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Sample records for radiometric serum antibacterial

  1. Radiometric evaluation of antibacterial activity of bouvardin (NSC 259968) on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basrur, V.S.; Chitnis, M.P.; Menon, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Bouvardin, a cyclic hexapeptide and a new antineoplastic, protein synthesis inhibitor, was studied for its effects on bacterial growth and metabolism. E.coli and S.aureus as representative types of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria respectively were used for these studies. Garamycin and kanamycin were also employed as known antibiotics to compare their effects with bouvardin. Both garamycin and kanamycin markedly reduced 14 C-glucose metabolism at a concentration of 10 μg/ml. However, bouvardin revealed no such antibacterial activity in these microorganisms. (author)

  2. Radiometric evaluation of antibacterial activity of bouvardin (NSC 259968) on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basrur, V S; Chitnis, M P; Menon, R S

    1986-03-01

    Bouvardin, a cyclic hexapeptide and a new antineoplastic, protein synthesis inhibitor, was studied for its effects on bacterial growth and metabolism. E.coli and S.aureus as representative types of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria respectively were used for these studies. Garamycin and kanamycin were also employed as known antibiotics to compare their effects with bouvardin. Both garamycin and kanamycin markedly reduced /sup 14/C-glucose metabolism at a concentration of 10 ..mu..g/ml. However, bouvardin revealed no such antibacterial activity in these microorganisms. 8 references.

  3. Antibacterial activities of serum from the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Merchant; Danyell Henry; Rodolfo Falconi; Bekky Muscher; Judith Bryja

    2013-01-01

    Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) are able to feed on large prey items by injecting a dose of toxic bacteria with their bite that, over time, kills the prey by systemic infection. Dragons also suffer bites from other members of their own species during territorial disputes and feeding frenzies. However, they do not suffer the same fate as their prey, suggesting that they have developed a strong immunity to bacterial infections. This study was undertaken to determine the antibacterial activ...

  4. A large-scale radiometric micro-quantitative complement fixation test for serum antibody titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengali, Z.H.; Levine, P.H.; Das, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    A micro-quantitative complement fixation (CF) procedure based on 51 Cr release is described. The method employs 50% hemolysis as end point and the alternation equation to calculate the amount of complement involved in the hemolytic reaction. Compared to the conventional CF tests, the radiometric procedure described here is very precise and consistently reproducible. Also, since only 3 4-fold dilutions of sera are used for the titration of antibodies over a wide range of concentrations, the test is very concise and is economical to perform. Its format is amenable to automation and computerization. This radioimetric CF procedure is thus most useful for large-scale immunological research and epidemiological surveilance studies. (Auth.)

  5. Determination of antibacterial flomoxef in serum by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahashi, Toshihiro; Furuta, Itaru

    2003-04-01

    A determination method of flomoxef (FMOX) concentration in serum by capillary electrophoresis is developed. Serum samples are extracted with acetonitrile. After pretreatment, they are separated in a fused-silica capillary tube with a 25 mM borate buffer (pH 10.0) as a running buffer that contains 50mM sodium dodecyl sulfate. The FMOX and acetaminophen (internal standard) are detected by UV absorbance at 200 nm. Linearity (0-200 mg/L) is good, and the minimum limit of detection is 1.0 mg/L (S/N = 3). The relative standard deviations of intra- and interassay variability are 1.60-4.78% and 2.10-3.31%, respectively, and the recovery rate is 84-98%. This method can be used for determination of FMOX concentration in serum.

  6. Cloning, expression analysis, and antibacterial propertiesof three serum amyloid A in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Juhua; Tang, Yongkai; Li, Jianlin; Li, Hongxia; Yu, Fan; Yu, Wenjuan; He, Feng; Fu, Chunjie; Mao, Shuntao

    2017-06-01

    Three serum amyloid A (SAA) genes were identified from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by PCR and RT-PCR. Considering both direction and sequence similarity with mammal's orthologs, they were named CcSAA3a, CcSAA3b and CcSAA1. CcSAA3b and CcSAA1 are adjacent on contig LHQP01017858, suggesting that the prototype of or the simplest SAA multigene family have occurred in common carp. A phylogenetic analysis of the SAAs indicated that the fish SAAs were closer to those of invertebrates and Ornithorhynchus anatinus, a primitive mammal, than to mammalian SAAs. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR results displayed different expression profiles of three CcSAAs. The CcSAA3a was detected in all tested tissues, and was most abundant in the muscle; CcSAA3b was predominately expressed in the intestine and liver, and CcSAA1 in the skin. The expression level of CcSAA3a was higher than that of CcSAA3b and CcSAA1 in most tissues. Stimulation with Aeromonas hydrophila dramatically induced the expression of the three CcSAAs in all examined tissues, especially in the liver. Like Epinephelus coioides SAA, all of three rCcSAA fusion proteins could bind to both Gram-negative bacteria (A. hydrophila and E. coli) and Gram-positive bacterium (S. aureus), playing a role in the identification of bacteria. However, only rCcSAA3a showed significantly anti-A. hydrophila and anti-E. coli in vitro antibacterial activity assays. These results suggested that the three CcSAAs were in functional differentiation and play significant roles in the innate immunity of common carp. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Radiometric dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, N.R.

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of natural radioactivity in uranium, in the last decade of the nineteenth century, the nuclear property of radioactive decay of radionuclides at immutable rates has been effectively utilized in dating of varieties of naturally occurring geological matrices and the organisms which constantly replenish their "1"4C supply through respiration when alive on earth. During the period, applications of radiometric dating techniques have been extensively diversified and have enabled the geologists to indicate the absolute time scales of geological formations and the evolution of the solar system, the earth, meteorites, lunar rocks, etc. and the archaeologists to record the facts of history of several important events like dinosaur era, Iceman, the Shroud in Turin and many other ancient artefacts. In the development of dating methods, varieties of naturally occurring radio-isotopic systems with favorable half-lives ranging from about 10 years to over 100 billion years have been used as radiometric clocks. (author)

  8. Radiometric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, S.; Oda, M.; Miyashita, K.; Takada, M.

    1977-01-01

    A radiometric analyzer for measuring the characteristic values of a sample by radiation includes a humer of radiation measuring subsystems having different ratios of sensitivities to the elements of the sample and linearizing circuits having inverse function characteristics of calibration functions which correspond to the radiation measuring subsystems. A weighing adder operates a desirable linear combination of the outputs of the linearizing circuits. Operators for operating between two or more different linear combinations are included

  9. Fluorescent copper(II complexes: The electron transfer mechanism, interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA and antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumita Hazra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dinuclear copper(II complexes with formula [Cu2(L2(N32] (1 and [Cu2(L2(NCS2] (2 HL = (1-[(3-methyl-pyridine-2-ylimino-methyl]-naphthalen-2-ol were synthesized by controlling the molar ratio of Cu(OAC2·6H2O, HL, sodium azide (1 and ammonium thiocyanate (2. The end on bridges appear exclusively in azide and thiocyanate to copper complexes. The electron transfer mechanism of copper(II complexes is examined by cyclic voltammetry indicating copper(II complexes are Cu(II/Cu(I couple. The interactions of copper(II complexes towards bovine serum albumin (BSA were examined with the help of absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic tools. We report a superficial solution-based route for the synthesis of micro crystals of copper complexes with BSA. The antibacterial activity of the Schiff base and its copper complexes were investigated by the agar disc diffusion method against some species of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Streptococcus pneumonia and Bacillus cereus. It has been observed that the antibacterial activity of all complexes is higher than the ligand.

  10. Radiometric assays for glycerol, glucose, and glycogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.C.; Kaslow, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed radiometric assays for small quantities of glycerol, glucose and glycogen, based on a technique described by Thorner and Paulus for the measurement of glycerokinase activity. In the glycerol assay, glycerol is phosphorylated with [32P]ATP and glycerokinase, residual [32P]ATP is hydrolyzed by heating in acid, and free [32P]phosphate is removed by precipitation with ammonium molybdate and triethylamine. Standard dose-response curves were linear from 50 to 3000 pmol glycerol with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Of the substances tested for interference, only dihydroxyacetone gave a slight false positive signal at high concentration. When used to measure glycerol concentrations in serum and in media from incubated adipose tissue, the radiometric glycerol assay correlated well with a commonly used spectrophotometric assay. The radiometric glucose assay is similar to the glycerol assay, except that glucokinase is used instead of glycerokinase. Dose response was linear from 5 to 3000 pmol glucose with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine gave false positive signals when equimolar to glucose. When glucose concentrations in serum were measured, the radiometric glucose assay agreed well with hexokinase/glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H/GDH)-based and glucose oxidase/H2O2-based glucose assays. The radiometric method for glycogen measurement incorporates previously described isolation and digestion techniques, followed by the radiometric assay of free glucose. When used to measure glycogen in mouse epididymal fat pads, the radiometric glycogen assay correlated well with the H/GDH-based glycogen assay. All three radiometric assays offer several practical advantages over spectral assays

  11. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2016-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(��) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irr...

  12. Broadband radiometric LED measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2016-09-01

    At present, broadband radiometric LED measurements with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed.

  13. Radiometric well logging instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    The technical properties of well instruments for radioactive logging used in the radiometric logging complexes PKS-1000-1 (''Sond-1'') and PRKS-2 (''Vitok-2'') are described. The main features of the electric circuit of the measuring channels are given

  14. Automation of radiometric testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekalin, A.S.; Temnik, A.K.; Butakova, G.E.; Goncharov, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    The main prerequisites for creation of automatic systems of radiometric testing as the means to increase the testing objectivity and quality have been considered, principles of their design being developed. The operating system is described for testing complex configuration products using RD-10R gamma flow detector as a sensor of initial information

  15. RADIOMETRIC BLOCK ADJUSMENT AND DIGITAL RADIOMETRIC MODEL GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pros

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a radiometric block adjustment method that is related to geometric block adjustment and to the concept of a terrain Digital Radiometric Model (DRM as a complement to the terrain digital elevation and surface models. A DRM, in our concept, is a function that for each ground point returns a reflectance value and a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF. In a similar way to the terrain geometric reconstruction procedure, given an image block of some terrain area, we split the DRM generation in two phases: radiometric block adjustment and DRM generation. In the paper we concentrate on the radiometric block adjustment step, but we also describe a preliminary DRM generator. In the block adjustment step, after a radiometric pre-calibraton step, local atmosphere radiative transfer parameters, and ground reflectances and BRDFs at the radiometric tie points are estimated. This radiometric block adjustment is based on atmospheric radiative transfer (ART models, pre-selected BRDF models and radiometric ground control points. The proposed concept is implemented and applied in an experimental campaign, and the obtained results are presented. The DRM and orthophoto mosaics are generated showing no radiometric differences at the seam lines.

  16. Radiometric diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, A.

    1986-01-01

    The results of this study confirm that rapid radiometric diagnostic tests such as the NAP selective inhibition test for the M. tuberculosis complex followed by the radiometric drug susceptibility tests are extremely reliable and compare favourably with conventional methodologies. This study also shows that referred cultures growing on solid medium can be processed by radiometric procedures without prior subculture. This circumstance by itself shortens the time needed for reporting. (Auth.)

  17. Sterility test by radiometric technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruq, Muhammad

    1980-01-01

    Sterility test of pharmaceuticals can be carried out by the application of pharmacopoeia and radiometric technique. In Indonesia the application of pharmacopoeia technique is carried out through liquid germination for aerobacteria and for fungus and yeast. Radiometric technique is applied to autotrop and heterotrop bacteria. (SMN)

  18. Spectroscopic interaction study of human serum albumin and human hemoglobin with Mersilea quadrifolia leaves extract mediated silver nanoparticles having antibacterial and anticancer activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Anukul; Beg, Maidul; Mandal, Amit Kumar; Das, Somnath; Jha, Pradeep K.; Kumar, Anoop; Sarwar, Shamila; Hossain, Maidul; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2017-08-01

    This study looks into a safe, proficient and low-cost way for the preparation of novel silver nanoparticles by using 5% aqueous leaves extract of a medicinal plant, Marsilea quadrifolia (family: Marsileaceae) without using any external reducing and stabilizing agents. The synthesized AgNPs showed maximum UV-Vis absorbance at 435 nm due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The average diameter (∼22.5 nm) of AgNPs was measured from TEM analysis and was also supported by FE-SEM. The existence of a silver signal in EDX spectra supported the AgNPs formation and negative zeta potential value (-18.7 mV) which suggested its stability. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis showed that the functional groups like sbnd Osbnd H, sbnd Nsbnd H and sbnd Cdbnd O were responsible for the synthesis of AgNPs. The antibacterial activity of the AgNPs was tested against E. coli ATCC 25922. The anticancer potential of AgNPs was also assessed using two different cell lines, such as MCF-7 and HeLa. The interaction study of AgNPs with human serum albumin (HSA) and human hemoglobin (Hb) was performed by means of UV-Vis, fluorescence spectroscopy, Circular dichroism (CD) and zeta potential measurement. More negative zeta potential values of AgNPs-HSA/Hb (-21.1/-19.5 mV) complexes than AgNPs (-18.7 mV) indicated corresponding stability of bio-conjugates. The basic structure of HSA/Hb remained unchanged and its secondary structure was slightly changed upon interaction with the AgNPs concluded from Circular dichroism. So, it can be predicted that this AgNPs may be applied in the medical field.

  19. Radiometric enrichment of nonradioactive ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokrousov, V.A.; Lileev, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    Considered are the methods of mineral enrichment based on the use of the radioation of various types. The physical essence of enrichment processes is presented, their classification is given. Described are the ore properties influencing the efficiency of radiometric enrichment, methods of the properties study and estimation of ore enrichment. New possibilities opened by radiometric enrichment in the technology of primary processing of mineral raw materials are elucidated. A considerable attention is paid to the main and auxiliary equipment for radiometric enrichment. The foundations of the safety engineering are presented in a brief form. Presented are also results of investigations and practical works in the field of enrichment of ores of non-ferrous, ferrous and non-metallic minerals with the help of radiometric methods

  20. Antibacterial textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amrit, Usha

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was the antibacterial functionalization of textiles and its application in professional laundries. The antibacterial functionalization was meant for the various textile packages lent out by the laundry companies to their customers from hotels, hospital or food industries. The

  1. A new semiquantitative radiometric opsonin assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, M.; Valdimarsson, H.

    1978-01-01

    A new semiquantitative radiometric opsonin assay is described. It was found that the opsonin activity generated by incubating brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in medium containing less than 5% human serum was exclusively complement dependent. In contrast, C.albicans was effectively opsonized in the absence of complement. Antibodies and the early classical complement pathway did not contribute to the opsonization of S.cerevisiae and neither did C5-9. The brewer's yeast assay can therefore be used for measuring selectively the opsonizing capacity of the alternative pathway. Sera from approximately 7% of apparently healthy adult controls consistently failed to generate significant opsonin activity while 8 out of 26 patients with suspected immune deficiency of unknown cause were defective in this assay. All opsonin deficient sera so far tested had haemolytically normal alternative pathway and Factor B activity. (author)

  2. Itinerant radiometric laboratory (IRL-76)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgirev, E.I.; Domaratskij, V.P.; Kostikov, Yu.I.

    1978-01-01

    A mobile radiometric laboratory for routine radiation monitoring of the environment, personnel, and population is described. As compared to the previous models, this one incorporates a number of new features and is more informative and versatile. The design and main technical and operating characteristics of the laboratory are detailed

  3. Determination of in vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to cephalosporins by radiometric and conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, L.B.; Iseman, M.D.; Cook, J.L.; Lindholm-Levy, P.J.; Drupa, I.

    1985-01-01

    Among eight cephalosporins and cephamycins tested in preliminary in vitro screening against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the most promising for further study was found to be ceforanide, followed by ceftizoxime, cephapirin, and cefotaxime. Moxalactam, cefoxitin, cefamandole, and cephalothin were found to be not active enough against M. tuberculosis to be considered for further in vitro studies. The antibacterial activity of various ceforanide concentrations was investigated by three methods: (i) the dynamics of radiometric readings (growth index) in 7H12 broth; (ii) the number of CFU in the same medium; and (iii) the proportion method on 7H11 agar plates. There was a good correlation among the results obtained with these methods. The MIC for most strains ranged from 6.0 to 25.0 micrograms/ml. The BACTEC radiometric method is a reliable, rapid, and convenient method for preliminary screening and determination of the level of antibacterial activity of drugs not commonly used against M. tuberculosis

  4. Rapid radiometric method for detection of Salmonella in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, B.J.; Eyles, M.J.; Murrell, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    A radiometric method for the detection of Salmonella in foods has been developed which is based on Salmonella poly H agglutinating serum preventing Salmonella from producing 14CO2 from [14C] dulcitol. The method will detect the presence or absence of Salmonella in a product within 30 h compared to 4 to 5 days by routine culture methods. The method has been evaluated against a routine culture method using 58 samples of food. The overall agreement was 91%. Five samples negative for Salmonella by the routine method were positive by the radiometric method. These may have been false positives. However, the routine method may have failed to detect Salmonella due to the presence of large numbers of lactose-fermenting bacteria which hindered isolation of Salmonella colonies on the selective agar plates

  5. Radiometric weighing devices. Part 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, M.

    1985-01-01

    Proceeding from the physical and mathematical fundamentals and from the types of radiometric weighing devices presently available, the radiation protection problems arising from the application of radiometric gages in industry and agriculture are discussed. Nuclear weighing devices have been found to be effective from economic point of view but in some cases gravimetric conveyor weighers are indispensable. Information and guidance is given especially for users of radiometric weighing devices. 91 refs., 69 figs., and 8 tabs

  6. Radiometric calipers for borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbucinski, J.; Wylie, A.W.; Jarrett, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Two versions of a radiometric-type caliper for measuring borehole diameter are described. One, based on the bow-spring principle, is suitable for percussion (exploration) drill holes. The other, which utilizes hemispherical wall contactors actuated by springs, is suitable for blast holes. Both utilize low-power radioactive sources and employ a scintillation detector to measure the 'inverse-square law' response of the device to changes in borehole radius. The performance of the device is examined and examples of its use are illustrated. (author)

  7. Radiometric method for the rapid detection of Leptospira organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, N.; Verardi, R.; Colombrita, D.; Ravizzola, G.; Savoldi, E.; Turano, A.

    1986-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive radiometric method for detection of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni is described. Stuart's medium and Middlebrook TB (12A) medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, catalase, and casein hydrolysate and labeled with 14 C-fatty acids were used. The radioactivity was measured in a BACTEC 460. With this system, Leptospira organisms were detected in human blood in 2 to 5 days, a notably shorter time period than that required for the majority of detection techniques

  8. Radiometric method for the rapid detection of Leptospira organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manca, N.; Verardi, R.; Colombrita, D.; Ravizzola, G.; Savoldi, E.; Turano, A.

    1986-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive radiometric method for detection of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni is described. Stuart's medium and Middlebrook TB (12A) medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, catalase, and casein hydrolysate and labeled with /sup 14/C-fatty acids were used. The radioactivity was measured in a BACTEC 460. With this system, Leptospira organisms were detected in human blood in 2 to 5 days, a notably shorter time period than that required for the majority of detection techniques.

  9. Radiometric geochronology of the Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    The radiometric age data obtained by different dating methods have been interpreted in terms of possible orogenic activities prevailing in the Himalaya. In general, the age data confirm four main events, the Precambrian, the Late Precambrian-Cambrian Assyntian (Caledonian), the Late Palaeozoic-Hercynian and the Late Cretaceous-Tertiary Himalayan orogeny. The mineral dates are particularly significant in delineating different phases of the last i.e. the Himalayan orogeny which indicates main activity of the young Himalayan metamorphism around 70 to 50 Ma and followed by a momentous phase of major uplift during 25 to 10 Ma, which was responsible for the rise of the deeper part of the Himalaya into great folds and thrust slices and the formation of nappe structures. (author)

  10. Gamma radiometric survey of Jamaica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalor, G.C.; Robotham, H.; Miller, J.M.; Simpson, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a total gamma radiometric survey of Jamaica, carried out with car-borne instrumentation, are presented and the data compared with the contents of potassium, thorium and uranium in rocks and in surface (soil, stream-sediment, pan concentrate and water) samples obtained at six sites selected to be representative of the principal rock types and surface environments of Jamaica. The work formed part of an orientation study for a regional geochemical survey of the CARICOM countries of the Caribbean. The initial results indicate that enhanced gamma activity is correlated with enrichment in uranium and thorium, but not potassium, in terra rossa soils and/or bauxite deposits in limestone. Elsewhere, gamma levels are increased on the Above Rocks Cretaceous basement Inlier, where they correlate generally with the presence of volcanogenic sediments and a granodiorite intrusion. The lowest radioactivity was recorded in the vicinity of ultrabasic rocks in the Blue Mountains Inlier. (author)

  11. The Radiometric Bode's law and Extrasolar Planets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lazio, T. J; Farrell, W. M; Dietrick, Jill; Greenlees, Elizabeth; Hogan, Emily; Jones, Christopher; Hennig, L. A

    2004-01-01

    We predict the radio flux densities of the extrasolar planets in the current census, making use of an empirical relation the radiometric Bode's law determined from the five "magnetic" planets in the solar system...

  12. Ash content of lignites - radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.; Thuemmel, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The quality of lignites is governed by the ash content varying in dependence upon the geologic conditions. Setup and function of the radiometric devices being used for ash content analysis in the GDR are briefly described

  13. Modified and reverse radiometric flow injection analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myint, U; Ba, H; Khin, M M; Aung, K; Thida, [Yangon Univ. (Myanmar). Dept. of Chemistry; Toelgyessy, J [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Environmental Science

    1994-06-01

    Determination of [sup 137]Cs and [sup 60]Co by using modified and reverse radiometric flow injection analysis is described. Two component RFIA was also realized using [sup 60]Co and [sup 137]Cs radionuclides. (author) 2 refs.; 5 figs.

  14. RADIOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Pilarska Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is widely used passive remote sensing technique. The radiometric calibration of ALS data is presented in this article. This process is a necessary element in data processing since it eliminates the influence of the external factors on the obtained values of radiometric features such as range and incidence angle. The datasets were captured with three different laser scanners; since each of these operates at a different wavelength (532, 106 4 and 1550 nm) th...

  15. Training course on radiometric prospecting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A training course on radiometric prospecting techniques was presented by the Atomic Energy Board in collaboration with the South African Geophysical Association and the Geological Society of South Africa. Various aspects related to uranium prospecting were discussed e.g. the uranium supply and demand position, the basic physics of radioactivity, uranium geochemistry, mineralogy and mobility, the instrumentation and techniques used in uranium exploration, for example, borehole logging, radon emanometry and airborne radiometric surveys and also data processing and interpretation methods

  16. Automated radiometric detection of bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, J.R.

    1974-01-01

    A new radiometric method called BACTEC, used for the detection of bacteria in cultures or in supposedly sterile samples, was discussed from the standpoint of methodology, both automated and semi-automated. Some of the results obtained so far were reported and some future applications and development possibilities were described. In this new method, the test sample is incubated in a sealed vial with a liquid culture medium containing a 14 C-labeled substrate. If bacteria are present, they break down the substrate, producing 14 CO 2 which is periodically extracted from the vial as a gas and is tested for radioactivity. If this gaseous radioactivity exceeds a threshold level, it is evidence of bacterial presence and growth in the test vial. The first application was for the detection of bacteria in the blood cultures of hospital patients. Data were presented showing typical results. Also discussed were future applications, such as rapid screening for bacteria in urine industrial sterility testing and the disposal of used 14 C substrates. (Mukohata, S.)

  17. Radiometric surveys in underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochiolo, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasquale, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Due to their ability to travel through the air for several metres, gamma-rays emitted from natural radioactive elements can be successfully used in surveys carried out both with airborne and ground equipments. Besides the concentration of the radio-elements contained in rocks and soils and the intrinsic characteristics of the gamma-ray detector, the detected count rate depends on the solid angle around the spectrometer. On a flat outcrop, ground spectrometry detects the radiation ideally produced by a cylindrical mass of rock of about two metres in diameter and thickness of about half a meter. Under these geometrical conditions, the natural radioactivity can be easily evaluated. With operating conditions different from the standard ones, such as at the edge of an escarpment, the count rate halves because of the missing material, whereas in the vicinity of a rock wall the count rate will increase. In underground environment, the recorded count rate may even double and the in situ assessment of the concentration of radio-elements may be rather difficult, even if the ratios between the different radio-elements may not be affected. We tested the applicability of gamma-ray spectrometry for rapid assessment of the potential hazard levels related to radon and radiation dose rate in underground environment. A mine shaft, located in a zone of uranium enrichment in Liguria (Italy), has been investigated. A preliminary ground radiometric survey was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, the radiometric investigation was focussed on the mine shaft. Due to rock mass above the shaft vault, the background gamma radiation can be considered of negligible influence on measurements. In underground surveys, besides deviations from a flat geometry, factors controlling radon exhalation, emanation and stagnation, such as fractures, water leakage and the presence of ventilation, should be carefully examined. We attempted to evaluate these control factors and collected

  18. Panay carborne radiometric and geochemical surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.

    1981-09-01

    A carborne radiometric survey and stream sediments collection were conducted in Panay and Guimaras Islands. An area in Nabas, Aklan, situated in the northwestern tip of Panay (Buruanga Peninsula) which indicated 2 to 3 times above background radioactivity was delineated. Uranium content in the stream sediment samples collected from Buruanga Peninsula was generally higher than those obtained in other parts of the island. Radioactivity measurements and uranium content in stream sediments were found to be within background levels. It is recommended that follow-up radiometric and geochemical surveys be undertaken in Buruanga Peninsula and additional stream sediments samples be collected in Panay to achieve better sampling density and coverage. (author)

  19. Radiometric study of creep in ingot rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicek, P.; Zamyslovsky, Z.; Uherek, J.

    The radiometric study of creep during ingot rolling performed in the rolling mill of the Vitkovice Iron and Steel Works and the first results are described. Selected sites in 3 to 8 ton ingots were labelled with 2 to 3.7x10 5 Bq of 60 Co and after rolling into blocks, the transposition of the labelled sites of the ingots was investigated. The results indicate creep during rolling, local extension in certain sites under study and help to determine the inevitable bottom crop incurred in the forming. Finally, the requirements put on the radiometric apparatus for the next stages of technological research are presented. (author)

  20. RADIOMETRIC TECHNIQUES IN HEAVY MINERAL EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMEIJER, RJ; TANCZOS, IC; STAPEL, C

    1994-01-01

    In recent years the Environmental Research Group of the KVI has been developing a number of radiometric techniques that may be employed in mineral sand exploration. These techniques involve: radiometric fingerprinting for assessing sand provenances and mineralogical composition; thermoluminescence

  1. Radiometric measuring method for egg shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forberg, S; Svaerdstroem, K

    1973-02-01

    A description is given of a fast nondestructive radiometric method for registration of the thickness of egg shells of the tawny owl, hen, osprey, and Canada goose. Certain errors are discussed. Measurement of the thickness of egg shells (mineral content per cm/sup 2/) with an accuracy better than 1% is possible in less than one minute under field conditions. (auth)

  2. KERNEL MAD ALGORITHM FOR RELATIVE RADIOMETRIC NORMALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The multivariate alteration detection (MAD algorithm is commonly used in relative radiometric normalization. This algorithm is based on linear canonical correlation analysis (CCA which can analyze only linear relationships among bands. Therefore, we first introduce a new version of MAD in this study based on the established method known as kernel canonical correlation analysis (KCCA. The proposed method effectively extracts the non-linear and complex relationships among variables. We then conduct relative radiometric normalization experiments on both the linear CCA and KCCA version of the MAD algorithm with the use of Landsat-8 data of Beijing, China, and Gaofen-1(GF-1 data derived from South China. Finally, we analyze the difference between the two methods. Results show that the KCCA-based MAD can be satisfactorily applied to relative radiometric normalization, this algorithm can well describe the nonlinear relationship between multi-temporal images. This work is the first attempt to apply a KCCA-based MAD algorithm to relative radiometric normalization.

  3. Modeling response variation for radiometric calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.L. II.

    1986-01-01

    Radiometric calorimeters are widely used in the DOE complex for accountability measurements of plutonium and tritium. Proper characterization of response variation for these instruments is, therefore, vital for accurate assessment of measurement control as well as for propagation of error calculations. This is not difficult for instruments used to measure items within a narrow range of power values; however, when a single instrument is used to measure items over a wide range of power values, improper estimates of uncertainty can result since traditional error models for radiometric calorimeters assume that uncertainty is not a function of sample power. This paper describes methods which can be used to accurately estimate random response variation for calorimeters used to measure items over a wide range of sample powers. The model is applicable to the two most common modes of calorimeter operation: heater replacement and servo control. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. Substoichiometric method in the simple radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, N.; Noguchi, K.

    1979-01-01

    The substoichiometric method is applied to simple radiometric analysis. Two methods - the standard reagent method and the standard sample method - are proposed. The validity of the principle of the methods is verified experimentally in the determination of silver by the precipitation method, or of zinc by the ion-exchange or solvent-extraction method. The proposed methods are simple and rapid compared with the conventional superstoichiometric method. (author)

  5. Radiometric characterization of Landsat Collection 1 products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micijevic, Esad; Haque, Md. Obaidul; Mishra, Nischal

    2017-09-01

    Landsat data in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) archive are being reprocessed to generate a tiered collection of consistently geolocated and radiometrically calibrated products that are suitable for time series analyses. With the implementation of the collection management, no major updates will be made to calibration of the Landsat sensors within a collection. Only calibration parameters needed to maintain the established calibration trends without an effect on derived environmental records will be regularly updated, while all other changes will be deferred to a new collection. This first collection, Collection 1, incorporates various radiometric calibration updates to all Landsat sensors including absolute and relative gains for Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), stray light correction for Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), absolute gains for Landsat 4 and 5 Thematic Mappers (TM), recalibration of Landsat 1-5 Multispectral Scanners (MSS) to ensure radiometric consistency among different formats of archived MSS data, and a transfer of Landsat 8 OLI reflectance based calibration to all previous Landsat sensors. While all OLI/TIRS, ETM+ and majority of TM data have already been reprocessed to Collection 1, a completion of MSS and remaining TM data reprocessing is expected by the end of this year. It is important to note that, although still available for download from the USGS web pages, the products generated using the Pre-Collection processing do not benefit from the latest radiometric calibration updates. In this paper, we are assessing radiometry of solar reflective bands in Landsat Collection 1 products through analysis of trends in on-board calibrator and pseudo invariant site (PICS) responses.

  6. Radiometric relations of a sugarcane crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, E.C.; Pereira, A.R.; Camargo, M.B.P. de; Fahl, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    The radiometric relations of a sugarcane crop, cv. NA56-79, are studied during the period of maximum leaf area index. The coefficients of reflection, transmission and absorption of the incoming solar radiation were function of solar elevation and the waveband considered. The photosynthetically active radiation was always less reflected and transmitted but more absorved than the near infrared radiation. (M.A.C.) [pt

  7. GEOMETRIC AND RADIOMETRIC EVALUATION OF RASAT IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RASAT, the second remote sensing satellite of Turkey, was designed and assembled, and also is being operated by TÜBİTAK Uzay (Space Technologies Research Institute (Ankara. RASAT images in various levels are available free-of-charge via Gezgin portal for Turkish citizens. In this paper, the images in panchromatic (7.5 m GSD and RGB (15 m GSD bands in various levels were investigated with respect to its geometric and radiometric characteristics. The first geometric analysis is the estimation of the effective GSD as less than 1 pixel for radiometrically processed level (L1R of both panchromatic and RGB images. Secondly, 2D georeferencing accuracy is estimated by various non-physical transformation models (similarity, 2D affine, polynomial, affine projection, projective, DLT and GCP based RFM reaching sub-pixel accuracy using minimum 39 and maximum 52 GCPs. The radiometric characteristics are also investigated for 8 bits, estimating SNR between 21.8-42.2, and noise 0.0-3.5 for panchromatic and MS images for L1R when the sea is masked to obtain the results for land areas. The analysis show that RASAT images satisfies requirements for various applications. The research is carried out in Zonguldak test site which is mountainous and partly covered by dense forest and urban areas.

  8. Antibacterial components of honey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakman, Paulus H. S.; Zaat, Sebastian A. J.

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of honey has been known since the 19th century. Recently, the potent activity of honey against antibiotic-resistant bacteria has further increased the interest for application of honey, but incomplete knowledge of the antibacterial activity is a major obstacle for clinical

  9. Expression of antibacterial resistance at the site of a delayed hypersensitivity reaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, P J

    1980-01-01

    The site of a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to tuberculin or bovine serum ablumin was shown to contain mechanisms that expressed increased antibacterial activity, as evidenced by restricted growth of a local inoculum of Listeria monocytogenes. As was the case with a delayed hypersensitivity reaction, the local generation of antibacterial activity was antigen specific and T-cell dependent. Antibacterial resistance was always expressed at the site of injection of specific antigen in sensiti...

  10. The radiometric industries of the countries of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeper, Burkhardt

    1975-01-01

    The economic development of the radiometric industries in the EEC and the USA since 1960 is studied on the basis of sales statistics. The study covers the supply and the use of radioisotopes, the application of radiometric techniques, the scope and the development of the foreign trade as well as the structure of the firms concerned. The future need for radiometric apparatus is estimated as regards radiation protection, laboratories, industry, nuclear power plants and medicine

  11. Optical Imaging and Radiometric Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kong Q.; Fitzmaurice, Michael W.; Moiser, Gary E.; Howard, Joseph M.; Le, Chi M.

    2010-01-01

    OPTOOL software is a general-purpose optical systems analysis tool that was developed to offer a solution to problems associated with computational programs written for the James Webb Space Telescope optical system. It integrates existing routines into coherent processes, and provides a structure with reusable capabilities that allow additional processes to be quickly developed and integrated. It has an extensive graphical user interface, which makes the tool more intuitive and friendly. OPTOOL is implemented using MATLAB with a Fourier optics-based approach for point spread function (PSF) calculations. It features parametric and Monte Carlo simulation capabilities, and uses a direct integration calculation to permit high spatial sampling of the PSF. Exit pupil optical path difference (OPD) maps can be generated using combinations of Zernike polynomials or shaped power spectral densities. The graphical user interface allows rapid creation of arbitrary pupil geometries, and entry of all other modeling parameters to support basic imaging and radiometric analyses. OPTOOL provides the capability to generate wavefront-error (WFE) maps for arbitrary grid sizes. These maps are 2D arrays containing digital sampled versions of functions ranging from Zernike polynomials to combination of sinusoidal wave functions in 2D, to functions generated from a spatial frequency power spectral distribution (PSD). It also can generate optical transfer functions (OTFs), which are incorporated into the PSF calculation. The user can specify radiometrics for the target and sky background, and key performance parameters for the instrument s focal plane array (FPA). This radiometric and detector model setup is fairly extensive, and includes parameters such as zodiacal background, thermal emission noise, read noise, and dark current. The setup also includes target spectral energy distribution as a function of wavelength for polychromatic sources, detector pixel size, and the FPA s charge

  12. Radiometric survey in sampling areas of Itataia mine ore and radiometric monitoring in Itataia project sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This radiometric survey was done by CDTN, in Itataia sites, on July/82 and it aimed fundamentally to evaluate local radiological conditions, as for aspect of occupational radiation protection. Besides of results obtained, this report has informations of general aspects that ought to serve as subsidies for elaboration of radiological protection program of local. (author) [pt

  13. Investigations with a simplified method for radiometric determination of vitamin B12 in body fluids and feeding stuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke, K.H.; Kohlberger, G.; Koenemund, A.

    1979-01-01

    A modified method for radiometrical determination of vitamin B 12 is described, which in difference to the known methods is based on measurement of free B 12 after absorption to albumin-coated charcoal instead of measurement of intrinsic factor B 12 -complex. The conditions for extraction from serum, milk, rumen-liquor and urine have been investigated and the effect of pH on IF-B 12 -binding in presence of these body fluids examined. Parallel microbiological determinations (O.m.- and L.1.-test) were in good correlation (r = 0,93-0,97) to radiometrically determined B 12 -contents in milk and rumen-liquor, but not to that in serum of dairy cows (r = 0,54-0,82). The analytical procedures are given in detail. (orig.) [de

  14. Radiometric measurement independent of profile. Belt weighers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.

    1986-01-01

    Radiometric measuring techniques allow contactless determination of the material carried by belt conveyors. Data defining the material is obtained via attenuation of gamma rays passing through the material on the belt. The method applies the absorption law according to Lambert-Beer, which has to be corrected by a build-up factor because of the stray radiation induced by the Compton effect. The profile-dependent error observed with conventional radiometric belt weighers is caused by the non-linearity of the absorption law in connection with the simultaneous summation of the various partial rays in a detector. The scanning method allows separate evaluation of the partial rays' attenuation and thus yields the correct data of the material carried, regardless of the profile. The scanning method is applied on a finite number of scanning sections, and a residual error has to be taken into account. The stochastics of quantum emission and absorption leads to an error whose expectation value is to be taken into account in the scanning algorithm. As the conveyor belt is in motion during the process of measurements, only part of the material conveyed is irradiated. The resulting assessment error is investigated as a function of the autocorrelation function of the material on the belt. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Application of microcomputer to X-ray radiometric ore separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neverov, A.D.; Aleksandrov, P.S.; Kotler, N.I.

    1988-01-01

    The practical use of microcomputers as universal means for converting information for solving applied problems of X-ray radiometric ore separation method is considered. Laboratory tests of two metals - tungsten and tin manifested high efficiency of the developed system. X-ray radiometric separator software is developed

  16. Tasmanian tin and tungsten granites - their radiometric characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeates, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    A radiometric survey of Tasmanian granites has shown, with one exception, that tin and tungsten-bearing granites have high radioactivity, largely owing to increased uranium. Many have a high uranium/thorium ratio as well. Radiometric measurements can also delineate different granite types within composite bodies

  17. A simple radiometric in vitro assay for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilarte, T.R.; Burns, H.D.; Dannals, R.F.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A radiometric method for screening acetylcholinesterase inhibitors has been described. The method is based on the production of [ 14 C]carbon dioxide from the hydrolysis of acetylcholine. The inhibitory concentration at 50% (IC50) values for several known acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were in agreement with literature values. The new radiometric method is simple, inexpensive, and has the potential for automation

  18. New age radiometric ore sorting - the elegant solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.P.; Heuer, T.

    2000-01-01

    Radiometric ore sorting technology and application are described in two parts. Part I reviews the history of radiometric sorting in the minerals industry and describes the latest developments in radiometric sorting technology. Part II describes the history, feasibility study and approach used in the application of the new technology at Rossing Uranium Limited. There has been little progress in the field of radiometric sorting since the late 1970s. This has changed with the development of a high capacity radiometric sorter designed to operate on low-grade ore in the +75mm / -300mm size fraction. This has been designed specifically for an application at Rossing. Rossing has a long history in radiometric sorting dating back to 1968 when initial tests were conducted on the Rossing prospect. Past feasibility studies concluded that radiometric sorting would not conclusively reduce the unit cost of production unless sorting was used to increase production levels. The current feasibility study shows that the application of new radiometric sorter technology makes sorting viable without increasing production, and significantly more attractive with increased production. A pilot approach to confirm sorter performance is described. (author)

  19. Field radiometric methods of prospecting and exploration for uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbushina, L.V.; Savenko, E.I.; Serdyukova, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    The textbook includes two main chapters which describe gamma- and emanation field radiometric methods. The textbook is intended for geology and geophysics students having training practice in field radiometric methods and is additional to the course of lectures. The textbook can be used in the''Radiometry'' course which is studied in appropriate geological and technical colleges

  20. Radiometric sorting of Rio Algom uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristovici, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    An ore sample of about 0.2 percent uranium from Quirke Mine was subjected to radiometric sorting by Ore Sorters Limited. Approximately 60 percent of the sample weight fell within the sortable size range: -150 + 25 mm. Rejects of low uranium content ( 2 (2 counts/in 2 ) but only 7.6 percent of the ore, by weight, was discarded. At 0.8-0.9 counts/cm 2 (5-6 counts/in 2 ) a significant amount of rejects was removed (> 25 percent) but the uranium loss was unacceptably high (7.7 percent). Continuation of the testwork to improve the results is proposed by trying to extend the sortable size range and to reduce the amount of fines during crushing

  1. Importance of radiometric survey in radiodiagnosis installationscalculated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyton, Fernando; Alarcon, Luis; Zapata, Victor H.; Ortega, Dulia; Ramirez, Alfredo; Aravena, Gonzalo; Ubeda, Carlos; Oyarzun, Carlos; Inzulza, Alonso

    2005-01-01

    A radiometric survey was conducted in two services of imaging with a total of 7 evaluated radiology rooms. The Quality Control Protocol methodology was used in Radiology ARCAL (Regional Agreement of cooperation for the promotion of nuclear science and technology in Latin America and the Caribbean) XLIX of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The effective dose in different positions of interest rates were calculated, from the point of view of radiation protection. All evaluated rooms have rates of effective doses that meet the values limits set in the Protocol ARCAL XLIX, for 82% of the positions evaluated. However operators located in the position A (controlled area) exceed on average 370% with a range of [1-870] the limit proposed by ARCAL XLIX

  2. Spectrometric devices of itinerant radiometric laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgirev, E.I.; Moroz, G.L.; Shchedrin, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Scintillation gamma-spectrometer is described designed for mobile radiometric laboratory for individual monitoring of internal γ-radiation of members of the general population and service personnel as well as for analysis of the isotopic composition of radiocontaminants in the environment. Description and technical features of device are given. The detection unit consists of detectors made on the basis of NaI(Tl) monocrystals 63 x 63 mm in size. The unit permits measurement of various levels of gamma-emitting nuclides throughout the body and in the thyroid and lungs of man. Provision is made for measuring samples with high specific activities (more than 10 -5 Cu/g) and for examining individuals having high levels of incorporated radionuclides

  3. Radiometric monitoring outdoor municipality Pocinhos-PB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinalli Araujo Costa, Michelle; Araujo dos Santos Junior, Jose; Dos Santos Amaral, Romilton

    2015-01-01

    Studies on human exposure to terrestrial radionuclides are important for human health. Therefore, this investigation presents aimed at making radiometric dosimetry Pocinhos municipality in the state of Paraiba. Monitoring was performed in 50 points in urban and rural areas Pocinhos. The estimated external effective dose rate in outdoor environments was obtained in triplicate using a portable gamma spectrometer, to 1.0 m away from the Earth's surface and time set acquisition in terms of environmental radiation levels. The values of these dose rates outdoor environments ranging from 0.53 to 3.94 mSv.y -1 . the arithmetic mean was 0.79 mSv.y -1 , which exceeds the value 0.07 mSv.y -1 corresponding to the global average in outdoor environments. In the city, found a higher radioactivity in rural areas that were uninhabited at the time of the survey. (Author)

  4. The oxadiazole antibacterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Jeshina; Chang, Mayland; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2016-10-01

    The oxadiazoles are a class of antibacterials discovered by in silico docking and scoring of compounds against the X-ray structure of a penicillin-binding protein. These antibacterials exhibit activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). They show in vivo efficacy in murine models of peritonitis/sepsis and neutropenic thigh MRSA infection. They are bactericidal and orally bioavailable. The oxadiazoles show promise in treatment of MRSA infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Data acquisition and processing - helicopter radiometric survey, Krageroe, 1998

    CERN Document Server

    Beard, L P

    2000-01-01

    On 07 October 1998 a helicopter radiometric survey was flown in the vicinity of Krageroe municipality. The purpose of the survey was to provide radiometric information to help assess radon hazard from radioactive rocks in the area. A total of 60 line-kilometres of radiometric data were acquired in a single flight, covering an area of approximately 3 square km with a 50-m line spacing. The data were collected by Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) personnel and processed at NGU. Radiometric data were reduced using the three-channel procedure recommended by the International Atomic Energy Association. All data were gridded using square cells with 30-m sides and geophysical maps were produced at a scale of 1:5000. This report covers aspects of data acquisition and processing (Author)

  6. Radiometric report for a blast furnace tracing with radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanase, G.; Tanase, M.

    1995-01-01

    One of the methods to monitor refractory wall of blast furnace is its tracing with radioactive isotopes. The tracer isotope can be detected by two ways: the external dosimetric measurement at the armour of the blast furnace and/or the radiometric measurement of the iron sample charge by charge. Any change in radiometric situation of tracer radioisotope is recorded in a radiometric report. This paper presents an original concept of radiometric report based upon PARADOX and CORELDRAW soft kits. Their advantage are: quick and easy changes, easy recording of current radioactivity of tracer isotope, short history of changes, visual mapping of the tracer isotope and others. In this way we monitored 6 blast furnaces and more than 180 radioactive sources

  7. Radiometric detection of yeasts in blood cultures of cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopfer, R.L.; Orengo, A.; Chesnut, S.; Wenglar, M.

    1980-01-01

    During a 12-month period, 19,457 blood cultures were collected. Yeasts were isolated from 193 cultures derived from 76 cancer patients. Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis accounted for 79% of isolates. Of the three methods compared, the radiometric method required 2.9 days to become positive, blind subculture required 2.6 days, and Gram stains required 1 day. However, the radiometric method was clearly superior in detecting positive cultures, since 73% of all cultures were first detected radiometrically, 22% were detected by subculture, and only 5% were detected by Gram stain. Although 93% of the isolates were detected by aerobic culture, five (7%) isolates were obtained only from anaerobic cultures. Seven days of incubation appear to be sufficient for the radiometric detection of yeasts

  8. Radiometric dating by alpha spectrometry on uranium series nuclides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Albert van der

    1987-01-01

    De Engelse titel van dit proegschrift \\"Radiometric Dating by Alpha Spectometry on Uranium Series Nuclides\\" kan in het Nederlands wellicht het best worden weergegeven door \\"ouderdomsdbepalingen door stralingsmeting aan kernen uit de uraniumreeks met behulp van alfaspectometrie\\". In dit laatste

  9. Radiometric flow injection analysis with an ASIA (Ismatec) analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myint, U; Win, N; San, K; Han, B; Myoe, K M [Yangon Univ. (Myanmar). Dept. of Chemistry; Toelgyessy, J [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Environmental Science

    1994-07-01

    Radiometric Flow Injection Analysis of a radioactive ([sup 131]I) sample is described. For analysis an ASIA (Ismatec) analyzer with a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was used. (author) 5 refs.; 3 figs.

  10. Data acquisition and processing - helicopter radiometric survey, Krageroe, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, Les P.; Mogaard, John Olav

    2000-07-01

    On 07 October 1998 a helicopter radiometric survey was flown in the vicinity of Krageroe municipality. The purpose of the survey was to provide radiometric information to help assess radon hazard from radioactive rocks in the area. A total of 60 line-kilometres of radiometric data were acquired in a single flight, covering an area of approximately 3 square km with a 50-m line spacing. The data were collected by Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) personnel and processed at NGU. Radiometric data were reduced using the three-channel procedure recommended by the International Atomic Energy Association. All data were gridded using square cells with 30-m sides and geophysical maps were produced at a scale of 1:5000. This report covers aspects of data acquisition and processing (Author)

  11. Radiometric determination of monoethanolamine with 65ZnSo4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varadan, R.; Sriman Narayanan, S.; Rao, V.R.S.

    1984-01-01

    Determination of milligram amounts of monoethanolamine (MEA) with zinc(II) by radiometric titration is described. When MEA is added to a zinc(II) solution containing sulphate ions at 25 degC, a white solid complex is formed. The formation of this complex is employed for the radiometric determination of MEA with 65 Zn. The amount of MEA is directly proportional to the activity of the complex formed. The method is simple, rapid and accurate. (author)

  12. Complex optimization of radiometric control and measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Fundamentals of a new approach to increase in the accuracy of radiometric systems of control and measurements are presented in succession. Block diagram of the new concept of radiometric system optimization is provided. The approach involving radical increase in accuracy and envisages ascertaining of controlled parameter by the totality of two intelligence signals closely correlated with each other. The new concept makes use of system analysis as a unified one-piece object, permitting euristic synthesis of the system. 4 refs., 3 figs

  13. [Distiller Yeasts Producing Antibacterial Peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyachko, E V; Morozkina, E V; Zaitchik, B Ts; Benevolensky, S V

    2015-01-01

    A new method of controlling lactic acid bacteria contamination was developed with the use of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides. Genes encoding the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin with codons preferable for S. cerevisiae were synthesized, and a system was constructed for their secretory expression. Recombinant S. cerevisiae strains producing antibacterial peptides effectively inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus sakei, Pediacoccus pentasaceus, Pediacoccus acidilactici, etc. The application of distiller yeasts producing antibacterial peptides enhances the ethanol yield in cases of bacterial contamination. Recombinant yeasts producing the antibacterial peptides pediocin and plantaricin can successfully substitute the available industrial yeast strains upon ethanol production.

  14. Transportable high sensitivity small sample radiometric calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, J.R.; Biddle, R.S.; Cordova, B.S.; Sampson, T.E.; Dye, H.R.; McDow, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    A new small-sample, high-sensitivity transportable radiometric calorimeter, which can be operated in different modes, contains an electrical calibration method, and can be used to develop secondary standards, will be described in this presentation. The data taken from preliminary tests will be presented to indicate the precision and accuracy of the instrument. The calorimeter and temperature-controlled bath, at present, require only a 30-in. by 20-in. tabletop area. The calorimeter is operated from a laptop computer system using unique measurement module capable of monitoring all necessary calorimeter signals. The calorimeter can be operated in the normal calorimeter equilibration mode, as a comparison instrument, using twin chambers and an external electrical calibration method. The sample chamber is 0.75 in (1.9 cm) in diameter by 2.5 in. (6.35 cm) long. This size will accommodate most 238 Pu heat standards manufactured in the past. The power range runs from 0.001 W to <20 W. The high end is only limited by sample size

  15. Calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, J. K.; Schildkraut, Elliot Robert; Bauldree, Russell S.; Goodrich, Shawn M.

