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Sample records for radiographic linear indications

  1. Radiographic indices for lumbar developmental spinal stenosis

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    Jason Pui Yin Cheung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with developmental spinal stenosis (DSS are susceptible to developing symptomatic stenosis due to pre-existing narrowed spinal canals. DSS has been previously defined by MRI via the axial anteroposterior (AP bony spinal canal diameter. However, MRI is hardly a cost-efficient tool for screening patients. X-rays are superior due to its availability and cost, but currently, there is no definition of DSS based on plain radiographs. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop radiographic indices for diagnosing DSS. Methods This was a prospective cohort of 148 subjects consisting of patients undergoing surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis (patient group and asymptomatic subjects recruited openly from the general population (control group. Ethics approval was obtained from the local institutional review board. All subjects underwent MRI for diagnosing DSS and radiographs for measuring parameters used for creating the indices. All measurements were performed by two independent investigators, blinded to patient details. Intra- and interobserver reliability analyses were conducted, and only parameters with near perfect intraclass correlation underwent receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis to determine the cutoff values for diagnosing DSS using radiographs. Results Imaging parameters from a total of 66 subjects from the patient group and 82 asymptomatic subjects in the control group were used for analysis. ROC analysis suggested sagittal vertebral body width to pedicle width ratio (SBW:PW as having the strongest sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing DSS. Cutoff indices for SBW:PW were level-specific: L1 (2.0, L2 (2.0, L3 (2.2, L4 (2.2, L5 (2.5, and S1 (2.8. Conclusions This is the first study to define DSS on plain radiographs based on comparisons between a clinically relevant patient group and a control group. Individuals with DSS can be identified by a simple radiograph using a screening tool allowing for better

  2. Evaluation of the accuracy of linear and angular measurements on panoramic radiographs taken at different positions

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    Nikneshan, Sima; Emadi, Naghmeh [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharafi, Mohamad [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    This study assessed the accuracy of linear and angular measurements on panoramic radiographs taken at different positions in vitro. Two acrylic models were fabricated from a cast with normal occlusion. Straight and 75 degree mesially and lingually angulated pins were placed, and standardized panoramic radiographs were taken at standard position, at an 8 degree downward tilt of the occlusal plane compared to the standard position, at an 8 degree upward tilt of the anterior occlusal plane, and at a 10 degree downward tilt of the right and left sides of the model. On the radiographs, the length of the pins above (crown) and below (root) the occlusal plane, total pin length, crown-to-root ratio, and angulation of pins relative to the occlusal plane were calculated. The data were subjected to repeated measures ANOVA and LSD multiple comparisons tests. Significant differences were noted between the radiographic measurements and true values in different positions on both models with linear (P<0.001) and those with angulated pins (P<0.005). No statistically significant differences were observed between the angular measurements and baselines of the natural head posture at different positions for the linear and angulated pins. Angular measurements on panoramic radiographs were sufficiently accurate and changes in the position of the occlusal plane equal to or less than 10 degree had no significant effect on them. Some variations could exist in the pin positioning (head positioning), and they were tolerable while taking panoramic radiographs. Linear measurements showed the least errors in the standard position and 8 degree upward tilt of the anterior part of the occlusal plane compared to other positions.

  3. Reliability of linear distance measurement for dental implant length with standardized periapical radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakoh, Mamoru; Harada, Takuya; Otonari, Takamichi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of distance measurements of implant length based on periapical radiographs compared with that of other modalities. We carried out an experimental trial to compare precision in distance measurement. Dental implant fixtures were buried in the canine and first molar regions. These were then subjected to periapical (PE) radiography, panoramic (PA) radiography conventional (CV) and medical computed (CT) tomography. The length of the implant fixture on each film was measured by nine observers and degree of precision was statistically analyzed. The precision of both PE radiographs and CT tomograms was closest at the highest level. Standardized PE radiography, in particular, was superior to CT tomography in the first molar region. This suggests that standardized PE radiographs should be utilized as a reliable modality for longitudinal and linear distance measurement, depending on implant length at local implantation site. (author)

  4. Gamma radiographic exposure time indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risbud, V.H.; Thiagarajan, A.; Gangadharan, P.

    1979-01-01

    In industrial radiography, with the proper selection of source and film, the radiographic quality depends very much on the exposure time, which in turn depends upon the source strength and the source to film distance. Conventional methods to arrive at correct exposure time involve time consuming calculations and in these methods the knowledge of the above mentioned parameters is imperative. An instrument to determine the required exposure time has been developed which indicates exposure times in about 30 secs. This covers two commonly used gamma radiography sources, viz., 192 Ir and 60 Co and six commonly used radiography films of different speeds. Knowledge of source strength and source to film distance is not required with the use of this instrument. With a knowledge of the total exposure required by the film to give the required sensitivity and by the measurement of radiation level at the film location, the correct exposure time is determined. The radiation level is measured by placing a GM counter behind the radiographic specimen at the film location. To match the responses of the film and the GM counter, the counter is incorporated in a suitably designed probe. In this instruments, an integrator to integrate the GM-pulses and a constant current integrator (timer) are started simultaneously. The voltage at the GM-pulse integrator is compared with a preselected voltage, (selected on the basis of film type, source, source strength and order of object thickness) by a comparator. The comparator is so adjusted that when the GM-pulse integrator voltage exceeds the preselected voltage, it switches its state and stops the integration of constant current. The constant current integrator output which is proportional to the time taken for the GM-pulse integrator to reach the preselected voltage, is read on a meter graduated in terms of exposure time. The instrument can measure exposure times from 5 minutes to 10 hours read in two ranges, the range-changing being automatic

  5. Do radiographic indices of distal radius fracture reduction predict outcomes in older adults receiving conservative treatment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaremko, J.L.; Lambert, R.G.W.; Rowe, B.H.; Johnson, J.A.; Majumdar, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether radiographic deformities suggesting inadequate reduction would be associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Materials and methods: Consecutive patients over 50 years of age (n = 74) with non-operatively managed distal radius fractures were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. They had radiographs at cast removal (∼6 weeks) and completed DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand), SF-12 (health-related quality of life), and satisfaction surveys 6-months post-fracture. A reference-standard musculoskeletal radiologist, blinded to outcomes status, measured palmar (dorsal) tilt, radial angle, radial height, ulnar height, and intra-articular step and gap. Radiographic indices were correlated to each other and to the various patient-reported outcomes in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. DASH score was the primary study outcome. Results: Of the cohort studied (n = 74, mean age 68.5 years, primarily white women), 71% had at least one 'unacceptable' radiographic deformity by traditional criteria. Acceptable reduction varied from 60-99% depending on which single index was reported, and 44% of patients had more than two indices reported as unacceptable. Despite these radiographic findings, 6-months post-reduction, self-reported disability was low (DASH = 24 ± 17), health-related quality of life was near normal, and 72% were satisfied with their care. No radiographic index of wrist deformity (alone or in combination) was significantly correlated to any of the patient-reported outcomes. Conclusion: Self-reported outcomes in older adults with conservatively managed wrist fractures were not related to the 'acceptability' of radiographic fracture reduction. The proportion of acceptable reductions varied by 40% depending on which index was reported. Consequently, detailed reporting of these indices in older adults with distal radius fracture may be inefficient or perhaps even unnecessary

  6. Do radiographic indices of distal radius fracture reduction predict outcomes in older adults receiving conservative treatment?

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    Jaremko, J.L. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Lambert, R.G.W. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Rowe, B.H. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Johnson, J.A. [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Majumdar, S.R. [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada) and Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)]. E-mail: me2.majumdar@ualberta.ca

    2007-01-15

    Aim: To investigate whether radiographic deformities suggesting inadequate reduction would be associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Materials and methods: Consecutive patients over 50 years of age (n = 74) with non-operatively managed distal radius fractures were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. They had radiographs at cast removal ({approx}6 weeks) and completed DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand), SF-12 (health-related quality of life), and satisfaction surveys 6-months post-fracture. A reference-standard musculoskeletal radiologist, blinded to outcomes status, measured palmar (dorsal) tilt, radial angle, radial height, ulnar height, and intra-articular step and gap. Radiographic indices were correlated to each other and to the various patient-reported outcomes in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. DASH score was the primary study outcome. Results: Of the cohort studied (n = 74, mean age 68.5 years, primarily white women), 71% had at least one 'unacceptable' radiographic deformity by traditional criteria. Acceptable reduction varied from 60-99% depending on which single index was reported, and 44% of patients had more than two indices reported as unacceptable. Despite these radiographic findings, 6-months post-reduction, self-reported disability was low (DASH = 24 {+-} 17), health-related quality of life was near normal, and 72% were satisfied with their care. No radiographic index of wrist deformity (alone or in combination) was significantly correlated to any of the patient-reported outcomes. Conclusion: Self-reported outcomes in older adults with conservatively managed wrist fractures were not related to the 'acceptability' of radiographic fracture reduction. The proportion of acceptable reductions varied by 40% depending on which index was reported. Consequently, detailed reporting of these indices in older adults with distal radius fracture may be inefficient or perhaps even unnecessary.

  7. Online Kidney Position Verification Using Non-Contrast Radiographs on a Linear Accelerator with on Board KV X-Ray Imaging Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, David J.; Kron, Tomas; Hubbard, Patricia; Haworth, Annette; Wheeler, Greg; Duchesne, Gillian M.

    2009-01-01

    The kidneys are dose-limiting organs in abdominal radiotherapy. Kilovoltage (kV) radiographs can be acquired using on-board imager (OBI)-equipped linear accelerators with better soft tissue contrast and lower radiation doses than conventional portal imaging. A feasibility study was conducted to test the suitability of anterior-posterior (AP) non-contrast kV radiographs acquired at treatment time for online kidney position verification. Anthropomorphic phantoms were used to evaluate image quality and radiation dose. Institutional Review Board approval was given for a pilot study that enrolled 5 adults and 5 children. Customized digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) were generated to provide a priori information on kidney shape and position. Radiotherapy treatment staff performed online evaluation of kidney visibility on OBI radiographs. Kidney dose measured in a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom was 0.1 cGy for kV imaging and 1.7 cGy for MV imaging. Kidneys were rated as well visualized in 60% of patients (90% confidence interval, 34-81%). The likelihood of visualization appears to be influenced by the relative AP separation of the abdomen and kidneys, the axial profile of the kidneys, and their relative contrast with surrounding structures. Online verification of kidney position using AP non-contrast kV radiographs on an OBI-equipped linear accelerator appears feasible for patients with suitable abdominal anatomy. Kidney position information provided is limited to 2-dimensional 'snapshots,' but this is adequate in some clinical situations and potentially advantageous in respiratory-correlated treatments. Successful clinical implementation requires customized partial DRRs, appropriate imaging parameters, and credentialing of treatment staff.

  8. Study of the sensitivity of wire image quality indicators (IQI) used in radiographic testing of metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, W.; Oki, H.

    1974-01-01

    Radiographic sensitivity is defined and its mathematical expresion is derived in order to justify the use of image quality indicators-IQI- formed by wires of different diameters which represent the radiographic quality. It is demonstrated that IQI sensibility is not related to the minimum dimensions of the metallic discontinuities that may be detected in radiographic tests. The experimental results are in good agreement whith the mathematical formulation proposed

  9. Radiographic testing at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Radiographic testing is a nondestructive inspection technique which uses penetrating radiation. The Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Section at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has a broad spectrum of equipment and techniques for radiographic testing. These resources include low-energy vacuum systems, low- and mid-energy cabinet and cell radiographic systems, high-energy linear accelerators, portable x-ray machines and radioisotopes for radiographic inspections. For diagnostic testing the NDE Section also has real-time and flash radiographic equipment

  10. Radiographic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The author describes how to: perform a systematic evaluation of a chest radiograph; state the classic radiographic description of hyaline membrane disease; list the conditions that cause hyperaeration and describe the radiologic feature of hyperaeration; describe the radiograph of a patient with a congenital diaphragmatic hernia; identify optimum placement of an endotracheal tube, gastric feeding tube, and umbilical artery catheter on a radiograph; differentiate between pulmonary interstitial air and hyaline membrane disease; select radiographic features that would indicate the presence of a tension pneumothorax; describe a lateral decubitus projection and state the type of problem it is most often used to identify; explain the procedure used in obtaining a lateral neck radiograph and list two problems that may require this view; and describe the radiograph of a patient with cystic fibrosis

  11. Radiographic cup anteversion measurement corrected from pelvic tilt.

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    Wang, Liao; Thoreson, Andrew R; Trousdale, Robert T; Morrey, Bernard F; Dai, Kerong; An, Kai-Nan

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel technique to improve the accuracy of radiographic cup anteversion measurement by correcting the influence of pelvic tilt. Ninety virtual total hip arthroplasties were simulated from computed tomography data of 6 patients with 15 predetermined cup orientations. For each simulated implantation, anteroposterior (AP) virtual pelvic radiographs were generated for 11 predetermined pelvic tilts. A linear regression model was created to capture the relationship between radiographic cup anteversion angle error measured on AP pelvic radiographs and pelvic tilt. Overall, nine hundred and ninety virtual AP pelvic radiographs were measured, and 90 linear regression models were created. Pearson's correlation analyses confirmed a strong correlation between the errors of conventional radiographic cup anteversion angle measured on AP pelvic radiographs and the magnitude of pelvic tilt (P cup anteversion angle from the influence of pelvic tilt. The current method proposes to measure the pelvic tilt on a lateral radiograph, and to use it as a correction for the radiographic cup anteversion measurement on an AP pelvic radiograph. Thus, both AP and lateral pelvic radiographs are required for the measurement of pelvic posture-integrated cup anteversion. Compared with conventional radiographic cup anteversion, the errors of pelvic posture-integrated radiographic cup anteversion were reduced from 10.03 (SD = 5.13) degrees to 2.53 (SD = 1.33) degrees. Pelvic posture-integrated cup anteversion measurement improves the accuracy of radiographic cup anteversion measurement, which shows the potential of further clarifying the etiology of postoperative instability based on planar radiographs. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Indications for ureteropyeloscopy based on radiographic findings and urine cytology in detection of upper urinary tract carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Akira; Saika, Takashi; Uehara, Shinya; Monden, Koichi; Abarzua, F.; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kumon, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the indication of diagnostic ureteropyeloscopy based on clinical features for upper urinary tract urothelial cancer with over 100 patients and over a 10-year series. From January 1997 to December 2008, consecutive 129 units in 124 patients underwent ureteropyeloscopy to obtain a definitive diagnosis of upper urinary tract cancer or to rule out a malignancy. Patients were divided into four subgroups based on voided urine cytology and preoperative radiographic findings: group A (n=8), positive urine cytology and positive radiographic findings; group B (n=4), positive cytology and negative radiographic findings; group C (n=55), negative cytology and positive radiographic findings and group D (n=62), gross hematuria originating from the upper urinary tract with negative cytology and negative radiographic findings. Ureteropyeloscopic findings were compared with radiographic and cytological results. Adverse effects were also investigated. In group A, all patients had confirmed cancer. In group B, one revealed small cancer and the remaining three confirmed carcinoma in situ by biopsy with ureteropyeloscopy. In groups C and D, 33 patients (60%) and four (6.5%) revealed cancer. Seventy-eight patients out of 80 (97.5%) in groups C and D were confirmed to have benign disease. No patient was found with malignancy during follow up after negative finding of ureteropyeloscopy. Ureteropyeloscopy can help in detecting upper urinary tract cancer or to rule out malignancy for patients with negative voiding cytology. However, ureteropyeloscopy is redundant for patients with positive radiographic findings and positive voiding cytology. (author)

  13. Conventional frontal radiographs compared with frontal radiographs obtained from cone beam computed tomography.

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    Nur, Metin; Kayipmaz, Saadettin; Bayram, Mehmet; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Kilkis, Dogan; Sezgin, Omer Said

    2012-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that there is no difference between measurements performed on conventional frontal radiographs (FRs) and those performed on FRs obtained from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. This study consisted of conventional FRs and CBCT-constructed FRs obtained from 30 young adult patients. Twenty-three landmarks were identified on both types of cephalometric radiographs. Twenty-one widely used cephalometric variables (14 linear distances, 4 angles, and 3 ratios) were calculated. Paired t-tests were performed to compare the means of corresponding measurements on two cephalometric radiographs of the same patient. Reproducibility of measurements ranged from 0.85 to 0.99 for CBCT-constructed FRs, and from 0.78 to 0.96 for conventional FRs. A statistically significant difference was observed between conventional FRs and CBCT-constructed FRs for all linear measurements (eurR-eurL, loR-loL, moR-moL, zygR-zygL, lapR-lapL, mxR-mxL, maR-maL, umR-umL, lmR-lmL, agR-agL, me-ans) (P .05). However, no statistically significant differences were noted between conventional FRs and CBCT-constructed FRs for ratios and angular measurements (P > .05). The hypothesis was rejected. A difference has been noted between measurements performed on conventional FRs and those performed on CBCT-constructed FRs, particularly in terms of linear measurements.

  14. Injuries of the trochanteric region: can analysis of radiographic indices help in prediction of recurrent osteoporotic hip fractures?

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    Pellegrini, Andrea; Tacci, Fabrizio; Leigheb, Massimiliano; Costantino, Cosimo; Pedrazzini, Alessio; Pedrazzi, Giuseppe; Vaienti, Enrico; Ceccarelli, Francesco; Pogliacomi, Francesco

    2017-10-18

    In a context of bone fragility, primitive and subsequent fractures are a growing problem in the industrialized countries where the mean age of the population is constantly increasing. Among the various factors that favor a fragility fracture, the most important is osteoporosis, a pathology that can be prevented through diagnostic screenings and treated by pharmacological and rehabilitative therapies. The aim of this study is to identify the subjects who are likely to have a higher risk of subsequent fractures of the trochanteric region through a retrospective radiographic evaluation of patients affected by low-energy trochanteric fractures and operated by intramedullary fixation between June 2013 and June 2015, so they can be targeted for prevention interventions. Three hundred and sixty-one patients yet alive were analyzed 2 years after surgery. Fifty-one (group 1), characterized by another contralateral trochanteric femoral fracture, were included. All subjects were retrospectively examined with the analysis of contralateral femur X-ray performed at the time of initial trauma in order to detect a condition of bone fragility and a predisposition to fractures by evaluating three radiographic indices (Singh index, Dorr's classification and Cortical Thickness Index). Patients of group 1 were compared to the other 310 patients (group 2) affected by isolated trochanteric fracture. Group 1 had all radiographic indices worse than group 2. The results observed suggest that orthopedists can use radiographic indices, in particular Cortical Thickness Index, as a valuable, simple and inexpensive screening tool for prevention of recurrent osteoporotic fractures.

  15. Herniation pits in the femoral neck: a radiographic indicator of femoroacetabular impingement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Ah; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyungnam; Jin, Wook

    2011-01-01

    The purpose was to assess the significance of herniation pits in the femoral neck for radiographic diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Eighty hips in 62 patients (bilateral in 18) with neutral pelvic orientation were enrolled. Herniation pits were diagnosed when they were located at the anterosuperior femoral neck, close to the physis, and with a diameter of >3 mm. The five radiographic signs of FAI were used: lateral center edge angle (LCE) >39 , acetabular index (AI) ≤0, extrusion index (EI) <25%, acetabular retroversion, and pistol-grip deformity. Patients with radiographs suggesting FAI were retrospectively correlated with their clinical symptoms. Positive radiographic signs were observed in 7 hips with LCE, 7 with AI, and 80 with EI criteria. Only 3 hips out of 80 (3.8%) showed all of the signs. The acetabular retroversion and pistol-grip deformity were seen in 12/80 and 3/80 hips, respectively. The total number of hips that met radiographic criteria for FAI, including pincer type and cam type, was 18 (23%). However, none of these hips were clinically diagnosed with FAI. All symptomatic hips (11/80) presented only with nonspecific pain, and 2 hips out of 11 showed radiographic signs of FAI. The low frequency of positive radiographic signs suggesting FAI with related symptoms among patients with herniation pits suggests that herniation pits have limited significance in the diagnosis of FAI. Therefore it can be concluded that an incidental finding of herniation pits does not necessarily imply a correlation with FAI. (orig.)

  16. Definitive radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer with radiographically positive retropharyngeal nodes: Incomplete radiographic response does not necessarily indicate failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liauw, Stanley L.; Mancuso, Anthony A.; Morris, Christopher G. M.S.; Amdur, Robert J.; Mendenhall, William M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Our aim was to report the control rate of radiographically positive retropharyngeal (RP) nodes with radiation therapy (RT) and to correlate posttreatment imaging with clinical outcome. Methods and Materials: Sixteen patients treated with definitive RT for head-and-neck cancer had radiographically positive RP nodes (size >1 cm in largest axial dimension, or presence of focal enhancement, lucency, or calcification), and both pre-RT and post-RT image sets available for review. An additional 21 patients with unconfirmed radiographically positive RP nodes had post-RT imaging, which consisted of computed tomography (CT) at a median of 4 weeks after completing RT. Patients with positive post-RT RP nodes underwent observation with serial imaging. Results: Of 16 patients with pre-RT and post-RT images available for review, 9 (56%) had a radiographic complete response, and of 21 patients with unconfirmed positive RP nodes with post-RT images available for review, 14 (67%) had a radiographic complete response. In all, 14 patients with incomplete response on post-RT imaging experienced control of their disease with no further therapy, and no RP node or neck failures were noted during a median follow-up of 2.8 years. Six patients with positive post-RT RP nodes had serial imaging available for review, and none demonstrated radiographic progression of disease. Conclusions: Radiographic response at 4 weeks may not accurately reflect long-term locoregional control, as RP nodes may continue to resolve over time. The highest index of suspicion should be reserved for patients with progressive changes in size, focal lucency, or focal enhancement on serial imaging after RT

  17. A computerized method for automated identification of erect posteroanterior and supine anteroposterior chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, E-Fong; Chou, Ming-Chung; Lin, Wei-Chen; Hsu, Jui-Sheng; Jaw, Twei-Shiun; Liu, Gin-Chung

    2011-01-01

    A computerized scheme was developed for automated identification of erect posteroanterior (PA) and supine anteroposterior (AP) chest radiographs. The method was based on three features, the tilt angle of the scapula superior border, the tilt angle of the clavicle and the extent of radiolucence in lung fields, to identify the view of a chest radiograph. The three indices A scapula , A clavicle and C lung were determined from a chest image for the three features. Linear discriminant analysis was used to classify PA and AP chest images based on the three indices. The performance of the method was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. The proposed method was evaluated using a database of 600 PA and 600 AP chest radiographs. The discriminant performances Az of A scapula , A clavicle and C lung were 0.878 ± 0.010, 0.683 ± 0.015 and 0.962 ± 0.006, respectively. The combination of the three indices obtained an Az value of 0.979 ± 0.004. The results indicate that the combination of the three indices could yield high discriminant performance. The proposed method could provide radiologists with information about the view of chest radiographs for interpretation or could be used as a preprocessing step for analyzing chest images.

  18. [Evaluation method with radiographic image quality indicator for internal defects of dental casting metallic restoration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Zheng, G; Lin, H

    2014-12-18

    To develop a new kind of dental radiographic image quality indicator (IQI) for internal quality of casting metallic restoration to influence on its usage life. Radiographic image quality indicator method was used to evaluate the depth of the defects region and internal quality of 127 casting metallic restoration and the accuracy was compared with that of conventional callipers method. In the 127 cases of casting metallic restoration, 9 were found the thickness less than 0.7 mm and the thinnest thickness only 0.2 mm in 26 casting metallic crowns or bridges' occlusal defects region. The data measured by image quality indicator were consistent with those measured by conventional gauging. Two metal inner crowns were found the thickness less than 0.3 mm in 56 porcelain crowns or bridges. The thickness of casting removable partial denture was more than 1.0 mm, but thinner regions were not found. It was found that in a titanium partial denture, the X-ray image of clasp was not uniform and there were internal porosity defects in the clasp. Special dental image quality indicator can solve the visual error problems caused by different observing backgrounds and estimate the depth of the defects region in the casting.

  19. Visual simulation of radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna, G.

    1985-01-01

    A method for computer simulation of radiographs has been added to the LLNL version of the solid modeler TIPS-1 (Technical Information Processing System-1). This new tool will enable an engineer to compare an actual radiograph of a solid to its computer-generated counterpart. The appearance of discrepancies between the two can be an indication of flaws in the solid object. Simulated radiographs can also be used to preview the placement of x-ray sources to focus on areas of concern before actual radiographs are made

  20. A reliable and cost effective approach for radiographic monitoring in nutritional rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, D; Gupta, V; Sharma, V; Sinha, B; Samanta, S

    2014-04-01

    Radiological scoring is particularly useful in rickets, where pre-treatment radiographical findings can reflect the disease severity and can be used to monitor the improvement. However, there is only a single radiographic scoring system for rickets developed by Thacher and, to the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated radiographic changes in rickets based on this scoring system apart from the one done by Thacher himself. The main objective of this study is to compare and analyse the pre-treatment and post-treatment radiographic parameters in nutritional rickets with the help of Thacher's scoring technique. 176 patients with nutritional rickets were given a single intramuscular injection of vitamin D (600 000 IU) along with oral calcium (50 mg kg(-1)) and vitamin D (400 IU per day) until radiological resolution and followed for 1 year. Pre- and post-treatment radiological parameters were compared and analysed statistically based on Thacher's scoring system. Radiological resolution was complete by 6 months. Time for radiological resolution and initial radiological score were linearly associated on regression analysis. The distal ulna was the last to heal in most cases except when the initial score was 10, when distal femur was the last to heal. Thacher's scoring system can effectively monitor nutritional rickets. The formula derived through linear regression has prognostic significance. The distal femur is a better indicator in radiologically severe rickets and when resolution is delayed. Thacher's scoring is very useful for monitoring of rickets. The formula derived through linear regression can predict the expected time for radiological resolution.

