

    1997-07-01

    This study was performed to establish a quality controlled data set about the levels of radio nuclide activity in the environment and in selected biota in the U.S. Arctic. Sediment and biota samples were collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Biological Service, and the North Slope Borough`s Department of Wildlife Management to determine the impact of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Arctic. The results summarized in this report are derived from samples collected in northwest Alaska with emphasis on species harvested for subsistence in Barrow, Alaska. Samples were analyzed for the anthropogenic radionuclides {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. The naturally occurring radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 214}Pb were also measured. One goal of this study was to determine the amounts of anthropogenic radionuclides present in the Beaufort Sea. Sediment samples were isotopically fingerprinted to determine the sources of radio nuclide activities. Biota samples of subsistence and ecological value were analyzed to search for evidence of bio-accumulation of radionuclides and to determine the radiation exposures associated with subsistence living in northern Alaska. The anthropogenic radio nuclide content of sediments collected in the Beaufort Sea was predominantly the result of the deposition of global fallout. No other sources of anthropogenic radionuclides could be conclusively identified in the sediments. The anthropogenic radio nuclide concentrations in fish, birds and mammals were very low. Assuming that ingestion of food is an important pathway leading to human contact with radioactive contaminants and given the dietary patterns in coastal Arctic communities, it can be surmised that marine food chains are presently not significantly affected.

  4. Debris ingestion by juvenile marine turtles: an underestimated problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Robson Guimarães; Andrades, Ryan; Boldrini, Marcillo Altoé; Martins, Agnaldo Silva

    2015-04-15

    Marine turtles are an iconic group of endangered animals threatened by debris ingestion. However, key aspects related to debris ingestion are still poorly known, including its effects on mortality and the original use of the ingested debris. Therefore, we analysed the impact of debris ingestion in 265 green turtles (Chelonia mydas) over a large geographical area and different habitats along the Brazilian coast. We determined the death rate due to debris ingestion and quantified the amount of debris that is sufficient to cause the death of juvenile green turtles. Additionally, we investigated the original use of the ingested debris. We found that a surprisingly small amount of debris was sufficient to block the digestive tract and cause death. We suggested that debris ingestion has a high death potential that may be masked by other causes of death. An expressive part of the ingested debris come from disposable and short-lived products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  6. Foreign body ingestion in Turkish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, Sema; Arikan, Ciğdem; Cakir, Murat; Baran, Maşallah; Yüksekkaya, Hasan Ali; Saz, Ulaş Eylem; Arslan, Mehmet Tayyip

    2009-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion (FBI) is a common problem in the pediatric population. Even though morbidity and mortality due to foreign body ingestion are rare in childhood, they may cause serious anxiety in parents. We aimed to analyze the clinical presentation, etiology and management strategy of FBI in children in our country. Records of children admitting with a history of FBI over a three-year period were reviewed retrospectively. Data regarding gender, age, type of the ingested body, management strategy and outcome of the patients were recorded. Of 176 children, 98 (55.6%) were male. Mean age +/- SD of the patients was 3.75 +/- 4.25 years, and most of the patients were below four years of age (71.5%). Most of the children (64.7%) were seen within 48 hours, and most were asymptomatic. Blue beads attached to a safety pin (a cultural good luck charm) (38.6%), coins (27.8%) and turban pins (18.1%) were the most commonly observed foreign bodies. The blue beads/safety pin were found to be ingested primarily by infants, while ingestion of turban pins was mostly seen in adolescent girls who covered their heads. Localization of the foreign bodies was in the distal small intestine, stomach and esophagus in 61.4%, 23.8% and 14.7% of the cases, respectively. Sixty-nine endoscopic interventions were performed in 61 patients (34.6%), and these accounted for 7.3% of all endoscopic interventions during the three-year period. No major complication was observed during the procedure, and none of the patients underwent surgery. The frequently used accessory devices were retrieval net basket (57.9%), snare for pins (17.3%), tripod forceps and rat-tooth forceps. The blue beads/safety pin and turban pin were the commonly ingested foreign bodies in our center due to cultural factors. Education of the parents and of adolescent girls should greatly reduce the incidence of FBI. Endoscopic removal is safe without any major complications.

  7. Radionuclide Mobility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Smith, D; Rose, T; Glascoe, L; Steefel, C; Zavarin, M

    2003-11-13

    Underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are characterized by abundant fission product and actinide source terms. Included are {sup 99}Tc and other soluble radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I), which are presumably mobile in groundwater and potentially toxic to down-gradient receptors. NTS provides the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with an analog of the release of these radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository in the absence of engineered barriers. The investigation described in this report synthesizes a substantial body of data collected on the identity and distribution of soluble radionuclides at field scales over distances of hundreds of meters, for durations up to 40 years, and under hydrogeologic conditions very similar to the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This body of data is complemented by laboratory transport studies and a synthesis of recent modeling investigations from the NTS, with an emphasis on the ongoing Yucca Mountain Program (YMP) efforts. Overall, understanding the controls of radionuclide mobility associated with these nuclear tests will provide insight into the repository's future performance as well as bounds and calibrations for the numerical predictions of long-term radionuclide releases and migration.

  8. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  9. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  10. Distribution of radionuclides in bayer process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Oliveira, Arno H. de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Rocha, Zildete [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Quimica e Radioquimica], E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    Natural occurring radionuclides are present in many natural resources. Human activities may enhance concentrations of radionuclides and/or enhance potential of exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The industrial residues containing radionuclides have been receiving a considerable global attention, because of the large amounts of NORM containing wastes and the potential long term risks of long-lived radionuclides. Included in this global concern, this work focuses on the characterization of radioactivity in bauxite and samples of intermediate phases of Bayer process for alumina production, including the end product - alumina - and its main residue - red mud. The analytical techniques used were gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector) and Neutron Activation Analysis. It was found that the bauxite is the major contributor to radioactivity in Bayer process. It has activities of 37+-12 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U and 154+-16 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th. The intermediate phases and the end product do not carry significant activity, desirable characteristic from the health physics point of view. Sand and red mud carry most part of radionuclides, and the concentrations are higher in the red mud than in the sand. Thus, these solid residues present activities concentrations enhanced, when compared to bauxite. (author)

  11. Accumulation of radionuclides by lichen symbionts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifontova, M.G.; Kulikov, N.V. (AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehkologii Rastenij i Zhivotnykh)

    1983-01-01

    The aim of investigation is the quantitative estimation of ability and role of separate symbionts in the accumulation of radionuclides. As investigation volumes, durably cultivated green lichen alga Trebouxia erici and lichen fungi extracted from Cladonia rangiferina, Parmelia caperata and Acarospora fuscata are used. The accumulation of radioactive isotopes with fungi and seaweeds is estimated according to accumulation coefficients (AC) which are the ratio of radiation concentration in plants and agarized medium. Radionuclide content (/sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs) is determined radiometrically. A special series of experiments is done to investigate radionuclide accumulation dependences with lichen seaweed and fungi on light conditions. It is shown that both symbionts of lichen-seaweed and fungus take part in the accumulation of radionuclide from outer medium (atmospheric fall-out and soil). However fungus component constituting the base of structural organization of thallus provides the greater part of radionuclides accumulated by the plant. Along with this the violation of viability of seaweed symbionts particularly in the case of light deficiency brings about the reduction of /sup 137/Cs sorption by seaweeds and tells on the total content of radiocesium in plant thallus.

  12. RAGBEEF: a FORTRAN IV implementation of a time-dependent model for radionuclide contamination of beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleasant, J C; McDowell-Boyer, L M; Killough, G G

    1982-06-01

    RAGBEEF is a FORTRAN IV program that calculates radionuclide concentrations in beef as a result of ingestion of contaminated feeds, pasture, and pasture soil by beef cattle. The model implemented by RAGBEEF is dynamic in nature, allowing the user to consider age- and season-dependent aspects of beef cattle management in estimating concentrations in beef. It serves as an auxiliary code to RAGTIME, previously documented by the authors, which calculates radionuclide concentrations in agricultural crops in a dynamic manner, but evaluates concentrations in beef for steady-state conditions only. The time-dependent concentrations in feeds, pasture, and pasture soil generated by RAGTIME are used as input to the RAGBEEF code. RAGBEEF, as presently implemented, calculates radionuclide concentrations in the muscle of age-based cohorts in a beef cattle herd. Concentrations in the milk of lactating cows are also calculated, but are assumed age-dependent as in RAGTIME. Radionuclide concentrations in beef and milk are described in RAGBEEF by a system of ordinary linear differential equations in which the transfer rate of radioactivity between compartments is proportional to the inventory of radioactivity in the source compartment. This system is solved by use of the GEAR package for solution of systems of ordinary differential equations. The accuracy of this solution is monitored at various check points by comparison with explicit solutions of Bateman-type equations. This report describes the age- and season-dependent considerations making up the RAGBEEF model, as well as presenting the equations which describe the model and a documentation of the associated computer code. Listings of the RAGBEEF and updated RAGTIME codes are provided in appendices, as are the results of a sample run of RAGBEEF and a description of recent modifications to RAGTIME.

  13. 14 CFR 33.78 - Rain and hail ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rain and hail ingestion. 33.78 Section 33... hail ingestion. (a) All engines. (1) The ingestion of large hailstones (0.8 to 0.9 specific gravity) at... rain and hail, as defined in appendix B to this part. Acceptable engine operation precludes...

  14. Button battery ingestion-case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanshettar, Ss; Patil, Sv; Upadhye, Gaurav

    2014-09-01

    Over the last few years there is a rise in use of button batteries in various toys and other electronic gadgets. Easy availability and small size of these batteries pose a significant risk of ingestion in small children. Button battery ingestion can lead to serious health hazards very rapidly. A case of button battery ingestion is presented in this paper.

  15. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A. Cunningham MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol.

  16. Successful laparoscopic removal of an ingested toothbrush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Karim; Shaunak, Shalin; Kalsi, Sarandeep; Nehra, Dhiren

    2013-07-01

    Most ingested foreign bodies will pass through the gastrointestinal tract without any problems. On the other hand long, slender objects such as a toothbrush will rarely be able to negotiate the angulated and fixed retroperitoneal duodenal loop. Spontaneous toothbrush passage has never been described and therefore endoscopic or surgical removal is always required. Here we describe an asymptomatic young female presenting to out-patient clinic with a history of unintentional toothbrush ingestion 4 years prior. Endoscopic removal was unsuccessful because the toothbrush was partially embedded in to the gastric mucosa. We describe the second case to date of laparoscopic removal of a toothbrush via a gastrotomy with subsequent intra-corporeal repair of the defect.

  17. Cost Aspects of Ingest and Normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The Danish National Archives, and The Royal Library and the State and University Library are in the process of developing a cost model for digital preservation: Each of the functional entities of the OAIS Reference Model are broken down into measurable, cost-critical activities, and formula...... are being tailored for each of these in order to create a generic tool for estimating the short and long-term costs of digital preservation. This paper presents an introduction to the subject of the costs of digital preservation and describes the method used to develop the Danish Cost Model for Digital...... Preservation (CMDP). It then describes how the OAIS functional entity, Ingest, has been included in the model. For institutions basing their digital preservation strategy on migration, a major cost pertaining to Ingest is normalization, a digital migration from production to preservation format and structure...

  18. Attachment and ingestion of gonococci human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, J A; Hendley, J O; Mandell, G L

    1975-03-01

    Previous studies have indirectly shown that type 1 gonococci are more resistant to phagocytosis by human neutrophils (PMN) than type 3 gonococci. Using phase contrast, fluorescent, and light microscopy, we directly quantitated PMN-gonococcal interaction, with emphasis on separating ingestion from attachment. PMN monolayers were incubated on slides with type 1 or type 3 gonococcal fluorescent antibody (FA). After methanol fixation, the FA-stained gonococci associated with PMN were cointed. Since the live PMN excludes FA, the FA-stained gonococci represent only extracellular gonococci. Methylene blue was then added to the smae slide to stain both ingested and surface attached gonococci. Using these methods, intracellular and extracellular cell-associated gonococci were quantitated under varying conditions. The numbers of methylene blue-stained cell-associated gonococci that were ingested were: with normal serum, 3.7 plus or minus 4.1 per cent for type 1 and 56.2 plus or minus 3.7 percent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001); with heat-inactivated serum, 1.0 plus or minus 3.0 per cent for type 1 and 52.6 plus or minus 3.7 per cent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001); with higher-titer anti-gonococcal antibody serum, 4.8 plus or minus 4.3 percent for type 1 and 64.0 plus or minus 1.6 per cent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001). Thus, most type 3 organisms were ingested, but most type 1 gonococci were bound on the PMN surface.

  19. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  20. Acute Rhabdomyolysis Following Synthetic Cannabinoid Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Adedinsewo, Demilade A.; Oluwaseun Odewole; Taylor Todd

    2016-01-01

    Context: Novel psychoactive substances, including synthetic cannabinoids, are becoming increasingly popular, with more patients being seen in the emergency room following acute ingestion. These substances have been associated with a wide range of adverse effects. However, identification of complications, clinical toxicity, and management remain challenging. Case Report: We present the case of a young African-American male who developed severe agitation and bizarre behavior following acute K2 ...

  1. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  2. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabander, Tessa; Teunissen, Jaap J M; Van Eijck, Casper H J; Franssen, Gaston J H; Feelders, Richard A; de Herder, Wouter W; Kwekkeboom, Dik J

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, the number of neuroendocrine tumours that are detected is increasing. A relative new and promising therapy for patients with metastasised or inoperable disease is peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). This therapy involves an infusion of somatostatin analogues linked to radionuclides like Yttrium-90 or Lutetium-177. Objective response rates are reported in 15-35%. Response rates may vary between type of tumour and radionuclide. Besides the objective response rate, overall survival and progression free survival increase significantly. Also, the quality of life improves as well. Serious side-affects are rare. PRRT is usually well tolerated, also in patients with extensive metastasised disease. Recent studies combined PRRT with other types of therapies. Unfortunately no randomised trials comparing these strategies are available. In the future, more research is needed to evaluate the best therapy combinations or sequence of therapies.

  3. Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1996-08-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article.

  4. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  5. The uptake of radionuclides by beans, squash, and corn growing in contaminated alluvial soils at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresquez, P R; Armstrong, D R; Mullen, M A; Naranjo, L

    1998-01-01

    Pinto beans (Phaselous vulgaris), sweet corn (Zea mays), and zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo) were grown in a field pot study using alluvial floodplain soils contaminated with various radionuclides within Los Alamos Canyon (LAC) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. Soils as well as washed edible (fruit) and nonedible (stems and leaves) crop tissues were analyzed for tritium (3H), cesium (137Cs), strontium (90Sr), plutonium (238Pu and 239,240Pu), americium (241Am), and total uranium (totU). Most radionuclides, with the exception of 3H and totU, in soil and crop tissues from LAC were detected in significantly higher concentrations (p < 0.05) than in soil or crop tissues collected from regional background locations. Significant differences in radionuclide concentrations among crop species (squash were generally higher than beans or corn) and plant parts (nonedible tissue were generally higher than edible tissue) were observed. Most soil-to-plant concentration ratios for radionuclides in edible and nonedible crop tissues grown in soils from LAC were within default values in the literature commonly used in dose and risk assessment models. Overall, the maximum net positive committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE)--the CEDE plus two sigma for each radioisotope minus background and then all positive doses summed--to a hypothetical 50-year resident that ingested 352 lb ([160 kg]; the maxiumum ingestion rate per person per year) of beans, corn, and squash in equal proportions was 74 mrem y-1 (740 microS y-1). This upper bound dose was below the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit of 100 mrem y-1 (1000 microS y-1) from all pathways and corresponds to a risk of an excess cancer fatality of 3.7 x 10(-5) (37 in a million), which is also below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's guideline of 10(-4).

  6. Kounis syndrome following canned tuna fish ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gennaro, Luisa; Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Locuratolo, Nicola; Ruggiero, Massimo; Resta, Manuela; Diaferia, Giuseppe; Rana, Michele; Caldarola, Pasquale

    2016-12-20

    Kounis syndrome (KS) is a complex of cardiovascular symptoms and signs following either allergy or hypersensitivity and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid insults. We report the case of 57-year-old man, with hypertension and history of allergy, referred for facial rash and palpitations appeared after consumption of canned tuna fish. Suddenly, the patient collapsed: electrocardiogram showed ST-elevation in inferior leads. The patient was transferred from the spoke emergency room for coronary angio, which did not show any sign of coronary atherosclerosis. A transient coronary spasm was therefore hypothesized and the final diagnosis was KS. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first cases of KS following the ingestion of tuna fish. KS secondary to food allergy has also been reported, and shellfish ingestion has been considered as one of the most active KS inducer foods. Canned tuna fish too is well known as an allergy inducer. Tuna fish allergy should be considered, however, within the context of scombroid food poisoning, also called histamine fish poisoning. Fish with high levels of free histidine, the enzyme substrate converted to histamine by bacterial histidine decarboxylase, are those most often implicated in scombroid poisoning. Inflammatory mediators such as histamine constitute the pathophysiologic basis of Kounis hypersensitivity-associated acute coronary syndrome. Patients with coronary risk factors, allergic reaction after food ingestion, and suspected scombroid poisoning should be therefore carefully monitored for a prompt diagnosis of possible coronary complications.

  7. Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy in a toddler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Jung; Lai, Ming-Wei; Kong, Man-Shan; Chao, Hsun-Chin

    2005-12-01

    Toddlers who ingest the drug of abuse 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'Ecstasy') are at particularly high risk of serious neurological and cardiovascular side effects. We report of a 20-month-old male toddler who accidentally ingested Ecstasy. He presented with fever and seizures, tachycardia, hypertension, and hyperthermia. Urine amphetamine level was 2111 ng/mL. Treatment included rapid cooling, hydration, and support measures. Vital signs were regularly monitored. His condition became stable on day 2 and urine amphetamine level returned to normal on day 3 of hospitalization. His behavior, activity, and appetite had returned to their usual levels upon follow-up at our outpatient clinic. The incidence of drug abuse with MDMA has increased dramatically over the last decade in developed countries. It can be expected that accidental Ecstasy poisoning in children will increase as well. This case illustrates the need to consider the possibility of accidental Ecstasy ingestion in the differential diagnosis of a child suffering from convulsions with fever.

  8. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albin, R.J.; Johnston, G.S.

    1989-05-01

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax.

  9. Radionuclide Therapies in Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendi, A Tuba; Moncayo, Valeria M; Nye, Jonathon A; Galt, James R; Halkar, Raghuveer; Schuster, David M

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances and applications of radionuclide therapy. Individualized precision medicine, new treatments, and the evolving role of radionuclide therapy are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dose calculation for {sup 40}K ingestion in samples of beans using spectrometry and MCNP; Calculo de dose devido a ingestao de {sup 40}K em amostras de feijao utilizando espectrometria e MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcez, R.W.D.; Lopes, J.M.; Silva, A.X., E-mail: marqueslopez@yahoo.com.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/PEN/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia; Domingues, A.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Lima, M.A.F. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biologia

    2014-07-01

    A method based on gamma spectroscopy and on the use of voxel phantoms to calculate dose due to ingestion of {sup 40}K contained in bean samples are presented in this work. To quantify the activity of radionuclide, HPGe detector was used and the data entered in the input file of MCNP code. The highest value of equivalent dose was 7.83 μSv.y{sup -1} in the stomach for white beans, whose activity 452.4 Bq.Kg{sup -1} was the highest of the five analyzed. The tool proved to be appropriate when you want to calculate the dose in organs due to ingestion of food. (author)

  11. Migration of radionuclides in geologic media: Fundamental research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, D.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Zachara, J.M.; Wildung, R.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wobber, F.J. (USDOE, Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the fundamental research needs in understanding and predicting the migration of radionuclides in the subsurface is provided. Emphasis is on the following three technical areas: (1) aqueous speciation of radionuclides, (2) the interaction of radionuclides with substrates, and (3) intermediate-scale interaction studies. This research relates to important issues associated with environmental restoration and remediation of DOE sites contaminated with mixed radionuclide-organic wastes. 64 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Radiopharmaceuticals and other compounds labelled with short-lived radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Welch, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals and Other Compounds Labelled with Short-Lived Radionuclides covers through both review and contributed articles the potential applications and developments in labeling with short-lived radionuclides whose use is restricted to institutions with accelerators. The book discusses the current and potential use of generator-produced radionuclides as well as other short-lived radionuclides, and the problems of quality control of such labeled compounds. The book is useful to nuclear medicine physicians.

  13. Influence of a chronic {sup 90}Sr contamination by ingestion on the hematopoietic, immune and bone systems; Influence d'une contamination chronique par ingestion de {sup 90}Sr sur les systemes hematopoietique, immunitaire et osseux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Synhaeve, Nicholas

    2011-12-15

    Strontium 90 ({sup 90}Sr) is a radionuclide of anthropogenic origin released in large quantities in the environment as a result of nuclear atmospheric tests or accidents at nuclear facilities. {sup 90}Sr persists on a long-term basis in the environment, leading to chronic contamination by ingestion of populations living on contaminated territories. The induction of bone tumours associated with the fixation of {sup 90}Sr has been widely described. However, the occurrence of non-cancer effects is much less known. We used a mouse model with chronic contamination by ingestion of water containing 20 kBq/l of {sup 90}Sr. A bio-kinetic study confirmed the accumulation of {sup 90}Sr in the bones, with an increased rate of accumulation during bone growth. This accumulation was higher in the bones of females than in males. The whole-body absorbed doses ranged from 0.33 {+-} 0.06 mGy (birth) to 10.6 {+-} 0.1 mGy (20 weeks). The absorbed dose for the skeleton was up to 55 mGy. Ingestion of {sup 90}Sr induced a change in the expression of genes inducing an imbalance in favour of bone resorption, but without effect on bone morphology. No significant effect was observed for the hematopoietic system. On the other hand, minor modifications were observed for the immune system. To evaluate the functionality of the immune system, a vaccination test with TT and KLH antigens was used. Results showed in contaminated animals a significant decrease in the production of specific immunoglobulins, changes in the Th1/Th2 balance in the spleen and a disrupted B lymphocyte differentiation. These results improve the understanding of some of the noncancerous consequences of chronic exposure at low dose of radionuclides with a long half-life, which can be accidentally released. (author)

  14. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A manual radionuclide applicator system is a manually operated...

  15. Ingestional and transgenerational effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the pale grass blue butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Wataru; Hiyama, Atsuki; Nohara, Chiyo; Sakauchi, Ko; Otaki, Joji M.

    2015-01-01

    One important public concern in Japan is the potential health effects on animals and humans that live in the Tohoku-Kanto districts associated with the ingestion of foods contaminated with artificial radionuclides from the collapsed Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. Additionally, transgenerational or heritable effects of radiation exposure are also important public concerns because these effects could cause long-term changes in animal and human populations. Here, we concisely review our findings and implications related to the ingestional and transgenerational effects of radiation exposure on the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, which coexists with humans. The butterfly larval ingestion of contaminated leaves found in areas of human habitation, even at low doses, resulted in morphological abnormalities and death for some individuals, whereas other individuals were not affected, at least morphologically. This variable sensitivity serves as a basis for the adaptive evolution of radiation resistance. The distribution of abnormality and mortality rates from low to high doses fits well with a Weibull function model or a power function model. The offspring generated by morphologically normal individuals that consumed contaminated leaves exhibited high mortality rates when fed contaminated leaves; importantly, low mortality rates were restored when they were fed non-contaminated leaves. Our field monitoring over 3 years (2011–2013) indicated that abnormality and mortality rates peaked primarily in the fall of 2011 and decreased afterwards to normal levels. These findings indicate high impacts of early exposure and transgenerationally accumulated radiation effects over a specific period; however, the population regained normality relatively quickly after ∼15 generations within 3 years. PMID:26661851

  16. Ingestional and transgenerational effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the pale grass blue butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Wataru; Hiyama, Atsuki; Nohara, Chiyo; Sakauchi, Ko; Otaki, Joji M

    2015-12-01

    One important public concern in Japan is the potential health effects on animals and humans that live in the Tohoku-Kanto districts associated with the ingestion of foods contaminated with artificial radionuclides from the collapsed Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. Additionally, transgenerational or heritable effects of radiation exposure are also important public concerns because these effects could cause long-term changes in animal and human populations. Here, we concisely review our findings and implications related to the ingestional and transgenerational effects of radiation exposure on the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, which coexists with humans. The butterfly larval ingestion of contaminated leaves found in areas of human habitation, even at low doses, resulted in morphological abnormalities and death for some individuals, whereas other individuals were not affected, at least morphologically. This variable sensitivity serves as a basis for the adaptive evolution of radiation resistance. The distribution of abnormality and mortality rates from low to high doses fits well with a Weibull function model or a power function model. The offspring generated by morphologically normal individuals that consumed contaminated leaves exhibited high mortality rates when fed contaminated leaves; importantly, low mortality rates were restored when they were fed non-contaminated leaves. Our field monitoring over 3 years (2011-2013) indicated that abnormality and mortality rates peaked primarily in the fall of 2011 and decreased afterwards to normal levels. These findings indicate high impacts of early exposure and transgenerationally accumulated radiation effects over a specific period; however, the population regained normality relatively quickly after ∼15 generations within 3 years.

  17. Radiological consequences of radionuclide releases to sewage systems from hospitals in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Cruz, Idalmis de la [Facilia AB (Sweden); Bergman, Synnoeve [Vattenfall Power Consultants AB (Sweden); Hasselblad, Serena [Callido AB (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    The report addresses radioactive discharges to sewers originating from hospitals, mainly in the form of the excretion of patients treated with radioisotopes for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Assessments of doses to the public, including sewage workers, arising from such discharges are performed. Doses are compared against the exemption level of 10 {mu}Sv/a and the dose constraint of 100 {mu}Sv/a. As a basis for the dose assessments, information on the use of radionuclides in Swedish hospitals during the period 1999-2004 is presented and estimates of discharges to the sewage systems are derived. Current sewage treatment practices in Sweden are summarised focusing particularly on the fate of sewage sludge, both in the sewage plant and outside. Radiological impact assessments are performed in two steps. The assessments in the first stage are performed using a simple screening model, not intending to predict exposures realistically but only to identify exposure pathways and radionuclides that are potentially relevant and require further consideration in the more detailed assessments. Results show that only a few of those radionuclides used in the period 1999-2004 in Swedish hospitals for radiotherapy and radiodiagnostics could lead to potentially significant doses (P-32, Y-90, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, I-131 and Tl-201). Relevant exposure pathways are the external exposure of sewage workers (for Tc- 99m, I-123, I-131, In-111 and Tl-201) and the exposure of the public via ingestion of water (I-131) and fish (P-32, Y-90 and In-111 and I-131). The objective of the second stage is to perform realistic assessments of the doses to sewage workers and to the public through the use of contaminated agricultural sludge and through the contamination of drinking water. For this purpose, the LUCIA model was developed. This model dynamically addresses the behaviour of radionuclides in the different process steps of a sewage plant. The model can address continuous releases as well

  18. Plant uptake of radionuclides and rhizosphere factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arie, Tsutomu; Gouthu, S.; Ambe, Shizuko; Yamaguchi, Isamu [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Hirata, Hiroaki

    1999-03-01

    Influence of soil factors such as nuclide availability, pH, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity (CEC), exchangeable cations (Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, and K{sup +}), phosphate absorption coefficient (PAC), physical composition of soil (coarse sand, fine sand, silt, and clay), soil texture, and rhizosphere microbes on uptake of radionuclides by plants are studied. (author)

  19. Radionuclide tumor therapy with ultrasound contrast microbubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamel, van Annemieke; Bouakaz, Ayache; Bernard, Bert; Cate, ten Folkert; Jong, de Nico

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclides have shown to be effective in tumour therapy. However, the side effects determine the maximum deliverable dose. Recently, it has been demonstrated that cells can be permeabilised through sonoporation using ultrasound and contrast microbubbles. The use of sonoporation in treatment of tu

  20. Chapter 7: Primary standardization in radionuclide metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Jose Ubiratan

    2014-07-01

    The chapter 7 presents: Primary methods for radionuclide standardization; 4πβ-γ Coincidence counting method; Anticoincidence; Counting π Method; Defined Solid Angle Counting Method; Liquid scintillator counting method (CIEMAT/NIST); Sum-peak Method and LNMRI Absolute Standardization.

  1. Radionuclide Geomicrobiology of the Deep Biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Craig; Johnsson, Anna; Moll, Henry

    2011-01-01

    species (i.e., Shewanella putrefaciens and Desulfovibrio aespoeensis) with Cm, Pm, and Pu were investigated in vitro and the results were found to agree with literature data. Siderophores are capable of binding actinides strongly and need to be considered in terms of radionuclide mobility...

  2. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  3. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agool, Ali; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Vellenga, Edo; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use radionuclide-label

  4. Radionuclides in radiation-induced bystander effect; may it share in radionuclide therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widel, M

    2017-01-01

    For many years in radiobiology and radiotherapy predominated the conviction that cellular DNA is the main target for ionizing radiation, however, the view has changed in the past 20 years. Nowadays, it is assumed that not only directed (targeted) radiation effect, but also an indirect (non-targeted) effect may contribute to the result of radiation treatment. Non-targeted effect is relatively well recognized after external beam irradiation in vitro and in vivo, and comprises such phenomena like radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE), genomic instability, adaptive response and abscopal (out of field) effect. These stress-induced and molecular signaling mediated phenomena appear in non-targeted cells as variety responses resembling that observed in directly hit cells. Bystander effects can be both detrimental and beneficial in dependence on dose, dose-rate, cell type, genetic status and experimental condition. Less is known about radionuclide-induced non-targeted effects in radionuclide therapy, although, based on characteristics of the radionuclide radiation, on experiments in vitro utilizing classical and 3-D cell cultures, and preclinical study on animals it seems obvious that exposure to radionuclide is accompanied by various bystander effects, mostly damaging, less often protective. This review summarizes existing data on radionuclide induced bystander effects comprising radionuclides emitting beta- and alpha-particles and Auger electrons used in tumor radiotherapy and diagnostics. So far, separation of the direct effect of radionuclide decay from crossfire and bystander effects in clinical targeted radionuclide therapy is impossible because of the lack of methods to assess whether, and to what extent bystander effect is involved in human organism. Considerations on this topic are also included.

  5. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 3/H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay.

  6. NASA Engineering Network Lessons Learned

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Lessons Learned system provides access to official, reviewed lessons learned from NASA programs and projects. These lessons have been made available to the...

  7. RADIONUCLIDES DISTRIBUTION NEAR FORMER URANIUM MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Zaredinov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows, that radionuclides from the stony rocks of uranium mines can be leached by atmospheric precipitations. In acid conditions, a degree of leaching is greater.Goal. The aim of this investigation was to study the distribution of radionuclides in uranium minings and their impact on the environmental contamination.Materials and methods. The study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, a blade of rock was mixed with distilled water in proportions of 0,3 kg of gravel and 1 liter of water. After thirty days of soaking, water was sent to the gamma-spectrometric analysis to Canberra’s spectrometer (USA with a high-purity germanium detector. In the second stage, we carried out the similar experiment with water, wich was acidified to pH = 3. Contamination levels of areas near the in-situ leaching mine were determined. Intervention levels were used to estimate risk and possible water consumption by the population. Estimations were carried out taking into account the combined presence of several radionuclides in the water.Results. The results of these studies have shown that the distribution of radionuclides from the source of the contamination is about 360 meters during the 30 y period. The stream, along which samples of soil were collected and studied, was formed by the miner waters that flow along small ruts towards a village, thereby increasing the likelihood of water use by the public.Conclusions. The uranium mines are the source of radioactive contamination. Radionuclides are distributed due to the erosion of rocks and leached out of the stony rock by precipitations. The extent of leaching is significantly increased in an acidic environment, which takes place near the in-situ leaching mines.