    1996-06-01

    The calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer (CIGARS) is a new high performance, multi-purpose, multi- platform Fourier transform spectrometer (FPS) sensor. It covers the waveband from 0.2 to 12 micrometer, has spectral resolution as fine as 0.3 cm-1, and records over 100 spectra per second. Two CIGARS units are being used for observations of target signatures in the air or on the ground from fixed or moving platforms, including high performance jet aircraft. In this paper we describe the characteristics and capabilities of the CIGARS sensor, which uses four interchangeable detector modules (Si, InGaAs, InSb, and HgCdTe) and two optics modules, with internal calibration. The data recording electronics support observations of transient events, even without precise information on the timing of the event. We present test and calibration data on the sensitivity, spectral resolution, stability, and spectral rate of CIGARS, and examples of in- flight observations of real targets. We also discuss plans for adapting CIGARS for imaging spectroscopy observations, with simultaneous spectral and spatial data, by replacing the existing detectors with a focal plane array (FPA).

  16. Inverting radiometric measurements with a neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measure, Edward M.; Yee, Young P.; Balding, Jeff M.; Watkins, Wendell R.

    1992-02-01

    A neural network scheme for retrieving remotely sensed vertical temperature profiles was applied to observed ground based radiometer measurements. The neural network used microwave radiance measurements and surface measurements of temperature and pressure as inputs. Because the microwave radiometer is capable of measuring 4 oxygen channels at 5 different elevation angles (9, 15, 25, 40, and 90 degs), 20 microwave measurements are potentially available. Because these measurements have considerable redundancy, a neural network was experimented with, accepting as inputs microwave measurements taken at 53.88 GHz, 40 deg; 57.45 GHz, 40 deg; and 57.45, 90 deg. The primary test site was located at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), NM. Results are compared with measurements made simultaneously with balloon borne radiosonde instruments and with radiometric temperature retrievals made using more conventional retrieval algorithms. The neural network was trained using a Widrow-Hoff delta rule procedure. Functions of date to include season dependence in the retrieval process and functions of time to include diurnal effects were used as inputs to the neural network.

  17. Recent advances in airborne radiometric technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobst, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Since its inception, the DOE Remote Sensing Laboratory has made dramatic innovations in airborne radiometric technology. In the past few years there have been at least four major changes in operational philosophy. (1) The helicopter is now the prime radiation survey vehicle. Surveys are conducted at low speed and low altitude, with lines spaced only a few hundred feet apart. Radiation anomalies and subtle changes in background can be readily identified. (2) Much greater emphasis is now placed on accurate, detailed analysis and interpretation of radiation data. Dramatic improvements in survey hardware and software provide much more data of considerably better quality. (3) Recent Laboratory research has been concentrated on error-free, positive identification of point radiation sources. In the past, the extent and magnitude of dispersed sources were the major concerns. (4) Integrated remote sensing has been strongly emphasized at the Laboratory in recent years. This involves the simultaneous use of radiation detectors, aerial cameras, and the multispectral scanner imagery. The synergistic effects of such data correlation are of significantly greater value in analyzing the terrestrial environment. Many of the changes in operational philosophy are directly traceable to new or dramatically improved hardware and software employed at the Laboratory. Six items have been instrumental in the above technological advances: (1) the UHF Transponder System and its predecessor, the Microwave Ranging System; (2) Model IC of the REDAR data acquisition system; (3) the development of the search algorithm; (4) continued improvements in the REDACA data analysis system; (5) deployment of polyscin sodium iodide radiation detectors; and (6) development of the Graphic Overview System

  18. Patients with fibromyalgia have normal serum levels of hyaluronic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Henning; Møller, H J; Schaadt, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the levels of hyaluronic acid (HA) in Danish patients with fibromyalgia (FM). METHODS: Serum levels of HA were determined in 53 patients with established FM and 55 control samples using a radiometric assay. Values were correlated to clinical disease severity variables...

  19. Antibacterial Applications of Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szunerits, Sabine; Barras, Alexandre; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-04-12

    Bacterial infectious diseases, sharing clinical characteristics such as chronic inflammation and tissue damage, pose a major threat to human health. The steady increase of multidrug-resistant bacteria infections adds up to the current problems modern healthcare is facing. The treatment of bacterial infections with multi-resistant germs is very difficult, as the development of new antimicrobial drugs is hardly catching up with the development of antibiotic resistant pathogens. These and other considerations have generated an increased interest in the development of viable alternatives to antibiotics. A promising strategy is the use of nanomaterials with antibacterial character and of nanostructures displaying anti-adhesive activity against biofilms. Glycan-modified nanodiamonds (NDs) revealed themselves to be of great promise as useful nanostructures for combating microbial infections. This review summarizes the current efforts in the synthesis of glycan-modified ND particles and evaluation of their antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities.

  20. Antibacterial Applications of Nanodiamonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Szunerits

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infectious diseases, sharing clinical characteristics such as chronic inflammation and tissue damage, pose a major threat to human health. The steady increase of multidrug-resistant bacteria infections adds up to the current problems modern healthcare is facing. The treatment of bacterial infections with multi-resistant germs is very difficult, as the development of new antimicrobial drugs is hardly catching up with the development of antibiotic resistant pathogens. These and other considerations have generated an increased interest in the development of viable alternatives to antibiotics. A promising strategy is the use of nanomaterials with antibacterial character and of nanostructures displaying anti-adhesive activity against biofilms. Glycan-modified nanodiamonds (NDs revealed themselves to be of great promise as useful nanostructures for combating microbial infections. This review summarizes the current efforts in the synthesis of glycan-modified ND particles and evaluation of their antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities.

  1. Synthesis, radiometric determination of functional groups, complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, S.; Bubner, M.; Schmeide, K.; Heise, K.H.; Bernhard, G.; Nitsche, H.

    2000-01-01

    The interaction behavior of humic acids with uranium(VI) and the influence of humic substances on the migration behavior of uranium was investigated. A main focus of this work was the synthesis of four different humic acid model substances and their characterization and comparison to the natural humic acid from Aldrich. A radiometric method for the determination of humic acid functional groups was applied in addition to conventional methods for the determination of the functionality of humic acids. The humic acid model substances show functional and structural properties comparable to natural humic acids. Modified humic acids with blocked phenolic OH were synthesized to determine the influence of phenolic OH groups on the complexation behavior of humic acids. A synthesis method for 14 C-labeled humic acids with high specific activity was developed. The complexation behavior of synthetic and natural humic acids with uranium(VI) was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. The synthetic model substances show an interaction behavior with uranium(VI) that is comparable to natural humic acids. This points to the fact that the synthetic humic acids simulate the functionality of their natural analogues very well. For the first time the influence of phenolic OH groups on the complexation behavior of humic acids was investigated by applying a modified humic acid with blocked phenolic OH groups. The formation of a uranyl hydroxy humate complex was identified by laserspectroscopic investigations of the complexation of Aldrich humic acid with uranium(VI) at pH 7. The migration behavior of uranium in a sandy aquifer system rich is humic substances was investigated in column experiments. A part of uranium migrates non-retarded through the sediment, bound to humic colloids. The uranium migration behavior is strongly influenced by the kinetically controlled interaction processes of uranium with the humic colloids

  2. Deep Space Network Radiometric Remote Sensing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft are viewed through a troposphere that absorbs and delays radio signals propagating through it. Tropospheric water, in the form of vapor, cloud liquid, and precipitation, emits radio noise which limits satellite telemetry communication link performance. Even at X-band, rain storms have severely affected several satellite experiments including a planetary encounter. The problem will worsen with DSN implementation of Ka-band because communication link budgets will be dominated by tropospheric conditions. Troposphere-induced propagation delays currently limit VLBI accuracy and are significant sources of error for Doppler tracking. Additionally, the success of radio science programs such as satellite gravity wave experiments and atmospheric occultation experiments depends on minimizing the effect of water vapor-induced propagation delays. In order to overcome limitations imposed by the troposphere, the Deep Space Network has supported a program of radiometric remote sensing. Currently, water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and microwave temperature profilers (MTPs) support many aspects of the Deep Space Network operations and research and development programs. Their capability to sense atmospheric water, microwave sky brightness, and atmospheric temperature is critical to development of Ka-band telemetry systems, communication link models, VLBI, satellite gravity wave experiments, and radio science missions. During 1993, WVRs provided data for propagation model development, supported planetary missions, and demonstrated advanced tracking capability. Collection of atmospheric statistics is necessary to model and predict performance of Ka-band telemetry links, antenna arrays, and radio science experiments. Since the spectrum of weather variations has power at very long time scales, atmospheric measurements have been requested for periods ranging from one year to a decade at each DSN site. The resulting database would provide reliable statistics on daily

  3. Radiometric measurement techniques in metallurgy and foundry technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The contributions contain informations concerning the present state and development of radiometric measurement techniques in metallurgy and foundry technology as well as their application to the solution of various problems. The development of isotope techniques is briefly described. Major applications of radiometric equipment in industrial measurement are presented together with the use of isotopes to monitor processes of industrial production. This is followed by a short description of numerous laboratory-scale applications. Another contribution deals with fundamental problems and methods of moisture measurement by neutrons. A complex moisture/density measurement device the practical applicability of which has been tested is described here. Possibilities for clay determination in used-up moulding materials are discussed in a further contribution. The clay content can be determined by real-time radiometric density measurement so that the necessary moisture or addition of fresh sand can be controlled. (orig.) With 20 figs., 9 tabs., 178 refs [de

  4. Urease testing of mycobacteria with BACTEC radiometric instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damato, J.J.; Collins, M.T.; McClatchy, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 140 mycobacterial isolates from patients treated at Fitzsimons Army Medical Center or the National Jewish Hospital and Research Center and from animal specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory were tested by using a urease procedure modified for use with a BACTEC model 301. Mycobacterial suspensions were prepared by using Middlebrook 7H10 Tween broth. Of the 98 mycobacteria isolates which were urease positive utilizing standard methodology, all were positive using the radiometric procedures. Similarly, all 42 urease-negative isolates were also negative employing the new methodology. Although maximum radiometric readings were observed at 48 h, all positive strains were readily identified 24 h after inoculation without sacrificing either test sensitivity or specificity. Thus, urease testing of mycobacteria, using the modified BACTEC radiometric methodology, was as sensitive, as specific, and more rapid than conventional methods

  5. Radiometric microbiologic assay for the biologically active forms of niacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertcher, J.A.; Guilarte, T.R.; Chen, M.F.; Rider, A.A.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay has been developed for the determination of niacin in biologic fluids. Lactobacillus plantarum produced 14 CO 2 from L-[U- 14 C] malic acid in quantities proportional to the amount of niacin present. The assay is specific for the biologically active forms of niacin in humans. Thirty normal hemolysates were analyzed and the values ranged from 13.0 to 17.8 μg niacin/ml RBC (mean = 15.27 +- 1.33 s.d.). Good recovery and reproducibility studies were obtained with this assay. On thirty blood samples, correlation was excellent between the radiometric and the conventional turbidimetric assays

  6. Testing of X-ray radiometric enrichnment of polymetallic ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseev, N.I.; Panova, N.I.; Kirbitova, N.V.; Shramm, E.O.; Efremov, Yu.G.

    1987-01-01

    Testing of X-ray radiometric method of sorting of polymetallic ores using the developed X-ray radiometric device was conducted. It was shown that introduction of preliminary concentration at the factory made the method of fragment separation to be the perspective one, enabling to elevate the factory production with respect to commercial ore and reduce the cost of ore processing. In the case of preliminary concentration, conducted at the mine, it is advisable to perform ore sorting in the flow formed to monolayer

  7. Carbon Nanomaterials as Antibacterial Colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Maas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials like graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes and the various forms of diamond have attracted great attention for their vast potential regarding applications in electrical engineering and as biomaterials. The study of the antibacterial properties of carbon nanomaterials provides fundamental information on the possible toxicity and environmental impact of these materials. Furthermore, as a result of the increasing prevalence of resistant bacteria strains, the development of novel antibacterial materials is of great importance. This article reviews current research efforts on characterizing the antibacterial activity of carbon nanomaterials from the perspective of colloid and interface science. Building on these fundamental findings, recent functionalization strategies for enhancing the antibacterial effect of carbon nanomaterials are described. The review concludes with a comprehensive outlook that summarizes the most important discoveries and trends regarding antibacterial carbon nanomaterials.

  8. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies.We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all

  9. Discrepancy between growth of Coccidioides immitis in bacterial blood culture media and a radiometric growth index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampel, N.M.; Wieden, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Spherules of Coccidioides immitis grew readily after inoculation in vented trypticase soy broth, biphasic brain heart infusion media, and aerobic tryptic soy broth bottles used in a radiometric system (BACTEC). However, visible growth was not accompanied by a significant radiometric growth index. Growth of C. immitis can be visually detected in routine bacterial blood culture media while the radiometric growth index remains negative

  10. Determination of molybdenite leaching degree by x-ray radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibinov, S.A.; Gladyshev, V.P.; Yarmolik, A.S.; Kim, A.Ch.; Sokur, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    A express chemical X-ray radiometric method for determination of leaching degree and analysis of molybdenite products is developed. The method comprises chemical preparation and the following X-ray radiometric determination of molyb bdenum. Total duration of the analysis is 1-1.5 h. The best reproductivity is btained at X-ray radiometric analysis as compared with the chemical one

  11. Radiometric densimeter for measuring and automatic control of liquid density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajs, J.

    1982-01-01

    A performance rule of the radiometric densimeter produced by ''POLON ''Works is presented. A simplified analysis of the correction of density indication changes due to liquid temperature variations is described. A method of replacing the measuring pipe carrying the liquid being measured by suitable standards is given. The method is for automatic systems control. (A.S.)

  12. Pukaki 1-01 : initial luminescence dating and radiometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2001-01-01

    Core from Pukaki 1-01 was sampled for luminescence dating and radiometric measurements on 14 March 2001 in the dark room laboratory at Victoria University. Seven samples were taken to get an overview of the crater history, and laboratory work was completed in August 2001. (author). 2 figs., 3 tabs

  13. A review of recent developments in radiometric calibration facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, B.

    1984-01-01

    Two new developments concerning radiometric calibration facilities are described in this presentation. The first is the result of the international programme for the monitoring and cross-reference of existing calibration facilities, sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The second development that is discussed concerns the accuracy of the stripping ratios derived at Pelindaba and has important implications for in situ assaying

  14. Assessment of Aero-radiometric Data of Southern Anambra Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High-resolution aero-radiometric data from three radio-elements (Uranium, Potassium and Thorium) were used and processed independently to investigate the Southern Anambra basin for the prospect of producing radiogenic heat. The rock types in the study area were outlined while processing the elements in each rock ...

  15. PLEIADES-HR INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES FOR RADIOMETRIC IMAGE QUALITY COMMISSIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Blanchet

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The first Pleiades-HR satellite, part of a constellation of two, has been launched on December 17, 2011. This satellite produces high resolution optical images. In order to achieve good image quality, Pleiades-HR should first undergo an important 6 month commissioning phase period. This phase consists in calibrating and assessing the radiometric and geometric image quality to offer the best images to end users. This new satellite has benefited from technology improvements in various fields which make it stand out from other Earth observation satellites. In particular, its best-in-class agility performance enables new calibration and assessment techniques. This paper is dedicated to presenting these innovative techniques that have been tested for the first time for the Pleiades- HR radiometric commissioning. Radiometric activities concern compression, absolute calibration, detector normalization, and refocusing operations, MTF (Modulation Transfer Function assessment, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR estimation, and tuning of the ground processing parameters. The radiometric performances of each activity are summarized in this paper.

  16. preliminary geological and radiometric studies of granitoids of zing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    laboratory of Geology Department, Federal University of. Technology, Yola where they were thin sectioned and petrographically studied using a high magnification polarising microscope. Canada balsam was used as the mounting medium. Radiometric survey was carried out using a McPhar model TC-33A portable gamma ...

  17. Laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions of radiometric tarps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) of radiometric tarp samples used in the vicarious calibration of Earth remote sensing satellite instruments are presented in this paper. The results illustrate the BRDF dependence on the orientation of the tarps' weft and warp threads. The study was performed using the GSFC scatterometer at incident zenith angles of 0 deg., 10 deg., and 30 deg.; scatter zenith angles from 0 deg. to 60 deg.; and scatter azimuth angles of 0 deg., 45 deg., 90 deg., 135 deg., and 180 deg.. The wavelengths were 485 nm, 550 nm, 633 nm, and 800 nm. The tarp's weft and warp dependence on BRDF is well defined at all measurement geometries and wavelengths. The BRDF difference can be as high as 8% at 0 deg. incident angle and 12% at 30 deg. incident angle. The fitted BRDF data show a very small discrepancy from the measured ones. New data on the forward and backscatter properties of radiometric tarps are reported. The backward scatter is well pronounced for the white samples. The black sample has well-pronounced forward scatter. The provided BRDF characterization of radiometric tarps is an excellent reference for anyone interested in using tarps for radiometric calibrations. The results are NIST traceable

  18. Laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions of radiometric tarps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T; Butler, James J

    2008-06-20

    Laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) of radiometric tarp samples used in the vicarious calibration of Earth remote sensing satellite instruments are presented in this paper. The results illustrate the BRDF dependence on the orientation of the tarps' weft and warp threads. The study was performed using the GSFC scatterometer at incident zenith angles of 0 degrees, 10 degrees, and 30 degrees; scatter zenith angles from 0 degrees to 60 degrees; and scatter azimuth angles of 0 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, 135 degrees, and 180 degrees. The wavelengths were 485 nm, 550 nm, 633 nm, and 800 nm. The tarp's weft and warp dependence on BRDF is well defined at all measurement geometries and wavelengths. The BRDF difference can be as high as 8% at 0 degrees incident angle and 12% at 30 degrees incident angle. The fitted BRDF data show a very small discrepancy from the measured ones. New data on the forward and backscatter properties of radiometric tarps are reported. The backward scatter is well pronounced for the white samples. The black sample has well-pronounced forward scatter. The provided BRDF characterization of radiometric tarps is an excellent reference for anyone interested in using tarps for radiometric calibrations. The results are NIST traceable.

  19. Radiometric Calibration of Osmi Imagery Using Solar Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Han Lee

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available OSMI (Ocean Scanning Multi-Spectral Imager raw image data (Level 0 were acquired and radiometrically corrected. We have applied two methods, using solar & dark calibration data from OSMI sensor and comparing with the SeaWiFS data, to the radiometric correction of OSMI raw image data. First, we could get the values of the gain and the offset for each pixel and each band from comparing the solar & dark calibration data with the solar input radiance values, calculated from the transmittance, BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and the solar incidence angle (¥â,¥è of OSMI sensor. Applying this calibration data to OSMI raw image data, we got the two odd results, the lower value of the radiometric corrected image data than the expected value, and the Venetian Blind Effect in the radiometric corrected image data. Second, we could get the reasonable results from comparing OSMI raw image data with the SeaWiFS data, and get a new problem of OSMI sensor.

  20. Space Object Radiometric Modeling for Hardbody Optical Signature Database Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Introduction This presentation summarizes recent activity in monitoring spacecraft health status using passive remote optical nonimaging ...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Space Object Radiometric Modeling for Hardbody Optical Signature Database Generation...It is beneficial to the observer/analyst to understand the fundamental optical signature variability associated with these detection and

  1. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-02-07

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies.

  2. Antibacterial activity of antileukoprotease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, P S; Maassen, R J; Stolk, J; Heinzel-Wieland, R; Steffens, G J; Dijkman, J H

    1996-01-01

    Antileukoprotease (ALP), or secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor, is an endogenous inhibitor of serine proteinases that is present in various external secretions. ALP, one of the major inhibitors of serine proteinases present in the human lung, is a potent reversible inhibitor of elastase and, to a lesser extent, of cathepsin G. In equine neutrophils, an antimicrobial polypeptide that has some of the characteristics of ALP has been identified (M. A. Couto, S. S. L. Harwig, J. S. Cullor, J. P. Hughes, and R. I. Lehrer, Infect. Immun. 60:5042-5047, 1992). This report, together with the cationic nature of ALP, led us to investigate the antimicrobial activity of ALP. ALP was shown to display marked in vitro antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. On a molar basis, the activity of ALP was lower than that of two other cationic antimicrobial polypeptides, lysozyme and defensin. ALP comprises two homologous domains: its proteinase-inhibitory activities are known to be located in the second COOH-terminal domain, and the function of its first NH2-terminal domain is largely unknown. Incubation of intact ALP or its isolated first domain with E. coli or S. aureus resulted in killing of these bacteria, whereas its second domain displayed very little antibacterial activity. Together these data suggest a putative antimicrobial role for the first domain of ALP and indicate that its antimicrobial activity may equip ALP to contribute to host defense against infection. PMID:8890201

  3. A Review of LIDAR Radiometric Processing: From Ad Hoc Intensity Correction to Rigorous Radiometric Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza G. Kashani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to precise 3D coordinates, most light detection and ranging (LIDAR systems also record “intensity”, loosely defined as the strength of the backscattered echo for each measured point. To date, LIDAR intensity data have proven beneficial in a wide range of applications because they are related to surface parameters, such as reflectance. While numerous procedures have been introduced in the scientific literature, and even commercial software, to enhance the utility of intensity data through a variety of “normalization”, “correction”, or “calibration” techniques, the current situation is complicated by a lack of standardization, as well as confusing, inconsistent use of terminology. In this paper, we first provide an overview of basic principles of LIDAR intensity measurements and applications utilizing intensity information from terrestrial, airborne topographic, and airborne bathymetric LIDAR. Next, we review effective parameters on intensity measurements, basic theory, and current intensity processing methods. We define terminology adopted from the most commonly-used conventions based on a review of current literature. Finally, we identify topics in need of further research. Ultimately, the presented information helps lay the foundation for future standards and specifications for LIDAR radiometric calibration.

  4. A Review of LIDAR Radiometric Processing: From Ad Hoc Intensity Correction to Rigorous Radiometric Calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Alireza G; Olsen, Michael J; Parrish, Christopher E; Wilson, Nicholas

    2015-11-06

    In addition to precise 3D coordinates, most light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems also record "intensity", loosely defined as the strength of the backscattered echo for each measured point. To date, LIDAR intensity data have proven beneficial in a wide range of applications because they are related to surface parameters, such as reflectance. While numerous procedures have been introduced in the scientific literature, and even commercial software, to enhance the utility of intensity data through a variety of "normalization", "correction", or "calibration" techniques, the current situation is complicated by a lack of standardization, as well as confusing, inconsistent use of terminology. In this paper, we first provide an overview of basic principles of LIDAR intensity measurements and applications utilizing intensity information from terrestrial, airborne topographic, and airborne bathymetric LIDAR. Next, we review effective parameters on intensity measurements, basic theory, and current intensity processing methods. We define terminology adopted from the most commonly-used conventions based on a review of current literature. Finally, we identify topics in need of further research. Ultimately, the presented information helps lay the foundation for future standards and specifications for LIDAR radiometric calibration.

  5. Radiometric Correction of Close-Range Spectral Image Blocks Captured Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with a Radiometric Block Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eija Honkavaara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned airborne vehicles (UAV equipped with novel, miniaturized, 2D frame format hyper- and multispectral cameras make it possible to conduct remote sensing measurements cost-efficiently, with greater accuracy and detail. In the mapping process, the area of interest is covered by multiple, overlapping, small-format 2D images, which provide redundant information about the object. Radiometric correction of spectral image data is important for eliminating any external disturbance from the captured data. Corrections should include sensor, atmosphere and view/illumination geometry (bidirectional reflectance distribution function—BRDF related disturbances. An additional complication is that UAV remote sensing campaigns are often carried out under difficult conditions, with varying illumination conditions and cloudiness. We have developed a global optimization approach for the radiometric correction of UAV image blocks, a radiometric block adjustment. The objective of this study was to implement and assess a combined adjustment approach, including comprehensive consideration of weighting of various observations. An empirical study was carried out using imagery captured using a hyperspectral 2D frame format camera of winter wheat crops. The dataset included four separate flights captured during a 2.5 h time period under sunny weather conditions. As outputs, we calculated orthophoto mosaics using the most nadir images and sampled multiple-view hyperspectral spectra for vegetation sample points utilizing multiple images in the dataset. The method provided an automated tool for radiometric correction, compensating for efficiently radiometric disturbances in the images. The global homogeneity factor improved from 12–16% to 4–6% with the corrections, and a reduction in disturbances could be observed in the spectra of the object points sampled from multiple overlapping images. Residuals in the grey and white reflectance panels were less than 5% of the

  6. Antibacterial Metallic Touch Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Villapún

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to present a comprehensive review of the development of modern antibacterial metallic materials as touch surfaces in healthcare settings. Initially we compare Japanese, European and US standards for the assessment of antimicrobial activity. The variations in methodologies defined in these standards are highlighted. Our review will also cover the most relevant factors that define the antimicrobial performance of metals, namely, the effect of humidity, material geometry, chemistry, physical properties and oxidation of the material. The state of the art in contact-killing materials will be described. Finally, the effect of cleaning products, including disinfectants, on the antimicrobial performance, either by direct contact or by altering the touch surface chemistry on which the microbes attach, will be discussed. We offer our outlook, identifying research areas that require further development and an overview of potential future directions of this exciting field.

  7. Radiometric assays for the measurement of PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, M.

    1997-01-01

    Prostate Specific Antigen, a serine protease enzyme, of M.W. ∼ 26-33 kDa, is widely considered to be a very useful marker for prostate cancer. It satisfies nearly all the requirements of an ideal 'Tumour Marker' and has hence attracted a lot of attention in the past decade. PSA is present in multiple forms in serum, with an appreciable fraction bound to the protease inhibitor α-1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) and to a small extent to other proteins such as α-2-macroglobulin (AMG) leaving the rest in the free form. The total PSA levels have been reported to have 80% sensitivity and 60% specificity towards the detection of prostate cancer. The lack of specificity occurs mainly due to the high levels of t-PSA in benign prostatic hypertrophy(BPH) apart from the cancer. The concept of free PSA has been introduced in the recent past and the ratio of free/total PSA levels have been shown to be advantageous in the differential diagnosis of BPH from prostate cancer. The f/t ratio is considered to be particularly useful in the grey zones of decision making (t-PSA levels 4-20 ng/mL). The need for the development of assays for total and free PSA is felt due to: a. the high incidence of prostate cancers being detected currently; b. the high cost of tests (higher for free PSA assay, and the cost becomes an important parameter when a patient has to be regularly monitored after therapy) that is not affordable for many patients; c. the potential for research in the area of prostate cancer management where the PSA (total and free) assays will be of great help

  8. Antibacterial activity of Ficus capensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    Allium sativum) is used to reduce cholesterol levels and to boost immune system; it lowers high blood pressure and its oil has been seen to have antibacterial properties (Juurlink, 2001). Milk thistle. Silybum marianum has also ...

  9. Antibacterial resistance: an emerging 'zoonosis'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labro, Marie-Thérèse; Bryskier, Jean-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Antibacterial resistance is a worldwide threat, and concerns have arisen about the involvement of animal commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance and spread of resistance genes. However, beyond the facts related to the occurrence of resistant microorganisms in food, food-producing animals and companion animals and their transmission to humans, it is important to consider the vast environmental 'resistome', the selective pathways underlying the emergence of antibacterial resistance and how we can prepare answers for tomorrow.

  10. Antibacterial triterpenoids from Melia toosendan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new lanostan-type triterpenoid with hydroperoxy group, toosendanin A (1, together with two known triterpenoids, meliastatin 3 (2 and ursolic acid (3, w ere isolated and identified from the stems of Melia toosendan. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra and other spectroscopic studies. These compounds were assayed for the antibacterial activities against some hospital pathogenic bacteria. Toosendanin A (1 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against K. pneumoniae .

  11. Geometric Calibration and Radiometric Correction of the Maia Multispectral Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocerino, E.; Dubbini, M.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Gattelli, M.; Covi, D.

    2017-10-01

    Multispectral imaging is a widely used remote sensing technique, whose applications range from agriculture to environmental monitoring, from food quality check to cultural heritage diagnostic. A variety of multispectral imaging sensors are available on the market, many of them designed to be mounted on different platform, especially small drones. This work focuses on the geometric and radiometric characterization of a brand-new, lightweight, low-cost multispectral camera, called MAIA. The MAIA camera is equipped with nine sensors, allowing for the acquisition of images in the visible and near infrared parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Two versions are available, characterised by different set of band-pass filters, inspired by the sensors mounted on the WorlView-2 and Sentinel2 satellites, respectively. The camera details and the developed procedures for the geometric calibrations and radiometric correction are presented in the paper.

  12. Radiometric analyzer with plural radiation sources and detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, S.; Oda, M.; Miyashita, K.; Takada, M.

    1977-01-01

    A radiometric analyzer for measuring characteristics of a material by radiation comprises a plurality of systems in which each consists of a radiation source and a radiation detector which are the same in number as the number of elements of the molecule of the material and a linear calibration circuit having inverse response characteristics (calibration curve) of the respective systems of detectors, whereby the measurement is carried out by four fundamental rules by operation of the mutual outputs of said detector system obtained through said linear calibration circuit. One typical embodiment is a radiometric analyzer for hydrocarbons which measures the density of heavy oil, the sulfur content and the calorific value by three detector systems which include a γ-ray source (E/sub γ/ greater than 50 keV), a soft x-ray source (Ex approximately 20 keV), and a neutron ray source. 2 claims, 6 figures

  13. High speed radiometric measurements of IED detonation fireballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spidell, Matthew T.; Gordon, J. Motos; Pitz, Jeremey; Gross, Kevin C.; Perram, Glen P.

    2010-04-01

    Continuum emission is predominant in fireball spectral phenomena and in some demonstrated cases, fine detail in the temporal evolution of infrared spectral emissions can be used to estimate size and chemical composition of the device. Recent work indicates that a few narrow radiometric bands may reveal forensic information needed for the explosive discrimination and classification problem, representing an essential step in moving from "laboratory" measurements to a rugged, fieldable system. To explore phenomena not observable in previous experiments, a high speed (10μs resolution) radiometer with four channels spanning the infrared spectrum observed the detonation of nine home made explosive (HME) devices in the 0.98) using blast model functional forms, suggesting that energy release could be estimated from single-pixel radiometric detectors. Comparison of radiometer-derived fireball size with FLIR infrared imagery indicate the Planckian intensity size estimates are about a factor of two smaller than the physical extent of the fireball.

  14. Study of a new radiometric sterility test in radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez P, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    A new radiometric method is studied for the determination of sterility. It is based on a culture marked with carbon-14 and the measurement by liquid scintillation of the radioactivity of the gaseous products released after a short period of incubation. The studied samples consisted in nonradioactive solutions and different radiopharmaceuticals, through a regulated current of nitrogen there is a transportation of gaseous and volatile products produced in each flask, which were received in a liquid scintillation vial. The experimental data permit to conclude that through the radiometric method the results can be obtained after 24 hours or less of incubation, instead of a period of several days which was necessary with the traditional process. Due to the sensitivity of the method it is possible to inoculate a minimum volume of sample, this is important in the case of the preparation of little parts for injection as it occurs generally with the pharmaceuticals. (author)

  15. Radiometric microbiologic assay for the biologically active forms of niacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertcher, J.A.; Guilarte, T.R.; Chen, M.F.; Rider, A.A.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1979-05-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay has been developed for the determination of niacin in biologic fluids. Lactobacillus plantarum produced /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from L-(U-/sup 14/C) malic acid in quantities proportional to the amount of niacin present. The assay is specific for the biologically active forms of niacin in humans. Thirty normal hemolysates were analyzed and the values ranged from 13.0 to 17.8 ..mu..g niacin/ml RBC (mean = 15.27 +- 1.33 s.d.). Good recovery and reproducibility studies were obtained with this assay. On thirty blood samples, correlation was excellent between the radiometric and the conventional turbidimetric assays.

  16. Radiometric and dosimetric characteristics of HgI2 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaletin, V.M.; Krivozubov, O.V.; Torlin, M.A.; Fomin, V.I.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of HgI 2 detectors in x-ray and gamma detection in applications to radiometric and dosimetric monitoring and as portable instruments for such purposes was considered. Blocks with mosaic and sandwich structures were prepared and tested against each other and, for comparative purposes, against CdTe detectors for relative sensitivities at various gamma-quanta energies. Sensitivity dependencies on gamma radiation energy were plotted for the detector materials and structures as were current dependencies on the dose rate of x rays. Results indicated that the mercury iodide detectors could be used in radiometric and dosimetric measurements at gamma quantum energies up to and in excess of 1000 KeV

  17. Detection and recovery of mycobacteria by a radiometric procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.; Foster, V.

    1983-01-01

    During a 6-month period, 5,375 clinical specimens were cultured on Middlebrook-Cohn 7H10 medium, on Lowenstein-Jensen medium, and in Middlebrook 7H12 medium containing [ 14 C]palmitic acid. More mycobacteria were recovered when all three media were used than when either the conventional method with 7H10 agar and Lowenstein-Jensen slants or the radiometric method with 7H12 broth was used alone

  18. Processing data collected from radiometric experiments by multivariate technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanski, P.; Kowalska, E.; Machaj, B.; Jakowiuk, A.

    2005-01-01

    Multivariate techniques applied for processing data collected from radiometric experiments can provide more efficient extraction of the information contained in the spectra. Several techniques are considered: (i) multivariate calibration using Partial Least Square Regression and Artificial Neural Network, (ii) standardization of the spectra, (iii) smoothing of collected spectra were autocorrelation function and bootstrap were used for the assessment of the processed data, (iv) image processing using Principal Component Analysis. Application of these techniques is illustrated on examples of some industrial applications. (author)

  19. A Preliminary Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Radiometric Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, C.; Fusco, L.; Mehl, W.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA raw (BT) product, the radiometrically corrected (AT) product, and the radiometrically and geometrically corrected (PT) product of a TM scene were analyzed examine the frequency distribution of the digital data; the statistical correlation between the bands; and the variability between the detectors within a band. The analyses were performed on a series of image subsets from the full scence. Results are presented from one 1024 c 1024 pixel subset of Realfoot Lake, Tennessee which displayed a representative range of ground conditions and cover types occurring within the full frame image. From this cursory examination of one of the first seven channel TM data sets, it would appear that the radiometric performance of the system is most satisfactory and largely meets pre-launch specifications. Problems were noted with Band 5 Detector 3 and Band 2 Detector 4. Differences were observed between forward and reverse scan detector responses both for the BT and AT products. No systematic variations were observed between odd and even detectors.

  20. Ultra-sensitive radionuclide spectrometry. Radiometrics and mass spectrometry synergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.P.

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in radiometrics and mass spectrometry techniques for ultra-sensitive analysis of radionuclides in the marine environment are reviewed. In the radiometrics sector the dominant development has been the utilization of large HPGe detectors in underground laboratories with anti-cosmic or anti-Compton shielding for the analysis of short and medium-lived radionuclides in the environment. In the mass spectrometry sector, applications of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for the analysis of long-lived radionuclides in the environment are the most important recent achievements. The recent developments do not only considerably decrease the detection limits for several radionuclides (up to several orders of magnitude), but they also enable to decrease sample volumes so that sampling, e.g., of the water column can be much easier and more effective. A comparison of radiometrics and mass spectrometry results for the analysis of radionuclides in the marine environment shows a reasonable agreement - within quoted uncertainties, for wide range of activities and different sample matrices analyzed. (author)

  1. Multielemental X-ray radiometric analysis of ferromanganese concretions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metelev, A.Yu.; Grigor'ev, A.I.; Rakita, K.A.; Mamaenko, M.V.; Ivanenko, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Ferromanganese concretions are promising mineral resources of the ocean. Most often, they are analyzed by atomic-absorption, spectra, X-ray spectral, neutron-activation, and X-ray radiometric methods. Note that X-ray radiometric analysis (XRRA) allows the sufficiently rapid determination of a great number of elements in ferromanganese concretions. The possibility of using XRRA with saturated and thin layers was shown; however, the data on the precision and accuracy of the technique was not given. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the basic performance characteristics of the multielemental X-ray radiometric analysis of ferromanganese concretions (Pacific Ocean). Determinations for K,Ca and Ti content were made using a 55 Fe source and for Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, and Mo contents by using a 109 Cd source. The precision and accuracy of the method was investigated by using reference concretions; it was found the confidence intervals overlap for all of the elements except Ca and Pb. The relative standard deviation was 1-5%, indicating the high precision of the method. The described technique is successfully used on research vessels of the Far East Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences and in South Pacific Ocean geological expeditions of PO open-quotes Dal'morgeologiyaclose quotes

  2. Laboratory-Based BRDF Calibration of Radiometric Tarps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J.

    2007-01-01

    The current study provides the remote sensing community with important high accuracy laboratory-based BRDF calibration of radiometric tarps. The results illustrate the dependence of tarps' weft and warp threads orientation on BRDF. The study was done at incident angles of 0deg, 10deg, and 30deg; scatter zenith angles from 0deg to 60deg, and scatter azimuth angles of 0deg, 45deg, 90deg, 135deg, and 180deg. The wavelengths were 485nm, 550nm, 633nm and 800nm. The dependence is well defined at all measurement geometries and wavelengths. It can be as high as 8% at 0deg incident angle and 2% at 30deg incident angle. The fitted BRDF data show a very small discrepancy from the measured ones. New data on the forward and backscatter properties of radiometric tarps is reported. The backward scatter is well pronounced for the white samples. The black sample has well pronounced forward scatter. The BRDF characterization of radiometric tarps can be successfully extended to other structured surface fabric samples. The results are NIST traceable.

  3. In vivo and in vitro antibacterial activity of conglutinin, a mammalian plasma lectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christiansen, P; Thiel, S; Svehag, S E

    1990-01-01

    of BALB/c mice with Salmonella typhimurium is mediated by conglutinin. Conglutinin also demonstrated antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. typhimurium in vitro. The expression of this activity required the presence of heat-labile serum factors and peritoneal exudate or spleen cells...

  4. Antibacterial Effect of Surface Pretreatment Techniques against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... 2018 Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Published by Wolters Kluwer ... Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial surface .... glass ionomer cement. ..... resin containing antibacterial monomer MDPB.

  5. Antibacterial surface design - Contact kill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajbir; Liu, Song

    2016-08-01

    Designing antibacterial surfaces has become extremely important to minimize Healthcare Associated Infections which are a major cause of mortality worldwide. A previous biocide-releasing approach is based on leaching of encapsulated biocides such as silver and triclosan which exerts negative impacts on the environment and potentially contributes to the development of bacterial resistance. This drawback of leachable compounds led to the shift of interest towards a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach: contact-killing surfaces. Biocides that can be bound onto surfaces to give the substrates contact-active antibacterial activity include quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), quaternary phosphoniums (QPs), carbon nanotubes, antibacterial peptides, and N-chloramines. Among the above, QACs and N-chloramines are the most researched contact-active biocides. We review the engineering of contact-active surfaces using QACs or N-chloramines, the modes of actions as well as the test methods. The charge-density threshold of cationic surfaces for desired antibacterial efficacy and attempts to combine various biocides for the generation of new contact-active surfaces are discussed in detail. Surface positive charge density is identified as a key parameter to define antibacterial efficacy. We expect that this research field will continue to attract more research interest in view of the potential impact of self-disinfective surfaces on healthcare-associated infections, food safety and corrosion/fouling resistance required on industrial surfaces such as oil pipes and ship hulls.

  6. Substituted Hydroxyapatites with Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kolmas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstructive surgery is presently struggling with the problem of infections located within implantation biomaterials. Of course, the best antibacterial protection is antibiotic therapy. However, oral antibiotic therapy is sometimes ineffective, while administering an antibiotic at the location of infection is often associated with an unfavourable ratio of dosage efficiency and toxic effect. Thus, the present study aims to find a new factor which may improve antibacterial activity while also presenting low toxicity to the human cells. Such factors are usually implemented along with the implant itself and may be an integral part of it. Many recent studies have focused on inorganic factors, such as metal nanoparticles, salts, and metal oxides. The advantages of inorganic factors include the ease with which they can be combined with ceramic and polymeric biomaterials. The following review focuses on hydroxyapatites substituted with ions with antibacterial properties. It considers materials that have already been applied in regenerative medicine (e.g., hydroxyapatites with silver ions and those that are only at the preliminary stage of research and which could potentially be used in implantology or dentistry. We present methods for the synthesis of modified apatites and the antibacterial mechanisms of various ions as well as their antibacterial efficiency.

  7. Substituted Hydroxyapatites with Antibacterial Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmas, Joanna; Groszyk, Ewa; Kwiatkowska-Różycka, Dagmara

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructive surgery is presently struggling with the problem of infections located within implantation biomaterials. Of course, the best antibacterial protection is antibiotic therapy. However, oral antibiotic therapy is sometimes ineffective, while administering an antibiotic at the location of infection is often associated with an unfavourable ratio of dosage efficiency and toxic effect. Thus, the present study aims to find a new factor which may improve antibacterial activity while also presenting low toxicity to the human cells. Such factors are usually implemented along with the implant itself and may be an integral part of it. Many recent studies have focused on inorganic factors, such as metal nanoparticles, salts, and metal oxides. The advantages of inorganic factors include the ease with which they can be combined with ceramic and polymeric biomaterials. The following review focuses on hydroxyapatites substituted with ions with antibacterial properties. It considers materials that have already been applied in regenerative medicine (e.g., hydroxyapatites with silver ions) and those that are only at the preliminary stage of research and which could potentially be used in implantology or dentistry. We present methods for the synthesis of modified apatites and the antibacterial mechanisms of various ions as well as their antibacterial efficiency. PMID:24949423

  8. Radiometric determination in situ of the face grades in Witwatersrand gold and uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, C.J.B.

    1985-01-01

    A prototype collimated radiometric face scanner was tested in the Harmony Gold Mine. The results obtained during the pilot study indicate that in situ radiometric uranium assays are statistically indistinguishable from those obtained conventionally from channel chip samples. In addition, the study demonstrated that reasonably reliable gold estimates can be deduced from the radiometric measurements, by use of the ratio of gold to uranium within a mine. The instrumentation, calibration procedures, and background determination are described briefly

  9. Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group: Open for Business

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Henry F.; Bartlett, John G.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Chiou, Christine; Cosgrove, Sara E.; Cross, Heather R.; Daum, Robert S.; Downing, Michele; Evans, Scott R.; Knisely, Jane; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Mickley, Brenda S.; Patel, Robin; Pettigrew, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    The Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) is tasked with prioritizing, designing, implementing, and conducting clinical studies to address antibacterial resistance. This article outlines clinical research resources and opportunities made available by ARLG and encourages submission of proposals that address antibacterial resistance.

  10. A new radiometric unit of measure to characterize SWIR illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, A.; Hübner, M.

    2017-05-01

    We propose a new radiometric unit of measure we call the `swux' to unambiguously characterize scene illumination in the SWIR spectral band between 0.8μm-1.8μm, where most of the ever-increasing numbers of deployed SWIR cameras (based on standard InGaAs focal plane arrays) are sensitive. Both military and surveillance applications in the SWIR currently suffer from a lack of a standardized SWIR radiometric unit of measure that can be used to definitively compare or predict SWIR camera performance with respect to SNR and range metrics. We propose a unit comparable to the photometric illuminance lux unit; see Ref. [1]. The lack of a SWIR radiometric unit becomes even more critical if one uses lux levels to describe SWIR sensor performance at twilight or even low light condition, since in clear, no-moon conditions in rural areas, the naturally-occurring SWIR radiation from nightglow produces a much higher irradiance than visible starlight. Thus, even well-intentioned efforts to characterize a test site's ambient illumination levels in the SWIR band may fail based on photometric instruments that only measure visible light. A study of this by one of the authors in Ref. [2] showed that the correspondence between lux values and total SWIR irradiance in typical illumination conditions can vary by more than two orders of magnitude, depending on the spectrum of the ambient background. In analogy to the photometric lux definition, we propose the SWIR irradiance equivalent `swux' level, derived by integration over the scene SWIR spectral irradiance weighted by a spectral sensitivity function S(λ), a SWIR analog of the V(λ) photopic response function.

  11. LFI Radiometric Chain Assembly (RCA) data handling ``Rachel''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, M.; Franceschi, E.; Battaglia, P.; Binko, P.; Butler, R. C.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Fogliani, S.; Frailis, M.; Franceschet, C.; Galeotta, S.; Gasparo, F.; Gregorio, A.; Lapolla, M.; Leonardi, R.; Maggio, G.; Mandolesi, N.; Manzato, P.; Maris, M.; Meharga, M.; Meinhold, P.; Morisset, N.; Pasian, F.; Perrotta, F.; Rohlfs, R.; Sandri, M.; Tomasi, M.; Türler, M.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2009-12-01

    Planck's Low Frequency Instrument is an array of 22 pseudo-correlation radiometers at 30, 44, and 70 GHz. Before integrating the overall array assembly, a first set of tests has been performed for each radiometer chain assembly (RCA), consisting of two radiometers. In this paper, we describe Rachel, a software application which has been purposely developed and used during the RCA test campaign to carry out both near-realtime on-line data analysis and data storage (in FITS format) of the raw output from the radiometric chains.

  12. LFI Radiometric Chain Assembly (RCA) data handling 'Rachel'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaspina, M; Franceschi, E; Butler, R C; Mandolesi, N; Battaglia, P; Franceschet, C; Lapolla, M; Binko, P; Meharga, M; D'Arcangelo, O; Fogliani, S; Frailis, M; Galeotta, S; Gasparo, F; Maggio, G; Manzato, P; Maris, M; Gregorio, A; Leonardi, R; Meinhold, P

    2009-01-01

    Planck's Low Frequency Instrument is an array of 22 pseudo-correlation radiometers at 30, 44, and 70 GHz. Before integrating the overall array assembly, a first set of tests has been performed for each radiometer chain assembly (RCA), consisting of two radiometers. In this paper, we describe Rachel, a software application which has been purposely developed and used during the RCA test campaign to carry out both near-realtime on-line data analysis and data storage (in FITS format) of the raw output from the radiometric chains.

  13. Radiometric system for clinical applications in the National Health System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesa Perez, G.; Arteche Diaz, R.; Camejo Batista, A.; Fonfria Bragado, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper it is presented the radiometric detection system SRNIC-02, manufactured at CEADEN. The system has three major components: a well-type Nal(TI) scintillator detector with its collimator, a measurement module, and the application software, which allows fixing the working parameters of the system, as well as the acquisition and processing of data. The system has two main applications in the National Health System, one for the quality control in Radiopharmacy, and in RIA/IRMA blood tests. There are 16 systems installed, in 13 provinces of the country up to this date. (Author)

  14. Virtual and remote experiments for radiometric and photometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoms, L-J; Girwidz, R

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of spectra is fundamental to our modern understanding of wave optics and colour perception. Since spectrometers are expensive, and accurate calibration is necessary to achieve high quality spectra, we developed a remote lab on optical spectrometry. With this tool, students can carry out real experiments over the Internet. In this article the pros and cons of remote labs, the physical background of optical spectrometry, and the development and use of a radiometric remote lab for higher education are discussed. The remote lab is freely accessible to everyone at http://virtualremotelab.net. (paper)

  15. A report of airbone radiometric and magnetic test survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, J.H.; Park, Y.S.; Woo, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    By the end of Oct. 1981, a complete set of GeoMetrics' air-borne radiometric and magnetic survey system was purchased by KIER using the ADB loan, and it took one week from Nov. 11 1981 to install the system on a Bell 206 B helicopter (HL 9102) owned by Asia Aeroservice Company. The test survey was flown over an area including Hongseong, Daecheon, Seosan and Manripo Sheets, from Nov. 19 to Dec. 14 1981. A Hongseong air-strip was used as the base. (Author)

  16. Notes on the radiometric and geochemical survey of Leyte Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements using the Scintrex GIS-4 portable scintillometer were conducted along the periphery of the island. These radiometric readings as well as sediments were obtained along the streams draining into the sea. A total of 174 stream sediments samples were collected. Minus 80 mesh sediment fraction was analyzed for mobile or extractable uranium. Results indicated that the background values of radioactivity and uranium in stream sediments were 25 counts per second (cps) and 0.3 ppm, respectively. The San Isidro and Vilaba areas which are located in the northern part of Leyte have greater than 3 times above background radioactivity and uranium in the stream sediments. (author)

  17. Process system of radiometric and magnetometric aerial information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazua Rueda, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    The author has been working first in the National Institute of Nuclear Energy (Mexico) and then in URAMEX (Uranio Mexicano) since 1975 to 1983, integrated to radiometric and magnetometric aerial prospecting projects in computerized processing of information aspects. During this period the author participated in the work out of computing systems, information processing and mathematical procedures definition for the geophysical reduction of the calibration equipment data. With cumulated experience, in this thesis are presented aspects concerning to management and operation of computerized processing of information systems. Operation handbooks of the majority of modules are presented. Program lists are not included. (Author)

  18. Virtual and remote experiments for radiometric and photometric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, L.-J.; Girwidz, R.

    2017-09-01

    The analysis of spectra is fundamental to our modern understanding of wave optics and colour perception. Since spectrometers are expensive, and accurate calibration is necessary to achieve high quality spectra, we developed a remote lab on optical spectrometry. With this tool, students can carry out real experiments over the Internet. In this article the pros and cons of remote labs, the physical background of optical spectrometry, and the development and use of a radiometric remote lab for higher education are discussed. The remote lab is freely accessible to everyone at http://virtualremotelab.net.

  19. Spectrally and Radiometrically Stable, Wideband, Onboard Calibration Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, James B.; Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Sarture, Charles M.; Quetin, Gregory R.; Porter, Michael D.; Green, Robert O.; Nolte, Scott H.; Hernandez, Marco A.; Knoll, Linley A.

    2013-01-01

    The Onboard Calibration (OBC) source incorporates a medical/scientific-grade halogen source with a precisely designed fiber coupling system, and a fiber-based intensity-monitoring feedback loop that results in radiometric and spectral stabilities to within less than 0.3 percent over a 15-hour period. The airborne imaging spectrometer systems developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory incorporate OBC sources to provide auxiliary in-use system calibration data. The use of the OBC source will provide a significant increase in the quantitative accuracy, reliability, and resulting utility of the spectral data collected from current and future imaging spectrometer instruments.

  20. On the lower of limit detection of radiometric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamburov, H.; Boneva, S.