  1. The lambda sign: a new radiographic indicator of latent syndesmosis instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ltc Paul; Hills, Maj Chad; Chang, James; Wilson, Cpt David

    2014-09-01

    Latent syndesmotic instability is a common cause of chronic ankle pain. The diagnosis is not readily apparent on static imaging as the fibula remains reduced. The hypothesis of this study was that a previously undescribed novel finding on coronal MRI (lambda sign) is an independent indicator of latent syndesmosis instability. We also report on the utility of classic radiographic and physical exam findings. A total of 23 patients with latent syndesmotic instability diagnosed via arthroscopy (group I) were compared to a cohort of 40 patients who were found to have a stable syndesmosis during arthroscopy for unrelated conditions (group II). A retrospective chart review was performed evaluating their clinical history, preoperative physical examination, and radiologic findings. The lambda sign is a high intensity signal seen on coronal MR imaging that resembles the Greek letter lambda. All of the physical exam findings tested were statistically significant. Pain at the syndesmosis had the highest sensitivity (83%), while pain reproduced with the proximal squeeze test resulted in the highest specificity (89%). The external rotation stress test had the highest positive predictive value (75%). Of the radiographic examinations performed, only the lambda sign was found to have statistical significance with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 63%. The presence of a lambda sign on the MRI of patients with physical exam findings suggestive of syndesmotic pain was highly sensitive (75%) and specific (85%). The lambda sign noted on the coronal MRI was both sensitive and specific for injuries involving greater than 2 mm of diastasis on arthroscopic stress examination of the syndesmosis. While neither the lambda sign nor any other finding on physical or radiographic examination represented an independent predictor of syndesmotic instability, the presence of a lambda sign in concert with positive physical exam findings might help health care providers determine which patients

  2. Presence of bias in radiographer plain film reading performance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brealey, S.; Scally, A.J.; Thomas, N.B.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose To raise awareness of the frequency of bias that can affect the quality of radiographer plain film reading performance studies. Methods Studies that assessed radiographer(s) plain film reading performance were located by searching electronic databases and grey literature, hand-searching journals, personal communication and scanning reference lists. Thirty studies were judged eligible from all data sources. Results A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrates no statistically significant difference (P=0.25) in the mean proportion of biases present from diagnostic accuracy (0.37), performance (0.42) and outcome (0.44) study designs. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed no statistically significant linear association between the proportion of biases present for the three different study designs and the year that the study was performed. The frequency of biases in film and observer selection and application of the reference standard was quite low. In contrast, many biases were present concerning independence of film reporting and comparison of reports for concordance. Conclusions The findings indicate variation in the presence of bias in radiographer plain film reading performance studies. The careful consideration of bias is an essential component of study quality and hence the validity of the evidence-base used to underpin radiographic reporting policy

  3. Measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor-Induced Magnetic Fields in the Linear and Non-linear Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Mario

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic fields are generated in plasmas by the Biermann-battery, or thermoelectric, source driven by non-collinear temperature and density gradients. The ablation front in laser-irradiated targets is susceptible to Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth that produces gradients capable of generating magnetic fields. Measurements of these RT-induced magnetic fields in planar foils have been made using a combination of x-ray and monoenergetic-proton radiography techniques. At a perturbation wavelength of 120 μm, proton radiographs indicate an increase of the magnetic-field strength from ˜1 to ˜10 Tesla during the linear growth phase. A characteristic change in field structure was observed later in time for irradiated foils of different initial surface perturbations. Proton radiographs show a regular cellular configuration initiated at the same time during the drive, independent of the initial foil conditions. This non-linear behavior has been experimentally investigated and the source of these characteristic features will be discussed.

  4. Mandibular ramus: A predictor for sex determination - A digital radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotya Naik Maloth

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate mandibular ramus linear measurements on digital panoramic radiographs and to assess the usefulness of mandibular ramus in sex determination. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 100 patients (50 males and 50 females using digital panoramic radiographs of Khammam population with age ranging from 20 to 50 years. Standard digital panoramic radiographs were taken without any errors by Sirona, ORTHOPHOS XG 5 machine. The following five mandibular linear measurements were performed in cm such as upper ramus breadth, lower ramus breadth, condylar ramus height, projective ramus height, and coronoid ramus height. The obtained data were analyzed with the software SPSS 13.0 for statistical analysis using discriminate methods. Results: In the present study, all the linear measurements of mandibular ramus on digital panoramic radiographs showed a statistically significant difference between the genders. Conclusion: We conclude that the use of mandibular ramus is recommended as an aid for sex determination in forensic science due to their unique feature of sexual dimorphism.

  5. Attitudes of radiographers to radiographer-led discharge: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumsden, Laura; Cosson, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Background: The traditional role of the Diagnostic Radiographer in image acquisition has gradually been extended through skill-mix, particularly to include abnormality detection. Aims: This research focused on the attitudes of Radiographers to Radiographer-led Discharge (RLD), where Radiographers discharge patients with minor injuries and perform tasks previously undertaken by Accident and Emergency staff. The effects of job role, hospital type, experience and whether RLD was used in the participant's trust were examined. Method: A multiple-indicator online questionnaire assessed attitudes to RLD. Snowball sampling was used with advertisement via emails, posters and cards, containing Quick Response (QR) codes. Statement responses were coded, with reverse coding for negative statements and total scores were calculated. A higher score represented a more positive attitude. Results: 101 questionnaires were completed (an estimated 30% response rate) and the mean total score was 84/115. 95% of participants supported radiographer involvement in abnormality detection, with 46.5% selecting RLD as the preferred system for minor injuries patients vs 48.5% preferring commenting alone. Discussion: Participants were positive about extending their role through RLD and felt confident in their image interpretation abilities, though expressed concern for the legal consequences of the role and adequate pay. Generalization of the results is limited due to the possible low response rate. Conclusion: Overall, participants demonstrated positive attitudes towards RLD but they also indicate the need for appropriate payment for any additional responsibility. These findings are promising for successful implementation of RLD, though larger-scale research including radiologists, business managers, A and E staff and patients would be beneficial. - Highlights: • 101 questionnaires were completed (an estimated 30% response rate). • 95% of participants supported radiographer involvement

  6. Chest radiographic findings in acute paraquat poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Mi Sook; Kim, Hee Jun; Sun, In O [Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    To describe the chest radiographic findings of acute paraquat poisoning. 691 patients visited the emergency department of our hospital between January 2006 and October 2012 for paraquat poisoning. Of these 691, we identified 56 patients whose initial chest radiographs were normal but who developed radiographic abnormalities within one week. We evaluated their radiographic findings and the differences in imaging features based on mortality. The most common finding was diffuse consolidation (29/56, 52%), followed by consolidation with linear and nodular opacities (18/56, 32%), and combined consolidation and pneumomediastinum (7/56, 13%). Pleural effusion was noted in 17 patients (30%). The two survivors (4%) showed peripheral consolidations, while the 54 patients (96%) who died demonstrated bilateral (42/54, 78%) or unilateral (12/54, 22%) diffuse consolidations. Rapidly progressing diffuse pulmonary consolidation was observed within one week on follow-up radiographs after paraquat ingestion in the deceased, but the survivors demonstrated peripheral consolidation.

  7. The radiographer's role in child protection: Comparison of radiographers perceptions by use of focus groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Michaela; Reeves, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    The research presented in this paper is taken from a larger study whose aims were to devise a holistic picture of how diagnostic radiographers approach child protection issues and to explore how radiographers and other professionals see the role of radiographers in the chain of evidence in relation to child protection as this applies to children who present at the Imaging Department with suspected non-accidental injuries (NAI). A focus group methodology was used with focus groups being conducted in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. The results indicated that both United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland radiographers agreed that they had a role in child protection; however, they identified a wide interpretation as to the extent of that role. Although radiographers in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland work within different legal systems there were themes identified which were common to both countries. Although radiographers referred to a duty to the child as to all patients, no radiographer specifically mentioned the system and child care law under which it is assumed they operate. This research revealed an area which would benefit from more detailed research using a wider audience. However, the study revealed a need for training in relation to possible NAI indicators and the correct procedure for documenting their suspicions and initiating an NAI referral

  8. Biometric Analysis - A Reliable Indicator for Diagnosing Taurodontism using Panoramic Radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Veda; Anegundi, Rajesh Trayambhak; Pravinchandra, K R

    2013-08-01

    Taurodontism is a clinical entity with a morpho-anatomical change in the shape of the tooth, which was thought to be absent in modern man. Taurodontism is mostly observed as an isolated trait or a component of a syndrome. Various techniques have been devised to diagnose taurodontism. The aim of this study was to analyze whether a biometric analysis was useful in diagnosing taurodontism, in radiographs which appeared to be normal on cursory observations. This study was carried out in our institution by using radiographs which were taken for routine procedures. In this retrospective study, panoramic radiographs were obtained from dental records of children who were aged between 9-14 years, who did not have any abnormality on cursory observations. Biometric analyses were carried out on permanent mandibular first molar(s) by using a novel biometric method. The values were tabulated and analysed. Fischer exact probability test, Chi square test and Chi-square test with Yates correction were used for statistical analysis of the data. Cursory observation did not yield us any case of taurodontism. In contrast, the biometric analysis yielded us a statistically significant number of cases of taurodontism. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the number of cases with taurodontism, which was obtained between the genders and the age group which was considered. Thus, taurodontism was diagnosed on a biometric analysis, which was otherwise missed on a cursory observation. It is therefore necessary from the clinical point of view, to diagnose even the mildest form of taurodontism by using metric analysis rather than just relying on a visual radiographic assessment, as its occurrence has many clinical implications and a diagnostic importance.

  9. Simulated radiographic bone and joint modeling from 3D ankle MRI: feasibility and comparison with radiographs and 2D MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordeck, Shaun M. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical College, Dallas, TX (United States); University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Koerper, Conrad E.; Adler, Aaron [University of Texas Southwestern Medical College, Dallas, TX (United States); Malhotra, Vidur; Xi, Yin [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Liu, George T. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Orthopaedic Surgery, Dallas, TX (United States); Chhabra, Avneesh [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Musculoskeletal Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Orthopaedic Surgery, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2017-05-15

    The purpose of this work is to simulate radiographs from isotropic 3D MRI data, compare relationship of angle and joint space measurements on simulated radiographs with corresponding 2D MRIs and real radiographs (XR), and compare measurement times among the three modalities. Twenty-four consecutive ankles were included, eight males and 16 females, with a mean age of 46 years. Segmented joint models simulating radiographs were created from 3D MRI data sets. Three readers independently performed blinded angle and joint space measurements on the models, corresponding 2D MRIs, and XRs at two time points. Linear mixed models and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was ascertained, with p values less than 0.05 considered significant. Simulated radiograph models were successfully created in all cases. Good agreement (ICC > 0.65) was noted among all readers across all modalities and among most measurements. Absolute measurement values differed between modalities. Measurement time was significantly greater (p < 0.05) on 2D versus simulated radiographs for most measurements and on XR versus simulated radiographs (p < 0.05) for nearly half the measurements. Simulated radiographs can be successfully generated from 3D MRI data; however, measurements differ. Good inter-reader and moderate-to-good intra-reader reliability was observed and measurements obtained on simulated radiograph models took significantly less time compared to measurements with 2D and generally less time than XR. (orig.)

  10. Reassessing the standard chest radiograph for intraparenchymal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putman, C.E.; Hoeck, B.

    1986-01-01

    Despite the recent enthusiasm for better means of determining the extent of the active inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma of sarcoidosis patients, standard chest radiography remains a reliable method of determining staging, and parenchymal activity as well. The chest radiograph is characteristically used to determine the severity and course of sarcoidosis, but most studies imply there are poor correlations between the radiographic opacities and other indicators such as physiological parameters, gallium scans, and computed tomography and bronchoalveolar lavage results. In this preliminary communication, the authors report a new method of determining sarcoidosis activity, as compared to gallium scan, based solely on the standard chest radiograph. This method is based on the presence or absence of air bronchogram abnormalities, peribronchial cuffing, and subpleural thickening. Adenopathy and linear, reticulonodular, and nodular opacities are not included in this system. In 85 recent studies, which were performed in 51 patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis, this staging method agreed with gallium scanning in 68.2% of the patients. This system failed in specific and identifiable subgroups of patients that we will delineate. The authors will not report the comparative indices with a pulmonary function analysis or bronchoalveolar lavage results. Their database has not been tabulated to conclusively present these results, but it is their belief that this methodology will probably have a better correlation with lavage results and small airway function than would results of gallium scans. Of singular importance is the fact that this method can, with a more than acceptable degree of accuracy, distinguish between ''low-intensity'' alveolitis and ''high-intensity'' alveolitis

  11. Correlation of bone quality in radiographic images with clinical bone quality classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Woo; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Kim, Jeong Hwa; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kwan Soo [Inje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    To investigate the validity of digital image processing on panoramic radiographs in estimating bone quality before endosseous dental implant installation by correlating bone quality in radiographic images with clinical bone quality classification. An experienced surgeon assessed and classified bone quality for implant sites with tactile sensation at the time of implant placement. Including fractal dimension eighteen morphologic features of trabecular pattern were examined in each anatomical sites on panoramic radiographs. Finally bone quality of 67 implant sites were evaluated in 42 patients. Pearson correlation analysis showed that three morphologic parameters had weak linear negative correlation with clinical bone quality classification showing correlation coefficients of -0.276, -0.280, and -0.289, respectively (p<0.05). And other three morphologic parameters had obvious linear negative correlation with clinical bone quality classification showing correlation coefficients of -0.346, -0.488, and -0.343 respectively (p<0.05). Fractal dimension also had a linear correlating with clinical bone quality classification with correlation coefficients -0.506 significantly (P<0.05). This study suggests that fractal and morphometric analysis using digital panoramic radiographs can be used to evaluate bone quality for implant recipient sites.

  12. Radiographic and high resolution CT findings of non-specific interstitial pneumonia/fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Satoshi [Tosei General Hospital, Seto, Aichi (Japan); Yokoi, Toyoharu; Suzuki, Ryujiro; Noda, Yasunobu; Kato, Toshiyuki; Kaneko, Michie

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the radiographic and high resolution CT findings in fifteen patients with biopsy proven nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. The most common radiographic findings in NSIP were bilateral infiltrates involving alveolar pattern, interstitial pattern, and mixed alveolar-interstitial pattern, which distributed mainly in the middle and lower lung zones. Loss of lung volumes were common. The predominant findings of linear and reticular opacities on HRCT were peribronchovascular interstitial thickening, parenchymal bands, intralobular interstitial thickening, and traction bronchiectasis. Honeycombing was not noted in any patient on initial CT scans. The predominant findings of increased lung opacity were mixed pattern of ground glass opacity and consolidation. Because these findings mimic those of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia, distinction between NSIP and IPF/UIP seems to be difficult by radiographic and HRCT findings. The response to corticosteroid therapy was good. At follow up HRCT, the pulmonary abnormalities observed on initial scans had disappeared or were diminished in most cases. Intralobular interstitial thickening and traction bronchiectasis, that have been considered to be an indicator of irreversible fibrosis, occasionally disappeared after corticosteroid therapy. (author)

  13. Development of a portable, high-energy radiographic source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhart, E.R.; Wenk, S.A.; Schonberg, R.G.; Mixon, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is sponsoring a two-year program to develop a portable, high-energy (3 to 4 MeV) radiographic system for inservice and repair inspections of components at nuclear power stations. The basic design concept uses a lightweight, portable linear accelerator (LINAC). The design objectives, concepts employed, and progress to date are described. Specific potential applications and accompanying radiographic techniques are discussed, along with the novel beam angulation devices to permit utilization in areas of highly restricted access

  14. Linear indices in nonlinear structural equation models : best fitting proper indices and other composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.K.; Henseler, J.

    2011-01-01

    The recent advent of nonlinear structural equation models with indices poses a new challenge to the measurement of scientific constructs. We discuss, exemplify and add to a family of statistical methods aimed at creating linear indices, and compare their suitability in a complex path model with

  15. Biometric Analysis – A Reliable Indicator for Diagnosing Taurodontism using Panoramic Radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Veda; Anegundi, Rajesh Trayambhak; Pravinchandra, K.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Taurodontism is a clinical entity with a morpho–anatomical change in the shape of the tooth, which was thought to be absent in modern man. Taurodontism is mostly observed as an isolated trait or a component of a syndrome. Various techniques have been devised to diagnose taurodontism. Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze whether a biometric analysis was useful in diagnosing taurodontism, in radiographs which appeared to be normal on cursory observations. Setting and Design: This study was carried out in our institution by using radiographs which were taken for routine procedures. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, panoramic radiographs were obtained from dental records of children who were aged between 9–14 years, who did not have any abnormality on cursory observations. Biometric analyses were carried out on permanent mandibular first molar(s) by using a novel biometric method. The values were tabulated and analysed. Statistics: Fischer exact probability test, Chi square test and Chi-square test with Yates correction were used for statistical analysis of the data. Results: Cursory observation did not yield us any case of taurodontism. In contrast, the biometric analysis yielded us a statistically significant number of cases of taurodontism. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the number of cases with taurodontism, which was obtained between the genders and the age group which was considered. Conclusion: Thus, taurodontism was diagnosed on a biometric analysis, which was otherwise missed on a cursory observation. It is therefore necessary from the clinical point of view, to diagnose even the mildest form of taurodontism by using metric analysis rather than just relying on a visual radiographic assessment, as its occurrence has many clinical implications and a diagnostic importance. PMID:24086912

  16. Genetic correlations between conformation traits and radiographic findings in the limbs of German Warmblood riding horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Distl Ottmar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studbook inspection (SBI data of 20 768 German Warmblood mares and radiography results (RR data of 5102 Hanoverian Warmblood horses were used for genetic correlation analyses. The scores on a scale from 0 to 10 were given for conformation and basic quality of gaits, resulting in 14 SBI traits which were used for the correlation analyses. The radiographic findings considered included osseous fragments in fetlock (OFF and hock joints (OFH, deforming arthropathy in hock joints (DAH and distinct radiographic findings in the navicular bones (DNB which were analyzed as binary traits, and radiographic appearance of the navicular bones (RNB which was analyzed as a quasi-linear trait. Genetic parameters were estimated multivariately in linear animal models with REML using information on 24 448 horses with SBI and/or RR records. The ranges of heritability estimates were h2 = 0.14–0.34 for the RR traits and h2 = 0.09–0.50 for the SBI traits. Negative additive genetic correlations of rg = -0.19 to -0.56 were estimated between OFF and conformation of front and hind limbs and walk at hand, and between DNB and hind limb conformation. There were indications of negative additive genetic correlations between DAH and all SBI traits, but because of low prevalence and low heritability of DAH, these results require further scrutiny. Positive additive genetic correlations of rg = 0.37–0.52 were estimated between OFF and withers height and between OFH and withers height, indicating that selection for taller horses will increase disposition to develop OFF and OFH. Selection of broodmares with regards to functional conformation will assist, but cannot replace possible selection against radiographic findings in the limbs of young Warmblood riding horses, particularly with regards to OFF.

  17. Radiographic findings and Gs-alpha bioactivity studies and mutation screening in acrodysostosis indicate a different etiology from pseudohypoparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, J.M. Jr.; Krakow, D.; Smith, A.K.; Lachman, R.S.

    2001-01-01

    Acrodysostosis is an uncommon skeletal dysplasia associated with nasal hypoplasia, midface deficiency, severe brachydactyly, and varying degrees of hearing loss and mental retardation. Previous publications have suggested that it may be difficult to distinguish acrodystostosis from pseudohypoparathyroidism on clinical grounds, but acrodysostosis does appear to have distinct clinical and radiologic findings. Spinal stenosis is an underappreciated risk in acrodysostosis, despite the reported loss of normal caudal widening of the lumbar interpediculate distance on AP spine radiographs in the original report of this disorder by Robinow et al., with confirmation of these radiographic findings by Butler et al. We report two sporadic cases of acrodysostosis, one of which required decompressive laminectomy for symptomatic spinal stenosis, and review 11 cases of acrodysostosis from 9 families that were submitted to the International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry. The objective of this report is to determine the frequency and severity of spinal stenosis in patients with acrodysostosis and to summarize the clinical and radiographic findings of acrodysostosis in an effort to distinguish acrodysostosis clearly from pseudohypoparathyroidism. The pattern of brachydactyly differs between these two conditions, and varying degrees of spinal stenosis are characteristic of acrodysostosis. Both our index patients with acrodysostosis had normal bioactivity of the alpha subunit of the Gs protein, therefore indicating that acrodysostosis has a different pathogenesis from pseudohypoparathyroidism. Furthermore, single-strand confirmational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis failed to demonstrate any confirmational alterations in the coding exons of the Gs alpha gene. These radiographic and laboratory findings substantiate that acrodysostosis is clinically different from pseudohypoparathyroidism and that it is necessary to follow patients with acrodysostosis for signs of spinal stenosis. (orig.)

  18. Transfer function analysis of radiographic imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.E.; Doi, K.

    1979-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental aspects of the techniques of transfer function analysis used in radiographic imaging systems are reviewed. The mathematical principles of transfer function analysis are developed for linear, shift-invariant imaging systems, for the relation between object and image and for the image due to a sinusoidal plane wave object. The other basic mathematical principle discussed is 'Fourier analysis' and its application to an input function. Other aspects of transfer function analysis included are alternative expressions for the 'optical transfer function' of imaging systems and expressions are derived for both serial and parallel transfer image sub-systems. The applications of transfer function analysis to radiographic imaging systems are discussed in relation to the linearisation of the radiographic imaging system, the object, the geometrical unsharpness, the screen-film system unsharpness, other unsharpness effects and finally noise analysis. It is concluded that extensive theoretical, computer simulation and experimental studies have demonstrated that the techniques of transfer function analysis provide an accurate and reliable means for predicting and understanding the effects of various radiographic imaging system components in most practical diagnostic medical imaging situations. (U.K.)

  19. Application of digital techniques to the restoration of radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, S.F.

    1980-09-01

    The methods of constrained least squares and maximum entropy have been used to restore digital X and γ-ray radiographs. Both methods require the blurring of the image to be a linear, spatially invariant process. Although the blurring processes in radiography can be complex, situations have been identified where these simplifying assumptions are valid. Algorithms for deriving the point-spread function of each image are discussed. These include a pinhole method for X-ray radiographs, and reconstruction from edge profiles for γ-ray radiographs. The results from the restoration of geometrically blurred radiographs of sparking plugs are given. Maximum entropy gives results superior to those obtained by constrained least squares. The resolution is improved by a factor of about three when maximum entropy is used, and by a factor of about two for constrained least squares. (author)

  20. Dental Radiographs Ordered by Dental Professionals: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Even in resource limited settings dental caries is still the regular indication for taking dental radiographs, and periapical views are the most frequent type of radiograph ordered. Maxillary central incisors and mandibular molars were types of teeth commonly x-rayed mainly due to the aesthetic importance of the ...

  1. Distortion of digital panoramic radiographs used for implant site assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayyan Abdulhamid Kayal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study is conducted to determine the amount of distortion of digital panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of all patients who received dental implants in the years 2012 and 2013 were selected from the records at the faculty of dentistry, King Abdulaziz University. Radiographs were analyzed using the R4 Kodak Software for linear measurements of implants length and width. The measurements were compared to the actual size of the implant, and the amount of distortion was calculated. Results: A total of 169 implants were analyzed. Horizontally, there was a statistically significant increase of 0.4 mm in width in the radiographic measurement compared to the actual size in the incisor region. Vertically, the sample overall exhibited a decrease by 0.4 mm compared to the actual size. Incisors had the highest difference with a decrease of 1.7 mm in the radiographic measurements compared to actual size. The highest distortion was found in the incisor region for both diameter and length (1.1 and 0.86, respectively. Conclusion: Digital panoramic radiographs show minimal to no distortion. The highest distortion is found in the anterior area.