  8. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  9. Hemorrhagic shock secondary to button battery ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Andreia Takesaki

    Full Text Available CONTEXT:Button battery ingestion is a frequent pediatric complaint. The serious complications resulting from accidental ingestion have increased significantly over the last two decades due to easy access to gadgets and electronic toys. Over recent years, the increasing use of lithium batteries of diameter 20 mm has brought new challenges, because these are more detrimental to the mucosa, compared with other types, with high morbidity and mortality. The clinical complaints, which are often nonspecific, may lead to delayed diagnosis, thereby increasing the risk of severe complications.CASE REPORT:A five-year-old boy who had been complaining of abdominal pain for ten days, was brought to the emergency service with a clinical condition of hematemesis that started two hours earlier. On admission, he presented pallor, tachycardia and hypotension. A plain abdominal x-ray produced an image suggestive of a button battery. Digestive endoscopy showed a deep ulcerated lesion in the esophagus without active bleeding. After this procedure, the patient presented profuse hematemesis and severe hypotension, followed by cardiorespiratory arrest, which was reversed. He then underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy and presented a new episode of cardiorespiratory arrest, which he did not survive. The battery was removed through rectal exploration.CONCLUSION:This case describes a fatal evolution of button battery ingestion with late diagnosis and severe associated injury of the digestive mucosa. A high level of clinical suspicion is essential for preventing this evolution. Preventive strategies are required, as well as health education, with warnings to parents, caregivers and healthcare professionals.

  10. Hyperzincemia from ingestion of denture adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Pashley, David H

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the recent literature that documents the serious adverse systemic effects of prolonged, excessive zinc ingestion from the overuse of denture adhesives. This condition causes elevation of serum zinc levels that result in depression of serum copper. The low serum copper levels cause bone marrow depression and widespread sensory and motor neuropathies. Epidemiologic studies revealed the source of excessive zinc intake to be from overuse of denture adhesives. Denture patients must be advised of the risks of prolonged overuse of denture adhesives.

  11. Brugada Pattern Electrocardiogram Unmasked with Cocaine Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chadi Alraies

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is considered a leading cause of drug-related deaths. This is usually sudden, unwitnessed, and without prodromal features. It has been reported that in-hospital mortality is close to 2%. Cocaine has powerful central nervous system effects1 and acute cocaine overdose has been associated with hyperthermia, agitation, paranoid ideation, status epilepticus, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, and myocardial infarction (MI. The mechanisms of cocaine-related death remain poorly understood. We report a patient who survived massive cocaine ingestion with psychomotor agitation and generalized seizures followed by asystolic cardiac arrest and transient Brugada pattern on electrocardiogram (ECG.

  12. Pneumopericardium due to ingestion of button battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Jai Prakash; Choudhary, Sandeep; Sharma, Pramod; Makwana, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Mostly ingested button batteries passed through the gastrointestinal tract without any adverse effects. But button battery can lead to hazardous complications including tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), especially when the battery is impacted in the esophagus. Urgent esophagoscopic removal of the battery is essential in all cases. Once the TEF is identified, conservative management is the initial treatment of choice. Delayed primary repair can be tried if spontaneous closure does not occur. Here in we want to report a rare case of air leak syndrome, pneumo-pericardium secondary to the corrosive effect of a button battery and child recovered completely with conservative management.

  13. Safety analysis for the Abadia de Goias repository: alternative evaluation of the ingestion dose rate critical distance; Analise de seguranca para o repositorio de Abadia de Goias: avaliacao alternativa da distancia critica de taxa de dose de ingestao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Alves, A.S. de; Passos, E.M. dos [NUCLEN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    An alternative calculation of the ingestion dose rate critical distance due to a hypothetical release of Cs-137 from the structure of the Repository of Abadia de Goias is presented. The release pathway considers the repository - groundwater region - well - and food chain. The main adopted modification comparing to the previous work is the inclusion of the convective and molecular diffusion terms in the radionuclide transport equation in addition to the radioactive decay term. (author). 6 refs, 1 tab.

  14. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This volume serves as an introduction to the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. This report includes discussions of radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha-emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than five years). Each report includes information regarding radiological and chemical characteristics of specific radionuclides. Information is also included discussing waste streams and waste forms that may contain each radionuclide, and radionuclide behavior in the environment and in the human body. Not all radionuclides commonly found at low-level radioactive waste sites are included in this report. The discussion in this volume explains the rationale of the radionuclide selection process.

  15. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  16. Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-01-28

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5α-cyprinol sulfate (5α-cholestane-3α, 7α, 12α, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans.

  17. Prolonged energy harvesting for ingestible devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Phillip; El-Damak, Dina; Glettig, Dean; Kong, Yong Lin; Mo, Stacy; Cleveland, Cody; Booth, Lucas; Roxhed, Niclas; Langer, Robert; Chandrakasan, Anantha P; Traverso, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Ingestible electronics have revolutionized the standard of care for a variety of health conditions. Extending the capacity and safety of these devices, and reducing the costs of powering them, could enable broad deployment of prolonged monitoring systems for patients. Although prior biocompatible power harvesting systems for in vivo use have demonstrated short minute-long bursts of power from the stomach, not much is known about the capacity to power electronics in the longer term and throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report the design and operation of an energy-harvesting galvanic cell for continuous in vivo temperature sensing and wireless communication. The device delivered an average power of 0.23 μW per mm(2) of electrode area for an average of 6.1 days of temperature measurements in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. This power-harvesting cell has the capacity to provide power for prolonged periods of time to the next generation of ingestible electronic devices located in the gastrointestinal tract.

  18. The natural and artificial radionuclides in drinking water samples and consequent population doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydan Altıkulaç

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Concentration levels of 226Ra, 228Ra, 40K and 137Cs were determined in 52 drinking water samples collected from the different supplies in Samsun province to evaluate annual effective dose due to the ingestion of the drinking water samples. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K natural radionuclides in the drinking water samples varied from <27 to 2431 mBq L−1, <36 to 270 mBq L−1 and <47 to 2880 mBq L−1 respectively. The activity concentrations of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs in the drinking water samples were lower than minimum detectable activity except in one drinking water sample (DW14 with an associated activity concentration of 2576 mBq L−1. Contributions of the consumed water samples to annual effective dose from 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K varied from 1.6 to 33.4 μSv y−1 with a mean of 6.1 μSv y−1, 2.2 to 46.8 μSv y−1 with a mean of 8.6 μSv y−1, 4.7 to 97.5 μSv y−1 with a mean of 17.9 μSv y−1 for infants, children and adults, respectively. The results showed that all values of the annual effective dose of ingestion of these water samples were below the individual dose criterion of 100 μSv y−1 reported by World Health Organization (WHO.

  19. Screening Risk Assessment for Possible Radionuclides in the Amchitka Marine Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-10-31

    , the most conservative data were selected. Conservative assumptions and values were used for radionuclide uptake factors and for marine food ingestion rates by human receptors. The dispersion of material in the marine environment utilized a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved model (CORMIX). In addition, the screening level of 1 x 10{sup -6} or 1 excess cancer in 1 million is considered by the EPA to be below the level of concern. The end result, as presented in this report, is a highly conservative estimate of potential risks that are well below the EPA's most conservative risk threshold for both subsistence users and commercial-catch consumers.

  20. Soil-to-plant transfer factors for natural radionuclides in the Brazilian cerrado region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.; Oliveira, Kerley A.; Menezes, Maria Angela de B., E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mello, Jaime de; Silva, David F. da, E-mail: jwvmello@ufv.b [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Siqueira, Maria C.; Taddei, Maria H.; Dias, Fabiana F., E-mail: mc_quimica@hotmail.co, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: fdias@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC)

    2009-07-01

    Large amounts of phosphogypsum produced have been attracting attention of Radiological Protection institutions and Environmental Protection agencies worldwide, given its high potential for environmental contamination. In Brazil, this material has been used for several decades, especially for agricultural purposes. Due to the presence of radionuclides in its composition, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms for natural radionuclide transfer in the soil/plant system and to evaluate if the use of phosphogypsum in soil contributes to increased exposition of humans to natural radioactivity. Experiments were accomplished in a greenhouse with lettuce cultivation in two types of soil (sandy and clayey) fertilized with four different amounts of phosphogypsum. Samples of phosphogypsum, soil, lettuce and drainage water were then analyzed for key radionuclides. {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th analyses were carried out by Neutron Activation Analysis; {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb by analyzed by Gamma Spectrometry; and {sup 210}Po by Alpha Spectrometry Technique. Finally, Transfer Factors of soil-plant were calculated as well as annual contribution to the effective dose due to the ingestion of lettuces. {sup 22}'6Ra average specific activity in phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg{sup -1}) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq.kg{sup -1} for agricultural use. Although most of the results for mean specific activity of radionuclides in lettuce presented values below the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA), Transfer Factors were estimated for those conditions in which the mean specific activity proved to be superior to MDA. Values ranged from 1.8 10{sup -3} to 2.3 10{sup -2} for {sup 232}Th; 3.5 10{sup -}'2 to 4.1 10{sup -2} for {sup 226}Ra, 2.4 10{sup -1} to 3.2 10{sup -}'1 for {sup 228}Ra, and 3.5 10{sup -2} to 8.5 10{sup -2} for {sup 210}Po, depending on the type of soil used for planting vegetables. In general, results

  1. An unusual presentation of hydrochloric acid ingestion: a mystery unraveled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Vinod Prabhu; Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Chinnakkannan, Selvakumar; Panda, Shasanka Shekhar

    2015-03-01

    Unintentional acid ingestion is less commonly encountered than alkali ingestion. The injury develops for hours to days after ingestion and often results in progressively increasing difficulty in airway management. However, gastric perforation is rare. A 3-year-old boy presented to us with an orotonsillopharyngeal membrane and severe upper airway obstruction. Subsequently, he was diagnosed with a case of gastric perforation due to unintentional hydrochloric acid ingestion. He was treated with partial gastrectomy and feeding jejunostomy, and the recovery was good. Unintentional hydrochloric acid ingestion is rare in children. The manifestations masquerade many other clinical conditions, and the diagnosis is difficult in cases in which history of ingestion is not available. Treatment is symptomatic, and emergency surgery is indicated in case of gastrointestinal perforation.

  2. Ingestion of a Foreign Body in a Preterm Infant

    OpenAIRE

    Duran, Rıdvan; İnan, Mustafa; Vatansever, Ülfet; Acunaş, Betül

    2004-01-01

    Ingestion of a foreign body is very rare in newborn infants. Ingestion of the endotracheal tube during nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in low birth weight preterm infants is even rarer. A preterm male infant who underwent nasal CPAP treatment on the first postnatal day for prematurity and respiratory insufficiency was found to ingest the distal part of the entubation tube. Direct radiography showed the tube residing between the lower end of the esophagus and the ent...

  3. Clinical Evaluation of Disc Battery Ingestion in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Mirshemirani, Alireza; Khaleghnejad-tabari, Ahmad; Kouranloo, Jaefar; Sadeghian, Naser; Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Roshanzamir, Fatolah; Razavi, Sajad; Sayary, Ali Akbar; Imanzadeh, Farid

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics, management, and outcomes of disc battery ingestion in children. METHODS We reviewed the medical records of children admitted to Mofid Children’s Hospital due to disc battery ingestion from January 2006 to January 2010. Clear history, clinical symptoms and results of imaging studies revealed diagnosis of disc battery ingestion in suspected patients. The clinical data reviewed included age, gender, clinical manifestation,...

  4. Lead Fragment Ingestion by Birds: Shooting Down Another Myth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lead Fragment Ingestion by Birds: Shooting Down Another Myth 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...considerable proportion maybe  A brief background to the (perceived) “problem” . . . • Birds display grit- ingesting behavior. Avian digestion in a...Birds display grit- ingesting behavior. • Lead particles in the environment (e.g., spent shot, bullet fragments) approximate the size of

  5. Analgesia accompanying food consumption requires ingestion of hedonic foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, H; Mason, Peggy

    2009-10-14

    Animals eat rather than react to moderate pain. Here, we examined the behavioral, hedonic, and neural requirements for ingestion analgesia in ad libitum fed rats. Noxious heat-evoked withdrawals were similarly suppressed during self-initiated chocolate eating and ingestion of intraorally infused water, sucrose, or saccharin, demonstrating that ingestion analgesia does not require feeding motivation, self-initiated food procurement, sucrose, or calories. Rather, food hedonics is important because neither salt ingestion nor quinine rejection elicited analgesia. During quinine-induced nausea and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced illness, conditions when chocolate eating was presumably less pleasurable, analgesia accompanying chocolate consumption was attenuated, yet analgesia during water ingestion was preserved in LPS-injected rats who showed enhanced palatability for water within this context. The dependence of ingestion analgesia on the positive hedonics of an ingestate was confirmed in rats with a conditioned taste aversion to sucrose: after paired exposure to sucrose and LPS, rats no longer showed analgesia during sucrose ingestion but continued to show analgesia during chocolate consumption. Eating pauses tended to occur less often and for shorter durations in the presence of ingestion analgesia than in its absence. Therefore, we propose that ingestion analgesia functions to defend eating from ending. Muscimol inactivation of the medullary raphe magnus blocked the analgesia normally observed during water ingestion, showing the involvement of brainstem endogenous pain inhibitory mechanisms in ingestion analgesia. Brainstem-mediated defense of the consumption of palatable foods may explain, at least in part, why overeating tasty foods is so irresistible even in the face of opposing cognitive and motivational forces.

  6. LIPOLYTIC ACTIVITY IN THE BLOOD AFTER LIPASE INGESTION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nature of the enzyme appearing in the blood after oral ingestion of pancreatic lipase has been studied by determining the effect of the presence...bile acid while the enzymic activity of both pancreatic lipase and the enzyme present in the blood after pancreatic lipase ingestion were greatly...enhanced by the presence of cholic acid. Although the rate of fat absorption has been shown to be affected by lipase ingestion , the possibility remains

  7. Influence of Sensor Ingestion Timing on Consistency of Temperature Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Copyright @ 200 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.9 Influence of Sensor Ingestion ... Ingestion Timing on Consistency of Temperature Measures. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 597–602, 2009. Purpose: The validity and the...reliability of using intestinal temperature (Tint) via ingestible temperature sensors (ITS) to measure core body temperature have been demonstrated. However

  8. Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Avifauna in Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Lauren; Schuyler, Qamar A; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Townsend, Kathy A

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic debris in the world's oceans and coastal environments is a pervasive global issue that has both direct and indirect impacts on avifauna. The number of bird species affected, the feeding ecologies associated with an increased risk of debris ingestion, and selectivity of ingested debris have yet to be investigated in most of Australia's coastal and marine birds. With this study we aim to address the paucity of data regarding marine debris ingestion in Australian coastal and marine bird species. We investigated which Australian bird groups ingest marine debris, and whether debris-ingesting groups exhibit selectivity associated with their taxonomy, habitat or foraging methods. Here we present the largest multispecies study of anthropogenic debris ingestion in Australasian avifauna to date. We necropsied and investigated the gastrointestinal contents of 378 birds across 61 species, collected dead across eastern Australia. These species represented nine taxonomic orders, five habitat groups and six feeding strategies. Among investigated species, thirty percent had ingested debris, though ingestion did not occur uniformly within the orders of birds surveyed. Debris ingestion was found to occur in orders Procellariiformes, Suliformes, Charadriiformes and Pelecaniformes, across all surveyed habitats, and among birds that foraged by surface feeding, pursuit diving and search-by-sight. Procellariiformes, birds in pelagic habitats, and surface feeding marine birds ingested debris with the greatest frequency. Among birds which were found to ingest marine debris, we investigated debris selectivity and found that marine birds were selective with respect to both type and colour of debris. Selectivity for type and colour of debris significantly correlated with taxonomic order, habitat and foraging strategy. This study highlights the significant impact of feeding ecology on debris ingestion among Australia's avifauna.

  9. Button battery ingestion in children: An emerging hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Button battery ingestion is an emerging hazard. In this retrospective study, we report six cases of lithium button battery ingestion in pediatric age group (mean age 2.8 years. Three button batteries were removed from stomach and three from esophagus. Esophageal site was associated with significant local injury, and one button battery was impacted in the esophagus, requiring rigid esophagoscopy for removal. Small battery size, used batteries, and early removal (<12 h after ingestion were associated with lesser mucosal injury. No long-term complications were noted. Our study emphasizes that early diagnosis and urgent removal of ingested button battery are the only measures which prevent complications.

  10. Ingestion analgesia occurs when a bad taste turns good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Hayley; Mason, Peggy

    2011-12-01

    During ingestion of water, chocolate, sucrose, and saccharin, pain-related behaviors are suppressed. This ingestion analgesic effect is reversed when the hedonic valence of a food is switched from "good" to "bad" as occurs during conditioned taste aversion. Here, we tested the converse hedonic shift to determine if ingestion analgesia occurs when 0.3 M NaCl is made palatable by inducing a sodium appetite. In Experiment 1, sham- and sodium-depleted rats were tested for paw withdrawal and lick latencies to brief noxious heat during quiet wake and intraoral NaCl ingestion. Only sodium-depleted rats showed a suppression of heat-evoked reactions during NaCl ingestion. In Experiment 2, we tested whether this analgesic effect is mediated by the brainstem nucleus raphe magnus (NRM). Inactivation of NRM with muscimol blocked ingestion analgesia during NaCl ingestion by sodium-depleted rats. This attenuation was not due to a hyperalgesic effect of NRM inactivation. Muscimol microinjections into a nearby region, the nucleus raphe obscurus (NRO), were ineffective. The present findings demonstrate that the internal milieu of an animal can modify ingestion analgesia, and that the analgesia during NaCl ingestion by sodium hungry rats is mediated by NRM. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. A review of soil and dust ingestion studies for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Jacqueline; Phillips, Linda

    2014-11-01

    Soil and dust ingestion by children may be important pathways of exposure to environmental contaminants. Contaminated soil and dust may end up on children's hands and objects, because they play close to the ground. These contaminants can be ingested by children, because they have a tendency to place objects, including their fingers, in their mouths. Assessing exposure through this pathway requires information about the amount of soil and dust ingested by children. Estimates of soil and dust ingestion and information on the prevalence of the behavior have been published in the literature, but research in this area is generally limited. Three methodologies have been used to quantify soil and dust ingestion rates. In this paper, these are referred to as the tracer element method, the biokinetic model comparison method, and the activity pattern method. This paper discusses the information available on the prevalence of soil and dust ingestion behavior, summarizes the three methodologies for quantifying soil and dust ingestion, and discusses their limitations. Soil ingestion data derived from studies that use these methodologies are also summarized. Although they are based on different estimation approaches, the central tendency estimates of soil and dust ingestion derived from the three methodologies are generally comparable.

  12. WIND TUNNEL TESTS OF TURBOPROP ENGINE CHARACTERISTICS DURING BIRD INGESTION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    TURBOPROP ENGINES, * INGESTION (ENGINES), BIRDS, BIRDS, DEGRADATION, TEST METHODS, AVIATION SAFETY, TAKEOFF, HAZARDS, JET ENGINE INLETS, DUCT INLETS, TURBINE COMPONENTS, DAMAGE, PHOTOGRAPHS, TURBINE BLADES.

  13. Identifying large chondrites using cosmogenic radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welten, K.C. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Caffee, M.W., E-mail: mcaffee@purdue.ed [PRIME Laboratory, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Hillegonds, D.J. [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Masarik, J. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Nishiizumi, K. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    We measured the concentrations of the cosmogenic radionuclides {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 41}Ca in the metal and stone fractions of three large chondrite showers to determine their pre-atmospheric size. Large chondrites are characterized by substantial contributions of neutron-capture {sup 41}Ca in the stone fraction (up to approx2 dpm/gCa), low radionuclide concentrations in the metal fraction and high {sup 10}Be(stone)/{sup 10}Be(metal) ratios. Based on the measured concentrations in comparison with calculated cosmogenic nuclide depth profiles, using a semi-empirical and a purely physical model, we conclude that these objects had pre-atmospheric radii ranging from approx80 cm to >3 m. We conclude that the semi-empirical model is more reliable for spallogenic production rates in large objects, while the purely physical model is more reliable for neutron-capture products.

  14. Tracing Noble Gas Radionuclides in the Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Collon, P; Lu, Z T

    2004-01-01

    Trace analysis of radionuclides is an essential and versatile tool in modern science and technology. Due to their ideal geophysical and geochemical properties, long-lived noble gas radionuclides, in particular, 39Ar (t1/2 = 269 yr), 81Kr (t1/2 = 2.3x10^5 yr) and 85Kr (t1/2 = 10.8 yr), have long been recognized to have a wide range of important applications in Earth sciences. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the development of practical analytical methods, and has led to applications of these isotopes in the hydrosphere (tracing the flow of groundwater and ocean water). In this article, we introduce the applications of these isotopes and review three leading analytical methods: Low-Level Counting (LLC), Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA).

  15. Radionuclide synovectomy – essentials for rheumatologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek M. Chojnowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide synovectomy is a minimally invasive method of treating persistent joint inflammation. It involves intra-articular injection of radioactive colloids which induce necrosis and fibrosis of hypertrophic synovial membrane. The most common indication for radiosynovectomy is rheumatoid arthritis, although patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies, unclassified arthritis, haemophilic arthropathy and other less common arthropathies can also benefit from this method. Radiosynovectomy is safe, well tolerated and efficacious. About 70–80% of patients respond well to the therapy. However, the therapeutic effects are considerably worse in patients with co-existent osteoarthritis and advanced joint degeneration. Despite its advantages, radionuclide synovectomy is not performed as often as it could be, so greater knowledge and understanding of this method are needed. The authors present the most important facts about radiosynovectomy that may help rheumatologists in their daily clinical practice.

  16. Radionuclide transport in the Yenisei River

    CERN Document Server

    Vakulovsky, S M; Kabanov, A I

    2012-01-01

    Data characterizing the pollution of the Yenisei River (water and bottom sediment) by radionuclide resulting from the use of the river water for cooling industrial reactors in the Mining-Chemical Complex are presented. Studies have been made of the contamination of the river during the period when reactors with direct flow cooling were used and after these were shut down. Distinctive features of the migration of radionuclide in the Yenisei are noted, in particular, their distribution between the solid and liquid phases. The amounts of 137Cs, 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn, and 152Eu in the channel are determined from the effluent discharge site to Dudinka port. The rate of continuous self removal of 137Cs is estimated to be 0.19 1/year, corresponding to a half purification time of 3.6 years for a 600 km long segment of the river bed.

  17. Radionuclide synovectomy – essentials for rheumatologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felis-Giemza, Anna; Kobylecka, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide synovectomy is a minimally invasive method of treating persistent joint inflammation. It involves intra-articular injection of radioactive colloids which induce necrosis and fibrosis of hypertrophic synovial membrane. The most common indication for radiosynovectomy is rheumatoid arthritis, although patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies, unclassified arthritis, haemophilic arthropathy and other less common arthropathies can also benefit from this method. Radiosynovectomy is safe, well tolerated and efficacious. About 70–80% of patients respond well to the therapy. However, the therapeutic effects are considerably worse in patients with co-existent osteoarthritis and advanced joint degeneration. Despite its advantages, radionuclide synovectomy is not performed as often as it could be, so greater knowledge and understanding of this method are needed. The authors present the most important facts about radiosynovectomy that may help rheumatologists in their daily clinical practice. PMID:27504020

  18. Decline of radionuclides in Columbia River biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Watson, D.G.; Scott, A.J.; Gurtisen, J.M.

    1980-03-01

    In January 1971, the last of nine plutonium production reactors using direct discharge of once-through cooling waters into the Columbia River was closed. Sampling was initiated at three stations on the Columbia River to document the decline of the radionuclide body burdens in the biota of the Columbia River ecosystem. The data show that in a river-reservoir complex, the measurable body burden of fission-produced radionuclides decreased to essentially undetectable levels within 18 to 24 mo after cessation of discharge of once-through cooling water into the river. On the basis of data from the free-flowing station, we believe that this decrease would be even more rapid in an unimpounded river.

  19. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmuleva, N.I.; Barinov, E.Y.; Petukhov, V.L. [Novosibirsk State Agrarian University (Russian Federation)

    2003-05-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. {sup 137}Cs level was 3.7 to 9.2 times higher than {sup 90}Sr one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio-nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg). (authors)

  20. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    This report describes the author's continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  1. Cadastral valuation of lands polluted with radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, O. A.; Tsvetnov, E. V.; Shcheglov, A. I.; Romashkina, A. D.; Ermiyaev, Ya. R.

    2016-11-01

    The major method to correct the cadastral value of land for contamination with radionuclides is to reduce it by the sum of expenses necessary for land remediation and for special measures ensuring the obtaining of agricultural and forestry products satisfying safety norms. Lands contaminated with radionuclides and used in agriculture and forestry are often removed from the system of land taxation. In this case, their cadastral value becomes an excessive element of the state cadaster of real estate. An approach toward cadastral valuation of such lands suggested by the authors assumes the creation of a system of compensation payments as the main source of financing of land rehabilitation and soil conservation measures. An original system of calculation of such payments has been tested for radioactively contaminated lands in Plavsk district of Tula oblast. It is argued that compensation payments for radioactively contaminated agrocenoses should be higher than those for natural cenoses.

  2. Radionuclide methods of tumor diagnosis in ophthalmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinskaya, L.R. (Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Glaznykh boleznej (USSR))

    1982-08-01

    The radionuclide methods used in opthalmology for diagnosis of eyes and orbit tumors are described: radiophosphorus indication, method of gamma-topography, method of external radiometry, method of blood circulation study in organ of vision. Diagnostic value was determined of such radiopharmaceuticals as /sup 32/P-phosphate, /sup 67/Ga-citrate, /sup 131/I-Ralbumin, /sup 197/Hg-neohydrine, /sup 125/I-fluorescein, /sup 75/Se-methionine, sup(99m)Tc-pertechnete and others. The conclusion was drawn that the considered radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals were not perfect indicators for diagnosis of different tumors of organ of vision. Simultaneous using of several radiopharmaceuticals with the aim of increasing information content of described methods is recommended.

  3. Radionuclide evaluation of renal artery dilatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Born, M.L.; Gerlock, A.J. Jr.; Goncharenko, V.; Hollifield, J.W.; MacDonell, R.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Radionuclide studies were used in three patients to evaluate renal perfusion and function within 24 hours following transluminal dilatation. In one patient, technetium-99 m pertechnetate showed good renal perfusion one and 12 hours after a post-dilatation arteriogram had shown a renal artery intimal defect. Improved clearance of iodine-131 ortho-iodohippurate from the blood demonstrated an increase in renal function 18 hours following dilatation of a stenosis at a renal allograft anastomosis in the second patient, while technetium-99 m-labeled DTPA showed an improved total glomerular filtration rate 24 hours after dilatation of a saphenous vein bypass graft in the third patient. It was concluded that renal radionuclide studies are of benefit in evaluating patients in the immediate post-dilatation period.

  4. Ben Franklin. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Benjamin Franklin's "Poor Richard's Almanac," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Ben Franklin is known, among other things, for his wit and wisdom; that Franklin published an almanac for 25 years; and he scattered aphorisms throughout the almanac. The main activity in the lesson is for students…

  5. "Walden". [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surber, Gretchen C.

    Based on Henry David Thoreau's book "Walden," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that acquisitiveness and simplicity can be opposing life philosophies; and that both philosophies have had notable adherents. The main activity of the lesson involves students researching historical characters (including Thoreau)…

  6. "Frankenstein." [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Melanie

    Based on Mary Shelley's novel "Frankenstein," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that active readers interpret a novel (its characters, plot, setting, and theme) in different ways; and the great literature can be and has been adapted in many ways over time. The main activity of the lesson involves students…

  7. Soybean Production Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Keith R.

    These lesson plans for teaching soybean production in a secondary or postsecondary vocational agriculture class are organized in nine units and cover the following topics: raising soybeans, optimum tillage, fertilizer and lime, seed selection, pest management, planting, troubleshooting, double cropping, and harvesting. Each lesson plan contains…

  8. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  9. Don Quixote. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooks, Kristen

    Based on Miguel de Cervantes' novel "Don Quixote," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Quixote's misperceptions are understandable; writers often describe one object to sound as if it were something else; and metaphors help readers see with new eyes. The main activity of the lesson involves students…

  10. Gulliver's Travels. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooks, Kirsten; McLean, Mary

    Based on Jonathan Swift's novel "Gulliver's Travels," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Swift comments on undesirable outcomes of advances in science; and other authors have also warned against abuse of science. The main activity of the lesson involves students developing a poster illustrating views of…

  11. Automatic Dance Lesson Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Leung, H.; Yue, Lihua; Deng, LiQun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an automatic lesson generation system is presented which is suitable in a learning-by-mimicking scenario where the learning objects can be represented as multiattribute time series data. The dance is used as an example in this paper to illustrate the idea. Given a dance motion sequence as the input, the proposed lesson generation…

  12. Mini Lessons from FDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Eight self-contained lessons present information about topics of current interest in the Food and Drug Administration. Multidisciplinary in nature, the lessons can be integrated into ongoing activities in elementary or secondary level reading, math, language arts, social studies, science, art, health, consumer education, and home economics. The…

  13. A Lesson in Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnt, Marlene

    2004-01-01

    This article describes one classroom's experience integrating a three-part lesson that focused on tolerance. In the lesson, students examined works by American folk-art painter Edward Hicks, researched quotes about tolerance in society, and applied calligraphy skills to an original composition.

  14. Fish Facts. Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mike

    This lesson plan is designed for a 50-minute class to teach extension home economists and homemakers about buying, storing, and using fish. The lesson plan contains references, a list of equipment needed, objectives, and the presentation. The presentation consists of an outline of instruction coordinated with methods of instruction and aids and…

  15. Radionuclide release calculations for SAR-08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Gavin; Miller, Alex; Smith, Graham; Jackson, Duncan (Enviros Consulting Ltd, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom))

    2008-04-15

    Following a review by the Swedish regulatory authorities of the post-closure safety assessment of the SFR 1 disposal facility for low and intermediate waste (L/ILW), SAFE, the SKB has prepared an updated assessment called SAR-08. This report describes the radionuclide release calculations that have been undertaken as part of SAR-08. The information, assumptions and data used in the calculations are reported and the results are presented. The calculations address issues raised in the regulatory review, but also take account of new information including revised inventory data. The scenarios considered include the main case of expected behaviour of the system, with variants; low probability releases, and so-called residual scenarios. Apart from these scenario uncertainties, data uncertainties have been examined using a probabilistic approach. Calculations have been made using the AMBER software. This allows all the component features of the assessment model to be included in one place. AMBER has been previously used to reproduce results the corresponding calculations in the SAFE assessment. It is also used in demonstration of the IAEA's near surface disposal assessment methodology ISAM and has been subject to very substantial verification tests and has been used in verifying other assessment codes. Results are presented as a function of time for the release of radionuclides from the near field, and then from the far field into the biosphere. Radiological impacts of the releases are reported elsewhere. Consideration is given to each radionuclide and to each component part of the repository. The releases from the entire repository are also presented. The peak releases rates are, for most scenarios, due to organic C-14. Other radionuclides which contribute to peak release rates include inorganic C-14, Ni-59 and Ni-63. (author)

  16. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  17. Loading technique for preparing radionuclide containing nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Source: US2012213698A The present invention relates to a novel composition and method for loading delivery systems such as liposome compositions with radionuclides useful in targeted diagnostic and/or therapy of target site, such as cancerous tissue and, in general, pathological conditions associ...... of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique. One specific aspect of the invention is directed to a method of producing nanoparticles with desired targeting properties for diagnostic and/or radio-therapeutic applications....