    1983-01-01

    The existing definitions of the quantity Asub(min), the lower detection limit, introduced as a characteristic of the sensitivity of radiometric systems are reviewed. A convenient way is found for comparing the different definitions by showing that each definition is connected with a specific value of the probability a of Type I error. The detection limits are calculated for a normal and Poisson distributions of the measured quantities. A criterion is proposed for the applicability of the normal distiribution to the problem of determining the lower detection limit

  1. Blood culture cross contamination associated with a radiometric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, M.R.; Miller, A.D.; Davis, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    During a 9-day period in August 1980 in a New Jersey hospital, three pairs of consecutively numbered blood cultures from different patients were identified as positive for the same organism, for each pair, both cultures were positive in the same atmosphere, both organisms had the same sensitivities, and the second of each pair grew at least 2 days after the first and was the only positive blood culture obtained from the patient. When the hospital laboratory discontinued use of its radiometric culture analyzer for 15 days, no more consecutive pairs of positive cultures occurred. Subsequent use of the machine for 9 days with a new power unit but the original circuit boards resulted in one more similar consecutive pair (Staphylococcus epidermidis). After replacement of the entire power unit, there were no further such pairs. Examination of the machine by the manufacturer revealed a defective circuit board which resulted in inadequate needle sterilization. Laboratories which utilize radiometric analyzers should be aware of the potential for cross contamination. Recognition of such events requires alert microbiologists and infection control practitioners and a record system in the bacteriology laboratory designed to identify such clusters

  2. Reduction of Radiometric Miscalibration—Applications to Pushbroom Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Roessner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of hyperspectral images is an important task in Remote Sensing. Foregoing radiometric calibration results in the assignment of incident electromagnetic radiation to digital numbers and reduces the striping caused by slightly different responses of the pixel detectors. However, due to uncertainties in the calibration some striping remains. This publication presents a new reduction framework that efficiently reduces linear and nonlinear miscalibrations by an image-driven, radiometric recalibration and rescaling. The proposed framework—Reduction Of Miscalibration Effects (ROME—considering spectral and spatial probability distributions, is constrained by specific minimisation and maximisation principles and incorporates image processing techniques such as Minkowski metrics and convolution. To objectively evaluate the performance of the new approach, the technique was applied to a variety of commonly used image examples and to one simulated and miscalibrated EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program scene. Other examples consist of miscalibrated AISA/Eagle VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared and Hawk SWIR (Short Wave Infrared scenes of rural areas of the region Fichtwald in Germany and Hyperion scenes of the Jalal-Abad district in Southern Kyrgyzstan. Recovery rates of approximately 97% for linear and approximately 94% for nonlinear miscalibrated data were achieved, clearly demonstrating the benefits of the new approach and its potential for broad applicability to miscalibrated pushbroom sensor data.

  3. Radiometric calibration of digital cameras using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Michael; Laube, Pascal; Schall, Martin; Umlauf, Georg; Franz, Matthias O.

    2017-08-01

    Digital cameras are used in a large variety of scientific and industrial applications. For most applications, the acquired data should represent the real light intensity per pixel as accurately as possible. However, digital cameras are subject to physical, electronic and optical effects that lead to errors and noise in the raw image. Temperature- dependent dark current, read noise, optical vignetting or different sensitivities of individual pixels are examples of such effects. The purpose of radiometric calibration is to improve the quality of the resulting images by reducing the influence of the various types of errors on the measured data and thus improving the quality of the overall application. In this context, we present a specialized neural network architecture for radiometric calibration of digital cameras. Neural networks are used to learn a temperature- and exposure-dependent mapping from observed gray-scale values to true light intensities for each pixel. In contrast to classical at-fielding, neural networks have the potential to model nonlinear mappings which allows for accurately capturing the temperature dependence of the dark current and for modeling cameras with nonlinear sensitivities. Both scenarios are highly relevant in industrial applications. The experimental comparison of our network approach to classical at-fielding shows a consistently higher reconstruction quality, also for linear cameras. In addition, the calibration is faster than previous machine learning approaches based on Gaussian processes.

  4. Off-line radiometric analysis of Planck-LFI data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasi, M; Mennella, A; Bersanelli, M [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Galeotta, S; Maris, M [LFI-DPC INAF-OATs, Via Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy); Lowe, S R [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Mendes, L [Planck Science Office, European Space Agency, ESAC, P.O. box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Leonardi, R; Meinhold, P [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Villa, F; Sandri, M; Cuttaia, F; Terenzi, L; Valenziano, L; Butler, R C [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti, 101, 40129, Bologna (Italy); Cappellini, B [INAF-IASF Milano, Via E. Bassini 15, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gregorio, A [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Via Valerio, 2 Trieste I-34127 (Italy); Salmon, M J [Departamento de IngenierIa de Comunicaciones, Universidad de Cantabria, Avenida de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain); Binko, P [ISDC Data Centre for Astrophysics, University of Geneva, ch. d' Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); D' Arcangelo, O, E-mail: tomasi@lambrate.inaf.i [IFP-CNR, Via Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    The Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) is an array of 22 pseudo-correlation radiometers on-board the Planck satellite to measure temperature and polarization anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in three frequency bands (30, 44 and 70 GHz). To calibrate and verify the performances of the LFI, a software suite named LIFE has been developed. Its aims are to provide a common platform to use for analyzing the results of the tests performed on the single components of the instrument (RCAs, Radiometric Chain Assemblies) and on the integrated Radiometric Array Assembly (RAA). Moreover, its analysis tools are designed to be used during the flight as well to produce periodic reports on the status of the instrument. The LIFE suite has been developed using a multi-layered, cross-platform approach. It implements a number of analysis modules written in RSI IDL, each accessing the data through a portable and heavily optimized library of functions written in C and C++. One of the most important features of LIFE is its ability to run the same data analysis codes both using ground test data and real flight data as input. The LIFE software suite has been successfully used during the RCA/RAA tests and the Planck Integrated System Tests. Moreover, the software has also passed the verification for its in-flight use during the System Operations Verification Tests, held in October 2008.

  5. Off-line radiometric analysis of Planck-LFI data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasi, M; Mennella, A; Bersanelli, M; Galeotta, S; Maris, M; Lowe, S R; Mendes, L; Leonardi, R; Meinhold, P; Villa, F; Sandri, M; Cuttaia, F; Terenzi, L; Valenziano, L; Butler, R C; Cappellini, B; Gregorio, A; Salmon, M J; Binko, P; D'Arcangelo, O

    2009-01-01

    The Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) is an array of 22 pseudo-correlation radiometers on-board the Planck satellite to measure temperature and polarization anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in three frequency bands (30, 44 and 70 GHz). To calibrate and verify the performances of the LFI, a software suite named LIFE has been developed. Its aims are to provide a common platform to use for analyzing the results of the tests performed on the single components of the instrument (RCAs, Radiometric Chain Assemblies) and on the integrated Radiometric Array Assembly (RAA). Moreover, its analysis tools are designed to be used during the flight as well to produce periodic reports on the status of the instrument. The LIFE suite has been developed using a multi-layered, cross-platform approach. It implements a number of analysis modules written in RSI IDL, each accessing the data through a portable and heavily optimized library of functions written in C and C++. One of the most important features of LIFE is its ability to run the same data analysis codes both using ground test data and real flight data as input. The LIFE software suite has been successfully used during the RCA/RAA tests and the Planck Integrated System Tests. Moreover, the software has also passed the verification for its in-flight use during the System Operations Verification Tests, held in October 2008.

  6. A COMPARISON OF LIDAR REFLECTANCE AND RADIOMETRICALLY CALIBRATED HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Roncat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to retrieve results comparable under different flight parameters and among different flight campaigns, passive remote sensing data such as hyperspectral imagery need to undergo a radiometric calibration. While this calibration, aiming at the derivation of physically meaningful surface attributes such as a reflectance value, is quite cumbersome for passively sensed data and relies on a number of external parameters, the situation is by far less complicated for active remote sensing techniques such as lidar. This fact motivates the investigation of the suitability of full-waveform lidar as a “single-wavelength reflectometer” to support radiometric calibration of hyperspectral imagery. In this paper, this suitability was investigated by means of an airborne hyperspectral imagery campaign and an airborne lidar campaign recorded over the same area. Criteria are given to assess diffuse reflectance behaviour; the distribution of reflectance derived by the two techniques were found comparable in four test areas where these criteria were met. This is a promising result especially in the context of current developments of multi-spectral lidar systems.

  7. Automated gamma spectrometry and data analysis on radiometric neutron dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, W.Y.

    1983-01-01

    An automated gamma-ray spectrometry system was designed and implemented by the Westinghouse Hanford Company at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) to analyze radiometric neutron dosimeters. Unattended, automatic, 24 hour/day, 7 day/week operation with online data analysis and mainframe-computer compatible magnetic tape output are system features. The system was used to analyze most of the 4000-plus radiometric monitors (RM's) from extensive reactor characterization tests during startup and initial operation of th Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The FFTF, operated by HEDL for the Department of Energy, incorporates a 400 MW(th) sodium-cooled fast reactor. Aumomated system hardware consists of a high purity germanium detector, a computerized multichannel analyzer data acquisition system (Nuclear Data, Inc. Model 6620) with two dual 2.5 Mbyte magnetic disk drives plus two 10.5 inch reel magnetic tape units for mass storage of programs/data and an automated Sample Changer-Positioner (ASC-P) run with a programmable controller. The ASC-P has a 200 sample capacity and 12 calibrated counting (analysis) positions ranging from 6 inches (15 cm) to more than 20 feet (6.1 m) from the detector. The system software was programmed in Fortran at HEDL, except for the Nuclear Data, Inc. Peak Search and Analysis Program and Disk Operating System (MIDAS+)

  8. Radiometric titration of thallium(III) with EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.R.S.; Pulla Rao, Ch.; Tataiah, G.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive solutions containing very small amounts of thallium(III) can be determined by radiometric titration using ammonia as hydrolysing agent. Aqueous solution of thallium(I) (both inactive and radioactive) is treated with bromine water till the appearance of the brown colour of bromine, and the solution is warmed to 80 deg C to expel the excess bromine. By this procedure all thallium(I) is quantitatively oxidised to thallium(III). An aqueous solution of ammonia is added to precipitate thallium(III) as thallic oxide. It is then filtered, washed with water to free it from bromide and then dissolved in 2N HCl and the solution is then standardised. 2 ml of this solution is transferred to a 20 ml volumetric flask, 1 ml of radioactive thallium(III) solution to be standardised is added as well as incremental amounts of EDTA solution and mixed thoroughly. Uncomplexed thallium(III) is then precipitated by the addition of an ammonia solution and diluted to 20 ml. Required amount of this mixture is centrifuged. The beta activity of the supernatant aliquot is measured using a GM counter. Quantitative determination of Tl(III) in the range of 1-10 μM can be carried out. The interference of cations such as Au(III), iron(III), Ga(III) can be eliminated by pretreatment of the Tl(III) solution before carrying out radiometric titration. The results obtained are reproducible and accurate to +-3%. (T.I.)

  9. MTG infrared sounder detection chain: first radiometric test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumestier, D.; Pistone, F.; Dartois, T.; Blazquez, E.

    2017-11-01

    Europe's next fleet of geostationary meteorological satellites, MeteoSat Third Generation, will introduce new functions in addition to continuity of high-resolution meteorological data. The atmosphere Infrared Sounder (IRS), as high -end instrument, is part of this challenging program. IRS principle is a Fourier Transform Interferometer, which allows recomposing atmospheric spectrum after infrared photons detection. Transmission spectrums will be used to support numerical weather prediction. IRS instrument is able to offer full disk coverage in one hour, an on-ground resolution of 4 by 4 km, in two spectral bands (MWIR: 1600 to 2175cm-1 and LWIR: 700 to 1210cm-1) with a spectral resolution of 0.6cm-1. Among critical technologies and processes, IRS detection chain shall offer outstanding characteristics in terms of radiometric performance like Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), dynamic range and linearity. Selected detectors are HgCdTe two-dimensions arrays, cooled at 55 Kelvins, hybridized on snapshot silicon read-out circuit at 160x160 format. Video electronics present 16 bits resolution, and the whole detection chain (Detectors and electronics) permits to reach SNR between 2 000 and 10 000 as requested by the application. Radiometric onground test results performed on design representative detection chains are presented and are confirming the challenging phase A design choices.

  10. Air Kerma above environmental radiometric calibration facility for field equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, C.C.; Sachett, I.A.; Bertelli, L.; Lopes, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    The use of gamma ray spectrometers broadened the aims of gamma ray surveys, stead of measuring only the gross radiation, as was done with the GM tubes, it is now possible to be used for uranium exploration, geological mapping as an aid to the exploration of non radioactive ores like gold and tin, radiation background measurements to identify hot spots for radiation hazard evaluation and environmental monitoring of fallout from radiological and nuclear accidents. It became necessary to carefully and precisely calibrate the field equipment to be used to get all the information from such uses. There is an environmental radiometric calibration facility for field equipment, consisting of eight radioactive concrete sources, at the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry - IRD (CNEN/Brazil). These sources are cylindrical with 3 m diameter, 0.5 m thick and weigh about 7.5 tons each. The amount and type of the radioactive material, 238 U and 232 Th and 40 K ores in secular radioactive equilibrium, added to the concrete to simulate rock outcrops, varies in order to obtain different gamma fields, varying in both energy and intensity. These different radiation fields were measured with a HPGe portable detector, specifically calibrated for spectrum stripping, and the air kerma energy distribution was determined for each concrete source and compared with the total air kerma calculated from the nuclide concentration and by others radiometric methods. (author)

  11. Reduction of Radiometric Miscalibration—Applications to Pushbroom Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogaß, Christian; Spengler, Daniel; Bochow, Mathias; Segl, Karl; Lausch, Angela; Doktor, Daniel; Roessner, Sigrid; Behling, Robert; Wetzel, Hans-Ulrich; Kaufmann, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of hyperspectral images is an important task in Remote Sensing. Foregoing radiometric calibration results in the assignment of incident electromagnetic radiation to digital numbers and reduces the striping caused by slightly different responses of the pixel detectors. However, due to uncertainties in the calibration some striping remains. This publication presents a new reduction framework that efficiently reduces linear and nonlinear miscalibrations by an image-driven, radiometric recalibration and rescaling. The proposed framework—Reduction Of Miscalibration Effects (ROME)—considering spectral and spatial probability distributions, is constrained by specific minimisation and maximisation principles and incorporates image processing techniques such as Minkowski metrics and convolution. To objectively evaluate the performance of the new approach, the technique was applied to a variety of commonly used image examples and to one simulated and miscalibrated EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program) scene. Other examples consist of miscalibrated AISA/Eagle VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared) and Hawk SWIR (Short Wave Infrared) scenes of rural areas of the region Fichtwald in Germany and Hyperion scenes of the Jalal-Abad district in Southern Kyrgyzstan. Recovery rates of approximately 97% for linear and approximately 94% for nonlinear miscalibrated data were achieved, clearly demonstrating the benefits of the new approach and its potential for broad applicability to miscalibrated pushbroom sensor data. PMID:22163960

  12. The Pelindaba facility for calibrating radiometric field instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, B.; Toens, P.D.; Van As, D.; Vleggaar, C.M.; Richards, D.J.

    1979-04-01

    The tremendous upsurge in uranium exploration activity, experienced in recent years, has made the need for the standardisation and calibration of radiometric field instruments apparent. In order to fulfill this need, construction of a calibration facility at the National Nuclear Research Centre, Pelindaba, was commenced in 1972 and has since been extended according the the requirements of the mining industry. The facility currently comprises 11 surface standard sources suitable for the calibration, in terms of radio-element concentration, of portable scintillometers and spectrometers, and single uranium and thorium model-borehole sources which make possible the accurate calibration of borehole logging instruments both for gross-count and spectrometric surveys. Portable potassium, uranium and thorium sources are also available for the purposes of establishing airborne-spectrometer stripping ratios. The relevant physico-chemical properties of the standards are presented in this report and calibration procedures and data reduction techniques recommended. Examples are given of in situ measurements, both on surface and down-the-hole, which show that the derived calibration constants yield radiometric grades which are, on average, accurate to within 5% of the true radio-element concentrations. A secondary facility comprising single borehole- and surface-uranium sources has also been constructed in Beaufort West in the southern Karoo [af

  13. Radiometric titration of diethanolamine with 65ZnSO4 and determination of mono and diethanolamines in a mixture by a radiometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varadan, R.; Sriman Narayanan, S.; Rao, V.R.S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiometric titration of diethanolamine with 65 ZnSO 4 is reported. Determination of individual amounts of mono- and diethanolamines in a mixture is described. The procedure is simple, rapid and accurate. (author)

  14. Radiometric titration of diethanolamine with /sup 65/ZnSO/sub 4/ and determination of mono and diethanolamines in a mixture by a radiometric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varadan, R.; Sriman Narayanan, S.; Rao, V.R.S. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras. Dept. of Chemistry)

    1984-08-16

    Radiometric titration of diethanolamine with /sup 65/ZnSO/sub 4/ is reported. Determination of individual amounts of mono- and diethanolamines in a mixture is described. The procedure is simple, rapid and accurate.

  15. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  16. Paleomagnetic, paleontologic and radiometric study of the Uquia Formation (Plio-Pleistocene) in Esquina Blanca (Jujuy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, Ana M.; Orgeira, Maria J.; Vilas, Juan F.A.; Kelley, Shari; Jordan, Teresa

    1998-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study of the Uquia Formation has been performed. The results of the paleontologic, paleomagnetic, radiometric and stratigraphic analyses suggest that the superior levels of the formation are equivalent to the 'Marplatense Superior', while the basic ones should be considered older. Radiometric ages have been determined by fission tracks in zircons

  17. Radiometric mass flow probes for belt weighers - the state of the art and possibilities of application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, M.

    1986-01-01

    The setup of radiometric belt weighers is described in principle and compared with conventional ones. Fields of application are mentioned and a list is given of equipment comercially available. The comparison shows that the radiometric systems are advantageous in general, but in special cases (measuring error lower than 1%, chemical composition varies several 10%) gravimetric systems are indispensable

  18. Map of natural gamma radiation in Spain: radiometric characterization of different types of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Mahou, E.; Fernandez Amigot, J.A.; Botas Medina, J.

    1997-01-01

    The gamma radioactivity flowing from ground and rocks is due to the presence in these of uranium, thorium and potassium-40. The method of radiometric characterization depends on the purpose of the undertaking. Radiometric characterization can be realized on big surfaces (tens or hundreds of square kilometres studied on a national scale), medium size surfaces (50 to 1000 square kilometres, for example, in epidemiological or biological studies in areas with a determined radiometric background) small surfaces of less than 50 square kilometres (industrial sites, pre-operational studies, etc.). This article considers aspects of radiometric characterization on surfaces of interest and describes the contribution of the MARNA (Natural Provisional Radiation Map of Spain) Project selection and radiometric characterization

  19. Retrieval of effective cloud field parameters from radiometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulescu, Marius; Badescu, Viorel; Brabec, Marek

    2017-06-01

    Clouds play a key role in establishing the Earth's climate. Real cloud fields are very different and very complex in both morphological and microphysical senses. Consequently, the numerical description of the cloud field is a critical task for accurate climate modeling. This study explores the feasibility of retrieving the effective cloud field parameters (namely the cloud aspect ratio and cloud factor) from systematic radiometric measurements at high frequency (measurement is taken every 15 s). Two different procedures are proposed, evaluated, and discussed with respect to both physical and numerical restrictions. None of the procedures is classified as best; therefore, the specific advantages and weaknesses are discussed. It is shown that the relationship between the cloud shade and point cloudiness computed using the estimated cloud field parameters recovers the typical relationship derived from measurements.

  20. Regional radiometric map of Syria, using gamma-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R.; Nasser, R.

    2005-01-01

    The regional radiometric gamma-ray spectrometry map of Syria, scaled 1/1000000, for surficial concentration of the total radioactivity (Ur), eU, eTh and %K was completely achieved after normalizing the airborne and carbon data sets to match each other. It worthy notice that, the anomalies found to be closely related to either phosphate and/or glauconite deposits. It is worth mentioning that throughout the survey work many scattered occurrences of secondary uranium mineralization were found as spots in some formations and phosphate rocks. Where this phenomena attributes to chemical and physical disseminating instead of accumulating the radioelements. So, that leads to a weak expectation for usual surface uranium deposits where attributed to the oxidizing condition. Then this expectation remains, as an open question requires answering through planning to subsurface prospecting. (Author)

  1. Mixing geometric and radiometric features for change classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Alexandre; Descombes, Xavier; Zerubia, Josiane

    2008-02-01

    Most basic change detection algorithms use a pixel-based approach. Whereas such approach is quite well defined for monitoring important area changes (such as urban growth monitoring) in low resolution images, an object based approach seems more relevant when the change detection is specifically aimed toward targets (such as small buildings and vehicles). In this paper, we present an approach that mixes radiometric and geometric features to qualify the changed zones. The goal is to establish bounds (appearance, disappearance, substitution ...) between the detected changes and the underlying objects. We proceed by first clustering the change map (containing each pixel bitemporal radiosity) in different classes using the entropy-kmeans algorithm. Assuming that most man-made objects have a polygonal shape, a polygonal approximation algorithm is then used in order to characterize the resulting zone shapes. Hence allowing us to refine the primary rough classification, by integrating the polygon orientations in the state space. Tests are currently conducted on Quickbird data.

  2. Development of a portable ambient temperature radiometric assaying instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavietes, A.D.; McQuaid, J.H.; Ruhter, W.D.; Paulus, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    There is a strong need for portable radiometric instrumentation that can accurately confirm the presence of nuclear materials and allow isotopic analysis of radionuclides in the field. To fulfill this need, the authors are developing a hand-held, non-cryogenic, low-power gamma- and X-ray measurement and analysis instrument that can both search and then accurately verify the presence of nuclear materials. The authors report on the use of cadmium zinc telluride detectors, signal processing electronics, and the new field-portable instrument based on the MicroNOMAD Multichannel Analyzer from EG and G ORTEC. They will also describe the isotopic analysis that allows uranium enrichment measurements to be made accurately in the field. The benefits of this work are realized in a wide spectrum of applications that include Arms Control, Nuclear Safeguards, Environmental Management, Emergency Response, and Treaty Verification

  3. Analysis of the radiometric survey during the Argonauta reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Eara de S.L.; Cardozo, Katia K.M.; Silva, Joao Carlos P.; Santos, Joao Regis dos

    2013-01-01

    The Argonaut reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering-IEN/CNEN, operates normally, the powers between 1.7 and 340 W on neutrongraphy procedures, production of radionuclides and experimental reactor physics lessons to postgraduate courses. The doses from neutrons and gamma radiation are measured when the reactor is critical, inside the reactor hall and surrounding regions. A study of the data obtained was performed to evaluate the daily need of this survey in the reactor hall. Taking into account the principle ALARA, which aims to optimize and minimize the dose received by the individual, we propose, in this work, through an analysis of the acquired data in occupational radiometric surveys, a reformulation of the area monitoring routine practiced by the team of radiological protection of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering - IEN/CNEN-RJ, whereas other monitoring routines regarding the radiological protection are also applied in the routine of the reactor. The operations under review occurred with the reactor operating 340 W power at intervals of 60, 120 and 180 minutes, in monitoring points in controlled areas, supervised and free. The results showed significant dose values in the output of the J-Channel 9 when the operation occurs with this open. With 180 minutes of operation, the measured values of dose rate were lower than the values at 60 min and 120 operations min. At the point in the supervised area, offsite to the reactor hall, situated in the direction of the J-Channel 9, the value reduces more than 14% in any operating time in relation to the dose rate measured at the point opposite the canal. There is a 50% reduction in the dose rates for operations with and J-9 closed. The results suggest a new frequency of radiometric survey whose mode of operation is maintained in similar conditions, since combined with other relevant practices of radiation protection

  4. Accelerator physics and radiometric properties of superconducting wavelength shifters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Subject of this thesis is the operation of wave-length shifters at electron storage rings and their use in radiometry. The basic aspects of the radiometry, the technical requirements, the influence of wave-length shifters on the storage ring, and results of first measurements are presented for a device installed at BESSY. Most of the calculations are carried out by the program WAVE, which has been developed within this thesis. WAVE allows to calculate the synchrotron radiation spectra of wavelength shifters within an relative uncertainty of 1/100000. The properties of wave-length shifters in terms of accelerator physics as well as a generating function for symplectic tracking calculations can also be calculated by WAVE. The later was implemented in the tracking code BETA to investigate the influence of insertion devices on the dynamic aperture and emittance of the storage ring. These studies led to the concept of alternating low- and high-beta-sections at BESSY-II, which allow to operate superconducting insertion devices without a significant distortion of the magnetic optics. To investigate the experimental aspects of the radiometry at wave-length shifters, a program based on the Monte-Carlo-code GEANT4 has been developed. It allows to simulate the radiometrical measurements and the absorption properties of detectors. With the developed codes first radiometrical measurements by the PTB have been analysed. A comparison of measurements and calculations show a reasonable agreement with deviations of about five percent in the spectral range of 40-60 keV behind a 1-mm-Cu filter. A better agreement was found between 20 keV and 80 keV without Cu filter. In this case the measured data agreed within a systematic uncertainty of two percent with the results of the calculations. (orig.)

  5. JPSS-1 VIIRS Pre-Launch Radiometric Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudrari, Hassan; McIntire, Jeff; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James; Efremova, Boryana; Ji, Jack; Lee, Shihyan; Schwarting, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on-board the first Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) completed its sensor level testing on December 2014. The JPSS-1 (J1) mission is scheduled to launch in December 2016, and will be very similar to the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) mission. VIIRS instrument was designed to provide measurements of the globe twice daily. It is a wide-swath (3,040 kilometers) cross-track scanning radiometer with spatial resolutions of 370 and 740 meters at nadir for imaging and moderate bands, respectively. It covers the wavelength spectrum from reflective to long-wave infrared through 22 spectral bands [0.412 microns to 12.01 microns]. VIIRS observations are used to generate 22 environmental data products (EDRs). This paper will briefly describe J1 VIIRS characterization and calibration performance and methodologies executed during the pre-launch testing phases by the independent government team, to generate the at-launch baseline radiometric performance, and the metrics needed to populate the sensor data record (SDR) Look-Up-Tables (LUTs). This paper will also provide an assessment of the sensor pre-launch radiometric performance, such as the sensor signal to noise ratios (SNRs), dynamic range, reflective and emissive bands calibration performance, polarization sensitivity, bands spectral performance, response-vs-scan (RVS), near field and stray light responses. A set of performance metrics generated during the pre-launch testing program will be compared to the SNPP VIIRS pre-launch performance.

  6. Antibacterial activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M R; Omoloso, A D; Kihara, M

    2003-07-01

    The crude methanolic extracts of the stem and root barks, stem and root heart-wood, leaves, fruits and seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus and their subsequent partitioning with petrol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and butanol gave fractions that exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The butanol fractions of the root bark and fruits were found to be the most active. None of the fractions were active against the fungi tested.

  7. RapidEye constellation relative radiometric accuracy measurement using lunar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Joe; Tyc, George; Beckett, Keith; Hashida, Yoshi

    2009-09-01

    The RapidEye constellation includes five identical satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Each satellite has a 5-band (blue, green, red, red-edge and near infrared (NIR)) multispectral imager at 6.5m GSD. A three-axes attitude control system allows pointing the imager of each satellite at the Moon during lunations. It is therefore possible to image the Moon from near identical viewing geometry within a span of 80 minutes with each one of the imagers. Comparing the radiometrically corrected images obtained from each band and each satellite allows a near instantaneous relative radiometric accuracy measurement and determination of relative gain changes between the five imagers. A more traditional terrestrial vicarious radiometric calibration program has also been completed by MDA on RapidEye. The two components of this program provide for spatial radiometric calibration ensuring that detector-to-detector response remains flat, while a temporal radiometric calibration approach has accumulated images of specific dry dessert calibration sites. These images are used to measure the constellation relative radiometric response and make on-ground gain and offset adjustments in order to maintain the relative accuracy of the constellation within +/-2.5%. A quantitative comparison between the gain changes measured by the lunar method and the terrestrial temporal radiometric calibration method is performed and will be presented.

  8. Interaction of Silver Nanoparticles with Serum Proteins Affects Their Antimicrobial Activity In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadhas, Divya Prakash; Ben Thomas, Midhun; Thomas, Rony; Raichur, Ashok M.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a global threat for human society. There exist recorded data that silver was used as an antimicrobial agent by the ancient Greeks and Romans during the 8th century. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of potential interest because of their effective antibacterial and antiviral activities, with minimal cytotoxic effects on the cells. However, very few reports have shown the usage of AgNPs for antibacterial therapy in vivo. In this study, we deciphered the importance of the chosen methods for synthesis and capping of AgNPs for their improved activity in vivo. The interaction of AgNPs with serum albumin has a significant effect on their antibacterial activity. It was observed that uncapped AgNPs exhibited no antibacterial activity in the presence of serum proteins, due to the interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA), which was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. However, capped AgNPs [with citrate or poly(vinylpyrrolidone)] exhibited antibacterial properties due to minimized interactions with serum proteins. The damage in the bacterial membrane was assessed by flow cytometry, which also showed that only capped AgNPs exhibited antibacterial properties, even in the presence of BSA. In order to understand the in vivo relevance of the antibacterial activities of different AgNPs, a murine salmonellosis model was used. It was conclusively proved that AgNPs capped with citrate or PVP exhibited significant antibacterial activities in vivo against Salmonella infection compared to uncapped AgNPs. These results clearly demonstrate the importance of capping agents and the synthesis method for AgNPs in their use as antimicrobial agents for therapeutic purposes. PMID:23877702

  9. The use of radiometric ore sorting on South African gold mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehme, R.C.; Freer, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper refers to the radiometric sorting tests reported during the 7th CMMI Congress, and then describes the photometric and radiometric sorter installations in operation and under construction in South Africa at present. As radiometric sorting of gold ores uses the radiation from the uranium content as a tracer, it is essential that the sortability of the ore should be reliably determined before sorting is adopted. The method of obtaining the important ore characteristics is described, with examples. The possible increase in gold production from a hypothetical plant as a result of sorting is shown

  10. Use of the radiometric method at creation cell test-systems for pre-screening of anticancer preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, N.N.; Khashimova, Z.S.; Sadikov, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Development of cancer chemotherapy is tightly bound with investigation of biological activity of different compounds on in vitro test systems. Our research has been directed on definition of sensitivity of the cell line KML removed by us from passed of mice melanoma B-16. We had been investigated action of 18 clinical antineoplastic preparations of different classes: alkylating - sarcolysinum, thiophosphamide, dopan, fhthordopan; antimetabolites - cytararibinum, methotrexatum, 6-mercaptopurinum, 5-fhthorouracilum, fhthorafur; antineoplastic antibiotics- adriamycinum, neomycinum, rubomycinum, bruneomycinum, carminomycinum, olivomycinum; plant substances - vinblastinum, colchaminum (component of ointment which used at treatment of skin cancer) and other - carboplatin. Cytotoxic effect of preparations estimated two methods - radiometric on inclusion of 3H - timidine in cells and spectrophotometric by definition of total amount nucleic acids and protein. For this purpose KML cells passed in quantity of 120 thousand in 3 ml of nutrient medium RPMI 1640, 10 % calf embryo serum in bottles and after 24 hours entered substances in dozes from 0,01 up to 100 μg/ml. Contact of substances to cells was 24 hours, then 10 μ Ci 3 H - timidine was injected on bottles at 1 hour. Cells transferred on GFC-filters, washed from not connected label. Filters transferred in scintillation liquid and a level of a radio-activity determined on β-counter. All tested clinical preparations appeared active within the criteria of activity, thus the radiometric method was more sensitive, than spectrophotometric. Thus, testing results of model have shown that stable cell line KML was sensitive to action of 18 clinical preparations with various mechanisms of action by different estimations of damaging action. This model can be used for biological activity of new potential cancerolytics pre-screening. This work was supported by the Center of Science and Technology of the Republic of

  11. A new radiometric instrument designed to measure the parameters of bituminous coal on transport belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicek, P.

    1993-01-01

    A new radiometric instrument developed in Czechoslovakia, for the measurement of ash content of bituminous coal, and for the determination of approximate values of moisture and weight is described. (Author)

  12. Signature modelling and radiometric rendering equations in infrared scene simulation systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, CJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The development and optimisation of modern infrared systems necessitates the use of simulation systems to create radiometrically realistic representations (e.g. images) of infrared scenes. Such simulation systems are used in signature prediction...

  13. Radiometric-microbiologic assay fo vitamin B-6: analysis of plasma samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilarte, T.R.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay for the analysis of vitamin B-6 in plasma was developed. The method is based on the measurement of 14CO2 generated from the metabolism of DL-l-14C-valine (L-l-14C-valine) by Kloeckera brevis. The assay is specific for the biologically active forms of the vitamin, that is, pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine, and their respective phosphorylated forms. The biologically inert vitamin B-6 metabolite (4-pyridoxic acid) did not generate a response at concentrations tested. The radiometric technique was shown to be sensitive to the 1 nanogram level. Reproducibility and recovery studies gave good results. Fifteen plasma samples were assayed using the radiometric and turbidimetric techniques. The correlation coefficient was r . 0.98. Turbid material or precipitated debris did not interfere with the radiometric microbiologic assay, thus allowing for simplification of assay procedure

  14. MER 1 MARS NAVCAM 3 RADIOMETRIC RDR SCI V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains radiometrically calibrated MER-1 Navcam data. The calibration has removed bias, dark current, and flatfield effects from the raw Navcam data,...

  15. Fast Screening of Antibacterial Compounds from Fusaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Fredborg, Marlene; Christensen, Ann-Maria Oppenhagen

    2016-01-01

    Bio-guided screening is an important method to identify bioactive compounds from fungi. In this study we applied a fast digital time-lapse microscopic method for assessment of the antibacterial properties of secondary metabolites from the fungal genus Fusarium. Here antibacterial effects could...

  16. Antibacterial effects and toxigenesis of Penicillium aurantiogriseum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... The toxigenesis of one Penicillium aurantiogriseum and one Penicillium viridicatum isolates was investigated. Sterile culture filtrates of both fungi had a clear antibacterial effect only against Bacillus subtilis. The effect on B. subtilis varied with amount of filtrate used and temperature. The antibacterial.

  17. What makes a natural clay antibacterial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lynda B.; Metge, David W.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Harvey, Ronald W.; Turner, Amanda G.; Prapaipong, Panjai; Port-Peterson, Amisha T.

    2011-01-01

    Natural clays have been used in ancient and modern medicine, but the mechanism(s) that make certain clays lethal against bacterial pathogens has not been identified. We have compared the depositional environments, mineralogies, and chemistries of clays that exhibit antibacterial effects on a broad spectrum of human pathogens including antibiotic resistant strains. Natural antibacterial clays contain nanoscale (2+ solubility.

  18. Microsomal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase comparison of the direct, indirect and radiometric assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denison, M.S.; Murray, M.; Wilkinson, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    The direct fluorometric assay of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxlyase has been compared to the more commonly used indirect fluorometric and radiometric assays. Although rat hepatic microsomal activities measured by the direct assay were consistently higher than those obtained by the other assays, the relative changes in activity following enzyme induction and/or inhibition were similar. The direct assay provides an accurate and rapid measure of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity and avoids several problems inherent in the indirect and radiometric assays. 2 tables

  19. Choosing of mode and calculation of multiple regression equation parameters in X-ray radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamikonyan, S.V.; Berezkin, V.V.; Lyubimova, S.V.; Svetajlo, Yu.N.; Shchekin, K.I.

    1978-01-01

    A method to derive multiple regression equations for X-ray radiometric analysis is described. Te method is realized in the form of the REGRA program in an algorithmic language. The subprograms included in the program are describe. In analyzing cement for Mg, Al, Si, Ca and Fe contents as an example, the obtainment of working equations in the course of calculations by the program is shown to simpliy the realization of computing devices in instruments for X-ray radiometric analysis

  20. Radiometric and signal-to-noise ratio properties of multiplex dispersive spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barducci, Alessandro; Guzzi, Donatella; Lastri, Cinzia; Nardino, Vanni; Marcoionni, Paolo; Pippi, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Recent theoretical investigations have shown important radiometric disadvantages of interferential multiplexing in Fourier transform spectrometry that apparently can be applied even to coded aperture spectrometers. We have reexamined the methods of noninterferential multiplexing in order to assess their signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance, relying on a theoretical modeling of the multiplexed signals. We are able to show that quite similar SNR and radiometric disadvantages affect multiplex dispersive spectrometry. The effect of noise on spectral estimations is discussed.

  1. The perspectives of development of radiometric techniques for welded joints testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, V.A.; Dovzhenko, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    The perspectives of development of radiometric techniques in non-destructive testing are presented. The problems of computer tomography, radiometric introscopy, electrorentgenography (xeroradiography) are reviewed. The aspects of application of low-silver detectors are also analysed. The studies on the problems mentioned above will be continued in order to eliminate expensive radiographic films and having in mind making the testing process faster. The design of individual dosemeters is also demonstrated. (author)

  2. Radiometric determination of monoethanolamine with /sup 65/ZnSo/sub 4/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varadan, R; Sriman Narayanan, S; Rao, V R.S. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Bombay. Dept. of Chemistry

    1984-05-07

    Determination of milligram amounts of monoethanolamine (MEA) with zinc(II) by radiometric titration is described. When MEA is added to a zinc(II) solution containing sulphate ions at 25 degC, a white solid complex is formed. The formation of this complex is employed for the radiometric determination of MEA with /sup 65/Zn. The amount of MEA is directly proportional to the activity of the complex formed. The method is simple, rapid and accurate. 8 refs.

  3. Determination of reliability of express forecasting evaluation of radiometric enriching ability of non-ferrous ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirpishchikov, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Use of the data of nuclear physical methods of sampling and logging enables to improve reliability of evaluation of radiometric enriching ability of ores, as well as to evaluate quantitatively this reliability. This problem may be solved by using some concepts of geostatistics. The presented results enable to conclude, that the data of nuclear-physical methods of sampling and logging can provide high reliability of evaluation of radiometric enriching ability of non-ferrous ores and their geometrization by technological types

  4. Antibacterial activity of selected Myanmar medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwe Yee Win; Nyunt Wynn; Mar Mar Nyein; Win Myint; Saw Hla Myint; Myint Khine

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen plants which are traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea in Myanmar were selected and tested for antibacterial activity by using agar disc diffusion technique. Polar and nonpolar solvents were employed for extraction of plants. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts with the most significant predominant activity were evaluated by plate dilution method. The plants Eugenia jambolana, Quisqualis indica, Leucaena glauca and Euphorbia splendens var. 1 were found to show significant antibacterial activity. It was also observed that extracts using nonpolar solvents did not show any antibacterial activity and extracts using polar solvents showed antibacterial activity on tested bacteria, indicating that the active chemical compound responsible for the antibacterial action must be a polar soluble compound. (author)

  5. Antibacterial activity of baking soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, D

    1997-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. Standard minimum inhibitory concentration analyses revealed substantial inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans that was not due to ionic strength or high osmolarity. Short-term exposure assays showed significant killing of bacterial suspensions when baking soda was combined with the detergent sodium dodecylsulfate. Multiple, brief exposures of sucrose-colonized S mutans to baking soda and sodium dodecylsulfate caused statistically significant decreases in numbers of viable cells. Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque.

  6. Empirical Radiometric Normalization of Road Points from Terrestrial Mobile Lidar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tee-Ann Teo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lidar data provide both geometric and radiometric information. Radiometric information is influenced by sensor and target factors and should be calibrated to obtain consistent energy responses. The radiometric correction of airborne lidar system (ALS converts the amplitude into a backscatter cross-section with physical meaning value by applying a model-driven approach. The radiometric correction of terrestrial mobile lidar system (MLS is a challenging task because it does not completely follow the inverse square range function at near-range. This study proposed a radiometric normalization workflow for MLS using a data-driven approach. The scope of this study is to normalize amplitude of road points for road surface classification, assuming that road points from different scanners or strips should have similar responses in overlapped areas. The normalization parameters for range effect were obtained from crossroads. The experiment showed that the amplitude difference between scanners and strips decreased after radiometric normalization and improved the accuracy of road surface classification.

  7. Evaluation of relative radiometric correction techniques on Landsat 8 OLI sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Antonio; Caradonna, Grazia; Tarantino, Eufemia

    2016-08-01

    The quality of information derived from processed remotely sensed data may depend upon many factors, mostly related to the extent data acquisition is influenced by atmospheric conditions, topographic effects, sun angle and so on. The goal of radiometric corrections is to reduce such effects in order enhance the performance of change detection analysis. There are two approaches to radiometric correction: absolute and relative calibrations. Due to the large amount of free data products available, absolute radiometric calibration techniques may be time consuming and financially expensive because of the necessary inputs for absolute calibration models (often these data are not available and can be difficult to obtain). The relative approach to radiometric correction, known as relative radiometric normalization, is preferred with some research topics because no in situ ancillary data, at the time of satellite overpasses, are required. In this study we evaluated three well known relative radiometric correction techniques using two Landsat 8 - OLI scenes over a subset area of the Apulia Region (southern Italy): the IR-MAD (Iteratively Reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection), the HM (Histogram Matching) and the DOS (Dark Object Subtraction). IR-MAD results were statistically assessed within a territory with an extremely heterogeneous landscape and all computations performed in a Matlab environment. The panchromatic and thermal bands were excluded from the comparisons.

  8. Design, manufacture, and calibration of infrared radiometric blackbody sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, D.A.; Michaud, F.D.; Bender, S.C.

    1996-04-01

    A Radiometric Calibration Station (RCS) is being assembled at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) which will allow for calibration of sensors with detector arrays having spectral capability from about 0.4-15 μm. The configuration of the LANL RCS. Two blackbody sources have been designed to cover the spectral range from about 3-15 μm, operating at temperatures ranging from about 180-350 K within a vacuum environment. The sources are designed to present a uniform spectral radiance over a large area to the sensor unit under test. The thermal uniformity requirement of the blackbody cavities has been one of the key factors of the design, requiring less than 50 mK variation over the entire blackbody surface to attain effective emissivity values of about 0.999. Once the two units are built and verified to the level of about 100 mK at LANL, they will be sent to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where at least a factor of two improvement will be calibrated into the blackbody control system. The physical size of these assemblies will require modifications of the existing NIST Low Background Infrared (LBIR) Facility. LANL has constructed a bolt-on addition to the LBIR facility that will allow calibration of our large aperture sources. Methodology for attaining the two blackbody sources at calibrated levels of performance equivalent to present state of the art will be explained in the following

  9. Radiometric analyses of floodplain sediments at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lower, M.W.

    1987-09-01

    A Comprehensive Cooling Water Study to assess the effects of reactor cooling water discharges and related reactor area liquid releases to onsite streams and the nearby Savannah River has been completed at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant (SRP). Extensive radiometric analyses of man-made and naturally occurring gamma-emitting radionuclides were measured in floodplain sediment cores extracted from onsite surface streams at SRP and from the Savannah River. Gamma spectrometric analyses indicate that reactor operations contribute to floodplain radioactivity levels slightly higher than levels associated with global fallout. In locations historically unaffected by radioactive releases from SRP operations, Cs-137 concentrations were found at background and fallout levels of about 1 pCi/g. In onsite streams that provided a receptor for liquid radioactive releases from production reactor areas, volume-weighted Cs-137 concentrations ranged by core from background levels to 55 pCi/g. Savannah River sediments contained background and atmospheric fallout levels of Cs-137 only. 2 refs., 5 figs

  10. A precise, efficient radiometric assay for bacterial growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonkitticharoen, V.; Ehrhardt, C.; Kirchner, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    The two-compartment radiometric assay for bacterial growth promised major advantages over systems in clinical use, but poor reproducibility and counting efficiency limited its application. In this method, 14-CO/sub 2/ produced by bacterial metabolism of C-14-glucose is trapped and counted on filter paper impregnated with NaOH and fluors. The authors sought to improve assay efficiency and precision through a systematic study of relevant physical and chemical factors. Improvements in efficiency (88% vs. 10%) and in precision (relative S.D. 5% vs. 40%) were produced by a) reversing growth medium and scintillator chambers to permit vigorous agitation, b) increasing NaOH quantity and using a supersaturated PPO solution and c) adding detergent to improve uniformity of NaOH-PPO mixture. Inoculum size, substrate concentration and O/sub 2/ transfer rate affected assay sensitivity but not bacterial growth rate. The authors' assay reliably detects bacterial growth for inocula of 10,000 organisms in 1 hour and for 25 organisms within 4 1/2 hours, thus surpassing other existing clinical and research methods

  11. Advanced radiometric and interferometric milimeter-wave scene simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauss, B. I.; Moffa, P. J.; Steele, W. G.; Agravante, H.; Davidheiser, R.; Samec, T.; Young, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    Smart munitions and weapons utilize various imaging sensors (including passive IR, active and passive millimeter-wave, and visible wavebands) to detect/identify targets at short standoff ranges and in varied terrain backgrounds. In order to design and evaluate these sensors under a variety of conditions, a high-fidelity scene simulation capability is necessary. Such a capability for passive millimeter-wave scene simulation exists at TRW. TRW's Advanced Radiometric Millimeter-Wave Scene Simulation (ARMSS) code is a rigorous, benchmarked, end-to-end passive millimeter-wave scene simulation code for interpreting millimeter-wave data, establishing scene signatures and evaluating sensor performance. In passive millimeter-wave imaging, resolution is limited due to wavelength and aperture size. Where high resolution is required, the utility of passive millimeter-wave imaging is confined to short ranges. Recent developments in interferometry have made possible high resolution applications on military platforms. Interferometry or synthetic aperture radiometry allows the creation of a high resolution image with a sparsely filled aperture. Borrowing from research work in radio astronomy, we have developed and tested at TRW scene reconstruction algorithms that allow the recovery of the scene from a relatively small number of spatial frequency components. In this paper, the TRW modeling capability is described and numerical results are presented.

  12. JPSS-1 VIIRS Pre-Launch Radiometric Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudrari, Hassan; Mcintire, Jeffrey; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James; Ji, Qiang; Schwarting, Tom; Zeng, Jinan

    2015-01-01

    The first Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS-1 or J1) mission is scheduled to launch in January 2017, and will be very similar to the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) mission. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the J1 spacecraft completed its sensor level performance testing in December 2014. VIIRS instrument is expected to provide valuable information about the Earth environment and properties on a daily basis, using a wide-swath (3,040 km) cross-track scanning radiometer. The design covers the wavelength spectrum from reflective to long-wave infrared through 22 spectral bands, from 0.412 m to 12.01 m, and has spatial resolutions of 370 m and 740 m at nadir for imaging and moderate bands, respectively. This paper will provide an overview of pre-launch J1 VIIRS performance testing and methodologies, describing the at-launch baseline radiometric performance as well as the metrics needed to calibrate the instrument once on orbit. Key sensor performance metrics include the sensor signal to noise ratios (SNRs), dynamic range, reflective and emissive bands calibration performance, polarization sensitivity, bands spectral performance, response-vs-scan (RVS), near field response, and stray light rejection. A set of performance metrics generated during the pre-launch testing program will be compared to the sensor requirements and to SNPP VIIRS pre-launch performance.

  13. Iodine sorption of bentonite - radiometric and polarographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konirova, R.; Vinsova, H.; Koudelkova, M.; Ernestova, M.; Jedinakova-Krizova, V.

    2003-01-01

    The experiments focused on kinetics of iodine retardation on bentonite, influence of aqueous phase pH, buffering properties of bentonite, etc. were carried out by batch method. Distribution coefficient KD was the criterion applied for evaluation of iodine interaction with solid phase. High sorption potential of bentonite to cationic forms of various radionuclides, resulting from relatively high cation exchange capacity, is generally known. On the other hand the inorganic anions are not adsorbed strongly to mineral surface of clays thus uptake of iodine (occurring mainly at iodide (I - ) or iodate (IO 3 - ) form under oxoic conditions) is limited. The distribution coefficients of iodine anions' sorption on bentonite R reach order of magnitude 10 -1 mL/g. In order to increase the sorption capacity of the solid phase, several additives were added to bentonite. Most of them didn't provide satisfactory results except of the addition of activated carbon, which has high surface area. Electromigration and polarographic methods were used for investigation of the redox state of iodine in aqueous phase and determination of KD values as well. Acquired results were compared with data obtained by radiometric measurements. (authors)

  14. Study and characterization of porous germanium for radiometric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkari, E.; Benachour, Z.; Touayar, O.; Benbrahim, J. [Activites de Recherche, Metrologie des Rayonnements, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees et de Technologie, INSAT, Tunis (Tunisia); Aouida, S.; Bessais, B. [Laboratoire de Nanomateriaux et des Systemes de l' Energie, LaNSE, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie, CRTEn, Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2009-07-15

    The aim of this article is to study and realize a new detector based on a porous germanium (pGe) photodiode to be used as a standard for radiometric measurement in the wavelength region between 800 nm and 1700 nm. We present the development and characterization of a porous structure realized on a single-crystal substrate of p-type germanium (Ga doped) and of crystallographic orientation (100). The obtained structure allows, on the one hand, to trap the incident radiation, and on the other hand, to minimize the fluctuations of the front-face reflection coefficient of the photodiode. The first studies thus made show that it is possible to optimize, respectively, the electrical current density and the electrochemical operation time necessary for obtaining exploitable porous structures. The obtained results show that for 50 mA/cm{sup 2} and 5 min as operational parameters, we obtain a textured aspect of the porous samples that present a pyramidal form. The reflectivity study of the front surface shows a constant value of around 38% in a spectral range between 800 nm and 1700 nm approximately. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Effects of integration time on in-water radiometric profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alimonte, Davide; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Kajiyama, Tamito

    2018-03-05

    This work investigates the effects of integration time on in-water downward irradiance E d , upward irradiance E u and upwelling radiance L u profile data acquired with free-fall hyperspectral systems. Analyzed quantities are the subsurface value and the diffuse attenuation coefficient derived by applying linear and non-linear regression schemes. Case studies include oligotrophic waters (Case-1), as well as waters dominated by Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and Non-Algal Particles (NAP). Assuming a 24-bit digitization, measurements resulting from the accumulation of photons over integration times varying between 8 and 2048ms are evaluated at depths corresponding to: 1) the beginning of each integration interval (Fst); 2) the end of each integration interval (Lst); 3) the averages of Fst and Lst values (Avg); and finally 4) the values weighted accounting for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of water (Wgt). Statistical figures show that the effects of integration time can bias results well above 5% as a function of the depth definition. Results indicate the validity of the Wgt depth definition and the fair applicability of the Avg one. Instead, both the Fst and Lst depths should not be adopted since they may introduce pronounced biases in E u and L u regression products for highly absorbing waters. Finally, the study reconfirms the relevance of combining multiple radiometric casts into a single profile to increase precision of regression products.