  2. Radiographic findings of femoroacetabular impingement in National Football League Combine athletes undergoing radiographs for previous hip or groin pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepple, Jeffrey J; Brophy, Robert H; Matava, Matthew J; Wright, Rick W; Clohisy, John C

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of radiographic findings of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in elite football players with a history of hip pain or groin injury who underwent radiographs. We performed a retrospective review of athletes undergoing hip radiography at the National Football League Combine from 2007 to 2009. Radiographs were obtained in athletes with a history of hip pain or injury. Anteroposterior pelvis and frog-lateral radiographs were obtained in 123 hips (107 players) that met our inclusion criteria. Radiographic indicators of cam-type FAI (alpha angle, head-neck offset ratio) and pincer-type FAI (acetabular retroversion, center-edge angle, acetabular inclination) were recorded. Findings were correlated with clinical factors (previous groin/hip pain, position, race, and body mass index). The most common previous injuries included groin strain (n = 57) and sports hernia/abdominal strain (n = 21). Markers of cam- and/or pincer-type FAI were present in 94.3% of hips (116 of 123). Radiographic evidence of combined cam- and pincer-type FAI was the most common (61.8%, 76 hips), whereas isolated cam-type FAI (9.8%, 12 hips) and pincer-type FAI (22.8%, 28 hips) were less common. The most common deformities included acetabular retroversion (71.5%) and an abnormal alpha angle (61.8%). A body mass index greater than 35 was associated with the presence of global overcoverage (46.2% v 17.3%, P = .025). Radiographic indicators of FAI are very common among athletes evaluated at the National Football League Scouting Combine subjected to radiographic examination for the clinical suspicion of hip disease. Elite football athletes with significant or recurrent pain about the hip should be evaluated clinically and radiographically for FAI, because pain from FAI may be falsely attributed to or may be present in addition to other disorders. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America

  3. Radiographic Features of Acute Patellar Tendon Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Muhammad Ali; Moonot, Pradeep; Haddad, Fares

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess soft tissue features of acute patellar tendon rupture on lateral knee radiograph that would facilitate early diagnosis. The participants were divided into two groups of 35 patients each. There were 28 men and seven women with a mean age of 46 years in the control group and 26 men and nine women with a mean age of 47 years in the rupture group. The lateral knee radiograph of each patient was evaluated for Insall-Salvati ratio for patella alta, increased density of the infrapatellar fat pad, appearance of the soft tissue margin of the patellar tendon and bony avulsions. In the rupture group there were three consistent soft tissue radiographic features in addition to patellar alta. These were increased density of infrapatellar fat pad; loss of sharp, well-defined linear margins of the patellar tendon and angulated wavy margin of the patellar tendon while in the control group these features were not observed. The soft tissue radiographic features described in the rupture group are consistent and reliable. When coupled with careful clinical assessment, these will aid in early diagnosis and further imaging will be seldom required. © 2015 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Radiographers and trainee radiologists reporting accident radiographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buskov, L; Abild, A; Christensen, A

    2013-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy and clinical validity of reporting radiographers with that of trainee radiologists whom they have recently joined in reporting emergency room radiographs at Bispebjerg University Hospital....

  5. Comparative evaluation of efficiency of serum IGF-1, hand-wrist radiographs, and cervical vertebrae as skeletal maturity indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Phogat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Accurate determination of skeletal maturity and remaining growth is crucial to identify optimal timing for the treatment of a series of dentoskeletal disharmonies in all three planes of space. Currently, cervical vertebral stages and hand-wrist radiographs are used to identify peak mandibular bone growth. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to compare and correlate insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 levels to skeletal maturation stages obtained by the cervical vertebral maturation method and skeletal maturational indicators obtained by the hand-wrist maturation method. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, serum IGF-1 level was measured for 53 healthy, North Indian subjects (26 female, 27 male, who were either about to begin orthodontic treatment, were undergoing treatment, or were in posttreatment follow-up between the ages of 9 and 20 years. For each subject, hand-wrist radiographs and lateral cephalograms were also obtained and staged. Results: The mean serum IGF-1 levels were the highest at the skeletal stages that were previously associated with the greatest amount of mandibular growth. Serum IGF-1 levels were low in the prepubertal skeletal stages, rise sharply to their peak in late puberty, and decline to approach prepubertal levels after puberty. Conclusion: Serum IGF-1 could be used as a skeletal maturity indicator and might be useful in detecting residual mandibular growth in young adults.

  6. Radiographic evaluation of the course and visibility of the mandibular canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the course of the mandibular canal on panoramic radiography and the visibility of this canal on both panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The study consisted of panoramic radiographs and CBCT images from 262 patients. The course of the mandibular canal, as seen in panoramic radiographs, was classified into four types: linear, elliptical, spoon-shaped, and turning curves. The visibility of this canal from the first to the third molar region was evaluated by visually determining whether the mandibular canal was clearly visible, probably visible, or invisible. The visibility of the canal on panoramic radiographs was compared with that on CBCT images. Elliptical curves were most frequently observed along the course of the mandibular canal. The percentage of clearly visible mandibular canals was the highest among the spoon-shaped curves and the lowest among the linear curves. On panoramic radiographs, invisible mandibular canals were found in 22.7% of the examined sites in the first molar region, 11.8% in the second molar region, and 1.3% in the third molar region. On CBCT cross-sectional images, the mandibular canal was invisible in 8.2% of the examined sites in the first molar region, 5.7% in the second molar region, and 0.2% in the third molar region. The visibility of this canal was lower in the first molar region than in the third molar region. The mandibular canal presented better visibility on CBCT images than on panoramic radiographs.

  7. Image rejects/retakes-radiographic challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waaler, D.; Hofmann, B.

    2010-01-01

    A general held position among radiological personnel prior to digitalisation was that the problem of image rejects/retakes should more or less vanish. However, rejects/retakes still impose several challenges within radiographic imaging; they occupy unnecessary resources, expose patients to unnecessary ionizing radiation and may also indicate suboptimal quality management. The latter is the main objective of this paper, which is based on a survey of international papers published both for screen/film and digital technology. The digital revolution in imaging seems to have reduced the percentage of image rejects/retakes from 10-15 to 3-5%. The major contribution to the decrease appears to be the dramatic reduction of incorrect exposures. At the same time, rejects/retakes due to lack of operator competence (positioning, etc.) are almost unchanged, or perhaps slightly increased (due to lack of proper technical competence, incorrect organ coding, etc.). However, the causes of rejects/retakes are in many cases defined and reported with reference to radiographers' subjective evaluations. Thus, unless radiographers share common views on image quality and acceptance criteria, objective measurements and assessments of reject/retake rates are challenging tasks. Interestingly, none of the investigated papers employs image quality parameters such as 'too much noise' as categories for rejects/retakes. Surprisingly, no reject/retake analysis seems yet to have been conducted for direct digital radiography departments. An increased percentage of rejects/retakes is related to 'digital skills' of radiographers and therefore points to areas for extended education and training. Furthermore, there is a need to investigate the inter subjectivity of radiographers' perception of, and attitude towards, both technical and clinical image quality criteria. Finally, there may be a need to validate whether reject/retake rate analysis is such an effective quality indicator as has been asserted

  8. Image rejects/retakes--radiographic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaler, D; Hofmann, B

    2010-01-01

    A general held position among radiological personnel prior to digitalisation was that the problem of image rejects/retakes should more or less vanish. However, rejects/retakes still impose several challenges within radiographic imaging; they occupy unnecessary resources, expose patients to unnecessary ionizing radiation and may also indicate suboptimal quality management. The latter is the main objective of this paper, which is based on a survey of international papers published both for screen/film and digital technology. The digital revolution in imaging seems to have reduced the percentage of image rejects/retakes from 10-15 to 3-5 %. The major contribution to the decrease appears to be the dramatic reduction of incorrect exposures. At the same time, rejects/retakes due to lack of operator competence (positioning, etc.) are almost unchanged, or perhaps slightly increased (due to lack of proper technical competence, incorrect organ coding, etc.). However, the causes of rejects/retakes are in many cases defined and reported with reference to radiographers' subjective evaluations. Thus, unless radiographers share common views on image quality and acceptance criteria, objective measurements and assessments of reject/retake rates are challenging tasks. Interestingly, none of the investigated papers employs image quality parameters such as 'too much noise' as categories for rejects/retakes. Surprisingly, no reject/retake analysis seems yet to have been conducted for direct digital radiography departments. An increased percentage of rejects/retakes is related to 'digital skills' of radiographers and therefore points to areas for extended education and training. Furthermore, there is a need to investigate the inter-subjectivity of radiographers' perception of, and attitude towards, both technical and clinical image quality criteria. Finally, there may be a need to validate whether reject/retake rate analysis is such an effective quality indicator as has been asserted.

  9. Sarcoidosis: radiographic manifestations in the nails and distal phalanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, Brittany K.; Garner, Hillary W. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Sluzevich, Jason C. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Dermatology, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease which can affect multiple organ systems. Clinical and radiologic manifestations depend on the organ system involved and the chronicity of disease. Nail involvement in sarcoidosis is rare, but is clinically relevant as it indicates chronic systemic disease. Nail abnormalities can be identified radiographically, and when seen in patients with known or suspected sarcoidosis, should prompt careful evaluation of the underlying bone for osseous involvement. We describe a case of sarcoidosis with radiographic findings in the nails and distal phalangeal tufts, which were indicative of nail and osseous sarcoid involvement and strongly supported the presence of chronic systemic disease. Although the nail findings resolved clinically and on radiographs after treatment, the osseous findings showed only minimal improvement. To our knowledge, the radiographic findings of nail sarcoidosis have not been previously addressed in the literature. (orig.)

  10. Sarcoidosis: radiographic manifestations in the nails and distal phalanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albers, Brittany K.; Garner, Hillary W.; Sluzevich, Jason C.

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease which can affect multiple organ systems. Clinical and radiologic manifestations depend on the organ system involved and the chronicity of disease. Nail involvement in sarcoidosis is rare, but is clinically relevant as it indicates chronic systemic disease. Nail abnormalities can be identified radiographically, and when seen in patients with known or suspected sarcoidosis, should prompt careful evaluation of the underlying bone for osseous involvement. We describe a case of sarcoidosis with radiographic findings in the nails and distal phalangeal tufts, which were indicative of nail and osseous sarcoid involvement and strongly supported the presence of chronic systemic disease. Although the nail findings resolved clinically and on radiographs after treatment, the osseous findings showed only minimal improvement. To our knowledge, the radiographic findings of nail sarcoidosis have not been previously addressed in the literature. (orig.)

  11. Quality of radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    This chapter discussed on how to get a good radiograph. There are several factors that can make good radiograph such as density of radiograph, the contrast of radiograph, definition of radiograph, the present of artifact and backscattering. All of this factor will discuss detailed on each unit of chapter with some figure, picture to make the reader understand more when read this book. And at the end, the reader will introduce with penetrameter, one of device to determine the level of quality of the radiograph. There are two type of penetrameter like wire type or holes type. This standard must be followed by all the radiographer around the world to produce the good result that is standard and more reliable.

  12. Variance estimation for complex indicators of poverty and inequality using linearization techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Osier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the Eurostat experience in calculating measures of precision, including standard errors, confidence intervals and design effect coefficients - the ratio of the variance of a statistic with the actual sample design to the variance of that statistic with a simple random sample of same size - for the "Laeken" indicators, that is, a set of complex indicators of poverty and inequality which had been set out in the framework of the EU-SILC project (European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. The Taylor linearization method (Tepping, 1968; Woodruff, 1971; Wolter, 1985; Tille, 2000 is actually a well-established method to obtain variance estimators for nonlinear statistics such as ratios, correlation or regression coefficients. It consists of approximating a nonlinear statistic with a linear function of the observations by using first-order Taylor Series expansions. Then, an easily found variance estimator of the linear approximation is used as an estimator of the variance of the nonlinear statistic. Although the Taylor linearization method handles all the nonlinear statistics which can be expressed as a smooth function of estimated totals, the approach fails to encompass the "Laeken" indicators since the latter are having more complex mathematical expressions. Consequently, a generalized linearization method (Deville, 1999, which relies on the concept of influence function (Hampel, Ronchetti, Rousseeuw and Stahel, 1986, has been implemented. After presenting the EU-SILC instrument and the main target indicators for which variance estimates are needed, the paper elaborates on the main features of the linearization approach based on influence functions. Ultimately, estimated standard errors, confidence intervals and design effect coefficients obtained from this approach are presented and discussed.

  13. Performance of a thermal neutron radiographic system using imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvani, Maria Ines; Almeida, Gevaldo L. de; Furieri, Rosanne; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2009-01-01

    A performance evaluation of a neutron radiographic system equipped with a thermal neutron sensitive imaging plate has been undertaken. It includes the assessment of spatial resolution, linearity, dynamic range and the response to exposure time, as well as a comparison of these parameters with the equivalent ones for neutron radiography employing conventional films and a gadolinium foil as converter. The evaluation and comparison between the radiographic systems have been performed at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear - CNEN, using the Argonauta Reactor as source of thermal neutrons and a commercially available imaging plate reader. (author)

  14. Radiographical measurements for distal intra-articular fractures of the radius using plain radiographs and cone beam computed tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suojaervi, Nora; Lindfors, N. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Hand Surgery, Helsinki (Finland); Sillat, T.; Koskinen, S.K. [HUS Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-12-15

    Operative treatment of an intra-articular distal radius fracture is one of the most common procedures in orthopedic and hand surgery. The intra- and interobserver agreement of common radiographical measurements of these fractures using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and plain radiographs were evaluated. Thirty-seven patients undergoing open reduction and volar fixation for a distal radius fracture were studied. Two radiologists analyzed the preoperative radiographs and CBCT images. Agreement of the measurements was subjected to intra-class correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman analyses. Plain radiographs provided a slightly poorer level of agreement. For fracture diastasis, excellent intraobserver agreement was achieved for radiographs and good or excellent agreement for CBCT, compared to poor interobserver agreement (ICC 0.334) for radiographs and good interobserver agreement (ICC 0.621) for CBCT images. The Bland-Altman analyses indicated a small mean difference between the measurements but rather large variation using both imaging methods, especially in angular measurements. For most of the measurements, radiographs do well, and may be used in clinical practice. Two different measurements by the same reader or by two different readers can lead to different decisions, and therefore a standardization of the measurements is imperative. More detailed analysis of articular surface needs cross-sectional imaging modalities. (orig.)

  15. Radiographical measurements for distal intra-articular fractures of the radius using plain radiographs and cone beam computed tomography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suojärvi, Nora; Sillat, T; Lindfors, N; Koskinen, S K

    2015-12-01

    Operative treatment of an intra-articular distal radius fracture is one of the most common procedures in orthopedic and hand surgery. The intra- and interobserver agreement of common radiographical measurements of these fractures using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and plain radiographs were evaluated. Thirty-seven patients undergoing open reduction and volar fixation for a distal radius fracture were studied. Two radiologists analyzed the preoperative radiographs and CBCT images. Agreement of the measurements was subjected to intra-class correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman analyses. Plain radiographs provided a slightly poorer level of agreement. For fracture diastasis, excellent intraobserver agreement was achieved for radiographs and good or excellent agreement for CBCT, compared to poor interobserver agreement (ICC 0.334) for radiographs and good interobserver agreement (ICC 0.621) for CBCT images. The Bland-Altman analyses indicated a small mean difference between the measurements but rather large variation using both imaging methods, especially in angular measurements. For most of the measurements, radiographs do well, and may be used in clinical practice. Two different measurements by the same reader or by two different readers can lead to different decisions, and therefore a standardization of the measurements is imperative. More detailed analysis of articular surface needs cross-sectional imaging modalities.

  16. Radiographic markers - A reservoir for bacteria?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugwell, Jenna; Maddison, Adele

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Amongst the most frequently handled objects in the radiology department are radiographic markers. They are personal accessories used with every patient, and are kept in the radiographers pockets when not utilised. Upon enquiry it was discovered that many radiographers disregarded the potential of these accessories to become a vector for cross-contamination thus never or rarely clean them. The aims of this study were therefore to identify if radiographic markers are a reservoir for bacteria and to establish an effective cleaning method for decontaminating them. Methodology: 25 radiographers/student radiographers were selected for this study. Swabbing of their markers prior and post cleaning took place. The microbiology laboratory subsequently analyzed the results by quantifying and identifying the bacteria present. The participants also completed a closed questionnaire regarding their markers (e.g. frequency of cleaning and type of marker) to help specify the results gained from the swabbing procedure. Results: From the sample swabbed, 92% were contaminated with various organisms including Staphylococcus and Bacillus species, the amount of bacteria present ranged from 0 to >50 CFU. There were no significant differences between disinfectant wipes and alcohol gel in decontaminating the markers. Both successfully reduced their bacterial load, with 80% of the markers post cleaning having 0 CFU. Conclusion: The results indicated that radiographic markers can become highly contaminated with various organisms thus serve as a reservoir for bacteria. In addition, the markers need to be cleaned on a regular basis, with either disinfectant wipes or alcohol gel to reduce their bacterial load.

  17. Quantitative analysis of real-time radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, M.D.; Condon, P.E.; Barry, R.C.; Betz, R.A.; Klynn, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    A method was developed which yields quantitative information on the spatial resolution, contrast sensitivity, image noise, and focal spot size from real time radiographic images. The method uses simple image quality indicators and computer programs which make it possible to readily obtain quantitative performance measurements of single or multiple radiographic systems. It was used for x-ray and optical images to determine which component of the system was not operating up to standard. Focal spot size was monitored by imaging a bar pattern. This paper constitutes the second progress report on the development of the camera and radiation image quality indicators

  18. Is linear distance measured by panoramic radiography reliable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Keiichi; Wakoh, Mamoru; Sano, Tsukasa; Suehiro, Atsushi; Sekine, Hideshi; Kousuge, Yuuji

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to re-examine the reliability of distance measurements on clinical panoramic radiographs by comparing them with computed tomography (CT) images, from which the most accurate distance measurement is possible. Twenty pairs of images from patients examined both with panoramic radiography and CT for dental implant treatment planning in the premolar and molar regions of the mandible were used. The vertical linear distance between the alveolar crest and the closest mandibular canal was measured by three experienced oral radiologists on both images. The distances measured on panoramic radiographs were corrected for the magnification factor at the focal plane. Double-oblique cross-sectional images were used for CT. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated between distances obtained from both images. The paired t test was performed for statistical comparison. Error levels with the panoramic radiograph versus the CT image were also calculated. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed a significant strong linear correlation (R=0.90; p<0.01). However, the corrected value of distance measured on panoramic radiographs tended to be too small, and a significant difference was observed (p<0.05). The error level was approximately 10% (9.6±7.3%). Distance measurement on clinical panoramic radiographs is less reliable than CT images and cannot be recommended. (author)

  19. The interest of radiographical investigations of bone diseases in the selection of stallions [orthopedic lesions, abnormal radiographic findings, multivariate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valette, J.P.; Touzot, G.; Denoix, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Breeding of sport horses requires products with qualities for performance traits. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relation between radiographical examination and descendant of sires. Foots, fetlocks of both thoracic and pelvic limbs, carpus, tarsus and stifles were examined radiographically in 225 3-year old horses descent from 25 stallions. Data were analysed by multivariate analysis. Results indicate that descendant of a stallion presents the same abnormal radiographic findings. It is concluded that bone diseases are of great importance in breeding sport horses and that these abnormalities could have a genetic component [fr

  20. The effect of changes in sea surface temperature on linear growth of Porites coral in Ambon Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corvianawatie, Corry; Putri, Mutiara R.; Cahyarini, Sri Y.

    2015-01-01

    Coral is one of the most important organisms in the coral reef ecosystem. There are several factors affecting coral growth, one of them is changes in sea surface temperature (SST). The purpose of this research is to understand the influence of SST variability on the annual linear growth of Porites coral taken from Ambon Bay. The annual coral linear growth was calculated and compared to the annual SST from the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature version 3b (ERSST v3b) model. Coral growth was calculated by using Coral X-radiograph Density System (CoralXDS) software. Coral sample X-radiographs were used as input data. Chronology was developed by calculating the coral’s annual growth bands. A pair of high and low density banding patterns observed in the coral’s X-radiograph represent one year of coral growth. The results of this study shows that Porites coral extents from 2001-2009 and had an average growth rate of 1.46 cm/year. Statistical analysis shows that the annual coral linear growth declined by 0.015 cm/year while the annual SST declined by 0.013°C/year. SST and the annual linear growth of Porites coral in the Ambon Bay is insignificantly correlated with r=0.304 (n=9, p>0.05). This indicates that annual SST variability does not significantly influence the linear growth of Porites coral from Ambon Bay. It is suggested that sedimentation load, salinity, pH or other environmental factors may affect annual linear coral growth

  1. The effect of changes in sea surface temperature on linear growth of Porites coral in Ambon Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corvianawatie, Corry, E-mail: corvianawatie@students.itb.ac.id; Putri, Mutiara R., E-mail: mutiara.putri@fitb.itb.ac.id [Oceanography Study Program, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Cahyarini, Sri Y., E-mail: yuda@geotek.lipi.go.id [Research Center for Geotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Coral is one of the most important organisms in the coral reef ecosystem. There are several factors affecting coral growth, one of them is changes in sea surface temperature (SST). The purpose of this research is to understand the influence of SST variability on the annual linear growth of Porites coral taken from Ambon Bay. The annual coral linear growth was calculated and compared to the annual SST from the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature version 3b (ERSST v3b) model. Coral growth was calculated by using Coral X-radiograph Density System (CoralXDS) software. Coral sample X-radiographs were used as input data. Chronology was developed by calculating the coral’s annual growth bands. A pair of high and low density banding patterns observed in the coral’s X-radiograph represent one year of coral growth. The results of this study shows that Porites coral extents from 2001-2009 and had an average growth rate of 1.46 cm/year. Statistical analysis shows that the annual coral linear growth declined by 0.015 cm/year while the annual SST declined by 0.013°C/year. SST and the annual linear growth of Porites coral in the Ambon Bay is insignificantly correlated with r=0.304 (n=9, p>0.05). This indicates that annual SST variability does not significantly influence the linear growth of Porites coral from Ambon Bay. It is suggested that sedimentation load, salinity, pH or other environmental factors may affect annual linear coral growth.

  2. Radiographer interpretation of trauma radiographs: Issues for radiography education providers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, Maryann; Snaith, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    Background: The role of radiographers with respect to image interpretation within clinical practice is well recognised. It is the expectation of the professional, regulatory and academic bodies that upon qualification, radiographers will possess image interpretation skills. Additionally, The College of Radiographers has asserted that its aspiration is for all radiographers to be able to provide an immediate written interpretation on skeletal trauma radiographs by 2010. This paper explores the readiness of radiography education programmes in the UK to deliver this expectation. Method: A postal questionnaire was distributed to 25 Higher Education Institutions in the UK (including Northern Ireland) that provided pre-registration radiography education as identified from the Society and College of Radiographers register. Information was sought relating to the type of image interpretation education delivered at pre- and post-registration levels; the anatomical range of image interpretation education; and education delivery styles. Results: A total of 19 responses (n = 19/25; 76.0%) were received. Image interpretation education was included as part of all radiographer pre-registration programmes and offered at post-registration level at 12 academic centres (n = 12/19; 63.2%). The anatomical areas and educational delivery methods varied across institutions. Conclusion: Radiography education providers have embraced the need for image interpretation education within both pre- and post-registration radiography programmes. As a result, UK education programmes are able to meet the 2010 College of Radiographers aspiration.

  3. Correction of radiographic measurements of acetabular cup wear for variations in pelvis orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, Brian

    2018-03-01

    Radiographic measurement of two-dimensional acetabular cup wear is usually carried out on a series of follow-up radiographs of the patient's pelvis. Since the orientation of the pelvis might not be consistent at every X-ray examination, the resulting change in view of the wear plane introduces error into the linear wear measurement. This effect is amplified on some designs of cup in which the centre of the socket is several millimetres below the centre of the cup or circular wire marker. This study describes the formulation of a mathematical method to correct radiographic wear measurements for changes in pelvis orientation. A mathematical simulation of changes in cup orientation and wear vectors caused by pelvic tilt was used to confirm that the formulae corrected the wear exactly if the radiographic plane of the reference radiograph was parallel to the true plane of wear. An error analysis showed that even when the true wear plane was not parallel to the reference radiographic plane, the formulae could still provide a useful correction. A published correction formula was found to be ineffective.

  4. Digital interactive learning of oral radiographic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchkova, J; Maybury, T; Farah, C S

    2012-02-01

    Studies reporting high number of diagnostic errors made from radiographs suggest the need to improve the learning of radiographic interpretation in the dental curriculum. Given studies that show student preference for computer-assisted or digital technologies, the purpose of this study was to develop an interactive digital tool and to determine whether it was more successful than a conventional radiology textbook in assisting dental students with the learning of radiographic anatomy. Eighty-eight dental students underwent a learning phase of radiographic anatomy using an interactive digital tool alongside a conventional radiology textbook. The success of the digital tool, when compared to the textbook, was assessed by quantitative means using a radiographic interpretation test and by qualitative means using a structured Likert scale survey, asking students to evaluate their own learning outcomes from the digital tool. Student evaluations of the digital tool showed that almost all participants (95%) indicated that the tool positively enhanced their learning of radiographic anatomy and interpretation. The success of the digital tool in assisting the learning of radiographic interpretation is discussed in the broader context of learning and teaching curricula, and preference (by students) for the use of this digital form when compared to the conventional literate form of the textbook. Whilst traditional textbooks are still valued in the dental curriculum, it is evident that the preference for computer-assisted learning of oral radiographic anatomy enhances the learning experience by enabling students to interact and better engage with the course material. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Radiographic correlation of dental and skeletal age: Third molar, an age indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, Gn; Rao, Balaji B; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G; Rao, Dayashankara Jk; Goel, Sumit

    2011-01-01

    Age estimation plays a great role in forensic investigations, orthodontic and surgical treatment planning, and tooth transplantation. Teeth offer an excellent material for age determination by stages of development below the age of 25 years and by secondary changes after the age of 25 years. Third molar is often not included for this purpose due to its notorious developmental patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of third molar anlage in relation to skeletal maturities and the chronological age. One hundred and fifty-six young individuals, 78 males and 78 females, were selected. The stages of development of all the third molars in every individual were determined from panoramic radiographs. The skeletal development was assessed using hand wrist radiographs. Data were analyzed statistically for mean value, standard deviation and the relationship between the recorded characteristics. A STRONG CORRELATION WAS FOUND BETWEEN THIRD MOLAR DEVELOPMENT AND SKELETAL MATURITY (IN MALES: r=0.88, Pthird molar and 0.89 for mandibular third molar, Page, developmental stages of third molars and maturation of epiphyses of hand. Any of the three parameters could be used for the assessment of other maturities.

  6. Para-acetabular peritendinitis calcarea; its radiographic manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Akira; Murayama, Sadayuki; Ohuchida, Toshiyuki; Russell, W.J.