  18. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  19. Methodology for estimating radiation dose rates to freshwater biota exposed to radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; O`Neal, B.R.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a methodology for evaluating the potential for aquatic biota to incur effects from exposure to chronic low-level radiation in the environment. Aquatic organisms inhabiting an environment contaminated with radioactivity receive external radiation from radionuclides in water, sediment, and from other biota such as vegetation. Aquatic organisms receive internal radiation from radionuclides ingested via food and water and, in some cases, from radionuclides absorbed through the skin and respiratory organs. Dose rate equations, which have been developed previously, are presented for estimating the radiation dose rate to representative aquatic organisms from alpha, beta, and gamma irradiation from external and internal sources. Tables containing parameter values for calculating radiation doses from selected alpha, beta, and gamma emitters are presented in the appendix to facilitate dose rate calculations. The risk of detrimental effects to aquatic biota from radiation exposure is evaluated by comparing the calculated radiation dose rate to biota to the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) recommended dose rate limit of 0.4 mGy h{sup {minus}1} (1 rad d{sup {minus}1}). A dose rate no greater than 0.4 mGy h{sup {minus}1} to the most sensitive organisms should ensure the protection of populations of aquatic organisms. DOE`s recommended dose rate is based on a number of published reviews on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms that are summarized in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 109 (NCRP 1991). DOE recommends that if the results of radiological models or dosimetric measurements indicate that a radiation dose rate of 0. 1 mGy h{sup {minus}1} will be exceeded, then a more detailed evaluation of the potential ecological consequences of radiation exposure to endemic populations should be conducted.

  20. Methodology for estimating radiation dose rates to freshwater biota exposed to radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; O`Neal, B.R.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a methodology for evaluating the potential for aquatic biota to incur effects from exposure to chronic low-level radiation in the environment. Aquatic organisms inhabiting an environment contaminated with radioactivity receive external radiation from radionuclides in water, sediment, and from other biota such as vegetation. Aquatic organisms receive internal radiation from radionuclides ingested via food and water and, in some cases, from radionuclides absorbed through the skin and respiratory organs. Dose rate equations, which have been developed previously, are presented for estimating the radiation dose rate to representative aquatic organisms from alpha, beta, and gamma irradiation from external and internal sources. Tables containing parameter values for calculating radiation doses from selected alpha, beta, and gamma emitters are presented in the appendix to facilitate dose rate calculations. The risk of detrimental effects to aquatic biota from radiation exposure is evaluated by comparing the calculated radiation dose rate to biota to the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) recommended dose rate limit of 0.4 mGy h{sup {minus}1} (1 rad d{sup {minus}1}). A dose rate no greater than 0.4 mGy h{sup {minus}1} to the most sensitive organisms should ensure the protection of populations of aquatic organisms. DOE`s recommended dose rate is based on a number of published reviews on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms that are summarized in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 109 (NCRP 1991). DOE recommends that if the results of radiological models or dosimetric measurements indicate that a radiation dose rate of 0. 1 mGy h{sup {minus}1} will be exceeded, then a more detailed evaluation of the potential ecological consequences of radiation exposure to endemic populations should be conducted.

  1. Concrete Property and Radionuclide Migration Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Powers, Laura; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2008-10-01

    The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the DOE Complex. Part of theses services includes safe disposal of LLW and MLLW at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the requirements listed in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, a Performance Assessment (PA) analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires that continuing data collection be conducted to enhance confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied upon to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the Order. One critical assumption is that concrete will frequently be used as waste form or container material to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Data was collected to (1) quantify radionuclide migration through concrete materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the LLBG, (2) measure the properties of the concrete materials, especially those likely to influence radionuclide migration, and (3) quantify the stability of U-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  2. Radionuclide adsorption characteristics around coastal water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young Il; Chung, Yang Geun; Hong, Sung Yul; Lee, Gab Bock [KEPCO, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    The adsorption capacity of radionuclides onto suspended sediment was experimented on each of the coastal seawater sampled around the Kori and the Wolsung nuclear power plant. During the experiment the quantity and size fraction of suspended sediment were adjusted and the seawater and sediment chemistry is approximated to the expected field condition. Because the sorption capacity depends on the specific minerals, ocean chemistry and radionuclide involved, it is necessary to analyze sediment mineralogy. Clay mineral is dominant in seabed mineral and suspended sediment as the result of x-ray diffraction. Radionuclide sorbed to silty-clay mineral can be rather transported to ocean than scavenged to seabed because of low quantity and fine grained suspended sediment in the coast around the Kori and the Wolsung. The result of adsorption examinations shows that {sup 139}Ce and {sup 51}Cr and {sup 110m}Ag are strongly sorbed to suspended particle, while {sup 137}Cs is less sorbed and {sup 60}Co uptake is varied with experiment condition, which can be inferred from various biological factors. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  3. Model for radionuclide transport in running waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Karin; Elert, Mark [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-11-15

    Two sites in Sweden are currently under investigation by SKB for their suitability as places for deep repository of radioactive waste, the Forsmark and Simpevarp/Laxemar area. As a part of the safety assessment, SKB has formulated a biosphere model with different sub-models for different parts of the ecosystem in order to be able to predict the dose to humans following a possible radionuclide discharge from a future deep repository. In this report, a new model concept describing radionuclide transport in streams is presented. The main difference from the previous model for running water used by SKB, where only dilution of the inflow of radionuclides was considered, is that the new model includes parameterizations also of the exchange processes present along the stream. This is done in order to be able to investigate the effect of the retention on the transport and to be able to estimate the resulting concentrations in the different parts of the system. The concentrations determined with this new model could later be used for order of magnitude predictions of the dose to humans. The presented model concept is divided in two parts, one hydraulic and one radionuclide transport model. The hydraulic model is used to determine the flow conditions in the stream channel and is based on the assumption of uniform flow and quasi-stationary conditions. The results from the hydraulic model are used in the radionuclide transport model where the concentration is determined in the different parts of the stream ecosystem. The exchange processes considered are exchange with the sediments due to diffusion, advective transport and sedimentation/resuspension and uptake of radionuclides in biota. Transport of both dissolved radionuclides and sorbed onto particulates is considered. Sorption kinetics in the stream water phase is implemented as the time scale of the residence time in the stream water probably is short in comparison to the time scale of the kinetic sorption. In the sediment

  4. Radionuclide content of Las Vegas wash sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, M.J.; Meyers, A.M.; Johnson, W.H. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The Las Vegas Wash is an excavated waterway channel which drains all surface water and effluent discharge from sewage-treatment facilities from the greater Las Vegas Metropolitan Area to Lake Mead. Runoff and erosion processes are expected to transport man-made radioactivity that was deposited over the past several decades in the Las Vegas Valley. Additionally, radionuclides disposed of via the city`s sanitary system are expected to accumulate in the Wash sediments. Fine and coarse sediment samples were collected at 100 m intervals and analyzed to determine the distribution of alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides in the lower 5,500 in of the Las Vegas Wash. Results indicate little accumulation of long-lived fission products in upstream Wash sediments. However, trace amounts of fission products measured in downstream sediments suggest the resuspension and transport of radioactive particulate matter within the Wash. Levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides found in Wash sediments were found to be consistent with levels typically found in southeast Nevada soils.

  5. Fungi and ionizing radiation from radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dighton, John; Tugay, Tatyana; Zhdanova, Nelli

    2008-04-01

    Radionuclides in the environment are one of the major concerns to human health and ecotoxicology. The explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant renewed interest in the role played by fungi in mediating radionuclide movement in ecosystems. As a result of these studies, our knowledge of the importance of fungi, especially in their mycorrhizal habit, in long-term accumulation of radionuclides, transfer up the food chain and regulation of accumulation by their host plants was increased. Micro-fungi have been found to be highly resilient to exposure to ionizing radiation, with fungi having been isolated from within and around the Chernobyl plant. Radioresistance of some fungal species has been linked to the presence of melanin, which has been shown to have emerging properties of acting as an energy transporter for metabolism and has been implicated in enhancing hyphal growth and directed growth of sensitized hyphae towards sources of radiation. Using this recently acquired knowledge, we may be in a better position to suggest the use of fungi in bioremediation of radioactively contaminated sites and cleanup of industrial effluent.

  6. Localizing ingested coins with a metal detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, K E; Schunk, J E; Logan, L

    1999-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the utility of metal detection in coin localization by inexperienced operators, and determine the rate of spontaneous passage of asymptomatic esophageal coins. All children who presented to the emergency department of an urban children's hospital with a suspected coin ingestion were eligible. Coin location was predicted from metal detector results, while radiographs confirmed location. Asymptomatic patients with esophageal coins were observed for spontaneous passage. Ninety-one children (ages 9 months to 17 years) were prospectively enrolled. The metal detector had a sensitivity of 98% (53/54) in coin detection and 98% (81/83) in determining coin location as esophageal. Symptoms were poor predictors of coin location. Six of eight asymptomatic patients with esophageal coins spontaneously passed their coins. These results show that metal detection is a good screening test for coin presence and to determine coin location as esophageal. Spontaneous passage of asymptomatic esophageal coins warrants further study.

  7. Endurance exercise after orange ingestion anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise after orange ingestion cause anaphylaxis which is food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA which is a form of exercise-induced anaphylaxis. In this article, an individual develops symptoms such as flushing, itching, urticaria, angioedema, and wheezing after eating a food allergen and proceeds to exercise. Neither the food alone nor exercise alone is sufficient to induce a reaction. This case report describes a 36-year-old asthmatic male athlete who experienced nausea, vomiting, flushing, urticaria, and facial swelling while exercising in a gymnasium after eating oranges. Neither oranges alone nor exercise alone induced the reaction. Total avoidance of suspected food allergens would be ideal. Persons with FDEIA should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids, and adrenaline.

  8. How Does a Lesson Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This manual for secondary school teachers offers sample lesson plans that may be used to guide and stimulate experimentation and development of creative instructional units. Lesson plan components are defined, and various types of lessons and their significant characteristics are identified. These characteristic types of lessons are illustrated,…

  9. The assessment of human exposure to radionuclides from a uranium mill tailings release and mine dewatering effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttenber, A J; Kreiss, K; Douglas, R L; Buhl, T E; Millard, J

    1984-07-01

    This study provides an assessment of human exposure to radiation from a river system contaminated by radionuclides of the 238U decay series released through a dam break at a uranium mill tailings pond and by the continuous discharge of dewatering effluent from 2 uranium mines. The in vivo analyses of radionuclides in 6 Navajo Indians who lived near the river indicate no detectable elevations above background concentrations. Dose estimates for inhalation of suspended river sediment indicate a maximum annual 50-yr dose commitment of 204 mrem to the endosteum. Estimates of doses (50-yr dose commitments) from the ingestion of livestock range between 1 mrem (to liver) and 79 mrem (to bone) suggest that the major contribution to human exposure is from mine dewatering effluent that has been continuously released into the river system for many years. Although the estimated exposures do not exceed existing state or federal regulations, their magnitude justifies further measurement of radionuclides in animals and in the natural environment and the consideration of strategies to reduce radiation exposure to humans and animals.

  10. The detailed analysis of natural radionuclides dissolved in spa waters of the Kłodzko Valley, Sudety Mountains, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walencik-Łata, A; Kozłowska, B; Dorda, J; Przylibski, T A

    2016-11-01

    A survey was conducted to measure natural radioactivity in spa waters from the Kłodzko Valley. The main goal of this study was to determine the activity concentration of uranium, radium and radon isotopes in the investigated groundwaters. Samples were collected several times from 35 water intakes from 5 spas and 2 mineral water bottling plants. The authors examined whether the increased gamma radiation background, as well as the elevated values of radium and uranium content in reservoir rocks, have a significant impact on the natural radioactivity of these waters. The second objective of this research was to provide information about geochemistry of U, Ra, Rn radionuclides and the radiological and chemical risks incurred by ingestion of isotopes with drinking water. On the basis of results obtained, it is feasible to assess the health hazard posed by ingestion of natural radioactivity with drinking waters. Moreover, the data yielded by this research may be helpful in the process of verification of the application of these waters in balneotherapy. In addition, annual effective radiation doses resulting from the isotopes consumption were calculated on the basis of the evaluated activity concentrations. In dose assessment for uranium and radium isotopes, the authors provided values for different human age groups. The obtained uranium content in the investigated waters was compared with the currently valid regulations concerning the quality of drinking water. Based on the activity concentrations data, the activity isotopic ratios (234)U/(238)U, (226)Ra/(238)U, (222)Rn/(238)U, (222)Rn/(226)Ra and the correlations between radionuclides content were then examined. In brief, it may be concluded on the basis of the obtained results that radon solubility is inversely proportional to radium and uranium dissolution in environmental water circulation. The presented study allows conclusions to be drawn on the radionuclide circulation among different environmental biota: from

  11. Radionuclides in pinon pine (Pinus edulis) nuts from Los Alamos National Laboratory lands and the dose from consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresquez, P R; Huchton, J D; Mullen, M A; Naranjo, L

    2000-09-01

    One of the dominant tree species growing within and around the eastern portion of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, lands is the pinon pine (Pinus edulis). Pinon pine is used for firewood, fence posts, and building materials and is a source of nuts for food--the seeds are consumed by a wide variety of animals and are also gathered by people in the area and eaten raw or roasted. This study investigated the (1) concentration of 3H, 137Cs, 90Sr, totU, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, and 241Am in soils (0- to 12-in. [31 cm] depth underneath the tree), pinon pine shoots (PPS), and pinon pine nuts (PPN) collected from LANL lands and regional background (BG) locations, (2) committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) from the ingestion of nuts, and (3) soil to PPS to PPN concentration ratios (CRs). Most radionuclides, with the exception of 3H in soils, were not significantly higher (p < 0.10) in soils, PPS, and PPN collected from LANL as compared to BG locations, and concentrations of most radionuclides in PPN fromLANL have decreased over time. The maximum net CEDE (the CEDE plus two sigma minus BG) at the most conservative ingestion rate (10 lb [4.5 kg]) was 0.0018 mrem (0.018 microSv); this is far below the International Commission on Radiological Protection (all pathway) permissible dose limit of 100 mrem (1000 microSv). Soil-to-nut CRs for most radionuclides were within the range of default values in the literature for common fruits and vegetables.

  12. Comparison of ICRP2 and ICRP30 for estimating the dose and adverse health effects from potential radionuclide releases from a geologic waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runkle, G.E.; Soldat, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the calculated risk of adverse health effects from the radionuclides considered in the inventory of a high-level waste repository using the ICRP2 and ICRP30 internal dosimetry models. A CRPC (cancer risk per curie) index was calculated to compare the two models. The CRPC indices for the ICRP30 model are approximately 2 to 20 times higher than the ICRP2 indices for most radionuclides for ingestion intakes. However, the /sup 237/Np index is approximately 200 times greater for the ICRP30 model and the /sup 228/Ra and /sup 226/Ra indices are approximately 30 to 90 times greater for the ICRP2 model. Generally, there is closer agreement of the CRPC indices for the inhalation intakes. A scenario that considers a U-tube effect and withdrawal of water from wells downdip from the repository was analyzed. This analysis, based on a hypothetical waste disposal site, considered groundwater transport and environmental transport with subsequent uptake by the human via ingestion and inhalation. The ICRP30 risks are higher by approximately 20 at 10,000 years post closure for the ingestion pathway. However, the ICRP2 risks are higher by factors of approximately 2 to 10 at times greater than 50,000 years. Differences in the mathematical modeling assumptions, gut uptakes and other metabolic parameters between the two models account for most of the variability in the risk estimates.

  13. Remediation of radionuclide pollutants through biosorption - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Nilanjana [Environmental Biotechnology Division, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2012-01-15

    The development of nuclear science and technology has led to the increase of nuclear wastes containing radionuclides to be released and disposed in the environment. Pollution caused by radionuclides is a serious problem throughout the world. To solve the problem, substantial research efforts have been directed worldwide to adopt sustainable technologies for the treatment of radionuclide containing wastes. Biosorption represents a technological innovation as well as a cost effective excellent remediation technology for cleaning up radionuclides from aqueous environment. A variety of biomaterials viz. algae, fungi, bacteria, plant biomass, etc. have been reported for radionuclide remediation with encouraging results. This paper reviews the achievements and current status of radionuclide remediation through biosorption which will provide insights into this research frontier. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon U; Rasmussen, Morten; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2010-01-01

    We report a suicidal ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries, in combination with overdosed prescription medicine and smoking of cannabis.......We report a suicidal ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries, in combination with overdosed prescription medicine and smoking of cannabis....

  15. Prediction of complications following caustic ingestion in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, H B

    1995-01-01

    submucosal, circumferential oesophageal injuries (P = 0.003). The study suggests that only adults with symptoms or signs following strong alkali or strong acid ingestion are at risk of complications. In adults who are symptomatic following ingestion of strong acid or alkali, oesophagoscopy is important...

  16. THE EFFECT OF LIPASE INGESTION UPON BLOOD LIPID LEVELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    levels. The optical density and hence lipid levels of the blood plasmas were lowered in all subjects when sufficient lipase was ingested . The total...obtain this effect. The blood cholesterol values of normal subjects were not affected, nor was that of a hyperlipemic subject who ingested the lipase

  17. Ingestible capsule for remote controlled release of a substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The application relates to an ingestible capsule (102) for delivery of a substance e.g. a pharmaceutical drug, to a human or animal. The ingestible capsule comprises a capsule wall structure (202) forming a substantially sealed reservoir or lumen holding the substance (204). An electrical resonan...

  18. Cacogeusia following pine nut ingestion: a six patient case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Rachael L; Scully, Crispian; Gandhi, Shan; Raber-Durlacher, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective case series of 6 patients complaining of a bad taste (cacogeusia) specifically metallogeusia, following the ingestion of pine nuts.(1) The taste arose always within 48h of ingestion, and in all but one patient spontaneously resolved within 14 days. Pine nuts also have a potential for triggering anaphylaxis.(2).

  19. Acute gastroduodenal injury after ingestion of diluted herbicide pendimethalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, K; Azuhata, H; Katoh, H; Kuwano, H

    2009-03-01

    The herbicide, pendimethalin, is used worldwide, but its acute toxicity is not yet widely known. There have been some reported acute pendimethalin poisoning cases in humans and most of them intentionally ingested the concentrated formulation. We describe a 73-year-old man who developed corrosive gastroduodenal injury after accidental ingestion of the diluted (300 times with water) pendimethalin formulation. He had a history of reflux oesophagitis and had been taking omeprazol (10 mg/day) for a year. He consumed alcohol two hours after the accidental ingestion and then had nausea and epigastric pain. Endoscopy performed three days post-exposure revealed gastroduodenal injury. As he had consumed alcohol every day for years and had no history of gastroduodenal ulcer, the accidental ingestion may be associated with this injury. He was successfully treated by increasing his dosage of omeprazol (20 mg/day) for two weeks. This case indicates that ingestion of a small quantity of pendimethalin can provoke gastroduodenal injury.

  20. MEDECOR--a medical decorporation tool to assist first responders, receivers, and medical reach-back personnel in triage, treatment, and risk assessment after internalization of radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Ed; Wilkinson, Diana

    2010-10-01

    After a radiological dispersal device (RDD) event, it is possible for radionuclides to enter the human body through inhalation, ingestion, and skin and wound absorption. From a health physics perspective, it is important to know the magnitude of the intake to perform dosimetric assessments. From a medical perspective, removal of radionuclides leading to dose aversion (hence risk reduction) is of high importance. The efficacy of medical decorporation strategies is extremely dependent upon the time of treatment delivery after intake. The "golden hour," or more realistically 3-4 h, is optimal when attempting to increase removal of radionuclides from extracellular fluids prior to cellular incorporation. To assist medical first response personnel in making timely decisions regarding appropriate treatment delivery modes, it is desirable to have a software tool that compiles existing radionuclide decorporation therapy data and allows a user to perform simple diagnosis leading to optimized decorporation treatment strategies. In its most simple application, the software is a large database of radionuclide decorporation strategies and treatments. The software can also be used in clinical interactive mode, in which the user inputs the radionuclide, estimated activity, route of intake and time since exposure. The software makes suggestions as to the urgency of treatment (i.e., triage) and the suggested therapy. Current developments include risk assessment which impacts the potential risk of delivered therapy and resource allocation of therapeutic agents. The software, developed for the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND), is titled MEDECOR (MEdical DECORporation). The MEDECOR tool was designed for use on both personal digital assistant and laptop computer environments. The tool was designed using HTML/Jscript, to allow for ease of portability amongst different computing platforms. This paper presents the features of MEDECOR, results of testing at a major NATO

  1. Mathematical simulation of sediment and radionuclide transport in estuaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

    1982-11-01

    The finite element model LFESCOT (Flow, Energy, Salinity, Sediment and Contaminant Transport Model) was synthesized under this study to simulate radionuclide transport in estuaries to obtain accurate radionuclide distributions which are affected by these factors: time variance, three-dimensional flow, temperature, salinity, and sediments. Because sediment transport and radionuclide adsorption/desorption depend strongly on sizes or types of sediments, FLESCOT simulates sediment and a sediment-sorbed radionuclide for the total of three sediment-size fractions (or sediment types) of both cohesive and noncohesive sediments. It also calculates changes of estuarine bed conditions, including bed elevation changes due to sediment erosion/deposition, and three-dimensional distributions of three bed sediment sizes and sediment-sorbed radionuclides within the bed. Although the model was synthesized for radionuclide transport, it is general enough to also handle other contaminants such as heavy metals, pesticides, or toxic chemicals. The model was checked for its capability for flow, water surface elevation change, salinity, sediment and radionuclide transport under various simple conditions first, confirming the general validity of the model's computational schemes. These tests also revealed that FLESCOT can use large aspect ratios of computational cells, which are necessary in handling long estuarine study areas. After these simple tests, FLESCOT was applied to the Hudson River estuary between Chelsea and the mouth of the river to examine how well the model can predict radionuclide transport through simulating tidally influenced three-dimensional flow, salinity, sediment and radionuclide movements with their interactions.

  2. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  3. Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M. [and others

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

  4. Rate setting and regulatory control of the radionuclides content in foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shandala, N. K.; Savskin, M. N.; Petukhova, E. V.; Novikova, N. Y.; Titov, A. V.

    2004-07-01

    The concept of rate setting, standardisation and regulatory control of the radionuclides content in foodstuffs consists in the following: ? the normative standards concern to 90Sr and 137Cs as biologically significant radionuclides; ? the internal exposure dose from ingestion intake of radionuclides with food should not exceed meaning of 1 mSv a-1 which is the intervention exception level concerning trading foodstuffs; ? for few consumed foodstuffs (wild berries, mushrooms, teas) is established, that the dose caused by their consumption is outside of dose limits of 1 mSv a-1 and it should not exceed 1 % for each product; ? the nutrition structure of population including seven basic components of a diet (bread and grain products, dairy products, potatoes, vegetables, meat, fish, fruit and berries) is taken into account as a source of ingestion intake of the radionuclides; ? The conformity to the established standard is determined on a parameter ?f the summary contents of 90Sr and 137Cs in foodstuff. With the purpose of the operative control of an internal exposure of population the permissible levels of specific activity of 90Sr and 137Cs in more than 120 kinds of foodstuff were developed. These standards are obligatory in Russia for domestic and imported foodstuffs. So, permissible levels of specific activity of 90Sr and 137Cs in bread make, accordingly, 20 and 40 Bq kg-1; in milk - 25 and 100 Bq kg-1; in meat - 50 and 160 Bq kg-1; in potatoes and vegetables - 40 and 120 Bq kg-1. Monitoring of contamination of foodstuffs by 137Cs and 90Sr is one of the basic measures on maintenance of radiation safety of population in Russia. State system of sanitary-epidemiological control carries out constant supervision over the content of the radionuclides in food production. By the carried out researches was shown that true levels of the contents of 90Sr or 137Cs in the main foodstuffs in territory of Russia, except for the territories, injures of the radiation accidents, make

  5. Natural radionuclides in mineral fertilizers and farmland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Branislava M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary agriculture production is based on use of mineral fertilizers, which however can have high activity of natural radionuclides and so cause the appearance of technologically elevated radioactivity. In order to determine the influence of mineral fertilizers application in arable land, there was used gamma spectrometric method for defining the activity of natural radionuclides (40 K, 238U, 226Ra in imported mineral fertilizers as well as in arable and fallow land in the area of suburban municipalities of Belgrade. The obtained results have shown that in the tested mineral fertilizers the measured activity of 40K ranged from 70 to 4590 Bq/kg, 238U from 18 to 1400 Bq/kg and 226Ra from 15 to 999Bq/kg. Average activities of natural radionuclides in arable land are: 626 Bq/kg for 40K, 54 Bq/kg for 238U, 55 Bq/kg for 226Ra and 55Bq/kg for 232Th, and in fallow land 596 Bq/kg for 40K, 54 Bq/kg for 238U, 54 Bq/kg for 226Ra and 53 Bq/kg for 232Th. Average values of radium radioactivity equivalent (175 Bq/kg and index of radiation risk (0,48, point out that in the tested areas there is no significant radiation risk for inhabitants due to terrestrial exposure. This investigation has also shown that current use of mineral fertilizers has not caused the increase of natural radioactivity in the tested arable land. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31003

  6. Willow wood production on radionuclide polluted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodkin Oleg I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One of the key environmental problems in Belarus is effective use of agricultural lands contaminated by radionuclide due to the Chernobyl disaster. The alternative method to traditional agricultural crops is fast growing willow cultivation. It is possible to use biomass of willow as renewable energy source. The goal of our investigation was the estimation of environmental aspects of willow wood production on polluted areas. The field study experiments (2007-2010 were conducted at Krichev district of Mogilev region in eastern Belarus. This region characterized by high level of Cs-137 contamination as well as high level of heavy metals pollution. In the first stage of experiments, the concentration of cesium-137 in different parts of willow biomass had been measured and transfer factor calculated. The measuring had been done for leaves, roots, and wood. To control cesium-137 accumulation in willow biomass we apply different types (nitrogen N, phosphorus P and potassium K and dose of fertilizer. The experiments show that potassium mineral fertilizer is the key factor for radionuclide accumulation control. The optimal dose of potassium is 90 kg per hectare. On the base of experimental results the model of cesium-137 accumulation in the wood for a 21 year has been developed. In accordance with calculation to the end of willow cultivation (21 year concentration of cesium-137 in wood will not be higher than permitted even with the level of cesium-137 contamination in the soil 1480 kBq/m2 (maximum 140 kqB/m2 with permitted level for firewood is 740 Bq/kg.. The concentration of cesium-137 in the roots increases gradually and get maximum in 21 year (3000 kqB/m2. Our results confirm that in the sum about 0.8 million hectares of radionuclide polluted arable lands partly excluded from agricultural practice in Belarus could be used for willow biomass production.

  7. Radionuclide concentrations in pinto beans, sweet corn, and zucchini squash grown in Los Alamos Canyon at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Mullen, M.A.; Naranjo, L. Jr.; Armstrong, D.R.

    1997-05-01

    Pinto beans, sweet corn, and zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo var. black beauty) were grown in a randomized complete-block field/pot experiment at a site that contained the highest observed levels of surface gross gamma radioactivity within Los Alamos Canyon (LAC) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Soils as well as washed edible and nonedible crop tissues were analyzed for various radionuclides and heavy metals . Most radionuclides, with the exception of {sup 3}H and {sup tot}U, in soil from LAC were detected in significantly higher concentrations (p <0.01) than in soil collected from regional background (RBG) locations. Similarly, most radionuclides in edible crop portions of beans, squash, and corn were detected in significantly higher (p <0.01 and 0.05) concentrations than RBG. Most soil-to-plant concentration ratios for radionuclides in edible and nonedible crop tissues from LAC were within the default values given by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Environmental Protection Agency. All heavy metals in soils, as well as edible and nonedible crop tissues grown in soils from LAC, were within RBG concentrations. Overall, the total maximum net positive committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE)--the CEDE plus two sigma for each radioisotope minus background and then all positive doses summed--to a hypothetical 50-year resident that ingested 160 kg of beans, corn, and squash in equal proportions, was 74 mrem y{sup -1}. This dose was below the International Commission on Radiological Protection permissible dose limit (PDL) of 100 mrem y{sup -1} from all pathways; however, the addition of other internal and external exposure route factors may increase the overall dose over the PDL. Also, the risk of an excess cancer fatality, based on 74 mrem y{sup -1}, was 3.7 x 10{sup -5} (37 in a million), which is above the Environmental Protection Agency`s (acceptable) guideline of one in a million. 31 refs., 15 tabs.

  8. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-12-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  9. Naturally occurring radionuclides and Earth sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ferrara

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring radionuclides are used in Earth sciences for two fundamental purposes: age determination of rocks and minerals and studies of variation of the isotopic composition of radiogenic nuclides. The methodologies that are in use today allow us to determine ages spanning from the Earth's age to the late Quaternary. The variations of isotopic composition of radiogenic nuclides can be applied to problems of mantle evolution, magma genesis and characterization with respect to different geodynamic situations and can provide valuable information not obtainable by elemental geochemistry.

  10. ACCELERATIVE AND RADIONUCLIDE TECHNOLOGIES IN CLINICAL MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Chernyaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods based on accelerative and radionuclide technologies are more and more invading clinical practice of modern medicine. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the role of nuclear physics techniques for treatment and diagnostics of various disorders. We analyzed data published in the last 50 years in research papers, reports and other open sources considering particulars of electron accelerators and heavy charged particles in radiation and nuclear medicine and presenting the information on prevalence of accelerators and other high-tech medical equipment in Russia and worldwide.

  11. Radionuclides at Descartes in the central highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Throium, uranium, potassium, aluminium-26, and sodium-22 were measured by nondestructive gamma ray spectrometry in six soil and two rock samples gathered by Apollo 16 in the lunar central highlands. The soil samples probably include both major geologic formations in the vicinity, the Cayley and Descartes Formations, although it is possible that the Descartes Formation is not represented. The rock samples have low concentrations of primordial radionuclides. The Al concentrations were lower than could be expected from the high abundance of alumina in the Apollo 16 soils reported earlier, but this could be due to lower concentrations of target elements in these soils, sampling depth variations, or regolithic mixing (exposure age variations).