  16. Radiometric determination of uniformity of putting paraffin on textile threads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridel', Z.; Kherrmann, Eh.; Shefer, I.; Tseiner, A.

    1979-01-01

    To improve processing of the natural and synthetic fiber threads on stocking-frames, they are treated by paraffin. Paraffin is applied in the amounts nearly equal to 0.1 -1.0 g for 10 4 m of the thread's length. To determine amount of paraffin on thread and to determine uniformity if its application, a radiometric method has been developed. As a radioactive label, didocilephosphate of rare earths was used. This compound has good solubility in hydrocarbons and does not change physical properties of paraffin in the investigated field of its application as well as its concentration. It is possible to add to paraffin this radioactive label or a non-active label with subsequent its activation. Amount of paraffin, applied on a thread is determined by means of measurement of activity of thread samples of different length. Information about uniformity of paraffin application on thread have been obtained by means of autoradiography. It has been found that paraffin in mainly applied on the thread's bulges [ru

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Silicate Bioceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Sheng; NING Congqin; ZHOU Yue; CHEN Lei; LIN Kaili; CHANG Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Four kinds of pure silicate ceramic particles, CaSiO3, Ca3SiO5, bredigite and akermanite were prepared and their bactericidal effects were systematically investigated. The phase compositions of these silicate ceramics were characterized by XRD. The ionic concentration meas urement revealed that the Calcium (Ca) ion concentration were relatively higher in Ca3SiO5 and bredigite, and much lower in CaSiO3 and akermanite. Accordingly, the pH values of the four silicate ceramics extracts showed a positive correlation with the particle concentrations. Meanwhile, by decreasing the particle size, higher Ca ion concentrations can be achieved, leading to the increase of aqueous pH value as well. In summary, all of the four silicate ceramics tested in our study showed antibacterial effect in a dose-dependent manner. Generally, the order of their antibacterial activity against E.coli from strong to weak is Ca3SiO5, bredigite, CaSiO3 and akermanite.

  18. Initial Radiometric Characteristics of KOMPSAT-3A Multispectral Imagery Using the 6S Radiative Transfer Model, Well-Known Radiometric Tarps, and MFRSR Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Min Yeom

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available On-orbit radiometric characterization of the multispectral (MS imagery of the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI’s Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A, which was launched on 25 March 2015, was conducted to provide quantitative radiometric information about KOMPSAT-3A. During the in-orbit test (IOT, vicarious radiometric calibration of KOMPSAT-3A was performed using the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S radiative transfer model. The characteristics of radiometric tarps, the atmospheric optical depth from multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR measurements, and sun–sensor–geometry were carefully considered, in order to calculate the exact top of atmosphere (TOA radiance received by KOMPSAT-3A MS bands. In addition, the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF behaviors of the radiometric tarps were measured in the laboratory with a two-dimensional hyperspectral gonioradiometer, to compensate for the geometry discrepancy between the satellite and the ASD FieldSpec® 3 spectroradiometer. The match-up datasets between the TOA radiance and the digital number (DN from KOMPSAT-3A were used to determine DN-to-radiance conversion factors, based on linear least squares fitting for two field campaigns. The final results showed that the R2 values between the observed and simulated radiances for the blue, green, red, and near-infrared (NIR bands, are greater than 0.998. An approximate error budget analysis for the vicarious calibration of KOMPSAT-3A showed an error of less than 6.8%. When applying the laboratory-based BRDF correction to the case of higher viewing zenith angle geometry, the gain ratio was improved, particularly for the blue (1.3% and green (1.2% bands, which exhibit high sensitivity to the BRDF of radiometric tarps during the backward-scattering phase. The calculated gain ratio between the first and second campaigns showed a less than 5% discrepancy, indicating that

  19. Precise quantitation of PAIgG: A new radiometric microtechnique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, K.A.; Gauger, J.A.; Davis, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    We report the development of a radiometric assay for platelet-bound IgG that is both sensitive and quantitative. The assay utilized 96-well millititer plates incorporating a 0.2 microns filter membrane in the bottom. A 125I-labeled monoclonal antihuman IgG, as a secondary antibody, detected the platelet-bound human IgG. Since 5 x 10(6) platelets were used for each assay, tests for platelet-bound IgG can be performed on persons with severe thrombocytopenia. For the detection of circulating antiplatelet alloantibodies, as little as 10 microliters of platelet-free plasma per assay is required. Antiplatelet IgG was quantitated by using anti-PIA1 antibody that was purified with affinity and elution and DEAE chromatography. This purified antiplatelet antibody was labeled with 125I and was used to determine the binding ratio of secondary antibody to primary antibody. Under our standard conditions, this ratio was found to be stable at approximately 0.35 over the sensitivity range of the assay. The assay can detect approximately 200 molecules of human IgG per platelet (0.1 ng of secondary antibody bound per 5 x 10(6) platelets). It has a linear range from 0 to 7,000 molecules per platelet. Quantitation of anti-PIA1 binding for platelets stored for up to 6 months under refrigeration showed no change in number of PIA1 binding sites. Clinical studies showed that 18 of 19 ITP patients had an increased number of IgG molecules per platelet as did patients with malignancy and drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia. Patients who had received multiple platelet transfusions had antiplatelet antibody in their plasma. Normal amounts of PAIgG were observed in platelets and plasma of patients with nonimmune thrombocytopenia

  20. Radiometric calibration of a polarization-sensitive sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.P.; Markham, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    The radiometric accuracy of a sensor is adversely affected by scene polarization if its optical system is sensitive to polarization. Tests performed on the reflective bands of the NS001 Thematic Mapper simulator, an aircraft multispectral scanner, show that it is very sensitive to the polarization state of the incoming radiations. For 100 percent linearly polarized light, errors in the measured intensity vary from -40 to +40 percent, depending on the scan angle and spectral band. To estimate polarization-induced errors in the intensity measured at aircraft level, the intensity and polarization of the atmospheric radiances were simulated using a realistic earth-atmosphere radiative transfer model. For the polarization of atmospheric radiances in the solar meridian plane over a vegetated target, intensity errors may range from -10 to + 10 percent. The polarization-induced errors are highest in the shortest NS001 spectral band (0.450-0.525 microns) because of large atmospheric polarizations contributed by Rayleigh particles and small diluting effects caused by the small contributions of weakly polarized radiations coming from aerosols and the surface. Depending on the illumination and view angles, the errors in derived surface reflectance due to the radiance errors can be very large. In particular, for large off-nadir view angles in the forward scattered direction when the sun is low, the relative errors in the derived surface reflectance can be as large as 4 to 5 times the relative error in the radiances. Polarization sensitivity errors cannot be neglected for the shorter wavelengths when the surface reflectance contribution to atmospheric radiances is very small. 40 refs

  1. Wafer-level radiometric performance testing of uncooled microbolometer arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Denis G.; Topart, Patrice; Tremblay, Bruno; Julien, Christian; Martin, Louis; Vachon, Carl

    2014-03-01

    A turn-key semi-automated test system was constructed to perform on-wafer testing of microbolometer arrays. The system allows for testing of several performance characteristics of ROIC-fabricated microbolometer arrays including NETD, SiTF, ROIC functionality, noise and matrix operability, both before and after microbolometer fabrication. The system accepts wafers up to 8 inches in diameter and performs automated wafer die mapping using a microscope camera. Once wafer mapping is completed, a custom-designed quick insertion 8-12 μm AR-coated Germanium viewport is placed and the chamber is pumped down to below 10-5 Torr, allowing for the evaluation of package-level focal plane array (FPA) performance. The probe card is electrically connected to an INO IRXCAM camera core, a versatile system that can be adapted to many types of ROICs using custom-built interface printed circuit boards (PCBs). We currently have the capability for testing 384x288, 35 μm pixel size and 160x120, 52 μm pixel size FPAs. For accurate NETD measurements, the system is designed to provide an F/1 view of two rail-mounted blackbodies seen through the Germanium window by the die under test. A master control computer automates the alignment of the probe card to the dies, the positioning of the blackbodies, FPA image frame acquisition using IRXCAM, as well as data analysis and storage. Radiometric measurement precision has been validated by packaging dies measured by the automated probing system and re-measuring the SiTF and Noise using INO's pre-existing benchtop system.

  2. Radiometric Cross-Calibration of GF-4 in Multispectral Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aixia Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The GaoFen-4 (GF-4, launched at the end of December 2015, is China’s first high-resolution geostationary optical satellite. A panchromatic and multispectral sensor (PMS is onboard the GF-4 satellite. Unfortunately, the GF-4 has no onboard calibration assembly, so on-orbit radiometric calibration is required. Like the charge-coupled device (CCD onboard HuanJing-1 (HJ or the wide field of view sensor (WFV onboard GaoFen-1 (GF-1, GF-4 also has a wide field of view, which provides challenges for cross-calibration with narrow field of view sensors, like the Landsat series. A new technique has been developed and used to calibrate HJ-1/CCD and GF-1/WFV, which is verified viable. The technique has three key steps: (1 calculate the surface using the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF characterization of a site, taking advantage of its uniform surface material and natural topographic variation using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+/Operational Land Imager (OLI imagery and digital elevation model (DEM products; (2 calculate the radiance at the top-of-the atmosphere (TOA with the simulated surface reflectance using the atmosphere radiant transfer model; and (3 fit the calibration coefficients with the TOA radiance and corresponding Digital Number (DN values of the image. This study attempts to demonstrate the technique is also feasible to calibrate GF-4 multispectral bands. After fitting the calibration coefficients using the technique, extensive validation is conducted by cross-validation using the image pairs of GF-4/PMS and Landsat-8/OLI with similar transit times and close view zenith. The validation result indicates a higher accuracy and frequency than that given by the China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application (CRESDA using vicarious calibration. The study shows that the new technique is also quite feasible for GF-4 multispectral bands as a routine long-term procedure.

  3. English/Russian terminology on radiometric calibration of space-borne optoelectronic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privalsky, V.; Zakharenkov, V.; Humpherys, T.; Sapritsky, V.; Datla, R.

    The efficient use of data acquired through exo-atmospheric observations of the Earth within the framework of existing and newly planned programs requires a unique understanding of respective terms and definitions. Yet, the last large-scale document on the subject - The International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - had been published 18 years ago. This lack of a proper document, which would reflect the changes that had occurred in the area since that time, is especially detrimental to the developing international efforts aimed at global observations of the Earth from space such as the Global Earth Observations Program proposed by the U.S.A. at the 2003 WMO Congress. To cover this gap at least partially, a bi-lingual explanatory dictionary of terms and definitions in the area of radiometric calibration of space-borne IR sensors is developed. The objectives are to produce a uniform terminology for the global space-borne observations of the Earth, establish a unique understanding of terms and definitions by the radiometric communities, including a correspondence between the Russian and American terms and definitions, and to develop a formal English/Russian reference dictionary for use by scientists and engineers involved in radiometric observations of the Earth from space. The dictionary includes close to 400 items covering basic concepts of geometric, wave and corpuscular optics, remote sensing technologies, and ground-based calibration as well as more detailed treatment of terms and definitions in the areas of radiometric quantities, symbols and units, optical phenomena and optical properties of objects and media, and radiometric systems and their properties. The dictionary contains six chapters: Basic Concepts, Quantities, Symbols, and Units, Optical phenomena, Optical characteristics of surfaces and media, Components of Radiometric Systems, Characteristics of radiometric system components, plus English/Russian and Russian/Inglish indices.

  4. Antibacterial-induced nephrotoxicity in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanos, V; Cataldi, L

    1999-03-01

    Antibacterials are the primary cause of drug-induced kidney disease in all age groups and these agents bring about renal damage by 2 main mechanisms, namely, direct and immunologically mediated. For some antibacterials (aminoglycosides and vancomycin) nephrotoxicity is very frequent but generally reversible upon discontinuation of the drug. However, the development of acute renal failure with these agents is possible and its incidence in the newborn seems to be increasing. Antibacterials are very often used in the neonatal period especially in very low birthweight neonates. The role of neonatal age in developing nephrotoxicity has still to be defined. Since the traditional laboratory parameters of nephrotoxicity are abnormal only in the presence of substantial renal damage, the identification of early non-invasive markers of the renal damage (urinary microglobulins, enzymes and growth factors) is of importance. Aminoglycosides and glycopeptides are still frequently used, either alone or in combination, despite their low therapeutic index. Numerous factors intervene in bringing about the kidney damage induced by these 2 classes of antibacterials, such as factors related to the antibacterial itself and others related to the associated pathology as well as pharmacological factors. Nephrotoxicity can be caused by the beta-lactams and related compounds. Their potential to cause nephrotoxicity decreases in the order: carbapenems > cephalosporins > penicillins > monobactams. Third generation cephalosporins are frequently used in neonates. However, they are well tolerated compounds at the renal level. The nephrotoxicity of other classes of antibacterials is not discussed either because they are only used in neonates in exceptional circumstances, for example, chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) or are not associated with significant nephrotoxicity, for example macrolides, clindamicin, quinolones, rifampicin (rifampin) and metronidazole

  5. Serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochna Viola, E.M.; Diaz de Domingo, N.B.; Lazarowski, A.

    1981-01-01

    Serum ferritin (SF) concentration as determined by the immunoradiometric method allows the direct measurement of a fraction of the body ferritin pool. In normal subjects, SF is an excellent index of body iron stores. In certain conditions associated with increased ferritin synthesis (such as liver disease, inflammation, malignancy, chronic disorders, ineffective erythropoiesis, or during ferrotherapy), SF may not accurately reflect body iron stores. In hyposideremic anemias SF concentration permits to differentiate those due to iron deficiency from those due to chronic disorders. With a good assay quality, subnormal SF levels are incontrovertible in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. SF determination has been investigated as possible tumor marker. When performed in combination with the alpha-fetoprotein assay, SF enhances the specificity of serodiagnosis of hepatoma. SF results must be interpreted bearing in mind the possible participation of circumstances that i) modify the body iron stores and ii) lead to increased ferritin synthesis. (author) [es

  6. Optical control of antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velema, Willem A.; van der Berg, Jan Pieter; Hansen, Mickel J.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial resistance is a major problem in the modern world, stemming in part from the build-up of antibiotics in the environment. Novel molecular approaches that enable an externally triggered increase in antibiotic activity with high spatiotemporal resolution and auto-inactivation are highly desirable. Here we report a responsive, broad-spectrum, antibacterial agent that can be temporally activated with light, whereupon it auto-inactivates on the scale of hours. The use of such a ‘smart’ antibiotic might prevent the build-up of active antimicrobial material in the environment. Reversible optical control over active drug concentration enables us to obtain pharmacodynamic information. Precisely localized control of activity is achieved, allowing the growth of bacteria to be confined to defined patterns, which has potential for the development of treatments that avoid interference with the endogenous microbial population in other parts of the organism.

  7. Evaluation of the Antidiabetic and Antibacterial Activity of Cissus sicyoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Luis Beltrame

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the antidiabetic and antibacterial effect of Cissus sicyoides (CS from Brazil. Diabetic rats that received water (A group or extracts from the aerial parts of the plant (Cs group during four weeks were employed. After this period, serum levels of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. Glycemia was not affected by treatment with CS. However, there was an increased cholesterol and triglyceride level in Cs group. In addition, bioassay-guided fractionation of methanolic extract from aerial parts of CS was performed for isolation of antibacterial compounds.beta-Sitosterol and sitosterol-beta-D-glucopyranoside isolated showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of 50 mug/ml and 100 mug/ml, respectively. In spite of popular belief, CS did not show antidiabetic activity. However, two compounds isolated from aerial parts of the plant (beta-sitosterol and sitosterol-beta-D-glucopyranoside showed antibacterial activity.No presente trabalho foram investigados os efeitos antibacteriano e antidiabético da planta Cissus sicyoides (CS coletada no Brasil. Ratos diabéticos receberam água (grupo A ou extratos da parte aérea da planta (grupo CS durante 4 semanas. Após este período, os níveis séricos de glicose, colesterol e triglicerídeos dos ratos foram determinados. A glicemia não foi afetada pelo tratamento com CS. Entretanto, houve aumento nos níveis de colesterol e triglicerídeos nos ratos do grupo CS. Em adição, fracionamento bio-monitorado foi realizado para o isolamento de compostos com atividade antibacteriana. beta-Sitosterol e sitosterol-beta-D-glucopiranosídeo isolados mostram atividade antibacteriana contra Bacillus subtilis com concentrações mínimas inibitórias (MICs de 50 mig/ml e 100 mig/ml, respectivamente. Apesar da crença popular, CS não mostrou atividade antidiabética. Entretanto, dois compostos isolados da parte aérea da

  8. RADIOMETRIC NORMALIZATION OF LARGE AIRBORNE IMAGE DATA SETS ACQUIRED BY DIFFERENT SENSOR TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gehrke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Generating seamless mosaics of aerial images is a particularly challenging task when the mosaic comprises a large number of im-ages, collected over longer periods of time and with different sensors under varying imaging conditions. Such large mosaics typically consist of very heterogeneous image data, both spatially (different terrain types and atmosphere and temporally (unstable atmo-spheric properties and even changes in land coverage. We present a new radiometric normalization or, respectively, radiometric aerial triangulation approach that takes advantage of our knowledge about each sensor’s properties. The current implementation supports medium and large format airborne imaging sensors of the Leica Geosystems family, namely the ADS line-scanner as well as DMC and RCD frame sensors. A hierarchical modelling – with parameters for the overall mosaic, the sensor type, different flight sessions, strips and individual images – allows for adaptation to each sensor’s geometric and radiometric properties. Additional parameters at different hierarchy levels can compensate radiome-tric differences of various origins to compensate for shortcomings of the preceding radiometric sensor calibration as well as BRDF and atmospheric corrections. The final, relative normalization is based on radiometric tie points in overlapping images, absolute radiometric control points and image statistics. It is computed in a global least squares adjustment for the entire mosaic by altering each image’s histogram using a location-dependent mathematical model. This model involves contrast and brightness corrections at radiometric fix points with bilinear interpolation for corrections in-between. The distribution of the radiometry fixes is adaptive to each image and generally increases with image size, hence enabling optimal local adaptation even for very long image strips as typi-cally captured by a line-scanner sensor. The normalization approach is implemented in

  9. Vicarious absolute radiometric calibration of GF-2 PMS2 sensor using permanent artificial targets in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaokai; Li, Chuanrong; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Ning; Qian, Yonggang; Tang, Lingli

    2016-10-01

    GF-2, launched on August 19 2014, is one of the high-resolution land resource observing satellite of the China GF series satellites plan. The radiometric performance evaluation of the onboard optical pan and multispectral (PMS2) sensor of GF-2 satellite is very important for the further application of the data. And, the vicarious absolute radiometric calibration approach is one of the most useful way to monitor the radiometric performance of the onboard optical sensors. In this study, the traditional reflectance-based method is used to vicarious radiometrically calibrate the onboard PMS2 sensor of GF-2 satellite using three black, gray and white reflected permanent artificial targets located in the AOE Baotou site in China. Vicarious field calibration campaign were carried out in the AOE-Baotou calibration site on 22 April 2016. And, the absolute radiometric calibration coefficients were determined with in situ measured atmospheric parameters and surface reflectance of the permanent artificial calibration targets. The predicted TOA radiance of a selected desert area with our determined calibrated coefficients were compared with the official distributed calibration coefficients. Comparison results show a good consistent and the mean relative difference of the multispectral channels is less than 5%. Uncertainty analysis was also carried out and a total uncertainty with 3.87% is determined of the TOA radiance.

  10. THE EUROSDR PROJECT "RADIOMETRIC ASPECTS OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAMMETRIC IMAGES" – RESULTS OF THE EMPIRICAL PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Honkavaara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the empirical research carried out in the context of the multi-site EuroSDR project "Radiometric aspects of digital photogrammetric images" and provides highlights of the results. The investigations have considered the vicarious radiometric and spatial resolution validation and calibration of the sensor system, radiometric processing of the image blocks either by performing relative radiometric block equalization or into absolutely reflectance calibrated products, and finally aspects of practical applications on NDVI layer generation and tree species classification. The data sets were provided by Leica Geosystems ADS40 and Intergraph DMC and the participants represented stakeholders in National Mapping Authorities, software development and research. The investigations proved the stability and quality of evaluated imaging systems with respect to radiometry and optical system. The first new-generation methods for reflectance calibration and equalization of photogrammetric image block data provided promising accuracy and were also functional from the productivity and usability points of view. The reflectance calibration methods provided up to 5% accuracy without any ground reference. Application oriented results indicated that automatic interpretation methods will benefit from the optimal use of radiometrically accurate multi-view photogrammetric imagery.

  11. Limulus test for pyrogens and radiometric sterility tests on radiopharmaceuticals. Part of a coordinated programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, N.G.S.

    1976-10-01

    Sterility testing of radiopharmaceuticals prepared at BARC were carried out using the radiometric technique (Radiometric detection of the metabolic product 14 Co 2 ). Batches of different radiopharmaceuticals were tested for pyrogen using the limulus lysate method and the results were compared with the rabbit method. The results of sterility test on 202 batches of 19 different radiopharmaceuticals show that the radiometric method can be used for sterility testing of radiopharmaceuticals labelled with 35 S, 51 Cr, 57 Co, 59 Fe, 82 Br, 86 Rb, sup(99m)Tc, sup(113m)In, 125 I and 169 Yb. The radiometric test proves to be more rapid than the conventional one for the sterility testing of such radiopharmaceuticals. Detection time is between 6-21 hours. In the case of 131 I-labelled radiopharmaceuticals and in the case of chlormerodrin-Hg-203, it was found an interference due to volatile species (sup(131m)Xe in the case of 131 I and some volatile mercury form in the case of chlormerodrin). In these cases it would be possible to carry out the radiometric sterility test after separation of the microorganisms from the radioactive material (by filtration). The limulus lysate method can be employed for control of various pyrogen-prone raw materials and radiopharmaceuticals. Such method is the only method at present available for detecting the low level pyrogen contamination in intrathecal injections. The limulus test is more rapid than the rabbit test

  12. SYNTHESIS, STRUCTURAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL STUDY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, atomic ... possess interesting biological properties like antibacterial properties [4-7]. ... compounds used for treating mental illness, epilepsy, and nicotine addiction [9, 10].

  13. Antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Steve Ogbonnia

    2011-11-09

    Nov 9, 2011 ... specimens like blood, urine, catheter, stool and pus. Antibacterial ... In addition to this problem, antibiotics ... number of multi-drug resistant microbial strains and the appearance of ... to fine powder and stored in airtight bottles.

  14. Topical Antibacterials and Global Challenges on Resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    skin infections can be easily treated with topical antibacterial medication that is available over the counter or by ... infection in minor cut or burn, eyes and ear infection [5]. .... Sensitive/dry skin ... includes both oral and topical antibiotics, but.

  15. Development and antibacterial performance of silver nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antibacterial activity; in situ fabrication; polyester fabric; silver nanoparticle. 1. Introduction ... transmitter found in central nervous system which has a vital role in human health. .... finished fabric were higher due to the presence of higher.

  16. Antibacterial and haematological activity of Moringa oleifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical, antibacterial and haematologic activity of aqueous seed extract of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) were evaluated. Phytochemicals such as tannins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones and flavonoids in low, moderate and high concentrations were present in the seeds.

  17. Antibacterial and haematological activity of Moringa oleifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    6Department of Human Anatomy, College of Medical Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Borno ... Keywords: Antibacterial effect, Haematology, Moringa olifera, Phytochemical analysis, Wistar albino rats. ..... Moringa oleifera: A food plant with.

  18. Investigation into the prevalence and antibacterial susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation into the prevalence and antibacterial susceptibility patterns of aeromonas and plesiomonas species isolated from children with diarrhoea in Amuwo-Odofin and Surulere Local Government areas of Lagos, Nigeria.

  19. Antibacterial Titanium Produced Using Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Andrew; Li, Xiaopeng; McCormick, Paul; Ren, Ling; Yang, Ke; Sercombe, Timothy B.

    2017-12-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys used in current medical and dental applications do not possess antibacterial properties, and therefore, postoperative infection remains a significant risk. Recently, the addition of silver and copper to conventional biomaterials has been shown to produce a material with good antibacterial properties. In this article, we investigate selective laser melting as a method of producing antibacterial Ti-6Al-4V containing elemental additions of Cu or Ag. The addition of Ag had no effect on the microstructure or strength, but it did result in a 300% increase in the ductility of the alloy. In contrast, the addition of Cu resulted in an increase in strength but in a decrease in ductility, along with a change in the structure of the material. The Cu-containing alloy also showed moderate antibacterial properties and was superior to the Ag-containing alloy.

  20. (abstract) Deep Space Network Radiometric Remote Sensing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft are viewed through a troposphere that absorbs and delays radio signals propagating through it. Tropospheric water, in the form of vapor, cloud liquid,and precipitation , emits radio noise which limits satellite telemetry communication link performance. Even at X-band, rain storms have severely affected several satellite experiments including a planetary encounter. The problem will worsen with DSN implementation of Ka-band becausecommunication link budgets will be dominated by tropospheric conditions. Troposphere-induced propagation delays currently limit VLBI accuracy and are significant sources of error for Doppler tracking. Additionally, the success of radio science programs such as satellite gravity wave experiments and atmospheric occultation experiments depends on minimizing the effect of watervapor-induced prop agation delays. In order to overcome limitations imposed by the troposphere, the Deep Space Network has supported a program of radiometric remote sensing. Currently, water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and microwave temperature profilers (MTPs) support many aspects of the Deep Space Network operations and research and development programs. Their capability to sense atmospheric water, microwave sky brightness, and atmospheric temperature is critical to development of Ka-band telemetry systems, communication link models, VLBI, satellite gravity waveexperiments, and r adio science missions. During 1993, WVRs provided data for propagation mode development, supp orted planetary missions, and demonstrated advanced tracking capability. Collection of atmospheric statistics is necessary to model and predict performance of Ka-band telemetry links, antenna arrays, and radio science experiments. Since the spectrum of weather variations has power at very long time scales, atmospheric measurements have been requested for periods ranging from one year to a decade at each DSN site. The resulting database would provide reliable statistics on daily

  1. Global Positioning Radiometric Scanner System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The US DOE continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. To this end, the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE OST sponsors the Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Projects (LSDDP). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) LSDDP generated a list of statements defining specific needs or problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One of the stated needs was for developing technologies that would reduce costs and shorten DDOE/EM--0552DOE/EM--0552 and D schedules by providing radiological characterizations to meet the free-release criteria. The Global Positioning Radiometric Scanner (GPRS system shown in Figure 1) utilizes a detection system; a portable computer, a differential global positioning system (d-gps), and a four wheel drive vehicle. Once the survey data has been collected, a software program called GeoSofttrademark generates a graphical representation of the radiological contamination extent. Baseline technology involves gridding the area and hand surveying each grid. This demonstration investigated the associated costs and the required time to evaluate the radiological characterization data from the GPRS with respect to the baseline technology. The GPRS system performs in-situ, real-time analyses to identify the extent of radiological contamination. Benefits expected from using the new innovative technology (GPRS) include: Reduced labor hours associated with performing the survey; Increased number of survey data points; Reduced

  2. Detecting payload performance based on relative radiometric characteristic: case of the optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jie; Li, Shengyang; Zhang, Tao; Qin, Bangyong

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for accurately estimating the degree of radiometric non-uniformity in remote sensing images. The algorithm was tested on high-quality images and heavily striping images, and quantitative analyses were conducted to evaluate the performance for each band by measuring the radiometric non-uniformity of the images. The results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm exhibits high accuracy and stability compared with traditional algorithms. The radiometric performance of TianGong-1 short-wave infrared images was calculated using this new method, and it was highly correlated with the solar angle, pitch angle and refrigerator thermal according to the Apriori algorithm. Based on these results, we have proposed a strategy for restricting increases in striping.

  3. Merging airborne and carborne radiometric data for surveying the Deir Az-Zor area, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubeli, Y.M.; Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R.

    1997-01-01

    To complete the radiometric map of Syria, and to estimate the natural background radiation levels for environmental monitoring, a carborne survey was undertaken over the Deir Az-Zor area. This area was not covered by a previous airborne survey, except for peripheral regions in the south and west. To complete the radiometric map, results of the carborne and airborne surveys had to be merged. This paper presents the merging procedure which was used after normalizing the two data sets to match each other. No anomalies suitable for radioelement exploration were found. However, the overall radiometric maps resulting from the present work were consistent with the maps of the areas covered by the airborne survey. (author)

  4. Evaluation of Two Absolute Radiometric Normalization Algorithms for Pre-processing of Landsat Imagery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hanqiu

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate radiometric normalization techniques, two image normalization algorithms for absolute radiometric correction of Landsat imagery were quantitatively compared in this paper, which are the Illumination Correction Model proposed by Markham and Irish and the Illumination and Atmospheric Correction Model developed by the Remote Sensing and GIS Laboratory of the Utah State University. Relative noise, correlation coefficient and slope value were used as the criteria for the evaluation and comparison, which were derived from pseudo-invariant features identified from multitemtween the normalized multitemporal images were significantly reduced when the seasons of multitemporal images were different. However, there was no significant difference between the normalized and unnormalized images with a similar seasonal condition. Furthermore, the correction results of two algorithms are similar when the images are relatively clear with a uniform atmospheric condition. Therefore, the radiometric normalization procedures should be carried out if the multitemporal images have a significant seasonal difference.

  5. Lack of clinical relevance in routine final subcultures of radiometrically negative BACTEC blood culture vials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plorde, J.J.; Carlson, L.G.; Dau, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    During a 38-month period, 10,106 blood specimens were received in the laboratory for culture. These were inoculated into 26,424 vials and processed using the BACTEC radiometric detection system. Of these vials, 1,914 were eventually found to be microbiologically positive. Isolates from 836 vials were judged to be contaminants. In the remaining 1,078 vials, growth was first detected visually or radiometrically in 1,062 and by final subculture in 16. Growth from these sixteen bottles represented 12 clinically significant bacteremic episodes in as many patients. In nine of these episodes, other culture vials from the same patient were positive radiometrically. Therefore, 358 of 361 (99.2%) bacteremic episodes were detected without the benefit of routine final subcultures. The three patients whose bacteremia was missed were diagnosed clinically and placed on appropriate therapy prior to the detection of the bacteremias by final subculture

  6. RADIOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF MARS HiRISE HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGERY BASED ON FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the large data amount of HiRISE imagery, traditional radiometric calibration method is not able to meet the fast processing requirements. To solve this problem, a radiometric calibration system of HiRISE imagery based on field program gate array (FPGA is designed. The montage gap between two channels caused by gray inconsistency is removed through histogram matching. The calibration system is composed of FPGA and DSP, which makes full use of the parallel processing ability of FPGA and fast computation as well as flexible control characteristic of DSP. Experimental results show that the designed system consumes less hardware resources and the real-time processing ability of radiometric calibration of HiRISE imagery is improved.

  7. Multiaction antibacterial nanofibrous membranes fabricated by electrospinning: an excellent system for antibacterial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yiguang; Jia Weijie; An Qi; Li Guangtao; Liu Yuanfeng; Chen Jinchun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, novel multiaction antibacterial nanofibrous membranes containing apatite, Ag, AgBr and TiO 2 as four active components were fabricated by an electrospinning technique. In this antibacterial membrane, each component serves a different function: the hydroxyapatite acts as the adsorption material for capturing bacteria, the Ag nanoparticles act as the release-active antibacterial agent, the AgBr nanoparticles act as the visible sensitive and release-active antibacterial agent, and the TiO 2 acts as the UV sensitive antibacterial material and substrate for other functional components. Using E. coli as the typical testing organism, such multicomponent membranes exhibit excellent antimicrobial activity under UV light, visible light or in a dark environment. The significant antibacterial properties may be due to the synergetic action of the four major functional components, and the unique porous structure and high surface area of the nanofibrous membrane. It takes only 20 min for the bacteria to be completely (99.9%) destroyed under visible light. Even in a dark environment, about 50 min is enough to kill all of the bacteria. Compared to the four component system in powder form reported previously, the addition of the electrospun membrane could significantly improve the antibacterial inactivation of E. coli under the same evaluation conditions. Besides the superior antimicrobial capability, the permanence of the antibacterial activity of the prepared free-standing membranes was also demonstrated in repeated applications.

  8. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECTS OF FRESH AND PRESERVED ROYAL JELLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinka Maksimović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial effects of the fresh royal jelly, royal jelly stored at 4 °C and -40 °C for a period of 12 months against reference and isolated bacterial strains from the different clinical samples, were tested and compared by the diffusion test. Royal jelly shows antibacterial effects against both tested gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Fresh royal jelly has the most effective antibacterial activity. Storage temperature at -40 oC slightly affects antibacterial activity of royal jelly, while storage temperature at 4 oC decreases its antibacterial activity.Key words: royal jelly, antibacterial effects, storage temperature, storage duration

  9. Basing of principles and methods of operation of radiometric control and measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Six basic stages of optimization of radiometric systems, methods of defining the preset components of total error and the choice of principles and methods of measurement are described in succession. The possibility of simultaneous optimization of several stages, turning back to the already passed stages, is shown. It is suggested that components of the total error should be preset as identical ones for methodical, instrument, occasional and representativity errors and the greatest of the components should be decreased first of all. Comparative table for 64 radiometric methods of measurement by 11 indices of the methods quality is presented. 2 refs., 1 tab

  10. Remote sensing, airborne radiometric survey and aeromagnetic survey data processing and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Xiuzhen; Liu Dechang; Ye Fawang; Xuan Yanxiu

    2009-01-01

    Taking remote sensing data, airborne radiometric data and aero magnetic survey data as an example, the authors elaborate about basic thinking of remote sensing data processing methods, spectral feature analysis and adopted processing methods, also explore the remote sensing data combining with the processing of airborne radiometric survey and aero magnetic survey data, and analyze geological significance of processed image. It is not only useful for geological environment research and uranium prospecting in the study area, but also reference to applications in another area. (authors)

  11. Evaluation of a radiometric method for studying bacterial activity in the presence of antimicrobial agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, R.R.; Wilson, P.; Clarke, F.V. (Newham District Microbiology Labs., St. Andrews Hospital, London (UK))

    1989-06-01

    In a study involving 2760 tests, the BACTEC semi-automatic radiometric method which measures bacterial metabolic activity and produces a BACTEC growth index, was compared with two conventional methods commonly used for determining growth, absorbance and viable counts. In 92% of radiometry tests the suppression of growth was inversely related to the antibiotic concentration. This compared with 83% for absorbance and 63% for viable counts. The radiometric method was found to be more rapid, easier to use and more reproducible in determining the effect of antibiotics on the activity of bacteria than viable counting or absorbance methods. (author).

  12. A practical intercomparison of non-radiometric methods for the determination of low levels of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, A.W.

    1991-01-01

    Non-Radiometric, methods of elemental analysis have been assessed as alternatives to radiometric methods for the determination of low levels of radionuclides. The methods have been assessed in a practical intercomparison, using a set of samples containing known, low levels of analytes in a variety of matrices. It was found that all of the methods considered have a role to play and are to some extent complementary in terms of cost, rate of sample throughput, elemental coverage, imaging capability sensitivity and quantitative capabilities. Techniques based on mass spectrometry have most to offer in this application, allowing sensitive isotope specific determinations. (author)

  13. X-ray radiometric separation of low-grade tin ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, N.I.; Neverov, A.D.; Konovalov, V.M.; Mironov, I.I.; Zakharov, S.N.

    1984-10-01

    The investigations on evaluation of X-ray radiometric separation of off-grade tin ores of one of the deposits are carried out. The experiments have been performed at loboratory and pilot-commerical plants. /sup 241/Am has been used as a radiation source. In the course of facility commercial the ore has been separated by means of a device comprising a separator and gate separatin device. The results of X-ray radiometric separation have shown its high productive efficiency. Concentrates with higher tin content at high extraction from ores are obtained.

  14. X-ray radiometric separation of low-grade tin ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, N.I.; Neverov, A.D.; Konovalov, V.M.; Mironov, I.I.; Zakharov, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The investigations on evaluation of X-ray radiometric separation of off-grade tin ores of one of the deposits are carried out. The experiments have been performed at loboratory and pilot-commerical plants. 241 Am has been used as a radiation source. In the course of facility commercial the ore has been separated by means of a device comprising a separator and gate separatin device. The results of X-ray radiometric separation have shown its high productive efficiency. Concentrates with higher tin content at high extraction from ores are obtained

  15. Radiometric survey in mammography: problems and challenges; Levantamento radiometrico em mamografia: problemas e desafios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, M.V.T.; Navarro, V.C.C.; Garcia, I.F.M.; Ferreira, M.J.; Macedo, E.M., E-mail: navarro@ifba.edu.br [Instituto Federal da Bahia (LABPROSAUD/IFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Laboratorio de Produtos para a Saude

    2015-07-01

    In addition to being mandatory, the radiometric survey is a necessity, especially in the Brazilian reality with the construction of smaller and smaller rooms. However, calibration conditions, the instrumentation and its use, can produce underestimated factors. Measures made at Labprosaud/IFBA, with five different instruments and the ISO N 25 radiation quality, show the possibility of the values presented in the radiometric surveys are underestimated by up to 10 times. The results indicate the need for meters to be calibrated in ISO N qualities, in mammography energy range, in integrated dose mode and exposure times shorter or equal to 1 s. (author)

  16. Evaluation of a radiometric method for studying bacterial activity in the presence of antimicrobial agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, R.R.; Wilson, P.; Clarke, F.V.

    1989-01-01

    In a study involving 2760 tests, the BACTEC semi-automatic radiometric method which measures bacterial metabolic activity and produces a BACTEC growth index, was compared with two conventional methods commonly used for determining growth, absorbance and viable counts. In 92% of radiometry tests the suppression of growth was inversely related to the antibiotic concentration. This compared with 83% for absorbance and 63% for viable counts. The radiometric method was found to be more rapid, easier to use and more reproducible in determining the effect of antibiotics on the activity of bacteria than viable counting or absorbance methods. (author)

  17. Studies on the antimicrobial properties of colloidal silver nanoparticles stabilized by bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Thomas V; Kuriakose, Sunny

    2013-01-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesised using sol-gel method and these nanoparticles were stabilised by encapsulated into the scaffolds of bovine serum albumin. Silver nanoparticles and encapsulated products were characterised by FTIR, NMR, XRD, TG, SEM and TEM analyses. Silver nanoparticle encapsulated bovine serum albumin showed highly potent antibacterial activity towards the bacterial strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Availability of the basal planes of graphene oxide determines whether it is antibacterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Liwei; Piao, Ji-Gang; Auletta, Jeffrey; Hu, Kan; Zhu, Yanwu; Meyer, Tara; Liu, Haitao; Yang, Lihua

    2014-08-13

    There are significant controversies on the antibacterial properties of graphene oxide (GO): GO was reported to be bactericidal in saline, whereas its activity in nutrient broth was controversial. To unveil the mechanisms underlying these contradictions, we performed antibacterial assays under comparable conditions. In saline, bare GO sheets were intrinsically bactericidal, yielding a bacterial survival percentage of planes. Using bovine serum albumin and tryptophan as well-defined model adsorbates, we found that noncovalent adsorption on GO basal planes may account for the deactivation of GO's bactericidal activity. Moreover, this deactivation mechanism was shown to be extrapolatable to GO's cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. Taken together, our observations suggest that bare GO intrinsically kills both bacteria and mammalian cells and noncovalent adsorption on its basal planes may be a global deactivation mechanism for GO's cytotoxicity.

  19. A design of an on-orbit radiometric calibration device for high dynamic range infrared remote sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yicheng; Jin, Weiqi; Dun, Xiong; Zhou, Feng; Xiao, Si

    2017-10-01

    With the demand of quantitative remote sensing technology growing, high reliability as well as high accuracy radiometric calibration technology, especially the on-orbit radiometric calibration device has become an essential orientation in term of quantitative remote sensing technology. In recent years, global launches of remote sensing satellites are equipped with innovative on-orbit radiometric calibration devices. In order to meet the requirements of covering a very wide dynamic range and no-shielding radiometric calibration system, we designed a projection-type radiometric calibration device for high dynamic range sensors based on the Schmidt telescope system. In this internal radiometric calibration device, we select the EF-8530 light source as the calibration blackbody. EF-8530 is a high emittance Nichrome (Ni-Cr) reference source. It can operate in steady or pulsed state mode at a peak temperature of 973K. The irradiance from the source was projected to the IRFPA. The irradiance needs to ensure that the IRFPA can obtain different amplitude of the uniform irradiance through the narrow IR passbands and cover the very wide dynamic range. Combining the internal on-orbit radiometric calibration device with the specially designed adaptive radiometric calibration algorithms, an on-orbit dynamic non-uniformity correction can be accomplished without blocking the optical beam from outside the telescope. The design optimizes optics, source design, and power supply electronics for irradiance accuracy and uniformity. The internal on-orbit radiometric calibration device not only satisfies a series of indexes such as stability, accuracy, large dynamic range and uniformity of irradiance, but also has the advantages of short heating and cooling time, small volume, lightweight, low power consumption and many other features. It can realize the fast and efficient relative radiometric calibration without shielding the field of view. The device can applied to the design and

  20. antibacterial properties of calyx, stem bark and root of hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HS) were tested for their antibacterial activities. The root of the plant exhibited marked antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative organisms of Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aureginosa, ...

  1. The antibacterial potential of the seaweeds (Rhodophyceae) of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... The antibacterial activity of extracts from 26 marine Rhodophyceae (8 Ceramiales, 7 Gelidiales, 9 ... seaweed extracts as a source of antibacterial compounds. ... Macroalgae are a rich source of natural bioactive products.

  2. Antibacterial action of an aqueous grape seed polyphenolic extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... The potential of a polyphenolic grape seed extract for use as a natural antibacterial agent was ... electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry; PBS, phosphate .... The antibacterial tests were carried out by disc diffusion method.

  3. Tunable, antibacterial activity of silicone polyether surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Madiha F; Zepeda-Velazquez, Laura; Brook, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Silicone surfactants are used in a variety of applications, however, limited data is available on the relationship between surfactant structure and biological activity. A series of seven nonionic, silicone polyether surfactants with known structures was tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli BL21. The compounds varied in their hydrophobic head, comprised of branched silicone structures with 3-10 siloxane linkages and, in two cases, phenyl substitution, and hydrophilic tail of 8-44 poly(ethylene glycol) units. The surfactants were tested at three concentrations: below, at, and above their Critical Micelle Concentrations (CMC) against 5 concentrations of E. coli BL21 in a three-step assay comprised of a 14-24h turbidometric screen, a live-dead stain and viable colony counts. The bacterial concentration had little effect on antibacterial activity. For most of the surfactants, antibacterial activity was higher at concentrations above the CMC. Surfactants with smaller silicone head groups had as much as 4 times the bioactivity of surfactants with larger groups, with the smallest hydrophobe exhibiting potency equivalent to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Smaller PEG chains were similarly associated with higher potency. These data link lower micelle stability and enhanced permeability of smaller silicone head groups to antibacterial activity. The results demonstrate that simple manipulation of nonionic silicone polyether structure leads to significant changes in antibacterial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Targeted Drug-Carrying Bacteriophages as Antibacterial Nanomedicines▿

    OpenAIRE

    Yacoby, Iftach; Bar, Hagit; Benhar, Itai

    2007-01-01

    While the resistance of bacteria to traditional antibiotics is a major public health concern, the use of extremely potent antibacterial agents is limited by their lack of selectivity. As in cancer therapy, antibacterial targeted therapy could provide an opportunity to reintroduce toxic substances to the antibacterial arsenal. A desirable targeted antibacterial agent should combine binding specificity, a large drug payload per binding event, and a programmed drug release mechanism. Recently, w...

  5. MgO nanoparticles as antibacterial agent: preparation and activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhen-Xing, E-mail: tangzhenxing@126.com [Department of Food Science, Anqing, Vocational and Technical College, Anqing, Anhui (China); Lv, Bin-Feng [Date Palm Research Center, King Faisal University, (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-07-15

    Bacterial pollution is a great risk for human health. Nanotechnology offers a way to develop new inorganic antibacterial agents. Nano-inorganic metal oxide has a potential to reduce bacterial contamination. MgO is an important inorganic oxide and has been widely used in many fields. Many studies have shown that MgO nanoparticles have good antibacterial activity. Therefore, in this paper, the main synthesis methods, antibacterial activity and antibacterial mechanisms of MgO nanoparticles are reviewed. (author)

  6. MgO nanoparticles as antibacterial agent: preparation and activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Zhen-Xing; Lv, Bin-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial pollution is a great risk for human health. Nanotechnology offers a way to develop new inorganic antibacterial agents. Nano-inorganic metal oxide has a potential to reduce bacterial contamination. MgO is an important inorganic oxide and has been widely used in many fields. Many studies have shown that MgO nanoparticles have good antibacterial activity. Therefore, in this paper, the main synthesis methods, antibacterial activity and antibacterial mechanisms of MgO nanoparticles are reviewed. (author)

  7. Experiences with radiometric solid matter determination in the WOLPRYLA-65 fibre production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, M.; Traeber, K.

    1977-01-01

    Proceeding from the technology of WOLPRYLA-65 fibre fabrication the applicability of radiometric density measurements for acrylonitrile determination in a dimethylformamide bath has been studied. The measuring equipment and measuring positions are described and further details, such as calibration procedures, measuring accuracy, benefit of continuous and contactless measurements, maintenance efforts, and radiation protection measures are outlined

  8. Pyrotechnic countermeasures: IV. Radiometric performance of a sulphur-based Flare composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ernst-Christian [NATO Munitions Safety Information Analysis Center (MSIAC), Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-10-15

    Radiometric performance of a sulphur-based flare composition has been investigated. Composition comprising sulphur, potassium perchlorate and antimony sulphide has acceptable band ratio but an order of magnitude weaker spectral efficiency than typical carbon-based compositions. The use of other sulphur compounds with potential for increased performance is discussed. For part III see Ref. [1]. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Determination of degree of compacting and of moisture content by radiometric probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinec, J.; Paul, P.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is given of radiometric probes used for measuring bulk density and moisture content. Surface probes are used in depths of up to 20 cm with an accuracy of 10%, drive-in probes are used to depths of up to 50 cm with a 4% error, depth probes are used for measuring in depths of 30 to 50 cm with an accuracy of roughly 5% and bulk density in depths of 10 to 150 cm may be measured with an accuracy of 2% using a lysimeter. Changes in the bulk density and soil moisture of the subsoil of an airport runway were studied radiometrically in dependence on time and depth. The dependence is represented graphically. The results of radiometric measurements were compared with the conventional method using a lysimeter probe; the comparison showed that the results were lower by about 7% for the moisture content and higher by about 8% for the bulk density. Radiometric measurements for determining bulk density and soil moisture are advantageous in that they allow the measurement of a great number of sites without any major disturbance of the measured material and results are available immediately on measurement. The economic effect is significant in a large number of measurements carried out on a surface having the same chemical composition and similar grain size which does not necessitate calibration of the instruments to be made more than once a week. The NZK-201 probe by Tesla does not provide sufficiently accurate information on the moisture and density of the earths probed

  10. Effects of agrochemicals, ultra violet stabilisers and solar radiation on the radiometric properties of greenhouse films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Vox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Agrochemicals, based on iron, sulphur and chlorine, generate by products that lead to a degradation of greenhouse films together with a decrease in their mechanical and physical properties. The degradation due to agrochemicals depends on their active principles, method and frequency of application, and greenhouse ventilation. The aim of the research was to evaluate how agrochemical contamination and solar radiation influence the radiometric properties of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer greenhouse films by means of laboratory and field tests. The films, manufactured on purpose with the addition of different light stabiliser systems, were exposed to natural outdoor weathering at the experimental farm of the University of Bari (Italy; 41° 05’ N in the period from 2006 to 2008. Each film was tested for two low tunnels: one low tunnel was sprayed from inside with the agrochemicals containing iron, chlorine and sulphur while the other one was not sprayed and served as control. Radiometric laboratory tests were carried out on the new films and on samples taken at the end of the trials. The experimental tests showed that both the natural weathering together with the agrochemicals did not modify significantly the radiometric properties of the films in the solar and in the photosynthetically active radiation wavelength range. Within six months of experimental field tests the variations in these radiometric characteristics were at most 10%. Significant variations, up to 70% of the initial value, were recorded for the stabilised films in the long-wave infrared radiation wavelength range.

  11. Liquid scintillation vial for radiometric assay of lymphocyte carbohydrate metabolism in response to mitogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, N.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    We have demonstrated that mitogens--i.e., PHA and Con.A--stimulate lymphocyte carbohydrate metabolism using a liquid-scintillation vial with conventional liquid-scintillation detectors. The results showed that this enclosed system can be useful for development of rapid in vitro tests of lymphocytes immune responsiveness, as well as for radiometric detection of bacterial growth in various gaseous atmospheres

  12. Reverse radiometric flow injection analysis (RFIA) of radioactive waste-waters with an ASIA (Ismatec) analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myint, U; Win, N; San, K; Han, B; Myoe, K M [Yangon Univ. (Myanmar). Dept. of Chemistry; Toelgyessy, J [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Environmental Science

    1994-07-01

    A new application of reverse radiometric flow injection analysis is described. RFIA was used for the analysis of radioactive wastewaters. ASIA (Ismatec) analyzer with NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was used in the study of analysis of [sup 131]I containing waste-aster. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs.

  13. Radiometric control of the position of blind holes axes in graphite blocks of high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutaine, J.L.; Bujas, R.; Lemonnier, A.; Tortel, J.