    1987-02-01

    Peritendinitis calcarea and os acetabuli have long been confused during interpretations of hip-joint radiographs. Such confusion is reflected in the medical literature. The present study differentiated these two entities according to their interval radiographic progression and regression. There were 137 instances of para-acetabular calcifications among 110 subjects (59 men and 51 women), whose mean age was 46.8 years at the time of their initial detection. Twenty-six of the subjects had lumbago, which was probably unrelated. Other abnormalities including narrowed intervertebral spaces, scoliosis, and spondylolysis were observed in 21 of the subjects. These could have been responsible for any symptoms they had had, but none of the subjects complained of local hip-joint pain when the radiographs in question were made. Ninety-three of these instances of calcification were reviewed by means of serial radiographs. Interval changes in the sizes and shapes of the calcifications occurred among 90 of them, indicative of the latent type of peritendinitis calcarea. No interval changes were noted in the remaining three cases, indicating they were secondary ossification centers; namely, os acetabuli. This study showed that in asymptomatic adults, most para-acetabular calcifications were really not os acetabuli, but actually peritendinitis calcarea. (author)

  7. Multiline digital radiographic imager study with synchronization to detector gas ion drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyret, O.

    1985-01-01

    This direct digital radiographic imager is based on X-ray detection in high pressure rare gas ionization chamber. This linear multidetector, from which scanning radiography is realized, records many lines together. Spatial resolution performance in scanning direction are made sure by scanning synchronization with ion drift in detector. After a physical study and a potential evaluation of its performances on mock-up, a 128 cell prototype has been realized. The first images give validation and limits of such a radiographic process [fr

  8. The radiographic acromiohumeral interval is affected by arm and radiographic beam position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehringer, Edward V.; Rosipal, Charles E.; Rhodes, David A.; Lauder, Anthony J.; Feschuk, Connie A.; Mormino, Matthew A.; Hartigan, David E. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, Omaha, NE (United States); Puumala, Susan E. [Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Preventive and Societal Medicine, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2008-06-15

    The objective was to determine whether arm and radiographic beam positional changes affect the acromiohumeral interval (AHI) in radiographs of healthy shoulders. Controlling for participant's height and position as well as radiographic beam height and angle, from 30 right shoulders of right-handed males without shoulder problems four antero-posterior (AP) radiographic views each were obtained in defined positions. Three independent, blinded physicians measured the AHI to the nearest millimeter in 120 randomized radiographs. Mean differences between measurements were calculated, along with a 95% confidence interval. Controlling for observer effect, there was a significant difference between AHI measurements on different views (p<0.01). All pair-wise differences were statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons (all p values <0.01). Even in healthy shoulders, small changes in arm position and radiographic beam orientation affect the AHI in radiographs. (orig.)

  9. Study on image quality of radiograph in radiographic examination for circumferential welded joint. 1. Basic study on scattered radiation in double wall exposure technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kiyoshi; Ooka, Norikazu.

    1997-01-01

    Wire type Image Quality Indicators (I. Q. I.) are usually used for the evaluation of the image quality of radiographs in radiographic examinations specified in the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS). The relationship between the sensitivity of the Image Quality Indicator and the radiographic contrast in single wall exposure technique has already been well understood. However, the relationship in double wall exposure technique is still under discussion. As a result of the fundamental experiments using flat plates, it was found in this study that the image quality of radiograph depends on the ratio of scattered X-rays generated in the focus side test plate to transmitted X-rays, and that the ratio varies in inverse proportion to the distance between the flat plates. It was also shown that the simulation method based on the Compton Effect is effective in obtaining the ratio of scattered to transmitted X-rays in the double wall exposure technique for a pipe of more than 100 mm diameter. (author)

  10. Reliability and accuracy analysis of a new semiautomatic radiographic measurement software in adult scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Carl-Eric; Bellefleur, Christian; Joncas, Julie; de Lanauze, Dominic; Kadoury, Samuel; Blanke, Kathy; Parent, Stefan; Labelle, Hubert

    2011-05-20

    Radiographic software measurement analysis in adult scoliosis. To assess the accuracy as well as the intra- and interobserver reliability of measuring different indices on preoperative adult scoliosis radiographs using a novel measurement software that includes a calibration procedure and semiautomatic features to facilitate the measurement process. Scoliosis requires a careful radiographic evaluation to assess the deformity. Manual and computer radiographic process measures have been studied extensively to determine the reliability and reproducibility in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Most studies rely on comparing given measurements, which are repeated by the same user or by an expert user. A given measure with a small intra- or interobserver error might be deemed as good repeatability, but all measurements might not be truly accurate because the ground-truth value is often unknown. Thorough accuracy assessment of radiographic measures is necessary to assess scoliotic deformities, compare these measures at different stages or to permit valid multicenter studies. Thirty-four sets of adult scoliosis digital radiographs were measured two times by three independent observers using a novel radiographic measurement software that includes semiautomatic features to facilitate the measurement process. Twenty different measures taken from the Spinal Deformity Study Group radiographic measurement manual were performed on the coronal and sagittal images. Intra- and intermeasurer reliability for each measure was assessed. The accuracy of the measurement software was also assessed using a physical spine model in six different scoliotic configurations as a true reference. The majority of the measures demonstrated good to excellent intra- and intermeasurer reliability, except for sacral obliquity. The standard variation of all the measures was very small: ≤ 4.2° for Cobb angles, ≤ 4.2° for the kyphosis, ≤ 5.7° for the lordosis, ≤ 3.9° for the pelvic angles, and

  11. Fast radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1984-08-01

    Industrial radiography can be performed with shorter exposure times, when instead of X-ray film with lead intensifying screens the radiographic paper with fluorescent screen is used. With paper radiography one can obtain lower material, equipment, and labor costs, shorter exposure and processing times, and easier radiation protection. The speed of the radiographic inspection can also be increased by the use of fluorometallic intensifying screens together with a special brand of X-ray film. Before accepting either of the two fast radiographic systems one must be sure that they can produce radiographs of adequate image quality. Therefore an investigation was performed on that subject using ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters. The radiographic image quality was tested for aluminium and steel up to 30 mm thick using various brands of radiographic paper and X-ray film with fluorometallic screens and comparing them with fast X-ray films with lead screens. Both systems give satisfactory results. (author)

  12. The effect of liquid media on x-ray radiographic sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Razak bin Daud; Ahmad Suhaimi bin Abdullah; Azali bin Muhamad

    1991-01-01

    The effect of liquid media i.e. tap water, seawater and crude oil on X-Rays radiographic sensitivity for 120, 160, 200 kV X-Rays was investigated. Stainless steel plates were used as specimens. Image quality indicators were German standard DIN 54109 - wire type and penetrameter ASME-SE142. Result obtained shows that radiographic sensitivity percents obtained in the liquid media using wire type image quality indicator and penetrameter are lessened to about 20-25% and 40-44% respectively with respect to radiographic sensitivity obtained in air. Optimum thickness of specimen for appropriate X-ray energies where sensitivity is best does not vary in air, tap water, seawater or crude oil

  13. Radiographic imaging. 4 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesney, D.N.; Chesney, M.O.

    1981-01-01

    This is a revised edition of the textbook previously entitled 'Radiographic Photography' and accords with the current syllabus of training for the Diploma of the Royal College of Radiographers. The aim is a non-mathematical approach to provide a guide for the student to the knowledge and understanding of the theoretical concepts which affect the quality of radiographic image; materials and practices are also reviewed, particularly in relation to the characteristics of the radiographic image, and to processing equipment and processing areas. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: the photographic process, film materials in x-ray departments, sensitometry, storage of film materials and radiographs, intensifying screens and cassettes, film processing, developing, fixing, rinsing, washing, drying, the processing area and equipment, systems for daylight film handling, the radiographic image, management of the quality, presentation of the radiograph, light images and their recording, fluorography, some special imaging processes, e.g. xerography, copying radiographs. (U.K.)

  14. Image-guided linear accelerator-based spinal radiosurgery for hemangioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selch, Michael T; Tenn, Steve; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Lee, Steve P; Gorgulho, Alessandra; De Salles, Antonio A F

    2012-01-01

    To retrospectively review the efficacy and safety of image-guided linear accelerator-based radiosurgery for spinal hemangioblastomas. Between August 2004 and September 2010, nine patients with 20 hemangioblastomas underwent spinal radiosurgery. Five patients had von Hipple-Lindau disease. Four patients had multiple tumors. Ten tumors were located in the thoracic spine, eight in the cervical spine, and two in the lumbar spine. Tumor volume varied from 0.08 to 14.4 cc (median 0.72 cc). Maximum tumor dimension varied from 2.5 to 24 mm (median 10.5 mm). Radiosurgery was performed with a dedicated 6 MV linear accelerator equipped with a micro-multileaf collimator. Median peripheral tumor dose and prescription isodose were 12 Gy and 90%, respectively. Image guidance was performed by optical tracking of infrared reflectors, fusion of oblique radiographs with dynamically reconstructed digital radiographs, and automatic patient positioning. Follow-up varied from 14 to 86 months (median 51 months). Kaplan-Meier estimated 4-year overall and solid tumor local control rates were 90% and 95%, respectively. One tumor progressed 12 months after treatment and a new cyst developed 10 months after treatment in another tumor. There has been no clinical or imaging evidence for spinal cord injury. Results of this limited experience indicate linear accelerator-based radiosurgery is safe and effective for spinal cord hemangioblastomas. Longer follow-up is necessary to confirm the durability of tumor control, but these initial results imply linear accelerator-based radiosurgery may represent a therapeutic alternative to surgery for selected patients with spinal hemangioblastomas.

  15. Australian rural radiographers' perspectives on disclosure of their radiographic opinion to patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squibb, Kathryn; Bull, Rosalind M.; Smith, Anthony; Dalton, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The role of Australian rural radiographers in radiographic interpretation, communication and disclosure of their radiographic opinion with a specific focus on plain film radiography was examined in a two phase, exploratory interpretive study. Data were collected using questionnaires and interviews and analysed thematically. This reports one of the key themes identified in the thematic data analysis. ‘Disclosure of Radiographic Opinion to Patients’ comprises the three interrelated sub-themes Acting Ethically, Selective Disclosure and Filtered Truth. It is wholly concerned with the ways in which rural radiographers choose to disclose their radiographic opinion to patients. Without a clear picture of where they stand medico-legally, rural radiographers draw on experience and a strong ethical framework as the basis for these complex decisions. Rural radiographers frame their disclosures to patients in a manner that is governed by the diagnostic, therapeutic and emotional impact the information disclosed may have on the patient. Disclosure to patients was found to be selective, often diagnostically vague and ethically filtered

  16. A full-mouth radiographic survey of periodontal bone loss in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlica, Z.; Erjavec, V.; Erzen, D.; Petelin, M.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between clinically observed periodontal disease indicators and radiographic findings using fullmouth radiographs in poodles. The dogs were divided into three groups according to their age. Upper and lower incisors, canines and premolars/molars were used for clinical and radiographic analyses. The prevalence and severity of periodontal disease increased with age. In addition, the deepest pockets and most severe bone loss were found around the canine teeth. The values obtained from radiographic analysis correlated well with clinical measurements. Fullmouth radiographic surveys show clearly the alveolar bone level around the whole dentition of dogs. It should be performed prior to the institution of any treatment

  17. Diagnosis of calcification on abdominal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, C.R.; Kleine, L.J.; McMillan, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    A wide variety of normal and pathologic factors may induce intraabdominal calcification. In general, the most reliable indication of the cause of a calcification is its location; therefore, if the affected organ can be identified the radiographic diagnosis is often straightforward or, at least, limited to relatively few possibilities. With this principle in mind, a series of patients with abdominal calcification are described for the purpose of illustrating the appearance of calcification of various abdominal organs. In addition, etiology for the calcification in each patient is discussed. Certain extraabdominal calcifications which may be seen on abdominal radiographs are also mentioned

  18. A high-accuracy image registration algorithm using phase-only correlation for dental radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koichi; Nikaido, Akira; Aoki, Takafumi; Kosuge, Eiko; Kawamata, Ryota; Kashima, Isamu

    2008-01-01

    Dental radiographs have been used for the accurate assessment and treatment of dental diseases. The nonlinear deformation between two dental radiographs may be observed, even if they are taken from the same oral regions of the subject. For an accurate diagnosis, the complete geometric registration between radiographs is required. This paper presents an efficient dental radiograph registration algorithm using Phase-Only Correlation (POC) function. The use of phase components in 2D (two-dimensional) discrete Fourier transforms of dental radiograph images makes possible to achieve highly robust image registration and recognition. Experimental evaluation using a dental radiograph database indicates that the proposed algorithm exhibits efficient recognition performance even for distorted radiographs. (author)

  19. PACS influence the radiographer's work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridell, Kent; Aspelin, Peter; Edgren, Lars; Lindskoeld, Lars; Lundberg, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Radiological departments are changing rapidly due to the implementation of digital images and PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems). The introduction of new technology seems to dissolve boundaries between the professions in the work environment where the technology is introduced. This process tends to change the organization and its routines. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore changes in radiographers' work with regard to skills, work practice and technology. The study used open-ended interviews to explore the radiographers' perceptions of such changes, and to identify problems and solutions pertaining to work practice. Inspiration is taken from grounded theory to explain the changes in work that were found. Respondents were selected from a total of 133 potential participants as a theoretical or purposive sample. The changing trends within the professional role indicated that radiographers, as image producers, shifted their focus from the ability to set the optimal exposure parameters in order to obtain the optimal image for diagnosis to become expert in exposure parameters, projection techniques and diagnostic practice, having multifaceted skills, as being the jack of all trades. When implementing PACS there was an obvious change in image production. At the start there were visions of new routines, and therefore the radiographers became early adopters to the new technology; in practice the organization was stacked in old routines, as the routines were inflexible and PACS work was pushed into old work routines. Although inflexible, this does not mean that they cannot change, and obviously in 2006 new routines had been implemented making it possible for the radiographers in finding new ways for collaborating with colleagues. The new technology immediately created a vision of improved service to the clinicians. In order to optimize the service the radiographers developed an insight into the need for a more comprehensive change in work using

  20. A radiographic study of mental foramen in intraoral radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jeong Ick; Choi, Karp Shik

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the position and shape of mental foramen in periapical radiographs. For this study, periapical radiographs of premolar areas were obtained from the 200 adults. Accordingly, the positional and shape changes of mental foramen were evaluated. The authors obtained radiographs according to changes in radiation beam direction in periapical radiographs of premolar areas, and then evaluated the positional and shape changes of mental foramen. The following results were obtained: 1. Shapes of mental foramen were observed elliptical (34.3%), round or oval (28.0%), unidentified (25.5%) and diffuse (12.2%) type in descending order of frequency. 2, Horizontal positions of mental foramen were most frequently observed at the 2nd premolar area (55.3%), the area between the 1st premolar and 2nd premolar (39.6%), the area between the 2nd premolar and 1st molar (3.4%), the 1st premolar area (1.0%), the area between the canine and 1st premolar (0.7%) in descending order of frequency. 3. Vertical positions of mental foramen were most frequently observed at the inferior to apex (67.1%), and at apex (24.8%), overlap with apex (6.4%), superior to apex (1.7%) in descending order of frequency. 4. Shapes of mental foramen were more obviously observed at the upward 10 degree positioned periapical radiographs. And according to the changes of horizontal and vertical position, they were observed similar to normally positioned periapical radiographs.

  1. Comparison of ultrasonographic and radiographic findings in cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, U.; Fluckiger, M.; Gotz, M.

    1994-01-01

    The radiographic and ultrasonographic findings in 26 cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis were compared. The cows were divided into three groups based on the radiographic findings; the first group consisted of 12 cows in which the principal radiographic finding was a foreign body penetrating the reticulum; the second group contained four cows in which the principal radiographic finding was gas shadows or a gas-fluid interface, the third group consisted of 10 cows that had no reliable radiographic evidence of traumatic reticuloperitonitis, such as an abnormal contour, position or shape of the reticulum. In no case could the foreign bodies be visualised by ultrasonography. In all the cows except one with radiographic evidence of abnormal gas inclusions and gas-fluid interfaces, ultrasonography revealed echogenic, partitioned and capsulated structures with central hypoechogenic cavities. In addition, in some of the cows with no radiographic evidence of the condition, severe changes indicative of inflammatory processes were visible by ultrasonography

  2. Radiographic evaluation of coxofemoral joint laxity in dogs part I: New stress-radiographic positioning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phiwipha Kamonrat; Duangdaun Kaenkangploo

    2002-01-01

    Two new stress-radiographic positioning techniques, namely 60 deg and 90 deg stress techniques, were introduced for quantifying hip joint laxity in dogs. The comparative characteristics and efficiency of these new techniques with angled hindlimbs were evaluated relative to the standard hip-extended radiographic technique. Forty, healthy, mongrel dogs with normal hip joint conformation were anesthetized and placed in dorsal recumbency before 3 radiograhps of the standard, 60 deg , and 90 deg stress techniques were taken. For the 60 deg stress technique, hindlimbs were extended in parallel to each other at 60 deg angled to the table top and stifles were slightly rotated inward, femoral heads were manually pushed in a craniodorsal direction during exposure. For the 90 deg stress technique, femurs were positioned perpendicular to the table top, stifles were 90 deg flexed and adducted and femoral heads were manually pushed in a craniodorsal direction during exposure. The subluxation index (SI) and dorsolateral subluxation score (DLS score) were calculated from 3 radiographic views for both hip joints to quantitate the relative degree of joint laxity. Results of the study indicated that the 60 deg (SI = 0.20+-0.045, DLS score = 62.5+-7.96 percent) and 90 deg (SI = 0.23+-0.044, DLS score = 61.2+-9.47 percent) stress-radiographs yielded significantly (p0.001) higher degree of hip joint laxity than the standard technique (SI)

  3. Radiographers and radiologists reporting plain radiograph requests from accident and emergency and general practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brealey, S.D.; King, D.G.; Hahn, S.; Crowe, M.; Williams, P.; Rutter, P.; Crane, S.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess selectively trained radiographers and consultant radiologists reporting plain radiographs for the Accident and Emergency Department (A and E) and general practitioners (GPs) within a typical hospital setting. METHODS: Two radiographers, a group of eight consultant radiologists, and a reference standard radiologist independently reported under controlled conditions a retrospectively selected, random, stratified sample of 400 A and E and 400 GP plain radiographs. An independent consultant radiologist judged whether the radiographer and radiologist reports agreed with the reference standard report. Clinicians then assessed whether radiographer and radiologist incorrect reports affected confidence in their diagnosis and treatment plans, and patient outcome. RESULTS: For A and E and GP plain radiographs, respectively, there was a 1% (95% confidence interval (CI) -2 to 5) and 4% (95% CI -1 to 8) difference in reporting accuracy between the two professional groups. For both A and E and GP cases there was an 8% difference in the clinicians' confidence in their diagnosis based on radiographer or radiologist incorrect reports. For A and E and GP cases, respectively, there was a 2% and 8% difference in the clinicians' confidence in their management plans based on radiographer or radiologist incorrect reports. For A and E and GP cases, respectively, there was a 1% and 11% difference in effect on patient outcome of radiographer or radiologist incorrect reports. CONCLUSION: There is the potential to extend the reporting role of selectively trained radiographers to include plain radiographs for all A and E and GP patients. Further research conducted during clinical practice at a number of sites is recommended

  4. Accuracy of panoramic radiography and linear tomography in mandibular canal localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashizadeh Fakhar H.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Accurate bone measurements are essential to determine the optimal size and length of dental implants. The magnification factor of radiographic images may vary with the imaging technique used. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of linear tomography and panoramic radiography in vertical measurements, as well as the accuracy of linear tomography in mandibular width estimation. "nMaterials and Methods: In this test evaluation study, the vertical distances between the crest and the superior border of the inferior alveolar canal, marked with a metal ball, was measured by linear tomography and panoramic radiography in 23 sites of four dry mandible bones. Also the mandibular width was measured at the same sites. Then, the bones were sectioned through the marked spots and the radiographic measurements were compared with actual values. "nResults: The vertical magnification factor in tomograms and panoramic radiographs was 1.79 (SD=0.17 and 1.69 (SD=0.23, respectively. The horizontal magnification of tomograms was 1.47 (SD=0.17. A significant correlation was found between the linear tomographic and actual values, regarding vertical dimensions (p<0.001, r=0.968 and width (p<0.001, r=0.813. The correlation was significant but lower in panoramic radiographs (p<0.001, r=0.795. Applying the magnification values suggested by the manufacturer, the mean difference of vertical measurements between the tomographic sections was 2.5 mm (SD=3.4 but 3.8 mm (SD=1.65 in panoramic radiographs. The mean of absolute difference in mandibular width between the tomographic sections and reality was 0.3mm (SD=1.13. In the linear tomograms, 4.3% of vertical and 56.5% of the width measurements were in the ±1mm error limit. Only 4.3% of the vertical measurements were within this range in the panthomographs. The linear regression equation between the actual values and those obtained by radiography in vertical dimensions showed that 87.5% of

  5. Customization of a generic 3D model of the distal femur using diagnostic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, B; Reynolds, K J; Slavotinek, J P

    2008-01-01

    A method for the customization of a generic 3D model of the distal femur is presented. The customization method involves two steps: acquisition of calibrated orthogonal planar radiographs; and linear scaling of the generic model based on the width of a subject's femoral condyles as measured on the planar radiographs. Planar radiographs of seven intact lower cadaver limbs were obtained. The customized generic models were validated by comparing their surface geometry with that of CT-reconstructed reference models. The overall mean error was 1.2 mm. The results demonstrate that uniform scaling as a first step in the customization process produced a base model of accuracy comparable to other models reported in the literature.

  6. When disaster strikes; the role of the forensic radiographer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Mary; Reeves, Pauline; Scott, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Forensic radiography is a vital tool utilised in the many facets of Forensic Medicine. This paper investigates the role of the forensic radiographer in a mass disaster situation; it also explores the psychological impact of this type of work on radiographers. A literature review indicated that limited work had been documented on the role of the radiographer in mass disasters. This ultimately creates doubt about whether or not the radiographer is acknowledged for the vital role he/she plays and if proper provisions were in place to assess any emotional damage in the aftermath of an emotionally and physically straining situation. A qualitative method of research was used (semi-structured interviews) in order to elicit radiographers' feelings and perceptions. This method is best suited to this research topic because it is a delicate subject. Four interviews were carried out and the responses are presented in themes including emergency versus mass grave experiences (including issues of time and preparation). Other themes include the role of the radiographer and interaction with other members of the team, as well as a discussion of the aftermath of their experiences, including the feelings of pride experienced

  7. Pre-procedural scout radiographs are unnecessary for routine pediatric fluoroscopic examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creeden, Sean G.; Rao, Anil G.; Eklund, Meryle J.; Hill, Jeanne G.; Thacker, Paul G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Although practice patterns vary, scout radiographs are often routinely performed with pediatric fluoroscopic studies. However few studies have evaluated their utility in routine pediatric fluoroscopy. To evaluate the value of scout abdomen radiographs in routine barium or water-soluble enema, upper gastrointestinal (GI) series, and voiding cystourethrogram pediatric fluoroscopic procedures. We retrospectively evaluated 723 barium or water-soluble enema, upper GI series, and voiding cystourethrogram fluoroscopic procedures performed at our institution. We assessed patient history and demographics, clinical indication for the examination, prior imaging findings and impressions, scout radiograph findings, additional findings provided by the scout radiograph that were previously unknown, and whether the scout radiograph contributed any findings that significantly changed management. We retrospectively evaluated 723 fluoroscopic studies (368 males and 355 females) in pediatric patients. Of these, 700 (96.8%) had a preliminary scout radiograph. Twenty-three (3.2%) had a same-day radiograph substituted as a scout radiograph. Preliminary scout abdomen radiographs/same-day radiographs showed no new significant findings in 719 (99.4%) studies. New but clinically insignificant findings were seen in 4 (0.6%) studies and included umbilical hernia, inguinal hernia and hip dysplasia. No findings were found on the scout radiographs that would either alter the examination performed or change management with regard to the exam. Pre-procedural scout abdomen radiographs are unnecessary in routine barium and water-soluble enema, upper GI series, and voiding cystourethrogram pediatric fluoroscopic procedures and can be substituted with a spot fluoroscopic last-image hold. (orig.)

  8. Digital image processing of mandibular trabeculae on radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogino, Toshi

    1987-06-01

    The present study was aimed to reveal the texture patterns of the radiographs of the mandibular trabeculae by digital image processing. The 32 cases of normal subjects and the 13 cases of patients with mandibular diseases of ameloblastoma, primordial cysts, squamous cell carcinoma and odontoma were analyzed by their intra-oral radiographs in the right premolar regions. The radiograms were digitized by the use of a drum scanner densitometry method. The input radiographic images were processed by a histogram equalization method. The result are as follows : First, the histogram equalization method enhances the image contrast of the textures. Second, the output images of the textures for normal mandible-trabeculae radiograms are of network pattern in nature. Third, the output images for the patients are characterized by the non-network pattern and replaced by the patterns of the fabric texture, intertwined plants (karakusa-pattern), scattered small masses and amorphous texture. Thus, these results indicates that the present digital image system is expected to be useful for revealing the texture patterns of the radiographs and in the future for the texture analysis of the clinical radiographs to obtain quantitative diagnostic findings.