  12. Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    1992-06-01

    We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

  13. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  14. Methodology for Estimating Radiation Dose Rates to Freshwater Biota Exposed to Radionuclides in the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a methodology for evaluating the potential for aquatic biota to incur effects from exposure to chronic low-level radiation in the environment. Aquatic organisms inhabiting an environment contaminated with radioactivity receive external radiation from radionuclides in water, sediment, and from other biota such as vegetation. Aquatic organisms receive internal radiation from radionuclides ingested via food and water and, in some cases, from radionuclides absorbed through the skin and respiratory organs. Dose rate equations, which have been developed previously, are presented for estimating the radiation dose rate to representative aquatic organisms from alpha, beta, and gamma irradiation from external and internal sources. Tables containing parameter values for calculating radiation doses from selected alpha, beta, and gamma emitters are presented in the appendix to facilitate dose rate calculations. The risk of detrimental effects to aquatic biota from radiation exposure is evaluated by comparing the calculated radiation dose rate to biota to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) recommended dose rate limit of 0.4 mGy h{sup -1} (1 rad d{sup -1}). A dose rate no greater than 0.4 mGy h{sup -1} to the most sensitive organisms should ensure the protection of populations of aquatic organisms. DOE's recommended dose rate is based on a number of published reviews on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms that are summarized in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 109 (NCRP 1991). The literature identifies the developing eggs and young of some species of teleost fish as the most radiosensitive organisms. DOE recommends that if the results of radiological models or dosimetric measurements indicate that a radiation dose rate of 0.1 mGy h{sup -1} will be exceeded, then a more detailed evaluation of the potential ecological consequences of radiation exposure to endemic

  15. Methodology for Estimating Radiation Dose Rates to Freshwater Biota Exposed to Radionuclides in the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a methodology for evaluating the potential for aquatic biota to incur effects from exposure to chronic low-level radiation in the environment. Aquatic organisms inhabiting an environment contaminated with radioactivity receive external radiation from radionuclides in water, sediment, and from other biota such as vegetation. Aquatic organisms receive internal radiation from radionuclides ingested via food and water and, in some cases, from radionuclides absorbed through the skin and respiratory organs. Dose rate equations, which have been developed previously, are presented for estimating the radiation dose rate to representative aquatic organisms from alpha, beta, and gamma irradiation from external and internal sources. Tables containing parameter values for calculating radiation doses from selected alpha, beta, and gamma emitters are presented in the appendix to facilitate dose rate calculations. The risk of detrimental effects to aquatic biota from radiation exposure is evaluated by comparing the calculated radiation dose rate to biota to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) recommended dose rate limit of 0.4 mGy h{sup -1} (1 rad d{sup -1}). A dose rate no greater than 0.4 mGy h{sup -1} to the most sensitive organisms should ensure the protection of populations of aquatic organisms. DOE's recommended dose rate is based on a number of published reviews on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms that are summarized in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 109 (NCRP 1991). The literature identifies the developing eggs and young of some species of teleost fish as the most radiosensitive organisms. DOE recommends that if the results of radiological models or dosimetric measurements indicate that a radiation dose rate of 0.1 mGy h{sup -1} will be exceeded, then a more detailed evaluation of the potential ecological consequences of radiation exposure to endemic

  16. Lessons of Educational Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Repetto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Reception of the book "Lessons of Educational Technology." The book contains materials work in certain aspects relevant to the formation of a teacher who is able to meet the challenges of society 'knowledge.

  17. Forest Fires and Resuspension of Radionuclides into the Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando P. Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Forest fires are especially frequent around the Mediterranean Sea basin in the summer period and might be able to release naturally-occurring and man-made radionuclides from plant biomass and inject them into the atmosphere. The impact of this radioactivity on populations was not investigated before. Approach: Radionuclide analysis was performed in plants, in smoke from plant burning and in cigarette smoke to determine radionuclide concentrations by alpha spectrometry. Results: Concentrations of 210Pb and 210Po in trees such as olive trees, showed low concentrations in roots, trunk and leaves and minor translocation of radionuclides from the root to aerial parts. Soil to plant transfer ratios for 210Po and 210Pb in several plants were in the range from 10-4 to 10-2. Radionuclides from atmospheric depositions may be accumulated in plants by foliar uptake and for 210Pb this seems the main pathway, with plant aerial parts displaying 210Po/210Pb ratios around 0.1, which is similar to the radionuclide ratios determined in atmospheric depositions. Experimental burning of wood from several tree species showed enhanced radionuclide concentrations in smoke compared to plant materials. Investigation of 210Po release from tobacco leaves used in cigarettes, showed especially enhanced concentrations of this radionuclide in the cigarette smoke particles. Conclusion: Radionuclide concentrations in cigarette smoke expose the lung tissues of regular smokers to high concentrations of 210Po that were considered carcinogenic. Although radionuclide concentrations in other plants analyzed were generally lower than in tobacco, globally the radionuclide activity in the plant biomass is elevated. Inhaled smoke particles from forest fires are likely to contribute to enhanced radiation doses in the human lung.

  18. An overview of BORIS: Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamponnet, C. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, DEI/SECRE, CADARACHE, B.P. 1, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France)], E-mail: christian.tamponnet@irsn.fr; Martin-Garin, A.; Gonze, M.-A. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, DEI/SECRE, CADARACHE, B.P. 1, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France); Parekh, N. [Center for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Vallejo, R.; Sauras-Yera, T.; Casadesus, J. [Department of Plant Biology, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Plassard, C.; Staunton, S. [INRA, UMR Rhizosphere and Symbiosis, Place Viala, 34060 Montpellier (France); Norden, M. [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, 171 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Avila, R. [Facilia AB, Valsgaerdevaegen 12, 168 53 Bromma, Stockholm (Sweden); Shaw, G. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    The ability to predict the consequences of an accidental release of radionuclides relies mainly on the level of understanding of the mechanisms involved in radionuclide interactions with different components of agricultural and natural ecosystems and their formalisation into predictive models. Numerous studies and databases on contaminated agricultural and natural areas have been obtained, but their use to enhance our prediction ability has been largely limited by their unresolved variability. Such variability seems to stem from incomplete knowledge about radionuclide interactions with the soil matrix, soil moisture, and biological elements in the soil and additional pollutants, which may be found in such soils. In the 5th European Framework Programme entitled Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils (BORIS), we investigated the role of the abiotic (soil components and soil structure) and biological elements (organic compounds, plants, mycorrhiza, and microbes) in radionuclide sorption/desorption in soils and radionuclide uptake/release by plants. Because of the importance of their radioisotopes, the bioavailability of three elements, caesium, strontium, and technetium has been followed. The role of one additional non-radioactive pollutant (copper) has been scrutinised in some cases. Role of microorganisms (e.g., K{sub d} for caesium and strontium in organic soils is much greater in the presence of microorganisms than in their absence), plant physiology (e.g., changes in plant physiology affect radionuclide uptake by plants), and the presence of mycorrhizal fungi (e.g., interferes with the uptake of radionuclides by plants) have been demonstrated. Knowledge acquired from these experiments has been incorporated into two mechanistic models CHEMFAST and BIORUR, specifically modelling radionuclide sorption/desorption from soil matrices and radionuclide uptake by/release from plants. These mechanistic models have been incorporated into an assessment model to enhance

  19. Quality assurance in the analysis of natural radionuclides - measures and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothe, M. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf, Inc. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    In the Laboratory for Environmental and Radionuclide Analytics we analyze several natural and also some artificial radionuclides in different materials. For the determination of radionuclides we use various analytical methods. (orig./DG)

  20. Ingestion of microplastics by commercial fish off the Portuguese coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Diogo; Sobral, Paula; Ferreira, Joana Lia; Pereira, Tânia

    2015-12-15

    The digestive tract contents of 263 individuals from 26 species of commercial fish were examined for microplastics. These were found in 17 species, corresponding to 19.8% of the fish of which 32.7% had ingested more than one microplastic. Of all the fish that ingested microplastics, 63.5% was benthic and 36.5% pelagic species. A total of 73 microplastics were recorded, 48 (65.8%) being fibres and 25 (34.2%) being fragments. Polymers were polypropylene, polyethylene, alkyd resin, rayon, polyester, nylon and acrylic. The mean of ingested microplastics was 0.27 ± 0.63 per fish, (n=263). Pelagic fish ingested more particles and benthic fish ingested more fibres, but no significant differences were found. Fish with the highest number of microplastics were from the mouth of the Tagus river. Scomber japonicus registered the highest mean of ingested microplastics, suggesting its potential as indicator species to monitor and investigate trends in ingested litter, in the MSFD marine regions.

  1. Ingestion of microplastic has limited impact on a marine larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposi, Katrina L; Mos, Benjamin; Kelaher, Brendan P; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the impacts of microplastics (marine biota. Microplastics may be mistaken for food items and ingested by a wide variety of organisms. While the effects of ingesting microplastic have been explored for some adult organisms, there is poor understanding of the effects of microplastic ingestion on marine larvae. Here, we investigated the ingestion of polyethylene microspheres by larvae of the sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla. Ingestion rates scaled with the concentration of microspheres. Ingestion rates were, however, reduced by biological fouling of microplastic and in the presence of phytoplankton food. T. gratilla larvae were able to egest microspheres from their stomach within hours of ingestion. A microsphere concentration far exceeding those recorded in the marine environment had a small nondose dependent effect on larval growth, but there was no significant effect on survival. In contrast, environmentally realistic concentrations appeared to have little effect. Overall, these results suggest that current levels of microplastic pollution in the oceans only pose a limited threat to T. gratilla and other marine invertebrate larvae, but further research is required on a broad range of species, trophic levels, and polymer types.

  2. Radionuclide concentrations in raw and purified phosphoric acids from Brazil and their processing wastes: implications for radiation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Conceição, Fabiano Tomazini; Antunes, Maria Lúcia Pereira; Durrant, Steven F

    2012-02-01

    Radionuclides from the U and Th natural series are present in alkaline rocks, which are used as feedstock in Brazil for the production of raw phosphoric acid, which can be considered as a NORM (naturally occurring radioactive material). As a result of the purification of raw phosphoric acid to food-grade phosphoric acid, two by-products are generated, i.e., solid and liquid wastes. Taking this into account, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the fluxes of natural radionuclide in the production of food-grade phosphoric acids in Brazil, to determine the radiological impact caused by ingestion of food-grade phosphoric acid, and to evaluate the solid waste environmental hazards caused by its application in crop soils. Radiological characterization of raw phosphoric acid, food-grade phosphoric acid, solid waste, and liquid waste was performed by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra, and (232)Th activity concentrations varied depending on the source of raw phosphoric acid. Decreasing radionuclides activity concentrations in raw phosphoric acids used by the producer of the purified phosphoric acid were observed as follows: Tapira (raw phosphoric acid D) > Catalão (raw phosphoric acids B and C) > Cajati (raw phosphoric acid A). The industrial purification process produces a reduction in radionuclide activity concentrations in food-grade phosphoric acid in relation to raw phosphoric acid produced in plant D and single raw phosphoric acid used in recent years. The most common use of food-grade phosphoric acid is in cola soft drinks, with an average consumption in Brazil of 72 l per person per year. Each liter of cola soft drink contains 0.5 ml of food-grade phosphoric acid, which gives an annual average intake of 36 ml of food-grade phosphoric acid per person. Under these conditions, radionuclide intake through consumption of food-grade phosphoric acid per year per person via cola soft drinks is not hazardous to human health in Brazil

  3. 21 CFR 876.1300 - Ingestible telemetric gastrointestinal capsule imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 876.1300 Ingestible telemetric gastrointestinal capsule imaging system. (a) Identification. An ingestible telemetric gastrointestinal capsule imaging system is used for visualization of the small bowel... Special Controls Guidance Document: Ingestible Telemetric Gastrointestinal Capsule Imaging Systems;...

  4. 78 FR 15110 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Engine Bird Ingestion Requirements-New Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Engine Bird Ingestion Requirements... and assess the adequacy of certain portions of the existing engine bird ingestion requirements. This... bird ingestion type certification standards for aircraft turbine engines to better address the...

  5. GENII-LIN-2.1: an open source software system for calculating radiation dose and risk from radionuclides released to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodori, Francesco; Sumini, Marco

    2008-12-01

    GENII-LIN is an open source radiation protection environmental software system running on the Linux operating system. It has capabilities for calculating radiation dose and risk to individuals or populations from radionuclides released to the environment and from pre-existing environmental contamination. It can handle exposure pathways that include ingestion, inhalation and direct exposure to air, water and soil. The package is available for free and is completely open source, i.e., transparent to the users, who have full access to the source code of the software.

  6. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: (i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, (ii) modelling, (iii) countermeasures, (iv) runoff (v) spatial variations, and (vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239-240}Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  7. Current status of radionuclide scrotal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holder, L.E.; Melloul, M.; Chen, D.

    1981-10-01

    Scrotal imaging with technetium-99m sodium pertechnetate consists of a radionuclide angiogram and static scrotal scans. Utilization of this study in patients presenting with an acute scrotum can dramatically reduce the number of surgical explorations for acute epididymitis. It can also aid in other aspects of differential diagnosis in patients presenting with either an acutely enlarged and/or painful scrotum or a scrotal mass. Ambiguities in previous descriptions of perfusion through the spermatic and extraspermatic cord vessels are described and distinguished from scrotal perfusion. The clinical and scintigraphic spectrum of testicular torsion, including spontaneous detorsion, early acute testicular torsion, midphase testicular torsion, and late phase or ''missed testicular torsion,'' is discussed and illustrated. The variety of patterns seen in acute epididymitis, including lateral and medial epididymal location, and focal epididymitis are described, as is the appearance of hydrocele as both a primary and secondary entity. The relationship of scrotal imaging to the overall clinical presentation and evaluation of these patients is emphasized in testicular torsion, torsion of the testicular appendages, epididymitis, abscess, trauma, tumor, spermatocele, and varicocele. The techniques, clinical utility, and relationship to radionuclide imaging of Doppler ultrasound and gray scale ultrasound scanning are reviewed. Doppler ultrasound results in many false negative studies in testicular torsion. Gray scale ultrasound is useful in clarifying the nature of scrotal masses.

  8. Radionuclide voiding cystography in intrarenal reflux detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzoni, G.; Perale, R.; Bui, F.; Pitter, M.; Pavanello, L.; Boscolo, R.; Passerini Glazel, G.; Macri, C.

    1986-01-01

    In order to evaluate the possibility of detecting intra-renal reflux (IRR) with a more sensitive procedure, 48 children with recurrent urinary tract infections underwent intravenous urography (IVU) and voiding cystourethrogram (VCU) using a solution containing contrast medium and sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid particles which are known to persist in the renal parenchyma for a long time. Scintigraphic images were taken at 5 and 20 hours after VCU. 18 children had no vesico-ureteral reflux, 11 showed unilateral and 19 bilateral VUR, which was therefore present in 49 renal units. Among the 49 renal refluxing units (RRUs) IRR was detected radiologically in 8; of these isotopic activity in the renal area was present in all 6 RRUs who were examined at 20 hours. Of the remaining 41 RRUs with no radiologically detectable IRR 24 were evaluated at 20 hours and 5 (21%) showed renal radioactivity. Renal scars were significantly more frequent in kidneys with radioisotopic activity at 20 hours. The results of this study indicate that radionuclide cystography using sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid is a reliable procedure for demonstrating IRR, and to this end is more sensitive than X-ray VCU. Radionuclide cystography with sulfur colloid particles should therefore be considered a simple and useful complementary procedure, which is more sensitive than X-ray VCU in the diagnosis and follow-up of IRR.

  9. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agool, Ali [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Center Twente, Hengelo (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, P.O. Box 30,001, Groningen (Netherlands); Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, P.O. Box 30,001, Groningen (Netherlands); Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, P.O. Box 30,001, Groningen (Netherlands); Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Vellenga, Edo [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Hematology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use radionuclide-labelled tracers, such as {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid, {sup 99m}Tc-sulphur colloid, {sup 111}In-chloride, and radiolabelled white blood cells, have been used in nuclear medicine for several decades. With these techniques three separate compartments can be recognized including the reticuloendothelial system, the erythroid compartment and the myeloid compartment. Recent developments in research and the clinical use of PET tracers have made possible the analysis of additional properties such as cellular metabolism and proliferative activity, using {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 18}F-FLT. These tracers may lead to better quantification and targeting of different cell systems in the bone marrow. In this review the imaging of different bone marrow targets with radionuclides including PET tracers in various bone marrow diseases are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Dynamic model for radionuclide uptake in lichen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, K.M.; Smith, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    Samples of atmospheric particulate material and terrestrial plants, including lichens, were collected in New Brunswick, Canada between 1980 and 1983 and analyzed for a wide range of artificial and naturally-occurring radionuclides, including fission products (/sup 141/Ce, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 103/Ru, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 95/Zr and /sup 137/Cs) derived from the 16 October 1980 Chinese nuclear test. Activity ratios of some of the short-lived fission products in air particulates and lichens are in reasonable agreement with those predicted from fission product yields for nuclear weapons tests, indicating that only minor fractionation occurred for these radionuclides during their transport through air particulate and lichen environmental phases. The /sup 7/Be inventories measured in a suite of lichen (Cladonia rangiferina) samples were used to calibrate each lichen plant for its collection efficiency for atmospheric particulates and fallout radioactivity. A lichen model has been developed to predict lichen inventories of radioactivity for different lichen growth functions and bio-elimination rates. Assuming that lichen growth results in a linear increase in surface area with time, the experimental results yield biological residence times of 1-2 years for /sup 210/Pb and Pu and 5-8 years for /sup 137/Cs.

  11. Radionuclide studies in paediatric nephro-urology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, Amy E-mail: amypiepsz@yahoo.com

    2002-08-01

    The main tool of radionuclide techniques applied to paediatric uro-nephrology is the quantitation of function, which is an information not easily obtained by other diagnostic modalities. The radiation burden is low. Drug sedation is only rarely needed, whatever the age of the patient. Accurate determination of glomerular filtration rate can be obtained by means of an intravenous injection of Cr-51 EDTA and one or two blood samples. Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy is an accurate method for evaluation of regional cortical impairment during acute pyelonephritis and later on, for detection of permanent scarring. Tc-99m MAG3 renography is nowadays a well-standardized method for accurate estimation of the split renal function and of renal drainage with or without furosemide challenge. This technique is particularly indicated in uni- or bilateral uropathies with or without renal and/or ureteral dilatation. Direct and indirect radionuclide cystography are two alternative modalities for X-ray MCUG. Their relative place in the strategy of management of vesicoureteral reflux is discussed.

  12. Gastric Perforation and Phlegmon Formation by Foreign Body Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Alejandro Avila Alvarez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of foreign body ingestion in a suicide attempt resulting in gastric perforation and phlegmon formation during a subsequent 6 month period that eventually required surgical intervention. The patient had a prolonged course because she did not report a history of foreign body ingestion and the initial evaluating physicians had no suspicion about possible foreign body ingestion and may have missed important findings on physical examination. Gastric perforation by a foreign object  may have a slow course rather than presenting acute abdomen. The realization of a proper physical examination in the emergency department is key to an accurate diagnosis.

  13. Ingestion of magnets: innocent in solitude, harmful in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhaber, Barbara E; Le Coultre, Claude; Genin, Bernard

    2005-10-01

    Foreign body ingestion is frequent in children and generally associated with little morbidity. However, some foreign bodies are innocent when ingested as a single object, but may have harmful effect if numerous. We report a 9-year-old girl who swallowed 5 magnets, causing acute intestinal obstruction. At laparotomy, 2 magnets were found in the cecum and 3 in the transverse colon, attracting each other and clasping a segment of ileum in between, causing a complete obstruction of the small intestine. If numerous magnets are ingested, particular concern is advised, and if signs of intestinal distress develop, prompt laparotomy to prevent serious gastrointestinal complications should be performed.

  14. Serious respiratory consequences of detergent ingestions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhorn, A; Horton, L; Altieri, M; Ochsenschlager, D; Klein, B

    1989-09-01

    After ingesting or inhaling laundry detergent powder, eight children required hospital admission. The predominant symptoms were stridor, drooling, and respiratory distress. All but one patient underwent endoscopy of the airways and the esophagus, five children were admitted to the intensive care unit, and four children required endotracheal intubation. Laundry detergent ingestions are generally considered to have minor consequences, and there exists a paucity of literature on the subject. Evidence of significant morbidity incurred because of ingestion or inhalation of sodium carbonate-containing laundry detergent powder is presented, together with a review of the existing literature.

  15. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... operator to administer gamma radiation therapy, with the radiation source located at a distance from the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation...

  16. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... electromechanical or pneumatic device intended to enable an operator to apply, by remote control, a radionuclide... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled...

  17. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and boxing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Jason C; Hirscher, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Boxing is a sport that consists of multiple high-intensity bouts separated by minimal recovery time and may benefit from a pre-exercise alkalotic state. The purpose of this study was to observe the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on boxing performance. Ten amateur boxers volunteered to participate in 2 competitive sparring bouts. The boxers were prematched for weight and boxing ability and consumed either 0.3 g.kg(-1) body weight (BW) of NaHCO3 (BICARB) or 0.045 g.kg(-1) BW of NaCl placebo (PLAC) mixed in diluted low calorie-flavored cordial. The sparring bouts consisted of four 3-minute rounds, each separated by 1-minute seated recovery. Blood acid-base (pH, bicarbonate [HCO3(-)], base excess [BE]), and performance (rates of perceived exertion [RPE], heart rate [HR] [HR(ave) and HR(max)], total punches landed successfully) profiles were analyzed before (where applicable) and after sparring. The results indicated a significant interaction effect for HCO3(-) (p < or = 0.001) and BE (p < 0.001), but not for pH (p = 0.48). Post hoc analysis revealed higher presparring HCO3(-) and BE for the BICARB condition, but no differences between the BICARB and PLAC conditions postsparring. There was a significant increase in punches landed during the BICARB condition (p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction effects for HRave (p = 0.15), HRmax (p = 0.32), or RPE (p = 0.38). The metabolic alkalosis induced by the NaHCO3 loading elevated before and after sparring blood buffering capacity. In practical application, the findings suggest that a standard NaHCO3 loading dose (0.3 g.kg(-1)) improves punch efficacy during 4 rounds of sparring performance.

  18. Esophageal Rupture After Ghost Pepper Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Ann; Ben-Youssef, Leila; Hayashi, Sandra; Smollin, Craig

    2016-12-01

    The ghost pepper, or "bhut jolokia," is one of the hottest chili peppers in the world. Ghost peppers have a measured "heat" of > 1,000,000 Scoville heat units (SHU), more than twice the strength of a habanero pepper. To our knowledge, no significant adverse effects of ghost pepper ingestion have been reported. A 47-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with severe abdominal and chest pain subsequent to violent retching and vomiting after eating ghost peppers as part of a contest. A subsequent chest x-ray study showed evidence of a left-sided pleural effusion and patchy infiltrates. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed pneumomediastinum with air around the distal esophagus, suggestive of a spontaneous esophageal perforation and a left-sided pneumothorax. The patient was intubated and taken immediately to the operating room, where he was noted to have a 2.5-cm tear in the distal esophagus, with a mediastinal fluid collection including food debris, as well as a left-sided pneumothorax. The patient was extubated on hospital day 14, and was discharged home with a gastric tube in place on hospital day 23. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Spontaneous esophageal rupture, Boerhaave syndrome, is a rare condition encountered by emergency physicians, with a high mortality rate. This case serves as an important reminder of a potentially life- threatening surgical emergency initially interpreted as discomfort after a large spicy meal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Distribution and biokinetic analysis of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in poultry due to ingestion of dicalcium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casacuberta, N., E-mail: Nuria.Casacuberta@uab.es [Departament de Fisica and Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Traversa, F.L. [Departament d' Electronica, Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Masque, P.; Garcia-Orellana, J. [Departament de Fisica and Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Anguita, M.; Gasa, J. [Departament de Ciencia Animal i dels Aliments, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Dicalcium phosphate (DCP) is used as a calcium supplement for food producing animals (i.e., cattle, poultry and pig). When DCP is produced via wet acid digestion of the phosphate rock and depending on the acid used in the industrial process, the final product can result in enhanced {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po specific activities ({approx} 2000 Bq.kg{sup -1}). Both {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po are of great interest because their contribution to the dose received by ingestion is potentially large. The aims of this work are to examine the accumulation of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in chicken tissues during the first 42 days of life and to build a suitable single-compartment biokinetic model to understand the behavior of both radionuclides within the entire animal using the experimental results. Three commercial corn-soybean-based diets containing different amounts and sources of DCP were fed to broilers during a period of 42 days. The results show that diets containing enhanced concentrations of {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po lead to larger specific accumulation in broiler tissues compared to the blank diet. Radionuclides do not accumulate homogeneously within the animal body: {sup 210}Pb follows the calcium pathways to some extent and accumulates largely in bones, while {sup 210}Po accumulates to a large extent in liver and kidneys. However, the total amount of radionuclide accumulation in tissues is small compared to the amounts excreted in feces. The single-compartment non-linear biokinetic model proposed here for {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in the whole animal takes into account the size evolution and is self-consistent in that no fitting parameterization of intake and excretions rates is required.

  20. Distribution and biokinetic analysis of 210Pb and 210Po in poultry due to ingestion of dicalcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casacuberta, N; Traversa, F L; Masqué, P; Garcia-Orellana, J; Anguita, M; Gasa, J; Garcia-Tenorio, R

    2010-09-15

    Dicalcium phosphate (DCP) is used as a calcium supplement for food producing animals (i.e., cattle, poultry and pig). When DCP is produced via wet acid digestion of the phosphate rock and depending on the acid used in the industrial process, the final product can result in enhanced (210)Pb and (210)Po specific activities (approximately 2000 Bq.kg(-1)). Both (210)Pb and (210)Po are of great interest because their contribution to the dose received by ingestion is potentially large. The aims of this work are to examine the accumulation of (210)Pb and (210)Po in chicken tissues during the first 42 days of life and to build a suitable single-compartment biokinetic model to understand the behavior of both radionuclides within the entire animal using the experimental results. Three commercial corn-soybean-based diets containing different amounts and sources of DCP were fed to broilers during a period of 42 days. The results show that diets containing enhanced concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po lead to larger specific accumulation in broiler tissues compared to the blank diet. Radionuclides do not accumulate homogeneously within the animal body: (210)Pb follows the calcium pathways to some extent and accumulates largely in bones, while (210)Po accumulates to a large extent in liver and kidneys. However, the total amount of radionuclide accumulation in tissues is small compared to the amounts excreted in feces. The single-compartment non-linear biokinetic model proposed here for (210)Pb and (210)Po in the whole animal takes into account the size evolution and is self-consistent in that no fitting parameterization of intake and excretions rates is required.

  1. Quantitative modeling of Cerenkov light production efficiency from medical radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Bradley J; Thorek, Daniel L J; Schmidtlein, Charles R; Pentlow, Keith S; Humm, John L; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and β particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use.

  2. Breathing Life into Engineering: A Lesson Study Life Science Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Maria; Yang, Li-Ling; Briggs, May; Hession, Alicia; Koussa, Anita; Wagoner, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    A fifth grade life science lesson was implemented through a lesson study approach in two fifth grade classrooms. The research lesson was designed by a team of four elementary school teachers with the goal of emphasizing engineering practices consistent with the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) (Achieve Inc. 2013). The fifth…

  3. Breathing Life into Engineering: A Lesson Study Life Science Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Maria; Yang, Li-Ling; Briggs, May; Hession, Alicia; Koussa, Anita; Wagoner, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    A fifth grade life science lesson was implemented through a lesson study approach in two fifth grade classrooms. The research lesson was designed by a team of four elementary school teachers with the goal of emphasizing engineering practices consistent with the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) (Achieve Inc. 2013). The fifth…

  4. Creating A Guided- discovery Lesson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田枫

    2005-01-01

    In a guided - discovery lesson, students sequentially uncover layers of mathematical information one step at a time and learn new mathematics. We have identified eight critical steps necessary in developing a successful guided- discovery lesson.

  5. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  6. Prevalence and characteristics of plastic ingested by Hawaiian seabirds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Production of plastic products and dumping of plastic garbage in the ocean have increased dramatically in the past 25 years. Plastic ingestion has not been reported...

  7. Ingestion and transfer of microplastics in the planktonic food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setälä, Outi; Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Lehtiniemi, Maiju

    2014-02-01

    Experiments were carried out with different Baltic Sea zooplankton taxa to scan their potential to ingest plastics. Mysid shrimps, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, polychaete larvae and ciliates were exposed to 10 μm fluorescent polystyrene microspheres. These experiments showed ingestion of microspheres in all taxa studied. The highest percentage of individuals with ingested spheres was found in pelagic polychaete larvae, Marenzelleria spp. Experiments with the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the mysid shrimp Neomysis integer showed egestion of microspheres within 12 h. Food web transfer experiments were done by offering zooplankton labelled with ingested microspheres to mysid shrimps. Microscopy observations of mysid intestine showed the presence of zooplankton prey and microspheres after 3 h incubation. This study shows for the first time the potential of plastic microparticle transfer via planktonic organisms from one trophic level (mesozooplankton) to a higher level (macrozooplankton). The impacts of plastic transfer and possible accumulation in the food web need further investigations.

  8. Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis associated with isopropanol ingestion in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwosu, Michelle E; Golomb, Meredith R

    2009-03-01

    This report describes a 5-week-old female infant who presented with accidental ingestion of rubbing alcohol (which contains about 70% isopropanol), and was subsequently diagnosed with cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. Isopropanol is a clear, volatile 3-carbon alcohol found in varying concentrations in many solvents. Mislabeled rubbing alcohol was mixed with this patient's formula. After ingesting it, she presented with a 1-day history of uncontrolled fussiness and an episode of deviation of the eyes to the right for 30 minutes, followed by rhythmic movements of the arms and legs for 20 minutes. Cerebral imaging demonstrated sinovenous thrombosis. To our knowledge, there have been no reports describing cerebral sinovenous thrombosis as a complication of isopropanol ingestion. The possible association of isopropanol ingestion and sinovenous thrombosis is discussed.

  9. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  10. Metallic sewing needle ingestion presenting as acute abdomen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... toothpicks, metallic nails, needles, and dental bridgework. Patients suspected of ... Postoperative adhesions are well‑known clinical entity following ... ingested foreign bodies within the appendix: A case report with review of.

  11. Clinical toxicology of ‘magic mushroom’ ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden, N. R.; Macaulay, K. E. C.; Bissett, Ann F.; Crooks, J.; Pelosi, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The clinical features are reported in 27 cases of ‘magic mushroom’ ingestion. Mydriasis and hyperreflexia were common as were disorders of perception and affect. Psilocybe semilanceata appears to have been the species of fungus involved. PMID:7199140

  12. Ingested metallic foreign body lodged in the appendix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Sarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old child ingested a metallic screw 3 months prior to admission. At laparotomy, the foreign body was found to be lodged inside the vermiform appendix, and was removed by appendicectomy.