    1976-01-01

    The principles of a radiometric method intended for controlling the positions of blind hole axes are given. A comparison is made between radiometry and radiography and the performances obtained using a thulium 170 source are described. The automation capabilities are discussed [fr

  14. Radiometric characteristics of heavy mineral deposits along the west coast of South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macdonald, W.G.; Rozendaal, A.; de Meijer, R.J.

    During the last decade, exploration and mining of modern-Tertiary heavy mineral beach and raised beach sands along the west coast of South Africa has developed into a major industry. High resolution radiometric techniques have demonstrated their use as a quantitative indicator of total heavy mineral

  15. Automatic Radiometric Normalization of Multitemporal Satellite Imagery with the Iteratively Re-weighted MAD Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, Morton John; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2008-01-01

    A recently proposed method for automatic radiometric normalization of multi- and hyper-spectral imagery based on the invariance property of the Multivariate Alteration Detection (MAD) transformation and orthogonal linear regression is extended by using an iterative re-weighting scheme involving no...

  16. Use of Radiometric Survey Data for Environmental Study: The Case of Northern Sumatera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjokrokardono, S; Ramadanus; Sustarman, H

    1998-01-01

    The convertion of old radiometric data obtained from former uranium exploration activities in northem sumatra into radiation exposure has been evaluated. The objective of the study is to find an alternative way for cheaper and faster compilation of radiation exposure database for environmental study purposes. The old radiometric data measure from the outcrops has been plotted 1;250.000, 1;100.000, and 1;50.000 map scales. The data are translated into 1;1000.000 map scale before they are converted into 1;1000.000 radiation exposure rate map using a graphic method. The radiation exposure rate in northem sumatera falls between 25 R/hour to 40 R/hour. The benefit offered using this method is that it provides a cheaper and faster production of radiation exposure rate map from old radiometric map. However, the problems arising from such a production is that the radiometric data provide unhomogeneous data distributions and densities among the area. As a conclusion it is recommended to recollect some of the data at designated area using well calibrated SPP2NF and gamma ray spectrometer instruments

  17. Investigation of Pre- and Post-Flight Radiometric Calibration Uncertainties from Surface Based Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, D.F.; Wei, Z.Y.; Ahman, Z.

    1997-06-01

    A new technique has been developed for inferring column ozone amounts and aerosol optical depths from zenith sky observations. A new radiometric calibration technique for large aperture remote sensing instruments observing the earth through space has been validated which subsequently increased the accuracy of remote sensing measurements of ozone and vertical profiles using measurements of back-scattered ultraviolet solar radiation.

  18. Antibacterial property of fabrics coated by magnesium-based brucites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying; Sha, Lin; Zhao, Jiao; Li, Qian; Zhu, Yimin, E-mail: ntp@dlmu.edu.cn; Wang, Ninghui

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Magnesium-based antibacterial agents composited by brucites with different particle sizes were proposed for the first time. • The coating process for making antibacterial fabrics was easy to operate and apply in industrial application. • The materials used in the antibacterial fabrics were environmental-friendly and cost-effective. • Reduction percentage of as-prepared antibacterial fabrics against E. coli and S. aureus reached to 96.6%, 100% respectively. • The antibacterial fabrics attained excellent washing durability. - Abstract: A kind of environmental-friendly magnesium-based antibacterial agent was reported for the first time, which was composited by brucites with different particle sizes. The antibacterial fabrics were produced by coating the magnesium-based antibacterial agents on the 260T polyester pongee fabrics with waterborne polyurethane. The coating process was simple, low-cost, and harmless to human health and environment. Characteristics of the antibacterial agents and fabrics were studied by particulate size distribution analyzer (PSDA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results demonstrated that the coating layer was covered tightly on the fabrics and compositing of different particles by a certain proportion made full filling of the coating layer. Meanwhile, compositing did not change the structure of brucites. The antibacterial fabrics presented strong antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), with the reduction percentage of 96.6% and 100%, respectively, and the antibacterial fabrics attained excellent washing durability.

  19. Antibacterial activity of indium curcumin and indium diacetylcurcumin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on curcumin, the principal element of turmeric powder, have demonstrated several biological actions such as antibacterial activity. Evaluation of new analogs or new compounds of curcumin for their antibacterial effect is interesting for researchers. In this in vitro study, we attempted to test the antibacterial activity of ...

  20. Antibacterial activity of some selected plants traditionally used as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-26

    Mar 26, 2014 ... K. Womens'College, Kongkhampat,Nambol-795134, Manipur, India. 2Department of Life Science and Bioinformatics, Assam University, Silchar, ... antibacterial activity. The study revealed that all extracts show varied degree of antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial pathogens. The antibacterial ...

  1. Antibacterial resistance leadership group: open for business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Henry F; Bartlett, John G; Bonomo, Robert A; Chiou, Christine; Cosgrove, Sara E; Cross, Heather R; Daum, Robert S; Downing, Michele; Evans, Scott R; Knisely, Jane; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Mickley, Brenda S; Patel, Robin; Pettigrew, Melinda M; Rodvold, Keith A; Spellberg, Brad; Fowler, Vance G

    2014-06-01

    Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) is tasked with developing a clinical research agenda and conducting clinical studies to address the growing public health threat of antibacterial resistance. The ARLG has identified 4 high-priority areas of research: infections caused by gram-negative bacteria, infections caused by gram-positive bacteria, antimicrobial stewardship and infection prevention, and diagnostics. The ARLG will be accepting proposals from the scientific community for clinical research that addresses 1 or more of these high-priority areas. These studies should have the potential to transform medical practice and be unlikely to occur without ARLG support. The purpose of this article is to make interested parties aware of clinical research opportunities made available by ARLG and to encourage submission of clinical research proposals that address the problem of antibacterial resistance.

  2. Evaluation of three gentamicin serum assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzke, G.R.; Gwizdala, C.; Wery, J.; Ferry, D.; Starnes, R.

    1982-01-01

    This investigation was designed to compare the enzyme-modified immunoassay (Syva--EMIT) with a radioimmunoassay (New England Nuclear--RIA) and the radiometric assay (Johnston--BACTEC) to determine the optimal assay for use in our aminoglycoside dosing service. The serum concentration determinations obtained via the three assay methods were analyzed by linear regression analysis. Significant positive correlations were noted between the three assay techniques (p less than 0.005) during both sample collection phases. The coefficients of determination for EMIT vs BACTEC and RIA vs BACTEC were 0.73 and 0.83 during phase 1, respectively, and 0.65 and 0.68 during phase 2, respectively. The slope of the regression lines also varied markedly during the two phases; 0.49 and 0.42 for EMIT and for RIA vs BACTEC, respectively, during phase 1 compound with 1.12 and 0.77, respectively, during phase 2. The differences noted in these relationships during phase 1 and 2 may be related to the alteration of the pH of the control sera utilized in the BACTEC assay. In contrast, RIA vs EMIT regression analysis indicated that existence of a highly significant relationship (p less than 0.0005 and r2 . 0.90). The EMIT technique was the easiest and most accurate for determination of serum gentamicin concentrations, whereas the BACTEC method was judged unacceptable for clinical use

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE RADIOMETRIC RESPONSE OF ORANGE TREE CROWN IN HYPERSPECTRAL UAV IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Imai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available High spatial resolution remote sensing images acquired by drones are highly relevant data source in many applications. However, strong variations of radiometric values are difficult to correct in hyperspectral images. Honkavaara et al. (2013 presented a radiometric block adjustment method in which hyperspectral images taken from remotely piloted aerial systems – RPAS were processed both geometrically and radiometrically to produce a georeferenced mosaic in which the standard Reflectance Factor for the nadir is represented. The plants crowns in permanent cultivation show complex variations since the density of shadows and the irradiance of the surface vary due to the geometry of illumination and the geometry of the arrangement of branches and leaves. An evaluation of the radiometric quality of the mosaic of an orange plantation produced using images captured by a hyperspectral imager based on a tunable Fabry-Pérot interferometer and applying the radiometric block adjustment method, was performed. A high-resolution UAV based hyperspectral survey was carried out in an orange-producing farm located in Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A set of 25 narrow spectral bands with 2.5 cm of GSD images were acquired. Trend analysis was applied to the values of a sample of transects extracted from plants appearing in the mosaic. The results of these trend analysis on the pixels distributed along transects on orange tree crown showed the reflectance factor presented a slightly trend, but the coefficients of the polynomials are very small, so the quality of mosaic is good enough for many applications.

  4. Enhanced radiometric detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by using filter-concentrated bovine fecal specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.T.; Kenefick, K.B.; Sockett, D.C.; Lambrecht, R.S.; McDonald, J.; Jorgensen, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    A commercial radiometric medium, BACTEC 12B, was modified by addition of mycobactin, egg yolk suspension, and antibiotics (vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid). Decontaminated bovine fecal specimens were filter concentrated by using 3-microns-pore-size, 13-mm-diameter polycarbonate filters, and the entire filter was placed into the radiometric broth. Comparison of the radiometric technique with conventional methods on 603 cattle from 9 Mycobacterium paratuberculosis-infected herds found that of 75 positive specimens, the radiometric technique detected 92% while conventional methods detected 60% (P less than 0.0005). Only 3.9% of radiometric cultures were contaminated. To measure the effect of filter concentration of specimens on the detection rate, 5 cattle with minimal and 5 with moderate ileum histopathology were sampled weekly for 3 weeks. M. paratuberculosis was detected in 33.3% of nonfiltered specimens and 76.7% of filtered specimens (P less than 0.005). Detection rates were directly correlated with the severity of disease, and the advantage of specimen concentration was greatest on fecal specimens from cattle with low-grade infections. Detection times were also correlated with infection severity: 13.4 +/- 5.9 days with smear-positive specimens, 27.9 +/- 8.7 days with feces from cows with typical subclinical infections, and 38.7 +/- 3.8 days with fecal specimens from cows with low-grade infections. Use of a cocktail of vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid for selective suppression of nonmycobacterial contaminants was better than the commercial product PANTA (Becton Dickinson Microbiologic Systems, Towson, Md.) only when specimens contained very low numbers of M. paratuberculosis

  5. Rapid radiometric methods to detect and differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis from other mycobacterial species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, S.H.; Hwangbo, C.C.; Silcox, V.; Good, R.C.; Snider, D.E. Jr.; Middlebrook, G.

    1984-01-01

    Rapid methods for the differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis (TB complex) from other mycobacteria (MOTT bacilli) were developed and evaluated in a three-phase study. In the first phase, techniques for identification of Mycobacterium species were developed by using radiometric technology and BACTEC Middlebrook 7H12 liquid medium. Based on 14 CO 2 evolution, characteristic growth patterns were established for 13 commonly encountered mycobacterial species. Mycobacteria belonging to the TB complex were differentiated from other mycobacteria by cellular morphology and rate of 14 CO 2 evolution. For further differentiation, radiometric tests for niacin production and inhibition by Q-nitro-alpha-acetyl amino-beta-hydroxy-propiophenone (NAP) were developed. In the second phase, 100 coded specimens on Lowenstein-Jensen medium were identified as members of the TB complex, MOTT bacilli, bacteria other than mycobacteria, or ''no viable organisms'' within 3 to 12 (average 6.4) days of receipt from the Centers for Disease Control. Isolation and identification of mycobacteria from 20 simulated sputum specimens were carried out in phase III. Out of 20 sputum specimens, 16 contained culturable mycobacteria, and all of the positives were detected by the BACTEC method in an average of 7.3 days. The positive mycobacterial cultures were isolated and identified as TB complex or MOTT bacilli in an average of 12.8 days. The radiometric NAP test was found to be highly sensitive and specific for a rapid identification of TB complex, whereas the radiometric niacin test was found to have some inherent problems. Radiometric BACTEC and conventional methodologies were in complete agreement in Phase II as well as in Phase III

  6. ANALYZING SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SHADOW AREA FROM ADS-40 HIGH RADIOMETRIC RESOLUTION AERIAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-T. Hsieh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The shadows in optical remote sensing images are regarded as image nuisances in numerous applications. The classification and interpretation of shadow area in a remote sensing image are a challenge, because of the reduction or total loss of spectral information in those areas. In recent years, airborne multispectral aerial image devices have been developed 12-bit or higher radiometric resolution data, including Leica ADS-40, Intergraph DMC. The increased radiometric resolution of digital imagery provides more radiometric details of potential use in classification or interpretation of land cover of shadow areas. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to analyze the spectral properties of the land cover in the shadow areas by ADS-40 high radiometric resolution aerial images, and to investigate the spectral and vegetation index differences between the various shadow and non-shadow land covers. According to research findings of spectral analysis of ADS-40 image: (i The DN values in shadow area are much lower than in nonshadow area; (ii DN values received from shadowed areas that will also be affected by different land cover, and it shows the possibility of land cover property retrieval as in nonshadow area; (iii The DN values received from shadowed regions decrease in the visible band from short to long wavelengths due to scattering; (iv The shadow area NIR of vegetation category also shows a strong reflection; (v Generally, vegetation indexes (NDVI still have utility to classify the vegetation and non-vegetation in shadow area. The spectral data of high radiometric resolution images (ADS-40 is potential for the extract land cover information of shadow areas.

  7. Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates as Natural Antibacterial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Ghanbari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Actinopyga lecanora, a type of sea cucumber commonly known as stone fish with relatively high protein content, was explored as raw material for bioactive peptides production. Six proteolytic enzymes, namely alcalase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, bromelain and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze A. lecanora at different times and their respective degrees of hydrolysis (DH were calculated. Subsequently, antibacterial activity of the A. lecanora hydrolysates, against some common pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas sp. were evaluated. Papain hydrolysis showed the highest DH value (89.44%, followed by alcalase hydrolysis (83.35%. Bromelain hydrolysate after one and seven hours of hydrolysis exhibited the highest antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 51.85%, 30.07% and 30.45%, respectively compared to the other hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain after 8 h hydrolysis showed maximum antibacterial activity against S. aureus at 20.19%. The potent hydrolysates were further fractionated using RP-HPLC and antibacterial activity of the collected fractions from each hydrolysate were evaluated, wherein among them only three fractions from the bromelain hydrolysates exhibited inhibitory activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 24%, 25.5% and 27.1%, respectively and one fraction of papain hydrolysate showed antibacterial activity of 33.1% against S. aureus. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and antibacterial activities of papain and bromelain hydrolysates revealed a meaningful correlation of four and six order functions.

  8. Pharmacokinetics, efficacy prediction indexes and residue depletion of antibacterial drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Anadón

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacokinetics behaviour of the antibacterial in food producing animals, provides information on the rates of absorption and elimination, half-life in plasma and tissue, elimination pathways and metabolism. The dose and the dosing interval of the antimicrobial can be justified by considering the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD relationship, if established, as well as the severity of the disease, whereas the number of administrations should be in line with the nature of the disease. The target population for therapy should be well defined and possible to identify under field conditions. Based on in vitro susceptibility data, and target animal PK data, an analysis for the PK/PD relationship may be used to support dose regimen selection and interpretation criteria for a clinical breakpoint. Therefore, for all antibacterials with systemic activity, the MIC data collected should be compared with the concentration of the compound at the relevant biophase following administration at the assumed therapeutic dose as recorded in the pharmacokinetic studies. Currently, the most frequently used parameters to express the PK/PD relationship are Cmax/MIC (maximum serum concentration/MIC, %T > MIC (fraction of time in which concentration exceeds MIC and AUC/MIC (area under the inhibitory concentration– time curve/MIC. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic parameters provide the first indication of the potential for persistent residues and the tissues in which they may occur. The information on residue depletion in food-producing animals, provides the data on which MRL recommendations will be based. A critical factor in the antibacterial medication of all food-producing animals is the mandatory withdrawal period, defined as the time during which drug must not be administered prior to the slaughter of the animal for consumption. The withdrawal period is an integral part of the regulatory authorities’ approval process and is designed to ensure that no

  9. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of guanylhydrazones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajdačić Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel guanylhydrazones were designed, synthesized and characterized. All the compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. Compounds 26 and 27 showed excellent antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Micrococcus luteus ATCC 379 with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 4 μg mL-1, and good antifungal activity against Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019. These results suggested that the selected guanylhydrazones could serve as promising leads for improved antimicrobial development. [Project of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, Grant No. 172008 and Grant No. 173048

  10. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Kasanah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported such as bromophycolides and neurymenolides. In summary, red seaweeds are potential sources for antibacterial agents and can serve as lead in synthesis of new natural medicines.

  11. Unexplained infertility: identification of anti sperm antibodies using radiometric immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, Y.M.; Elnabarawy, F.; Hamada, T.; Ayiad, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    Several methods have been employed to measure anti sperm antibodies with variable sensitivity and specificity in serum and secretion of infertile patients. All of them are not precise means for identification of the presence of anti sperm antibodies for patients with unexplained infertility (Haas et al, 1980). Therefore, the modified radiolabelled anti globulin test, that has been used successfully to identify and quantitate the antibodies directed towards other human cell surfaces, was applied. A total number of 128 subjects in different groups were studied to quantitate the circulating anti sperm antibodies using the modified procedure. The present data revealed that the highest and the most significant incidence were found in the patients secretions (semen and cervical mucus) with unexplained infertility, as well as in the group of males with varicocele. Therefore it is greatly advisable to use the modified radiolabelled technique as a quantitative assay, which will be helpful in management of infertility in patients with unexplained and mediated infertility.3 tab., 4 fig

  12. Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Cybopogon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, the results of antibacterial activity testing of the extracts at equal disc concentration of 30@g/disc showed that E. coli was sensitive to all extracts with inhibition zone diameters of 7mm, Klebsiella spp. and Proteus spp. were sensitive to acetone extract of the plant with inhibition zone diameters of 7mm each while ...

  13. Development and antibacterial performance of silver nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metallization is one of the finishing processes in textile treatment that can produce multifunctional effects. The present study dealt with the development of an antibacterial polyester-knitted fabric via facile and green impregnation of silver nanoparticles (SNPs). This was done by applying a polymeric foundation on the ...

  14. Antibacterial properties of polyaniline-silver films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuceková, Z.; Kašpárková, V.; Humpolíček, P.; Ševčíková, P.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 8 (2013), s. 1103-1108 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08944S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * silver * antibacterial properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  15. Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activities of Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical properties and the antibacterial potency of rosselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L) leaf extracts were evaluated using the cold maceration method, agar diffusion method and qualitative phytochemical analysis respectively. The methanolic extract was tested against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and ...

  16. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial investigations of crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the presence of phytochemicals present in the different plant parts and their antibacterial activity. Methodology and results: Leaves, flowers, stem bark, immature pods and root barks were collected from Siaya, Nandi and Nakuru Counties. These were dried and ground.

  17. Antibacterial properties and preliminary phytochemical analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partial purification (Thin Layer Chromatography) of the crude extract revealed five (5) components. Characteristics of these components were viewed by Infrared and UV/VIS spectrophotometer showing the presence of alkaloid, saponin, tannin, steroid and flavonoid. The observed antibacterial activity was believed to be due ...

  18. Synthesis and antibacterial activity screening of quaternary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A series of quaternary ammonium derivatives of triazolyl pyranochromen-2-ones have been synthesized and characterized; their antibacterial potential were investigated against two gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and two gram positive bacterial strains (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus ...

  19. Antibacterial effect of surface pretreatment techniques against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial surface pretreatment methods against Streptococcus mutans within the infected dentin surface using a tooth cavity model. Material and Methods: Seventy-two cavities were prepared on caries-free third molars (n = 8). After sterilization, teeth were inoculated ...

  20. Precursor Dependent Structural Properties and Antibacterial Activity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    71

    10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30 ... absorption spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Zeta ... The antibacterial activity of the synthesized CuO were studied against human .... Sample d : Copper oxide synthesized with cupric sulphate as precursor ...... Chem.4 86.

  1. Studies on Buddleja asiatica antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-27

    Jul 27, 2011 ... Studies on Buddleja asiatica antibacterial, antifungal, antispasmodic and Ca. ++ ... strong cyclo-oxygenase inhibitory activities in elicited rat peritoneal ... A resting tension of 1 g was applied to each tissue and kept constant ... Statistical analysis .... through opening of VDCs, thus allowing the influx of extra.

  2. SYNERGISTIC ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF STEM BARK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ABSTRACT. The study was aimed at screening the stem bark extracts of Faidherbia albida and Psidium guajava for synergistic antibacterial effect against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The powdered plant materials were extracted with methanol using cold maceration technique and the extracts were ...

  3. Phytochemical Screening, Antibacterial and Toxicological Activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical screening, antibacterial and toxicological activities of extracts of the stem bark of Acacia senegal were investigated. The phytochemical analyses according to standard screening tests using conventional protocols revealed the presence of tannins, saponins and sterols in the stem bark of the plant.

  4. antibacterial properties and preliminary phytochemical analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    IBDF Ministeroida Agricultura, Riode Janesio, 63pp. Edeoja, O.H., Okwu, E.D. and Mbaebie, O.B. (2005). Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology. 4(7):685-688. Ekhaise, F.O. and Okoruwa, P. (2001). Antibacterial activity of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) extract on.

  5. Purification, Characterization and Antibacterial Mechanism of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To carry out the extraction, purification and biological characterization, and assess the antibacterial activity of bacteriocin from Lactobacillus acidophilus XH1. Methods: Chloroform extraction method was used for bacteriocin extraction while characterization of bacteriocin was carried out by flat-dug well agar ...

  6. DRUG-INTERACTIONS WITH QUINOLONE ANTIBACTERIALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROUWERS, JRBJ

    1992-01-01

    The quinolone antibacterials are prone to many interactions with other drugs. Quinolone absorption is markedly reduced with antacids containing aluminium, magnesium and/or calcium and therapeutic failure may result. Other metallic ion-containing drugs, such as sucralfate, iron salts, and zinc salts,

  7. Preparation, Characterization and Antibacterial Properties of Silver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and laser Doppler electrophoresis (LDE). The antibacterial ... silver nanoparticles. The size of the nanoparticles can be modulated by varying both chitosan MW and process conditions such as temperature and stirring speed.

  8. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES, DFT AND QSAR STUDIES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Latif Hesham4. 1Department of ... [5] and characterized, see Figure 1. In the present study, our aim is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 1 and 2. Moreover, ..... in Figure 3. The pink color parts embody the regions of negative electrostatic.

  9. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of Azadiracta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed that both stem bark and leaf extracts contain alkaloid, tannin, anthraquinone, flavonoid, phenols and terpenoid. The extracts of the plant demonstrated antibacterial activity due to presence of phytochemical constituents hence, the application of the decoction of leaf and stem bark ...

  10. Synthesis, spectral characterization and in vitro antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shafqat Nadeem

    2015-12-17

    Dec 17, 2015 ... slightly toxic and present a potential for antibacterial activity. Moreover, they ... interaction, in this paper, we describe the coordination of Pal- ladium(II) iodide with .... between steric/electrostatic property and biological activity. Table. 1 ..... properties, affinity to proteins, reactivity, toxicity, metabolic stability and ...

  11. Phytochemical screening, free radical scavenging and antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassia sieberiana is a tropical plant, widely distributed throughout Sudan and Guinea savannah. It is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of malarial, cancer and stomach ache. The study was conducted to screen for phytochemicals, free radical scavenging and antibacterial potentials of the root bark.

  12. Antiproliferative and antibacterial activity evaluation of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of these extracts was also tested against Salmonella choleraesuis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. All extracts were obtained from lyophilized biomass of red microalgae. Extract A was obtained using 40% ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography with G-25 ...

  13. Antibacterial evaluation of Anacardium occidentale (Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    has led to the seeking of new antibiotics that are effective and opens paths for the ... to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of the leaves and stem peels of .... radiation intensity and production of phenol compounds such as ...

  14. Evaluation of phytochemical and antibacterial properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol crude extracts of the different plant parts of Terminalia avicennioides was carried out using standard chemical evaluation methods. The antibacterial effects of aqueous and ethanol crude extracts of Terminalia avicennioides against E.coli and S.typhimurium clinical and ...

  15. Antibacterial Activity of Probiotic Bacteria Isolated From Broiler Feces and Commercial Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Darabi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The extensive use of antibiotics in animal farms to promote the growth rate and prevent the enteric pathogen has led to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and drug residues in the birds body. In the recent years, probiotics have been constantly studied for their inhibitory effects on pathogenic bacteria. Objectives: The current study aimed to assess the effect of magnesium oxide on controlling serum phosphorus levels and evaluate its side effects. Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activity of local and commercial probiotic bacteria was investigated using colony overlay assay. Then antibacterial activity of local and commercial probiotics against each pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were compared. Results: Local strain of lactic acid bacteria had significantly higher antibacterial activity compared to those of the commercial probiotics. Local probiotics showed a significantly stronger activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli compared to all commercial probiotics. Conclusions: Administration of mono strain of Lactobacillus salivarius ES1, or co-administration of ES1 and L. salivarius ES6, is not only more effective than commercial probiotics against Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus spp. and E.coli, but also, will have no negative effects on micro flora balance of local birds.

  16. MISR L1B3 Radiometric Camera-by-camera Cloud Mask Product subset for the RICO region V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This file contains the Radiometric camera-by-camera Cloud Mask dataset over the RICO region. It is used to determine whether a scene is classified as clear or...

  17. A new relative radiometric consistency processing method for change detection based on wavelet transform and a low-pass filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The research purpose of this paper is to show the limitations of the existing radiometric normalization approaches and their disadvantages in change detection of artificial objects by comparing the existing approaches,on the basis of which a preprocessing approach to radiometric consistency,based on wavelet transform and a spatial low-pass filter,has been devised.This approach first separates the high frequency information and low frequency information by wavelet transform.Then,the processing of relative radiometric consistency based on a low-pass filter is conducted on the low frequency parts.After processing,an inverse wavelet transform is conducted to obtain the results image.The experimental results show that this approach can substantially reduce the influence on change detection of linear or nonlinear radiometric differences in multi-temporal images.

  18. Anomalies jointing in the Laguna Blanca area (Rocha district) about of radiometric anomaly sector with thorium characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, P.

    1986-01-01

    In the following lines are sumarized the prospection works carried out on anomalous radiometric sectors located at the Department of Rocha (Uruguay) Its toriferous feature and the likely metallogenetic model to which they are associated are also developed

  19. Development of absolute radiometric response functions for HyPlant & G-LiHT using SIRCUS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to provide absolute radiometric and cross-calibrated spectral characterizations for G-LiHT and HyPlant.  The objectives are: (i) to...

  20. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Source For System-Level Testing Of Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we describe an improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source which has been developed and utilized for the characterization and calibration of remote optical sensors. This source is unique in that it can be used in situ, in both ambient and thermal-vacuum environments, allowing it to follow the sensor throughout its testing cycle. The performance of the original flat plate radiometric source was presented at the 2009 SPIE1. Following the original efforts, design upgrades were incorporated into the source to improve both radiometric throughput and uniformity. The pre-thermal-vacuum (pre-TVAC) testing results of a spacecraft-level optical sensor with the improved flat plate illumination source, both in ambient and vacuum environments, are presented. We also briefly discuss potential FPI configuration changes in order to improve its radiometric performance.

  1. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003540.htm Protein electrophoresis - serum To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood ...

  2. Radiometric--microbiologic assay of vitamin B-6: application to food analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilarte, T.R.; Shane, B.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay for vitamin B-6 was applied to food analysis. The method was shown to be specific, reproducible and simpler than the standard turbidimetric microbiologic technique. The analysis of seven commercially available breakfast cereals was compared to a high performance liquid chromatography method. Three out of the seven cereals agreed when assayed with both methods (P greater than 0.1). Four cereals, however, differed in value considerably (P less than 0.05). Further studies are required to determine whether these differences were due to different extraction procedures used. The study showed that the new radiometric-microbiologic method can be used to measure total vitamin B-6 or, combined with a column separation procedure, to analyze for specific forms of the vitamin

  3. Geologic and radiometric study of the Santa Rosalia area, Arizpe Department, Sonora Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez M, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of the radiometrical anomaly, discovered in the Santa Rosalia area, Arizpe Department, Sonota, is defined in this study through topographical and geological surveying of the area by the outline and systematical survey of rocks for sampling and registration of the radioactivity. Two radioactive anomalies were defined and called IIIA and IIIB, identifying the existence of secondary uranium minerals (Torbernite) in the IIIB anomaly. According to the results of the work which was carried out we can't deduce that both localities present signs of the existence of important uranium concentrations. We can conclude that the presence of uranium minerals obliges us to realize a more detailed exploration, suggesting the opening of little excavations and ditches and stretching out of the geochemical, geological and radiometrical exploration to adjacent areas. (author)

  4. Radiometric Performance of the TerraSAR-X Mission over More Than Ten Years of Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Schwerdt

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The TerraSAR-X mission, based on two satellites, has produced SAR data products of high quality for a number of scientific and commercial applications for more than ten years. To guarantee the stability and the reliability of these highly accurate SAR data products, both systems were first accurately calibrated during their respective commissioning phases and have been permanently monitored since then. Based on a short description of the methods applied, this paper focuses on the radiometric performance including the gain and phase properties of the transmit/receiver modules, the antenna pattern checked by evaluating scenes acquired over uniformly distributed targets and the radiometric stability derived from permanently deployed point targets. The outcome demonstrates the remarkable performance of both systems since their respective launch.

  5. Monitoring of plutonium contaminated solid waste streams. Chapter II: principles and theory of radiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Bondar, L.; Notea, A.; Segal, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The interpretation of a count rate distribution obtained from radiometric assay of a given waste items population in terms of source strength distribution is discussed. A model for the evaluation of errors, arising from non uniform source density distribution (Pu) within the item volume and heterogeneity of matrix materials, is presented. Points concerning calibration procedures and representativity of reference materials are dealt with. Qualification procedures for possible monitoring systems are outlined on the basis of comparison with reference systems. The latter are composed of reference monitors based on high resolution gamma spectrometry and passive and active neutron techniques. The importance of information upon the elemental composition and density distribution of matrix materials for the interpretation of radiometric assay of solid wastes is stressed

  6. Digital image integration technique of multi-geoscience information dominated by aerial radiometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dechang; Sun Maorong; Zhu Deling; Zhang Jingbo; He Jianguo; Dong Xiuzhen

    1992-02-01

    The geologic metallogenetic environment of uranium at Lian Shan Guan region has been studied by using digital image integration technique of multi-geoscience information with aerial radiometric measurements. It includes the classification of uranium-bearing rock, recognizing patterns of ore-forming and geologic mapping in ore field. Some new tectonic structure was found in this region that gives significant information for further exploring of uranium ore. After multi-parameters screening of aerial radiometric data, patterns recognizing and multi-geoscience information integration analysis, four prospective metallogenetic zones were predicted, and the predication was proved by further geologic survey. Three of the four zones are very encouraging, where ore-forming structures, hydrothermal deposits, wall-rock alteration, primary and secondary uranium ore and rich uranium mineralization are discovered. The department of geologic exploring has decided that these zones will enjoy priority in the examination for further prospecting of uranium ores

  7. Recent understanding of the Svalbard basement in the light of new radiometric age determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Several tectonothermal events in the pre-Carboniferous basement of Svalbard during Caledonian and Proterozoic times have been dated recently by radiometric age determinations. Three or four stages have been recognized in the Caledonian period; a post-orogentic graben formation during the Devonian, a late Caledonian event in the Middle Silurian, an earely Caledonian event in the Middle Ordovician and possibly an earliest event in the Middle to Late Cambrian. The Grenvillian event, 950-1270 Ma, has been well established by both radiometric ages and unconformities in Nordaustlandet and southwestern Spitsbergen. Sveco-Karelian ages, 1670-1750 Ma, also have been obtained from Ny Friesland, northerneastern Spitsbergen. Two even older ages (zircon U-Pb) upper intercept ages), 2.1 and 3.2 Ga, may suggest the presence of still older crust in Svalbard and adjacent areas. 40 refs., 2 figs

  8. Rapid detection and identification of pathogenic mycobacteria by combining radiometric and nucleic acid probe methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellner, P.D.; Kiehn, T.E.; Cammarata, R.; Hosmer, M.

    1988-01-01

    The combination of radiometric methodology (BACTEC 12B) and probe technology for recovery and identification of mycobacteria was studied in two large hospital laboratories. The sediment from vials with positive growth indices was tested with DNA probes specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, and Mycobacterium intracellulare. The sensitivity of the radiometric method and the specificity of the probes resulted in a marked reduction in the time to the final report. Biochemical testing could be eliminated on isolates giving a positive reaction with one of the probes. Some 176 isolates of M. tuberculosis, 110 of M. avium, and 5 of M. intracellulare were recovered. Two-thirds of these isolates were detected and identified within 2 weeks of inoculation and the remainder was detected by 4 weeks, a reduction of 5 to 7 weeks to the final report

  9. Geological and radiometric study of the anomaly ''San Martin'' municipality of Sierra Mojada, Coahuila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra Mora, P.

    1975-01-01

    When it first became known that there were uranium ores at the mine known as San Martin (72 hectares, Mining Agency, Sabinas, Mexico), exploration work was started with the sinking of two wells at the sites of maximum radiometric intensity. A short while afterwards, however, this work was suspended. In 1974, the work required for evaluation of the locality was begun. Geological and radiometric studies carried out both at the surface and underground pointed to the conclusion that the San Martin anomaly, down to the depth explored (40 metres), is a stockwork-type deposit or a tabular seam of the fissure type. It was concluded that in view of the grades obtained (0.0227%U 3 O 6 ) down to 40 metres, the deposit cannot be considered of econimic importance at the present time. (author)

  10. An equivalent method of mixed dielectric constant in passive microwave/millimeter radiometric measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jinlong; Tian, Yan; Hu, Fei; Gui, Liangqi; Cheng, Yayun; Peng, Xiaohui

    2017-10-01

    Dielectric constant is an important role to describe the properties of matter. This paper proposes This paper proposes the concept of mixed dielectric constant(MDC) in passive microwave radiometric measurement. In addition, a MDC inversion method is come up, Ratio of Angle-Polarization Difference(RAPD) is utilized in this method. The MDC of several materials are investigated using RAPD. Brightness temperatures(TBs) which calculated by MDC and original dielectric constant are compared. Random errors are added to the simulation to test the robustness of the algorithm. Keywords: Passive detection, microwave/millimeter, radiometric measurement, ratio of angle-polarization difference (RAPD), mixed dielectric constant (MDC), brightness temperatures, remote sensing, target recognition.

  11. Radiometric assessment of the sensitivity to antituberculotics of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare and Mycobacterium xenopi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubin, M.; Lindholm-Levy, P.; Heifets, L. B.

    1994-01-01

    The macrodilution radiometric method using Middlebrook's 7H12 liquid medium enriched with 14 C-palmitic acid, where the growth activity is monitored by measuring liberated 14 CO 2 , was applied to 25 strains of the Mycobacterium avium complex and to 20 strains of Mycobacterium xenopi to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the following chemotherapeutical agents: ciprofloxacine, clofazimine, rifampin, cycloserine, kanamycin, etionamide, ethambutol, and amikacin. In the case of the M. avium complex, slightly or completely resistant strains were found for the majority of drugs. The sensitive strain proportion was highest with clofazimine and amikacin. The M. xenopis strains exhibited generally lower minimal inhibitory concentrations than the avian mycobacteria for all drugs except for cycloserine and ethambutol. The radiometric method using the BACTEC system was found suitable for the determination of the sensitivity of mycobacteria to chemotherapeutic agents: the results are obtained rapidly, within 8 days following inoculation, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations can be evaluated quantitatively. 1 tab., 8 refs

  12. Evaluation of rapid radiometric method for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, S.H.; Libonati, J.P.; Middlebrook, G.

    1981-01-01

    A total of 106 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were tested for drug susceptibility by the conventional 7H11 plate method and by a new rapid radiometric method using special 7H12 liquid medium with 14 C-labeled substrate. Results obtained by the two methods were compared for rapidity, sensitivity, and specificity of the new test method. There was 98% overall agreement between the results obtained by the two methods. Of a total of 424 drug tests, only 8 drug results did not agree, mostly in the case of streptomycin. This new procedure was found to be rapid, with 87% of the tests results reportable within 4 days and 98% reportable within 5 days as compared to the usual 3 weeks required with the conventional indirect susceptibility test method. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the rapid radiometric method seems to have the potential for routine laboratory use and merits further investigations

  13. Mississippi exploration field trials using microbial, radiometrics, free soil gas, and other techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J.S.; Brown, L.R.; Thieling, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Mississippi Office of Geology has conducted field trials using the surface exploration techniques of geomicrobial, radiometrics, and free soil gas. The objective of these trials is to determine if Mississippi oil and gas fields have surface hydrocarbon expression resulting from vertical microseepage migration. Six fields have been surveyed ranging in depth from 3,330 ft to 18,500 ft. The fields differ in trapping styles and hydrocarbon type. The results so far indicate that these fields do have a surface expression and that geomicrobial analysis as well as radiometrics and free soil gas can detect hydrocarbon microseepage from pressurized reservoirs. All three exploration techniques located the reservoirs independent of depth, hydrocarbon type, or trapping style.

  14. Radiometric titration of officinal radiopharmaceuticals using radioactive kryptonates as end-point indicators. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harangozo, M.; Jombik, J.; Schiller, P.; Toelgyessy, J.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the determination of citric, tartaric and undecylenic acids based on radiometric titration with 0.1 or 0.05 mole.l -1 NaOH was developed. As an indicator of the end point, radioactive kryptonate of glass was used. Experimental technique, results of determinations as well as other possible applications of the radioactive kryptonate of glass for end point determination in alkalimetric analyses of officinal pharmaceuticals are discussed. (author)

  15. Impact of the cameras radiometric resolution on the accuracy of determining spectral reflectance coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orych, A.; Walczykowski, P.; Jenerowicz, A.; Zdunek, Z.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays remote sensing plays a very important role in many different study fields, i.e. environmental studies, hydrology, mineralogy, ecosystem studies, etc. One of the key areas of remote sensing applications is water quality monitoring. Understanding and monitoring of the water quality parameters and detecting different water contaminants is an important issue in water management and protection of whole environment and especially the water ecosystem. There are many remote sensing methods to monitor water quality and detect water pollutants. One of the most widely used method for substance detection with remote sensing techniques is based on usage of spectral reflectance coefficients. They are usually acquired using discrete methods such as spectrometric measurements. These however can be very time consuming, therefore image-based methods are used more and more often. In order to work out the proper methodology of obtaining spectral reflectance coefficients from hyperspectral and multispectral images, it is necessary to verify the impact of cameras radiometric resolution on the accuracy of determination of them. This paper presents laboratory experiments that were conducted using two monochromatic XEVA video sensors (400-1700 nm spectral data registration) with two different radiometric resolutions (12 and 14 bits). In view of determining spectral characteristics from images, the research team used set of interferometric filters. All data collected with multispectral digital video cameras were compared with spectral reflectance coefficients obtained with spectroradiometer. The objective of this research is to find the impact of cameras radiometric resolution on reflectance values in chosen wavelength. The main topic of this study is the analysis of accuracy of spectral coefficients from sensors with different radiometric resolution. By comparing values collected from images acquired with XEVA sensors and with the curves obtained with spectroradiometer it

  16. Radiometric detection of metabolic activity of Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis and its susceptibility to amphotericin B and Diethylstilbestrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.; Sato, M.K.; Del Negro, G.M.B.; Lacaz, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    A radiometric assay system has been applied to study the metabolic activity and the effect of drugs (amphotericin B and diethylstilbestrol) on the fungus Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis ''in vitro''. The Y form of the yeast, grown in liquid Sabouraud medium was inoculated into sterile reaction vials containing the 6B aerobic medium along with 2.0μCi of 14 C-substrates. (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. Conceptual basis for the radiometric dye film dose meter as a test of particle track theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.W.

    1980-05-01

    This report is a summary of a lecture held at the Danish-Polish Symposium on Radiation Chemistry in Warsaw, October 1979, describing an initiated work connected to the particle track theory worked out by R. Katz and coworkers. A short description is given of the theory and the applicability of the theory in the use of the radiometric dye cyanide film dose meter as a detector in radiation of different qualities. A few experimental results are given. (author)

  18. Far-ir heterodyne radiometric measurements with quasioptical Schottky diode mixers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, H.R.; Tannenwald, P.E.; Clifton, B.J.; Parker, C.D.; Fitzgerald, W.D.; Erickson, N.R.

    1978-01-01

    We have made heterodyne radiometric measurements with GaAs Schottky diode mixers, mounted in a corner-reflector configuration, over the spectral range 170 μm to 1 mm. At 400 μm, system noise temperatures of 9700 K DSB (NEP=1.4 x 10 - 19 W/Hz) and mixer noise temperatures of 5900 K have been achieved. This same quasioptical mixer has also been used to generate 10 - 7 W of tunable radiation suitable for spectroscopic applications

  19. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  20. Relative Radiometric Normalization and Atmospheric Correction of a SPOT 5 Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Rumeau

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Multi-temporal images acquired at high spatial and temporal resolution are an important tool for detecting change and analyzing trends, especially in agricultural applications. However, to insure a reliable use of this kind of data, a rigorous radiometric normalization step is required. Normalization can be addressed by performing an atmospheric correction of each image in the time series. The main problem is the difficulty of obtaining an atmospheric characterization at a given acquisition date. In this paper, we investigate whether relative radiometric normalization can substitute for atmospheric correction. We develop an automatic method for relative radiometric normalization based on calculating linear regressions between unnormalized and reference images. Regressions are obtained using the reflectances of automatically selected invariant targets. We compare this method with an atmospheric correction method that uses the 6S model. The performances of both methods are compared using 18 images from of a SPOT 5 time series acquired over Reunion Island. Results obtained for a set of manually selected invariant targets show excellent agreement between the two methods in all spectral bands: values of the coefficient of determination (r² exceed 0.960, and bias magnitude values are less than 2.65. There is also a strong correlation between normalized NDVI values of sugarcane fields (r² = 0.959. Despite a relative error of 12.66% between values, very comparable NDVI patterns are observed.

  1. Improved detection of Mycobacterium avium complex with the Bactec radiometric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffner, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    A reconsideration of the laboratory methods used for primary isolation of mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis is needed due to the increasingly recognized importance of such mycobacterial infections in immunocompromised patients. One example of this is the severe opportunistic infections caused by Mycobacterium avium complex among AIDS patients. In this study, the Bactec radiometric system was compared to conventional culture on solid medium for the detection of M. avium complex in 3,612 selected clinical specimens, mainly of extrapulmonary origin. Of a total number of 63 M. avium complex isolates, the Bactec system detected 58 (92%), compared to 37 (59%) for conventional culture. A much more rapid detection was attained with radiometric technique than with conventional culture. The mean detection time for the cultures positive with both methods was 7.1 and 28.3 days, respectively. The Bactec radiometric system achieves a rapid and significantly more sensitive detection and seems to be an excellent complement to conventional culture in the laboratory diagnosis of infections with the M. avium complex

  2. Geologic and radiometric study in the Picacho, Arizpe's Municipality, Sorora (Mexico) area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia y Barragan, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    This research work was aimed chiefly at studying the geology and radiometry of the El Picacho area in order to establish its uranium mineralization potential. Another purpose was to ascertain the factors favouring deposition of radioactive material in areas bordering on the Sierra del Manzanal, where the work was carried out. Detailed geological-radiometric surveys were made, both inside the El Picacho mine and at the surface. The geological surveys were carried out by means of compass bearings and stadia, while scintillometers and spectrometers were used for the radiometric studies. The work was supported by a general geological exploration of the central part of the Serra del Manzanal. To ascertain the radiometric anomalies, the distribution of the population of values was determined by statistical methods, the frequency, cumulative frequency and frequency percentage being evaluated for that purpose. The geological survey at the El Picacho mine revealed a group of fractures enclosing the following minerals: torbernite, iriginite and autunite. These fractures are no thicker than 5 cm and tend to wedge out after 3 meters. Primary uraniferous ore is likely to be found in this zone, so surveys based on (a) radon gas emanometry and (b) sediment geochemistry in the Siera del Manzanal are recommended. The basic data relating to this area could be supplemented by mineragraphic and X-ray studies, which would provide a fuller picture of the class of mineralogical species and of the paragenesis of radioactive material presnent in the zone. (author)

  3. Evaluation of element migration from food plastic packagings into simulated solutions using radiometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Eufemia Paez; Saiki, Mitiko; Wiebeck, Helio

    2005-01-01

    In the present study a radiometric method was established to determine the migration of elements from food plastic packagings to a simulated acetic acid solution. This radiometric method consisted of irradiating plastic samples with neutrons at IEA-R1 nuclear reactor for a period of 16 hours under a neutron flux of 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 and, then to expose them to the element migration into a simulated solution. The radioactivity of the activated elements transferred to the solutions was measured to evaluate the migration. The experimental conditions were: time of exposure of 10 days at 40 deg C and 3% acetic acid solution was used as simulated solution, according to the procedure established by the National Agency of Sanitary Monitoring (ANVISA). The migration study was applied for plastic samples from soft drink and juice packagings. The results obtained indicated the migration of elements Co, Cr and Sb. The advantage of this methodology was no need to analyse the blank of simulantes, as well as the use of high purity simulated solutions. Besides, the method allows to evaluate the migration of the elements into the food content instead of simulated solution. The detention limits indicated high sensitivity of the radiometric method. (author)

  4. kCCA Transformation-Based Radiometric Normalization of Multi-Temporal Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiation normalization is an essential pre-processing step for generating high-quality satellite sequence images. However, most radiometric normalization methods are linear, and they cannot eliminate the regular nonlinear spectral differences. Here we introduce the well-established kernel canonical correlation analysis (kCCA into radiometric normalization for the first time to overcome this problem, which leads to a new kernel method. It can maximally reduce the image differences among multi-temporal images regardless of the imaging conditions and the reflectivity difference. It also perfectly eliminates the impact of nonlinear changes caused by seasonal variation of natural objects. Comparisons with the multivariate alteration detection (CCA-based normalization and the histogram matching, on Gaofen-1 (GF-1 data, indicate that the kCCA-based normalization can preserve more similarity and better correlation between an image-pair and effectively avoid the color error propagation. The proposed method not only builds the common scale or reference to make the radiometric consistency among GF-1 image sequences, but also highlights the interesting spectral changes while eliminates less interesting spectral changes. Our method enables the application of GF-1 data for change detection, land-use, land-cover change detection etc.

  5. Radiometric installations for automatic control of industrial processes and some possibilities of the specialized computers application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzino, S.; Shandru, P.

    1979-01-01

    It is noted that application of radioisotope devices in circuits for automation of some industrial processes permits to obtain the on-line information about some parameters of these processes. This information being passed to a computer, controlling the process, permits to obtain and maintain some optimum technological perameters of this process. Some elements of the automation stem projecting are given from the poin of wiev of the radiometric devices tuning, calibration of the radiometric devices with the purpose to get a digital answer in the on-line regime with the preset accuracy and thrustworthyness levels for supplying them to the controlling computer; determination of the system's reaction on the base of the preset statistical criteria; development, on the base of the data obtained from the computer, of an algorithm for the functional checking of radiometric devices' characteristics, - stability and reproductibility of readings in the operation regime as well as determination of the value threshold of an answer, depending on the measured parameter [ru

  6. Rain attenuation studies from radiometric and rain DSD measurements at two tropical locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Tuhina; Adhikari, Arpita; Maitra, Animesh

    2018-05-01

    Efficient use of satellite communication in tropical regions demands proper characterization of rain attenuation, particularly, in view of the available popular propagation models which are mostly based on temperate climatic data. Thus rain attenuations at frequencies 22.234, 23.834 and 31.4/30 GHz over two tropical locations Kolkata (22.57°N, 88.36°E, India) and Belem (1.45°S, 48.49° W, Brazil), have been estimated for the year 2010 and 2011, respectively. The estimation has been done utilizing ground-based disdrometer observations and radiometric measurements over Earth-space path. The results show that rain attenuation estimations from radiometric data are reliable only at low rain rates (measurements show good agreement with the ITU-R model, even at high rain rates (upto100 mm/h). Despite having significant variability in terms of drop size distribution (DSD), the attenuation values calculated from DSD data (disdrometer measurements) at Kolkata and Belem differ a little for the rain rates below 30 mm/h. However, the attenuation values, obtained from radiometric measurements at the two places, show significant deviations ranging from 0.54 dB to 3.2 dB up to a rain rate of 30 mm/h, on account of different rain heights, mean atmospheric temperatures and climatology of the two locations.

  7. Statistical Techniques Applied to Aerial Radiometric Surveys (STAARS): cluster analysis. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirkle, F.L.; Stablein, N.K.; Howell, J.A.; Wecksung, G.W.; Duran, B.S.

    1982-11-01

    One objective of the aerial radiometric surveys flown as part of the US Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program was to ascertain the regional distribution of near-surface radioelement abundances. Some method for identifying groups of observations with similar radioelement values was therefore required. It is shown in this report that cluster analysis can identify such groups even when no a priori knowledge of the geology of an area exists. A method of convergent k-means cluster analysis coupled with a hierarchical cluster analysis is used to classify 6991 observations (three radiometric variables at each observation location) from the Precambrian rocks of the Copper Mountain, Wyoming, area. Another method, one that combines a principal components analysis with a convergent k-means analysis, is applied to the same data. These two methods are compared with a convergent k-means analysis that utilizes available geologic knowledge. All three methods identify four clusters. Three of the clusters represent background values for the Precambrian rocks of the area, and one represents outliers (anomalously high 214 Bi). A segmentation of the data corresponding to geologic reality as discovered by other methods has been achieved based solely on analysis of aerial radiometric data. The techniques employed are composites of classical clustering methods designed to handle the special problems presented by large data sets. 20 figures, 7 tables

  8. Radiometric Correction of Multitemporal Hyperspectral Uas Image Mosaics of Seedling Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelin, L.; Honkavaara, E.; Näsi, R.; Viljanen, N.; Rosnell, T.; Hakala, T.; Vastaranta, M.; Koivisto, T.; Holopainen, M.