  9. The radiographic image: A cultural artefact?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strudwick, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the role of the radiographic images produced by diagnostic radiographers. An ethnographic study of the workplace culture in one diagnostic imaging department was undertaken using participant observation for four months and semi-structured interviews with ten key informants. One of the key themes; that of the radiographic image as a cultural artefact, is explored in this article. The radiographic image is a cultural artefact which radiographers are protective of and take ownership of. Radiographers are conscious of the quality of their images and the images are an important aspect of their work. Radiographers take criticism of their images personally. The radiographic image is a record of the interaction that occurs between the radiographer and the patient. The way in which radiographic images are viewed, used and judged is an important aspect of the role of diagnostic radiographer

  10. The effect of perceived organizational support on organizational commitment of diagnostic imaging radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makanjee, Chandra Rekha; Hartzer, Yolanda F.; Uys, Ilse L.

    2006-01-01

    This article arises from a research project investigating the effects of occupational stress and organizational commitment of diagnostic imaging radiographers on rendering quality service. One of the main aims of this project was to determine the extent to which perceived organizational support influenced commitment of radiographers to the organization, to reduce turnover intent and quality of service rendered. A descriptive correlation study design, based on questionnaires completed by 119 radiographers from 11 organizations, revealed that organizational commitment was moderate towards a tendency of poor. A positive relationship was found between various antecedents of perceived organizational support and organizational commitment (mainly affective and normative), indicating that perceived organizational support positively influenced radiographers' organizational commitment. There is a clear indication of turnover intent, which in turn has a negative impact on rendering quality service. In conclusion, to reduce turnover intent, and improve quality of service rendered, management needs to play an important role in creating a positive working environment for radiographers to perform their tasks

  11. Radiographic evaluation of the canine elbow joint with special reference to the medial humeral condyle and the medial coronoid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhout, G.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    1987-01-01

    The results of radiographic examination of clinically affected elbow joints in 14 young, large-breed dogs, including standard and oblique projections and linear tomography, were compared with the findings of medial arthrotomy. Radiographs revealed arthrosis (13 dogs), osteochondrosis of the medial humeral condyle (2 dogs), fragmentation of the medial coronoid process (5 dogs), and a combination of osteochondrosis of the medial humeral condyle and fragmentation of the medial coronoid process (2 dogs). In one dog fissures in the medial coronoid process and in another dog a linear radiopacity along the articular surface of the medial coronoid process were found. In three dogs both medial humeral condyle and medial coronoid process appeared normal. The radiographic findings were confirmed during surgery in 11 dogs. Cartilage erosion of the medial humeral condyle in two dogs and of the medial coronoid process in one dog had not resulted in radiographically visible abnormalities. Radiographic examination of the elbow joints in young, large-breed dogs should include standard mediolateral and craniocaudal projections, a mediolateral projection with the joint maximally extended and the leg supinated 15°, and a craniolateral-to-caudomedial projection

  12. Radiographic testing in concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, D. de

    1987-01-01

    The radiographic testing done in concrete structures is used to analyse the homogeneity, position and corrosion of armatures and to detect discontinuity in the concrete such as: gaps, cracks and segregations. This work develops a Image quality Indicator (IQI) with an adequated sensibility to detect discontinuites based on BS4408 norm. (E.G.) [pt

  13. Initial image interpretation of appendicular skeletal radiographs: A comparison between nurses and radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, Keith J.; Paterson, Audrey

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of a short training programme on nurses and radiographers, exploring differences between their performance before and after training. Method: Twenty-two nurses and 18 radiographers interpreted 20 trauma radiographs of the appendicular skeleton before and after training. Normal and abnormal cases of a discriminatory nature were included. Total score, sensitivity and specificity values were calculated for each participant by comparison with an agreed expected answer. The area under the curve (AUC) was analysed using alternate free-response receiver operating characteristic (AFROC) methodology. Results: Significant differences were demonstrated between the total scores achieved by the two groups (pre-training: p = 0.007, post-training: p = 0.04). After training, the mean score increased significantly for both groups (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found between the radiographers mean pre-training scores and the nurses mean post-training scores (p = 0.66). Sensitivity for both groups increased following training, significantly so for the nurses (nurses: p < 0.001, radiographers: p = 0.06). Specificity reduced significantly after training for the nurses (p < 0.001), and increased for the radiographers but not significantly (p = 0.085). After training, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of sensitivity (p = 0.09) but specificity was significantly higher for the radiographers (p < 0.001). The radiographers achieved higher pre-training AUC values than the nurses (p = 0.04), although a difference remained after training this did not achieve statistical significance (p = 0.15). The AUC values increased significantly after training for both groups (nurses: p = 0.012, radiographers: p = 0.004) and again there was no significant difference between the radiographers pre-training performance and the nurses post-training performance (p = 0.62). Conclusion: Improvement after training was seen in both groups

  14. Radiographers and trainee radiologists reporting accident radiographs: A comparative plain film-reading performance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buskov, L.; Abild, A.; Christensen, A.; Holm, O.; Hansen, C.; Christensen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracy and clinical validity of reporting radiographers with that of trainee radiologists whom they have recently joined in reporting emergency room radiographs at Bispebjerg University Hospital. Materials and methods: Plain radiographs of the appendicular skeleton from 1000 consecutive emergency room patients were included in the study: 500 primarily reported by radiographers and 500 by trainee radiologists. The final reporting was subsequently undertaken by a consultant radiologist in consensus with an orthopaedic surgeon. Two observers classified reports as either true positive/negative or false positive/negative based on the final report, which was considered the reference standard. To evaluate the severity of incorrect primary reports, errors were graded into three categories concerning clinical impact and erroneous reports graded as the most severe category were subsequently analysed. Mann–Whitney and Chi-squared tests were used to compare differences and associations between radiographers versus trainee radiologists regarding film reporting. Results: The sensitivity for correct diagnosis was 99% for reporting radiographers and 94% for trainee radiologists. The specificity was found to be 97% for reporting radiographers and 99% for trainee radiologists. Radiographers missed significantly fewer fractures (n = 2) than trainee radiologists (n = 14; p = 0.006) but had a higher, but not significant, degree of overcalling. No significant difference was found between groups regarding clinical impact of incorrect reporting. Conclusion: Trained radiographers report accident radiographs of the extremities with high accuracy and constitute a qualified resource to help meet increasing workload and demands in quality standards.

  15. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1985-01-01

    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality...... was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out...

  16. The radiographic features of rheumatoid arthritis in HLA-B27-positive patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundback, J.H. (Dept. of Radiology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)); Rosenberg, Z.S. (Dept. of Radiology, Hospital for Joint Diseases, Orthopaedic Inst., New York, NY (United States)); Solomon, G. (Dept. of Rheumatology, Hospital for Joint Diseases, Orthopaedic Institute, New York, NY (United States))

    1993-05-01

    Radiographs were reviewed in a group of nine patients with classical seropositive rheumatoid arthritis who on tissue typing were found to express the class I HLA-B27 allele. Radiographs were analyzed with regard to whether or not they demonstrated radiographic features of (1) classical rheumatoid arthritis, (2) seronegative arthritis, or (3) mixed features of rheumatoid and seronegative arthritis. Five patients (55%) displayed radiographic features consistent with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, two patients (22%) showed radiographic features of seronegative disorder (periostitis and sacroiliitis), and two patients (22%) showed a mixed picture with evidence of both rheumatoid arthritis and a seronegative disorder. Thus, the HLA-B27 allele contributed to the radiographic features in 44% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and associated HLA-B27. Thus, the wide range of findings in our population indicates that the radiographic attributes are not specific enough to constitute a unique subpopulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (orig.)

  17. The radiographic features of rheumatoid arthritis in HLA-B27-positive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundback, J.H.; Rosenberg, Z.S.; Solomon, G.

    1993-01-01

    Radiographs were reviewed in a group of nine patients with classical seropositive rheumatoid arthritis who on tissue typing were found to express the class I HLA-B27 allele. Radiographs were analyzed with regard to whether or not they demonstrated radiographic features of (1) classical rheumatoid arthritis, (2) seronegative arthritis, or (3) mixed features of rheumatoid and seronegative arthritis. Five patients (55%) displayed radiographic features consistent with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, two patients (22%) showed radiographic features of seronegative disorder (periostitis and sacroiliitis), and two patients (22%) showed a mixed picture with evidence of both rheumatoid arthritis and a seronegative disorder. Thus, the HLA-B27 allele contributed to the radiographic features in 44% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and associated HLA-B27. Thus, the wide range of findings in our population indicates that the radiographic attributes are not specific enough to constitute a unique subpopulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (orig.)

  18. The comparative study of radiograph, MRI and pathology in degeneration of lumbar intervertebral disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Tiesong; Wang Yunzhao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the pathology, and MRI features of the degeneration of lumbar intervertebral discs (IVD). Methods: Thirteen human lumbar spine segments with 31 IVDs were harvested from fresh cadavers. High quality radiographs were taken for all specimens. Five segments with 20 IVD underwent MRl. Then, the radiographic and MRI findings were correlated with corresponding 87 pathologic sections. Results: Variant degeneration was observed in pathologic sections in all 31 IVDs. With MRI T 2 WI images, 20 IVDs showed linear and spotty high signal in the annular fibers, or most of the IVD showed high signal. On pathologic cuts, 22 of 31 IVDs showed infolding of annular fibers, 18 of 31 showed outfolding of annular fibers. On MRI T 1 WI and T 2 WI images, infolding and outfolding of annular fibers were seen as low signal. 20 of 31 IVDs had necrotic debris of cells in the nucleus pulposus. 14 of 20 demonstrated spotty low signal areas on MRI T 2 WI images. 7 Schmorl nodules were found. On pathologic sections Schmorl nodules were seen as IVD tissue protruding into vertebral endplates, they were seen as high signal on T 2 WI images. Two large fissures found on sections were seen as low signal on T 2 WI. Degenerative fibrosis seen on 6 IVD, which showed intermediate signal on T 2 WI images. However, radiographs only demonstrated osteophytes on 3 vertebrae, 7 Schmorl's nodules. Sclerotic, concave and irregular endplates were seen in 11 IVDs, the tatter is the indication of cartilaginous endplate disruption, Conclusion: MRI is very useful in demonstrating the degeneration of IVD, radiograph is able to indirectly show the disappearance of cartilaginous endplate

  19. Diagnostic radiology of pet and wild birds: a review I. Radiographic techniques and radiographs of healthy birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beregi, A.; Molnar, V.; Felkai, F.; Biro, F.; Szentgali, Zs.

    1999-01-01

    The first part of the present review summaries the basic technical conditions of radiological examinations, analyses the radiographic features of healthy birds, and describes the procedure and radiological indications of contrast radiography. (This paper can be seen on the Internet at: http://www.akkrt.hu)

  20. Radiographic examination of the equine foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    A complete radiographic examination of the equine foot consists of properly exposed, processed, and positioned radiographs. For radiographic interpretation, in addition to knowing radiographic signs of disease, a knowledge of normal radiographic anatomy and possible insignificant anatomic variations is necessary

  1. An investigation into work related stressors on diagnostic radiographers in a local district hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verrier, William; Harvey, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Extensive research on the effects of work related stress amongst healthcare professions and the NHS has been undertaken. However, very little is known about the incidence of stress amongst UK radiographers although the few studies which have been conducted indicate that the prevalence and impact of stress on radiographers are considerable. The purpose of this study was to examine work related stressors which affect diagnostic radiographers in the imaging department of a local district hospital. The study utilised the HSE Indicator and Analysis Tools for Work Related Stress. These tools are based upon the HSE Management Standards for Work Related Stress which identifies six areas that represent potential stress hazards if managed inadequately. Two free response questions and a comments box were appended to the Indicator Tool to gain further insights into the radiographers' experiences of work related stress. The results of the study indicated that the hazards associated with work related stress risk were not being optimally managed in the department. Areas of Managers' Support, Relationships, Role and Change represented the greatest risks. In addition, the radiographers cited staff shortages, heavy workload and volume of patients as the greatest sources of pressure at work and their most common recommendations to reduce stress at work were increased staffing, improved communication and more effective feedback systems.

  2. Radiographic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuster, J.

    1978-01-01

    In view of great differencies in X-ray transmission it is more difficult to get optimum radiographs of plastics and especially of reinforced plastics than for example of metals. A procedure will be reported how to get with little effort optimum radiographs especially also in the range of long wave-length radiation corresponding 10 to 25 kV.P. (orig.) [de

  3. Comparison of the critical shoulder angle in radiographs and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouaicha, Samy [University of British Columbia, Divison of Arthroscopic, Reconstructive Surgery and Joint Preservation, Department of Orthopaedics, Vancouver (Canada); Zurich University Hospital, Division of Trauma, Zurich (Switzerland); Ehrmann, Christine [University of British Columbia, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); Slankamenac, Ksenija [Zurich University Hospital, Division of Trauma, Zurich (Switzerland); Regan, William D. [University of British Columbia, Divison of Arthroscopic, Reconstructive Surgery and Joint Preservation, Department of Orthopaedics, Vancouver (Canada); Moor, Beat K. [Insel University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Berne (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15

    The critical shoulder angle (CSA) is an indicator of degenerative shoulder pathologies. CSAs above 35 are associated with degenerative rotator cuff disease, whereas values below 30 are common in osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint. Measurements are usually performed on radiographs; however, no data have been reported regarding the reliability of CT scan measurements between different readers or the reproducibility of measurements from radiographs to CT scans. The purpose of our study was to clarify whether CSA measurements on radiographs and CT scans of the same patients show similar values. CSA measurements of 60 shoulders (59 patients) were performed on radiographs and multiplanar reconstructions of corresponding CT scans. Inter-reader reliability and inter-method correlation were calculated. The mean discrepancy between readers was only 0.2 (SD ±1.0 ) on radiographs. CT scan measurements showed a mean discrepancy of 0.3 (SD ±1.2 ). The inter-reader reliability was 0.993 for radiographs and 0.989 for CT scans. There was a very strong inter-method correlation between the CSA measured on radiographs and CT scans (Spearman's rho = 0.974). The mean differences between angles on radiographs and CT measurements were -0.05 (SD ±1.2 ) and 0.1 (SD ±1.2 ), respectively. Measurements of the CSA on anterior-posterior radiographs and CT scans are highly correlated, and inter-modality differences are negligible. (orig.)

  4. Characterization of the Ljubljana TRIGA thermal column neutron radiographic facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, T.; Rant, J.; Kristof, E.; Glumac, B.

    1995-01-01

    An extensive characterization of the neutron beam of the existing neutron radiographic facility in the thermal column of the Ljubljana Triga Mark II research reactor is in progress. Neutron beam characteristics are needed to determine the effect of various neutron and gamma radiation on the neutron radiographic image. Commercially available medical scintillator converter screens based on Gd dioxy sulphite as well as Gd metal neutron converters are used to record neutron radiographic image. Thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluxes were measured using Au and In activation detectors and cadmium ratio is determined. Neutron beam flux profiles are measured by film densitometry and by Au activation detector wires. By exposing films shielded by boral or lead plates individual contributions of thermal, epithermal neutrons and gamma radiation are estimated by densitometric measurements. By recording images of neutron image quality indicators BPI (Beam Purity Indicator) and SI (Sensitivity Indicator) produced by Riso, standard neutron radiography image characteristic are established. In gamma dosimetric measurements thermoluminescent detectors (CaF 2 Mn) are used. (author)

  5. Assessment of Radiographic Image Quality by Visual Examination of Neutron Radiographs of the Calibration Fuel Pin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    Up till now no reliable radiographic image quality standards exist for neutron radiography of nuclear reactor fuel. Under the Euratoro Neutron Radiography Working Group (NRWG) Test Program neutron radiographs were produced at different neutron radiography facilities within the European Community...... of a calibration fuel pin. The radiographs were made by the direct, transfer and tracketch methods using different film recording materials. These neutron radiographs of the calibration fuel pin were used for the assessement of radiographic image quality. This was done by visual examination of the radiographs...

  6. An automated technique to stage lower third molar development on panoramic radiographs for age estimation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tobel, J; Radesh, P; Vandermeulen, D; Thevissen, P W

    2017-12-01

    Automated methods to evaluate growth of hand and wrist bones on radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging have been developed. They can be applied to estimate age in children and subadults. Automated methods require the software to (1) recognise the region of interest in the image(s), (2) evaluate the degree of development and (3) correlate this to the age of the subject based on a reference population. For age estimation based on third molars an automated method for step (1) has been presented for 3D magnetic resonance imaging and is currently being optimised (Unterpirker et al. 2015). To develop an automated method for step (2) based on lower third molars on panoramic radiographs. A modified Demirjian staging technique including ten developmental stages was developed. Twenty panoramic radiographs per stage per gender were retrospectively selected for FDI element 38. Two observers decided in consensus about the stages. When necessary, a third observer acted as a referee to establish the reference stage for the considered third molar. This set of radiographs was used as training data for machine learning algorithms for automated staging. First, image contrast settings were optimised to evaluate the third molar of interest and a rectangular bounding box was placed around it in a standardised way using Adobe Photoshop CC 2017 software. This bounding box indicated the region of interest for the next step. Second, several machine learning algorithms available in MATLAB R2017a software were applied for automated stage recognition. Third, the classification performance was evaluated in a 5-fold cross-validation scenario, using different validation metrics (accuracy, Rank-N recognition rate, mean absolute difference, linear kappa coefficient). Transfer Learning as a type of Deep Learning Convolutional Neural Network approach outperformed all other tested approaches. Mean accuracy equalled 0.51, mean absolute difference was 0.6 stages and mean linearly weighted kappa was

  7. Linear filtering in three-dimensional depiction of radiographic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, V.I.; Popov, A.A.; Stoyanov, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    The radiography process is discussed from the point of linear system theory. The requirements to the pulse reaction type are formulated for the equivalent schemes of holography pseudonoise tomosynthesis in radiography. The experimental data are given

  8. Radiographic Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.J; Yang, S.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This report contains theory, procedure technique and interpretation of radiographic examination and written for whom preparing radiographic test Level II. To determine this baseline of technical competence in the examination, the individual must demonstrate a knowledge of radiography physics, radiation safety, technique development, radiation detection and measurement, facility design, and the characteristics of radiation-producing devices and their principles of operation. (author) 98 figs., 23 tabs.

  9. Study on application of contrastmeter in radiographic examination, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooka, Kiichi; Hirayama, Kazuo; Senda, Tomio.

    1986-01-01

    As a check on the image quality of radiograph, it is customary to place a Image Quality Indicator, I. Q. I., and a contrastmeter. Although the observation results of I. Q. I. on the radiograph are affected remarkably by the difference amonge individuals, the density difference of contrastmeter dose not depend on it since the radiographic density is measured with densitometer. In order to apply both I. Q. I. and contrastmeter on all material thickness, it is necessary to know the quantitative relationship between the I. Q. I. sensitivity and the density difference in the contrastmeter. The quantitative relationship for aluminium welds are discussed. The value of dennity difference when the I. Q. I. sensitivity is considered is suitable for controlling the image quality of radiograph. For the reason that the value of density difference of contrastmeter is not strongly infuluenced, it is necessary for adopting the value obtained by dividing the density difference by radiographic density. The dimension of contrastmeter for Aluminium welds more over 20 mm in material thickness should be 20 mm in width and 3.0 mm and 4.0 mm in thickness corresponding to the material thickness. (author)

  10. General practitioners' willingness to request plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryynaenen, Olli-Pekka; Lehtovirta, Jukka; Soimakallio, Seppo; Takala, Jorma

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To examine general practitioners' attitudes to plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations. Design: A postal questionnaire consisting of questions on background data and doctors' opinions about plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, as well as eight vignettes (imaginary patient cases) presenting indications for lumbar radiography, and five vignettes focusing on the doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiography on the basis of patients' age and duration of symptoms. The data were analysed according to the doctor's age, sex, workplace and the medical school of graduation. Setting: Finland. Subjects: Six hundred and fifteen randomly selected physicians working in primary health care (64% of original target group). Results: The vignettes revealed that the use of plain lumbar radiographic examination varied between 26 and 88%. Patient's age and radiation protection were the most prominent factors influencing doctors' decisions to request lumbar radiographies. Only slight differences were observed between the attitudes of male and female doctors, as well as between young and older doctors. Doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiographies increased with the patient's age in most vignettes. The duration of patients' symptoms had a dramatic effect on the doctor's decision: in all vignettes, doctors were more likely to request lumbar radiography when patient's symptoms had exceeded 4 weeks. Conclusions: General practitioners commonly use plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, despite its limited value in the diagnosis of low back pain. Further consensus and medical education is needed to clarify the indications for plain lumbar radiographic examination

  11. Chest radiographic abnormalities in HIV-infected African children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Richard D; Lombard, Carl J; Cotton, Mark F; Beningfield, Stephen J; Workman, Lesley; Zar, Heather J

    2015-09-01

    There is limited knowledge of chest radiographic abnormalities over time in HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings. To investigate the natural history of chest radiographic abnormalities in HIV-infected African children, and the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Prospective longitudinal study of the association of chest radiographic findings with clinical and immunological parameters. Chest radiographs were performed at enrolment, 6-monthly, when initiating ART and if indicated clinically. Radiographic abnormalities were classified as normal, mild or moderate severity and considered persistent if present for 6 consecutive months or longer. An ordinal multiple logistic regression model assessed the association of enrolment and time-dependent variables with temporal radiographic findings. 258 children (median (IQR) age: 28 (13-51) months; median CD4+%: 21 (15-24)) were followed for a median of 24 (18-42) months. 70 (27%) were on ART at enrolment; 130 (50%) (median age: 33 (18-56) months) commenced ART during the study. 154 (60%) had persistent severe radiographic abnormalities, with median duration 18 (6-24) months. Among children on ART, 69% of radiographic changes across all 6-month transition periods were improvements, compared with 45% in those not on ART. Radiographic severity was associated with previous radiographic severity (OR=120.80; 95% CI 68.71 to 212.38), lack of ART (OR=1.72; 95% CI 1.29 to 2.27), enrolment age ART was beneficial, reducing the risk of radiographic deterioration or increasing the likelihood of radiological improvement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Digital image analysis of NDT radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeme, W.A. Jr.; Eizember, A.C.; Douglass, J.