  13. Radionuclide solubility control by solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, F.; Klinkenberg, M.; Rozov, K.; Bosbach, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. of Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety (IEK-6); Vinograd, V. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geosciences

    2015-07-01

    The migration of radionuclides in the geosphere is to a large extend controlled by sorption processes onto minerals and colloids. On a molecular level, sorption phenomena involve surface complexation, ion exchange as well as solid solution formation. The formation of solid solutions leads to the structural incorporation of radionuclides in a host structure. Such solid solutions are ubiquitous in natural systems - most minerals in nature are atomistic mixtures of elements rather than pure compounds because their formation leads to a thermodynamically more stable situation compared to the formation of pure compounds. However, due to a lack of reliable data for the expected scenario at close-to equilibrium conditions, solid solution systems have so far not been considered in long-term safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories. In recent years, various solid-solution aqueous solution systems have been studied. Here we present state-of-the art results regarding the formation of (Ra,Ba)SO{sub 4} solid solutions. In some scenarios describing a waste repository system for spent nuclear fuel in crystalline rocks {sup 226}Ra dominates the radiological impact to the environment associated with the potential release of radionuclides from the repository in the future. The solubility of Ra in equilibrium with (Ra,Ba)SO{sub 4} is much lower than the one calculated with RaSO{sub 4} as solubility limiting phase. Especially, the available literature data for the interaction parameter W{sub BaRa}, which describes the non-ideality of the solid solution, vary by about one order of magnitude (Zhu, 2004; Curti et al., 2010). The final {sup 226}Ra concentration in this system is extremely sensitive to the amount of barite, the difference in the solubility products of the end-member phases, and the degree of non-ideality of the solid solution phase. Here, we have enhanced the fundamental understanding regarding (1) the thermodynamics of (Ra,Ba)SO{sub 4} solid solutions and (2) the

  14. Radionuclides in groundwater flow system understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erőss, Anita; Csondor, Katalin; Horváth, Ákos; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Surbeck, Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Using radionuclides is a novel approach to characterize fluids of groundwater flow systems and understand their mixing. Particularly, in regional discharge areas, where different order flow systems convey waters with different temperature, composition and redox-state to the discharge zone. Radium and uranium are redox-sensitive parameters, which causes fractionation along groundwater flow paths. Discharging waters of regional flow systems are characterized by elevated total dissolved solid content (TDS), temperature and by reducing conditions, and therefore with negligible uranium content, whereas local flow systems have lower TDS and temperature and represent oxidizing environments, and therefore their radium content is low. Due to the short transit time, radon may appear in local systems' discharge, where its source is the soil zone. However, our studies revealed the importance of FeOOH precipitates as local radon sources throughout the adsorption of radium transported by the thermal waters of regional flow systems. These precipitates can form either by direct oxidizing of thermal waters at discharge, or by mixing of waters with different redox state. Therefore elevated radon content often occurs in regional discharge areas as well. This study compares the results of geochemical studies in three thermal karst areas in Hungary, focusing on radionuclides as natural tracers. In the Buda Thermal Karst, the waters of the distinct discharge areas are characterized by different temperature and chemical composition. In the central discharge area both lukewarm (20-35°C, 770-980 mg/l TDS) and thermal waters (40-65°C, 800-1350 mg/l TDS), in the South only thermal water discharge (33-43°C, 1450-1700 mg/l TDS) occur. Radionuclides helped to identify mixing of fluids and to infer the temperature and chemical composition of the end members for the central discharge area. For the southern discharge zone mixing components could not be identified, which suggests different cave

  15. Acute barium intoxication following ingestion of soap water solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case in which a young girl ingested a solution of a hair-removing soap. The ingestion resulted in profound hypokalemia and severe acidosis leading to flaccid paralysis, respiratory arrest and ventricular arrhythmias. Ultimately the patient made complete recovery. The soapwas found to contain barium sulfide. The degree of paralysis and acidosis appeared to be directly related to serum potassium levels.

  16. Clinical evaluation of disc battery ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshemirani, AliReza; Khaleghnejad-Tabari, Ahmad; Kouranloo, Jaefar; Sadeghian, Naser; Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Roshanzamir, Fatolah; Razavi, Sajad; Sayary, Ali Akbar; Imanzadeh, Farid

    2012-04-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics, management, and outcomes of disc battery ingestion in children. METHODS We reviewed the medical records of children admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital due to disc battery ingestion from January 2006 to January 2010. Clear history, clinical symptoms and results of imaging studies revealed diagnosis of disc battery ingestion in suspected patients. The clinical data reviewed included age, gender, clinical manifestation, radiologic findings, location of disc battery, duration of ingestion, endoscopic results and surgical treatment. RESULTS We found 22 cases (11 males and 11 females) of disc battery ingestion with a mean age of 4.3 years (range: 9 months to 12 years). Common symptoms were vomiting, cough, dysphagia, and dyspnea. The mean duration of ingestion was 2.7 days (4 hours to 1.5 months). A total of 19 patients had histories of disc battery ingestion, but three cases referred with the above symptoms, and the batteries were accidentally found by x-ray. Only three cases had batteries impacted in the esophagus. Twelve batteries were removed endoscopically, 6 batteries spontaneously passed through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract within 5 to 7 days, and 4 patients underwent surgery due to complications: 3 due to tracheo-esophageal fistula (TEF) and 1 due to intestinal perforation. There was no mortality in our study. CONCLUSION Most cases of disc battery ingestion run uneventful courses, but some may be complicated. If the battery lodges in the esophagus, emergency endoscopic management is necessary. However, once in the stomach, it will usually pass through the GI tract.

  17. Ingestion of microcystins by Daphnia: Intestinal uptake and toxic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrlack, T.; Christoffersen, K.; Dittmann, E.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the intestinal uptake and adverse effects of microcystins ingested with Microcystis on Daphnia galeata. The gut structure, blood microcystin concentration, appearance, and movements of Daphnia fed Microcystis PCC 7806 or a microcystin-deficient PCC 7806 mutant were monitored over...... suggest that an ingestion of between 10.2 ng and 18.3 ng of microcystin per 1 mg of Daphnia body fresh weight is sufficient to kill D. galeata within 2 d....

  18. Lesson Planning the Kodaly Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshkoff, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the contribution of Zoltan Kodaly to music lesson planning. Emphasizes preparation, presentation, and practice as the three important strategies in teaching concepts and skills to be included in a lesson plan. Includes a sample lesson plan covering a semester and advice on choosing song material. (DK)

  19. Foreign body ingestion: rare cause of cervical abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Liliana; Larangeiro, João; Pinto Moura, Carla; Santos, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion is a frequent emergency occurrence. Serious complications, although rare, include pharyngooesophageal perforation, aorto-oesophageal fistula and deep neck infection. A retrospective review was performed of all cases of foreign body ingestion requiring hospitalization between 1989 and 2011, in a tertiary Hospital. Cases complicated by deep cervical abscess were selected and their clinical presentation, results of diagnostic exams, therapeutics and clinical evolution are presented. Among a total of 1679 cases, 319 were related to pediatric patients and 1360 to adults. Two cases were reported (0.12%): an adult, 41 years-old, with parapharyngeal abscess subsequent to fishbone ingestion, and a child, 13 months-old, with retropharyngeal abscess consequent to chicken bone ingestion. Complications appeared three and four days after foreign body removal, respectively. In both situations cervical computerized tomography scan with contrast and surgical drainage were accomplished; the child was also submitted to rigid esophagoscopy for residual foreign body removal and closure of the associated pharyngeal laceration. Deep cervical abscesses are an uncommon but possible complication of foreign body ingestion and constitute a diagnostic challenge, particularly in children. Previous oesophageal manipulation by flexible endoscopy may be considered a risk factor for such complication. Imagiological studies proved to be crucial for diagnosis and therapeutic planning. Although a rare complication, given a recent history of foreign body ingestion/removal and the presence of compatible symptoms, cervical abscesses should be taken into account, highlighting their potential morbimortality in the absence of an appropriate therapeutic approach.

  20. Upper aerodigestive injuries from detergent ingestion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, Phayvanh P; Skarda, David E; Park, Albert H

    2017-02-01

    To describe the clinical presentations and management of detergent pod ingestion at a tertiary children's hospital. Case series. A retrospective chart review of children diagnosed with detergent pod ingestion from June 2010 and March 2015. Nine cases of detergent pod ingestion were included over a 5-year period. The average age was 26.3 months (range, 11-43 months). Eight (89%) of the cases were female. The patients had ingested laundry detergent pods (n = 7) and dishwasher detergent pods (n = 2). The majority of patients (67%) had more than one clinical manifestation from ingestion. Presenting symptoms included emesis (78%), respiratory symptoms (56%), throat pain (22%), drooling (33%), and foaming at the mouth (33%). The management of patients depended on the severity of their symptoms and included admission to an overnight observation unit (n = 5), discharge to home directly from the emergency department (n = 2), and admission to the hospital (n = 2). Two (22%) children underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy. One child (11%) required intubation from bilateral vocal fold immobility. Injuries to the upper aerodigestive tract after detergent ingestion range from mild gastrointestinal symptoms to respiratory compromise. The majority of children improve with observation alone; however, clinicians should maintain a low threshold for endoscopic evaluation in cases of severe symptoms and airway involvement. 4. Laryngoscope, 2016 127:509-512, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. RADIATION DOSE AND RISK TO RECREATIONAL FISHERMEN FROM INGESTION OF FISH CAUGHT NEAR EIGHT OIL PLATFORMS IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MEINHOLD,A.F.; HOLTZMAN,S.

    1998-06-01

    Offshore production of oil and gas is accompanied by a saline wastewater, called produced water. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico often contain elevated concentrations of radionuclides that occur naturally in the geologic reservoir along with the oil and gas. These radionuclides may accumulate in organisms that live near offshore oil and gas structures. Because recreational fishing in the Gulf of Mexico is concentrated near oil and gas platforms, there is the potential for increased risks to recreational fishermen from the ingestion of radionuclides in fish caught near produced water discharges. This analysis investigated the potential risk to recreational fishermen from radium and lead-210 in offshore produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico. The assessment used data collected at eight discharging offshore platforms and two reference locations. These data were collected in a USDOE funded project titled ``Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations'', here called the USDOE Field Study. The risk assessments were done to support risk managers in developing regulations and permits for offshore discharges of produced water.

  2. Prospects for the methods of radionuclide production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamian, S. A.; Dmitriev, S. N.

    2015-03-01

    In the present report, methods of radionuclide production for the nuclear-medicine purposes are described. In a budget approach, the application of low-energy accelerators is especially advantageous. Intense flux of bremsstrahlung at electron accelerators or high-current cyclotron beams of alpha particles must supply a great yield for many isotopes. The choice of a target material and of the projectile energy provides enough variation for concrete species formation. The innovating procedures are here proposed for optimizing of methods, for instance, application of the noble-gas target for production and transport of activities. The known and new variants of the "generator" scheme are discussed. Many isotopes are listed as promising in the context of the therapeutic and theragnostic applications. Among them are isotopes/isomers emitting soft radiation for the selective and careful body treatment, also the positron emitters for PET, and the halogen and alkali-metal species convenient for chemical separation.

  3. Prospects for the methods of radionuclide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamian, S. A., E-mail: karamian@nrmail.jinr.ru; Dmitriev, S. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, FLNR, 141980, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-30

    In the present report, methods of radionuclide production for the nuclear-medicine purposes are described. In a budget approach, the application of low-energy accelerators is especially advantageous. Intense flux of bremsstrahlung at electron accelerators or high-current cyclotron beams of alpha particles must supply a great yield for many isotopes. The choice of a target material and of the projectile energy provides enough variation for concrete species formation. The innovating procedures are here proposed for optimizing of methods, for instance, application of the noble-gas target for production and transport of activities. The known and new variants of the “generator” scheme are discussed. Many isotopes are listed as promising in the context of the therapeutic and theragnostic applications. Among them are isotopes/isomers emitting soft radiation for the selective and careful body treatment, also the positron emitters for PET, and the halogen and alkali-metal species convenient for chemical separation.

  4. Comparison of direct and indirect radionuclide cystography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, G.; Lovegrove, F.T.; Geijsel, H.; Van der Schaff, A.; Guelfi, G.

    1985-05-01

    Thirty children were studied using both direct (catheter) and indirect techniques of radionuclide cystography. Of 54 ureters able to be compared, six showed vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) on the direct study but were read as negative on the indirect cystogram, and five showed no reflux on the direct cystogram but were read as positive for VUR on the indirect study. Regarding ureters read as true positives on indirect study, if that ureter has ever shown reflux at any time, or if it drained a scarred kidney specificity was improved to 97% without changing the sensitivity. Concerns about the validity of indirect cystogram results and the ease of assessment and low radiation dose from the direct cystogram has made direct cystography our preferred technique.

  5. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmuleva, N. I.; Barinov, E. Ya.; Petukhov, V. L.

    2003-05-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - Cs-137 and Sr-90 in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. Cs-137 level was 3.7...9.2 times higher than Sr-90 one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg).

  6. Radionuclide content of Las Vegas wash sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, M.J.; Johnson, W.H.; Meyers, A.M. [University of Nevada-Las Vegas (United States). Dept. of Health Physics

    1997-12-31

    The Las Vegas Wash is an excavated waterway channel which drains all surface water and effluent discharge from sewage-treatment facilitates from the greater Las Vegas Metropolitan Area to Lake Mead. Fine and coarse sediment samples were collected at 100-m intervals and analyzed to determine the distribution of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the lower 5,500 m of the Las Vegas Wash. Results indicate depletion of long-lived fission products in upstream Wash sediments. However, trace levels of {sup 137}Cs measured in downstream sediments suggest the resuspension and transport of radioactive fallout within the Wash. Levels of {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U found in Wash sediments were consistent with levels typically found in southeast Nevada soils. (author).

  7. Characterization of hydrofracture grouts for radionuclide migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, D.P.; McDaniel, E.W.; Weeren, H.O.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed characterization of hydrofracture grouts was performed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and ..beta..-..gamma.. autoradiography. Laboratory-produced samples containing simulated wastes as well as actual radioactive samples of hydrofracture grout sheets obtained by core drilling were examined in this work. X-ray diffraction results revealed that both laboratory-produced samples and a core-drilled sample consisted primarily of calcium carbonate phases. Both sample types contained very small amounts of strontium or cesium wastes, neither of which could be detected by microscopic techniques. The core-drilled sample contained radioactive /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 60/Co that could be detected by ..beta..-..gamma.. autoradiography. The autoradiograph revealed that these radionuclides were still present in the 20-year-old grout and that they had not migrated into the trapped shale fragments.

  8. Retention of Radionuclides in Halite and Anhydrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Platz, O.

    1986-01-01

    The interaction between a series of radionuclides, comprising **1**3**4Cs** plus , **8**5Sr**2** plus , **6**0Co**2** plus , **1**5**4Eu**3** plus , **2**4**1Am**3** plus , and **9**9Tc (as TcO//4** minus ) and halite (NaCl) and anhydrite (CaSO//4), respectively, has been investigated. It appears...... for europium and americium, respectively. Impuritites in the halite, such as hematite or anhydrite strongly increase the sorption efficiency. In these cases also cobalt, and to a minor extent cesium and strontium, was found to be sorbed. Anhydrite was found to sorb all metal cations studied. The sorption...

  9. Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartong, J.; Szpak, J.; Hamric, T.; Cutright, T.

    1998-07-01

    It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated.

  10. Compilation of data for radionuclide transport analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This report is one of the supporting documents to the updated safety assessment (project SAFE) of the Swedish repository for low and intermediate level waste, SFR 1. A number of calculation cases for quantitative analysis of radionuclide release and dose to man are defined based on the expected evolution of the repository, geosphere and biosphere in the Base Scenario and other scenarios selected. The data required by the selected near field, geosphere and biosphere models are given and the values selected for the calculations are compiled in tables. The main sources for the selected values of the migration parameters in the repository and geosphere models are the safety assessment of a deep repository for spent fuel, SR 97, and the preliminary safety assessment of a repository for long-lived, low- and intermediate level waste, SFL 3-5. For the biosphere models, both site-specific data and generic values of the parameters are selected. The applicability of the selected parameter values is discussed and the uncertainty is qualitatively addressed for data to the repository and geosphere migration models. Parameter values selected for these models are in general pessimistic in order not to underestimate the radionuclide release rates. It is judged that this approach combined with the selected calculation cases will illustrate the effects of uncertainties in processes and events that affects the evolution of the system as well as in quantitative data that describes this. The biosphere model allows for probabilistic calculations and the uncertainty in input data are quantified by giving minimum, maximum and mean values as well as the type of probability distribution function.

  11. Radionuclide imaging of non osseous infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestro, C.J. (Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New York, NY, (United States). Dept. Nuclear Medicine New York, Yeshiva Univ., NY (United States). Albert Einstein College of Medicine); Torres, M.A. (Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New York, NY, (United States). Dept. Nuclear Medicine)

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear medicine is an important tool in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with a variety of non osseous infections. In the immunocompetent population labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide procedure of choice, with Gallium imaging reserved for those situations in which the leukocyte study is non diagnostic or cannot be performed. Fever of unknown origin is caused by infection in less than one-third of cases, and therefore the number of positive leukocyte studies will be relatively low. The negative leukocyte study is also useful as it has been demonstrated that a negative study excludes, with a high degree of certainty, focal infection as the cause of an FUO. In the cardiovascular system, labeled leukocyte scintigraphy is very useful for diagnosing mycotic aneurysms and infected prosthetic vascular grafts. The specificity of the study is somewhat more variable. In the central nervous system, labeled leukocyte imaging can provide important information about the etiology of contrast enhancing brain lesions identified on computed tomography. In the immunocompromised population, typified by the AIDS patient, Gallium scintigraphy is the radionuclide procedure of choice for diagnosing opportunistic diseases. In the thorax, a normal Gallium scan, in the setting of a negative chest X-ray, virtually excludes pulmonary disease. In the abdomen, Gallium is also useful for detecting nodal disease, but is not reliable for detecting large bowel disease. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be performed when colitis is a concern. Both [sup 18]FDG PET and [sup 201]T1 SPECT imaging of the brain are useful for distinguishing between central nervous system lymphoma and toxoplasmosis in the HIV (+) patient. On both studies, lymphoma manifests as a focus of increased tracer uptake, whereas toxoplasmosis shows little or no uptake of either tracer.

  12. Introduction to radiobiology of targeted radionuclide therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre ePOUGET

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, new radionuclide-based targeted therapies have emerged as efficient tools for cancer treatment. Targeted radionuclide therapies (TRT are based on a multidisciplinary approach that involves the cooperation of specialists in several research fields. Among them, radiobiologists investigate the biological effects of ionizing radiation, specifically the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the radiation response. Most of the knowledge about radiation effects concerns external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and radiobiology has then strongly contributed to the development of this therapeutic approach. Similarly, radiobiology and dosimetry are also assumed to be ways for improving TRT, in particular in the therapy of solid tumors which are radioresistant. However, extrapolation of EBRT radiobiology to TRT is not straightforward. Indeed, the specific physical characteristics of TRT (heterogeneous and mixed irradiation, protracted exposure and low absorbed dose rate differ from those of conventional EBRT (homogeneous irradiation, short exposure and high absorbed dose rate, and consequently the response of irradiated tissues might be different. Therefore, specific TRT radiobiology needs to be explored. Determining dose-effect correlation is also a prerequisite for rigorous preclinical radiobiology studies because dosimetry provides the necessary referential to all TRT situations. It is required too for developing patient-tailored TRT in the clinic in order to estimate the best dose for tumor control, while protecting the healthy tissues, thereby improving therapeutic efficacy. Finally, it will allow to determine the relative contribution of targeted effects (assumed to be dose-related and non-targeted effects (assumed to be non-dose-related of ionizing radiation. However, conversely to EBRT where it is routinely used, dosimetry is still challenging in TRT. Therefore, it constitutes with radiobiology, one of the main

  13. Chancellor Water Colloids: Characterization and Radionuclide Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Fattah, Amr I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    Concluding remarks about this paper are: (1) Gravitational settling, zeta potential, and ultrafiltration data indicate the existence of a colloidal phase of both the alpha and beta emitters in the Chancellor water; (2) The low activity combined with high dispersion homogeneity of the Chancellor water indicate that both alpha and beta emitters are not intrinsic colloids; (3) Radionuclides in the Chancellor water, particularly Pu, coexist as dissolved aqueous and sorbed phases - in other words the radionuclides are partitioned between the aqueous phase and the colloidal phase; (4) The presence of Pu as a dissolved species in the aqueous phase, suggests the possibility of Pu in the (V) oxidation state - this conclusion is supported by the similarity of the k{sub d} value of Pu determined in the current study to that determined for Pu(V) sorbed onto smectite colloids, and the similar electrokinetic behavior of the Chancellor water colloids to smectite colloids; (5) About 50% of the Pu(V) is in the aqueous phase and 50% is sorbed on colloids (mass concentration of colloids in the Chancellor water is 0.12 g/L); (6) The k{sub d} of the Pu and the beta emitters (fission products) between aqueous and colloidal phases in the Chancellor water is {approx}8.0 x 10{sup 3} mL/g using two different activity measurement techniques (LSC and alpha spectroscopy); (7) The gravitational settling and size distributions of the association colloids indicate that the properties (at least the physical ones) of the colloids to which the alpha emitters are associated with seem to be different that the properties of the colloids to which the beta emitters are associated with - the beta emitters are associated with very small particles ({approx}50 - 120 nm), while the alpha emitters are associated with relatively larger particles; and (8) The Chancellor water colloids are extremely stable under the natural pH and ionic strength conditions, indicating high potential for transport in the

  14. Colloid-Associated Radionuclide Concentration Limits: ANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Mertz

    2000-12-21

    The purpose and scope of this report is to describe the analysis of available colloidal data from waste form corrosion tests at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to extract characteristics of these colloids that can be used in modeling their contribution to the source term for sparingly soluble radioelements (e.g., Pu). Specifically, the focus is on developing a useful description of the following waste form colloid characteristics: (1) composition, (2) size distribution, and (3) quantification of the rate of waste form colloid generation. The composition and size distribution information are intended to support analysis of the potential transport of the sparingly soluble radionuclides associated with the waste form colloids. The rate of colloid generation is intended to support analysis of the waste form colloid-associated radionuclide concentrations. In addressing the above characteristics, available data are interpreted to address mechanisms controlling colloid formation and stability. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M&O 2000). Because the end objective is to support the source term modeling we have organized the conclusions into two categories: (1) data analysis conclusions and (2) recommendations for colloid source term modeling. The second category is included to facilitate use of the conclusions from the data analysis in the abstraction of a colloid source term model. The data analyses and conclusions that are presented in this report are based on small-scale laboratory tests conducted on a limited number of waste glass compositions and spent fuel types.

  15. Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

    2014-10-01

    The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 ((131)I), phosphorous-32 ((32)P), strontium-90 ((90)Sr), and yttrium-90 ((90)Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies.

  16. [Dependence of uniformity on the radionuclide in SPECT: test methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnischke, Heiko; Grebe, Gerhard; Zander, Andreas; Munz, Dieter Ludwig; Geworski, Lilli

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate test methods to clarify whether the non-uniformity of a gamma camera depends on individual radionuclides, and whether it is necessary to measure a separate correction matrix for each radionuclide used in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Two methods were devised to verify the nuclide-dependence of the gamma camera. In order to test the energy correction of the detectors, the first approach was based on the evaluation of the intrinsic non-uniformity and on the production of images with asymmetrical energy window. The second method was based on the production of correction matrices for different radionuclides, as well as on the subsequent application to phantom data that were also generated with different radionuclides. The investigation of a dualhead gamma camera produced the same results with both methods. One detector head was found to be weakly dependent on the radionuclide, due to the insufficient quality of energy correction. In this case, the phantom or patient data should be corrected using a uniformity correction matrix measured with the same radionuclide. The second detector remained nuclide-independent; in this case the uniformity correction matrix acquired for only one radionuclide was sufficient.

  17. Radionuclide Emission Estimation for the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley J Schrader

    2010-02-01

    An Radiological Safety Analysis Computer Program (RSAC)-7 model dose assessment was performed to evaluate maximum Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) boundary effective dose equivalent (EDE, in mrem/yr) for potential individual releases of radionuclides from the facility. The CAES is a public/private partnership between the State of Idaho and its academic research institutions, the federal government through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) managed by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). CAES serves to advance energy security for our nation by expanding educational opportunities at Idaho universities in energy-related areas, creating new capabilities within its member institutions, and delivering technological innovations leading to technology-based economic development for the intermountain region. CAES has developed a strategic plan (INL/EXT-07-12950) based on the balanced scorecard approach. At the present time it is unknown exactly what processes will be used in the facility in support of this strategic plan. What is known is that the Idaho State University (ISU) Radioactive Materials License (Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC] license 11-27380-01) is the basis for handling radioactive material in the facility. The material in this license is shared between the ISU campus and the CAES facility. There currently are no agreements in place to limit the amount of radioactive material at the CAES facility or what is done to the material in the facility. The scope of this analysis is a summary look at the basis dose for each radionuclide included under the license at a distance of 100, 500, and 1,000 m. Inhalation, ingestion and ground surface dose was evaluated using the NRC design basis guidelines. The results can be used to determine a sum of the fractions approach to facility safety. This sum of the fractions allows a facility threshold value (TV) to be established and potential activities to be evaluated against

  18. Concentration and depuration of some radionuclides present in a chronically exposed population of mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, R.J.; Stevens, H.E.; Hamilton, E.I.

    1983-03-01

    Factors are described which affect the concentration (p Ci g/sup -1/ dry wt) and loss of /sup 241/ Am, /sup 239 +240/Pu, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 95/Zr and /sup 95/Nb in an exposed population of mussels Mytilus edulis L. from Ravenglass on the Esk estuary, Cumbria, UK which receives radioeffluents from the British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) plant at Sellafield, some 10 km to the north. Tidal position and mussel body size have a negligible influence on the concentration of /sup 241/Am, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 106/Ru in the total soft tissue, but variation in soft tissue weight throughout the year has a considerable influence on the apparent concentration and depuration times of these radionuclides. Apart from the clearance (tsub(1/2) biol, 1 to 3 h) of sediment-associated activity from the digestive tract, the depuration rate profiles follow a single component clearance curve with a biological half-life in excess of 200 d for /sup 241/ Am, /sup 239 +240/Pu, /sup 238/Pu and /sup 144/Ce, and of 40 d for /sup 137/Cs. The clearance of /sup 106/Ru is more complex and consists of a 3 component depuration profile with biological half-lives of 6 h, 12 d and 260 d. The depuration profiles presented in this work are for chronically ingested isotopes under natural conditions; acute exposure will most likely result in different profiles, especially those derived from laboratory spiking experiments. Isotope ratio data support the hypothesis that the main route of entry into the mussel for the majority of the radionuclides studied is from the water.

  19. Global Analysis of Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Sea Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level. Análisis Global de la Ingesta de Residuos Antropogénicos por Tortugas Marinas La ingesta de residuos marinos puede tener efectos letales y subletales sobre las tortugas marinas y otros animales. Aunque hay investigadores que han reportado la ingesta de residuos antropogénicos por tortugas marinas y la incidencia de la ingesta de residuos ha incrementado con el tiempo, no ha habido una síntesis global del fenómeno desde 1985. Por esto analizamos 37 estudios publicados, desde

  20. Pitfalls and Limitations of Radionuclide Hepatobiliary and Gastrointestinal System Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Chen Sheng; Ahmed, Haseeb; Notghi, Alp

    2015-11-01

    Radionuclide imaging for the hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal system covers a wide range of different indications and imaging techniques. This wide variety allows the different functional assessments of both systems. Therefore, the understanding of each technique and its indications is essential. Cholescintigraphy is a well-established method in the assessment of acute and chronic cholecystitis. It also has a role in the detection of biliary atresia. The assessment of gastrointestinal transit is also well-established in radionuclide imaging for functional investigation of the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, detection of acute gastrointestinal bleeding with radionuclide imaging is also standard practice. This article aims to review the pitfalls and limitations in all of these areas.

  1. Radionuclide transfer to fruit in the IAEA TRS 364 Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, Franca

    2009-09-01

    Information on the transfer of radionuclides to fruits was almost absent in the former TRS 364 "Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments". The revision of the Handbook, carried out under the IAEA Programme on Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS), takes into account the information generated in the years following the Chernobyl accident and the knowledge produced under the IAEA BIOMASS (Biosphere Modelling and Assessment) Programme in the years 1997-2000. This paper describes the most important processes concerning the behaviour of radionuclides in fruits reported in the IAEA TRS 364 Revision and provides recommendations for research and modelling.

  2. Study on the Decontamination of Radionuclides in Spent Phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chong Hun; Won, H. J.; Moon, J. K.

    2010-01-15

    The objective of the study is to confirm the possibility of further R and D thru pre-study on the decontamination technology for the safe, high decontamination factor, low waste arising and cost effective removal of radionuclide in spent phosphogypsum. The following contents were studied. 1) Decontamination of Radionuclide in Phosphogypsum - Effect of decontamination chemical formulation on Ra removal - Effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration on Ra removal - Effect of Sr concentration on Ra removal 2) Removal of Radionuclide in Liquid Waste from Decontamination of Phosphogypsum - Ra removal by chromate treatment - Ra removal by zeolite and ACF treatment

  3. Effect of fluid ingestion on orthostatic responses following acute exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. E.; Fortney, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is impaired following an acute bout of exercise. This study examined the effect of fluid ingestion following treadmill exercise in restoring the cardiovascular responses to an orthostatic stress. Five men (age, 29.6 +/- 3.4 yrs) were exposed to a graded lower body negative (LBNP) pressure protocol (0 to -50 mmHg) during euhydration without exercise (C), 20 minutes after exercise dehydration (D), 20 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI20), and 60 minutes after exercise and fluid ingestion (FI60). Fluid ingestion (mean +/- SE) consisted of water-ingestion equivalent to 50% of the body weight lost during exercise (520 +/- 15 ml). Exercise dehydration resulted in significantly higher heart rates (119 +/- 8 vs 82 +/- 7 bpm), lower systolic blood pressures (95 +/- 1.7 vs 108 +/- 2.3 mmHg), a smaller increase in leg circumference (3.7 +/- 4 vs 6.9 +/- 1.0 mm), and an attenuated increase in total peripheral resistance (2.58 +/- 1.2 vs 4.28 +/- 0.9 mmHg/L/min) at -50 mmHg LBNP compared to the C condition. Fluid ingestion (both 20 and 60), partially restored the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistance responses to LBNP, but did not influence the change in leg circumference during LBNP (4 +/- 0.3 for R20 and 2.8 +/- 0.4 mm for R60). These data illustrate the effectiveness of fluid ingestion on improving orthostatic responses following exercise, and suggest that dehydration is a contributing factor to orthostatic intolerance following exercise.

  4. [Emergency department consultations due to foreign body ingestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobeiras, Ana; Zugazabeitia, Amaia; Uribarri, Nerea; Mintegi, Santiago

    2017-04-01

    Foreign body (FB) ingestion is an uncommon reason for going to the Paediatric Emergency Department (PED). The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of foreign body ingestion and the management of these patients. Retrospective study, including children under 14 years old with suspected foreign body ingestion seen in the PED between 2010 and 2013. An analysis was made of the circumstances of the FB ingestion, its management in the PED, and patient outcomes. Of the 226,666 presentations recorded, 1,608 (0.7%) were for a FB, 970 corresponding to ingestion of mainly fish bones (367, 38.7%) and coins (181, 18.7%), except in children under 1 year (plastic objects). The median age was 4.7 years, with boys being more common in those older than 4 years (58.5%). A total of 557 patients (57.3%) reported some symptom, and complementary tests were performed in 414 (42.7%). Another specialist was called in 315 (32.4%) cases, mainly from Ear, Nose and Throat (fish bones) or Surgery (coins). The FB was removed in 305 (31.4%) cases, which were mostly fish bones or sunflower seeds. Seventy-one patients (7.3%) were admitted, especially ingestion of fish bones or coins. No patient died. Ingestion of fish bones or coins by young children is a relatively common presentation in the PED, and it is associated with frequent medical interventions. Although the overall prognosis is good, and improving the health education of the population should be considered to reduce the frequency of these episodes. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. 210Po, 210Pb, 40K and 137Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms and ingestion doses to man from high consumption rates of these wild foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynn, Justin P; Nalbandyan, Anna; Rudolfsen, Geir

    2013-02-01

    This paper discusses activity concentrations of (210)Po, (210)Pb, (40)K and (137)Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms collected from Øvre Dividalen national park, Northern Norway and derives committed effective ingestion doses to man based on high consumption rates of these wild foods. Edible wild berries and mushrooms accumulated similar levels of (210)Pb, but mushrooms accumulated higher levels of (210)Po and (40)K than berries. There appears to be a clear difference in the ability of Leccinum spp. of fungi to accumulate (210)Po and/or translocate (210)Po to mushrooms compared to Russula spp. of fungi. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs in edible wild berries and mushrooms from Øvre Dividalen national park reflected the lower levels of fallout of this radionuclide in Northern Norway compared to more central areas following the Chernobyl accident. For mushrooms, ingestion doses are dominated by (210)Po, while for berries, (40)K is typically the main contributor to dose. Based on high consumption rates, ingestion doses arising from the combination of (210)Po, (210)Pb and (40)K were up to 0.05 mSv/a for berries and 0.50 mSv/a for mushrooms. Consumption of such wild foods may result in a significant contribution to total annual doses when consumed in large quantities, particularly when selecting mushrooms species that accumulate high activity concentrations of (210)Po.