    2017-10-01

    Novel miniaturized multi- and hyperspectral imaging sensors on board of unmanned aerial vehicles have recently shown great potential in various environmental monitoring and measuring tasks such as precision agriculture and forest management. These systems can be used to collect dense 3D point clouds and spectral information over small areas such as single forest stands or sample plots. Accurate radiometric processing and atmospheric correction is required when data sets from different dates and sensors, collected in varying illumination conditions, are combined. Performance of novel radiometric block adjustment method, developed at Finnish Geospatial Research Institute, is evaluated with multitemporal hyperspectral data set of seedling stands collected during spring and summer 2016. Illumination conditions during campaigns varied from bright to overcast. We use two different methods to produce homogenous image mosaics and hyperspectral point clouds: image-wise relative correction and image-wise relative correction with BRDF. Radiometric datasets are converted to reflectance using reference panels and changes in reflectance spectra is analysed. Tested methods improved image mosaic homogeneity by 5 % to 25 %. Results show that the evaluated method can produce consistent reflectance mosaics and reflectance spectra shape between different areas and dates.

  9. Radiometric, SEM and XRD investigation of the Chituc black sands, southern Danube Delta, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margineanu, R.M.; Blebea-Apostu, Ana-Maria; Celarel, Aurelia; Gomoiu, Claudia-Mariana; Costea, C.; Dumitras, Delia; Ion, Adriana; Duliu, O.G.

    2014-01-01

    The black sand of the Chituc marine sand bank, northern of the city of Navodari (Romania), presents anomalous high radioactivity. Field measurements recorded in some places dose rate up to 200 nSv/h, significantly overpassing the average value of 44 ± 20 nSv/h along the entire Southern sector of Romanian Black Sea shore. Gamma ray spectrometry performed on both Slanic-Prahova Underground Low Background Laboratory and Geological Institute of Romania Radiometric Facilities showed with clarity the dominance of 228 Ac radioisotope in the 50 microns fraction together with the 226 Ra and traces of 40 K. No significant amount of anthropogenic 137 Cs was identified. Based on radiometric as well as on SEM–EDAX and XRD determinations we come to the conclusion that the evidenced radioactivity could be attributed to both uranium and thorium series in the zircon and monazite fractions and to a lesser extent to potassium in the feldspars. - Highlights: • High background radioactivity (up to 200 nSv/h) evidenced. • Radiometric measurements showed a maximum radioactivity of U and Th confined to 50–100 μm fraction. • XRD and SEM–EDAX data revealed the presence of k-feldspars, ilmenite, zircone, monazite and garnets

  10. Synoptic view of the different domains of application of airborne radiometric and spectrometric surveys in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, K.M.

    1998-01-01

    Airborne radiometric survey has been applied for more than three decades in egypt. Experience gained from the acquired data over different geological environments has revealed the importance of this geophysical tool in: 1. disclosure of anomalies of potential uranium deposits, 2. geological mapping, 3. environmental monitoring of natural radiometric background around nuclear facilities, as well as the detection of nuclear fallout resulting from local or foreign nuclear activities. The advent of recording of the discriminated gamma ray energies in the airborne 256-channel spectrometer has eventually resulted in the quantitative detection of uranium, thorium, and potassium and their elemental ratios in the rocks. This has greatly widened the scope of geophysical and geochemical application. When this type is coupled with airborne magnetometry, the geological and structural configuration is appreciably revealed in three dimensions. The important role played by the statistical method of analysis is also shown. Case histories from the eastern desert, and sinai peninsula, are exhibited to help manifest the wide variety of applications of radiometric and spectrometric surveys

  11. Radiometric Calibration of a Dual-Wavelength, Full-Waveform Terrestrial Lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan; Jupp, David L B; Strahler, Alan H; Schaaf, Crystal B; Howe, Glenn; Hewawasam, Kuravi; Douglas, Ewan S; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy A; Paynter, Ian; Saenz, Edward J; Schaefer, Michael

    2016-03-02

    Radiometric calibration of the Dual-Wavelength Echidna(®) Lidar (DWEL), a full-waveform terrestrial laser scanner with two simultaneously-pulsing infrared lasers at 1064 nm and 1548 nm, provides accurate dual-wavelength apparent reflectance (ρ(app)), a physically-defined value that is related to the radiative and structural characteristics of scanned targets and independent of range and instrument optics and electronics. The errors of ρ(app) are 8.1% for 1064 nm and 6.4% for 1548 nm. A sensitivity analysis shows that ρ(app) error is dominated by range errors at near ranges, but by lidar intensity errors at far ranges. Our semi-empirical model for radiometric calibration combines a generalized logistic function to explicitly model telescopic effects due to defocusing of return signals at near range with a negative exponential function to model the fall-off of return intensity with range. Accurate values of ρ(app) from the radiometric calibration improve the quantification of vegetation structure, facilitate the comparison and coupling of lidar datasets from different instruments, campaigns or wavelengths and advance the utilization of bi- and multi-spectral information added to 3D scans by novel spectral lidars.

  12. The use of radiometric-logging techniques to determine uranium grade in certain mineralised Karoo boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, B.; De Beer, G.P.

    1976-05-01

    During the period September-October 1975, 22 mineralised boreholes in nine different Karoo uranium occurrences were logged radiometrically with the aim of determining to what accuracy the actual uranium grade could be predicted from the gamma logs. The true uranium grades of the mineralised zones logged were known from existing chemical analyses. The results showed that the uranium grades could be predicted to an accuracy of better than 10% through the use of gamma-logging equipment calibrated at Pelindaba, provided that the ore was in equilibrium and that little or no thorium was present. Disequilibrium is, however, prevalent in the Karoo, and in the holes logged it occurred by depletion of uranium relative to its gamma-emitting daughter products. Such effects were mostly confined to the zone above the water table, and it is concluded that for Karoo-type occurrences, the high radiometric background levels observed over extended distances in some boreholes were indicative of radon-gas buildup, and hence of disequilibrium. It is further concluded that radiometric borehole logging can largely replace chemical analyses in the determination of uranium grade for ore-reserve calculations, although chemical checks for disequilibrium would always be necessary [af

  13. RADIOMETRIC CORRECTION OF MULTITEMPORAL HYPERSPECTRAL UAS IMAGE MOSAICS OF SEEDLING STANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Markelin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Novel miniaturized multi- and hyperspectral imaging sensors on board of unmanned aerial vehicles have recently shown great potential in various environmental monitoring and measuring tasks such as precision agriculture and forest management. These systems can be used to collect dense 3D point clouds and spectral information over small areas such as single forest stands or sample plots. Accurate radiometric processing and atmospheric correction is required when data sets from different dates and sensors, collected in varying illumination conditions, are combined. Performance of novel radiometric block adjustment method, developed at Finnish Geospatial Research Institute, is evaluated with multitemporal hyperspectral data set of seedling stands collected during spring and summer 2016. Illumination conditions during campaigns varied from bright to overcast. We use two different methods to produce homogenous image mosaics and hyperspectral point clouds: image-wise relative correction and image-wise relative correction with BRDF. Radiometric datasets are converted to reflectance using reference panels and changes in reflectance spectra is analysed. Tested methods improved image mosaic homogeneity by 5 % to 25 %. Results show that the evaluated method can produce consistent reflectance mosaics and reflectance spectra shape between different areas and dates.

  14. Evaluation of in vitro antibacterial effect of room curing polymethylmethacrylate material adding nano-silver base inorganic antibacterial agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Chunli; Wang Xiaorong; Zhang Citong; Sun Shiqun; Yang Yun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial effect of room curing polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) material adding nano-silver base inorganic antibacterial agent and to detect the changes of its mechanical property. Methods: Nano-silver base inorganic antibacterial agent was added to the room curing PMMA material in the range of 0.5% -3.0% at an interval of 0.5% by ball milling specimen. Antibacterial rates of the specimens were detected by film method. Bending strength, impact strength, and wear resistance of the specimens were respectively detected on electronic universal testing machine, impact test machine and friction and wear test machine. Results: The antibacterial rates of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans were more than 50% when antibiotics content was 1.0% . The antibacterial rates of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans were more than 90% when the antibiotics content was 2.5% . The three mechanical properties were increased compared with control group when the antibacterial agents were in the range of 1.0% -1.5% . Then the three mechanical properties were decreased with the increasing of antimicrobial concentration. When the antibiotics content was 2.0% , the wear resistance had significant difference compared with control group (P<0.05); when the antibiotics content was 2.5% , the bending strength and impact strength had significant difference compared with control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The antibacterial effect of room curing PMMA adding nano-silver base inorganic antibacterial agent is ideal. The antibacterial rate is increased gradually with the increasing content of antibacterial agents. There is no significant effect on the mechanical properties of room curing PMMA material, but the antibacterial effects are satisfied when the content of antibacterial agents is 2.0% . (authors)

  15. [Cloning, prokaryotic expression and antibacterial assay of Tenecin gene encoding an antibacterial peptide from Tenebrio molitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Jiang, Yu-xin; Li, Chao-pin

    2011-12-01

    To clone tenecin gene, an antibacterial peptide gene, from Tenebrio molitor for its prokaryotic expression and explore the molecular mechanism for regulating the expression of antibacterial peptide in Tenebrio molitor larvae. The antibacterial peptide was induced from the larvae of Tenebrio molitor by intraperitoneal injection of Escherichia coli DH-5α (1×10(8)/ml). RT-PCR was performed 72 h after the injection to clone Tenecin gene followed by sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. The recombinant expression vector pET-28a(+)-Tenecin was constructed and transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) cells and the expression of tenecin protein was observed after IPTG induction. Tenecin expression was detected in transformed E.coli using SDS-PAGE after 1 mmol/L IPTG induction. Tenecin gene, which was about 255 bp in length, encoded Tenecin protein with a relative molecular mass of 9 kD. Incubation of E.coli with 80, 60, 40, and 20 µg/ml tenecin for 18 h resulted in a diameter of the inhibition zone of 25.1∓0.03, 20.7∓0.06, 17.2∓0.11 and 9.3∓0.04 mm, respectively. Tenecin protein possesses strong antibacterial activity against E. coli DH-5α, which warrants further study of this protein for its potential as an antibacterial agent in clinical application.

  16. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Spices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Meng, Xiao; Li, Ya; Zhao, Cai-Ning; Tang, Guo-Yi; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diseases caused by pathogens and food poisoning caused by spoilage microorganisms are threatening human health all over the world. The efficacies of some antimicrobial agents, which are currently used to extend shelf-life and increase the safety of food products in food industry and to inhibit disease-causing microorganisms in medicine, have been weakened by microbial resistance. Therefore, new antimicrobial agents that could overcome this resistance need to be discovered. Many spices—such as clove, oregano, thyme, cinnamon, and cumin—possessed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against food spoilage bacteria like Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens, pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, harmful fungi like Aspergillus flavus, even antibiotic resistant microorganisms such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, spices have a great potential to be developed as new and safe antimicrobial agents. This review summarizes scientific studies on the antibacterial and antifungal activities of several spices and their derivatives. PMID:28621716

  17. Fast Screening of Antibacterial Compounds from Fusaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teis Esben Sondergaard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bio-guided screening is an important method to identify bioactive compounds from fungi. In this study we applied a fast digital time-lapse microscopic method for assessment of the antibacterial properties of secondary metabolites from the fungal genus Fusarium. Here antibacterial effects could be detected for antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, beauvericin, enniatins and fusaric acid after six hours of cultivation. The system was then used in a bio-guided screen of extracts from 14 different Fusarium species, which had been fractionated by HPLC. In this screen, fractions containing the red pigments aurofusarin and bikaverin showed effects against strains of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. The IC50 for aurofusarin against Lactobacillus acidophilus was 8 µM, and against Bifidobacterium breve it was 64 µM. Aurofusarin only showed an effect on probiotic bacteria, leading to the speculation that only health-promoting bacteria with a positive effect in the gut system are affected.

  18. Antibacterial biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Tie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of magnesium alloys as degradable metals for biomedical applications is a topic of ongoing research and the demand for multifunctional materials is increasing. Hence, binary Mg-Ag alloys were designed as implant materials to combine the favourable properties of magnesium with the well-known antibacterial property of silver. In this study, three Mg-Ag alloys, Mg2Ag, Mg4Ag and Mg6Ag that contain 1.87 %, 3.82 % and 6.00 % silver by weight, respectively, were cast and processed with solution (T4 and aging (T6 heat treatment.The metallurgical analysis and phase identification showed that all alloys contained Mg4Ag as the dominant β phase. After heat treatment, the mechanical properties of all Mg-Ag alloys were significantly improved and the corrosion rate was also significantly reduced, due to presence of silver. Mg(OH2 and MgO present the main magnesium corrosion products, while AgCl was found as the corresponding primary silver corrosion product. Immersion tests, under cell culture conditions, demonstrated that the silver content did not significantly shift the pH and magnesium ion release. In vitro tests, with both primary osteoblasts and cell lines (MG63, RAW 264.7, revealed that Mg-Ag alloys show negligible cytotoxicity and sound cytocompatibility. Antibacterial assays, performed in a dynamic bioreactor system, proved that the alloys reduce the viability of two common pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (DSMZ 20231 and Staphylococcus epidermidis (DSMZ 3269, and the results showed that the killing rate of the alloys against tested bacteria exceeded 90%. In summary, biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys are cytocompatible materials with adjustable mechanical and corrosion properties and show promising antibacterial activity, which indicates their potential as antibacterial biodegradable implant materials.

  19. Antibacterial phenolics from the mangrove Lumnitzera racemosa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, L.; Wahidullah, S.; PrabhaDevi

    -(4- hydroxyphenyl)-propyl-3′-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)- propionate1. This communication relates to the identification of antibacterial principle in L. racemosa which is associated with polyphenolic constituents. The efficacy of this mangrove has been studied... be necessary for a full evaluation of their practical usefulness in the field of modern medicine. Acknowledgements The authors thank Dr. S. R. Shetye, Director, NIO for his keen interest in the work. Financial support by Ministry of Earth Sciences under...

  20. Antibacterial nanofiber materials activated by light

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jesenská, S.; Plištil, L.; Kubát, Pavel; Lang, Kamil; Brožová, Libuše; Popelka, Štěpán; Szatmáry, Lórant; Mosinger, Jiří

    99A, č. 4 (2011), s. 676-683 ISSN 1549-3296 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1678 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : antibacterial nanofiber materials * photoactive * singlet oxygen Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.625, year: 2011

  1. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Noer Kasanah; Triyanto Triyanto; Drajad Sarwo Seto; Windi Amelia; Alim Isnansetyo

    2015-01-01

    Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta) are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported...

  2. Sustained availability of trimethoprim in drinking water to achieve higher plasma sulphonamide-trimethoprim antibacterial activity in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumano, H; Hernandez, L; Gutierrez, L; Bernad-Bernad, M J

    2005-02-01

    (1) In order to make trimethoprim (TMP) available to broilers throughout the day, a sustained release formulation (SRF) of the drug in the form of granules was added to the water tank that supplies drinking water. (2) Broilers were initially dosed with sulphachloropiridazine-TMP (SCP-TMP 5:1) and then further medicated throughout the day, achieving in the end a dose of 30 mg/kg each of SCP and TMP (group A). Group B received a preparation with the same dose of SCP and TMP (1:1) as group A, but administered as a single dose without the SRF of TMP. Group C received the customary SCP-TMP 5:1 preparation (30 and 6 mg/kg, respectively). Water tanks were completely consumed in 3 to 4 h. (3) Broilers were bled at different times and concentration of antibacterial activity in serum determined by correlating the composite antibacterial activity of SCP and TMP with actual concentrations of these drugs by means of a microbiological agar diffusion assay. (4) Time vs serum concentrations of activity were higher in group B; the increments in the maximum serum concentration for group B over groups A and C being 39 and 67%, respectively. (5) However, the sustained concentration of activity over time, measured as the area under the cu)rve, was highest in group A. Group B had higher values for area under the curve than group C. (6) An additional dose of TMP to achieve 30 mg/kg of both SCP and TMP improves the serum concentration of this combination over the customary 5:1 proportion. The best values for sustaining antibacterial activity were obtained using a 1:1 ratio as in group A. The use of a SRF as in group A may translate into better clinical results.

  3. What Makes a Natural Clay Antibacterial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lynda B.; Metge, David W.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Harvey, Ronald W.; Turner, Amanda G.; Prapaipong, Panjai; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T.

    2011-01-01

    Natural clays have been used in ancient and modern medicine, but the mechanism(s) that make certain clays lethal against bacterial pathogens has not been identified. We have compared the depositional environments, mineralogies, and chemistries of clays that exhibit antibacterial effects on a broad spectrum of human pathogens including antibiotic resistant strains. Natural antibacterial clays contain nanoscale (clay minerals in the bactericidal process is to buffer the aqueous pH and oxidation state to conditions that promote Fe2+ solubility. Chemical analyses of E. coli killed by aqueous leachates of an antibacterial clay show that intracellular concentrations of Fe and P are elevated relative to controls. Phosphorus uptake by the cells supports a regulatory role of polyphosphate or phospholipids in controlling Fe2+. Fenton reaction products can degrade critical cell components, but we deduce that extracellular processes do not cause cell death. Rather, Fe2+ overwhelms outer membrane regulatory proteins and is oxidized when it enters the cell, precipitating Fe3+ and producing lethal hydroxyl radicals. PMID:21413758

  4. Antibacterial Functionalization of PVD Coatings on Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Osés

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of surface treatments that incorporate silver or copper as antibacterial elements has become a common practice for a wide variety of medical devices and materials because of their effective activity against nosocomial infections. Ceramic tiles are choice materials for cladding the floors and walls of operation rooms and other hospital spaces. This study is focused on the deposition of biocide physical vapor deposition (PVD coatings on glazed ceramic tiles. The objective was to provide antibacterial activity to the surfaces without worsening their mechanical properties. Silver and copper-doped chromium nitride (CrN and titanium nitride (TiN coatings were deposited on samples of tiles. A complete characterization was carried out in order to determine the composition and structure of the coatings, as well as their topographical and mechanical properties. The distribution of Ag and Cu within the coating was analyzed using glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GD-OES and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM. Roughness, microhardness, and scratch resistance were measured for all of the combinations of coatings and dopants, as well as their wettability. Finally, tests of antibacterial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were carried out, showing that all of the doped coatings had pronounced biocide activity.

  5. Antibacterial properties of laser spinning glass nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echezarreta-López, M M; De Miguel, T; Quintero, F; Pou, J; Landin, M

    2014-12-30

    A laser-spinning technique has been used to produce amorphous, dense and flexible glass nanofibers of two different compositions with potential utility as reinforcement materials in composites, fillers in bone defects or scaffolds (3D structures) for tissue engineering. Morphological and microstructural analyses have been carried out using SEM-EDX, ATR-FTIR and TEM. Bioactivity studies allow the nanofibers with high proportion in SiO2 (S18/12) to be classified as a bioinert glass and the nanofibers with high proportion of calcium (ICIE16) as a bioactive glass. The cell viability tests (MTT) show high biocompatibility of the laser spinning glass nanofibers. Results from the antibacterial activity study carried out using dynamic conditions revealed that the bioactive glass nanofibers show a dose-dependent bactericidal effect on Sthaphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) while the bioinert glass nanofibers show a bacteriostatic effect also dose-dependent. The antibacterial activity has been related to the release of alkaline ions, the increase of pH of the medium and also the formation of needle-like aggregates of calcium phosphate at the surface of the bioactive glass nanofibers which act as a physical mechanism against bacteria. The antibacterial properties give an additional value to the laser-spinning glass nanofibers for different biomedical applications, such as treating or preventing surgery-associated infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Antibacterial Resistance in African Catfish Aquaculture: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madubuike U. ANYANWU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial resistance (AR is currently one of the greatest threats to mankind as it constitutes health crisis. Extensive use of antibacterial agents in human and veterinary medicine, and farm crops have resulted in emergence of antibacterial-resistant organisms in different environmental settings including aquaculture. Antibacterial resistance in aquaculture is a serious global concern because antibacterial resistance genes (ARGs can be transferred easily from aquaculture setting to other ecosystems and the food chain. African catfish (ACF aquaculture has increased at a phenomenal rate through a continuous process of intensification, expansion and diversification. Risk of bacterial diseases has also increased and consequently there is increased use of antibacterial agents for treatment. Antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture has huge impact on the food chain and thus represents risk to public and animal health. In “one health” approach of curbing AR, knowledge of the sources, mechanisms and magnitude of AR in ACF aquaculture and its potential impact on the food chain is important in designing and prioritizing monitoring programs that may generate data that would be relevant for performing quantitative risk assessments, implementation of antibacterial stewardship plans, and developing effective treatment strategies for the control of ACF disease and reducing risk to public health. This review provides insight on the sources, mechanisms, prevalence and impact of antibacterial resistance in ACF aquaculture environment, a setting where the impact of AR is neglected or underestimated.

  7. Towards Identify Selective Antibacterial Peptides Based on Abstracts Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana I. Barbosa-Santillán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an Identify Selective Antibacterial Peptides (ISAP approach based on abstracts meaning. Laboratories and researchers have significantly increased the report of their discoveries related to antibacterial peptides in primary publications. It is important to find antibacterial peptides that have been reported in primary publications because they can produce antibiotics of different generations that attack and destroy the bacteria. Unfortunately, researchers used heterogeneous forms of natural language to describe their discoveries (sometimes without the sequence of the peptides. Thus, we propose that learning the words meaning instead of the antibacterial peptides sequence is possible to identify and predict antibacterial peptides reported in the PubMed engine. The ISAP approach consists of two stages: training and discovering. ISAP founds that the 35% of the abstracts sample had antibacterial peptides and we tested in the updated Antimicrobial Peptide Database 2 (APD2. ISAP predicted that 45% of the abstracts had antibacterial peptides. That is, ISAP found that 810 antibacterial peptides were not classified like that, so they are not reported in APD2. As a result, this new search tool would complement the APD2 with a set of peptides that are candidates to be antibacterial. Finally, 20% of the abstracts were not semantic related to APD2.

  8. A novel solution for car traffic control based on radiometric microwave devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Denisov, Alexander; Speziale, Victor

    2014-05-01

    The significant problem of traffic in big cities, connected with huge and building up quantity of automobile cars, demands for novel strategies, based on nonconventional solutions, in order to improve system traffic control, especially at crossroads. As well known, the usual solution is based on the time relay, which requires the installation of a fixed traffic interval (signal light switching) at a crossroad; this solution is low cost, but does not account for the actual traffic conditions. Therefore, in the recent years, attention is towards to new designs, where the monitoring of the and control of traffic is carried out by using various methods including, optical, the infrared, magnetic, radar tracking, acoustical ones. In this work, we discuss the deployment of high sensitivity radiometric systems and radiometers(sensor) in the microwave range [1, 2]. In fact, the radiometer as "sensor" can provide an always updated information about the car traffic in any weather condition and in absence or low visibility conditions. In fact, the radiometric sensor detects the cars thanks to the different behavior of the car roofs which reflect the cold sky whereas the road asphalt is visible as warm object (at around outside temperature). [1] A. G. Denisov, V. P. Gorishnyak, S. E. Kuzmin et al., "Some experiments concerning resolution of 32 sensors passive 8mm wave imaging system," in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (ISSTT '09), Charlottesville, Va, USA, April 2009. [2] F. Soldovieri, A. Natale, V. Gorishnyak, A. Pavluchenko, A. Denisov, and L. Chen, "Radiometric Imaging for Monitoring and Surveillance Issues," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2013, Article ID 272561, 8 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/272561.

  9. Spatial and radiometric characterization of multi-spectrum satellite images through multi-fractal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carmelo; Tarquis, Ana M.; Zúñiga, Ignacio; Benito, Rosa M.

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have shown that vegetation indexes can be used to estimate root zone soil moisture. Earth surface images, obtained by high-resolution satellites, presently give a lot of information on these indexes, based on the data of several wavelengths. Because of the potential capacity for systematic observations at various scales, remote sensing technology extends the possible data archives from the present time to several decades back. Because of this advantage, enormous efforts have been made by researchers and application specialists to delineate vegetation indexes from local scale to global scale by applying remote sensing imagery. In this work, four band images have been considered, which are involved in these vegetation indexes, and were taken by satellites Ikonos-2 and Landsat-7 of the same geographic location, to study the effect of both spatial (pixel size) and radiometric (number of bits coding the image) resolution on these wavelength bands as well as two vegetation indexes: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). In order to do so, a multi-fractal analysis of these multi-spectral images was applied in each of these bands and the two indexes derived. The results showed that spatial resolution has a similar scaling effect in the four bands, but radiometric resolution has a larger influence in blue and green bands than in red and near-infrared bands. The NDVI showed a higher sensitivity to the radiometric resolution than EVI. Both were equally affected by the spatial resolution. From both factors, the spatial resolution has a major impact in the multi-fractal spectrum for all the bands and the vegetation indexes. This information should be taken in to account when vegetation indexes based on different satellite sensors are obtained.

  10. Results from the radiometric validation of Sentinel-3 optical sensors using natural targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougnie, Bertrand; Desjardins, Camille; Besson, Bruno; Bruniquel, Véronique; Meskini, Naceur; Nieke, Jens; Bouvet, Marc

    2016-09-01

    The recently launched SENTINEL-3 mission measures sea surface topography, sea/land surface temperature, and ocean/land surface colour with high accuracy. The mission provides data continuity with the ENVISAT mission through acquisitions by multiple sensing instruments. Two of them, OLCI (Ocean and Land Colour Imager) and SLSTR (Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer) are optical sensors designed to provide continuity with Envisat's MERIS and AATSR instruments. During the commissioning, in-orbit calibration and validation activities are conducted. Instruments are in-flight calibrated and characterized primarily using on-board devices which include diffusers and black body. Afterward, vicarious calibration methods are used in order to validate the OLCI and SLSTR radiometry for the reflective bands. The calibration can be checked over dedicated natural targets such as Rayleigh scattering, sunglint, desert sites, Antarctica, and tentatively deep convective clouds. Tools have been developed and/or adapted (S3ETRAC, MUSCLE) to extract and process Sentinel-3 data. Based on these matchups, it is possible to provide an accurate checking of many radiometric aspects such as the absolute and interband calibrations, the trending correction, the calibration consistency within the field-of-view, and more generally this will provide an evaluation of the radiometric consistency for various type of targets. Another important aspect will be the checking of cross-calibration between many other instruments such as MERIS and AATSR (bridge between ENVISAT and Sentinel-3), MODIS (bridge to the GSICS radiometric standard), as well as Sentinel-2 (bridge between Sentinel missions). The early results, based on the available OLCI and SLSTR data, will be presented and discussed.

  11. Depletion of dendritic cells enhances innate anti-bacterial host defense through modulation of phagocyte homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella E Autenrieth

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs as professional antigen-presenting cells play an important role in the initiation and modulation of the adaptive immune response. However, their role in the innate immune response against bacterial infections is not completely defined. Here we have analyzed the role of DCs and their impact on the innate anti-bacterial host defense in an experimental infection model of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye. We used CD11c-diphtheria toxin (DT mice to deplete DCs prior to severe infection with Ye. DC depletion significantly increased animal survival after Ye infection. The bacterial load in the spleen of DC-depleted mice was significantly lower than that of control mice throughout the infection. DC depletion was accompanied by an increase in the serum levels of CXCL1, G-CSF, IL-1α, and CCL2 and an increase in the numbers of splenic phagocytes. Functionally, splenocytes from DC-depleted mice exhibited an increased bacterial killing capacity compared to splenocytes from control mice. Cellular studies further showed that this was due to an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS by neutrophils. Adoptive transfer of neutrophils from DC-depleted mice into control mice prior to Ye infection reduced the bacterial load to the level of Ye-infected DC-depleted mice, suggesting that the increased number of phagocytes with additional ROS production account for the decreased bacterial load. Furthermore, after incubation with serum from DC-depleted mice splenocytes from control mice increased their bacterial killing capacity, most likely due to enhanced ROS production by neutrophils, indicating that serum factors from DC-depleted mice account for this effect. In summary, we could show that DC depletion triggers phagocyte accumulation in the spleen and enhances their anti-bacterial killing capacity upon bacterial infection.

  12. Radiometric sampling of bucked copper-nickel ores for determining chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komlev, V.N.; Eliseev, G.I.

    1978-01-01

    Presented are the results and the technique of experimental-methodical works on radiometric sampling of bucked copper-nickel ores for determining chemical composition with their selection and analysis by the neutron-gamma method and by the gamma-gamma method. The error is estimated according to the chosen conditions of sampling. It is found that the gamma-gamma method being more rapid but less accurate is applied for rapid control of ore current, whereas the neutron-gamma method is applied for quality control of ores extracted

  13. Radiometric determination of density of fresh shielding concrete (in situ) in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.

    1985-01-01

    Methods of radiometric determination of density have been in recent years elaborated in detail and successfully. But on the market no instruments are available for measuring fresh concrete when it is possible to repair inhomogeneities, if any, even before hardening, and thus to guarantee safety of biological protection of nuclear reactors. The paper describes an analog and digital radiation density meter and their application in the inspection of radiation protection concrete walls. By repairing defective, insufficiently dense locations still in the course of concrete placement it is possible to attain a laboratory quality of the concrete even under on-site conditions

  14. Use of HPLC with flow-through radiometric detection for low level environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, J.; Fackler, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    High Performance Liquid Chromatography with flow-through radiometric detection (HPLC-RAM) is increasingly becoming a standard analytical technique in pharmaceutical, agricultural and chemical industries for monitoring radiolabeled analytes. This paper focuses on the applications of this flow-through radiochromatographic technique for low level aquatic toxicology and environmental fate testing. Examples include parts per billion water, sediment/soil and fish tissue analyses using reverse phase as well as normal phase HPLC. The applications of both homogeneous (liquid) and heterogeneous (solid) flow cell scintillation counting are addressed. Compounds discussed are primarily pesticides and pharmaceuticals

  15. Radiometric titration of officinal radiopharmaceuticals using radioactive kryptonates as end-point indicators. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Dillinger, P.; Harangozo, M.; Jombik, J.

    1980-01-01

    A method for the determination of salicylic, acetylsalicylic and benzoic acids in officinal pharmaceutical based on radiometric titration with 0.1 mol.l -1 NaOH was developed. The end-point was detected with the aid of radioactive glass kryptonate. After the end-point, the excess titrant attacks the glass surface layers and this results in releasing 85 Kr, and consequently, in decreasing the radioactivity of the kryptonate employed. The radioactive kryptonate used as an indicator was prepared by the bombardment of glass with accelerated 85 Kr ions. The developed method is simple, accurate and correct. (author)

  16. Semi-infinite photocarrier radiometric model for the characterization of semiconductor wafer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xianming; Li Bincheng; Huang Qiuping

    2010-01-01

    The analytical expression is derived to describe the photocarrier radiometric (PCR) signal for a semi-infinite semiconductor wafer excited by a square-wave modulated laser. For comparative study, the PCR signals are calculated by the semi-infinite model and the finite thickness model with several thicknesses. The fitted errors of the electronic transport properties by semi-infinite model are analyzed. From these results it is evident that for thick samples or at high modulation frequency, the semiconductor can be considered as semi-infinite.

  17. THE FUTURE SPACEBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGER ENMAP: ITS IN-FLIGHT RADIOMETRIC AND GEOMETRIC CALIBRATION CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The German Aerospace Center DLR – namely the Earth Observation Center EOC and the German Space Operations Center GSOC – is responsible for the establishment of the ground segment of the future German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program. The Earth Observation Center has long lasting experiences with air- and spaceborne acquisition, processing, and analysis of hyperspectral image data. In the first part of this paper, an overview of the radiometric in-flight calibration concept including dark value measurements, deep space measurements, internal lamps measurements and sun measurements is presented. Complemented by pre-launch calibration and characterization these analyses will deliver a detailed and quantitative assessment of possible changes of spectral and radiometric characteristics of the hyperspectral instrument, e.g. due to degradation of single elements. A geometric accuracy of 100 m, which will be improved to 30 m with respect to a used reference image, if it exists, will be achieved by ground processing. Therfore, and for the required co-registration accuracy between SWIR and VNIR channels, additional to the radiometric calibration, also a geometric calibration is necessary. In the second part of this paper, the concept of the geometric calibration is presented in detail. The geometric processing of EnMAP scenes will be based on laboratory calibration results. During repeated passes over selected calibration areas images will be acquired. The update of geometric camera model parameters will be done by an adjustment using ground control points, which will be extracted by automatic image matching. In the adjustment, the improvements of the attitude angles (boresight angles, the improvements of the interior orientation (view vector and the improvements of the position data are estimated. In this paper, the improvement of the boresight angles is presented in detail as an example. The other

  18. The Future Spaceborne Hyperspectral Imager Enmap: its In-Flight Radiometric and Geometric Calibration Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M.; Müller, R.; Krawzcyk, H.; Bachmann, M.; Storch, T.; Mogulsky, V.; Hofer, S.

    2012-07-01

    The German Aerospace Center DLR - namely the Earth Observation Center EOC and the German Space Operations Center GSOC - is responsible for the establishment of the ground segment of the future German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program). The Earth Observation Center has long lasting experiences with air- and spaceborne acquisition, processing, and analysis of hyperspectral image data. In the first part of this paper, an overview of the radiometric in-flight calibration concept including dark value measurements, deep space measurements, internal lamps measurements and sun measurements is presented. Complemented by pre-launch calibration and characterization these analyses will deliver a detailed and quantitative assessment of possible changes of spectral and radiometric characteristics of the hyperspectral instrument, e.g. due to degradation of single elements. A geometric accuracy of 100 m, which will be improved to 30 m with respect to a used reference image, if it exists, will be achieved by ground processing. Therfore, and for the required co-registration accuracy between SWIR and VNIR channels, additional to the radiometric calibration, also a geometric calibration is necessary. In the second part of this paper, the concept of the geometric calibration is presented in detail. The geometric processing of EnMAP scenes will be based on laboratory calibration results. During repeated passes over selected calibration areas images will be acquired. The update of geometric camera model parameters will be done by an adjustment using ground control points, which will be extracted by automatic image matching. In the adjustment, the improvements of the attitude angles (boresight angles), the improvements of the interior orientation (view vector) and the improvements of the position data are estimated. In this paper, the improvement of the boresight angles is presented in detail as an example. The other values and combinations

  19. A radiometric mass flow probe for determining the screen overflow of potato harvesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, M.

    1976-01-01

    A radiometric conveyor balance based on the principle of gamma attenuation is described. Being independent on the electric network, it is suitable for nonstationary operation. Cesium 137 is used as radiation source. Detection is performed through a special system of halogen and ordinary counters. First tests were made under field conditions in order to determine the passing mass (potatoes and soil) and to find out the sieving capacity of the potato harvesters. The maximum throughput is about 50 tons per hour. Potatoes and soil up to about 2 tons may be weighed by means of this balance with a relative error of +- 3.5 %. (author)

  20. Radiometric and spectral calibrations of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) using principle component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Gazarik, Michael J.

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate remote sensing benefits of the high resolution Infrared radiance spectrometers will be realized with their geostationary satellite implementation in the form of imaging spectrometers. This will enable dynamic features of the atmosphere's thermodynamic fields and pollutant and greenhouse gas constituents to be observed for revolutionary improvements in weather forecasts and more accurate air quality and climate predictions. As an important step toward realizing this application objective, the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) was successfully developed under the NASA New Millennium Program, 2000-2006. The GIFTS-EDU instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The raw GIFTS interferogram measurements are radiometrically and spectrally calibrated to produce radiance spectra, which are further processed to obtain atmospheric profiles via retrieval algorithms. The radiometric calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient (260 K) and hot (286 K) temperatures. The absolute radiometric performance of the instrument is affected by several factors including the FPA off-axis effect, detector/readout electronics induced nonlinearity distortions, and fore-optics offsets. The GIFTS-EDU, being the very first imaging spectrometer to use ultra-high speed electronics to readout its large area format focal plane array detectors, operating at wavelengths as large as 15 microns, possessed non-linearity's not easily removable in the initial calibration process. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes Principle Component (PC) analysis to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts remaining after the initial radiometric calibration process, thus, further enhance the absolute calibration accuracy. This method is

  1. A study on the radiometric method for evaluating element migration from plastic packagings to its contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Eufemia Paez

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few years, problems related to food contamination by substances or elements that can be a risk to human health have became a concern, not only to government authorities, but to the general population as well. Within this context, plastic packaging can constitute a source of food contamination since plastic manufacturing processes involve the use of catalysts and different types of additives that may contain toxic elements. When food comes into contact with this packaging, components of the package may migrate to the food. In order to control the material used as food packaging, the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) in Brazil, has established boundary values of migrant substances and procedures to determine migration from plastic packagings to food. In this study the radiometric method was evaluated for element migration determination from plastic packaging to food simulating or to the food itself. This radiometric method consisted in irradiating plastic packaging samples with a thermal neutron flux from the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor in order to produce radionuclides of elements present in the packagings. The irradiated plastic was then exposed to food simulant or food for element migration. Gamma ray spectrometry was used to measure radioactivity in the simulant or food in order to quantify the migration. The food simulating types and experimental conditions were established according to the ANVISA regulations. Element migration was studied for plastic packaging used for soft drinks, drinking water, milk, dairy products, juices and fatty foods. In the instrumental neutron activation analysis of these packagings the presence of As, Cd, Cr, Co and Sb II was verified. Results obtained from the migration experiments by the radiometric method indicated that Cd, Co, Cr and Sb present in these plastics migrated to the simulant or to the food. In some packagings, the migration of only some of these elements was observed. In these cases the

  2. Vicarious Radiometric Calibration of a Multispectral Camera on Board an Unmanned Aerial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Del Pozo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Combinations of unmanned aerial platforms and multispectral sensors are considered low-cost tools for detailed spatial and temporal studies addressing spectral signatures, opening a broad range of applications in remote sensing. Thus, a key step in this process is knowledge of multi-spectral sensor calibration parameters in order to identify the physical variables collected by the sensor. This paper discusses the radiometric calibration process by means of a vicarious method applied to a high-spatial resolution unmanned flight using low-cost artificial and natural covers as control and check surfaces, respectively.

  3. Device for continuous radiometric determination of the calcium and iron content in raw slurry for cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasilewska, M.; Ostachowicz, J.; Lankosz, M.; Molodynska, W.

    1975-01-01

    The characteristic iron and calcium-K series were excited using a Cd-109 isotope source. In order to determine the calcium and iron content in dry slurry, the Compton-effect scattered radiation of the Cd-109 source in the sample was used. A numerical process was worked out which allowed the elimination of the influence of changing contents of iron and water on the results of the calcium content determinations, and a device for continuous radiometric determination of calcium and iron in raw slurry was designed and constructed. The device was installed in the cement plant 'Przyjazn' under technical measuring conditions and its applicability was tested. (orig./LH) [de

  4. Titan Density Reconstruction Using Radiometric and Cassini Attitude Control Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luis G., Jr.; Burk, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares three different methods of Titan atmospheric density reconstruction for the Titan 87 Cassini flyby. T87 was a unique flyby that provided independent Doppler radiometric measurements on the ground throughout the flyby including at Titan closest approach. At the same time, the onboard accelerometer provided an independent estimate of atmospheric drag force and density during the flyby. These results are compared with the normal method of reconstructing atmospheric density using thruster on-time and angular momentum accumulation. Differences between the estimates are analyzed and a possible explanation for the differences is evaluated.

  5. A radiometric method for the characterization of particulate processes in colloidal suspensions. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subotic, B.

    1979-01-01

    A radiometric method for the characterization of particulate processes is verified using stable hydrosols of silver iodide. Silver iodide hydrosols satisfy the conditions required for the applications of the proposed method. Comparison shows that the values for the change of particle size measured in silver iodide hydrosols by the proposed method are in excellent agreement with the values obtained by other methods on the same systems (electron microscopy, sedimentation analysis, light scattering). This shows that the proposed method is suitable for the characterization of particulate processes in colloidal suspensions. (Auth.

  6. Installation of Radiometric Sorting throughout the Cogema-Simo Mining Complex at Lodeve. [Uranium ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, J.; Winter, J.M.; Deville, P.

    1986-06-01

    The ores of Lodeve present no physical characteristics which permit an elimination of the lowest grade fractions, with the exception of the radioactivity and the radium which accompanies the uranium. The mine therefore turned to radiometric pebble-by-pebble sorting on a machine model M 17 of Ore Sorters who have a monopoly of this type of equipment; this permits an operation over a size range from 25 to 160 mm. Sampling of the deposit investigation of pebble samples, construction of the sorting plant and commissioning are described.

  7. Analysis of radiometric signal in sedimentating suspension flow in open channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zych Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses issues related to the estimation of the sedimentating solid particles average flow velocity in an open channel using radiometric methods. Due to the composition of the compound, which formed water and diatomite, received data have a very weak signal to noise ratio. In the process analysis the known determining of the solid phase transportation time delay the classical cross-correlation function is the most reliable method. The use of advanced frequency analysis based on mutual spectral density function and wavelet transform of recorded signals allows a reduction of the noise contribution.

  8. State of the art and trends of radiometric methods for measuring the mass per unit area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, R.

    1984-01-01

    The determination of the mass per unit area by means of transmission or backscattering methods is one of the traditional radioisotope applications. Microelectronics have essentially contributed to the noticeable progress achieved in the development of radiometric instruments for mass per unit area measurements. The use of microcomputers led to both a reliable solution of the main problem of processing the measured data - the correlation of the mass per unit area value with the detector signal under nonlinear calibration conditions - and a considerable increase in the efficiency of the measuring equipment

  9. Microwave synthesis and antibacterial studies of bioceramics doped with antibacterial metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Nida; Kadir, M. R. Abdul

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of zinc metal ion on the antibacterial properties of bioceramics i.e. hydroxyapatite for the protection of bacterial infections. In this paper, rapid icrowave synthesis of hydroxyapatite with different weightages of antibacterial ions zinc (2 and 4 wt%) at 850 watts via microwave irradiation method at 10 mins was reported. The synthesized bioceramics were chemically characterized using energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies. FT-IR analysis revealed the presence of Zn into HA lattices due to the increasing in the vibrational modes corresponds to phosphates and hydroxyl groups and EDAX analysis confirmed the presence of oxygen (O), calcium (Ca), phosphor (P), and zinc (Zn) in the ZnHA samples. Antibacterial studies have demonstrated that each of the Zn-bearing bioceramics samples exhibits marked antibacterial effects against Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the synthesized Zn HA bioceramics have potential to prevent the bacterial infections and can be used as bone tissue regeneration.

  10. Studies on Antibacterial Effect of The Leaves Of Phyllanthus Niruri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Statistical analysis revealed that the mean diameter zones of inhibition for gentamycin was significantly higher than those of the plant extracts at 0.05 level of probability though, 400mg/ml concentration exhibited high antibacterial activities in both extracts. This study has established the antibacterial effect of P. niruri leaves.

  11. Anti-bacterial activities and phytochemical screening of extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-bacterial activity tests were carried out using disc diffusion assay and tube dilution technique, and phytochemical screening was carried out through Thin Layer Chromatography. The crude extracts showed antibacterial effects on M. vaccae, P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis. M. vaccae was most sensitive, particularly to the ...

  12. CRISPR-Based Antibacterials: Transforming Bacterial Defense into Offense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Adrienne C

    2018-02-01

    The development of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria poses a serious worldwide health concern. CRISPR-based antibacterials are a novel and adaptable method for building an arsenal of antibacterials potentially capable of targeting any pathogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of in vitro antibacterial property of seaweeds of southeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... high antibacterial activity than other members of the algae tested in the present ... study confirmed the potential use of seaweed extracts as a source of antibacterial compounds. ... marine algae belonging to families such as Chlorphyceae .... seasons, method, organic solvents used for extraction of bioactive ...

  14. Antibacterial Activity and Mode of Action of Mentha arvensis Ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial Activity and Mode of Action of Mentha arvensis Ethanol Extract against ... the antibacterial effect of ethanol extract of Mentha arvensis against multi-drug ... Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and protein leakage from the ... A. baumannii and acts by inducing lethal cellular damage to the bacterium.

  15. Antibacterial compounds from marine Vibrionaceae isolated on a global expedition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wietz, Matthias; Månsson, Maria; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held

    2010-01-01

    known antibiotics as being responsible for the antibacterial activity; andrimid (from V. coralliilyticus) and holomycin (from P. halotolerans). Despite the isolation of already known antibiotics, our findings show that marine Vibrionaceae are a resource of antibacterial compounds and may have potential...

  16. The phytochemical, antibacterial and antioxidant activity of five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical, antibacterial and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plants against the wound infecting bacteria. ... Phytochemical analyses of the extracts were performed using thin layer chromatography (TLC). ... Antibacterial activity of the plants was evaluated using micro-dilution and bioautography methods.

  17. Antibacterial activity of the crude extract of Chinese green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of the crude extract of Chinese green tea (Camellia sinensis) on Listeria monocytogenes. TI Mbata, LU Debiao, A Saikia. Abstract. The antibacterial activity of the methanol and aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis on Listeria monocytogenes were investigated using agar-gel diffusion, paper disk ...

  18. Antibacterial action of an aqueous grape seed polyphenolic extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of a polyphenolic grape seed extract for use as a natural antibacterial agent was evaluated. Pure catechin (CS) and a previously LC-MS characterized grape seed phenolic extract (PE) were evaluated as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli and Brevibacterium linens on solid and in liquid culture media ...

  19. Economic Evaluation pf Antibacterial Usage in Ear, Nose and Throat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To carry out economic evaluation of antibacterial usage for Ear, Nose and Throat infections in a tertiary health care facility in Nigeria. Methods: Antibacterial utilisation evaluation was carried out retrospectively over one year period by reviewing 122 case notes containing 182 prescriptions of patient with Ear Nose ...

  20. Evaluation of phytochemical and antibacterial potential of Helicteres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activities of aqueous, acetone, ethanol and methanol extracts of fruits of Helicteres isora (Mororphali) were studied. The fruit aqueous extracts of H. isora showed prominent antibacterial activities against E.coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium and Proteus vulgaris; moderate activity against ...

  1. Antibacterial activities of PHU - AgNO3 nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzaru, Carmen; Danciu, M; Mihailovici, Maria-Sultana; Ciobanu, C

    2009-01-01

    Objective was to characterize the antibacterial action for six combination of PHU-AgNO 3 synthesized in 'Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi, Romania. The advantages of Ag nanoparticles are durability, heat resistant, low toxicity. Silver is known for its antibacterial qualities for a long time and has been used in medicine in topical treatment.

  2. Investigation Into The Antibacterial And Antidiarrhoeal Properties Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The water extract (WE) and ethanol extract (EE) of Psidium guava Leaf were carried out for antibacterial and antidiarrhoeal effects using patients stool and animal models. The antibacterial sensitivity tests were based on their zone of inhibition for six species of bacteria which include: Aeromonas hydrophila, ...

  3. Fumaric acid, an antibacterial component of Aloe vera L. | He ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acetoacetate fraction partitioned from Aloe vera L. showed an effective antibacterial activity against four clinically frequent pathogenic bacteria. Through a series of chromatographic methods and activity assays, one compound was obtained and it has potent antibacterial activity. Based on the data of mass spectrometry, ...

  4. Antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica L. seeds against some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Mangifera indica L. seeds was done against 41 clinically isolated and 20 standard bacterial strains. Clinical bacterial strains were isolated from different specimens like blood, urine, catheter, stool and pus. Antibacterial activity was done by agar disc diffusion method at two different ...

  5. Antibacterial activity and probiotic properties of some lactic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several lactic acid bacteria strains were screened for the production of antibacterial substances active against some pathogenic bacteria. The inhibitory mechanism was investigated and was shown to be dependant of bacteriocin production. The objective was to isolate LAB with antibacterial activity from raib and to select ...

  6. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Prosopis Juliflora (Sw.) Dc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The ethnobotanical importance of Prosopis juliflora is well-known in the folkloric system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. Although, the study related to the antibacterial potential of this plant, from Central India is scanty. Material and methods: The in vitro antibacterial activity of Prosopis juliflora ...

  7. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of the ethanolic and aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-18

    Jul 18, 2007 ... psoriasis and eczema, through to the more serious disease like leprosy, syphilis and skin cancer (Burkill,. 1985). Previous studies of the fruits of K. africana showed some antibacterial activity (Grace et al., 2002). However there is no report on the antibacterial and antifungal properties of the stem bark of this ...