    1989-01-01

    Prior to the introduction of Charge Coupled Device (CCD) detectors the majority of image analysis performed on NDT radiographic images was done visually in the analog domain. While some film digitization was being performed, the process was often unable to capture all the usable information on the radiograph or was too time consuming. CCD technology now provides a method to digitize radiographic film images without losing the useful information captured in the original radiograph in a timely process. Incorporating that technology into a complete digital radiographic workstation allows analog radiographic information to be processed, providing additional information to the radiographer. Once in the digital domain, that data can be stored, and fused with radioscopic and other forms of digital data. The result is more productive analysis and management of radiographic inspection data. The principal function of the NDT Scan IV digital radiography system is the digitization, enhancement and storage of radiographic images

  13. Ultra-high-resolution photoelectronic digital radiographic imaging system for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, B.R.; Nudelman, S.; Quimette, D.R.; Ovitt, T.W.; Reisken, A.B.; Spackman, T.J.; Zaccheo, T.S.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report the development of a new type of digital radiographic imaging system for medicine. Unlike previous digital radiographic systems that could not match the spatial resolution of film-screen systems, this system has higher spatial resolution and wider dynamic range than film-screen-based systems. There are three components to the system: a microfocal spot x-ray tube, a camera consisting of a Tektronix TK-2048M 2048 x 2048 CCD image sensor in direct contact with a Kodak Min-R intensifying screen, and a Gould IP-9000 with 2048 x 2048 processing and display capabilities. The CCD image sensor is a large-area integrated circuit and is 55.3 mm x 55.3 mm. It has a linear dynamic range of 12 bits or 4,096 gray levels

  14. Endodontic radiography: who is reading the digital radiograph?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewary, Shalini; Luzzo, Joseph; Hartwell, Gary

    2011-07-01

    Digital radiographic imaging systems have undergone tremendous improvements since their introduction. Advantages of digital radiographs over conventional films include lower radiation doses compared with conventional films, instantaneous images, archiving and sharing images easily, and manipulation of several radiographic properties that might help in diagnosis. A total of 6 observers including 2 endodontic residents, 3 endodontists, and 1 oral radiologist evaluated 150 molar digital periapical radiographs to determine which of the following conditions existed: normal periapical tissue, widened periodontal ligament, or presence of periapical radiolucency. The evaluators had full control over the radiograph's parameters of the Planmeca Dimaxis software program. All images were viewed on the same computer monitor with ideal vie-wing conditions. The same 6 observers evaluated the same 150 digital images 3 months later. The data were analyzed to determine how well the evaluators agreed with each other (interobserver agreement) for 2 rounds of observations and with themselves (intraobserver agreement). Fleiss kappa statistical analysis was used to measure the level of agreement among multiple raters. The overall Fleiss kappa value for interobserver agreement for the first round of interpretation was 0.34 (P value for interobserver agreement for the second round of interpretation was 0.35 (P fair (0.2-0.4) agreement among the 6 raters at both observation periods. A weighted kappa analysis was used to determine intraobserver agreement, which showed on average a moderate agreement. The results indicate that the interpretation of a dental radiograph is subjective, irrespective of whether conventional or digital radiographs are used. The factors that appeared to have the most impact were the years of experience of the examiner and familiarity of the operator with a given digital system. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  15. Reducing dose in paediatric CT: a preliminary study of radiographers' knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heagney, J.; Lewis, S.; Chaffey, C.; Howlett, G.; Moran, A.; McLean, D.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the responses of Australian radiographers in comparison with current literature on paediatric protocols and scanning recommendations in order to determine how and if paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) exposure reductions are taking place within Medical Imaging Departments. Subjects and Methods: The method involved a dual format; consisting of surveying 30 CT radiographers, and additionally, interviewing 5 senior CT radiographers. Of the 30 surveys completed, one was completed by a PDY radiographer, 7 by CT Senior radiographers and 22 by CT radiographers. The survey contained a range of questions about appropriate paediatric CT scanning parameters and protocols. Five CT Seniors were interviewed to ascertain the current level and opinion of training in paediatric protocols, in-house educational programs and the implementation of radiation dose saving parameters. Radiographers demonstrated reasonable ability to identify suitable paediatric protocols and believed the in-house CT protocols resident to their medical imaging department to be adequate, despite many utilising exposures higher than those from recommended literature. The interviews revealed that no further training in CT paediatric dose reduction was currently available, however survey responses indicated that further training would be beneficial. This study demonstrates that radiographers are aware of the need to reduce exposure parameters for paediatric CT and tend to follow protocols in place within their workplace, regardless of suitability and patient needs. Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

  16. Reducing dose in paediatric CT: a preliminary study of radiographers' Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heagney, Jillian; Lewis, Sarah; Chaffey, Clare; Howlett, Genevieve; Moran, Alexander; McLean, Donald

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the responses of Australian radiographers in comparison with current literature on paediatric protocols and scanning recommendations in order to determine how and if paediatric Computed Tomography (CT) exposure reductions are taking place within Medical Imaging Departments. Subjects and Methods: The method involved a dual format; consisting of surveying 30 CT radiographers, and additionally, interviewing 5 senior CT radiographers. Of the 30 surveys completed, one was completed by a PDY radiographer, 7 by CT Senior radiographers and 22 by CT radiographers. The survey contained a range of questions about appropriate paediatric CT scanning parameters and protocols. Five CT Seniors were interviewed to ascertain the current level and opinion of training in paediatric protocols, in-house educational programs and the implementation of radiation dose saving parameters. Radiographers demonstrated reasonable ability to identify suitable paediatric protocols and believed the in-house CT protocols resident to their medical imaging department to be adequate, despite many utilising exposures higher than those from recommended literature. The interviews revealed that no further training in CT paediatric dose reduction was currently available, however survey responses indicated that further training would be beneficial. This study demonstrates that radiographers are aware of the need to reduce exposure parameters for paediatric CT and tend to follow protocols in place within their workplace, regardless of suitability and patient needs Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

  17. Pocket atlas of radiographic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E.; Stark, P.

    1993-01-01

    The 'Pocket Atlas of Radiographic Anatomy' presents 170 radiographs of the various body regions of adults, showing only the normal radiographic anatomy. Each radiograph is supplemented on the opposite page by a drawing of the particular body region. There is no commenting text, but the drawings are provided with captions in English. The atlas is a useful guide for interpreting radiographs. The pictures are arranged in chapters entitled as follows: Skeletal Imaging (skull, spine, upper extremity), lower extremity; Miscellaneous Plain Films (chest, mammogram, trachea, lung tomograms); Contrast Examinations (gastrointestinal tract, intravenous contrast examinations, arthrography, angiography); Special Examinations (myelograms, lymphangiograms, bronchograms, sialograms). (UWA). 348 figs [de

  18. Radiographic examination of the equine head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Radiographic examinations of the equine head can be performed with portable x-ray machines. The views comprising the examination depend on the area of the head being examined. With a knowledge of radiographic anatomy and radiographic signs of disease, valuable diagnostic information can be obtained from the radiographic examination. In addition, the radiographic information can also be used to develop a prognosis and determine the most appropriate therapy

  19. Radiographer involvement in mammography image interpretation: A survey of United Kingdom practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culpan, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is most often diagnosed using x-ray mammography. Traditionally mammography images have been interpreted and reported by medically qualified practitioners – radiologists. Due to radiologist workforce shortages in recent years some non-medical practitioners, radiographers, now interpret and report mammography images. The aims of this survey were to describe the characteristics and practices of radiographers who interpret and report mammography images in NHS hospitals in the UK, and in particular to establish the extent of their practice beyond low-risk asymptomatic screening cases. This service evaluation demonstrated that UK radiographers are interpreting and reporting images across the full spectrum of clinical indications for mammography including: low-risk population screening, symptomatic, annual surveillance, family history and biopsy/surgical cases. The survey revealed that radiographers are involved in a diverse range of single and double reading practices where responsibility for diagnostic decision making is shared or transferred between radiologists and/or other radiographers. Comparative analysis of sub-group data suggested that there might be differences in the characteristics and practices of radiographers who interpret only low-risk screening mammograms and those who interpret and report a wider range of cases. The findings of this survey provide a platform for further research to investigate how and why the roles and responsibilities of radiographers who interpret and report mammograms vary between organisations, between practitioners and across different examinations. Further research is also needed to explore the implications of variation in practice for patients, practitioners and service providers. - Highlights: • UK radiographers interpret mammograms across the full spectrum of clinical indications. • UK radiographers are involved in a wide range of single/double mammography reading practices. • Characteristics required for

  20. Rapidly processable radiographic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabandere, L.A. de; Borginon, H.A.; Pattyn, H.A.; Pollet, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new rapidly processable radiographic silver halide material is described for use in mammography and non-destructive testing of industrial materials. The radiographic material is used for direct exposure to penetrating radiation without the use of fluorescent-intensifying screens. It consists of a transparent support with a layer of hydrophilic colloid silver halide emulsion on one or both sides. Examples of the preparation of three different silver halide emulsions are given including the use of different chemical sensitizers. These new radiographic materials have good resistance to the formation of pressure marks in rapid processing apparatus and they have improved sensitivity for direct exposure to penetrating radiation compared to conventional radiographic emulsions. (U.K.)

  1. Quality of the radiographic image in paper radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.; El Fouly, H.M.

    1981-09-01

    The quality of the radiographic image was investigated by the use of standard ISO wire Image Quality Indicators and ASTM Penetrameters. 10, 20, and 30 mm thick welds on alumunium and steel plates were radiographed using X-ray machines with voltages from 35 to 300 kV. Agfa-Gevaert Structurix IC paper with Structurix IC screens Type II as well as Kodak Industrex 600 and 620 and Rapid 700 paper with Fl and F2 screens were used throughout the investigation. The results reached for radiographic paper were compared with those for a fast X-ray film (Kodak Industrex D). The results of the investigation were presented at the International Conference Joining of Metals JOM-1 in Elsinore, Denmark (9-12.8.1981) and at the Second European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing in Vienna (14-16.9.1981). The texts of both papers are reproduced in this report. (author)

  2. Three-dimensional hindfoot alignment measurements based on biplanar radiographs: comparison with standard radiographic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Buck, Florian M.; Espinosa, Norman

    2013-01-01

    To establish a hindfoot alignment measurement technique based on low-dose biplanar radiographs and compare with hindfoot alignment measurements on long axial view radiographs, which is the current reference standard. Long axial view radiographs and low-dose biplanar radiographs of a phantom consisting of a human foot skeleton embedded in acrylic glass (phantom A) and a plastic model of a human foot in three different hindfoot positions (phantoms B1-B3) were imaged in different foot positions (20 internal to 20 external rotation). Two independent readers measured hindfoot alignment on long axial view radiographs and performed 3D hindfoot alignment measurements based on biplanar radiographs on two different occasions. Time for three-dimensional (3D) measurements was determined. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. Hindfoot alignment measurements on long axial view radiographs were characterized by a large positional variation, with a range of 14 /13 valgus to 22 /27 varus (reader 1/2 for phantom A), whereas the range of 3D hindfoot alignment measurements was 7.3 /6.0 to 9.0 /10.5 varus (reader 1/2 for phantom A), with a mean and standard deviation of 8.1 ± 0.6/8.7 ± 1.4 respectively. Interobserver agreement was high (ICC = 0.926 for phantom A, and ICC = 0.886 for phantoms B1-B3), and agreement between different readouts was high (ICC = 0.895-0.995 for reader 1, and ICC = 0.987-0.994 for reader 2) for 3D measurements. Mean duration of 3D measurements was 84 ± 15/113 ± 15 s for reader 1/2. Three-dimensional hindfoot alignment measurements based on biplanar radiographs were independent of foot positioning during image acquisition and reader independent. In this phantom study, the 3D measurements were substantially more precise than the standard radiographic measurements. (orig.)

  3. Technology demonstration for the DARHT linear induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, M.; Allison, P.; Downing, J.; Moir, D.; Caporaso, G.; Chen, Y.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamics Test (DARHT) facility will employ two 16-MeV, 3-kA Linear Induction Accelerators to produce intense, bremsstrahlung x-ray pulses for flash radiography. Technology demonstration of the key accelerator sub-systems is underway at the DARHT Integrated Test Stand (ITS), which will produce a 6-MeV, 3-kA, 60-ns flattop electron beam. We will summarized measurements of ITS injector, pulsed-power, and accelerator cell performance. Time-resolved measurements of the electron beam parameters will also be presented. These measurements indicate that the DARHT accelerator design is sufficiently advanced to provide the high quality electron beams required for radiography with sub-millimeter spatial resolution

  4. Technology demonstration for the DARHT linear induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, M.; Allison, P.; Downing, J.; Moir, D.; Caporaso, G.; Chen, Y.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamics Test (DARHT) facility will employ two 16-MeV, 3-kA Linear Induction Accelerators to produce intense, bremsstrahlung x-ray pulses for flash radiography. Technology demonstration of the key accelerator sub-systems is underway at the DARHT Integrated Test Stand (ITS), which will produce a 6-MeV, 3-kA, 60-ns flattop electron beam. The authors summarize measurements of ITS injector, pulsed-power, and accelerator cell performance. Time-resolved measurements of the electron beam parameters are also presented. These measurements indicate that the DARHT accelerator design is sufficiently advanced to provide the high quality electron beams required for radiography with sub-millimeter spatial resolution

  5. Radiographic and HRCT findings of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Jin Sam; Kim, Kun Il; Kim, Chang Won; Park, Soon Kew; Cho, Goon Jae

    1999-01-01

    To analyze the radiographic and HRCT findings of Pneumocystic carinii pneumonia. We reviewed the medical records and retrospectively analysed the chest radiographs(n=31) and HRCT scans(n=17) of 31 patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia who had been followed up at our institute between, 1993 and March 1998. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was confirmed by cytologic evaluation of sputum stained with methenamine silver(n=25) or on the basis of clinical history(n=6). The study group included 17 men and 14 women aged 28-78(average, 53.6) years. Twenty-eight patients had underlying conditions such as hematologic diseases(n=13), AIDS(n=8), malignancy(n=2), DM(n=2) and malnutrition(n=1), and three were free from underlying diseases. Twenty patients had pure Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and 11 had combined lung diseases, namely pulmonary tuberculosis(n=4), pulmonary metastasis(n=2), bacterial pneumonia(n=2), atypical mycobacterial infection(n=1), pulmonary edema(n=1), and Kaposi' s sarcoma(n=1). Chest radiographic findings of 20 cases of pure Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia included consolidation(n=12), linear-reticular opacity(n=8), ill defined haziness(n=7), and nodules(n=6), with bilaterality in is cases and zonal predominance in ten [central(n=5), lower(n=5)]. Ancillary findings included pleural effusion(n=10), cysts(n=5), lymphadenopathy(n=4) and pneumothorax(n=1). In two patients, findings were entirely normal. HRCT findings in ten cases of pure Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia included ground-glass opacity(n=6), consolidation(n=6), linear-reticular opacity(n=8), and nodules(n=5), with bilaterallity in seven cases and zonal predominance in five [central(n=5), lower(n=2)]. Ancillary findings among these cases included pleural effusion(n=4), lymphadenopathy(n=2), cysts(n=1), and pneumothorax(n=1). HRCT findings in seven cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia combined with other lung diseases included nodules(n=6), ground-glass opacity(n=5), linear-reticular opacity

  6. Should the lateral chest radiograph be routinely performed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Fatuma; Williams, Imelda

    2014-01-01

    Background: The chest x-ray is one of the most common plain film radiographic examinations performed. Inclusion of the lateral chest radiograph varies internationally and nationally across radiology departments and states in Australia. Search strategy: A search strategy of the databases Cochrane Library, Ovid Medline/Medline, PubMed, Scopus and Science Direct was conducted. The results were restricted to those published between 1985 and 2013 and those published in English. The following search terms were used: ‘lateral chest’, ‘radiograph’, ‘digital radiography’, ‘chest x-ray’, ‘plain film radiography’, ‘ionising radiation’. The results were restricted to publications with these terms in the title, abstract and/or keywords. Main findings: There are few national or international guidelines pertaining to the inclusion of the lateral chest x-ray as routine. Primary concerns are the increased radiation dose associated with the additional chest view and reduction of medical imaging services cost. Modern digital imaging systems result in a lower radiation dose. The diagnostic yield of the lateral chest x-ray is highly dependent on the clinical indications of the patient. Further research into the routine inclusion of the lateral chest x-ray is recommended. Conclusion: Review of the literature suggests that the lateral chest radiograph should not be performed routinely unless clinically indicated

  7. Radiographic positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.; Dennis, C.A.; May, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book concentrates on the routine radiographic examinations commonly performed. It details the wide variety of examinations possible and their place in initial learning and in the radiology department as references for those occasions when an unusual examination is requested. This book provides information ranging from basic terminology to skeletal positioning to special procedures. Positions are discussed and supplemented with a picture of a patient, the resulting radiograph, and a labeled diagram. Immobilization and proper shielding of the patient are also shown

  8. Radiographic evaluation of bone adaptation adjacent to percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses in a sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapalina, Sujee; Beck, James Peter; Bachus, Kent N; Chalayon, Ornusa; Bloebaum, Roy D

    2014-10-01

    Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses (POPs) are being investigated as an alternative to conventional socket suspension and require a radiographic followup in translational studies to confirm that design objectives are being met. In this 12-month animal study, we determined (1) radiographic signs of osseointegration and (2) radiographic signs of periprosthetic bone hypertrophy and resorption (adaptation) and (3) confirmed them with the histologic evidence of host bone osseointegration and adaptation around a novel, distally porous-coated titanium POP with a collar. A POP device was designed to fit the right metacarpal bone of sheep. Amputation and implantation surgeries (n = 14) were performed, and plane-film radiographs were collected quarterly for 12 months. Radiographs were assessed for osseointegration (fixation) and bone adaptation (resorption and hypertrophy). The cortical wall and medullary canal widths were used to compute the cortical index and expressed as a percentage. Based on the cortical index changes and histologic evaluations, bone adaptation was quantified. Radiographic data showed signs of osseointegration including those with incomplete seating against the collar attachment. Cortical index data indicated distal cortical wall thinning if the collar was not seated distally. When implants were bound proximally, bone resorbed distally and the diaphyseal cortex hypertrophied. Histopathologic evidence and cortical index measurements confirmed the radiographic indications of adaptation and osseointegration. Distal bone loading, through collar attachment and porous coating, limited the distal bone resorption. Serial radiographic studies, in either animal models or preclinical trials for new POP devices, will help to determine which designs are likely to be safe over time and avoid implant failures.

  9. Radiographic analysis of pasteurized autologous bone graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Adel Refaat; Manabe, Jun; Kawaguchi, Noriyoshi; Matsumoto, Seiichi; Matsushita, Yasushi

    2003-01-01

    Local malignant bone tumor excision followed by pasteurization and subsequent reimplantation is a unique technique for reconstruction after resection of primary bone sarcomas. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the normal and abnormal long-term radiographic findings of intercalary and osteo-chondral pasteurized bone graft/implant composite. The long-term radiographic findings of pasteurized bone grafts used in reconstruction after resection of bone and soft tissue sarcomas in relation to patients' clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. Thirty-one patients (18 females, 13 males; age range 7-77 years, mean 30 years) who underwent surgery between April 1990 and January 1997 at the authors' institute constituted the material of this study. They were followed up for at least 3 years or until the patient's death (mean 69 months). The International Society of Limb Salvage graft evaluation method that assesses the fusion, resorption, fracture, graft shortening, fixation, subluxation, joint narrowing and subchondral bone was used for evaluation of the radiographs. Twenty-one patients (68%) showed complete incorporation of graft and eight patients (26%) had partial incorporation. The overall radiographic evaluation rate was 81%. Fracture (10%) and infection (16%) were the main complications. No local recurrence was detected. These results indicate that pasteurization of bone is a useful option for reconstruction after resection of malignant bone tumors. (orig.)

  10. Radiographic analysis of pasteurized autologous bone graft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Adel Refaat [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Kamiikebukuro 1-37-1, Toshima-ku, 170-0012, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Manabe, Jun; Kawaguchi, Noriyoshi; Matsumoto, Seiichi; Matsushita, Yasushi [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Kamiikebukuro 1-37-1, Toshima-ku, 170-0012, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-08-01

    Local malignant bone tumor excision followed by pasteurization and subsequent reimplantation is a unique technique for reconstruction after resection of primary bone sarcomas. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the normal and abnormal long-term radiographic findings of intercalary and osteo-chondral pasteurized bone graft/implant composite. The long-term radiographic findings of pasteurized bone grafts used in reconstruction after resection of bone and soft tissue sarcomas in relation to patients' clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. Thirty-one patients (18 females, 13 males; age range 7-77 years, mean 30 years) who underwent surgery between April 1990 and January 1997 at the authors' institute constituted the material of this study. They were followed up for at least 3 years or until the patient's death (mean 69 months). The International Society of Limb Salvage graft evaluation method that assesses the fusion, resorption, fracture, graft shortening, fixation, subluxation, joint narrowing and subchondral bone was used for evaluation of the radiographs. Twenty-one patients (68%) showed complete incorporation of graft and eight patients (26%) had partial incorporation. The overall radiographic evaluation rate was 81%. Fracture (10%) and infection (16%) were the main complications. No local recurrence was detected. These results indicate that pasteurization of bone is a useful option for reconstruction after resection of malignant bone tumors. (orig.)

  11. A radiographic study of the position and shape of mental foramen in panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Karp Shik; Kim, Dong Youn; Sohn, Jeong Ick; Bae, Yong Chul

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the position and shape of mental foramen in panoramic radiographs. For this study, panoramic radiographs were obtained from the 200 adults and evaluated the position and shape of mental foramen. According to various positional changes in panoramic radiographs of the patients, the author also obtained panoramic radiographs from the 100 adults and then evaluated the positional and shape changes of mental foramen. The following results were obtained : 1. Shapes of mental foramen were observed elliptical (43.3%), round or oval (42.5%), unidentified (7.5%) and diffuse (6.7%) type in descending order of frequency. 2. Horizontal position of mental foramen were most frequently observed at the 2nd premolar area (54.2%), and area between the 1st premolar and 2nd premolar (43.1%), area between the 2nd premolar and 1st molar (2.7%), and at apex (9.7%), overlap with apex (1.9%), superior of apex (0.2%) in descending order of frequency. 4. According to various positional changes in panoramic radiographs of the patients, shape changes of mental foramen were more obviously observed at the forward 10 mm and chin down 10 degree positioned panoramic radiographs, And changes of horizontal and vertical position were observed in similar to compared with normal positioned panoramic radiographs.

  12. Radiographic Co-60 in component of heavy equipment casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoli Soembogo, Harun Al Rasyid R dan Namad Sianta

    2016-01-01

    The application of radiography using isotope Co-60 source has been used on component of heavy equipment such as component of heavy equipment casting. Components of heavy equipment casting made through metal casting of carbon steel. This study tried applying digital radiography are using isotope Co-60 sources and using scanning positive film media of Epson V700 for digitization results of conventional radiographic films. This radiography is using film AGFA D7 and Fuji 100 to obtain a contrast medium, medium sensitivity and image quality is good. The purpose radiographic Co-60 at a component of heavy equipment casting is detecting indications of the shape and type casting defects of component of heavy equipment casting thus fit for use. Radiographic test of Co-60 has been carried out on component of heavy equipment casting with single wall single image method and the results of radiographic films digitization using scanning positive film media of Epson V700 with observation parameters casting defects. Time exposure of Co-60 radiation was 10 and 15 minutes hours for metal castings of carbon steel for thickness 20.00-50.00 mm by using activity 30.05 Ci and the perpendicular distance to the source of the film is 820 mm. Scanner positive film results in the form of digital radiography which allow for the transfer of digital data or digital computerized data storage. Radiographic test results on component of heavy equipment casting with single wall single image method produce the parameter casting defect of component of heavy equipment casting in position of critical area is found shrinkage that should be repaired and in position of safety area is not found defect indication so casting defect of component of heavy equipment casting are not acceptable according to standards referenced. (author)

  13. Macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordenram, G.; Bergvist, A.; Johnson, G.; Henriksen, C.O.; Anneroth, G.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare macroscopic and radiographic examination of proximal root surface caries of extracted teeth from patients aged 65-95 years. Although the study conditions for macroscopic and radiographic diagnosis favored more sensitive evaluations than routine clinical conditions, there was a 24% disagreement in diagnosis. This finding indicates that under routine clinical conditions it is difficult to register with certainty all superficial root carious lesions. Even in the absence of clinically detectable root surface caries, preventive measures should be considered for elderly people with exposed root surfaces

  14. Reliability and relationship of radiographic measurements in hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Ahn, Soyeon; Chung, Chin Youb; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Park, Moon Seok

    2012-09-01

    Although various radiographic measurements have been developed and used for evaluating hallux valgus, not all are universally believed to be necessary and their relationships have not been clearly established. Determining which are related could provide some insight into which might be useful and which would not. We investigated the reliability of eight radiographic measurements used to evaluate hallux valgus, and determined which were correlated and which predicted the hallux valgus angle. We determined eight radiographic indices for 732 patients (mean age, 51 years; SD, 17 years; 107 males and 625 females) with hallux valgus: hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, hallux interphalangeal angle, distal metatarsal articular angle, proximal phalangeal articular angle, simplified metatarsus adductus angle, first metatarsal protrusion distance, and sesamoid rotation angle. Intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities of each radiographic measurement were analyzed on 36 feet from 36 randomly selected patients. Correlations among the radiographic measurements were analyzed. Radiographic measurements predicting hallux valgus angle were evaluated using multiple regression analysis. Hallux valgus angle had the highest reliability, whereas the distal metatarsal articular angle and simplified metatarsus adductus angle had the lowest. Distal metatarsal articular angle, intermetatarsal angle, and sesamoid rotation angle had the highest correlations with hallux valgus angle. Distal metatarsal articular angle correlated with sesamoid rotation angle. The intermetatarsal angle, interphalangeal angle, distal metatarsal articular angle, first metatarsal protrusion distance, sesamoid rotation angle, and metatarsus adductus angle predicted the hallux valgus angle. We suggest using hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, interphalangeal angle, sesamoid rotation angle, and first metatarsal protrusion distance considering their reliability and prediction of the deformity.

  15. Exploring the research domain of consultant practice: Experiences of consultant radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.; Paterson, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This paper reports on one part of a larger study. The aim of the overall study was to explore what the core domain of research means to consultant radiographers in clinical practice and to identify the key factors that facilitate or hinder research activity by this staff group. Design and method: Grounded theory research methodology was employed. This second part of the study involved telephone interviews with twenty five consultant radiographers. Results: Results indicate there are variations across clinical specialties as to the amount and level of research undertaken by consultant radiographers. The principal barriers revealed were: lack of time; excessive clinical workload; lack of skills and confidence to undertake research; poor research culture; and lack of support. The main facilitators noted were: dedicated time, research training and up-skilling; mutually beneficial collaborations; managerial understanding of the research domain of the role; and research focussed on clinical demand. Conclusion: Fulfilling the clinical role is imperative and integral to the profession at consultant level; however, if it is undertaken to the detriment of the other domains then these practitioners may not be operating at ‘consultant’ level. Overall improvements must be made to ensure that the consultant radiographer role is delivering on current expectations and is safeguarded for the future of the next generation of radiographers. - Highlights: • Consultant radiographers undertake research but have concerns about their research skills. • Research aims to improve practice and patients' experiences. • Relatively few consultant radiographers publish their work regularly. • Consultant radiographers allocate little protected time for research due to clinical demands.

  16. Effects of occupational stress and coping mechanisms adopted by radiographers in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashong, G.G.N.A.; Rogers, H.; Botwe, B.O.; Anim-Sampong, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that population of radiography staff within various hospitals in Ghana decreased by 30% in the last decade due to several reasons. One of such reasons understood to be related to stress and job satisfaction which affect work output. Purpose: To investigate the effects of occupational stress and the coping mechanisms adopted by radiographers in Ghana. Method: A descriptive survey using a five-point Likert-scale questionnaire with pre-coded responses was administered via email to respondents. Purposive sampling method was used to select 190 radiographers who work in hospitals in Ghana. Descriptive statistics was mainly used to analyse the data using SPSS Version 20. Results: Of a total 190 questionnaires sent, 122 were completed and returned giving a 64.3% response rate. Majority 78 (64%) of respondents were males and the predominant area of work was conventional radiography. Most radiographers revealed they were stressed with 63% indicating high/very high levels of stress. The consequent effects of stress on radiographers were sick absence, depression and job dissatisfaction. Most of the radiographers used primary interventions to cope with stress. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that most radiographers in Ghana are stressed. However, they cope well with problem-solving mechanisms. This suggests that the decrease in number of radiographers within various facilities in Ghana by 30% may not necessarily be caused by stress but other factors which need to be investigated. Nevertheless, occupational stress has an effect on radiographers' quality of working life and may directly impact on their behaviour during service delivery. - Highlights: • There is high level of occupational stress among Ghanaian Radiographers. • Some sources and causes of occupational stress among Ghanaian Radiographers were workload, poor pay and shortage of staff. • Job dissatisfaction, depression and sick absence were effects of occupational

  17. Radiographic appearance of the normal temporomandibular joint in newborns and small children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larheim, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    The radiographic anatomy of the normal temporomandibular joint in newborns and children up to 4 years of age was investigated, partly on specimens, obtained at autopsy, with methods corresponding to clinical procedures, and partly on patients. A rather flat mandibular fossa and immature mandibular head were found at birth, whereas a well-developed articular tubercle and an adult-like radiographic appearance of the joint were found at about one year of age. No evident changes of the radiographic anatomy seemed to occur from one to 4 years of age. A striking similarity was observed between the dystrophic temporomandibular joint in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and micrognathia and the normal radiographic appearance in the first months of life, indicating an early involvement of this joint in patients developing micrognathia. (Auth.)