  6. Annual committed effective dose from olive oil (due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn) estimated for members of the Moroccan public from ingestion and skin application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misdaq, M A; Touti, R

    2012-03-01

    Olive oil is traditionally refined and widely consumed by Moroccan rural populations. Uranium (238U), thorium (232Th), radon (222Rn), and thoron (220Rn) contents were measured in various locally produced olive oil samples collected in rural areas of Morocco. These radionuclides were also measured inside various bottled virgin olive oils consumed by the Moroccan populations. CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) were used. Annual committed effective doses due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn from the ingestion of olive oil by the members of the general public were determined. The maximum total committed effective dose due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn from the ingestion of olive oil by adult members of Moroccan rural populations was found equal to 5.9 µSv y-1. The influence of pollution due to building material dusts and phosphates on the radiation dose to workers from the ingestion of olive oil was investigated, and it was found that the maximum total committed effective dose due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn was on the order of 0.22 mSy y-1. Committed effective doses to skin due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn from the application of olive oil masks by rural women were evaluated. The maximum total committed effective dose to skin due to 238U, 232Th, and 222Rn was found equal to 0.07 mSy y-1 cm-2.

  7. Concentrations of radionuclides in fish collected from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.A.

    1986-07-01

    This report summarizes all available data on the concentrations of radionuclides in fish from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984. As found in other global studies, /sup 137/Cs is most highly accumulated in edible flesh of all species of fish, the lowest fractions are found in the bone or liver. The mean concentration of /sup 137/Cs in muscle of reef fish from the southern part of the atoll is comparable to the global fallout concentration measured in market samples of fish collected from Chicago, Illinois, in 1982. /sup 90/Sr is generally associated with non-edible parts of fish, such as bone or viscera. Twenty-five to fifty percent of the total body burden of /sup 60/Co is accumulated in the muscle tissue; the remainder is distributed among the liver, skin, and viscera. The mean concentration of /sup 60/Co in fish has been decreasing at a rate faster than radiological decay alone. Most striking is the range of /sup 207/Bi concentrations among different species of fish collected at the same time and place. Highest concentrations of /sup 207/Bi were consistently detected in the muscle (and other tissues) of goatfish and some of the pelagic lagoon fish. In other reef fish, such as mullet, surgeonfish, and parrotfish, /sup 207/Bi was usually below detection limits by gamma spectrometry. Over 70% of the whole-body activity of /sup 207/Bi in goatfish is associated with the muscle tissue, whereas less than 5% is found in the muscle of mullet and surgeonfish. Neither /sup 239 +240/Pu nor /sup 241/Am is significantly accumulated in the muscle tissue of any species of fish. Apparently, /sup 238/Pu is in a more readily available form for accumulation by fishes than /sup 239 +240/Pu. Based on a daily ingestion rate of 200 q of fish flesh, dose rates to individuals through the fish-food ingestion pathway are well below current Federal guidelines.

  8. Developments in Bioremediation of Soils and Sediments Pollutedwith Metals and Radionuclides: 2. Field Research on Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazen, Terry C.; Tabak, Henry H.

    2007-03-15

    Bioremediation of metals and radionuclides has had manyfield tests, demonstrations, and full-scale implementations in recentyears. Field research in this area has occurred for many different metalsand radionuclides using a wide array of strategies. These strategies canbe generally characterized in six major categories: biotransformation,bioaccumulation/bisorption, biodegradation of chelators, volatilization,treatment trains, and natural attenuation. For all field applicationsthere are a number of critical biogeochemical issues that most beaddressed for the successful field application. Monitoring andcharacterization parameters that are enabling to bioremediation of metalsand radionuclides are presented here. For each of the strategies a casestudy is presented to demonstrate a field application that uses thisstrategy.

  9. Monitoring release of disposable radionuclides in the Kara sea: Bioaccumulation of long-lived radionuclides in echinoderms and molluscs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, N.S.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the present proposal is to continue and extend our research on the trophic transfer of important radionuclides in benthic fauna of the Kara Sea. This project is assessing the extent to which select species of seastars, brittle stars, and clams typical of the Kara Sea concentrate and retain a variety of long-lived radionuclides known to be (or suspected to be) present in the disposed wastes in the Russian Arctic. The rates and routes of uptake and depuration of isotopes in the same or in closely related species are being quantified so that endemic benthic organisms can be assessed as potential bioindicators of released radionuclides in Arctic waters.

  10. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive

  11. War Literature. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on Stephen Crane's poems about war and his novel "The Red Badge of Courage," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Crane examined war-related themes in prose and poetry; that close study of a poem for oral presentation helps readers see meaning or techniques not noted earlier; and that not all readers…

  12. A Makeup Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, Cheryl

    1991-01-01

    Presents a hands-on lesson that can integrate the use of makeup with studies of the history of Halloween; the history and practices of the theater; Native American or African tribes and their use of paint, makeup, and masks; and the history, skills, and makeup of clowns. (MDH)

  13. DSCOVR Contamination Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    The Triana observatory was built at NASA GSFC in the late 1990's, then placed into storage. After approximately ten years it was removed from storage and repurposed as the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). This presentation outlines the contamination control program lessons learned during the integration, test and launch of DSCOVR.

  14. A Lesson from Mangroves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the importance of interpretive programs in the Northern Territory of Australia. Describes the typical interpretive approach of local school science curricula, which serve 20,000 Aboriginal children. Addresses the curriculum framework, learning strategies, and process skill development, illustrating them through a lesson on mangroves. (TW)

  15. From a writing lesson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mafra Ney Reinhardt

    Full Text Available Beginning with Jacques Derrida's interpolation of the celebrated chapter A Writing Lesson by Claude Lévi-Strauss's, and James Clifford critique of the ethnographic text, the authors of this essay reflect on the written dimension of the ethnographic métier.

  16. Cooperative Science Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperative Learning, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Offers several elementary level cooperative science lesson plans. The article includes a recipe for cooperative class learning, instructions for making a compost pile, directions for finding evidence of energy, experiments in math and science using oranges to test density, and discussions of buoyancy using eggs. (SM)

  17. Brothers Grimm. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Grimm's fairy tales, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that fairy tales connect them to earlier generations, help them think about present situations, that magic figures prominently in fairy tales, and that fairy tales can inspire readers to create original works of art. The main activity in the…

  18. Rethinking lessons learned processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttler, T.; Lukosch, S.G.; Kolfschoten, G.L.; Verbraeck, A.

    2012-01-01

    Lessons learned are one way to retain experience and knowledge in project-based organizations, helping them to prevent reinventin,g the wheel or to repeat past mistakes. However, there are several challenges that make these lessonts learned processes a challenging endeavor. These include capturing

  19. Dracula. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Bram Stoker's novel "Dracula," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that some fictional literary characters become so famous that they enter popular culture in other forms (movies, games, toys); and that working on a product such as a game often demands collaborative effort. The main activity of the…

  20. Hand-held metal detector identification of ingested foreign bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, A; Carraccio, C; Lichenstein, R

    1994-08-01

    The study purpose was to determine the ability of hand-held metal detectors (HHMDs) to identify the presence of ingested metallic foreign bodies (MFBs). Twenty-three children presenting to the emergency department with a complaint of MFBs ingested were enrolled. Sixteen of 23 patients had radiographically proven foreign bodies. The MFBs comprised coins (n = 11), a button battery (n = 1), a medallion (n = 1), a token (n = 1), a needle (n = 1), and a marble (leaded glass) (n = 1). The HHMD correctly detected 15 of 16 radiographically positive MFBs (93%) and correctly excluded a potential MFB in six of six radiographically negative cases. The only foreign body not detected was an ingested needle. One radiograph was equivocal. Radiographic localization of the ingested objects was as follows: esophagus, n = 4; stomach, n = 9; and intestines, n = 3. The HHMD correctly localized all detected MFBs. The HHMD had a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 86%. HHMDs are effective screening devices for possible ingested MFBs. Positive studies localized to the stomach and lower gastrointestinal tract do not require confirmatory radiographic studies.

  1. Serious injuries from dishwasher powder ingestions in small children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinelli, Amy; Hamill, James; Mahadevan, Murali; Miles, Fiona

    2006-03-01

    To describe patterns and severity of caustic injuries sustained from dishwasher powder ingestion and highlight need for national safety standards. Retrospective chart review of admissions for caustic ingestion to Starship Children's Hospital from January 2003 to January 2005 and review of New Zealand National Poisons Centre data. Between January 2003 and January 2005, the National Poisons Centre recorded 610 dishwashing powder ingestions, with 88% of children less than 2 years old. Twenty-three children were admitted to Starship Children's Hospital following caustic ingestion, of whom 11 were identified as having ingested dishwasher powder (9 boys and 2 girls) and were aged 11 to 30 months (mean 17.5). Five children (45%) were admitted to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit over 4 months (October 2004 to January 2005), requiring intubation for airway control. Two children needed tracheostomy. Three of the 11 children (27%) required repeated oesophageal dilatation, and two underwent gastrostomy formation. One brand of dishwasher detergent and container type was implicated in over half of the cases. Dishwasher detergents are highly corrosive substances that cause potentially life-threatening injuries and ongoing morbidity. The recent surge of incidents may be related to change in product constituents or non-compliance with New Zealand safety standards. Efforts to limit product alkalinity, legislative requirement of Child-Resistant Packaging and public education may reduce injuries from these common household substances.

  2. Endoscopic pyloroplasty for severe gastric outlet obstruction due to alkali ingestion in a child

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Aldaghi, Mitra; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir

    2016-01-01

    A common belief is that alkali ingestion causes severe esophageal damage and limited gastric injury due to the buffering action of acid. Gastric injury has been observed in patients who ingested alkali. Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) secondary to caustic ingestion occurs due to fibrosis after resolution of the acute injury and inflammation, most commonly 6 to 12 weeks after initial ingestion. The traditional treatment for GOO related to ingestion of corrosive agents is surgery. Experience w...

  3. Gas: A Neglected Phase in Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, Miles E.; Looney, Brian B

    2005-09-28

    The gas phase is generally ignored in remediation of metals and radionuclides because it is assumed that there is no efficient way to exploit it. In the literal sense, all remediations involve the gas phase because this phase is linked to the liquid and solid phases by vapor pressure and thermodynamic relationships. Remediation methods that specifically use the gas phase as a central feature have primarily targeted volatile organic contaminants, not metals and radionuclides. Unlike many organic contaminants, the vapor pressure and Henry's Law constants of metals and radionuclides are not generally conducive to direct air stripping of dissolved contaminants. Nevertheless, the gas phase can play an important role in remediation of inorganic contaminants and provide opportunities for efficient, cost effective remediation. The objective here is to explore ways in which manipulation of the gas phase can be used to facilitate remediation of metals and radionuclides.

  4. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.P. Adams; M.L. Carboneau; W.E. Allred

    1999-02-01

    The National Low Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has published a report containing key information about selected radionuclides that are most likely to contribute significantly to the radiation exposures estimated from a performance assessment of a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility. The information includes physical and chemical characteristics, production means, waste forms, behavior of the radionuclide in soils, plants, groundwater, and air, and biological effects in animals and humans. The radionuclides included in this study comprise all of the nuclides specifically listed in 10CFR61.55, Tables 1 and 2, 3 H, 14 C, 59 Ni, 60 Co, 63 Ni, 90 Sr, 94 Nb, 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs, 241 Pu, and 242 Cm. Other key radionuclides addressed in the report include 237 Np, 238 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Am. This paper summarizes key information contained within this report.

  5. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, James Paul; Carboneau, Michael Leonard; Allred, William Edgar

    1999-03-01

    The National Low Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has published a report containing key information about selected radionuclides that are most likely to contribute significantly to the radiation exposures estimated from a performance assessment of a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility. The information includes physical and chemical characteristics, production means, waste forms, behavior of the radionuclide in soils, plants, groundwater, and air, and biological effects in animals and humans. The radionuclides included in this study comprise all of the nuclides specifically listed in 10CFR61.55, Tables 1 and 2, 3 H, 14 C, 59 Ni, 60 Co, 63 Ni, 90 Sr, 94 Nb, 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs, 241 Pu, and 242 Cm. Other key radionuclides addressed in the report include 237 Np, 238 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Am. This paper summarizes key information contained within this report.

  6. Radionuclide transport report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    This document compiles radionuclide transport calculations of a KBS-3 repository for the safety assessment SR-Site. The SR-Site assessment supports the licence application for a final repository at Forsmark, Sweden

  7. SRNL RADIONUCLIDE FIELD LYSIMETER EXPERIMENT: BASELINE CONSTRUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Bagwell, L.; Powell, B.; Almond, P.; Emerson, H.; Hixon, A.; Jablonski, J.; Buchanan, C.; Waterhouse, T.

    2012-10-17

    The purpose of this document is to compile information regarding experimental design, facility design, construction, radionuclide source preparation, and path forward for the ten year Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Radionuclide Field Lysimeter Experiment at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This is a collaborative effort by researchers at SRNL and Clemson University. The scientific objectives of this study are to: Study long-term radionuclide transport under conditions more representative of vadose zone conditions than laboratory experiments; Provide more realistic quantification of radionuclide transport and geochemistry in the vadose zone, providing better information pertinent to radioactive waste storage solutions than presently exists; Reduce uncertainty and improve justification for geochemical models such as those used in performance assessments and composite analyses.

  8. Personal dose-equivalent conversion coefficients for 1252 radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Dose conversion coefficients for radionuclides are useful for routine calculations in radiation protection in industry, medicine and research. They give a simple and often sufficient estimate of dose rates during production, handling and storage of radionuclide sources, based solely on the source's activity. The latest compilation of such conversion coefficients dates from 20 y ago, based on nuclear decay data published 30 y ago. The present publication provides radionuclide-specific conversion coefficients to personal dose based on the most recent evaluations of nuclear decay data for 1252 radionuclides and fluence-to-dose-equivalent conversion coefficients for monoenergetic radiations. It contains previously unknown conversion coefficients for >400 nuclides and corrects those conversion coefficients that were based on erroneous decay schemes. For the first time, estimates for the protection quantity Hp(3) are included.

  9. EANM 2012 guidelines for radionuclide imaging of phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taieb, D.; Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Hindie, E.; Guillet, B.A.; Neumann, H.P.; Walz, M.K.; Opocher, G.; Herder, W.W. de; Boedeker, C.C.; Krijger, R.R. de; Chiti, A.; Al-Nahhas, A.; Pacak, K.; Rubello, D.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Radionuclide imaging of phaeochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) involves various functional imaging techniques and approaches for accurate diagnosis, staging and tumour characterization. The purpose of the present guidelines is to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in perform

  10. Compositions and methods for removal of toxic metals and radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuero, Raul G. (Inventor); McKay, David S. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for the removal of toxic metals or radionuclides from source materials. Toxic metals may be removed from source materials using a clay, such as attapulgite or highly cationic bentonite, and chitin or chitosan. Toxic metals may also be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan. Radionuclides may be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan.

  11. Statistical analyses of plume composition and deposited radionuclide mixture ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Terrence D.; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia; Brito, Roxanne; Hunt, Brian D.; Osborn, Douglas.

    2014-01-01

    A proposed method is considered to classify the regions in the close neighborhood of selected measurements according to the ratio of two radionuclides measured from either a radioactive plume or a deposited radionuclide mixture. The subsequent associated locations are then considered in the area of interest with a representative ratio class. This method allows for a more comprehensive and meaningful understanding of the data sampled following a radiological incident.

  12. Basal ganglia infarction demonstrated by radionuclide brain imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.E.; Schacht, R.A.; Domstad, P.A.; DeLand, F.H.

    1982-11-01

    Four cases of basal ganglia infarction demonstrated by radionuclide brain imaging are presented. Bilateral basal ganglia infarctions in two patients were probably related to methanol intoxication and meningoencephalitis, and unilateral basal ganglia infarctions in two other patients were presumably due to cerebral atherosclerosis and/or hypertension. Various causes and mechanisms of basal ganglia infarction as well as positive findings of radionuclide brain imaging are briefly reviewed.

  13. Consultative committee on ionizing radiation: Impact on radionuclide metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, L R; Ratel, G

    2016-03-01

    In response to the CIPM MRA, and to improve radioactivity measurements in the face of advancing technologies, the CIPM's consultative committee on ionizing radiation developed a strategic approach to the realization and validation of measurement traceability for radionuclide metrology. As a consequence, measurement institutions throughout the world have devoted no small effort to establish radionuclide metrology capabilities, supported by active quality management systems and validated through prioritized participation in international comparisons, providing a varied stakeholder community with measurement confidence.

  14. Radionuclide Production with PET Cyclotrons, Applications and Preclinical Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Siikanen, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is based on the radiotracer principle of George de Hevesy and the magic bullet concept by Ehrlich and focuses on the diagnosis, the treatment of diseases and the investigation of normal states within the human body using radiopharmaceuticals. A radiopharmaceutical is an atom or a chemical compound in which one or several atoms are replaced with a radionuclide. Several diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides like 111In, 99mTc and 131I originate from nuclear reactors via a gen...

  15. New trends in nuclear data research for medical radionuclide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qaim, S.M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM), Nuklearchemie (INM-5)

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear reaction cross section data are of great significance in optimisation of production routes of radionuclides. This article deals with some newer aspects of data research related to production of both standard and novel radionuclides. The recent work to standardise the known data is discussed and new measurements with regard to further optimisation of production routes of some commonly used radionuclides are mentioned. Attempts to increase the specific activity of some reactor-produced radionuclides through the use of charged-particle induced reactions are outlined. The jeopardy in the supply of {sup 99m}Tc via a fission-produced {sup 99}mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator is considered and its possible direct production at a cyclotron is briefly discussed. Regarding the novel radionuclides, development work is presently focussed on non-standard positron emitters for diagnosis and on low-range highly ionising radiation emitters for internal radiotherapy. Recent nuclear reaction cross section measurements related to the production of the two types of radionuclides are briefly reviewed and some anticipated trends in nuclear data research are considered. (orig.)

  16. A case of argyria following colloidal silver ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyok Bu; Lee, Joon Ho; Lee, Seung Ho; Lee, Ai Young; Choi, Jong Sun; Ahn, Yeon Soon

    2009-08-01

    Argyria is a rare cutaneous discoloration caused by the intake of silver or various compounds containing silver. We report a case of argyria in a 73-year-old male following ingestion of colloidal silver as an alternative medicine over 5 years. He had a diffuse, slate gray discoloration of his face and hands. A biopsy specimen from the face revealed brown-black extracellular granules in the upper dermis and between collagen bundles. We also found silver particles in the mucous of the colon. The ingestion of colloidal silver appears to be increasing among patients using alternative health practices. We report this case to bring people's attention to the problems associated with the ingestion of colloidal silver.

  17. Glucose ingestion during endurance training does not alter adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Fischer, Christian P; Plomgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    extensor training. They trained one leg while ingesting a 6% glucose solution (Glc) and ingested a sweetened placebo while training the other leg (Plc). The subjects trained their respective legs 2 h at a time on alternate days 5 days a week. Endurance training increased peak power (P(max)) and time...... to fatigue at 70% of P(max) approximately 14% and approximately 30%, respectively. CS and beta-HAD activity increased and glycogen content was greater after training, but there were no differences between Glc and Plc. After training the rate of oxidation of palmitate (R(ox)) and the % of rate...... of disappearance that was oxidized (%R(dox)) changed. %R(dox) was on average 16.4% greater during exercise after training whereas, after exercise %R(dox) was 30.4% lower. R(ox) followed the same pattern. However, none of these parameters were different between Glc and Plc. We conclude that glucose ingestion during...

  18. Evaluation of radionuclides in groundwater around proposed uranium mining sites in Bagjata and Banduhurang, Jharkhand (India); Evaluation des radionucleides dans les eaux souterraines autour de sites proposes de mines d'uranium a Bagjata et Banduhurang, Jharkhand (Inde)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giri, S.; Singh, G. [Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad - 826004 (India); Jha, V.N. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400085 (India)

    2011-01-15

    Radionuclides find their way into the water resources at sites in the vicinity of nuclear facilities involved in mining, milling, ore separation, purification, etc. The presented study delineates the distribution of radionuclides (Ra and U(nat)) in groundwaters existing in the vicinity of two proposed uranium mine sites and evaluates their ingestion dose through the intake of drinking water. The study reveals that the U(nat) concentration in groundwater varied from <0.5 to 11.2 {mu}g.l{sup -1} in the Bagjata mining area and from <0.5 to 27.5 {mu}g.l{sup -1} in the Banduhurang mining area, while {sup 226}Ra was found in the range of <3.5 to 206 mBq.l{sup -1} and <3.5 to 82 mBq.l{sup -1}, respectively, for both areas. Seasonal variation and distribution of radionuclides in the study area did not show any definite pattern. A strong positive correlation of U(nat) in groundwater with pH and negative correlation of {sup 226}Ra with pH is shown in the study. The ingestion dose to the public through intake of drinking water is estimated as 9.43 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} for Bagjata and 6.28 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1} for Banduhurang, which is much lower than the reference limit (100 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}) given by the WHO. (authors)

  19. Accreditation - Its relevance for laboratories measuring radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Inst. (Iceland)

    2001-11-01

    Accreditation is an internationally recognised way for laboratories to demonstrate their competence. Obtaining and maintaining accreditation is, however, a costly and time-consuming procedure. The benefits of accreditation also depend on the role of the laboratory. Accreditation may be of limited relevance for a research laboratory, but essential for a laboratory associated with a national authority and e.g. issuing certificates. This report describes work done within the NKSBOK-1.1 sub-project on introducing accreditation to Nordic laboratories measuring radionuclides. Initially the focus was on the new standard ISO/IEC 17025, which was just in a draft form at the time, but which provides now a new framework for accreditation of laboratories. Later the focus was widened to include a general introduction to accreditation and providing through seminars a forum for exchanging views on the experience laboratories have had in this field. Copies of overheads from the last such seminar are included in the appendix to this report. (au)

  20. Radionuclide surveillance of the allografted pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, E.A.; Salimi, Z.; Carney, K.; Castaneda, M.; Garvin, P.J.

    1988-04-01

    To determine the value of scintigraphy to detect posttransplantation complications of the allografted pancreas, we retrospectively reviewed 209 scintigrams obtained with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid (/sup 99m/Tc-SC) and /sup 99m/Tc-glucoheptonate (/sup 99m/Tc-GH). The scintigraphic studies were performed in 37 recipients of simultaneous renal and pancreatic allografts harvested from the same donor. /sup 99m/Tc-SC was used as an indicator of thrombotic vasculitis; pancreatic perfusion and blood-pool parameters were monitored with /sup 99m/Tc-GH. In 11 of the 37 recipients, scintigraphic abnormalities suggested posttransplantation infarction. Recurrent episodes of acute rejection of the pancreatic allograft, which always coincided with acute rejection of the renal allograft, were monitored in 24 recipients. Rejection-induced ischemic pancreatitis was suggested in 12 of the 24 recipients and persisted in 10 recipients for several weeks after improvement of renal allograft rejection. Pancreatic atrophy was suggested scintigraphically in 16 of the 24 recipients with recurrent episodes of rejection. Spontaneous pancreatic-duct obstruction and obstructive pancreatitis were associated with a scintigraphic pattern similar to that of rejection-induced ischemic pancreatitis. We concluded that the specific radionuclides used in this series are useful for the surveillance and assessment of posttransplantation pancreatic infarction, acute rejection, pancreatitis, and atrophy

  1. Microplastics ingestion by a common tropical freshwater fishing resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Cavalcanti, Jacqueline Santos; Silva, José Diego B; França, Elton José de; Araújo, Maria Christina Barbosa de; Gusmão, Felipe

    2017-02-01

    Microplastics pollution is widespread in marine ecosystems and a major threat to biodiversity. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the impacts of microplastics in freshwater environments and biota is still very limited. The interaction of microplastics with freshwater organisms and the risks associated with the human consumption of organisms that ingested microplastics remain major knowledge gaps. In this study, we assessed the ingestion of microplastics by Hoplosternum littorale, a common freshwater fish heavily consumed by humans in semi-arid regions of South America. We assessed the abundance and diversity of both plastic debris and other food items found in the gut of fishes caught by local fishermen. We observed that 83% of the fish had plastic debris inside the gut, the highest frequency reported for a fish species so far. Most of the plastic debris (88.6%) recovered from the guts of fish were microplastics (microplastics at the urbanized sections of the river, and that the ingestion of microplastics was negatively correlated with the diversity of other food items in the gut of individual fish. Nevertheless, microplastics ingestion appears to have a limited impact on H. littorale, and the consequences of human consumption of this fish were not assessed. Our results suggest freshwater biota are vulnerable to microplastics pollution and that urbanization is a major factor contributing to the pollution of freshwater environments with microplastics. We suggest the gut content of fish could be used as a tool for the qualitative assessment of microplastics pollution in freshwater ecosystems. Further research is needed to determine the processes responsible for the high incidence of microplastics ingestion by H. littorale, and to evaluate the risk posed to humans by the consumption of freshwater fish that ingested microplastics.

  2. Factors influencing fluoride ingestion from dentifrice by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Claudia Ayumi Nakai; Belini, Melina Rodrigues; Italiani, Flávia de Moraes; Pauleto, Adriana Regina Colombo; Araújo, Juliana Julianelli de; Tessarolli, Vanessa; Grizzo, Larissa Tercilia; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2011-10-01

    This study assessed the percentage of the amount of dentifrice loaded onto the toothbrush that is ingested by children, taking into account age, the amount of dentifrice used during toothbrushing, and the dentifrice flavor. The sample consisted of 155 children of both genders attending public kindergartens and schools in Bauru, Brazil, divided into 5 groups (n = 30-32) of children aged 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 years old. The dentifrices used were Sorriso™ (1219 ppm F, peppermint-flavored) and Tandy™ (959 ppm F, tutti-frutti-flavored). The assessment of fluoride intake from dentifrices was carried out six times for each child, using 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 g of each dentifrice, following a random, crossover distribution. Brushing was performed by the children or their parents/caregivers according to the home habits and under the observation of the examiner. Fluoride present in the expectorant and on toothbrush was analyzed with an ion-specific electrode after HMDS-facilitated diffusion. Fluoride ingestion was indirectly derived. Results were analyzed by 3-way repeated-measures anova and Tukey's tests (P dentifrice ingested as response variable. Age and percent dentifrice ingested for both dentifrices, and the three amounts used were inversely related (P dentifrice ingested was significantly higher after the use of Tandy™ under all conditions of the study when compared with Sorriso™ (P dentifrices tested (P < 0.05). The results indicate that all variables tested must be considered in preventive measures aiming to reduce the amount of fluoride ingested by young children. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Small Beneficial Effect of Caffeinated Energy Drink Ingestion on Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Nora B; Hardy, Michelle A; Millard-Stafford, Mindy L; Warren, Gordon L

    2016-07-01

    Collier, NB, Hardy, MA, Millard-Stafford, ML, and Warren, GL. Small beneficial effect of caffeinated energy drink ingestion on strength. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1862-1870, 2016-Because caffeine ingestion has been found to increase muscle strength, our aim was to determine whether caffeine when combined with other potential ergogenic ingredients, such as those in commercial energy drinks, would have a similar effect. Fifteen young healthy subjects were used in a double-blind, repeated-measures experimental design. Each subject performed 3 trials, ingesting either a caffeinated energy drink, an uncaffeinated version of the drink, or a placebo drink. The interpolated twitch procedure was used to assess maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) strength, electrically evoked strength, and percent muscle activation during MVIC of the knee extensors both before and after drink ingestion, and after a fatiguing bout of contractions; electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the knee extensors during MVIC was also assessed. The mean (±SE) change in MVIC strength from before to after drink ingestion was significantly greater for the caffeinated energy drink compared with placebo [+5.0 (±1.7) vs. -0.5 (±1.5)%] and the difference between the drinks remained after fatigue (p = 0.015); the strength changes for the uncaffeinated energy drink were not significantly different from those of the other 2 drinks at any time. There was no significant effect of drink type on the changes in electrically evoked strength, percent muscle activation, and EMG from before to after drink ingestion. This study indicates that a caffeinated energy drink can increase MVIC strength but the effect is modest and the strength increase cannot be attributed to increased muscle activation. Whether the efficacy of energy drinks can be attributed solely to caffeine remains unclear.

  4. The effect of caffeine ingestion on delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Caitlin F; Hatfield, Disa L; Riebe, Deborah A

    2013-11-01

    The beneficial effects of caffeine on aerobic activity and resistance training performance are well documented. However, less is known concerning caffeine's potential role in reducing perception of pain and soreness during exercise. In addition, there is no information regarding the effects of caffeine on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine ingestion on muscle soreness, blood enzyme activity, and performance after a bout of elbow flexion/extension exercise. Nine low-caffeine-consuming males (body mass: 76.68 ± 8.13 kg; height: 179.18 ± 9.35 cm; age: 20 ± 1 year) were randomly assigned to ingest either caffeine or placebo 1 hour before completing 4 sets of 10 bicep curls on a preacher bench, followed by a fifth set in which subjects completed as many repetitions as possible. Soreness and soreness on palpation intensity were measured using three 0-10 visual analog scales before exercise, and 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after exercise. After a washout period, subjects crossed over to the other treatment group. Caffeine ingestion resulted in significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower levels of soreness on day 2 and day 3 compared with placebo. Total repetitions in the final set of exercise increased with caffeine ingestion compared with placebo. This study demonstrates that caffeine ingestion immediately before an upper-body resistance training out enhances performance. A further beneficial effect of sustained caffeine ingestion in the days after the exercise bout is an attenuation of DOMS. This decreased perception of soreness in the days after a strenuous resistance training workout may allow individuals to increase the number of training sessions in a given time period.

  5. Uncertainty analysis of doses from ingestion of plutonium and americium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncher, M; Harrison, J D

    2012-02-01

    Uncertainty analyses have been performed on the biokinetic model for americium currently used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and the model for plutonium recently derived by Leggett, considering acute intakes by ingestion by adult members of the public. The analyses calculated distributions of doses per unit intake. Those parameters having the greatest impact on prospective doses were identified by sensitivity analysis; the most important were the fraction absorbed from the alimentary tract, f(1), and rates of uptake from blood to bone surfaces. Probability distributions were selected based on the observed distribution of plutonium and americium in human subjects where possible; the distributions for f(1) reflected uncertainty on the average value of this parameter for non-specified plutonium and americium compounds ingested by adult members of the public. The calculated distributions of effective doses for ingested (239)Pu and (241)Am were well described by log-normal distributions, with doses varying by around a factor of 3 above and below the central values; the distributions contain the current ICRP Publication 67 dose coefficients for ingestion of (239)Pu and (241)Am by adult members of the public. Uncertainty on f(1) values had the greatest impact on doses, particularly effective dose. It is concluded that: (1) more precise data on f(1) values would have a greater effect in reducing uncertainties on doses from ingested (239)Pu and (241)Am, than reducing uncertainty on other model parameter values and (2) the results support the dose coefficients (Sv Bq(-1) intake) derived by ICRP for ingestion of (239)Pu and (241)Am by adult members of the public.