  8. Antibacterial activity of some selected plants traditionally used as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of some selected plants traditionally used as medicine in Manipur. ... Hence these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of the new pharmaceuticals. Keywords: Antibacterial, human pathogens, methanolic extract, traditional medicine

  9. Zinc in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiilerich, S.

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 per cent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of proteinbinding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and α 2 -macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a α 2 -macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 per cent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 per cent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 per cent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 per cent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin. (author)

  10. Antibacterial properties and toxicity from metallic nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimbela GV

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gina V Vimbela,1,* Sang M Ngo,2,* Carolyn Fraze,3 Lei Yang,4,5 David A Stout5–7 1Department of Chemical Engineering, 2Department of Electrical Engineering, California State University, Long Beach, CA, 3Brigham Young University Idaho, Rexburg, ID, USA; 4Department of Orthopaedics, Orthopaedic Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, 5International Research Center for Translational Orthopaedics (IRCTO, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China; 6Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 7Department of Biomedical Engineering, California State University, Long Beach, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The era of antibiotic resistance is a cause of increasing concern as bacteria continue to develop adaptive countermeasures against current antibiotics at an alarming rate. In recent years, studies have reported nanoparticles as a promising alternative to antibacterial reagents because of their exhibited antibacterial activity in several biomedical applications, including drug and gene delivery, tissue engineering, and imaging. Moreover, nanomaterial research has led to reports of a possible relationship between the morphological characteristics of a nanomaterial and the magnitude of its delivered toxicity. However, conventional synthesis of nanoparticles requires harsh chemicals and costly energy consumption. Additionally, the exact relationship between toxicity and morphology of nanomaterials has not been well established. Here, we review the recent advancements in synthesis techniques for silver, gold, copper, titanium, zinc oxide, and magnesium oxide nanomaterials and composites, with a focus on the toxicity exhibited by nanomaterials of multidimensions. This article highlights the benefits of selecting each material or metal-based composite for certain applications while also addressing possible setbacks and the toxic effects of the nanomaterials on the environment. Keywords

  11. Antibacterial characteristics of thermal plasma spray system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, M; Saviz, Sh; Ghoranneviss, M; Salar Elahi, A

    2018-03-15

    The objective of this study is to investigate antibacterial characteristics of a thermal plasma spray system. For this purpose, copper powder was coated on a handmade atmospheric plasma spraying system made by the stainless steel 316 substrate, which is preheated at different temperatures before spraying. A number of deposition characteristics such as antibacterial characteristics, adhesion strength and hardness of coating, was investigated. All of the spray parameters are fixed except the substrate temperature. The chemical composition was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and back scattering electron microscopy (BSE) were used to show the coating microstructure, its thickness and also the powder micrograph. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) was used to analyze the coating particles. Hardness of the deposition was examined by Vickers tester (HV0.1). Its adhesion strength was declared by cross cut tester (TQC). In addition, the percentage of bactericidal coating was evidenced with Staphylococcus aurous and Escherichia coli bacteria. Study results show that as the substrates temperature increases, the number of splats in the shape of pancake increases, the greatness and percentage of the deposition porosity both decrease. The increment of the substrate temperature leads to more oxidation and makes thicker dendrites on the splat. The enhancement of the substrate temperature also enlarges thickness and efficiency of coating. The interesting results are that antibacterial properties of coatings against the Escherichia coli are more than Staphylococcus aurous bacteria. However the bactericidal percentage of the coatings against Staphylococcus aurous and Escherichia coli bacteria roughly does not change with increasing the substrate temperature. Furthermore, by increment of the substrate temperature, coatings with both high adhesion and hardness are obtained. Accordingly, the temperature of substrate can be an

  12. Trace elements and antibacterial activity in amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkonen, E; Näntö, V; Hyörä, H; Vuorinen, K; Erkkola, R

    1986-01-01

    Antibacterial activity and trace element concentrations in amniotic fluid (AF) were determined in a population of 39 pregnant women in the second half of gestation. Antibacterial activity in each AF was measured by a spectrophotometric micromethod after 18 h incubation at 37 degrees C using Escherichia coli K 12 as a reference bacterium. Concentrations of zinc, iron, copper, calcium, potassium and bromine were measured by particle-induced X-ray emission method and the zinc concentration was also measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Phosphate concentration was determined by direct albumin adding method. In AFs with good antibacterial activity significantly lower concentrations of potassium and bromine were found when compared to AFs with lower antibacterial activity. Concentrations of zinc, iron, copper, calcium or phosphate did not correlate with antibacterial activity in AF.

  13. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Sfeir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred.

  14. Carbon nanotubes as anti-bacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Teodora; Matea, Cristian T; Pop, Teodora; Mosteanu, Ofelia; Buzoianu, Anca Dana; Suciu, Soimita; Puia, Cosmin; Zdrehus, Claudiu; Iancu, Cornel; Mocan, Lucian

    2017-10-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections that have evolved via natural selection have increased alarmingly at a global level. Thus, there is a strong need for the development of novel antibiotics for the treatment of these infections. Functionalized carbon nanotubes through their unique properties hold great promise in the fight against multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. This new family of nanovectors for therapeutic delivery proved to be innovative and efficient for the transport and cellular translocation of therapeutic molecules. The current review examines the latest progress in the antibacterial activity of carbon nanotubes and their composites.

  15. Analysis of Properties of Reflectance Reference Targets for Permanent Radiometric Test Sites of High Resolution Airborne Imaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eero Ahokas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and optimal exploitation of rapidly developing airborne imaging methods requires geometric and radiometric quality assurance of production systems in operational conditions. Permanent test sites are the most promising approach for cost-efficient performance assessment. Optimal construction of permanent radiometric test sites for high resolution airborne imaging systems is an unresolved issue. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of commercially available gravels and painted and unpainted concrete targets for permanent, open-air radiometric test sites under sub-optimal climate conditions in Southern Finland. The reflectance spectrum and reflectance anisotropy and their stability were characterized during the summer of 2009. The management of reflectance anisotropy and stability were shown to be the key issues for better than 5% reflectance accuracy.

  16. Environmental radiometric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeta C, R.

    1986-07-01

    This document stresses the importance of measuring the radioactivity of the environment in order to evaluate the radiological exposure of the population. The document emphasizes the necessity of detecting very low levels of radioactivity and the difficulties that it implies. The various components of its basis and the means for its reduction are mentioned. Information on the instruments required to identify and quantify the activities of the different radionuclides is given

  17. METAL OXIDE DOPED ANTIBACTERIAL POLYMERIC COATED TEXTILE MATERIALS AND ASSESSEMENT OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY WITH ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEDIK Gorkem

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of a food conveyor belt is an essential property in some cases. However, every antibacterial chemical is not suitable to contact with food materials. Many metal oxides are suitable option for this purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate antibacterial properties of zinc oxide doped PVC polymer coated with electron spin resonance technique. Therefore, optimum zinc oxide containing PVC paste was prepared and applied to textile surface. Coating construction was designed as double layered, first layer did not contain antibacterial agent, thin second layer contained zinc oxide at 10-35% concentration. Oxygen radicals released from zinc oxide containing polymeric coated surface were spin trapped with DMPO (dimethylpyrroline-N-oxide spin trap and measured with Electron Spin Resonance (ESR. Besides conveyor belt samples, oxygen radical release from zinc oxide surface was measured with ESR under UV light and dark conditions. Oxygen radical release was determined even at dark conditions. Antibacterial properties were tested with ISO 22196 standard using Listeria innocua species. Measured antibacterial properties were related with ESR results. Higher concentration of zinc oxide resulted in higher antibacterial efficiency. DCFH-DA flourometric assay was carried out to determine oxidative stress insidebacteria. It is tought that, this technique will lead to decrease on the labour and time needed for conventional antibacterial tests.

  18. Radiometric probe design for the measurement of heat flux within a solid rocket motor nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldey, Charles L.; Laughlin, William T.; Popper, Leslie A.

    1996-11-01

    Improvements to solid rocket motor (SRM) nozzle designs and material performance is based on the ability to instrument motors during test firings to understand the internal combustion processes and the response of nozzle components to the severe heating environment. Measuring the desired parameters is very difficult because the environment inside of an SRM is extremely severe. Instrumentation can be quickly destroyed if exposed to the internal rocket motor environment. An optical method is under development to quantify the heating of the internal nozzle surface. A radiometric probe designed for measuring the thermal response and material surface recession within a nozzle while simultaneously confining the combustion products has been devised and demonstrated. As part of the probe design, optical fibers lead to calibrated detectors that measure the interior nozzle thermal response. This two color radiometric measurement can be used for a direct determination of the total heat flux impinging on interior nozzle surfaces. This measurement has been demonstrated using a high power CO2 laser to simulate SRM nozzle heating conditions on carbon phenolic and graphite phenolic materials.

  19. Ten years of radiometric monitoring in water samples in Uruguay potables plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perruni, P.

    2000-01-01

    The work exposes the summary of having been radiometrics obtained during the last 10 years in several water treatment plants of the national territory, with the purpose of determining if in the total dose to the one that this exposed one naturally the population of the country, is important the contribution of polluting radioactives in the drinkable water, in function of the geographical area and the time of the year. The investigation is framed inside the Program of Control Radiometrics of Products of Fission in waters, floors, foods and aerosols of the Uruguay developed by the Radiochemistry Department, of the Nuclear Research Center, Montevideo (UY) The samples of water filter, they process and they analyze according to laboratory protocols, had duplicated by each plant, parallel with radio-active, white bottom measures and standards. The results net average obtained for each factory, gave below the one it limits of detection: 2 BQ/Kg for geometry Marinelli and 0.02 BQ/g for plane geometry, with 99,3% of dependability (standard 3 deviations), very below the maximum values admitted by International Organisms (WHO, FAO, ICRP) [es

  20. The importance of geoprocessing tools in radiometric monitoring of large areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Danila Carrijo da Silva [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da; Alberti, Heber Luiz Caponi; Guerrero, Eder Tadeu Zenun, E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: edertzg@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas

    2011-07-01

    Throughout history, the natural tendency of men to physically characterize their different surroundings has played an important role on the evolution of societies. Today, that tendency combined to the development of computer technologies, has allowed the accelerated growth of the Geographical Information Systems, which permits the analysis and manipulation of spatial data from diverse sources, producing geo referenced databases. The gamma radiation, one of the main contributors of human exposure to natural radiation, is known for its high penetration energy. Today, the environmental gamma radiation is measured through radiometric tracking mobile units, allowing large scale samplings and precise assessments. As a geo processing case study, a radiometric monitoring work was conducted in the town of Aguas da Prata-SP using a tracking mobile system, composed by a scintillator detector, a GPS and a computer, all installed in a vehicle. The data made of collected points and their respective doses and geographical references were captured and stored in a computer software and then inserted and treated in a GIS environment. After a cartographic base was created using a digitalized map of Aguas da Prata, the sampled points were plotted and interpolated with the cartographic base, producing two maps that demonstrate the tracking route and the gamma radiation dose range throughout the monitored area. Geo processing tools have shown great efficiency in this study, allowing agile manipulation and management of a large quantity of data, thus promoting a spatial analysis of natural radiation levels in the studied region. (author)

  1. METHOD OF RADIOMETRIC DISTORTION CORRECTION OF MULTISPECTRAL DATA FOR THE EARTH REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Grigoriev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with technologies of ground secondary processing of heterogeneous multispectral data. The factors of heterogeneous data include uneven illumination of objects on the Earth surface caused by different properties of the relief. A procedure for the image restoration of spectral channels by means of terrain distortion compensation is developed. The object matter of this paper is to improve the quality of the results during image restoration of areas with large and medium landforms. Methods. Researches are based on the elements of the digital image processing theory, statistical processing of the observation results and the theory of multi-dimensional arrays. Main Results. The author has introduced operations on multidimensional arrays: concatenation and elementwise division. Extended model description for input data about the area is given. The model contains all necessary data for image restoration. Correction method for multispectral data radiometric distortions of the Earth remote sensing has been developed. The method consists of two phases: construction of empirical dependences for spectral reflectance on the relief properties and restoration of spectral images according to semiempirical data. Practical Relevance. Research novelty lies in developme nt of the application theory of multidimensional arrays with respect to the processing of multispectral data, together with data on the topography and terrain objects. The results are usable for development of radiometric data correction tools. Processing is performed on the basis of a digital terrain model without carrying out ground works connected with research of the objects reflective properties.

  2. Determining total sulfur content in coal by MSC radiometric sulfur meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerw, B; Sikora, T; Golebiowski, W

    1976-01-01

    The MSC radiometric sulfur meter is used to determine total sulfur content in brown and black coals. Sulfur content is determined by measuring intensity of radiation beam which has travelled through a coal sample with the optimum constant surface mass. Construction of the MSC, consisting of a measuring head and the electronic measuring system, is shown in a scheme. AM-241 (with activity of 50 mCi) is the source of radiation. Energy of 25.3 keV (tin disc) is selected as the optimum. The SSU-70 probe with NaJ/Tl crystal is the radiation detector. The black coal sample weighs 10 g and the brown coal sample weighs 18 g. Duration of sulfur determination is 10 min. Error of sulfur determination ranges from plus or minus 0.2% to 0.3%. The results of operational tests of MSC radiometric sulfur meters in black and brown coal mines are discussed. Accuracy of measurement is shown in 5 tables. (8 refs.)

  3. The moon as a radiometric reference source for on-orbit sensor stability calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    The wealth of data generated by the world's Earth-observing satellites, now spanning decades, allows the construction of long-term climate records. A key consideration for detecting climate trends is precise quantification of temporal changes in sensor calibration on-orbit. For radiometer instruments in the solar reflectance wavelength range (near-UV to shortwave-IR), the Moon can be viewed as a solar diffuser with exceptional stability properties. A model for the lunar spectral irradiance that predicts the geometric variations in the Moon's brightness with ???1% precision has been developed at the U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff, AZ. Lunar model results corresponding to a series of Moon observations taken by an instrument can be used to stabilize sensor calibration with sub-percent per year precision, as demonstrated by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The inherent stability of the Moon and the operational model to utilize the lunar irradiance quantity provide the Moon as a reference source for monitoring radiometric calibration in orbit. This represents an important capability for detecting terrestrial climate change from space-based radiometric measurements.

  4. Radiometric research in soils cultivated with sugar cane in Pernambuco - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Junior, Otavio P. dos; Santos Junior, Jose A. dos; Amaral, Romilton dos S.; Menezes, Romulo S.C.; Santos, Josineide M.N. dos; Silva, Arykerne N.C. da; Fernandez, Zahily H.; Rojas, Lino A.V.; Damascena, Kennedy F.R.; Silva, Rafael R.; Milan, Marvic O., E-mail: rodriguesrs19@gmail.com, E-mail: otavio.santos@vitoria.ifpe.edu.br, E-mail: lino.valcarcel@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil); Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba); Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas Quinta de los Molinos, La Habana (Cuba)

    2017-11-01

    The state of Pernambuco is representative of Northeastern Brazil, with respect to the variability of climatic conditions, soil types, soil cover, as well as land use. The state is subdivided into five regions: Recife Metropolitan Region, Sao Francisco, Sertao, Agreste and Zona da Mata (Atlantic Forest Region). Each region presents peculiar climatic and economic activities. The Atlantic Forest region, the focus of this study, presents a humid tropical climate and is characterized by large farms and the monoculture of sugarcane. In this scenario, a radioecological investigation was carried out to determine the radiometric potential from the analysis of forty-five soil samples, collected in five soil profiles, to a depth of 60 cm. A non-destructive method was adopted for the radiometric analysis, using High- Resolution Gamma Spectrometry with an HPGe-Be type detector. This method allowed the determination of specific activities of U-238, Th-232 and K-40 in the soil samples. The results will be used as a basis for the determination of a reference value for the natural radioactivity of these soils, to predict the existence of possible environmental impacts resulting from their use for the cultivation of sugar cane, as well as to contribute to guarantee the safety of food crops cultivated in this region. (author)

  5. PTB’s radiometric scales for UV and VUV source calibration based on synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Roman; Kroth, Simone; Paustian, Wolfgang; Richter, Mathias; Thornagel, Reiner

    2018-06-01

    The radiant intensity of synchrotron radiation can be accurately calculated with classical electrodynamics. This primary realization of the spectral radiant intensity has been used by PTB at several electron storage rings which have been optimized to be operated as primary source standards for the calibration of transfer sources in the spectral range of UV and VUV for almost 30 years. The transfer sources are compared to the primary source standard by means of suitable wavelength-dispersive transfer stations. The spectral range covered by deuterium lamps, which represent transfer sources that are easy to handle, is of particular relevance in practice. Here, we report on developments in the realization and preservation of the radiometric scales for spectral radiant intensity and spectral radiance in the wavelength region from 116 nm to 400 nm, based on a set of deuterium reference lamps, over the last few decades. An inside view and recommendations on the operation of the D2 lamps used for the realization of the radiometric scale are presented. The data has been recently compiled to illustrate the chronological behaviour at various wavelengths. Moreover, an overview of the internal and external validation measurements and intercomparisons is given.

  6. Thermal Infrared Radiometric Calibration of the Entire Landsat 4, 5, and 7 Archive (1982-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, John R.; Hook, Simon J.; Barsi, Julia A.; Markham, Brian L.; Miller, Jonathan; Padula, Francis P.; Raqueno, Nina G.

    2012-01-01

    Landsat's continuing record of the thermal state of the earth's surface represents the only long term (1982 to the present) global record with spatial scales appropriate for human scale studies (i.e., tens of meters). Temperature drives many of the physical and biological processes that impact the global and local environment. As our knowledge of, and interest in, the role of temperature on these processes have grown, the value of Landsat data to monitor trends and process has also grown. The value of the Landsat thermal data archive will continue to grow as we develop more effective ways to study the long term processes and trends affecting the planet. However, in order to take proper advantage of the thermal data, we need to be able to convert the data to surface temperatures. A critical step in this process is to have the entire archive completely and consistently calibrated into absolute radiance so that it can be atmospherically compensated to surface leaving radiance and then to surface radiometric temperature. This paper addresses the methods and procedures that have been used to perform the radiometric calibration of the earliest sizable thermal data set in the archive (Landsat 4 data). The completion of this effort along with the updated calibration of the earlier (1985 1999) Landsat 5 data, also reported here, concludes a comprehensive calibration of the Landsat thermal archive of data from 1982 to the present

  7. Radiometric research in soils cultivated with sugar cane in Pernambuco - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Junior, Otavio P. dos; Santos Junior, Jose A. dos; Amaral, Romilton dos S.; Menezes, Romulo S.C.; Santos, Josineide M.N. dos; Silva, Arykerne N.C. da; Fernandez, Zahily H.; Rojas, Lino A.V.; Damascena, Kennedy F.R.; Silva, Rafael R.; Milan, Marvic O.

    2017-01-01

    The state of Pernambuco is representative of Northeastern Brazil, with respect to the variability of climatic conditions, soil types, soil cover, as well as land use. The state is subdivided into five regions: Recife Metropolitan Region, Sao Francisco, Sertao, Agreste and Zona da Mata (Atlantic Forest Region). Each region presents peculiar climatic and economic activities. The Atlantic Forest region, the focus of this study, presents a humid tropical climate and is characterized by large farms and the monoculture of sugarcane. In this scenario, a radioecological investigation was carried out to determine the radiometric potential from the analysis of forty-five soil samples, collected in five soil profiles, to a depth of 60 cm. A non-destructive method was adopted for the radiometric analysis, using High- Resolution Gamma Spectrometry with an HPGe-Be type detector. This method allowed the determination of specific activities of U-238, Th-232 and K-40 in the soil samples. The results will be used as a basis for the determination of a reference value for the natural radioactivity of these soils, to predict the existence of possible environmental impacts resulting from their use for the cultivation of sugar cane, as well as to contribute to guarantee the safety of food crops cultivated in this region. (author)

  8. SENSOR CORRECTION AND RADIOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF A 6-BAND MULTISPECTRAL IMAGING SENSOR FOR UAV REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kelcey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The increased availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs has resulted in their frequent adoption for a growing range of remote sensing tasks which include precision agriculture, vegetation surveying and fine-scale topographic mapping. The development and utilisation of UAV platforms requires broad technical skills covering the three major facets of remote sensing: data acquisition, data post-processing, and image analysis. In this study, UAV image data acquired by a miniature 6-band multispectral imaging sensor was corrected and calibrated using practical image-based data post-processing techniques. Data correction techniques included dark offset subtraction to reduce sensor noise, flat-field derived per-pixel look-up-tables to correct vignetting, and implementation of the Brown- Conrady model to correct lens distortion. Radiometric calibration was conducted with an image-based empirical line model using pseudo-invariant features (PIFs. Sensor corrections and radiometric calibration improve the quality of the data, aiding quantitative analysis and generating consistency with other calibrated datasets.

  9. Stationary point of the radiometric control of cesium contamination of agricultural animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Stationary point of the radiometric control of cesium contamination of an agricultural animals. Is intended for vital measurements of the contents of radiocesium in muscular tissue of a cattle. Can be used on cattle-breeding farms, providing points, in meat factories and personal facilities. As a base means for accommodation of the control point the motor-car is used. Design of the car allows to automate operations on deployment of the control point on a place and translation of one to a transport mode. Limits of measured specific activity of cesium contamination of a cattle is up 5*10 -9 to 5*10 -6 Ci/kg. The basic error on the bottom limit of measurement at confidence coefficient 0,95 is no more than 30%. Measurement time for the bottom limit of determined specific activity is no more than 30 s. There is automatic measurement mode. Type of a power is 220 V, 50 Hz. Range of working temperatures is up -15 to +35 centigrade. Relative humidity is no more than 98% at 25 centigrade. External gamma background is till 0.035 mR/h. Time of installation and dismantle of stationary control point is no more than 1,5 hours. The direct radiometric control in divo allows to fulfil and to use biotechnological process of removing of cesium isotopes from body of animals for decrease of levels of radioactive contamination

  10. An in vitro study of dental enamel wear by restorative materials using radiometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Lena Katekawa

    2000-01-01

    There is an increasing demand and interest to study the dental materials wear as well as about the abrasion effect on antagonistic teeth. Due to the fact that the existent restorative materials have no specifications about their abrasiveness, it is necessary the establishment of degrees of comparison among them to support clinical application. In this work, the radiometric method was applied to study the enamel wear caused by another enamel and by restorative materials (Ceramco II, Noritake and Finesse porcelains, Artglass and Targis). The dental enamel made radioactive by irradiation at the IEA-R1m nuclear research reactor under a thermal neutron flux was submitted to wear in a machine which allows sliding motion of an antagonistic surface in contact with this radioactive enamel. The enamel wear was evaluated by measuring beta activity of 32 P transferred to water from this irradiated tooth. Results obtained indicated that dental porcelains cause pronounced enamel wear when compared with that provoked by another enamel or by resin materials. Resin materials caused less enamel wear than another enamel. Vickers microhardness data obtained for antagonistic materials showed a correlation with the wear caused to the enamel. This study allowed to conclude that the radiometric method proposed can be used satisfactorily in the evaluation of enamel wear by restorative materials. This method presents advantages due to quick responses and ease of analyses There is (author)

  11. Study of the use of a Phoswich detector for aerial radiometric surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneid, E.J.; Lagin, L.J.

    1981-09-01

    Large volume, actively shielded Phoswich detector configurations were investigated for application in airborne radiometric survey systems in order to increase the sensitivity to ground-level potassium, uranium, and thorium compared to conventional NaI detectors of similar sizes. One Phoswich configuration was fabricated and flight tested. The flight measurements with the Phoswich detector and a conventional NaI detector utilized the Bendix Field Engineering Corporation - US Department of Energy/Grand Junction Office Walker Field Aerial Radiometric Survey Calibration Facility, the DOE dynamic test range, and a region in the southwest portion of the Lubbock, Texas, Quadrangle. The tests demonstrated that the Phoswich detector can function in an operational environment and does provide greater sensitivity to ground-level potassium, uranium, and thorium concentration than the conventional NaI detector. The multicrystal configuration for the Phoswich detector provided the capability to simultaneously measure the atmospheric radon background without the need of heavy lead shields. The flight tests indicated that the Phoswich detector has directional discrimination capability not available with conventional NaI detector systems. This directional capability can be used to distinguish the location, relative to the aircraft, of localized strong sources of radiation

  12. Comparison of digital radiometric features between radicular cysts and periapical granulomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Yeon Hwa; Lee, Keon Il

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a radiometric analysis of radicular cysts and periapical granulomas is useful in the differential diagnosis. In this experiment, twenty-nine periapical radiographs of the radicular cyst and those periapical granuloma were used. The periapical radiography was taken by intraoral paralleling device. The X-ray film was digitized and digitally filtered to reduce film-grain noise. We estimated density difference of the inner/outer area, roundness or circularity, bone profile or scan line of the margin and cumulative percentage frequency curve of radicular cyst and periapical granuloma.The obtained results were as follows ; 1. The differences in density between ROIs of inner and outer area of radicular cysts were smaller than those of periapical granulomas.2. The equivalent circular diameter was over 6.3 mm, there was significant difference between periapical cyst and periapical granuloma.3. In differential diagnosis of radicular cyst and periapical granuloma using bone profile, sensitivity, spicificity and accuracy were considerably high (0.83, 0.86, 0.86) respectively.4. Cumulative percentage frequency curve of the radicular cyst was closer to the pseudo-pixel value of 50 than average curve, whereas periapical granuloma was closer to that of 0. Hence we conclude that digital radiometric features might be useful in the differential diagnosis between radicular cyst and periapical granuloma.

  13. Comparison of digital radiometric features between radicular cysts and periapical granulomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Yeon Hwa; Lee, Keon Il [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Wankwang University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a radiometric analysis of radicular cysts and periapical granulomas is useful in the differential diagnosis. In this experiment, twenty-nine periapical radiographs of the radicular cyst and those periapical granuloma were used. The periapical radiography was taken by intraoral paralleling device. The X-ray film was digitized and digitally filtered to reduce film-grain noise. We estimated density difference of the inner/outer area, roundness or circularity, bone profile or scan line of the margin and cumulative percentage frequency curve of radicular cyst and periapical granuloma.The obtained results were as follows ; 1. The differences in density between ROIs of inner and outer area of radicular cysts were smaller than those of periapical granulomas.2. The equivalent circular diameter was over 6.3 mm, there was significant difference between periapical cyst and periapical granuloma.3. In differential diagnosis of radicular cyst and periapical granuloma using bone profile, sensitivity, spicificity and accuracy were considerably high (0.83, 0.86, 0.86) respectively.4. Cumulative percentage frequency curve of the radicular cyst was closer to the pseudo-pixel value of 50 than average curve, whereas periapical granuloma was closer to that of 0. Hence we conclude that digital radiometric features might be useful in the differential diagnosis between radicular cyst and periapical granuloma.

  14. The radiometric performances of the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer for Mars exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, E.; Colangeli, L.; Formisano, V.; Piccioni, G.; Cafaro, N.; Moroz, V.

    1999-04-01

    The Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) is a Fourier transform interferometer, operating in the range 1.2-45 μm. The instrument, previously included in the payload of the failed mission Mars ‧96, is proposed for the future space mission Mars Express, under study by ESA. The present paper is aimed at presenting the radiometric performances of PFS. The two channels (LW and SW) forming PFS were analysed and characterised in terms of sensitivity and noise equivalent brightness. To cover the wide spectral range of PFS, different blackbodies were used for calibration. The built-in blackbodies, needed for the in-flight calibrations, were also characterised. The results show that the LW channel is comparable with IRIS Mariner 9 in terms of noise equivalent brightness. The SW channel performances, while satisfactorily, could be improved by lowering the sensor operative temperature. A simple model of the Mars radiance is used in order to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio on the spectra in typical observation conditions. The computed signal-to-noise ratio for the LW channel varies between 430 and 40, while for the SW channel it ranges from 150 to 30. The radiometric analyses confirm that PFS performances are compliant with the design requirements of the instrument. PFS is fully validated for future remote exploration of the atmosphere and the surface of Mars.

  15. The importance of geoprocessing tools in radiometric monitoring of large areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Danila Carrijo da Silva; Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da; Alberti, Heber Luiz Caponi; Guerrero, Eder Tadeu Zenun

    2011-01-01

    Throughout history, the natural tendency of men to physically characterize their different surroundings has played an important role on the evolution of societies. Today, that tendency combined to the development of computer technologies, has allowed the accelerated growth of the Geographical Information Systems, which permits the analysis and manipulation of spatial data from diverse sources, producing geo referenced databases. The gamma radiation, one of the main contributors of human exposure to natural radiation, is known for its high penetration energy. Today, the environmental gamma radiation is measured through radiometric tracking mobile units, allowing large scale samplings and precise assessments. As a geo processing case study, a radiometric monitoring work was conducted in the town of Aguas da Prata-SP using a tracking mobile system, composed by a scintillator detector, a GPS and a computer, all installed in a vehicle. The data made of collected points and their respective doses and geographical references were captured and stored in a computer software and then inserted and treated in a GIS environment. After a cartographic base was created using a digitalized map of Aguas da Prata, the sampled points were plotted and interpolated with the cartographic base, producing two maps that demonstrate the tracking route and the gamma radiation dose range throughout the monitored area. Geo processing tools have shown great efficiency in this study, allowing agile manipulation and management of a large quantity of data, thus promoting a spatial analysis of natural radiation levels in the studied region. (author)

  16. Applications of high resolution airborne magnetic and radiometric data in the Barberton Greenstone Belt of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C.

    1994-01-01

    We investigated the data obtained from a geophysical survey of the Greenstone Belt in the Barberton mountain land in the Transvaal, South Africa. A geological map is derived from the airborne magnetic and radiometric survey which differs significantly from the published geological map, particularly in the eastern are of the survey. There is no evidence contained within the geological data to suggest that the Greenstone Belt extends to a depth greater that 3 kilometers. The major geological constituents of the Barberton mountain land displays distinctive and diagnostic radiometric signatures, enabling accurate lithologic discrimination. 63 refs

  17. Silver Nanoparticles as Potential Antibacterial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Franci

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-drug resistance is a growing problem in the treatment of infectious diseases and the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics has produced antibiotic resistance for many human bacterial pathogens. Advances in nanotechnology have opened new horizons in nanomedicine, allowing the synthesis of nanoparticles that can be assembled into complex architectures. Novel studies and technologies are devoted to understanding the mechanisms of disease for the design of new drugs, but unfortunately infectious diseases continue to be a major health burden worldwide. Since ancient times, silver was known for its anti-bacterial effects and for centuries it has been used for prevention and control of disparate infections. Currently nanotechnology and nanomaterials are fully integrated in common applications and objects that we use every day. In addition, the silver nanoparticles are attracting much interest because of their potent antibacterial activity. Many studies have also shown an important activity of silver nanoparticles against bacterial biofilms. This review aims to summarize the emerging efforts to address current challenges and solutions in the treatment of infectious diseases, particularly the use of nanosilver antimicrobials.

  18. Antibacterial Nanoparticles in Endodontics: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Annie; Kishen, Anil

    2016-10-01

    A major challenge in root canal treatment is the inability of the current cleaning and shaping procedures to eliminate bacterial biofilms surviving within the anatomic complexities and uninstrumented portions of the root canal system. Nanoparticles with their enhanced and unique physicochemical properties, such as ultrasmall sizes, large surface area/mass ratio, and increased chemical reactivity, have led research toward new prospects of treating and preventing dental infections. This article presents a comprehensive review on the scientific knowledge that is available on the application of antibacterial nanoparticles in endodontics. The application of nanoparticles in the form of solutions for irrigation, medication, and as an additive within sealers/restorative materials has been evaluated to primarily improve the antibiofilm efficacy in root canal and restorative treatments. In addition, antibiotic or photosensitizer functionalized nanoparticles have been proposed recently to provide more potent antibacterial efficacy. The increasing interest in this field warrants sound research based on scientific and clinical collaborations to emphasize the near future potential of nanoparticles in clinical endodontics. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quaternary Ammonium Polyethyleneimine: Antibacterial Activity Ira

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, Y.; Domb, A.G.; Golenser, J.; Beyth, N.; Weiss, E.I.

    2010-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium polyethyleneimine- (QA-PEI-) based nanoparticles were synthesized using two synthetic methods, reductive amination and N-alkylation. According to the first method, QA-PEI nanoparticles were synthesized by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde followed by reductive amination with octanal and further N-methylation with methyl iodide. The second method is based on crosslinking with dialkyl halide followed by N-alkylation with octyl halide and further N-methylation with methyl iodide. QA-PEI nanoparticles completely inhibited bacterial growth (>106 bacteria), including both Gram-positive, that is, Staphylococcus aureus at 80 μ/mL, and Gram-negative, that is, Escherichia coli at 320 μ/mL. Activity analysis revealed that the degree of alkylation and N-methylation of the QA-PEI nanoparticles plays a significant role in antibacterial activity of the reagent. The most potent compound was octyl alkylated QA-PEI alkylated at 1 : 1 mole ratio (primary amine of PEI monomer units/alkylating agent). Also, cytotoxicity studies on MAT-LyLu and MBT cell lines were performed with QA-PEI nanoparticles. These findings confirm previous reports that poly cations bearing quaternary ammonium moieties inhibit bacterial growth in vitro and have a potential use as additives in medical devices which need antibacterial properties.

  20. Silver nanoparticles as potential antibacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franci, Gianluigi; Falanga, Annarita; Galdiero, Stefania; Palomba, Luciana; Rai, Mahendra; Morelli, Giancarlo; Galdiero, Massimiliano

    2015-05-18

    Multi-drug resistance is a growing problem in the treatment of infectious diseases and the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics has produced antibiotic resistance for many human bacterial pathogens. Advances in nanotechnology have opened new horizons in nanomedicine, allowing the synthesis of nanoparticles that can be assembled into complex architectures. Novel studies and technologies are devoted to understanding the mechanisms of disease for the design of new drugs, but unfortunately infectious diseases continue to be a major health burden worldwide. Since ancient times, silver was known for its anti-bacterial effects and for centuries it has been used for prevention and control of disparate infections. Currently nanotechnology and nanomaterials are fully integrated in common applications and objects that we use every day. In addition, the silver nanoparticles are attracting much interest because of their potent antibacterial activity. Many studies have also shown an important activity of silver nanoparticles against bacterial biofilms. This review aims to summarize the emerging efforts to address current challenges and solutions in the treatment of infectious diseases, particularly the use of nanosilver antimicrobials.

  1. Five Ochna species have high antibacterial activity and more than ten antibacterial compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus N. Eloff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New measures to control infections in humans and other animals are continuously being sought because of the increasing resistance of bacteria to antibiotics. In a wide tree screening survey of the antimicrobial activity of extracts of tree leaves (www.up.ac.za/phyto, Ochna pulchra, a small tree found widely in southern Africa, had good antibacterial activity. We therefore investigated the antibacterial activity of acetone leaf extracts of some other available Ochna spp. Antibacterial activity and the number of antibacterial compounds in acetone leaf extracts of Ochna natalitia, Ochna pretoriensis, O. pulchra, Ochna gamostigmata and Ochna serullata were determined with a tetrazolium violet serial microplate dilution assay and bioautography against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, bacteria commonly associated with nosocomial infections. The percentage yields of the extracts varied from 2.5% to 8%. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the five species ranged from 40 µg/mL to 1250 µg/mL. E. coli was sensitive to all the extracts. The O. pretoriensis extract was the most active with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.065 mg/mL and 0.039 mg/mL against E. coli and E. faecalis, respectively. The O. pretoriensis extract also had the highest total activities of 923 mL/g and 1538 mL/g, indicating that the acetone extract from 1 g of dried plant material could be diluted to 923 mL or 1538 mL and would still kill these bacteria. Based on the bioautography results, the two most active species, O. pretoriensis and O. pulchra, contained at least 10 antibacterial compounds with similar Rf values. Some of these antibacterial compounds were polar and others were non-polar. Variation in the chemical composition of the species

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Dental Cements Containing Quaternary Ammonium Polyethylenimine Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyth, N.; Weiss, E.I.; Pilo, R.

    2012-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are commonly used for cementing full cast crown restorations. Regrettably, although the dental cements fill the gap between the tooth and the crown, bacterial micro leakage may occur, resulting in secondary caries. As micro leakage cannot be completely prevented, GCS possessing antibacterial properties are in demand. In the present study the antibacterial activity of insoluble, cross-linked quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (Qp) nanoparticles incorporated at 1% w/w in two clinically available GCS were studied. The antibacterial activity was tested against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei using the direct contact test (Dct) and the agar diffusion test (Ad). Using the direct contact test, antibacterial activity (P<0.05) was found in both tested GICs with incorporated QPEI nanoparticles, the effect lasting for at least one month. However, the ADT showed no inhibition halo in the test bacteria, indicating that the antimicrobial nanoparticles do not diffuse into the agar. The results show that the incorporation of QPEI nanoparticles in glass ionomer cements has a long-lasting antibacterial effect against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei. Changing the antibacterial properties of glass ionomer cements by incorporating QPEI antibacterial nanoparticles may prolong the clinical performance of dental crowns.

  3. Future prospects of antibacterial metal nanoparticles as enzyme inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Khan Behlol Ayaz; Raman, Thiagarajan; Veerappan, Anbazhagan

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles are being widely used as antibacterial agents with metal nanoparticles emerging as the most efficient antibacterial agents. There have been many studies which have reported the mechanism of antibacterial activity of nanoparticles on bacteria. In this review we aim to emphasize on all the possible mechanisms which are involved in the antibacterial activity of nanoparticles and also to understand their mode of action and role as bacterial enzyme inhibitor by comparing their antibacterial mechanism to that of antibiotics with enzyme inhibition as a major mechanism. With the emergence of widespread antibiotic resistance, nanoparticles offer a better alternative to our conventional arsenal of antibiotics. Once the biological safety of these nanoparticles is addressed, these nanoparticles can be of great medical importance in our fight against bacterial infections. - Highlights: • Mechanisms of antibiotics and metal nanoparticles resemble one another. • Bactericidal mechanisms of NPs are cell wall damage, and ROS generation. • Metal NPs inhibit membrane synthesis enzyme. • NPs can be used as antibacterial agents. • NP as antibacterial strategy important due to widespread antibiotic resistance

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Garlic Extract Against some Pathogenic Animal Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safithri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of garlic extract against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial isolates was well studied. However, reports on antibacterial activity of garlic extract against some pathogenic bacteria in animals in Indonesia, are still limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of water and ethanol extracts of garlic against Salmonella typhimurium in chickens, and Streptococcus agalactie, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus causing mastitis in dairy cows in Indonesia. A filtrate of fresh garlic was used to determine the antibacterial activity against S. typhimurium at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% w/v, whereas, the antibacterial activity of water and ethanol extracts was determined against S. agalactie, E. coli, and S. aureus at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% w/v. Results showed that antibacterial activity of 30% garlic filtrate was equivalent to 10% tetracycline. Meanwhile, antibacterial activity of garlic aqueous extract on mastitis bacteria was better than that of the garlic ethanol extract. Aqueous extract of garlic at 20% had the same antibacterial activity as 0.01% ampicillin on mastitis bacteria. Filtrates of fresh garlic can be used to inhibit growth of S. typhimurium and mastitis bacteria.

  5. Antibacterial effects of Solanum tuberosum peel ethanol extract in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanpour Raana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, medicinal plants are being widely used due to being natural, available, and cheaper than synthetic drugs and having minimum side effects. Since there were reports about the antibacterial properties of Solanum tuberosum (SE, the aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of SE ethanol extract in vitro condition on Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: Ethanol extract of SE peel was prepared by maceration method. Initially, antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of SE was qualitatively determined by disk diffusion test; then, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were qualitatively determined by micro-dilution method. Results: SE peel extract had antibacterial properties and its effect was more pronounced on gram-positive bacteria, especially S. aureus (0.62±0.00 mg/ml. The extract had antibacterial activity on gram-negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, too (8.33±2.88 mg/ml. Conclusion: SE peel extract has antibacterial activity and its effect on gram-positive bacteria was more pronounced than the investigated gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, it is suggested that SE peel constituent compounds be determined and to determine the exact mechanism of its antibacterial properties, and more comprehensive research be done to apply it, clinically.

  6. Studies on antibacterial screening of corm of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwan Mariba Waghmare

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the antibacterial screening of corm of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb. (A. campanulatus. Methods: Antibacterial activities of methanolic, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of corm of A. campanulatus were studied by agar diffusion technique to determine in vitro antibacterial activities. The antibacterial activity was measured with respect to the standard antibacterial drug. In addition, minimum inhibitory concentration was also determined by using serial dilution method to determine and evaluate antibacterial potency of test corm extracts of A. campanulatus. Results: The results showed significant antibacterial activities against four pathogenic bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration values against test bacteria were found to be remarkable range in bacteria like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at concentration 0.25 mg/ well, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 0.5 mg/well concentration, in Vibrio cholerae was 2 mg/ well, Streptococcus pyogenes at concentration of 0.5 mg/well and Proteus mirabilis was at concentration of 2 mg/well. Conclusions: The methanolic and petroleum ether extracts are capable to maximum inhibition of the tested pathogenic bacteria.

  7. Antibacterial Effect of Diclofenac Sodium on Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Salemmilani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have shown antibacterial activity in some recent studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of diclofenac against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis as a resistant endodontic bacterium in comparison with ibuprofen, calcium hydroxide and amoxicillin.Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activity of materials was evaluated using agar diffusion test and tube dilution method. Mixtures of 400 mg/ml of materials were prepared. The bacteria were seeded on 10 Muller-Hinton agar culture plates. Thirty microliter of each test material was placed in each well punched in agar plates. After incubation, the zone of bacterial inhibition was measured. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the test materials was determined by agar dilution method. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA followed by Sidak post hoc test was used to compare the mean zone of microbial growth in the groups.Results: There were significant differences between the two groups (p< 0.05. Results of the agar diffusion test showed that antibiotics (amoxicillin, gentamycin had the greatest antibacterial activity followed by NSAIDs (ibuprofen, diclofenac. Ca(OH2 failed to show antibacterial activity. Diclofenac and ibuprofen showed distinct antibacterial activity against E. faecalis in 50 µg/ml and above concentrations.Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it is concluded that diclofenac and ibuprofen have significantly more pronounced antibacterial activity against E. faecalis in comparison with Ca(OH2.

  8. Future prospects of antibacterial metal nanoparticles as enzyme inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Khan Behlol Ayaz; Raman, Thiagarajan, E-mail: raman@biotech.sastra.edu; Veerappan, Anbazhagan, E-mail: anbazhagan@scbt.sastra.edu

    2016-11-01

    Nanoparticles are being widely used as antibacterial agents with metal nanoparticles emerging as the most efficient antibacterial agents. There have been many studies which have reported the mechanism of antibacterial activity of nanoparticles on bacteria. In this review we aim to emphasize on all the possible mechanisms which are involved in the antibacterial activity of nanoparticles and also to understand their mode of action and role as bacterial enzyme inhibitor by comparing their antibacterial mechanism to that of antibiotics with enzyme inhibition as a major mechanism. With the emergence of widespread antibiotic resistance, nanoparticles offer a better alternative to our conventional arsenal of antibiotics. Once the biological safety of these nanoparticles is addressed, these nanoparticles can be of great medical importance in our fight against bacterial infections. - Highlights: • Mechanisms of antibiotics and metal nanoparticles resemble one another. • Bactericidal mechanisms of NPs are cell wall damage, and ROS generation. • Metal NPs inhibit membrane synthesis enzyme. • NPs can be used as antibacterial agents. • NP as antibacterial strategy important due to widespread antibiotic resistance.

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Dental Cements Containing Quaternary Ammonium Polyethylenimine Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurit Beyth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements (GICs are commonly used for cementing full cast crown restorations. Regrettably, although the dental cements fill the gap between the tooth and the crown, bacterial microleakage may occur, resulting in secondary caries. As microleakage cannot be completely prevented, GICs possessing antibacterial properties are in demand. In the present study the antibacterial activity of insoluble, cross-linked quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (QPEI nanoparticles incorporated at 1% w/w in two clinically available GICs were studied. The antibacterial activity was tested against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei using the direct contact test (DCT and the agar diffusion test (ADT. Using the direct contact test, antibacterial activity (<0.05 was found in both tested GICs with incorporated QPEI nanoparticles, the effect lasting for at least one month. However, the ADT showed no inhibition halo in the test bacteria, indicating that the antimicrobial nanoparticles do not diffuse into the agar. The results show that the incorporation of QPEI nanoparticles in glass ionomer cements has a long-lasting antibacterial effect against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei. Changing the antibacterial properties of glass ionomer cements by incorporating QPEI antibacterial nanoparticles may prolong the clinical performance of dental crowns.

  10. Ramalina capitata (Ach.) Nyl. acetone extract: HPLC analysis, genotoxicity, cholinesterase, antioxidant and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrnzevic, Ivana; Stankovic, Miroslava; Stankov Jovanovic, Vesna; Mitic, Violeta; Dordevic, Aleksandra; Zlatanovic, Ivana; Stojanovic, Gordana

    2017-01-01

    In the present investigation, effects of Ramalina capitata acetone extract on micronucleus distribution on human lymphocytes, on cholinesterase activity and antioxidant activity (by the CUPRAC method) were examined, for the first time as well as its HPLC profile. Additionally, total phenolic compounds (TPC), antioxidant properties (estimated via DPPH, ABTS and TRP assays) and antibacterial activity were determined. The predominant phenolic compounds in this extract were evernic, everninic and obtusatic acids. Acetone extract of R. capitata at concentration of 2 μg mL -1 decreased a frequency of micronuclei (MN) for 14.8 %. The extract reduces the concentration of DPPH and ABTS radicals for 21.2 and 36.1 % (respectively). Values for total reducing power (TRP) and cupric reducing capacity (CUPRAC) were 0.4624 ± 0.1064 μg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE) per mg of dry extract, and 6.1176 ± 0.2964 μg Trolox equivalents (TE) per mg of dry extract, respectively. The total phenol content was 670.6376 ± 66.554 μg galic acid equivalents (GAE) per mg of dry extract. Tested extract at concentration of 2 mg mL -1 exhibited inhibition effect (5.2 %) on pooled human serum cholinesterase. The antimicrobial assay showed that acetone extract had inhibition effect towards Gram-positive strains. The results of manifested antioxidant activity, reducing the number of micronuclei in human lymphocytes, and antibacterial activity recommends R. capitata extract for further in vivo studies.

  11. Nanosilver coated orthodontic brackets: in vivo antibacterial properties and ion release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin-Gürsoy, Gamze; Taner, Lale; Akca, Gülçin

    2017-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles are currently utilized in the fields of dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties and ion release of nanosilver coated orthodontic brackets compared to conventional brackets. Nanosilver coating process was applied to standard orthodontic brackets placed on the mandibular incisors of Wistar Albino rats in the study group and conventional brackets in the control group. Dental plaque, mucosal vestibular smears, saliva, and blood samples were collected from rats at various days. The amounts of nanosilver ions in blood and saliva were measured and microbiological evaluation was made for Streptococcus mutans. For testing cariogenicity, all rats were sacrificed at the end of 75 days under anaesthesia. Teeth were stained using a caries indicator, then the caries ratio was assessed. Nanosilver coated orthodontic bracket favoured the inhibition of S.mutans on Day 30 and reduction of caries on the smooth surfaces. The nanosilver amounts in the saliva and serum samples were significantly higher in the study group on Day 7. It is suggested that nanosilver coated orthodontic brackets, as an antibacterial agent without patient compliance, could be helpful for the prevention of white spot lesions during fixed orthodontic treatment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Oenothera rosea (L 'Her) Leaf Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Reyna-Martínez, Raúl; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To determine the antibacterial effect of Oenothera rosea against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Vibrio cholerae. Study Design: In vitro antibacterial study. Place and Duration of Study: Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Departamento de Microbiología e Inmunología and Departamento de Química, San Nicolás de los Garza, NL. México, from June 2010 to June 2011. Methodology: The antibacterial in vitro effect of methanol and aqueous extracts of...

  13. OCRA radiometric cloud fractions for GOME-2 on MetOp-A/B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Ronny; Loyola, Diego; Gimeno García, Sebastián; Romahn, Fabian

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes an approach for cloud parameter retrieval (radiometric cloud-fraction estimation) using the polarization measurements of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) onboard the MetOp-A/B satellites. The core component of the Optical Cloud Recognition Algorithm (OCRA) is the calculation of monthly cloud-free reflectances for a global grid (resolution of 0.2° in longitude and 0.2° in latitude) to derive radiometric cloud fractions. These cloud fractions will serve as a priori information for the retrieval of cloud-top height (CTH), cloud-top pressure (CTP), cloud-top albedo (CTA) and cloud optical thickness (COT) with the Retrieval Of Cloud Information using Neural Networks (ROCINN) algorithm. This approach is already being implemented operationally for the GOME/ERS-2 and SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT sensors and here we present version 3.0 of the OCRA algorithm applied to the GOME-2 sensors. Based on more than five years of GOME-2A data (April 2008 to June 2013), reflectances are calculated for ≈ 35 000 orbits. For each measurement a degradation correction as well as a viewing-angle-dependent and latitude-dependent correction is applied. In addition, an empirical correction scheme is introduced in order to remove the effect of oceanic sun glint. A comparison of the GOME-2A/B OCRA cloud fractions with colocated AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) geometrical cloud fractions shows a general good agreement with a mean difference of -0.15 ± 0.20. From an operational point of view, an advantage of the OCRA algorithm is its very fast computational time and its straightforward transferability to similar sensors like OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) on Sentinel 5 Precursor, as well as Sentinel 4 and Sentinel 5. In conclusion, it is shown that a robust, accurate and fast radiometric cloud-fraction estimation for GOME-2 can be achieved with OCRA using polarization measurement devices (PMDs).

  14. Preliminary Evaluation of GAOFEN-3 Polarimetric and Radiometric Accuracy by Corner Reflectors in Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L.; Ding, X.; Li, P.; Yang, J.; Zhao, L.; Yang, L.; Chang, Y.; Yan, L.

    2018-04-01

    On August 10, 2016, China launched its first C-band full polarimetric radar satellite, named Gaofen-3 (GF-3), for urban and agriculture monitoring, landslide detection, ocean applications, etc. According to the design specification, GF-3 is expected to work at -35 dB crosstalk and 0.5 dB channel imbalance, with less than 10 degree error. The absolute radiometric bias is expected to be less than 1.5 dB in a single scene and 2.0 dB when operating for a long time. To complete the calibration and evaluation, the Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy Sciences (IECAS) built a test site at Inner Mongolia, and deployed active reflectors (ARs) and trihedral corner reflectors (CRs) to solve and evaluate the hardware distortion. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the product accuracy of GF-3 has not been comprehensively evaluated in any open publication. The remote sensing community urgently requires a detailed report about the product accuracy and stability, before any subsequent application. From June to August of 2017, IECAS begun its second round ground campaign and deployed 10 CRs to evaluate product distortions. In this paper, we exploit Inner Mongolia CRs to investigate polarimetric and radiometric accuracy of QPSI I Stripmap. Although some CRs found fall into AR side lobe, the rest CRs enable us to preliminarily evaluate the accuracy of some special imaging beams. In the experimental part, the image of July 6, 2017 was checked by 5 trihedral CRs and the integration estimation method demonstrated the crosstalk varying from -42.65 to -32.74 dB, and the channel imbalance varying from -0.21 to 0.47 with phase error from -2.4 to 0.2 degree. Comparing with the theoretical radar cross-section of 1.235 m trihedral CR, i.e. 35 dB, the radiometric error varies about 0.20 ± 0.29 dB in HH channel and 0.40 ± 0.20 dB in VV channel.