  18. Radiographic localization of unerupted mandibular anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, S G

    2000-10-01

    The parallax method and the use of 2 radiographs taken at right angles to each other are the 2 methods generally used to accurately localize teeth. For the parallax method, the combination of a rotational panoramic radiograph with an occlusal radiograph is recommended. This combination involves a vertical x-ray tube shift. Three case reports are presented that illustrate: (1) how this combination can accurately localize unerupted mandibular anterior teeth, (2) how a deceptive appearance of the labiolingual position of the unerupted tooth can be produced in an occlusal radiograph, (3) how increasing the vertical angle of the tube for the occlusal radiograph makes the tube shift easier to discern, (4) why occlusal radiographs are preferable to periapical radiographs for tube shifts, and (5) how localization can also be carried out with 2 radiographs at right angles to each other, one of which is an occlusal radiograph taken with the x-ray tube directed along the long axis of the reference tooth.

  19. A novel scoring system to measure radiographic abnormalities and related spirometric values in cured pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Báez-Saldaña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite chemotherapy, patients with cured pulmonary tuberculosis may result in lung functional impairment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a novel scoring system based on the degree of radiographic abnormalities and related spirometric values in patients with cured pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: One hundred and twenty seven patients with cured pulmonary tuberculosis were prospectively enrolled in a referral hospital specializing in respiratory diseases. Spirometry was performed and the extent of radiographic abnormalities was evaluated twice by each of two readers to generate a novel quantitative score. Scoring reproducibility was analyzed by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC and the Bland-Altman method. Multiple linear regression models were performed to assess the association of the extent of radiographic abnormalities with spirometric values. RESULTS: The intra-observer agreement for scoring of radiographic abnormalities (SRA showed an ICC of 0.81 (CI:95%, 0.67-0.95 and 0.78 (CI:95%, 0.65-0.92, for reader 1 and 2, respectively. Inter-observer reproducibility for the first measurement was 0.83 (CI:95%, 0.71-0.95, and for the second measurement was 0.74 (CI:95%, 0.58-0.90. The Bland-Altman analysis of the intra-observer agreement showed a mean bias of 0.87% and -0.55% and an inter-observer agreement of -0.35% and -1.78%, indicating a minor average systematic variability. After adjustment for age, gender, height, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and degree of dyspnea, the scoring degree of radiographic abnormalities was significantly and negatively associated with absolute and percent predicted values of FVC: -0.07 (CI:95%, -0.01 to -0.04; -2.48 (CI:95%, -3.45 to -1.50; and FEV1 -0.07 (CI:95%, -0.10 to -0.05; -2.92 (CI:95%, -3.87 to -1.97 respectively, in the patients studied. CONCLUSION: The extent of radiographic abnormalities, as evaluated through our novel scoring system, was inversely associated with spirometric values

  20. A Novel Scoring System to Measure Radiographic Abnormalities and Related Spirometric Values in Cured Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez-Saldaña, Renata; López-Arteaga, Yesenia; Bizarrón-Muro, Alma; Ferreira-Guerrero, Elizabeth; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Delgado-Sánchez, Guadalupe; Cruz-Hervert, Luis Pablo; Mongua-Rodríguez, Norma; García-García, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite chemotherapy, patients with cured pulmonary tuberculosis may result in lung functional impairment. Objective To evaluate a novel scoring system based on the degree of radiographic abnormalities and related spirometric values in patients with cured pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods One hundred and twenty seven patients with cured pulmonary tuberculosis were prospectively enrolled in a referral hospital specializing in respiratory diseases. Spirometry was performed and the extent of radiographic abnormalities was evaluated twice by each of two readers to generate a novel quantitative score. Scoring reproducibility was analyzed by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Bland-Altman method. Multiple linear regression models were performed to assess the association of the extent of radiographic abnormalities with spirometric values. Results The intra-observer agreement for scoring of radiographic abnormalities (SRA) showed an ICC of 0.81 (CI:95%, 0.67–0.95) and 0.78 (CI:95%, 0.65–0.92), for reader 1 and 2, respectively. Inter-observer reproducibility for the first measurement was 0.83 (CI:95%, 0.71–0.95), and for the second measurement was 0.74 (CI:95%, 0.58–0.90). The Bland-Altman analysis of the intra-observer agreement showed a mean bias of 0.87% and -0.55% and an inter-observer agreement of -0.35% and -1.78%, indicating a minor average systematic variability. After adjustment for age, gender, height, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and degree of dyspnea, the scoring degree of radiographic abnormalities was significantly and negatively associated with absolute and percent predicted values of FVC: -0.07 (CI:95%, -0.01 to -0.04); -2.48 (CI:95%, -3.45 to -1.50); and FEV1 -0.07 (CI:95%, -0.10 to -0.05); -2.92 (CI:95%, -3.87 to -1.97) respectively, in the patients studied. Conclusion The extent of radiographic abnormalities, as evaluated through our novel scoring system, was inversely associated with spirometric values, and

  1. Radiologic-anatomic correlation of thoracic vertebrae and rib shadows in chest digital radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Isao; Itoh, Harumi

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an introduction to parsing the radiologic appearance of thoracic vertebrae and ribs. In the study, the radiologic-anatomic correlation technique was applied to promote further understanding of normal chest radiographs. The thoracic vertebrae and ribs of chest radiographs were compared with each macroscopic radiologic and computed tomography (CT) image. The rib parsed the linear shadow of the body of the rib. The macroscopic and radiologic images of thoracic vertebrae and ribs were evaluated to explain their normal radiologic findings. The results of such correlation were summarized as follows: The lamina of the vertebral arch was visualized due to anterior rotation of the upper thoracic vertebrae. The density ratio of the thoracic-vertebrae shadow was almost the same in the vertebral body and vertebral arch. The linear shadow superimposed on the rib corresponded to the inferior margin of the rib. The radiologic-anatomic correlation technique was useful to evaluate normal radiologic findings, and the study was useful to radiological technologists. (author)

  2. Producing quality radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullinan, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book gives an overview of physics, equipment, imaging, and quality assurance in the radiology department. The chapters are laid out with generous use of subheads to allow for quick reference, Points are illustrated with clear, uncluttered line diagrams and well-produced images. The accompanying explanations are miniature lessons by themselves. Inserted at various points throughout the text are important notes that highlight key concepts. The chapter ''Image Evaluation and Application of Radiographic Principles'' present a systematic approach to evaluating radiographs and contains several sample radiographs to illustrate the points made

  3. Evaluation of the accuracy of panoramic radiography in linear measurements of the jaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoseini, S. H.; Bagherpour, A.; Javadian Langaroodi, A.; Ahmadian Yazdi, A.; Safaei, A.

    2011-01-01

    Panoramic radiography has a great place among imaging techniques because of its enormous advantages. One of the characteristics of an ideal imaging technique is to supply precise measurement. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the accuracy of linear measurements of the jaws on panoramic radiographs. Patients and Methods: In this study, the vertical distances between the metal markers were measured by panoramic radiography in seven sites of two skulls in various head positions. Then the radiographic measurements were compared with the actual values. Results: Eighty three percent of the measurements were underestimated, 8.5% were overestimated on panoramic radiography and 8.5% of the measurements had no difference with the real measurements. Overestimation was not greater than 1 mm. The difference between actual and radiographic measurements was less in the posterior areas and in the mandible . In all head positions, the greatest difference between actual and radiographic measurements occurred in the anterior area. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, linear measurements on panoramic radiography are more reliable in the posterior areas and may be used in early clinical measurements.

  4. Radiographic progession of rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siozos, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The radiographic progression of rheumatoid arthritis can be graded on a 0-IV scala. For this purpose five objective criteria are used: a) destruction, b) osteoporosis, c) narrowing of joint space, d) luxation and e) ankylosis. The grading of the radiographic progression is defined by the extent and the number of the measured alterations. The radiographic progression can be registered yearly. (orig.) [de

  5. Radiographic interpretation of the appendicular skeleton: A comparison between casualty officers, nurse practitioners and radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Liz; Piper, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To assess how accurately and confidently casualty officers, nurse practitioners and radiographers, practicing within the emergency department (ED), recognize and describe radiographic trauma within an image test bank of 20 appendicular radiographs. Method: The participants consisted of 7 casualty officers, 13 nurse practitioners and 18 radiographers. All 20 radiographic examinations selected for the image test bank had been acquired following trauma and included some subtle, yet clinically significant abnormalities. The test bank score (maximum 40 marks), sensitivity and specificity percentages were calculated against an agreed radiological diagnosis (reference standard). Alternative Free-response Receiver Operating Characteristic (AFROC) analysis was used to assess the overall performance of the diagnostic accuracy of these professional groups. The variation in performance between each group was measured using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, to identify any statistical significant differences in the performance in interpretation between these groups. The relationship between the participants' perceived image interpretation accuracy during clinical practice and the actual accuracy of their image test bank score was examined using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient (r). Results: The results revealed that the radiographers gained the highest mean test bank score (28.5/40; 71%). This score was statistically higher than the mean test bank scores attained by the participating nurse practitioners (21/40; 53%) and casualty officers (21.5/40; 54%), with p < 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively. When compared with each other, the scores from these latter groups showed no significant difference (p = 0.91). The mean 'area under the curve' (AUC) value achieved by the radiographers was also significantly higher (p < 0.01) in comparison to the AUC values demonstrated by the nurse practitioners and casualty officers, whose results, when compared, showed no significant

  6. Chesneys' radiographic imaging. 5. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.; Price, T.

    1989-01-01

    This new edition of Chesney and Chesney: Radiographic Imaging has been completely written by two new authors. The book reflects the change in emphasis in radiology from photographic processes towards electronic imaging methods. There is new material on image intensifiers and television imaging, digital imaging and digital subtractions. Analyses of the various characteristics of, and defects in, images on radiographs, xeroradiographs and the television screen are included. The methods, equipment and materials used to record the cathode ray tube image are described and there is new material on the principles of alternative diagnostic imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography and radionuclide imaging which provide cathode ray tube images. The book is primarily for student radiographers studying for the Diploma of the College of Radiographers, but radiographers studying for postdiplomate qualifications such as the Higher Diploma (HDCR) will also find the book helpful. (author)

  7. General practitioners' willingness to request plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations

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    Ryynaenen, Olli-Pekka E-mail: ollipekka.ryynanen@uku.fi; Lehtovirta, Jukka; Soimakallio, Seppo; Takala, Jorma

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To examine general practitioners' attitudes to plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations. Design: A postal questionnaire consisting of questions on background data and doctors' opinions about plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, as well as eight vignettes (imaginary patient cases) presenting indications for lumbar radiography, and five vignettes focusing on the doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiography on the basis of patients' age and duration of symptoms. The data were analysed according to the doctor's age, sex, workplace and the medical school of graduation. Setting: Finland. Subjects: Six hundred and fifteen randomly selected physicians working in primary health care (64% of original target group). Results: The vignettes revealed that the use of plain lumbar radiographic examination varied between 26 and 88%. Patient's age and radiation protection were the most prominent factors influencing doctors' decisions to request lumbar radiographies. Only slight differences were observed between the attitudes of male and female doctors, as well as between young and older doctors. Doctors' willingness to request lumbar radiographies increased with the patient's age in most vignettes. The duration of patients' symptoms had a dramatic effect on the doctor's decision: in all vignettes, doctors were more likely to request lumbar radiography when patient's symptoms had exceeded 4 weeks. Conclusions: General practitioners commonly use plain lumbar spine radiographic examinations, despite its limited value in the diagnosis of low back pain. Further consensus and medical education is needed to clarify the indications for plain lumbar radiographic examination.

  8. Observations of radiographer communication: An exploratory study using Transactional Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Lisa A.; Manning, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Communication in medical imaging is a neglected area of research, despite the necessity for good communication if optimum diagnostic images are to be achieved. Methods: The present study has investigated the styles of communication used in medical imaging, using an approach known as Transactional Analysis. This approach has been demonstrated previously as having reliability and validity, using observations and supporting interviews with medical imaging staff, along with inter-rater observations of radiographer-patient interactions. Results: The results indicate that Transactional Analysis can be used effectively for identifying and naming interaction events in diagnostic radiography, with diagnostic radiographers using five styles of communication. Conclusion: Radiographers tend to use Parental styles of communicating; these styles are commonly associated with a practitioner-centred approach to dealing with patients which often result in non-adherence

  9. Interpreting radiographs. 4. The carpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burguez, P.N.

    1984-01-01

    The complexity of the carpus which has three major joints, seven or eight carpal bones and five adjacent bones, each of which articulates with one or more of the carpal elements, necessitates good quality radiographs for definitive radiographic interpretation may be extremely difficult because of the disparity between radiographic changes and obvious clinical signs and, therefore, must be discussed in the light of a thorough clinical assessment

  10. Linear trend and abrupt changes of climate indices in the arid region of northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaijun; Pan, Yingping; Chen, Yaning; Ye, Zhengwei

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, climate extreme events have caused increasing direct economic and social losses in the arid region of northwestern China. Based on daily temperature and precipitation data from 1960 to 2010, this paper discussed the linear trend and abrupt changes of climate indices. The general evolution was obtained by the empirical orthogonal function (EOF), the Mann-Kendall test, and the distribution-free cumulative sum chart (CUSUM) test. The results are as follows: (1) climate showed a warming trend at annual and seasonal scale, with all temperature indices exhibiting statistically significant changes. The warm indices have increased, with 1.37%days/decade of warm days (TX90p), 0.17 °C/decade of warmest days (TXx) and 1.97 days/decade of warm spell duration indicator (WSDI), respectively. The cold indices have decreased, with - 1.89%days/decade, 0.65 °C/decade and - 0.66 days/decade for cold nights (TN10p), coldest nights (TNn) and cold spell duration indicator (CSDI), respectively. The precipitation indices have also increased significantly, coupled with the changes of magnitude (max 1-day precipitation amount (RX1day)), frequency (rain day (R0.1)), and duration (consecutive dry days (CDD)). (2) Abrupt changes of the annual regional precipitation indices and the minimum temperature indices were observed around 1986, and that of the maximum temperature indices were observed in 1996. (3) The EOF1 indicated the overall coherent distribution for the whole study area, and its principal component (PC1) was also observed, showing a significant linear trend with an abrupt change, which were in accordance with the regional observation results. EOF2 and EOF3 show contrasts between the southern and northern study areas, and between the eastern and western study areas, respectively, whereas no significant tendency was observed for their PCs. Hence, the climate indices have changed significantly, with linear trends and abrupt changes noted for all climate indices

  11. Total elbow arthroplasty: a radiographic outcome study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xue Susan [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Box 357115, Seattle, WA (United States); Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle M. [Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Ha, Alice S. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Box 354755, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) is becoming a popular alternative to arthrodesis for patients with end-stage elbow arthrosis and comminuted distal humeral fractures. Prior outcome studies have primarily focused on surgical findings. Our purpose is to determine the radiographic outcome of TEA and to correlate with clinical symptoms such as pain. This is an IRB-approved retrospective review from 2005 to 2015 of all patients with semiconstrained TEA. All available elbow radiographs and clinical data were reviewed. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meier survival curves for radiographic and clinical survival. A total of 104 total elbow arthroplasties in 102 patients were reviewed; 75 % were in women and the mean patient age was 63.1 years. Mean radiographic follow-up was 826 days with average of four radiographs per patient. Seventy TEAs (67 %) developed radiographic complications, including heterotopic ossification (48 %), perihardware lucency (27 %), periprosthetic fracture (23 %), hardware subluxation/dislocation (7 %), polyethylene wear (3 %), and hardware fracture/dislodgement (3 %); 56 patients (55 %) developed symptoms of elbow pain or instability and 30 patients (30 %) underwent at least one reoperation. In patients with radiographic complications, 66 % developed elbow pain, compared to 19 % of patients with no radiologic complications (p = 0.001). Of the patients with radiographic complications, 39 % had at least one additional surgery compared to 0 % of patients without radiographic complications (p = 0.056). Radiographic complications are common in patients after total elbow arthroplasty. There is a strong positive association between post-operative radiographic findings and clinical outcome. Knowledge of common postoperative radiographic findings is important for the practicing radiologist. (orig.)

  12. Improvement of a portable high-energy radiographic inspection system: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, R.D.

    1987-02-01

    This report describes the development of miniaturized linear accelerator (MINAC) technology, including descriptions of all major developments sponsored by EPRI subsequent to previously sponsored work. In addition, this report describes MINAC-related developments in both real-time x-ray imaging and radiographic image data processing systems which were sponsored by EPRI concurrently. The objectives of this program have been to achieve modifications identified as desirable improvements to the basic ''MINAC 3'' equipment; to expand the range and effectiveness of MINAC applications through design improvements, achievement of wider energy/output capabilities, and the development of suitable imaging and digital processing technologies; and to provide technical information on high-energy radiographic equipment useful to scientists, educators, institutions, NDE technicians and others who may benefit from detailed information on the special equipment. Program, equipment and technical descriptions are followed by conclusions and recommendations for future work

  13. Chest radiographic staging in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: relationship with immunological findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, J L

    2012-02-03

    The question of whether a chest radiographic severity staging system could be correlated with standard blood\\/serum diagnostic indices in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) was addressed in 41 patients. Asthma and positive Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) serology were considered essential diagnostic inclusion criteria. Eosinophil count, serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E and immediate skin hypersensitivity were also tested to grade patients as "definite" or "likely" ABPA. Definite cases had all five of these factors present, whereas likely cases had three or more. Chest radiographs were examined by experienced radiologists blinded to the clinical data. The six-stage radiographic score (0-5) was based on the severity and duration of changes seen: stage 0: normal; stage 1: transient hyperinflation; stage 2: transient minor changes; stage 3: transient major changes; stage 4: permanent minor changes; and stage 5: permanent major changes. Significant positive correlations (p<0.05) were observed between peak AF titres (expressed as an index), peak eosinophil count and radiographic severity stage. When considered as subgroups, these correlations approached, but did not reach, significance for the group with "likely" ABPA (n=28), but in the group with definite ABPA (n=13), there was a high correlation between radiographic score and peak AF index (r=0.59), as well as peak eosinophil count (r=0.62). This study suggests that the peak Aspergillus fumigatus index and eosinophil counts correlate best with the severity of radiographic stages in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. This chest radiographic staging system may be useful in the clinical assessment and management of patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, particularly in those patients with more severe radiographic stages.

  14. Fractal dimension analysis in digital periapical radiographs: A diagnostic indicator of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathivanan Kavitha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the alveolar bone density by fractal dimension (FD analysis in radiovisiograph of postmenopausal women of mandibular posterior region and to correlate FD values with t-scores of quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus bone. Materials and Methods: This study, approved by the institutional review board, included 40 participants, aged 45–60 years divided into two groups. Twenty postmenopausal women with osteoporosis comprised group 1, and 20 postmenopausal women without osteoporosis comprised group 2 based on bone mineral density assessment of ultrasound of the calcaneus bone. Digital dental radiograph of mandibular first molar were obtained and used for assessing alveolar bone density by FD analysis and were correlated with t-scores of ultrasound of calcaneus bone. Results: The mean FD values were evaluated using SPSS 14 version software, and were found to be 1.738 and 1.867 for group 1 and group 2, respectively, which was statistically significant (P 0.05. Conclusion: FD analysis using direct digital periapical radiographs is a novel method, which can be used for early diagnosis of osteoporosis in the alveolar bone.

  15. Radiographer commenting of trauma radiographs: a survey of the benefits, barriers and enablers to participation in an Australian healthcare setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neep, Michael J.; Steffens, Tom; Owen, Rebecca; McPhail, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Radiographer abnormality detection systems that highlight abnormalities on trauma radiographs ('red dot' system) have been operating for more than 30 years. Recently, a number of pitfalls have been identified. These limitations initiated the evolution of a radiographer commenting system, whereby a radiographer provides a brief description of abnormalities identified in emergency healthcare settings. This study investigated radiographers' participation in abnormality detection systems, their perceptions of benefits, barriers and enablers to radiographer commenting, and perceptions of potential radiographer image interpretation services for emergency settings. A cross-sectional survey was implemented. Participants included radiographers from four metropolitan hospitals in Queensland, Australia. Conventional descriptive statistics, histograms and thematic analysis were undertaken. Seventy-three surveys were completed and included in the analysis (68% response rate); 30 (41%) of respondents reported participating in abnormality detection in 20% or less of examinations, and 26(36%) reported participating in 80% or more of examinations. Five overarching perceived benefits of radiographer commenting were identified: assisting multidisciplinary teams, patient care, radiographer ability, professional benefits and quality of imaging. Frequently reported perceived barriers included 'difficulty accessing image interpretation education', 'lack of time' and 'low confidence in interpreting radiographs'. Perceived enablers included 'access to image interpretation education' and 'support from radiologist colleagues'. A range of factors are likely to contribute to the successful implementation of radiographer commenting in addition to abnormality detection in emergency settings. Effective image interpretation education amenable to completion by radiographers would likely prove valuable in preparing radiographers for participation in abnormality detection and commenting systems in

  16. Interpretation and digestion of radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Radiography digestion is final test for the radiography to make sure that radiograph produced will inspect their quality of the image before its interpreted. This level is critical level where if there is a mistake, all of the radiography work done before will be unaccepted. So as mention earlier, it can waste time, cost and more worst it can make the production must shut down. So, this step, level two radiographers or interpreter must evaluate the radiograph carefully. For this purpose, digestion room and densitometer must used. Of course all the procedure must follow the specification that mentioned in document. There are several needs must fill before we can say the radiograph is corrected or not like the location of penetrameter, number of penetrameter that showed, the degree of density of film, and usually there is no problem in this step and the radiograph can go to interpretation and evaluation step as will mentioned in next chapter.

  17. Radiographers' opinions on radiography research in Norway – A national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikestad, K.G.; Hafskjold, L.; Kjelle, E.; Sebuødegård, S.; Hofvind, S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the Norwegian Radiography Research Group is to establish a strategy for radiography research in Norway. A survey investigating radiographers' opinions on research was conducted to establish a basis for this strategy. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to all members of the Norwegian Society of Radiographers using the society's e-mail list from May 2014 (n = 2273). The respondents, 31% (n = 697), were divided into six groups; general radiographers (n = 392), specialised radiographers (n = 124), managers (n = 74), radiation therapists (n = 59), professors (n = 13), and others (n = 35). The questionnaire included four parts: introduction, participation in research, research performed at the respondent's work place, and opinions on radiography research. The first parts consisted of close-ended questions, while the fourth part also included a Likert scale. Results: Among all respondents, 63% respondents agreed that there is a need for radiography research and 50% agreed that general radiographers/radiation therapists should be the principal investigators of such research. However, only 19% reported participation in a research project during the last five years, and of those, 50% knew how the results of their research had been communicated. Conclusion: The majority of radiographers agreed that there was a need for radiography research and that radiographers/radiation therapists should take a leading role in such work. The results indicate that radiographers/radiation therapists would benefit from training in informal and formal research skills. - Highlights: • Two in ten radiographers took part in research activity in Norway. • Six in ten agreed that there is a need for radiographic related research in Norway. • Evidence-based practice, informal and formal research training represent the main aim to reach in the first strategy for radiography research in Norway.

  18. The use of gonad shielding in paediatric hip and pelvis radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, S L; Barter, S J

    2009-05-01

    The problem of inaccurate placement of gonad shields in children has been highlighted by several publications nationally and internationally over the past decade and more. Here, we review the literature and present the results of a regional audit designed to assess the use and accuracy of placement of gonad shields for hip and pelvis radiographs in children. 100 consecutive anteroposterior hip or pelvis radiographs in patients under the age of 16 years were reviewed in each of 9 centres. We also included the most recent and all previously available relevant radiographs. A total of 2405 radiographs were reviewed with regard to the presence of a shield and to the accuracy of any shield placement with respect to gonad protection and visualization of orthopaedic landmarks. It is recommended that gonad shields are used in all follow-up paediatric pelvis radiographs. Our results show they were only used in 70% of such cases. When placed, only 38% of all shields were considered to be positioned accurately. For cases where shielding was indicated, an accurately placed shield was present in just 26% of radiographs. Formal written departmental guidelines for shield use were only available in two centres. We conclude that clear guidelines need to be formulated which, together with shield redesign, improved training and audit, should increase effective gonad protection for children.