  6. Jacques Ranciere's Lesson on the Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Samuel A.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the significance of Jacques Ranciere's work on pedagogy, and argues that to make sense of Ranciere's "lesson on the lesson" one must do more but also less than merely explicate Ranciere's texts. It steadfastly refuses to draw out the lessons of Ranciere's writings in the manner of a series of…

  7. Dose estimation for repeated phosphorus-32 ingestion in human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, J.H.; Tseng, C.L.; Hsieh, W.A.; Hung, D.Z.; Chang, W.P. E-mail: wpc94@mailsrv.ym.edu.tw

    2001-01-15

    Dose estimation was conducted for internal phosphorus-32 exposure in one young male subject from repeated oral mis-ingestion for >1 year. Since disclosure for previous continuous contamination, a series of urine samples were collected from this individual weekly for a period of >2 months. P-32 radioactivity in urine samples were measured by the acid precipitation method. Estimation for retrospective total effective dose equivalent received by this subject was conducted for cumulative internal dose estimation. A minimum of 9.4 mSv was estimated for an assumed single ingestion. As this was a rare case in radiation protection and internal radiation dosimetry, its implications were of considerable significance.

  8. Incretin effect after oral amino Acid ingestion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Ola; Pacini, Giovanni; Tura, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    is also present after amino acid ingestion is not known. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to explore insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral and iv amino acid administration at matched total amino acid concentrations in healthy subjects. DESIGN: An amino acid mixture (Vaminolac......: Oral amino acid mixture ingestion elicits a stronger insulin secretory response than iv amino acid at matching amino acid levels and this is associated with increased GIP level, suggesting that an incretin effect exists also after oral amino acids, possibly mediated by GIP....

  9. Unusual liver abscess secondary to ingested foreign body: laparoscopic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    PANEBIANCO, A.; LOZITO, R.C.; PRESTERA, A.; IALONGO, P.; VOLPI, A.; CARBOTTA, G.; PALASCIANO, N.

    2015-01-01

    Liver abscess is a cause of febrile abdominal pain and usually the origin of a liver abscess is ascending cholangitis, hemathological diffusion, via the portal vein or the hepatic artery, or superinfection of necrotic tissue. Solitary pyogenic abscess with no obvious systemic cause may be secondary to a local event such as the migration of an ingested foreign body. We report the case of a solitary liver abscess caused by an ingested foreign body, a fish bone, migrated through the gastric wall into the left lobe. PMID:26017106

  10. Factors that elevate the internal radionuclide and chemical retention, dose and health risks to infants and children in a radiological-nuclear emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Richard B

    2009-06-01

    The factors that influence the dose and risk to vulnerable population groups from exposure and internal uptake of chemicals are examined and, in particular, the radionuclides released in chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive events. The paper seeks to identify the areas that would benefit from further research. The intake and body burdens of carbon and calcium were assessed as surrogates for contaminants that either act like or bind to hydrocarbons (e.g. tritium and (14)C) or bone-seeking radionuclides (e.g. (90)Sr and (239)Pu). The shortest turnover times for such materials in the whole body were evaluated for the newborn: 11 d and 0.5 y for carbon and calcium, respectively. However, their biokinetic behaviour is complicated by a particularly high percentage of the gut-absorbed dietary intake of carbon (approximately 16%) and calcium (approximately 100%) that is incorporated into the soft tissue and skeleton of the growing neonate. The International Commission on Radiological Protection dose coefficients (Sv Bq(-1)) were examined for 14 radionuclides, including 9 of concern because of their potential use in radiological dispersal devices. The dose coefficients for a 3-month-old are greater than those for adults (2-56 times more for ingestion and 2-12 times for inhalation). The age-dependent dose and exposure assessment of contaminant intakes would improve by accounting for gender and growth where it is currently neglected. Health risk is evaluated as the product of the exposure and hazard factors, the latter being about 10-fold greater in infants than in adults. The exposure factor is also approximately 10-fold higher for ingestion by infants than by adults, and unity for inhalation varying with the contaminant. Qualitative and quantitative physiological and epidemiological evidence supports infants being more vulnerable to cancer and neurological deficit than older children.

  11. Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated with Organics and Radionuclides - An Innovative Approach Eases Traditional Hurdles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, J.; Case, N.; Coltman, K.

    2003-02-25

    and other potential remediation opportunities; a discussion of how the implementation of the HRC technology eased permitting issues and other challenges of remediating groundwater contaminated with radionuclides and organics; an overview of the remedial design and installation of the design including the inputs required to design the remediation system; a summary of results achieved to date and a forecast of future results; and a discussion of future needs and lessons learned.

  12. Natural and artificial (90Sr radionuclides in some carbonated mineral waters used in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Marija M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A radiological characterization of 7 different carbonated mineral water samples collected in the local supermarkets in the area of Belgrade (produced in Serbia was carried out. Analysis included determination of gross alpha and gross beta activities. The obtained results showed that the natural activity concentrations of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in carbonated mineral water samples were within World Health Organization recommended levels, except for the Heba Strong and Kiseljak samples where the beta activity exceeds 1 Bq/L. For these two water samples gamma spectrometry analysis was performed as well as determination of 90Sr by oxalic method. The instrumentation used to count the gross alpha and gross beta activities, as well as for 90Sr, was a/b low level proportional counter Thermo Eberline FHT 770 T. Gamma spectrometric measurements were performed using a HPGe Canberra detector with a counting efficiency of 20%. The annual effective dose equivalent due to ingestion of investigated waters was calculated for age group >17, and obtained values are lower than 0.1 mSv recommended reference level. Finally, a comparison of the investigated waters with worldwide data was made. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009

  13. Radiation dose to Malaysian infants from natural radionuclides via consumption of powdered milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwatse, Onosohwo Bemigho; Olatunji, Michael Adekunle; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd. [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Milk is the basic food stuff for the infants because they generally consume more milk on a daily basis as its minerals and proteins are essential for their growth and development, therefore, it is very important to assess the natural radioactivity levels and the associated dose in the widely consumed powered infant’s milk. As a result, 14 brands of infant’s powdered milk were collected from different supermarkets around Selangor, Malaysia and analysed for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K activities. The obtained mean activity of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K are 3.05±1.84, 2.55±2.48 and 99.1±69.5 Bqkg{sup −1}, respectively. Among the analysed milk samples, the brand from Philippines (Lactogen) showed low level of radioactivity while Singaporean brand (S26 SMA Gold) showed the highest. The estimated mean annual effective doses due to the ingestion of natural radionuclides in the sampled milk are 635 and 111 µSv for infant ≤ 1y and infant 1-2y, respectively. The obtained dose value does not yet pose any significant radiological hazards to the population under investigation comparing with the 1.0 mSvy{sup −1} recommended by ICRP for all ages.

  14. Radiation dose to Malaysian infants from natural radionuclides via consumption of powdered milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwatse, Onosohwo Bemigho; Olatunji, Michael Adekunle; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.

    2015-04-01

    Milk is the basic food stuff for the infants because they generally consume more milk on a daily basis as its minerals and proteins are essential for their growth and development, therefore, it is very important to assess the natural radioactivity levels and the associated dose in the widely consumed powered infant's milk. As a result, 14 brands of infant's powdered milk were collected from different supermarkets around Selangor, Malaysia and analysed for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activities. The obtained mean activity of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are 3.05±1.84, 2.55±2.48 and 99.1±69.5 Bqkg-1, respectively. Among the analysed milk samples, the brand from Philippines (Lactogen) showed low level of radioactivity while Singaporean brand (S26 SMA Gold) showed the highest. The estimated mean annual effective doses due to the ingestion of natural radionuclides in the sampled milk are 635 and 111 µSv for infant ≤ 1y and infant 1-2y, respectively. The obtained dose value does not yet pose any significant radiological hazards to the population under investigation comparing with the 1.0 mSvy-1 recommended by ICRP for all ages.

  15. Ingestion of polonium ((210)Po) via dietary sources in high background radiation areas of south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Baskaran, Kamesh Viswanathan; Rao, D D; Sathyapriya, R; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar; Kuruva, Jaya Krishna; Hari, Shanmugamsundaram

    2014-10-01

    To study the distribution of Polonium ((210)Po) activity in dietary sources in the high background radiation zone of Puttetti in southern Tamil Nadu. (210)Po was analyzed in the food materials consumed by the male and female individual representatives living in the high background areas by 24-h Duplicate Diet Study (DDS) and Market Basket Study (MBS). The MBS was performed by collecting the food samples such as, cereals, fruits, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers, other vegetables, fish, meat and milk grown in the high background radiation zone of southern Tamil Nadu as a part of baseline study in this region. The DDS was done by collecting the food materials consumed including the beverages in 24 h from different age groups of male and female individuals living in the village of Puttetti. The intake and ingestion dose of the radionuclide (210)Po was estimated. The average concentration of (210)Po in DDS (n = 33) was found to be 74 mBq.kg(- 1) of fresh weight. The MBS was collected based on food consumption representing more than 85-95% of annual supply, and were divided into eight food groups. The average concentration of (210)Po in the eight food groups namely leafy vegetables was 2176 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 3), vegetables 55 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 10), roots and tubers 251 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 4), fruits 65 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 5), fish 345 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 2), meat food 117 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 3), milk 20 mBq.kg(- 1) (n = 1) and cereal 290 (n = 1) mBq.kg(- 1) of fresh weight, respectively. The annual intake and ingestion dose due to (210)Po was estimated by DDS and MBS in adults, adolescents and children. The overall results showed that the MBS was moderately higher than the DDS in all age groups. Moreover, a DDS approach may even be more realistic, as cooked foodstuffs are used for dietary exposure assessment. The study confirms that the current levels of (210)Po do not pose a significant radiological risk to the local inhabitants.

  16. Muscle glycogen resynthesis during recovery from cycle exercise: no effect of additional protein ingestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Shirreffs, S M; Calbet, J A

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the effect of carbohydrate and protein hydrolysate ingestion on muscle glycogen resynthesis during 4 h of recovery from intense cycle exercise. Five volunteers were studied during recovery while they ingested, immediately after exercise, a 600-ml bolus......, and 18 +/- 6 for the first 1.5 h of recovery and decreased to 30 +/- 6, 36 +/- 3, and 8 +/- 6 mmol. kg dry muscle(-1). h(-1) between 1.5 and 4 h for CHO/protein, CHO, and water ingestion, respectively. No differences could be observed between CHO/protein and CHO ingestion ingestion. It is concluded...... concentration compared with water ingestion during 4 h of recovery. With CHO ingestion, glucose concentration was 1-1.5 mmol/l higher during the first hour of recovery compared with CHO/protein ingestion. Leg glucose uptake was initially 0.7 mmol/min with water ingestion and decreased gradually...

  17. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in Brazilian commercial dog food: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Fernanda; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In recent decades, the exposure of non-human species to ionizing radiation, as well as its effects, has been given a different focus; on the one hand due to the increasing knowledge on different exposure situations that these species are subjected to and on the other hand, due to the concern regarding biodiversity and its protection. To estimate the effects of ionizing radiation over non-human biota, several key points must be considered, such as radionuclide concentration, dosimetry models, reference biota and others. A vast number of non-human individuals can be represented by reference organisms defined by different international organisms (UNSCEAR, ICRP and the FASSET project), to facilitate the assessment of exposure, absorbed dose and radiation effect for individuals from alike environments. There is, however, no specific representative for domestic animals, like dogs and cats. Brazil holds the second largest dog and cat population in the world, consuming over 2 million tons of feed every year. The Brazilian Association of the Industry of Products for Pets (ABINPET) foresees, for the year of 2013, an economic growth of 8.1% that may represent 0.34% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Animal food content and quality evaluations have been presented elsewhere, while no radiological study and the consequences from its ingestion have ever been conducted in the country. Hence, the present study will evaluate absorbed doses for domestic animals (i.e. dogs and cats) due to ingestion of food designed for them, by determining the radioactivity content of natural and anthropogenic cause. Initially, the activity concentrations in different brands of dry dog and cat food will be assessed by high resolution gamma spectrometry. Several brands usually consumed in Brazil were selected for the study. Eighteen dog food samples were prepared (crushed into powder and kiln dried) and tightly sealed in 100 mL high density polyethylene flasks, with a plan screw cap and bubble

  18. Lesson plans in surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, S E; Robson, A K R

    2007-06-01

    Lesson plans in surgery enable trainers and trainees to agree on goals that balance training needs with service commitments. Lesson plans are individualised to the trainee and encourage ownership of learning. They are based on SMART criteria and therefore have a sound educational footing. Most of the work in creating a lesson plan falls to the trainee. The total time for creation of each plan is approximately 20 min. Our use of lesson plans for surgical training has been met with favourable response from both trainer and trainees.

  19. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION THROUGH BIOREMEDIATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRANCIS, A.J.

    2006-09-29

    Treatment of waste streams containing radionuclides, the remediation of contaminated materials, soils, and water, and the safe and economical disposal of radionuclides and toxic metals containing wastes is a major concern. Radionuclides may exist in various oxidation states and may be present as oxide, coprecipitates, inorganic, and organic complexes depending on the process and waste stream. Unlike organic contaminants, the metals cannot be destroyed, but must either be converted to a stable form or removed. Microorganisms present in the natural environment play a major role in the mobilization and immobilization of radionuclides and toxic metals by direct enzymatic or indirect non-enzymatic actions and could affect the chemical nature of the radionuclides by altering the speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of microbiological transformations of various chemical forms of uranium present in wastes and contaminated soils and water has led to the development of novel bioremediation processes. One process uses anaerobic bacteria to stabilize the radionuclides by reductive precipitation from higher to lower oxidation state with a concurrent reduction in volume due to the dissolution and removal of nontoxic elements from the waste matrix. In an another process, uranium and other toxic metals are removed from contaminated surfaces, soils, and wastes by extracting with the chelating agent citric acid. Uranium is recovered from the citric acid extract after biodegradation followed by photodegradation in a concentrated form as UO{sub 3} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O for recycling or appropriate disposal. These processes use all naturally occurring materials, common soil bacteria, naturally occurring organic compound citric acid and sunlight.

  20. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P., E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt; Oliveira, João M.; Malta, Margarida

    2014-02-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7255 ± 285 Bq kg{sup −1}, mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (< 1.0 μm). Depending on smoke particle concentration, {sup 210}Po in surface air near forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 mBq m{sup −3}, while in smoke-free air {sup 210}Po concentration was about 30 μBq m{sup −3}. The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24 h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from {sup 210}Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of {sup 210}Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides in vegetation are in low concentrations. • Forest fires release natural radionuclides from vegetation and concentrate them in inhalable ash particles. • Prolonged inhalation of smoke from forest fires gives rise enhanced radiation exposure of lungs especially due to polonium. • Respiratory protection of fire fighters and members of public is highly recommended for radioprotection reasons.

  1. Radionuclide Esophageal Transit Scintigraphy in Primary Hypothyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shoukat H; Madhu, Vijay P; Rather, Tanveer A; Laway, Bashir A

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Esophageal dysmotility is associated with gastrointestinal dysmotility in various systemic and neuroregulatory disorders. Hypothyroidism has been reported to be associated with impaired motor function in esophagus due to accumulation of glycosaminoglycan hyaluronic acid in its soft tissues, leading to changes in various contraction and relaxation parameters of esophagus, particularly in the lower esophageal sphincter. In this study we evaluated esophageal transit times in patients of primary hypothyroidism using the technique of radionuclide esophageal transit scintigraphy. Methods Thirty-one patients of primary hypothyroidism and 15 euthyroid healthy controls were evaluated for esophageal transit time using 15–20 MBq of Technetium-99m sulfur colloid diluted in 10–15 mL of drinking water. Time activity curve was generated for each study and esophageal transit time was calculated as time taken for clearance of 90% radioactive bolus from the region of interest encompassing the esophagus. Esophageal transit time of more than 10 seconds was considered as prolonged. Results Patients of primary hypothyroidism had a significantly increased mean esophageal transit time of 19.35 ± 20.02 seconds in comparison to the mean time of 8.25 ± 1.71 seconds in healthy controls (P < 0.05). Esophageal transit time improved and in some patients even normalized after treatment with thyroxine. A positive correlation (r = 0.39, P < 0.05) albeit weak existed between the serum thyroid stimulating hormone and the observed esophageal transit time. Conclusions A significant number of patients with primary hypothyroidism may have subclinical esophageal dysmotility with prolonged esophageal transit time which can be reversible by thyroxine treatment. Prolonged esophageal transit time in primary hypothyroidism may correlate with serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels. PMID:27444283

  2. RUSSIAN LESSONS FOR 1999

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    This autumn, Russian courses will be continued at CERN for beginners and advanced.The first lesson for advanced students will take place on 6th September at 12.00 noon as scheduled.A general briefing for beginners is planned for Thursday30th September at 17.00 in 54-1-002.For further details, please contact the teacher, Mrs Macha Mikhailova by e-mail at: Vladimir.Mikhailov@cern.ch

  3. Somalia Operations: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    are the only other • .o" ’" "- THE OPERATIONAL COwnTEX FI(GUM1, EI Smoall Gulf of Aden DJIEBO U.S. and SomaMa Flelol Sin 12 SOMALIA OPERATIONS: LESSONS...demeanor that sawess q-d let diplomacy and reasuing wMii achiev- more than arogance. anger, disdain. coon. or sarcasm . PmmmeI mut be able to cope pq

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa septic shock secondary to "gripe water" ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas, David; Enrione, Maria A; Schwartz, Richard H

    2004-02-01

    We report the case of a 9-month-old girl who presented in septic shock after ingestion of a contaminated herbal supplement commonly used to treat colic. Herbal supplements are widely used by well-meaning parents for many common conditions. Pediatricians should be aware that the variable manufacturing and packaging conditions of herbal supplements can lead to contamination with infectious agents.

  5. Voluntary ingestion of buprenorphine as a refined analgesic strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Kalliokoski, Otto Henrik; Hau, Jann

    2011-01-01

    Buprenorphine is a widely used analgesic for laboratory rodents. Administration of the drug in an attractive food item for voluntary ingestion is a desirable way to administer the drug noninvasively. The method refi nes the standard analgesic procedure and has the potential to improve the welfare...

  6. Sudden death due to forced ingestion of vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Lisa B E; Rolf, Cristin M; Hunsaker, John C

    2016-09-01

    Vinegar is a clear colorless liquid that commercially consists of 5% acetic acid. It has numerous benefits in everyday use, including culinary, medical, and cleaning. The ingestion of concentrated acetic acid is strongly discouraged and may have detrimental consequences, such as acute pancreatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, gastric and hepatic complications, upper airway obstruction, or death. We report the first case in the literature of a 5-year-old boy who experienced a sudden death due to ingestion of distilled white vinegar. The manner was homicide. There was evidence of nonfatal blunt force impacts of the head, trunk, and extremities. A pungent aromatic odor of the viscera, gastric/small bowel contents, and cranial cavity was noted at autopsy. A dusky gray discoloration of the gastric mucosa, small bowel, and pancreas was observed. Forensic pathologists should consider ingestion of vinegar when confronted with a compelling history as well as an aromatic odor suggesting vinegar and dusky gray discoloration of the gastric mucosa and small bowel. While vinegar is a common household item and has several advantages, it may prove fatal if ingested in large quantities.

  7. Combined glucose ingestion and mouth rinsing improves sprint cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Edwin; Guelfi, Kym J; Fournier, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated whether combined ingestion and mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution could improve maximal sprint cycling performance. Twelve competitive male cyclists ingested 100 ml of one of the following solutions 20 min before exercise in a randomized double-blinded counterbalanced order (a) 10% glucose solution, (b) 0.05% aspartame solution, (c) 9.0% maltodextrin solution, or (d) water as a control. Fifteen min after ingestion, repeated mouth rinsing was carried out with 11 × 15 ml bolus doses of the same solution at 30-s intervals. Each participant then performed a 45-s maximal sprint effort on a cycle ergometer. Peak power output was significantly higher in response to the glucose trial (1188 ± 166 W) compared with the water (1036 ± 177 W), aspartame (1088 ± 128 W) and maltodextrin (1024 ± 202 W) trials by 14.7 ± 10.6, 9.2 ± 4.6 and 16.0 ± 6.0% respectively (p sprint was significantly higher in the glucose trial compared with maltodextrin (p sprinting did not differ significantly between treatments (p > .05). These findings suggest that combining the ingestion of glucose with glucose mouth rinsing improves maximal sprint performance. This ergogenic effect is unlikely to be related to changes in blood glucose, sweetness, or energy sensing mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract.

  8. Plastic ingestion by harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo Rebolledo, E.; Franeker, van J.A.; Jansen, O.E.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abundance of ingested debris by seals has been mentioned as a potential indicator of marine litter in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). A sample of 107 stomachs, 100 intestines and 125 scats of harbour seals from the Netherlands was analysed for the presence of plastics. Incid

  9. Severe hypokalaemic paralysis and rhabdomyolysis due to ingestion of liquorice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. van den Bosch (Annemien); J.M. van der Klooster; D.M. Zuidgeest; R.J.T. Ouwendijk (Rob); A. Dees

    2005-01-01

    textabstractChronic ingestion of liquorice induces a syndrome with findings similar to those in primary hyperaldosteronism. We describe a patient who, with a plasma K+ of 1.8 mmol/l, showed a paralysis and severe rhabdomyolysis after the habitual consumption of natural liquorice. L

  10. Colloidal silver ingestion with copper and caeruloplasmin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Karolina M; Taylor, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    The copper concentration in serum can be affected by the presence of other trace elements such as silver. Low serum copper may result in decreased caeruloplasmin synthesis. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman, who was admitted to hospital with acute psychosis and who had been ingesting chronically, colloidal silver.

  11. Acute neurotoxicity after yohimbine ingestion by a body builder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampreti, Andrea; Lonati, Davide; Locatelli, Carlo; Rocchi, Loretta; Campailla, Maria Teresa

    2009-09-01

    Yohimbine is an alkaloid obtained from the Corynanthe yohimbe tree and other biological sources. Yohimbine is currently approved in the United States for erectile dysfunction and has undergone resurgence in street use as an aphrodisiac and mild hallucinogen. In recent years yohimbine use has become common in body-building communities for its presumed lipolytic and sympathomimetic effects. We describe a 37-year-old bodybuilder in which severe acute neurotoxic effects occurred in 2 h after yohimbine ingestion. The patient presented with malaise, vomiting, loss of consciousness, and repeated seizures after ingestion of 5 g of yohimbine during a body-building competition in a gymnasium. His Glasgow Coma Score was 3, requiring orotracheal intubation. Two hours after admission, vital signs were blood pressure 259/107 mmHg and heart rate 140 beats/min. Treatment with furosemide, labetalol, clonidine, and urapidil and gastrointestinal decontamination were performed. Twelve hours later the patient was extubated with normal hemodynamic parameters and neurological examination. The yohimbine blood levels at 3, 6, 14, and 22 h after ingestion were 5,240; 2,250; 1,530; and 865 ng/mL, respectively, with a mean half-life of 2 h. Few data are available about yohimbine toxicity and the related blood levels. This is a case of a large ingestion of yohimbine in which severe hemodynamic and neurological manifestations occurred and elevated blood levels of yohimbine were detected.

  12. Boric acid ingestion clinically mimicking toxic epidermal necrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, David V; Stowman, Anne M; Patterson, James W

    2013-11-01

    The ingestion of large amounts of boric acid, a component of household insecticides, is a rare occurrence, characterized by a diffuse desquamative skin eruption, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, delirium, acute renal failure and prolonged ileus. A 56-year-old male with a history of multiple previous suicide attempts was witnessed ingesting household roach killer and 4 days later presented to the hospital with lethargy, stiffness and a diffuse erythematous and desquamative eruption with bullous formation. He subsequently developed erythema of both palms as well as alopecia totalis. Histopathology from a right arm shave biopsy revealed a mostly intact epidermis with subtle vacuolar alteration of the basal layer, scattered intraepidermal apoptotic keratinocytes, parakeratosis with alternating layers of orthokeratosis and considerable superficial exfoliation; accompanying dermal changes included vasodilatation and mild perivascular inflammation. This report describes the cutaneous and systemic complications in a rare case of boric acid ingestion. There is little published material on the symptoms and histopathology following boric acid ingestion, but knowledge of this entity is important, both to differentiate it from other causes of desquamative skin rashes and to allow the initiation of appropriate clinical care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Report on cancer risks associated with the ingestion of asbestos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemen, R.; Meinhardt, T.; Becking, G.; Cantor, K.; Cherner, J.

    1986-01-01

    Cancer risks associated with ingestion of asbestos are discussed. Asbestos contamination of drinking water is considered. At least 66.5% of the United States water systems are capable of eroding asbestos cement pipes. The ability of water to leach asbestos from asbestos cement pipes can be modified by coatings applied to the inside pipe surface. Asbestos contamination in foods or pharmaceuticals is discussed. Asbestos fibers at concentrations of 1.1 to 172.7 million fibers per liter have been found in beverages. To date, studies supported by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have provided no evidence that ingesting asbestos results in an increased cancer risk. The FDA has determined that no prohibition on using asbestos filters in processing food, beverages, and non-parenteral drugs is needed. Toxicological studies on asbestos ingestion and carcinogenicity are reviewed. Epidemiological evaluations of the association between drinking-water supplies containing asbestos and cancer mortality are discussed. It is concluded that the available information is insufficient for assessing the risk of cancer associated with ingesting asbestos.

  14. Estimating Children's Soil/Dust Ingestion Rates through ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Soil/dust ingestion rates are important variables in assessing children’s health risks in contaminated environments. Current estimates are based largely on soil tracer methodology, which is limited by analytical uncertainty, small sample size, and short study duration. Objectives: The objective was to estimate site-specific soil/dust ingestion rates through reevaluation of the lead absorption dose–response relationship using new bioavailability data from the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site (BHSS) in Idaho, USA. Methods: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in vitro bioavailability methodology was applied to archived BHSS soil and dust samples. Using age-specific biokinetic slope factors, we related bioavailable lead from these sources to children’s blood lead levels (BLLs) monitored during cleanup from 1988 through 2002. Quantitative regression analyses and exposure assessment guidance were used to develop candidate soil/dust source partition scenarios estimating lead intake, allowing estimation of age-specific soil/dust ingestion rates. These ingestion rate and bioavailability estimates were simultaneously applied to the U.S. EPA Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children to determine those combinations best approximating observed BLLs. Results: Absolute soil and house dust bioavailability averaged 33% (SD ± 4%) and 28% (SD ± 6%), respectively. Estimated BHSS age-specific soil/du

  15. Transient ischaemic attack caused by an ingested stingray barb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Desmond C C; Huilgol, Ravi L; Westcott, Mark J

    A 76-year-old woman reported a fishbone stuck in her throat, but no foreign body was identified. Eight weeks later, she experienced a transient ischaemic attack, and a stingray barb was subsequently removed from the right common carotid artery. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the migration of an ingested stingray barb.

  16. Ingestion Pathway Consequences of a Major Release from SRTC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-06-08

    The food ingestion consequences due to radioactive particulates of an accidental release, scenario 1-RD-3, are evaluated for Savannah River Technology Center. The sizes of land areas requiring the protective action of food interdiction are calculated. The consequences of the particulate portion of the release are evaluated with the HOTSPOT model and an EXCEL spreadsheet for particulates.

  17. Microplastic ingestion in fish larvae in the western English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Madeleine; Cole, Matthew; Thompson, Richard C; Lindeque, Penelope K

    2017-07-01

    Microplastics have been documented in marine environments worldwide, where they pose a potential risk to biota. Environmental interactions between microplastics and lower trophic organisms are poorly understood. Coastal shelf seas are rich in productivity but also experience high levels of microplastic pollution. In these habitats, fish have an important ecological and economic role. In their early life stages, planktonic fish larvae are vulnerable to pollution, environmental stress and predation. Here we assess the occurrence of microplastic ingestion in wild fish larvae. Fish larvae and water samples were taken across three sites (10, 19 and 35 km from shore) in the western English Channel from April to June 2016. We identified 2.9% of fish larvae (n = 347) had ingested microplastics, of which 66% were blue fibres; ingested microfibers closely resembled those identified within water samples. With distance from the coast, larval fish density increased significantly (P microplastic concentrations (P microplastics and the incidence of ingestion in fish larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of kale ingestion on pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Izumi; Uotsu, Nobuo; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Takayanagi, Risa; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2011-12-01

    Kale is a cruciferous vegetable (Brassicaceae) that contains a large amount of health-promoting phytochemicals. The chronic ingestion of cabbage of the same family is known to accelerate conjugating acetaminophen (AA) and decrease the plasma AA level. Therefore, we examined to clarify the effects of kale on the pharmacokinetics of AA, its glucuronide (AA-G) and sulfate (AA-S). AA was orally administered to rats pre-treated with kale or cabbage (2000 mg/kg/day) for one week. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein, and the concentrations of AA, AA-G and AA-S were determined. In results, kale ingestion induced an increase in the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and a decrease in the clearance of AA, whereas cabbage had almost no influence. In addition, there were significant differences in the AUC of AA-G between the control and kale groups. mRNA expression levels of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, the enzymes involved in glucuronidation, in the kale group were significantly higher than those in the control group. In conclusion, kale ingestion increased the plasma concentrations of both AA and AA-G. The results suggest that kale ingestion accelerates the glucuronidation of AA, but an increase of plasma AA levels has a different cause than the cause of glucuronidation.

  19. [Systemic allergic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts, Pinus pinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-11-26

    An in vivo open oral provocation with pine nuts (Pinus pinea) confirmed information about systemic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts. In vitro tests suggested a systemic IgE allergic reaction. Pine nuts are employed in sweets and cakes and, as in the present case, in green salads.

  20. Ingestion into the upstream wheelspace of an axial turbine stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T.; Turner, A. B.

    1994-04-01

    The upstream wheelspace of an axial air turbine stage complete with nozzle guide vanes (NGVs) and rotor blades (430 mm mean diameter) has been tested with the objective of examining the combined effect of NGVs and rotor blades on the level of mainstream ingestion for different seal flow rates. A simple axial clearance seal was used with the rotor spun up to 6650 rpm by drawing air through it from atmospheric pressure with a large centrifugal compressor. The effect of rotational speed was examined for several constant mainstream flow rates by controlling the rotor speed with an air brake. The circumferential variation in hub static pressure was measured at the trailing edge of the NGVs upstream of the seal gap and was found to affect ingestion significantly. The hub static pressure distribution on the rotor blade leading edges was rotor speed dependent and could not be measured in the experiments. The Denton three-dimensional CFD computer code was used to predict the smoothed time-dependent pressure field for the rotor together with the pressure distribution downstream of the NGVs. The level and distribution of mainstream ingestion, and thus, the seal effectiveness, was determined from nitrous oxide gas concentration measurements and related to static pressure measurements made throughout the wheelspace. With the axial clearance rim seal close to the rotor the presence of the blades had a complex effect. Rotor blades in connection with NGVs were found to reduce mainstream ingestion seal flow rates significantly, but a small level of ingestion existed even for very high levels of seal flow rate.