  15. The Importance of Post-Launch, On-Orbit Absolute Radiometric Calibration for Remote Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuester, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing is a powerful tool for monitoring changes on the surface of the Earth at a local or global scale. The use of data sets from different sensors across many platforms, or even a single sensor over time, can bring a wealth of information when exploring anthropogenic changes to the environment. For example, variations in crop yield and health for a specific region can be detected by observing changes in the spectral signature of the particular species under study. However, changes in the atmosphere, sun illumination and viewing geometries during image capture can result in inconsistent image data, hindering automated information extraction. Additionally, an incorrect spectral radiometric calibration will lead to false or misleading results. It is therefore critical that the data being used are normalized and calibrated on a regular basis to ensure that physically derived variables are as close to truth as is possible. Although most earth observing sensors are well-calibrated in a laboratory prior to launch, a change in the radiometric response of the system is inevitable due to thermal, mechanical or electrical effects caused during the rigors of launch or by the space environment itself. Outgassing and exposure to ultra-violet radiation will also have an effect on the sensor's filter responses. Pre-launch lamps and other laboratory calibration systems can also fall short in representing the actual output of the Sun. A presentation of the differences in the results of some example cases (e.g. geology, agriculture) derived for science variables using pre- and post-launch calibration will be presented using DigitalGlobe's WorldView-3 super spectral sensor, with bands in the visible and near infrared, as well as in the shortwave infrared. Important defects caused by an incomplete (i.e. pre-launch only) calibration will be discussed using validation data where available. In addition, the benefits of using a well-validated surface reflectance product will be

  16. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of

  17. Towards a Scalable, Biomimetic, Antibacterial Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Mary Nora

    Corneal afflictions are the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. When a corneal transplant is unavailable or contraindicated, an artificial cornea device is the only chance to save sight. Bacterial or fungal biofilm build up on artificial cornea devices can lead to serious complications including the need for systemic antibiotic treatment and even explantation. As a result, much emphasis has been placed on anti-adhesion chemical coatings and antibiotic leeching coatings. These methods are not long-lasting, and microorganisms can eventually circumvent these measures. Thus, I have developed a surface topographical antimicrobial coating. Various surface structures including rough surfaces, superhydrophobic surfaces, and the natural surfaces of insects' wings and sharks' skin are promising anti-biofilm candidates, however none meet the criteria necessary for implementation on the surface of an artificial cornea device. In this thesis I: 1) developed scalable fabrication protocols for a library of biomimetic nanostructure polymer surfaces 2) assessed the potential these for poly(methyl methacrylate) nanopillars to kill or prevent formation of biofilm by E. coli bacteria and species of Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus bacteria and improved upon a proposed mechanism for the rupture of Gram-negative bacterial cell walls 3) developed a scalable, commercially viable method for producing antibacterial nanopillars on a curved, PMMA artificial cornea device and 4) developed scalable fabrication protocols for implantation of antibacterial nanopatterned surfaces on the surfaces of thermoplastic polyurethane materials, commonly used in catheter tubings. This project constitutes a first step towards fabrication of the first entirely PMMA artificial cornea device. The major finding of this work is that by precisely controlling the topography of a polymer surface at the nano-scale, we can kill adherent bacteria and prevent biofilm formation of certain pathogenic bacteria

  18. Design, Synthesis, Molecular Docking, and Antibacterial Evaluation of Some Novel Flouroquinolone Derivatives as Potent Antibacterial Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehul M. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Quinolone moiety is an important class of nitrogen containing heterocycles widely used as key building blocks for medicinal agents. It exhibits a wide spectrum of pharmacophores and has bactericidal, antiviral, antimalarial, and anticancer activities. In view of the reported antimicrobial activity of various fluoroquinolones, the importance of the C-7 substituents is that they exhibit potent antimicrobial activities. Our objective was to synthesize newer quinolone analogues with increasing bulk at C-7 position of the main 6-fluoroquinolone scaffold to produce the target compounds which have potent antimicrobial activity. Methods. A novel series of 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-7-{4-[2-(4-substituted phenyl-2-(substituted-ethyl]-1-piperazinyl}-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives were synthesized. To understand the interaction of binding sites with bacterial protein receptor, the docking study was performed using topoisomerase II DNA gyrase enzymes (PDB ID: 2XCT by Schrodinger’s Maestro program. In vitro antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds was studied and the MIC value was calculated by the broth dilution method. Results. Among all the synthesized compounds, some compounds showed potent antimicrobial activity. The compound 8g exhibited good antibacterial activity. Conclusion. This investigation identified the potent antibacterial agents against certain infections.

  19. Design of New Antibacterial Enhancers Based on AcrB’s Structure and the Evaluation of Their Antibacterial Enhancement Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previously, artesunate (AS and dihydroartemisinine 7 (DHA7 were found to have antibacterial enhancement activity against Escherichia coli via inhibition of the efflux pump AcrB. However, they were only effective against E. coli standard strains. This study aimed to develop effective antibacterial enhancers based on the previous work. Our results demonstrate that 86 new antibacterial enhancers were designed via 3D-SAR and molecular docking. Among them, DHA27 had the best antibacterial enhancement activity. It could potentiate the antibacterial effects of ampicillin against not only E. coli standard strain but also clinical strains, and of β-lactam antibiotics, not non-β-lactamantibiotics. DHA27 could increase the accumulation of daunomycin and nile red within E. coli ATCC 35218, but did not increase the bacterial membrane permeability. DHA27 reduced acrB’s mRNA expression of E. coli ATCC 35218 in a dose-dependent manner, and its antibacterial enhancement activity is related to the degree of acrB mRNA expression in E. coli clinical strains. The polypeptides from AcrB were obtained via molecular docking assay; the pre-incubated polypeptides could inhibit the activity of DHA27. Importantly, DHA27 had no cytotoxicity on cell proliferation. In conclusion, among newly designed antibacterial enhancers, DHA27 had favorable physical and pharmacological properties with no significant cytotoxicity at effective concentrations, and might serve as a potential efflux pump inhibitor in the future.

  20. Development of radiometric assays for quantification of enzyme activities of the key enzymes of thyroid hormones metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl.1 (2014), S133-S140 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12SK158; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : enzyme * metabolism * radiometric assay * thyroid hormone Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  1. Geometric Calibration and Radiometric Correction of LiDAR Data and Their Impact on the Quality of Derived Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Yeung Yan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging systems are capable of providing 3D positional and spectral information (in the utilized spectrum range of the mapped surface. Due to systematic errors in the system parameters and measurements, LiDAR systems require geometric calibration and radiometric correction of the intensity data in order to maximize the benefit from the collected positional and spectral information. This paper presents a practical approach for the geometric calibration of LiDAR systems and radiometric correction of collected intensity data while investigating their impact on the quality of the derived products. The proposed approach includes the use of a quasi-rigorous geometric calibration and the radar equation for the radiometric correction of intensity data. The proposed quasi-rigorous calibration procedure requires time-tagged point cloud and trajectory position data, which are available to most of the data users. The paper presents a methodology for evaluating the impact of the geometric calibration on the relative and absolute accuracy of the LiDAR point cloud. Furthermore, the impact of the geometric calibration and radiometric correction on land cover classification accuracy is investigated. The feasibility of the proposed methods and their impact on the derived products are demonstrated through experimental results using real data.

  2. Development and application of a radiometric method of measurement (Heger probe) for characterizing clastic rock strata in exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, G.

    1984-01-01

    The radiometric image of a stratigraphic exposure profile was to be logged. The method of measurement was tested on clastic sediments of the Tertiary (Saudi Arabia) and Bunter (Northern Germany). The well-tried scintillometer technique was supplemented by modern technological means supplied by a prospecting company (Gewerkschaft Brunhilde). The probe applied was specifically developped for stratigraphic purposes. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Radiometric survey in the sites of Regional office in Fortaleza, research gallery and camp in Itataia, CE (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The radiometric survey in Regional officer sites in Fortaleza, Brazil, research gallery and camp in Itataia is presented. The measurings to be done, the instrumentation used and results obtained are described as well as the conclusions and recommendations. (C.M.) [pt

  4. Measuring two-phase and two-component mixtures by radiometric technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackuliak, D.; Rajniak, I.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility was tried of the application of the radiometric method in measuring steam water content. The experiments were carried out in model conditions where steam was replaced with the two-component mixture of water and air. The beta radiation source was isotope 204 Tl (Esub(max)=0.765 MeV) with an activity of 19.35 MBq. Measurements were carried out within the range of the surface density of the mixture from 0.119 kg.m -2 to 0.130 kg.m -2 . Mixture speed was 5.1 m.s -1 to 7.1 m.s -1 . The observed dependence of relative pulse frequency on the specific water content in the mixture was approximated by a linear regression. (B.S.)

  5. Application and sensitivity investigation of Fourier transforms for microwave radiometric inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J. J.; Balanis, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    Existing microwave radiometer technology now provides a suitable method for remote determination of the ocean surface's absolute brightness temperature. To extract the brightness temperature of the water from the antenna temperature equation, an unstable Fredholm integral equation of the first kind was solved. Fast Fourier Transform techniques were used to invert the integral after it is placed into a cross-correlation form. Application and verification of the methods to a two-dimensional modeling of a laboratory wave tank system were included. The instability of the Fredholm equation was then demonstrated and a restoration procedure was included which smooths the resulting oscillations. With the recent availability and advances of Fast Fourier Transform techniques, the method presented becomes very attractive in the evaluation of large quantities of data. Actual radiometric measurements of sea water are inverted using the restoration method, incorporating the advantages of the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm for computations.

  6. Design and use of concrete pads for the calibration of radiometric survey instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevborg, L.

    1984-10-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer for use in geological exploration possesses four stripping ratios and three window sensitivities which must be determined to make the instrumentation applicable for field assay or airborne measurement of potassium, uranium, and thorium contents in the ground. Survey organizations in many parts of the world perform the instrument calibration using large pads of concrete which simulate a plane ground of known radioelement concentration. Calibration and monitoring trials with twelve facilities in ten countries prove that moisture absorption, radon exhalation, and particle-size effects can offset a radiometric grade assigned to concrete whose aggregate contains an embedded radioactive mineral. These and other calibration problems are discussed from a combined theoretical and practical viewpoint

  7. Statistical techniques applied to aerial radiometric surveys (STAARS): principal components analysis user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, C.D.; Pirkle, F.L.; Schmidt, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    A Principal Components Analysis (PCA) has been written to aid in the interpretation of multivariate aerial radiometric data collected by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. The variations exhibited by these data have been reduced and classified into a number of linear combinations by using the PCA program. The PCA program then generates histograms and outlier maps of the individual variates. Black and white plots can be made on a Calcomp plotter by the application of follow-up programs. All programs referred to in this guide were written for a DEC-10. From this analysis a geologist may begin to interpret the data structure. Insight into geological processes underlying the data may be obtained

  8. Fitting straight lines and planes with an application to radiometric dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, J.T.; Watson, G.S.; Onstott, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional practice in geochronology is to fit a straight line or ''isochron'' to data consisting of two isotopic ratios by a method that takes into account that fact that both ratios are measured with error. In this paper we use matrix algebra to lay out a general method for fitting linear relations between any number of variables, all subject to errors with known variances and covariances and the well-known Newton-Raphson method to do the optimization. This leads to a good computational algorithm which may also be used e.g. to check whether coefficients in several linear relations are the same. In many fields of science one needs to fit linear relations so our method is of wide utility; its use is in no way restricted to radiometric data. (orig.)

  9. X-ray radiometric analysis of lead and zinc concentrates using germanium radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajgachev, A.A.; Mamysh, V.A.; Mil'chakov, V.I.; Shchekin, K.I.; Berezkin, V.V.

    1975-01-01

    The results of determination of lead, zinc and iron in lead and zinc concentrates by the X-ray-radiometric method with the use of germanium semiconductor detector are presented. In the experiments the 57 Co source and tritium-zirconium target were used. The activity of 57 Co was 2 mc. The area of the germanium detector employed was 5g mm 2 , its thickness - 2.3 mm. In lead concentrates zinc and iron were determined from the direct intensity of K-series radiation. In the analysis of zinc concentrates the same conditions of recording and excitation were used as in the case of lead concentrates, but the measurements were conducted in saturated layers. It is demonstrated that the use of germanium semiconductor detectors in combination with the suggested methods of measurements makes it possible to perform determination of iron, zinc and lead in zinc and lead concentrates with permissible error

  10. Measuring instrument for the determination of dust concentrations. [air filter with. beta. radiometric gage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresia, H; Spohr, F

    1975-05-22

    The measuring instrument enables a continuous determination of the dust concentration or total dust content in gases on the basis of the radiometric mass determination of dusts. The partial current method is employed, with the gas fetched through a filter cell with a topped intake by a suction pump. A filter band to take up the dust deposit is continuously driven through the filter cell. The filter point and the measuring point with a ..beta..-radionuclide and a detector are both inside the filter cell. The filter cell is sealed all around, at the entrance and exit of the filter band. The band itself acts as a seal. The filter band also has borders strengthened with, e.g., plastic strips which engage the drive. The widths of the slits are adjustable in height.

  11. A radiometric model of an earth radiation budget radiometer optical system with diffuse-specular surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, M. R.

    1981-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) is to fly on NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and on NOAA F and NOAA G. Large spatial scale earth energy budget data will be derived primarily from measurements made by the ERBE nonscanning instrument (ERBE-NS). A description is given of a mathematical model capable of simulating the radiometric response of any of the ERBE-NS earth viewing channels. The model uses a Monte Carlo method to accurately account for directional distributions of emission and reflection from optical surfaces which are neither strictly diffuse nor strictly specular. The model computes radiation exchange factors among optical system components, and determines the distribution in the optical system of energy from an outside source. Attention is also given to an approach for implementing the model and results obtained from the implementation.

  12. Unibert - PC software for radiometric level gauging - the LB440 measuring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, H.; Bickert, M.

    2001-01-01

    In almost all industrial branches radiometric measuring systems are being used today for a lot of different tasks. The most common field of this application are level gauging measurements by use of gamma radiation, i.e. for level detection as well as for level gauging over ranges of up to several meters. For our level gauge measuring system LB440 we developed a clearly arranged PC software, which allows starting, measuring and service of the level gauge. Over the RS232-interface the industrial computer can be connected with a Laptop or PC. The software is a supplemental or even a substitute for the operation over the frontpanel. The measuring system can be completely controlled by the Unibert PC-Software, realised by LabVIEW 5.1.1, which offers an interactive graphical user interface. The same functionality as in the ''embedded - software'' is available, completed with some additional functions. (orig.) [de

  13. Geologic-radiometric techniques applied for uranium prospection at the Hierro-Cayo Largo area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gongora, L.E.; Olivera, J.

    1995-01-01

    Using geologic-radiometric techniques uraniferous anomalies were evaluated at the Hierro-Cayo Largo area located in Pinar del Rio province. During the uranium prospection works at most promising areas, geologic itineraries and gamma ray, radon emanation spectrometric survey were done. Trenches were made and some boreholes were drilled (up to 20-30 m depth). In addition a lot of samples were taken in order to determine the amount of U, Ra, Th, y K by spectrometric techniques. As result of this investigation, a geological placing, a mineralogical and geochemical characteristic of uraniferous mineralization was possible to find out. The appropriate prospection indications for uranium exploration at Esperanza geologic zone were defined

  14. Wide Band and Wide Azimuth Beam Effect on High-resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar Radiometric Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Jun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive corner reflectors and active transponders are often used as man-made reference targets in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR radiometric calibration, With the emergence of new radar systems and the increasing demand for greater accuracy, wide-band and wide-beam radars challenge the hypothesis that the Radar Cross Section (RCS of reference targets is constant. In this study, the FEKO electromagnetic simulation software is used to obtain the change curve of the target RCS as a function of frequency and aspect angle while incorporating high-resolution point-target SAR simulation, and quantitatively analyzing the effect of the modulation effect on SAR images. The simulation results suggest that the abovementioned factors affect the SAR calibration by more than 0.2 dB within a fractional bandwidth greater than 10% or azimuth beam width of more than 20°, which must be corrected in the data processing.

  15. Aerial radiometric and magnetic reconnaissance survey of portions of Arizona--New Mexico, Nogales Quadrangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    The results of a high-sensitivity aerial gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey of the Nogales Quadrangle, Arizona, are presented. Statistical and geological analysis of the radiometric data revealed 47 uranium anomalies worthy of field checking as possible prospects. Twenty-one anomalies suggest the presence of vein-type uranium in acid intrusives, and 16 anomalies may denote the same type of mineralization in acid volcanics. These anomalies also mark source areas for possible sedimentary deposits. Nine anomalies may represent sedimentary uranium, but many of these may be anomalous clastics deposited in low-background material. The ranges that appear most favorable for uranium mineralization are the Quinlan, Sierrita, Pajarito, Atascosa, Santa Rita, Patagonia, and Huachuca Mountains

  16. Preliminary results of radiometric measurements of clear air and cloud brightness (antenna) temperatures at 37GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakelyan, A. K.; Hambaryan, A. K.; Arakelyan, A. A.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper the results of polarization measurements of clear air and clouds brightness temperatures at 37GHz are presented. The results were obtained during the measurements carried out in Armenia from the measuring complex built under the framework of ISTC Projects A-872 and A-1524. The measurements were carried out at vertical and horizontal polarizations, under various angles of sensing by Ka-band combined scatterometric-radiometric system (ArtAr-37) developed and built by ECOSERV Remote Observation Centre Co.Ltd. under the framework of the above Projects. In the paper structural and operational features of the utilized system and the whole measuring complex will be considered and discussed as well.

  17. Sensitive radiometric assay for enkephalin convertase and other carboxypeptidase B-like enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stack, G.; Fricker, L.D.; Snyder, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    A sensitive radiometric assay for carboxypeptidase B-like enzymes has been developed using enkephalin convertase, an enkephalin synthesizing carboxypeptidase. The assay is based on the differential solubility of 3 H-labeled substrate and product in chloroform. The substrates 3 H-benzoyl-Phe-Ala-Arg or 3 H-benzoyl-Phe-Leu-Arg are poorly soluble in chloroform due to the charged arginine. The products of carboxypeptidase B-like activity on these substrates, 3 H-benzoyl-Phe-Ala or 3 H-benzoyl Phe-Leu partition quantitatively into chloroform, allowing rapid separation of product from substrate. This assay is approximately 100 times more sensitive than a similar fluorometric assay utilizing dansyl-Phe-Ala-Arg as a substrate

  18. Sensitive radiometric assay for enkephalin convertase and other carboxypeptidase B-like enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stack, G.; Fricker, L.D.; Snyder, S.H.

    1984-01-09

    A sensitive radiometric assay for carboxypeptidase B-like enzymes has been developed using enkephalin convertase, an enkephalin synthesizing carboxypeptidase. The assay is based on the differential solubility of /sup 3/H-labeled substrate and product in chloroform. The substrates /sup 3/H-benzoyl-Phe-Ala-Arg or /sup 3/H-benzoyl-Phe-Leu-Arg are poorly soluble in chloroform due to the charged arginine. The products of carboxypeptidase B-like activity on these substrates, /sup 3/H-benzoyl-Phe-Ala or /sup 3/H-benzoyl Phe-Leu partition quantitatively into chloroform, allowing rapid separation of product from substrate. This assay is approximately 100 times more sensitive than a similar fluorometric assay utilizing dansyl-Phe-Ala-Arg as a substrate.

  19. Time course of radiometric detection of positive blood cultures in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadow, W.L.; Schwartz, I.K.

    1986-01-01

    We have determined the time course of radiometric detection of microbial growth in 2348 positive blood culture specimens obtained at Wyler Children's Hospital during a 5-year interval. Overall 72 and 88% of isolates were detected within 48 and 72 hours after sampling, respectively. For pathogenic organisms aerobic detection was generally more rapid and more inclusive than anaerobic detection. At 48 hours of incubation the detection of six potential pathogens (Salmonella sp., Haemophilus influenzae, Group D streptococci, Neisseria meningitidis, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Candida sp.) was significantly delayed compared with detection of other pathogenic organisms recovered from blood. At 72 hours of incubation the detection rates remained less than 95% for H. influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp., coagulase-negative staphylococci, Group D streptococci and Candida sp. These data should assist clinical decisions regarding duration of antibiotic therapy for the presumptive diagnosis of bacteremia in children

  20. A radiometric method for the determination of NADH in subpicomole amounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G.; Rosenthal, W.; Oberdisse, E.

    1988-01-01

    A radiometric method has been devised for the determination of small quantities of NADH formed in preceding dehydrogenase reactions. In a coupled enzymatic reaction, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) catalyzes the transfer of [/sup 32/P]orthophosphate from [gamma-/sup 32/P]ATP to 3-phosphoglycerate; the intermediate, 1,3-[1-/sup 32/P]diphosphoglycerate, is dephosphorylated by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP-DH). [/sup 32/P]Orthophosphate is released proportionally to NADH and can be measured after adsorption of [gamma-/sup 32/P]ATP to activated charcoal. With this method, 0.2 pmol of NADH are detectable in the presence of a 10/sup 4/-fold excess of NAD over NADH

  1. Pilot study of the application of Tellus airborne radiometric and soil geochemical data for radon mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleton, J.D. [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jda@bgs.ac.uk; Miles, J.C.H.; Green, B.M.R. [Health Protection Agency (HPA) - Radiation Protection Division, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom); Larmour, R. [Environment and Heritage Service, Department of the Environment, Belfast BT7 2JA (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-15

    The scope for using Tellus Project airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and soil geochemical data to predict the probability of houses in Northern Ireland having high indoor radon concentrations is evaluated, in a pilot study in the southeast of the province, by comparing these data statistically with in-house radon measurements. There is generally good agreement between radon maps modelled from the airborne radiometric and soil geochemical data using multivariate linear regression analysis and conventional radon maps which depend solely on geological and indoor radon data. The radon maps based on the Tellus Project data identify some additional areas where the radon risk appears to be relatively high compared with the conventional radon maps. One of the ways of validating radon maps modelled on the Tellus Project data will be to carry out additional indoor measurements in these areas.

  2. Laboratory experience with radiometric detection of bacteremia with three culture media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicher, K.; Koscinski, D.

    1984-01-01

    In two long-term studies, the BACTEC radiometric system for detection of bacteremia was evaluated with three culture media each: (i) BACTEC media 6A (for aerobes) and 7B (for anaerobes) plus a thioglycolate medium and (ii) BACTEC media 6A, 7B, and 8A (hypertonic). In study 1, clinically significant isolates were identified in 1,873 (13.9%) of 13,432 blood cultures with all three media. The thioglycolate medium revealed 143 (1.1%) organisms not recovered from the 6A and 7B media. In study 2, isolates were identified in 1,135 (12.9%) of 8,759 cultures with all three media; 104 (1.2%) organisms were isolated only from the hypertonic medium. The increased yield of positive cultures in the three-medium system is likely due to the larger volume of blood cultured

  3. Time course of radiometric detection of positive blood cultures in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meadow, W.L.; Schwartz, I.K.

    1986-05-01

    We have determined the time course of radiometric detection of microbial growth in 2348 positive blood culture specimens obtained at Wyler Children's Hospital during a 5-year interval. Overall 72 and 88% of isolates were detected within 48 and 72 hours after sampling, respectively. For pathogenic organisms aerobic detection was generally more rapid and more inclusive than anaerobic detection. At 48 hours of incubation the detection of six potential pathogens (Salmonella sp., Haemophilus influenzae, Group D streptococci, Neisseria meningitidis, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Candida sp.) was significantly delayed compared with detection of other pathogenic organisms recovered from blood. At 72 hours of incubation the detection rates remained less than 95% for H. influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp., coagulase-negative staphylococci, Group D streptococci and Candida sp. These data should assist clinical decisions regarding duration of antibiotic therapy for the presumptive diagnosis of bacteremia in children.

  4. Radiometric ages of some igneous rocks from the southern and southwestern coalfields of New South Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, P.F.; Facer, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Samples from six igneous rock units of the Southern and Southwestern Coalfields (Sydney Basin) of New South Wales have been dated using the K-Ar radiometric technique. The following ages were determined: a dolerite from Towradgi, 243 +- 10 MY; a dolerite from a diamond-drill hole at Sutton Forest, 202 +- 8 MY; the Bong Bong Basalt, 190 +- 8 MY; the Good Dog Lamprophyre, 101 +- 4 MY; a teschenite from South Bulli coal mine 74.0 +- 3.6 MY; and a dolerite from Robertson, 63.8 +- 3.2 MY. Combination of these new ages wth previously-published ages indicates that igneous activity in the Southern and Southwestern Coalfields occurred during four discrete periods of time - Middle-to-Late Permian; Late Triassic to Early Jurassic; mid-Cretaceous (only the Good Dog Lamprophyre has yielded such an age); and latest Cretaceous to Late Oligocene

  5. Characterisation of radioactive contaminated materials by combined radiometric and spectrometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulama, C.; Toma, A.; Dobrin, R.; Ciocîrlan, C.; Stoica, S.; Valeca, M.; Popescu, I. I.

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, a combined analytical methodology is described, for characterization of radioactive contaminated materials. The subject of testing activities was a set of solutions provided by the Cernavoda NPP, which are originating from processes of radiological survey of workplaces in the plant. In the introduction section, a theoretical approach was given to the origin and nature of main radionuclides occurring in the primary cooling system of the nuclear power plant, with the aim to establish selection criteria and performance requirements for the analytical methods to be used in the development of the characterization methodology. A combination of radiometric and spectrometric methods was selected, based on gross beta counting, high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting. (authors)

  6. Radiometric surveying for the assessment of radiation dose and radon specific exhalation in underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochiolo, M.; Verdoya, M.; Chiozzi, P.; Pasquale, V.

    2012-08-01

    We performed a radiometric survey for evaluating the natural radioactivity and the related potential hazard level both outdoor and indoor a mine tunnel. The mine is located in a zone of uranium enrichment in the Western Alps (Italy). At first, a γ-ray spectrometry survey of the area surrounding the mine was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, spectrometric measurements were performed in the tunnel and rock samples were collected for laboratory analyses. The results point to significant heterogeneity in uranium concentration and consequently in the absorbed dose rate spatial distribution. Spectrometric results in situ and in the laboratory, together with radon air concentration measurements, were used to infer the radon specific exhalation and flow from the mine rocks. The specific exhalation is positively related to the activity concentration of uranium.

  7. Anomalies from aerial spectrometric and total count radiometric surveys in the southeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.H.; Lawton, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Aerial radiometric reconnaissance surveys are conducted because of their cost, time, and manpower savings compared to surface studies. Two types of aerial surveys are being flown in the southeastern United States: total count gamma-ray surveys for the Coastal Plains Regional Commission and the US Geological Survey, and differential gamma-ray spectrometric surveys for the US Department of Energy. Anomalous radioactivity detected during aerial surveys is related to higher concentrations of naturally occurring uranium, or to cultural activities, natural causes, or mapping errors which simulate real uranium anomalies. Each anomaly should be ground checked; however, several types of anomalies may be eliminated by evaluation of the aerial data in the office if field time is limited

  8. An attempt to evaluate some regression models used for radiometric ash determination in the brown coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamuz, S.; Urbanski, P.; Antoniak, W.; Wagner, D.

    1984-01-01

    Five different regression models for determination of the ash as well as iron and calcium contents in brown coal using fluorescence and scattering of X-rays have been evaluated. Calculations were done using experimental results obtained from the natural brown coal samples to which appropriate quantities of iron, calcium and silicon oxides were added. The secondary radiation was excited by Pu-238 source and detected by X-ray argone filled proportional counter. The investigation has shown the superiority of the multiparametric models over the radiometric ash determination in the pit-coal applying aluminium filter for the correction of the influence of iron content on the intensity of scattered radiation. Standard error of estimation for the best algorithm is about three time smaler than that for algorithm simulating application of the aluminium filter. Statistical parameters of the considered algorithm were reviewed and discussed. (author)

  9. The evolution of competitive settlement strategies in Fijian prehistory : results of excavations and radiometric dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    A series of excavations were completed between June 2001 and March 2002 in the Fiji Islands. The goal of this research was to investigate the evolution of competitive settlement strategies in Fijian prehistory from an archaeological and evolutionary ecological perspective. Twelve sites were excavated and mapped in the Sigatoka Valley, located in the southwestern corner of the main island of Viti Levu. Excavations were focused on determining the chronology of fortifications in the region, and the collected samples were compared to expectations based on GIS-based analyses of land productivity and historical documents pertaining to late-period warfare. Over four hundred archaeological sites have been identified in the Sigatoka Valley, and of these roughly one-third are purely defensive in configuration, with no immediate access to water or arable land. The Waikato Archaeological Dating Fund provided four radiometric dates for three defensive sites, and one site associated with a production area. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig

  10. Detection of group D and viridans streptococci in blood by radiometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckwith, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to evaluate the radiometric detection of group D and viridans streptococci in blood, using three media preparations, Bactec 6A and 6B isotonic media and 8B hypertonic medium. All enterococci tested were detected by the 6A and 6B media. However, the 6A medium failed to detect 76% of the Streptococcus bovis isolates and 57% of the viridans streptococci, whereas all S. bovis isolates and 95% of the viridans streptococci were detected with the 6B formulation. No improvement in detection was noted in comparing the 6B and the 8B hypertonic media. The importance of adequate detection of this group of organisms, especially in patients with endocarditis, is discussed

  11. The construction of a radiometric calibration facility at Lanseria Airport, Republic of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, B.; Smit, C.J.B.

    1983-08-01

    The construction of standard sources suitable for the calibration of airborne and truck-mounted gamma-spectrometer systems is described. Four sources were built, three of which were doped with preselected quantities of uranium, thorium or potassium. A fourth source was left barren so as to provide a measure of the background radiation in the area. The sources are 8 m in diameter, 0,35 m thick and are recessed into the disused northern portion of runway 17 at Lanseria Airport, north of Johannesburg. Adopted concentrations of the major radioelements in the sources are: 6,10 % k 2 O in the potasssium source, 67,0 ppm U 3 O 8 in the uranium source (radiometric), 158 ppm ThO 2 in the thorium source

  12. Application of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers with semiconductor detectors in radiometric analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jugelt, P.; Schieckel, M.

    1983-01-01

    Problems and possibilities of applying semiconductor detector spectrometers in radiometric analyses are described. A summary of the state of the art and tendencies of device engineering and spectra evaluation is given. Liquid-nitrogen cooled Li-drifted Si-detectors and high-purity Ge-detectors are compared. Semiconductor detectors working at room temperature are under development. In this connection CdTe and HgI 2 semiconductor detectors are compared. The use of small efficient computers in the spectrometer systems stimulates the development of algorithms for spectra analyses and for determining the concentration. Fields of application of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers are X-ray diffraction and X-ray macroanalysis in investigating the structure of extensive surface regions

  13. Antibacterial iodine-supported titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, T; Shimizu, T; Ohtani, K; Zen, Y; Takaya, M; Tsuchiya, H

    2011-04-01

    Deep infection remains a serious complication in orthopedic implant surgery. In order to reduce the incidence of implant-associated infections, several biomaterial surface treatments have been proposed. This study focused on evaluating the antibacterial activity of iodine-supported titanium (Ti-I(2)) and its impact on post-implant infection, as well as determining the potential suitability of Ti-I(2) as a biomaterial. External fixation pins were used in this experiment as trial implants because of the ease of making the septic models. The antibacterial activity of the metal was measured using a modification of the Japanese Industrial Standards method. Activity was evaluated by exposing the implants to Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli and comparing reaction of pathogens to Ti-I(2) vs. stainless steel and titanium controls. Ti-I(2) clearly inhibited bacterial colonization more than the control metals. In addition, cytocompatibility was assessed by counting the number of colonies that formed on the metals. The three metals showed the same amount of fibroblast colony formation. Japanese white rabbits were used as an in vivo model. Three pins were inserted into both femora of six rabbits for histological analysis. Pin sites were inspected and graded for infection and inflammation. Fewer signs of infection and inflammatory changes were observed in conjunction with the Ti-I(2) pins. Furthermore, osteoconductivity of the implant was evaluated with osteoid formation surface of the pin. Consecutive bone formation was observed around the Ti-I(2) and titanium pins, while little osteoid formation was found around the stainless steel pins. These findings suggest that Ti-I(2) has antimicrobial activity and exhibits cytocompatibility. Therefore, Ti-I(2) substantially reduces the incidence of implant infection and shows particular promise as a biomaterial. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antibacterial properties of 3-(phenylsulfonyl)-2-pyrazinecarbonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Jayamani, Elamparithi; Majed, Hiwa; Conery, Annie L; Kim, Wooseong; Kwon, Bumsup; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Kelso, Michael J; Ausubel, Frederick M; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-11-15

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains has heightened the need for new antimicrobial agents based on novel chemical scaffolds that are able to circumvent current modes of resistance. We recently developed a whole-animal drug-screening methodology in pursuit of this goal and now report the discovery of 3-(phenylsulfonyl)-2-pyrazinecarbonitrile (PSPC) as a novel antibacterial effective against resistant nosocomial pathogens. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of PSPC against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium were 4 μg/mL and 8 μg/mL, respectively, whereas the MICs were higher against the Gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae (64 μg/mL), Acinetobacter baumannii (32 μg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (>64 μg/mL), and Enterobacter spp. (>64 μg/mL). However, co-treatment of PSPC with the efflux pump inhibitor phenylalanine arginyl β-naphthylamide (PAβN) or with sub-inhibitory concentrations of the lipopeptide antibiotic polymyxin B reduced the MICs of PSPC against the Gram-negative strains by >4-fold. A sulfide analog of PSPC (PSPC-1S) showed no antibacterial activity, whereas the sulfoxide analog (PSPC-6S) showed identical activity as PSPC across all strains, confirming structure-dependent activity for PSPC and suggesting a target-based mechanism of action. PSPC displayed dose dependent toxicity to both Caenorhabditis elegans and HEK-293 mammalian cells, culminating with a survival rate of 16% (100 μg/mL) and 8.5% (64 μg/mL), respectively, at the maximum tested concentration. However, PSPC did not result in hemolysis of erythrocytes, even at a concentration of 64 μg/mL. Together these results support PSPC as a new chemotype suitable for further development of new antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiometric maps of Israel - Partial contribution to the understanding of potential radon emanations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulkan, U.; Shirav, M.

    1997-01-01

    An airborne radiometric survey over parts of Israel was carried out in 1981. The system was comprised from 10 Nal 4 inch x 4 inch x 16 inch detectors, arranged in 4,4 and 2 sensors, with total volume of 1560 inch 3 , and one 4 inch x 4 inch x 16 inch uplooking Nal detector. Flight nominal height was 400 feet. It was found that the Mount Scopus Group (of Senonian origin) is the main source for high uranium - phosphorite rocks of this group contain up to 150 ppm U. Comparing the eU radiometric map with a map of potential radon emanation from rock units, reveals a fair correlation - high radon emanation usually follow the distribution of the Mount Scopus Group in Israel. The correlation between the two maps is excellent over arid terrain where soil cover is missing, whereas over semi-arid - humid areas (western and northern Israel), where soil and cultivation covers are developed, the eU levels over Mount Scopus Group's outcrops are much lower due to absorption of the radiation, and do not depict the full radon potential. Detailed mapping of radon hazards usually exhibit poor correlation between airborne eU data and direct pore radon measurements, even in arid terrain. This phenomenon is attributed to the fact that a radon ''source rock'' (e.g. phosphorite) could be covered with a few up to some tenths of meters of uranium-barren rock. About 0.5 meter cover is enough to absorb all radiation, causing very low airborne eU readings, while the radon free way in this rock is about 10 meters, yielding high pore radon levels when directly measured

  16. Sky camera imagery processing based on a sky classification using radiometric data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.; Batlles, F.J.; López, G.; Ternero, A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the development and expansion of CSP (concentrated solar power) technology, one of the most important operational requirements is to have complete control of all factors which may affect the quantity and quality of the solar power produced. New developments and tools in this field are focused on weather forecasting improving both operational security and electricity production. Such is the case with sky cameras, devices which are currently in use in some CSP plants and whose use is expanding in the new technology sector. Their application is mainly focused on cloud detection, estimating their movement as well as their influence on solar radiation attenuation indeed, the presence of clouds is the greatest factor involved in solar radiation attenuation. The aim of this work is the detection and analysis of clouds from images taken by a TSI-880 model sky. In order to obtain accurate image processing, three different models were created, based on a previous sky classification using radiometric data and representative sky conditions parameters. As a consequence, the sky can be classified as cloudless, partially-cloudy or overcast, delivering an average success rate of 92% in sky classification and cloud detection. - Highlights: • We developed a methodology for detection of clouds in total sky imagery (TSI-880). • A classification of sky is presented according to radiometric data and sky parameters. • The sky can be classified as cloudless, partially cloudy and overcast. • The images processing is based on the sky classification for the detection of clouds. • The average success of the developed model is around 92%

  17. Ground Radiometric Method as a Tool for Determining the Surface Boundary of a Buried Bauxitic Karst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kareem Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty two ground radiometric measurements along nine traverses within a rectangular network area were taken across a bauxitic karst within the Ubaid Formation (Lower Jurassic in the Western Desert of Iraq. A 4-Channel Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GAD-6 with sodium iodide NaI (Tl crystal (GSP-4S was used in the field to measure the total radioactivity of the surface soil. Soil samples collected from the surface at each measurement point and core samples collected from a test well penetrating the karst were analyzed by Gamma ray spectrometer. The main objective of this study was to detect the hidden bauxitic karst and determine its surface boundary. The radioactivity on the surface of the karst was ranging between 60 and 80 count per second (c/s, while the background radioactivity of the Ubaid Formation, which hosts the karst, was ranging between 100 and150 c/s. Chemical weathering, especially dissolution and leaching moved uranium (238U and thorium(232Th from the overburden downward. Accordingly, these elements have been adsorbed on the surface of clay minerals and bauxite buried at a depth of about 5m causing enrichment with radioactivity. The leached overburden lack radioelements, so its radioactivity was less than background radioactivity level. The gamma ray spectroanalysis showed that the radioactivity of 238U and 232Th in the overburden was 0.5 and 3 Bq/Kg, whereas, in the bauxite and flint clay bed, it was 240 and 160 Bq/Kg respectively. Based on the radioactivity anomaly contrast on the surface, an isorad map was plotted and the karst diameter which represents low anomaly was determined to be ranging from 150 to 200m. The current study demonstrates that the ground radiometric method is quite useful for detecting the bauxitic karst and inferring its surface boundaries.

  18. X-Ray and Radiometrics in Geo-Ecological and Geochemical Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedyanin, S. N. [Navoi Mining and Metallurgical Combinat (Uzbekistan)

    2014-05-15

    Monitoring of tailing pits of uranium ore conversion products and reserve supplies of low-grade ores stored in dumps is traditionally based on radiation environment on these sites and adjacent territories. The results of gamma-ray spectrometry of solid fractions and radon concentration measurement in liquid and gas phases of technogenic formations are used in radiation hazard evaluation. Radiometric testing practice of low-activity field formations in loose and lump masses shows that due to high emanating ability it is necessary to use dual-channel radiometer for ionizing radiation background record and compensation. Thus gamma-radiometry is not the direct method of uranium content determination and alfa- and beta-radiometry can be correctly used only for sample analysis in laboratory environment. Consequently, distant express testing with the help of X-ray radiometric (XRM) instruments (on calcium, iron, manganese, titanium, copper, arsenic, lead, strontium, selenium, molybdenum, uranium, etc.) is recommended for additional introduction in field observations of radio-ecological environment in mining and processing production tailing and dumps of low-grade ore reserve supplies. Thanks to preliminary areal schemes of geochemical zonality as per XRM data XRM application allows to use the sample limit, given for a wide range of laboratory analyses rationally. Sampling places and their number as well as kinds of laboratory analyses are chosen based on XRM data.It is rather effective to use laboratory variant of atomic absorptive analysis on mercury and stibium in gases (GA), generated in the process of grated samples calcination in muffle furnaces. During the presentation of the report In order to prove the effectiveness of XRM and GA presentation graphics with the results of areal mapping using the above methods and geochemical testing on the territories of Tashkent (Uzbekistan) and Chimkent (Kazakhstan) regions within the framework of the geological and ecological

  19. Radiometric geological exploration method used in the central part of the State of Sonora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco R, R.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make known the importance of the radiometric data, the physical principles on which they are based and the geological interpretation which will permit in an indirect way to select important radioactive areas in order to carry out verification studies on the ground to see if there are sufficient reasons to show any interest in these areas. Till now this work has been realized in the State of Sonora (Mexico) in an area of 51,000 Km 2 subdivided in 14 zones, numbered from 201 to 214, and for the present work the zone 208 has been selected. This Zone is located at the north-west of the City of Hermosillo, and has a total area of 3400 Km 2 which has been the object of the study by plane through systematic flights in an east-west direction, in order to obtain the configuration and interpret it from a radiometrical point of view. The obtained isorads configuration plans of 4 channels of detection are the following: total counting, potassium, bismuth and thallium as well as their relations. From the 14 verified anomalies the anomaly Noche Buena was selected in order to carry out reconnaissance surveys and preliminary and detailed geological studies. The geology of the area is represented by extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks as well as sedimentary. The uraniferous mineralization is secondary and is represented by autunite, meta-autunite and torbenite which represent an average of 200 g to 3.08 Kg. of U 3 O 8 per ton. (author)

  20. Accelerator physics and radiometric properties of superconducting wavelength shifters; Beschleunigerphysik und radiometrische Eigenschaften supraleitender Wellenlaengenschieber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, Michael

    2008-11-17

    Subject of this thesis is the operation of wave-length shifters at electron storage rings and their use in radiometry. The basic aspects of the radiometry, the technical requirements, the influence of wave-length shifters on the storage ring, and results of first measurements are presented for a device installed at BESSY. Most of the calculations are carried out by the program WAVE, which has been developed within this thesis. WAVE allows to calculate the synchrotron radiation spectra of wavelength shifters within an relative uncertainty of 1/100000. The properties of wave-length shifters in terms of accelerator physics as well as a generating function for symplectic tracking calculations can also be calculated by WAVE. The later was implemented in the tracking code BETA to investigate the influence of insertion devices on the dynamic aperture and emittance of the storage ring. These studies led to the concept of alternating low- and high-beta-sections at BESSY-II, which allow to operate superconducting insertion devices without a significant distortion of the magnetic optics. To investigate the experimental aspects of the radiometry at wave-length shifters, a program based on the Monte-Carlo-code GEANT4 has been developed. It allows to simulate the radiometrical measurements and the absorption properties of detectors. With the developed codes first radiometrical measurements by the PTB have been analysed. A comparison of measurements and calculations show a reasonable agreement with deviations of about five percent in the spectral range of 40-60 keV behind a 1-mm-Cu filter. A better agreement was found between 20 keV and 80 keV without Cu filter. In this case the measured data agreed within a systematic uncertainty of two percent with the results of the calculations. (orig.)

  1. Radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, S.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Bouvet, M.; Collet, B.; Mambimba, A.; Kocaman, Aksakal S.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched on January 24, 2006, by a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) H-IIA launcher. It carries three remote-sensing sensors: 1) the Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2); 2) the Panchromatic Remote-Sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM); and 3) the Phased-Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). Within the framework of ALOS Data European Node, as part of the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Space Research Institute worked alongside JAXA to provide contributions to the ALOS commissioning phase plan. This paper summarizes the strategy that was adopted by ESA to define and implement a data verification plan for missions operated by external agencies; these missions are classified by the ESA as third-party missions. The ESA was supported in the design and execution of this plan by GAEL Consultant. The verification of ALOS optical data from PRISM and AVNIR-2 sensors was initiated 4 months after satellite launch, and a team of principal investigators assembled to provide technical expertise. This paper includes a description of the verification plan and summarizes the methodologies that were used for radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment. The successful completion of the commissioning phase has led to the sensors being declared fit for operations. The consolidated measurements indicate that the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 sensor is stable and agrees with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus and the Envisat MEdium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer calibration. The geometrical accuracy of PRISM and AVNIR-2 products improved significantly and remains under control. The PRISM modulation transfer function is monitored for improved characterization.

  2. Assessment of the Short-Term Radiometric Stability between Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaxiong; Chander, G.; Angal, Amit

    2009-01-01

    The Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor was launched on April 15th, 1999 and has been in operation for over nine years. It has six reflective solar spectral bands located in the visible and shortwave infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum (0.5 - 2.5 micron) at a spatial resolution of 30 m. The on-board calibrators are used to monitor the on-orbit sensor system changes. The ETM+ performs solar calibrations using on-board Full Aperture Solar Calibrator (FASC) and the Partial Aperture Solar Calibrator (PASC). The Internal Calibrator Lamp (IC) lamps, a blackbody and shutter optics constitute the on-orbit calibration mechanism for ETM+. On 31 May 2003, a malfunction of the scan-line corrector (SLC) mirror assembly resulted in the loss of approximately 22% of the normal scene area. The missing data affects most of the image with scan gaps varying in width from one pixel or less near the centre of the image to 14 pixels along the east and west edges of the image, creating a wedge-shaped pattern. However, the SLC failure has no impacts on the radiometric performance of the valid pixels. On December 18, 1999, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Proto-Flight Model (PFM) was launched on-board the NASA's EOS Terra spacecraft. Terra MODIS has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 14.5 micron and collects data over a wide field of view angle (+/-55 deg) at three nadir spatial resolutions of 250 m, 500 in 1 km for bands 1 to 2, 3 to 7, and 8 to 36, respectively. It has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with spectral wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The RSB radiometric calibration is performed by using on-board solar diffuser (SD), solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), space-view (SV), and spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). Through the SV port, periodic lunar observations are used to track radiometric response changes at different angles of incidence (AOI) of the scan mirror. As a part of the AM

  3. Green synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Green synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of copper nanoparticles using L -ascorbic ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 3 (2017) > ... In this study, simple, economical, convenient and environmentally-friendly chemical reduction ...

  4. A new screening method for discovering antibacterial agents from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new screening method for discovering antibacterial agents from filamentous fungi. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Keywords: Drug-resistant bacterial pathogens, novel antibiotics; screening method, filamentous fungi products ...

  5. Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Ziziphus mucronata and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulphuric acid reagent, Fehling's solution, concentrated sulphuric acid, ferric chloride, Drangendorff's reagent, acetic anhydride, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet, Methods: Antibacterial activity was evaluated using ...

  6. Antibacterial properties of palladium nanostructures sputtered on polyethylene naphthalate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polívková, M.; Válová, M.; Siegel, J.; Rimpelová, S.; Hubáček, Tomáš; Lyutakov, O.; Švorčík, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 90 (2015), s. 73767-73774 ISSN 2046-2069 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : polymer * palladium sputtering * annealing * nanostructure * antibacterial effect Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 3.289, year: 2015

  7. A new screening method for discovering antibacterial agents from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... 1College of Chemistry & Life Science, China Three Gorges University, Yichang ... However, antibacterial drug discovery and development ... Untapped biological ..... gratefully thank Professor David M. Johnson for helpful.

  8. Evaluation of antioxidant, antihemolytic and antibacterial potential of six

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimad dine Tariq Bouhlali

    2016-04-01

    These results suggested that date fruit extract, especially Jihl and Bousrdon extract, is not only an important source of antioxidants, which possess a high protective effect of membrane against free radical, but also a potential source of antibacterial components.

  9. Screening of antibacterial potentials of some medicinal plants from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of these medicinal plants Caesalpinia bonducella, Gardenia gummifera and ... arabica, Gardenia gummifera and ethanol, methanol extracts of Caesalpinia ... Key words: Antibacterial activity, Melghat, Medicinal Plants, Phytochemical ...

  10. Phytochemicals, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of a lichen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARSHYMARGGIE

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... done using chemical tests. Antibacterial activities of Cladonia digitata were determined by a disk ... of antimicrobial therapeutics or lead compounds to synthesis of new .... ingredients used in cosmetics. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol ...

  11. antibacterial properties of mangifera indica on staphylococcus aureus.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica stem bark extracts was determined using disk ... In disk diffusion method, inhibition zone sizes were used to determine the ...... There is need for lead compounds ... pharmaceutical and cosmetics.

  12. Antibacterial efficacy of raw and commercially available honey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-19

    Sep 19, 2011 ... Key words: Honey, antibacterial activity, raw honey, commercially available honey, minimum inhibitory ... against pathogenic bacteria, oral bacteria as well as food .... explore the possible benefits of the use of honey among.

  13. Research Note: Comparative antibacterial activities of oil-palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note: Comparative antibacterial activities of oil-palm Elaeis ... The antimicrobial activities liquid pyrolysates (obtained by destructive distillation), their ... respective chloroform fractions which showed higher activities than the crude ...

  14. Antibacterial Properties of Marine Sponges from Mauritius Waters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    assay. The extracts were screened for the presence of compounds that could be responsible for bioactivity. ... Keywords: Biemna tubulosa, Stylissa spp., Antibacterial activity, Marine sponges, MIC. Tropical ..... Bio-organic and Med. Chem 2003 ...

  15. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of new fluorescent chitosan derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přichystalová, H.; Almonasy, N.; Abdel-Mohsen, A. M.; Abdel-Rahman, R. M.; Fouda, M. M. G.; Vojtova, L.; Kobera, Libor; Spotz, Z.; Burgert, L.; Jancar, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 65, April (2014), s. 234-240 ISSN 0141-8130 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : chitosan derivatives * fluorescence * antibacterial activity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.858, year: 2014

  16. Antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of leaf extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... medicinal plant Lasienthera africanum (“Editan”) and their antibacterial activities against clinical isolates ... parts of Nigeria and many of the herbal remedies have ... drugs abound in various markets today, there is need for.

  17. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... essential oil of Pinus caribaea from Nigeria. O. Oluwadayo ... Key words: Pinus caribbea, Pinaceae, essential oil, β-phellandrene, β-caryophyllene, antibacterial. .... cones of Pinus. Pinea, P. halepensis, P. pinaster and P. nigra.

  18. Antibacterial activity of eight medicinal plants against Diarrhoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The studies involve the phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of leaf extracts eight medicinal plants. The selected plants were Timarindus indica, Guiera senegalensis, Prosopis africana, Deterium microcarpum, Citrus aurantifolia, Psidium guajava, Acacia nilotica and Momordica charantia. Methanolics and ...

  19. Antibacterial activity of some selected plants traditionally used as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-26

    Mar 26, 2014 ... The antibacterial activity was determined using agar well diffusion ... antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, but the cost of production of .... Hamilton ex D Don. in the traditional system of medicine ... Based on this, further.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antibacterial activity of novel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MARZIEH ABBASI

    The prepared compounds were screened for antibacterial activity against. Escherichia coli (E. ..... HCl in the presence of phenol phthalein as an indicator. The number of H. + ... correspond to the symmetric and asymmetric SO2 and also C-S ...