  1. Arsenic metabolites in humans after ingestion of wakame seaweed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hata A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed contains large amounts of various arsenic compounds such as arsenosugars (AsSugs, but their relative toxicities have not yet been fully evaluated. A risk evaluation of dietary arsenic would be necessary. After developing an arsenic speciation analysis of wakame seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida, we conducted a wakame ingestion experiment using volunteers. Five volunteers ingested 300 g of commercial wakame after refraining from seafood for 5 days. Arsenic metabolites in the urine were monitored over a 5-day period after ingestion. Total arsenic concentration of the wakame seaweed was 34.3 ± 2.1 mg arsenic/kg (dry weight, n = 3. Two AsSugs, 3-[5′-deoxy-5′-(dimethyl-arsinoyl-β-ribofuranosyloxy]-propylene glycol (AsSug328 and 3-[5′-deoxy-5′-(dimethyl-arsinoyl-β- ribofuranosyl-oxy]-2-hydroxypropyl-2,3-dihydroxy-propyl phosphate (AsSug482 were detected, but arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA, monomethylarsonic acid, and inorganic arsenics (iAs were not detected. The major peak was AsSug328, which comprised 89% of the total arsenic. Approximately 30% of the total arsenic ingested was excreted in the urine during the 5-day observation. Five arsenic compounds were detected in the urine after ingestion, the major one being DMA, which comprised 58.1 ± 5.0% of the total urinary arsenic excreted over the 5 days. DMA was believed to be metabolized not from iAs but from AsSugs, and its biological half-time was approximately 13 h.

  2. GNSS derived TEC data ingestion into IRI 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migoya-Orué, Yenca; Nava, Bruno; Radicella, Sandro; Alazo-Cuartas, Katy

    2015-04-01

    Experimental vertical total electron content (VTEC) data given by Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM) has been ingested into the IRI version 2012, aiming to obtain grids of effective input parameter values that allow to minimize the difference between the experimental and modeled vertical TEC. Making use of the experience gained with the technique of model adaptation applied to NeQuick (Nava et al., 2005), it has been found possible to compute IRI world grids of effective ionosphere index parameters (IG). The IG grids thus obtained can be interpolated in space and time to calculate with IRI the 3D electron density at any location and also the TEC along any ground-to-satellite ray-path for a given epoch. In this study, the ingestion technique is presented and a posteriori validation, along with an assessment of the capability of the 'ingested' IRI to reproduce the ionosphere day-to-day foF2 variability during disturbed and quiet periods. The foF2 values retrieved are compared with data from about 20 worldwide ionosondes for selected periods of high (year 2000) and moderate to low solar activity (year 2006). It was found that the use of the ingestion scheme enhances the performance of the model when compared with its standard use based on solar activity drivers (R12 and F10.7), especially for high solar activity. As an example, the mean and standard deviation of the differences between experimental and reconstructed F2-peak values for April of year 2000 is 0.09 and 1.28 MHz for ingested IRI, compared to -0.81 and 1.27 MHz (IRI with R12 input) and -0.02 and 1.46 MHz (IRI with F10.7 input).

  3. Best Practice Lesson Plans: A Lesson Plan in Cognitive Restructuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Gary W.

    2006-01-01

    This particular lesson was developed for Cognitive Skills I, a central course in cognitive restructuring at the Mt. Olive Correctional Center. In this lesson the author developed a series of classroom activities to allow students to examine and assess current beliefs they possess, and to understand how these beliefs--whether judged rational or…

  4. REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES IN DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S.; Diprete, D.; Click, D.; Bannochie, C.

    2011-12-20

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that the waste producer 'shall report the curie inventory of radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115.' As part of the strategy to meet WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type all radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and contribute greater than 0.01 percent of the total curie inventory from the time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial list of radionuclides to be reported is based on the design-basis glass identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report. However, it is required that the list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that meet the 'greater than 0.01% of the curie inventory' criterion. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, and U-238; and Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete list of reportable radionuclides must also include these sets of U and Pu isotopes - and the U and Pu isotopic mass distributions must be identified. The DWPF receives HLW sludge slurry from Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 40. For Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), the waste in Tank 40 contained a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the Sludge Batch 7 (SB7) material transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. This sludge blend is also referred to as Macrobatch 8. Laboratory analyses of a Tank 40 sludge sample were performed to quantify the concentrations of pertinent radionuclides in the SB7a waste. Subsequently

  5. Communication of radiation benefits and risks in decision making: some lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Paul A

    2011-11-01

    This paper is focused on summarizing the "lessons learned" from discussions at the 2010 NCRP Annual Meeting on effective communications on the subject of radiation benefits and risks in public exposures. Five main lessons learned are discussed in regard to effective methods of public communication: the use of new social media communication tools such as Facebook and Twitter, emergency situations that require rapid societal and personal messaging, medical radiological procedures where benefits must be described in comparison to long-term health risks of radiation exposures, and information that should be provided to stakeholders in situations such as environmental radionuclide contamination to which members of the public may be exposed. It is concluded that effective communications in which radiation benefits are contrasted with health risks of exposure are an important aspect of making and implementing decisions on employing radiation health protection procedures.

  6. Radionuclides in Bayer process residues: previous analysis for radiological protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Rocha, Zildete, E-mail: vc@cdtn.b, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Arno H. de, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Natural occurring radionuclides are present in many natural resources. Human activities may enhance concentrations of radionuclides and/or enhance potential of exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The industrial residues containing radionuclides have been receiving a considerable global attention, because of the large amounts of NORM containing wastes and the potential long term risks of long-lived radionuclides. Included in this global concern, this work focuses on the characterization of radioactivity in the main residues of Bayer process for alumina production: red mud and sand samples. Usually, the residues of Bayer process are named red mud, in their totality. However, in the industry where the samples were collected, there is an additional residues separation: sand and red mud. The analytical techniques used were gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector) and neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of radionuclides are higher in the red mud than in the sand. These solid residues present activities concentrations enhanced, when compared to bauxite. Further uses for the residues as building material must be more evaluated from the radiological point of view, due to its potential of radiological exposure enhancement, specially caused by radon emission. (author)

  7. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Malta, Margarida

    2014-02-15

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ((210)Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7,255 ± 285 Bq kg(-1), mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 m Bq m(-3), while in smoke-free air (210)Po concentration was about 30 μ Bq m(-3). The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from (210)Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of (210)Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended.

  8. Bioremediation: a genuine technology to remediate radionuclides from the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Dhan; Gabani, Prashant; Chandel, Anuj K; Ronen, Zeev; Singh, Om V

    2013-07-01

    Radionuclides in the environment are a major human and environmental health concern. Like the Chernobyl disaster of 1986, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011 is once again causing damage to the environment: a large quantity of radioactive waste is being generated and dumped into the environment, and if the general population is exposed to it, may cause serious life-threatening disorders. Bioremediation has been viewed as the ecologically responsible alternative to environmentally destructive physical remediation. Microorganisms carry endogenous genetic, biochemical and physiological properties that make them ideal agents for pollutant remediation in soil and groundwater. Attempts have been made to develop native or genetically engineered (GE) microbes for the remediation of environmental contaminants including radionuclides. Microorganism-mediated bioremediation can affect the solubility, bioavailability and mobility of radionuclides. Therefore, we aim to unveil the microbial-mediated mechanisms for biotransformation of radionuclides under various environmental conditions as developing strategies for waste management of radionuclides. A discussion follows of '-omics'-integrated genomics and proteomics technologies, which can be used to trace the genes and proteins of interest in a given microorganism towards a cell-free bioremediation strategy. © 2013 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Nanotargeted Radionuclides for Cancer Nuclear Imaging and Internal Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gann Ting

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Current progress in nanomedicine has exploited the possibility of designing tumor-targeted nanocarriers being able to deliver radionuclide payloads in a site or molecular selective manner to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer imaging and therapy. Radionuclides of auger electron-, α-, β-, and γ-radiation emitters have been surface-bioconjugated or after-loaded in nanoparticles to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of cancer imaging and therapy in preclinical and clinical studies. This article provides a brief overview of current status of applications, advantages, problems, up-to-date research and development, and future prospects of nanotargeted radionuclides in cancer nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. Passive and active nanotargeting delivery of radionuclides with illustrating examples for tumor imaging and therapy are reviewed and summarized. Research on combing different modes of selective delivery of radionuclides through nanocarriers targeted delivery for tumor imaging and therapy offers the new possibility of large increases in cancer diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic index. However, further efforts and challenges in preclinical and clinical efficacy and toxicity studies are required to translate those advanced technologies to the clinical applications for cancer patients.

  10. Radionuclides from past uranium mining in rivers of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Lopes, Irene; Batista, Aleluia

    2007-01-01

    During several decades and until a few years ago, uranium mines were exploited in the Centre of Portugal and wastewaters from uranium ore milling facilities were discharged into river basins. To investigate enhancement of radioactivity in freshwater ecosystems, radionuclides of uranium and thorium series were measured in water, sediments, suspended matter, and fish samples from the rivers Vouga, Dão, Távora and Mondego. The results show that these rivers carry sediments with relatively high naturally occurring radioactivity, and display relatively high concentrations of radon dissolved in water, which is typical of a uranium rich region. Riverbed sediments show enhanced concentrations of radionuclides in the mid-section of the Mondego River, a sign of past wastewater discharges from mining and milling works at Urgeiriça confirmed by the enhanced values of (238)U/(232)Th radionuclide ratios in sediments. Radionuclide concentrations in water, suspended matter and freshwater fish from that section of Mondego are also enhanced in comparison with concentrations measured in other rivers. Based on current radionuclide concentrations in fish, regular consumption of freshwater species by local populations would add 0.032 mSv a(-1) of dose equivalent (1%) to the average background radiation dose. Therefore, it is concluded that current levels of enhanced radioactivity do not pose a significant radiological risk either to aquatic fauna or to freshwater fish consumers.

  11. Quantitative modeling of Cerenkov light production efficiency from medical radionuclides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J Beattie

    Full Text Available There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and β particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use.

  12. Studying the anthropogenic radionuclides in Puerto Rico: Preliminary Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ithier-Guzmán, W.; Pyrtle, A. J.; Smoak, J.

    2004-12-01

    Local introduction of anthropogenic radionuclides to Puerto Rico's terrestrial and aquatic environments began in 1962 as a result of US government-sponsored research activities. Some of the earlier experiments examined the effects of radiation in tropical rainforests and the potential of superheated boiling nuclear reactor technology. More recent activities involved the use of depleted uranium during military exercises on Vieques. While the presence of radionuclides in Puerto Rico is documented, little research has been done to assess the environmental impact of this anthropogenic material. After entering Puerto Rico's environment, it is likely that some radionuclides are transported away from initial introduction sites. It is important that the distributions and behavior of radionuclides in Puerto Rico be determined. As such an investigation of this material throughout Puerto Rico was initiated. Sediment Cs-137 and Pb-210 activities, as well as ancillary geochemistry data are presented. These preliminary findings will be utilized as part of an ongoing study to determine radionuclide distributions and behaviors, with respect to aquatic geochemistry and dominant transport processes.

  13. First approach to radionuclide mixtures quantification by using plastic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarancon, A. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, J.F. [Departament de Pintura, Universitat de Barcelona, Pau Gargallo 4, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: jfgarcia@ub.edu; Rauret, G. [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-05-08

    Recent studies have evaluated the capability of plastic scintillation (PS) as an alternative to liquid scintillation (LS) in radionuclide activity determination without mixed waste production. In order to complete the comparison, we now assess the extent to which PS can be used to quantify mixtures of radionuclides and the influence of the diameter of the plastic scintillation beads in detection efficiency. The results show that the detection efficiency decreases and the spectrum shrink to lower energies when the size of the plastic scintillation beads increases, and that the lower the energy of the beta particle, the greater the variation takes place. Similar behaviour has been observed for beta-gamma and alpha emitters. Two scenarios for the quantification of mixtures are considered, one including two radionuclides ({sup 14}C and {sup 60}Co) whose spectra do not overlap significantly, and the other including two radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y), where the spectra of one the isotopes is totally overlapped by the other The calculation has been performed by using the conventional window selection procedure and a new approach in which the selected windows correspond to those with lower quantification errors. Relative errors obtained using the proposed approach (less than 10%) are lower than those of the conventional procedure, even when a radionuclide is completely overlapped, except for those samples with extreme activity ratios that were not included in the window optimization process.

  14. Natural radionuclides in soils from Sao Paulo State cerrado forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Marcia V.F.E.S.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Franca, Elvis J. de, E-mail: mvaleria@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Considering the long life history, forests should be preferentially evaluated for the monitoring of radionuclides, mainly artificial radioisotopes. However, little is known about nuclides from Uranium and Thorium series, as well as, K-40, in soils from the Sao Paulo State forests. Soils are the main reservoir of natural radionuclides for vegetation, thereby deserving attention. Taking into account the advantages of High-Resolution Gamma-ray Spectrometry (HRGS), diverse radionuclides can be quantified simultaneously. In this work natural radionuclides in soils from the Estacao Ecologica de Assis were evaluated by HRGS. Samples of 0-10 cm depth were collected under crown projection of most abundant tree species of long-term plots installed within the Estacao Ecologica de Assis, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. After drying and milling until 0.5 mm particle size, test portions of 30 g were transferred to polypropylene vials, sealed with silicone and kept under controlled conditions until 30 days to achieve secular equilibrium. A group of gamma-ray spectrometers was used to analyze about 27 samples by 80,000 seconds. Activity concentrations of Pb-214, Ac-228 and K-40 and their respective expanded analytical uncertainties at the 95% confidence level were calculated by Genie software from Canberra. Abnormal values were not detected for radionuclides in soils samples, however K-40 activity concentrations changed considerably due to the mineral cycling, in which K and, consequently K-40, is mainly stocked in vegetation in spite of soils. (author)

  15. Multibarrier system preventing migration of radionuclides from radioactive waste repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olszewska Wioleta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Safety of radioactive waste repositories operation is associated with a multibarrier system designed and constructed to isolate and contain the waste from the biosphere. Each of radioactive waste repositories is equipped with system of barriers, which reduces the possibility of release of radionuclides from the storage site. Safety systems may differ from each other depending on the type of repository. They consist of the natural geological barrier provided by host rocks of the repository and its surroundings, and an engineered barrier system (EBS. The EBS may itself comprise a variety of sub-systems or components, such as waste forms, canisters, buffers, backfills, seals and plugs. The EBS plays a major role in providing the required disposal system performance. It is assumed that the metal canisters and system of barriers adequately isolate waste from the biosphere. The evaluation of the multibarrier system is carried out after detailed tests to determine its parameters, and after analysis including mathematical modeling of migration of contaminants. To provide an assurance of safety of radioactive waste repository multibarrier system, detailed long term safety assessments are developed. Usually they comprise modeling of EBS stability, corrosion rate and radionuclide migration in near field in geosphere and biosphere. The principal goal of radionuclide migration modeling is assessment of the radionuclides release paths and rate from the repository, radionuclides concentration in geosphere in time and human exposure to ionizing radiation

  16. Radionuclides in fruit systems: Model prediction-experimental data intercomparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ould-Dada, Z. [Food Standards Agency, Radiological Protection and Research Management Division, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, Room 715B, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: Zitouni.ould-dada@defra.gsi.gov.uk; Carini, F. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Via Emilia Parmense, 84, I-29100 Piacenza (Italy); Eged, K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, P.O. Box 158 H-8201, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary); Kis, Z. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, P.O. Box 158 H-8201, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary); Linkov, I. [ICF Consulting, Inc., 33 Hayden Ave, Lexington, MA 02421 (United States); Mitchell, N.G. [Mouchel Consulting Ltd., West Hall, Parvis Road, West Byfleet, Surrey, KT14 6EZ (United Kingdom); Mourlon, C. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN)/Environment and Emergency Operations Division (DEI), Laboratory of Environmental Modelling - LME, CE/Cadarache, 13 108 St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Robles, B. [CIEMAT, Dept. de Impacto Ambiental (DIAE), Edif. 3A, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sweeck, L. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Venter, A. [Enviros Consulting Ltd, Telegraphic House, Waterfront Quay, Salford Quays, Greater Manchester, M50 3XW (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents results from an international exercise undertaken to test model predictions against an independent data set for the transfer of radioactivity to fruit. Six models with various structures and complexity participated in this exercise. Predictions from these models were compared against independent experimental measurements on the transfer of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 85}Sr via leaf-to-fruit and soil-to-fruit in strawberry plants after an acute release. Foliar contamination was carried out through wet deposition on the plant at two different growing stages, anthesis and ripening, while soil contamination was effected at anthesis only. In the case of foliar contamination, predicted values are within the same order of magnitude as the measured values for both radionuclides, while in the case of soil contamination models tend to under-predict by up to three orders of magnitude for {sup 134}Cs, while differences for {sup 85}Sr are lower. Performance of models against experimental data is discussed together with the lessons learned from this exercise.

  17. Radionuclides in fruit systems. Model prediction-experimental data intercomparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ould-Dada, Z. [Food Standards Agency, Radiological Protection and Research Management Division, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, Room 715B, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Carini, F. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Via Emilia Parmense, 84, I-29100 Piacenza (Italy); Eged, K.; Kis, Z. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, P.O. Box 158 H-8201, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary); Linkov, I. [ICF Consulting, Inc., 33 Hayden Ave, Lexington, MA 02421 (United States); Mitchell, N.G. [Mouchel Consulting Ltd., West Hall, Parvis Road, West Byfleet, Surrey, KT14 6EZ (United Kingdom); Mourlon, C. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN)/Environment and Emergency Operations Division (DEI), Laboratory of Environmental Modelling LME, CE/Cadarache, 13 108 St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Robles, B. [CIEMAT, Dept. de Impacto Ambiental (DIAE), Edif. 3A, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sweeck, L. [SCK/CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Venter, A. [Enviros Consulting Ltd, Telegraphic House, Waterfront Quay, Salford Quays, Greater Manchester, M50 3XW (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents results from an international exercise undertaken to test model predictions against an independent data set for the transfer of radioactivity to fruit. Six models with various structures and complexity participated in this exercise. Predictions from these models were compared against independent experimental measurements on the transfer of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 85}Sr via leaf-to-fruit and soil-to-fruit in strawberry plants after an acute release. Foliar contamination was carried out through wet deposition on the plant at two different growing stages, anthesis and ripening, while soil contamination was effected at anthesis only. In the case of foliar contamination, predicted values are within the same order of magnitude as the measured values for both radionuclides, while in the case of soil contamination models tend to under-predict by up to three orders of magnitude for {sup 134}Cs, while differences for {sup 85}Sr are lower. Performance of models against experimental data is discussed together with the lessons learned from this exercise. (author)

  18. Design for Life. Abortion. A Student's Lesson Plan [and] A Teacher's Lesson Plan [and] A Lawyer's Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Estelle; And Others

    One of a series of secondary level teaching units presenting case studies with pro and con analyses of particular legal problems, the document consists of a student's lesson plan, a teacher's lesson plan, and a lawyer's lesson plan for a unit on abortion. The lessons are designed to expose students to the Supreme Court's decision concerning…

  19. Development of long-lived radionuclide transmutation technology -Development of long-lived radionuclide handling technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Hoh; Jung, Won Myung; Lee, Kyoo Il; Woo, Moon Sik; Cho, Kyung Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    The final goals of this research are completion of design for construction of wet hot cell and auxiliary facilities, and development of main equipments and technologies for remote operation and near real time monitoring system of radioactivity of solution. This wet hot cell and technology will be used for active test of the radionuclide partitioning process and for fission Mo separation and purification process. And high level radioactive and toxic materials will be treated as the form of solution in this wet hot cell. In this R. and D., the important objectives are (1)to provide safe operation, and (2)to keep radiation exposure to staff as low as practicable, (3)to protect the environment. 34 figs, 22 tabs, 44 refs. (Author).

  20. Keiko, Killer Whale. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Keiko, the killer whale, lived for a long time in an aquarium and had to be taught to live independently; and that computer users can get updates on how Keiko is doing. The main activity of the lesson involves middle school students working in small groups to produce a…

  1. Geometrical Analogies in Mathematics Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Wolfram

    2007-01-01

    A typical form of thinking to approach problem solutions humanly is thinking in analogous structures. Therefore school, especially mathematical lessons should help to form and to develop corresponding heuristic abilities of the pupils. In the contribution, a summary of possibilities of mathematics lessons regarding this shall particularly be…

  2. Masterwork Art Lesson: Kandinsky Watercolors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LiPira, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Presents an art lesson used with sixth-grade students which also can be used with other grade levels. Explains that the artwork of Wassily Kandinsky served as inspiration for this lesson. Explains that the students learned about abstract art and used watercolors to create their own paintings in the style of Kandinsky. (CMK)

  3. Can You Haiku? [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    In this lesson plan, students learn the rules and conventions of haiku, study examples by Japanese masters, and create haiku of their own. Its 4 lessons seek to help students be able to: (1) describe the traditional rules and conventions of haiku; (2) interpret examples of haiku; (3) characterize the image-evoking power of haiku; (4) develop a…

  4. Heart of Darkness. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Joseph Conrad's novel "Heart of Darkness," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that critics have debated some of Conrad's choices in the novel; and that the novel reflects the world as Conrad saw it. The main activity of the lesson involves students rewriting the ending of the novel so that Marlow…

  5. A comparison of the dose from natural radionuclides and artificial radionuclides after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Iwaoka, Kazuki

    2016-07-01

    Due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, the evacuees from Namie Town still cannot reside in the town, and some continue to live in temporary housing units. In this study, the radon activity concentrations were measured at temporary housing facilities, apartments and detached houses in Fukushima Prefecture in order to estimate the annual internal exposure dose of residents. A passive radon-thoron monitor (using a CR-39) and a pulse-type ionization chamber were used to evaluate the radon activity concentration. The average radon activity concentrations at temporary housing units, including a medical clinic, apartments and detached houses, were 5, 7 and 9 Bq m(-3), respectively. Assuming the residents lived in these facilities for one year, the average annual effective doses due to indoor radon in each housing type were evaluated as 0.18, 0.22 and 0.29 mSv, respectively. The average effective doses to all residents in Fukushima Prefecture due to natural and artificial sources were estimated using the results of the indoor radon measurements and published data. The average effective dose due to natural sources for the evacuees from Namie Town was estimated to be 1.9 mSv. In comparison, for the first year after the FDNPP accident, the average effective dose for the evacuees due to artificial sources from the accident was 5.0 mSv. Although residents' internal and external exposures due to natural radionuclides cannot be avoided, it might be possible to lower external exposure due to the artificial radionuclides by changing some behaviors of residents.

  6. A comparison of the dose from natural radionuclides and artificial radionuclides after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Iwaoka, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, the evacuees from Namie Town still cannot reside in the town, and some continue to live in temporary housing units. In this study, the radon activity concentrations were measured at temporary housing facilities, apartments and detached houses in Fukushima Prefecture in order to estimate the annual internal exposure dose of residents. A passive radon–thoron monitor (using a CR-39) and a pulse-type ionization chamber were used to evaluate the radon activity concentration. The average radon activity concentrations at temporary housing units, including a medical clinic, apartments and detached houses, were 5, 7 and 9 Bq m−3, respectively. Assuming the residents lived in these facilities for one year, the average annual effective doses due to indoor radon in each housing type were evaluated as 0.18, 0.22 and 0.29 mSv, respectively. The average effective doses to all residents in Fukushima Prefecture due to natural and artificial sources were estimated using the results of the indoor radon measurements and published data. The average effective dose due to natural sources for the evacuees from Namie Town was estimated to be 1.9 mSv. In comparison, for the first year after the FDNPP accident, the average effective dose for the evacuees due to artificial sources from the accident was 5.0 mSv. Although residents' internal and external exposures due to natural radionuclides cannot be avoided, it might be possible to lower external exposure due to the artificial radionuclides by changing some behaviors of residents. PMID:26838130

  7. Production of selected cosmogenic radionuclides by muons; 1, Fast muons

    CERN Document Server

    Heisinger, B; Jull, A J T; Kubik, P W; Ivy-Ochs, S; Neumaier, S; Knie, K; Lazarev, V A; Nolte, E

    2002-01-01

    To investigate muon-induced nuclear reactions leading to the production of radionuclides, targets made of C/sub 9/H/sub 12/, SiO /sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Al, S, CaCO/sub 3/, Fe, Ni, Cu, Gd, Yb and Tl were irradiated with 100 and 190 GeV muons in the NA54 experimental setup at CERN. The radionuclide concentrations were measured with accelerator mass spectrometry and gamma -spectroscopy. Results are presented for the corresponding partial formation cross- sections. Several of the long-lived and short-lived radionuclides studied are also produced by fast cosmic ray muons in the atmosphere and at depths underground. Because of their importance to Earth sciences investigations, calculations of the depth dependence of production rates by fast cosmic ray muons have been made. (48 refs).

  8. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    2006-10-18

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  9. Radionuclide Incorporation and Long Term Performance of Apatite Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianwei [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Lian, Jie [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Gao, Fei [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-01-04

    This project aims to combines state-of-the-art experimental and characterization techniques with atomistic simulations based on density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. With an initial focus on long-lived I-129 and other radionuclides such as Cs, Sr in apatite structure, specific research objectives include the atomic scale understanding of: (1) incorporation behavior of the radionuclides and their effects on the crystal chemistry and phase stability; (2) stability and microstructure evolution of designed waste forms under coupled temperature and radiation environments; (3) incorporation and migration energetics of radionuclides and release behaviors as probed by DFT and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations; and (4) chemical durability as measured in dissolution experiments for long term performance evaluation and model validation.

  10. Deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL`s Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory. With the exception of radium, there are no regulations or guidelines to establish cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soils at BNL. BNL must derive radionuclide soil cleanup guidelines for a number of Operable Units (OUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs). These guidelines are required by DOE under a proposed regulation for radiation protection of public health and the environment as well as to satisfy the requirements of CERCLA. The objective of this report is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL. Implementation of the approach is briefly discussed.

  11. Vesicoureteral reflux in adults studied by computerized radionuclide cystography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinn, A.C.; Jacobsson, H.; Schnell, P.O. (Depts. of Urology Diagnostic Radiology and Hospital Physics, Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1991-01-01

    Direct radionuclide cystography in a computerized method as described by Willi and Treves was used in adults with recurrent pyelites but without evidence of obstruction. Reflux was observed in 15 out of 38 patients. In patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction or megaureters, reflux began early during the bladder filling and attained higher volumes than in those with uncomplicated pyelitis, who has minor reflux appearing mainly during voiding. Bladder capacity and detrusor compliance were lower in patients with reflux than in those without reflux. The low radiation exposure in radionuclide cystography permits observation of the urodynamic course of urinary reflux and correlation to the intravesical volume and pressure. The method is sensitive, and minorl refluxed volumes can be detected. Radionuclide cystrography can therefore be recommended for checking or surgical results and for follow-up of patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. (au).

  12. Foraging preferences influence microplastic ingestion by six marine fish species from the Texas Gulf Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Colleen A; Thomas, Peyton A; Rieper, Kaitlyn B; Bratton, Susan P

    2017-07-11

    This study evaluated the influence of foraging preferences on microplastic ingestion by six marine fish species from the Texas Gulf Coast. A total of 1381 fish were analyzed and 42.4% contained ingested microplastic, inclusive of fiber (86.4%), microbead (12.9% %), and fragment (<1.0%) forms. Despite a substantial overlap in diet, ordination of ingested prey items clustered samples into distinctive species groupings, reflective of the foraging gradient among species. Orthopristis chrysoptera displayed the lowest overall frequency of microplastic ingestion and the most distinctive ordination grouping, indicating their selective invertebrate foraging preferences. Cluster analysis of O. chrysoptera most closely classified microplastic with the ingestion of benthic invertebrates, whereas the ingestion of microplastic by all other species most closely classified with the ingestion of vegetation and shrimp. O. chrysoptera, as selective invertebrate foragers, are less likely to ingest microplastics than species exhibiting generalist foraging preferences and methods of prey capture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Suicide case due to phosphoric acid ingestion: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquila, Isabella; Pepe, Francesca; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Ausania, Francesco; Serra, Arianna; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2014-11-01

    Ingesting caustic substances represents a common event which may result in serious injuries of the gastrointestinal system. Severity of injury depends on the type of ingested substance: Caustic burns are more frequently associated with acid ingestion and their severity depends on type, concentration, time of exposure, and amount of the ingested substance. We report a case of phosphoric acid ingestion leading to death in a patient with depressive disorder. While reports ingestion of other acids and organophosphates can be found in the literature, there are no reports detailing a death due to phosphoric acid ingestion. We hope that presenting the findings in this case can aid death investigators in future cases that may involve ingestion of such a substance. After autopsy pH, phosphate and calcium ions concentration in the blood were analyzed. The cause of death was due to systemic effects: metabolic acidosis, hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia, and hyperkalemia.

  14. The history of a lesson

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    2003-01-01

    and emphasises the need to study the history of lessons rather than the lessons of history. This approach shows that Munich is the end point of a constitutive history that begins in the failure of the Versailles treaty to create a durable European order following the First World War. The Munich lesson is thus...... one element of the lesson of Versailles, which is a praxeology that defines how the West is to make peace, and against whom peace must be defended. The lesson of Versailles has been, at least in part, constitutive of the outbreak of the Cold War, and it continues to define the Western conception...... of what defines peace and security even in the 'war against terrorism'....

  15. How Creative Are Your Art Lessons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Rosalie

    1976-01-01

    How a teacher achieves a balance between structure and freedom in his art lessons requires a critical awareness of the methods he chooses. Discusses the problems in teaching art lessons, the basic characteristics of creative art lessons, and provides a checklist for analyzing the effectiveness of an art lesson. (Author/RK)

  16. Classroom Management and Lesson Planning(4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Lesson Planning Task 1 As teachers,we all need to plan our lessons before we teach.Make a list of things that you think need to be included in a lesson plan.Then compare and discuss your list with another teacher.Also think about reasons why we need to plan our lessons.

  17. Classroom Management and Lesson Planning(4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Lesson PlanningTask 1As teachers,we all need to plan our lessons before we teach.Make a list of things that you think need tobe included in a lesson plan.Then compare and discuss your list with another teacher.Also think about reasonswhy we need to plan our lessons.

  18. Geographic Alliance of Iowa. Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Kay E.; Howe-Ford, Nancy

    This collection of five lesson plans in geography can be adapted for use with K-12 students. Each lesson plan explains the lesson and provides basic instructions. The lesson plans are titled: "Teaching Geography Using Literature in K-University Classrooms" (Kay Weller); "Geography and a Mystery Novel" (Kay Weller);…

  19. STUDIES ON THE INGESTION CHARACTERISTICS OF GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN, CHINESE PRAWN AND GIANT TIGER PRAWN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The ingestion of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn had continuity and the ingestion high peak occurred at night. Light and temperature had significant effects on the daily ingestion rate (DIR) of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Red light and blue light favorably induced favorable ingestion. In the adaptive range of temperature, the DIR increased with rising temperature and feeding frequency, but decreased with rising body weight.

  20. Button battery ingestion with different outcome : two case reports from a Tertiary care Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Suman; Roy, Amrita; Chatterjee, Anirban; Roy, Bidhan Ch; Mondal, Sandip; Pramanik, Koushik

    2015-01-01

    Button battery ingestion is a distinct type of foreign body ingestion in children because of their potential to cause major injury or life threatening consequences. According to National Poison Data System, United States of America, there is a 6.7 fold increase in the percentage of button battery ingestion with major or fatal outcomes from 1985-2009.  We are reporting two cases with history of accidental ingestion of button battery with different outcome.