  19. Reporting by radiographers: a policy and practice guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, Audrey M.; Price, Richard C.; Thomas, Adrian; Nuttall, Lorraine

    2004-01-01

    Reporting by radiographers and other non-medical staff has developed considerably in the past decade, and especially so since the College of Radiographers published its vision paper on reporting by radiographers, in 1997. It was felt necessary, therefore, to develop guidance to assist radiographers and others undertaking radiographic reporting. The guidance provided includes guidance on planning and implementing a reporting service using reporting radiographers; the education, continuing education and support required by reporting radiographers; quality and standards related to reporting; and the nature of a report. Broader issues that will need to be addressed as reporting by radiographers becomes the norm are also raised

  20. Correlation between static radiographic measurements and intersegmental angular measurements during gait using a multisegment foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Yeon; Seo, Sang Gyo; Kim, Eo Jin; Kim, Sung Ju; Lee, Kyoung Min; Farber, Daniel C; Chung, Chin Youb; Choi, In Ho

    2015-01-01

    Radiographic examination is a widely used evaluation method in the orthopedic clinic. However, conventional radiography alone does not reflect the dynamic changes between foot and ankle segments during gait. Multiple 3-dimensional multisegment foot models (3D MFMs) have been introduced to evaluate intersegmental motion of the foot. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between static radiographic indices and intersegmental foot motion indices. One hundred twenty-five females were tested. Static radiographs of full-leg and anteroposterior (AP) and lateral foot views were performed. For hindfoot evaluation, we measured the AP tibiotalar angle (TiTA), talar tilt (TT), calcaneal pitch, lateral tibiocalcaneal angle, and lateral talcocalcaneal angle. For the midfoot segment, naviculocuboid overlap and talonavicular coverage angle were calculated. AP and lateral talo-first metatarsal angles and metatarsal stacking angle (MSA) were measured to assess the forefoot. Hallux valgus angle (HVA) and hallux interphalangeal angle were measured. In gait analysis by 3D MFM, intersegmental angle (ISA) measurements of each segment (hallux, forefoot, hindfoot, arch) were recorded. ISAs at midstance phase were most highly correlated with radiography. Significant correlations were observed between ISA measurements using MFM and static radiographic measurements in the same segment. In the hindfoot, coronal plane ISA was correlated with AP TiTA (P foot motion indices at midstance phase during gait measured by 3D MFM gait analysis were correlated with the conventional radiographic indices. The observed correlation between MFM measurements at midstance phase during gait and static radiographic measurements supports the fundamental basis for the use of MFM in analysis of dynamic motion of foot segment during gait. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Age prediction formulae from radiographic assessment of skeletal maturation at the knee in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Jean E

    2014-01-01

    Age estimation in living subjects is primarily achieved through assessment of a hand-wrist radiograph and comparison with a standard reference atlas. Recently, maturation of other regions of the skeleton has also been assessed in an attempt to refine the age estimates. The current study presents a method to predict bone age directly from the knee in a modern Irish sample. Ten maturity indicators (A-J) at the knee were examined from radiographs of 221 subjects (137 males; 84 females). Each indicator was assigned a maturity score. Scores for indicators A-G, H-J and A-J, respectively, were totalled to provide a cumulative maturity score for change in morphology of the epiphyses (AG), epiphyseal union (HJ) and the combination of both (AJ). Linear regression equations to predict age from the maturity scores (AG, HJ, AJ) were constructed for males and females. For males, equation-AJ demonstrated the greatest predictive capability (R(2)=0.775) while for females equation-HJ had the strongest capacity for prediction (R(2)=0.815). When equation-AJ for males and equation-HJ for females were applied to the current sample, the predicted age of 90% of subjects was within ±1.5 years of actual age for male subjects and within +2.0 to -1.9 years of actual age for female subjects. The regression formulae and associated charts represent the most contemporary method of age prediction currently available for an Irish population, and provide a further technique which can contribute to a multifactorial approach to age estimation in non-adults.

  2. Radiographic markers for measuring tibial rotation based on CT-reconstructed radiographs. An accuracy and feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakimian, David; Khoury, Amal; Mosheiff, Rami; Liebergall, Meir; Weil, Yoram A.

    2018-01-01

    Malreduction in the axial plane (malrotation) following tibial fracture surgery is often undiagnosed. A few clinical and radiographic methods have been proposed for measuring tibial rotation intraoperatively, yet have failed to match the accuracy of computed tomography (CT). The aim of this study was to develop radiographic tools for future intraoperative assessment of the tibial shaft rotation profile. The setting was a laboratory computerized analysis. Twenty lower limb CT scans were used to construct a three-dimensional (3D) model using AMIRA copyright software. A virtual 3D cylinder was implanted in the posterior condylar line and in the transmalleolar axis. The 3D models were used to simulate four standard knee and ankle plain radiographs. On each radiograph, four landmarks were depicted by two observers and their relation with the cylinder was measured and analyzed for accuracy and reproducibility. A cadaveric lower leg was implanted with two Kirschner wires. A CT scan was performed in addition to 2D fluoroscopy. The simulated radiographs and the fluoroscopy were compared for accuracy. Measurement of the landmarks showed reliability in most of the knee anteroposterior and ankle mortise radiographs (coefficients of variation < 0.01 and = 0.01) respectively. Cadaveric measurement of the landmarks using real fluoroscopy and simulated radiographs were similar. To date, no reliable and common methods have been reported for the evaluation of tibial axial rotation. We propose a model in which simple radiographic landmarks can be used to calculate a 3D coordinate system that accurately assesses the axial rotation angle of the tibial shaft. (orig.)

  3. Radiographic markers for measuring tibial rotation based on CT-reconstructed radiographs. An accuracy and feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakimian, David; Khoury, Amal; Mosheiff, Rami; Liebergall, Meir; Weil, Yoram A. [Hadassah Hebrew University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2018-04-15

    Malreduction in the axial plane (malrotation) following tibial fracture surgery is often undiagnosed. A few clinical and radiographic methods have been proposed for measuring tibial rotation intraoperatively, yet have failed to match the accuracy of computed tomography (CT). The aim of this study was to develop radiographic tools for future intraoperative assessment of the tibial shaft rotation profile. The setting was a laboratory computerized analysis. Twenty lower limb CT scans were used to construct a three-dimensional (3D) model using AMIRA copyright software. A virtual 3D cylinder was implanted in the posterior condylar line and in the transmalleolar axis. The 3D models were used to simulate four standard knee and ankle plain radiographs. On each radiograph, four landmarks were depicted by two observers and their relation with the cylinder was measured and analyzed for accuracy and reproducibility. A cadaveric lower leg was implanted with two Kirschner wires. A CT scan was performed in addition to 2D fluoroscopy. The simulated radiographs and the fluoroscopy were compared for accuracy. Measurement of the landmarks showed reliability in most of the knee anteroposterior and ankle mortise radiographs (coefficients of variation < 0.01 and = 0.01) respectively. Cadaveric measurement of the landmarks using real fluoroscopy and simulated radiographs were similar. To date, no reliable and common methods have been reported for the evaluation of tibial axial rotation. We propose a model in which simple radiographic landmarks can be used to calculate a 3D coordinate system that accurately assesses the axial rotation angle of the tibial shaft. (orig.)

  4. Correlating intravenous radiographic contrast media reactions with the allergic profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua-Lim, A.; Enright, T.; Duda, E.; Lim, D.T.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the relevance of allergy as a predisposing factor in reactions to radiographic contrast media, the authors investigated the incidence of allergy among 100 randomly selected patients undergoing intravenous excretory urography and CT. The study population consisted of 50 reactors and 50 nonreactos to radiographic contrast media. All 100 subjects completed an allergy history, percutaneous allergy tests, and an in vitro specific IgE assay to common allergens. Thirty-four of 50 reactors had a positive allergy history, in contrast to 15 of 50 nonreactors (P < .001). Twenty-seven reactors had positive skin tests, in contrast to 12 of 50 nonreactors (P < .005). In vitro IgE assay results are pending. The results indicate that patients with positive histories or positive skin tests or both are at an increased risk for reactions to radiographic contrast media

  5. Radiographic examination for successful dental implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul

    2005-01-01

    Recently implant has become an important field in dental clinic. Radiographic examination of pre- and post-operation is essential for successful treatment. Clinicians should have knowledge about the purpose of the radiographic examination, suitable imaging modality for the cases, anatomic landmarks of tooth and jaw bone, advantage and limitation of panoramic radiographic examination for implant, principle and interpretation of cross-sectional imaging, bone mineral density, post-operative radiographic examination. This paper will be helpful to get above information for dentists who want to do dental implant successfully.

  6. Validity of radiographic assessment of ankylosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenvik, A.; Beyer-Olsen, E.; Aabyholm, F.; Haanaes, H.R.; Gerner, N.W.

    1990-01-01

    The accuracy and sensitivity of radiographic assessments of reactive processes in dental tissues were evaluated by comparison of radiographs and histologic sections. Experimental lesions inflicted on the roots of 10 monkey incisors had been observed by means of serially obtained radiographs over a period of 315 to 370 days. The material was used for evaluation of radiographic assessment of ankylosis. For comparative purposes, assessment of the experimental lesion penetrating to the pulp and periapical radiolucency was added. True and falsely positive or negative recordings formed the basis for calculation of the accuracy and sensitivity of the radiographic assessment. The sensitivity, or the obsevers ability to detect the actual changes, was high for pulp penetration, intermediate for inflammation, and low for ankylosis. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. A radiographic examination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, A.P.; Cable, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    A system for performing radiographic examination, particularly of large items such as international container units is disclosed. The system is formed as an installation comprising housings for respective linear accelerators transmitting a beam of radiation across the path of a conveyor along which the units can be displaced continuously or incrementally. On either end of the installation are container handling areas including roller conveyors with drag chains and transverse manipulators, and the whole installation is secured within automatically operated doors which seal the high energy region when a container on the conveyor is being subjected to examination. The radiation transmitted through a container is detected in a detector system incorporating a fluoroscopic screen light output from which is detected in a camera system such as a television camera, and transmitted as coded pulsed signals by a coding transfer unit to display screens where an image of the transmitted information can be displayed and/or recorded for further use. (author)

  8. Radiographic testing - optimum radiographs of plastics and composite materials with dosimeter control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuster, J.

    1978-01-01

    In view of great differencies in X-ray transmission it is more difficult to get optimum radiographs of plastics and especially of reinforced plastics than for example of metals. A procedure will be reported how to get with little effort optimum radiographs especially also in the range of long wavelength radiation corresponding 10 to 25 kV.P. (orig.) [de

  9. 21 CFR 892.1840 - Radiographic film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film. 892.1840 Section 892.1840 Food... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1840 Radiographic film. (a) Identification. Radiographic film is a device that consists of a thin sheet of radiotransparent material coated on one or both...

  10. Femoroacetabular cam-type impingement: Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of radiographic views compared to radial MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domayer, S.E.; Ziebarth, K.; Chan, J.; Bixby, S.; Mamisch, T.C.; Kim, Y.J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively assess the diagnostic sensitivity of 45° Dunn view and cross-table lateral radiographs for the assessment of cam deformity by comparison with radial MRI. Materials and methods: 60 cases with radiographs (38 a–p and 45° Dunn views, 22 a–p and cross-table lateral views) and radial MRI were assessed. Alpha angle measurements were obtained both for radiographs and radial MRI. Statistics included frequency analysis, bivariate linear correlation analyses of MRI and radiograph measurements and cross-table analyses testing for the sensitivity and specificity of radiographs for the detection of an alpha angle larger than 55°. Results: 53.3% had the maximum alpha angle in the superior–anterior aspect of the femoral head–neck junction. Cam deformity was found in 45/60 cases (75%) in radial MRI. Pearson correlation demonstrated the Dunn view was most accurate for the superior–anterior aspect (.772, P < .001). The cross-table lateral views were best suited for the anterior–superior aspect (.511, P < .05). The sensitivity for cam deformity in the Dunn view was 96.4% vs. 70.6% in the cross-table lateral view. Conclusion: The 45° Dunn view can improve the first line of impingement diagnostics. Radial MRI however remains indispensable for pre-operative planning and the evaluation of symptomatic cases without obvious deformity.

  11. Determination of the length and position of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) by correlation of external measurements with combined radiographic and manometric estimations in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, M.A.; Waterman, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Fifty DSH cats were studied radiographically and a highly significant linear correlation was found between the length of the oesophagus measured to the diaphragmatic line on the radiographs and the externally measured distance from the lower jaw incisor teeth to the anterior border of the head of 10th rib. A subsequent manometric study utilizing this correlation in 40 cats suggests that the functional lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) is situated almost at the level of the diaphragm in the cat. Significant differences were found between the length of the LOS in cats anaesthetized with ketamine compared to alphaxalone-alphadolone or xylazine-ketamine-atropine. The mean lengths of the LOS was 1.42 +/- 0.3 cm. The findings of this study indicate that external measurements can be used to position catheters for accurate oesophageal manometry in the cat

  12. Radiographic bone loss in a Scottish non-smoking Type 1 Diabetes mellitus population; a Bitewing Radiographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessas, Anastasios; Robertson, Douglas P; Hodge, Penny J

    2018-05-15

    The dental complications of uncontrolled diabetes include reduced salivary flow rate, candidiasis and periodontal manifestations. A recent meta-analysis concluded that diabetes patients have a significantly higher severity, but not extent, of destructive periodontal disease than non-diabetes people. The authors reported that most type-1 diabetes studies using dental radiographic data have not controlled for confounding factors such as smoking. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare radiographic alveolar bone loss between type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and non-diabetes (NDM) participants in a Scottish non-smoking population. Digital bitewing radiographs for 174 Scottish adult never or ex-smoker (> 5 years) participants (108 T1DM, 66 NDS), recruited from outpatient clinics throughout Greater Glasgow and Clyde, were included in the analysis. A single blinded, trained and calibrated examiner recorded the radiographic bone loss seen on bitewing radiographs using the digital screen caliper. The bone loss was measured as the distance between the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and the deepest radiographic alveolar bone margin interproximally of each tooth. T1DM participants had more radiographic alveolar bone loss throughout the all teeth measured (median:1.27 mm vs 1.06 mm, P diabetes subjects. Patients suffering from type 1 diabetes are at higher risk of periodontitis even when controlling for multiple possible confounding factors and this difference can be detected on routine dental radiographs at an early stage. These data confirm radiographically the previously reported association between T1DM and periodontal bone loss. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.

  13. Reproductive health of male radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhatreh, Farouk M.

    2001-01-01

    To compare certain reproductive health problems reported in 2 groups of males, one of which was exposed to x-ray radiation (radiographers) and the other group that was not exposed to x-ray radiation. The reproductive health problems were miscarriage, congenital anomalies, still births and infertility. Two groups of men were selected (90 in each group). The first group consisted of radiographers and the other groups consisted of men not exposed to x-ray radiation. The 2 groups were matched for age and source. Relative risk, attributable risk percentage and level of significance were calculated. Incidence rate of reproductive health problems was increasing with the increase in duration of exposure to x-ray radiation ranging between 17% (for those exposed for 1-5 years) to 91% (for those exposed for more than 15 years). There were significant associations between exposure to radiation and miscarriage (relative risk = 1.67, attributable risk percentage = 40%), congenital anomalies (relative risk = 10, attributable risk percentage 90%), still birth (relative risk = 7, attributable risk percentage = 86%), and infertility (relative risk = 4.5, attributable risk = 78%). The incidence rates of reproductive health problems reported by male radiographers were significantly higher than that reported by the non exposed group and higher than the incidence rates reported in community-based studies in Jordan. The incidence rates of fetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth together) and infertility reported by our radiographers were higher than had been reported by the British radiographers. An immediate plan of action is needed to protect our radiographers. Further studies are needed in this field taking into account all extraneous variables that may affect the reproductive health of radiographers. (author)

  14. Peri-implantitis: a complex condition with non-linear characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papantonopoulos, G.H.; Gogos, C.; Housos, E.; Bountis, T.; Loos, B.G.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To cluster peri-implantitis patients and explore non-linear patterns in peri-implant bone levels. Materials and Methods Clinical and radiographic variables were retrieved from 94 implant-treated patients (340 implants, mean 7.1 ± 4.1 years in function). Kernel probability density estimations on

  15. The relationship between pain and dynamic knee joint loading in knee osteoarthritis varies with radiographic disease severity. A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Marius; Aaboe, Jens; Bliddal, Henning

    2012-08-01

    In a cross sectional study, we investigated the relationships between knee pain and mechanical loading across the knee, as indicated by the external knee adduction moment (KAM) during walking in patients with symptomatic knee OA who were distinguished by different radiographic disease severities. Data from 137 symptomatic medial knee OA patients were used. Based on Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) grading, the patients were divided into radiographically less severe (K/L ≤ 2, n=68) or severe (K/L>2, n=69) medial knee OA. Overall knee pain was rated on a 10 cm visual analog scale, and peak KAM and KAM impulses were obtained from gait analyses. Mixed linear regression analyses were performed with KAM variables as the outcome, and pain and disease severity as independent variables, adjusting for age, gender, and walking speed. In adjusted analyses, less severe patients demonstrated negative relationships between pain intensities and dynamic loading. The severe patient group showed no relationship between pain intensity and peak KAM, and a positive relationship between pain intensity and KAM impulse. In radiographically less severe knee OA, the negative relationships between pain intensity and dynamic knee joint loading indicate a natural reaction to pain, which will limit the stress on the joint. In contrast, either absent or positive relationships between pain and dynamic loading in severe OA may lead to overuse and accelerated disease progression. These findings may have a large potential interest for strategies of treatment in knee OA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Accuracy of radiographer reporting of paediatric brain CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Andrew; Louw, Brand; Dekker, Gerrit; Andronikou, Savvas; Wieselthaler, Nicki; Kilborn, Tracy; Bertelsman, Jessica; Dreyer, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Radiographer reporting has been studied for plain films and for ultrasonography, but not in paediatric brain CT in the emergency setting. To study the accuracy of radiographer reporting in paediatric brain CT. We prospectively collected 100 paediatric brain CT examinations. Films were read from hard copies using a prescribed tick sheet. Radiographers with 12 years' and 3 years' experience, respectively, were blinded to the history and were not trained in diagnostic film interpretation. The radiographers' results were compared with those of a consultant radiologist. Three categories were defined: abnormal scans, significant abnormalities and insignificant abnormalities. Both radiographers had an accuracy of 89.5% in reading a scan correctly as abnormal, and radiographer 1 had a sensitivity of 87.8% and radiographer 2 a sensitivity of 96%. Radiographer 1 had an accuracy in detecting a significant abnormality of 75% and radiographer 2 an accuracy of 48.6%, and the sensitivities for this category were 61.6% and 52.9%, respectively. Results for detecting the insignificant abnormalities were poorer. Selected radiographers could play an effective screening role, but lacking the sensitivity required for detecting significant abnormality, they could not be the final diagnostician. We recommend that the study be repeated after both radiographers have received formal training in interpretation of paediatric brain CT. (orig.)

  17. An exploratory study of radiographer's perceptions of radiographer commenting on musculo-skeletal trauma images in rural community based hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Morag L.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This study sought to explore the perceptions of community hospital based radiographers in North East Scotland regarding the practice of radiographer commenting on musculo-skeletal trauma images. Method: A purposive sample of radiographers (n = 8) were recruited from community hospitals throughout the North-east of Scotland. A qualitative, exploratory study was conducted employing semi-structured interviews consisting of one focus group and two individual interviews. The interviews were audio recorded and transcribed in full to allow thematic analysis of the data using a framework adapted from Pope and Mays (2006). Main findings: This study revealed that the practice of radiographer commenting in the community provides a valuable front line opinion on musculo-skeletal trauma image appearances to enhance diagnostic outcomes for patients and streamline their care pathway. The appreciation shown from inter-professional colleagues for this practice induced feelings of professional pride and job satisfaction in the sample group. All participants expressed a desire to undertake additional training to allow progression from radiographer commenting to radiographer reporting of musculo-skeletal trauma images. Perceived barriers to the practice of radiographer commenting were time constraints and a lack of support with regards to continuing professional development (CPD) opportunities and mentorship from radiology colleagues. Conclusion: The practice of radiographer commenting in the community setting should be supported by ongoing training, and radiologist involvement in mentoring could provide radiographers with a valuable support mechanism. The voice of all radiographers regarding this extended role must be heard by professional leaders to ensure that the skills and education required for radiographer commenting are provided and subsequent patient care is not compromised

  18. Transfer of learning: Radiographers' perceptions of simulation-based educational intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aura, S.; Jordan, S.; Saano, S.; Tossavainen, K.; Turunen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aims of this qualitative descriptive study were to 1) explore and define radiographers' competence in intravenous pharmacotherapy before and after a simulation-based education, 2) examine radiographer's perceptions of transfer of learning into clinical practice. Method: Sixteen diagnostic radiographers in one hospitals' Clinical Radiology Unit were individually interviewed before a multidisciplinary simulation-based pharmacotherapy education intervention in 2012 and fourteen were re-interviewed after the intervention 6–7 months later. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Before education the participants reported uncertain competence in pain management during imaging procedures and acute situations. These weak competence areas identified were strengthened and self-confidence grew. The intervention improved the domains of pharmacotherapy-related patient safety; teamwork development and communication skills. In addition, the radiographers indicated that the iv. pharmacotherapy knowledge from simulation learning was transferred to routine work. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest simulation-based education is suitable for radiographers' pharmacotherapy learning. Adequate pain measurement and management are essential during invasive procedures and these skills can be realistically learned in simulations and transferred to clinical practice. - Highlights: • Simulation education is suitable for professionals' pharmacotherapy education. • Radiographers felt education empowered them to manage acute situations. • Skills in pain measurement, analgesia and patient monitoring enhanced. • Communication and teamwork skills were enhanced. • Simulation-based learning was transferred to clinical practice.

  19. Radiograph identifying means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    A flexible character-indentable plastics embossing tape is backed by and bonded to a lead strip, not more than 0.025 inches thick, to form a tape suitable for identifying radiographs. The lead strip is itself backed by a relatively thin and flimsy plastics or fabric strip which, when removed, allows the lead plastic tape to be pressure-bonded to the surface to be radiographed. A conventional tape-embossing gun is used to indent the desired characters in succession into the lead-backed tape, without necessarily severing the lead; and then the backing strip is peeled away to expose the layer of adhesive which pressure-bonds the indented tape to the object to be radiographed. X-rays incident on the embossed tape will cause the raised characters to show up dark on the subsequently-developed film, whilst the raised side areas will show up white. Each character will thus stand out on the developed film. (author)

  20. Radiographic and pathologic features of osteopetrosis in two Peruvian Paso foals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, C.R.; House, J.K.; Poulos, P.P.; Madigan, J.E.; Woodard, J.C.; Pool, R.R.; O'Brien, T.R.; Ackerman, N.

    1994-01-01

    The radiographic and pathologic findings of two Peruvian Paso foals with osteopetrosis are described. Both foals, one male and one female, presented with respiratory difficulty, brachygnathia and failure to rise after birth. Both foals were mildly anemic, hypogammaglobulinemic and had elevations in serum alkaline phosphatase. Increased medullary bone opacity was noted on radiographs of the extremities, spine and skull in both foals. A lack of normal cortical:medullary bone distinction was evident radiographically. The medullary primary spongiosa appeared to run in parallel columns away from the physes of all long bones and the vertebrae. This created a distinctive hour glass appearance to the osteopetrotic bones. One foal developed a bacterial pneumonia. Both foals were euthanized due to failure to thrive. Histopathology and electron microscopy documented these foals to have normal osteoclastic numbers but lack normal ruffled borders, lack of a clear zone and normal lysosomal numbers indicative of cellular dysfunction. These clinical, radiographic and pathologic findings are similar to the juvenile, lethal autosomal recessive form of osteopetrosis described in humans. Osteopetrosis has not been previously described in a female foal

  1. Exploring the research domain of consultant practice: Perceptions and opinions of consultant radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.; Paterson, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This paper reports on one part of a larger study. The aim was to explore what the core domain of research means to consultant radiographers in clinical practice and to identify the key factors that facilitate or hinder research activity by this staff group. Design and method: Grounded theory research methodology was employed. This first part of the study involved electronic questionnaires being sent to all those known in consultant radiographer posts in the United Kingdom. Results: Results indicate there are variations across clinical specialties as to the amount and level of research undertaken by consultant radiographers, and not all agreed that research should be a core domain of consultant practice. Main facilitators to research were noted as: time; skills and knowledge of the researcher; a well defined research question. Main barriers to research were noted as: lack of allocated time; lack of skills/experience; clinical workload. Conclusion: Research is one of the four core domains of consultant allied health professional and nursing roles but, as yet, it is not fully embedded into those of all consultant radiographers. Many consultant radiographers appear to spend more of their time on the ‘clinical expert’ element of their role at the expense of the research domain. This study concludes that there is an urgent need for consultant radiographers to understand that research is one of the four core domains and to recognise the need to embed research into their clinical practice. - Highlights: • Consultant radiographers undertake research but have concerns about their research skills. • Research aims to improve practice and patients' experiences. • Relatively few consultant radiographers publish their work routinely. • Consultant radiographers allocate little protected time for research due to clinical demands. • Almost half of the consultant radiographers feel research should not be a core part of their roles.

  2. Legalities of the radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The radiograph itself plays a major role in medical malpractice cases. Also, many questions arise concerning the rights to and storage of x-ray films. These issues are addressed in this chapter. To keep the terminology simple, the word radiograph represents all imaging documentation on hard copy film (x-rays, nuclear medicine, computer-assisted studies, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging)

  3. Consultant breast radiographers: Where are we now?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, Zebby

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to: • Evaluate the current role of the consultant breast radiographer. • Compare current practice with the four key components for consultant practice. • Gauge the support of radiologist colleagues. • Determine the other professional commitments involved with the role. This study could be the precursor for a macro study of all consultant radiographer practice in other specialities. Methodology: Methodology used was a comparative ethnographic study. Questionnaires to the 24 consultant breast radiographers currently in post, and consultant breast radiologists, who work with them, were conducted. Data collection was a qualitative thematic approach. Conclusion: Consultant breast radiographers provide high quality care to patients through excellent clinical practice, leadership and good communication. However, this study shows hospital Trusts emphasis for non medical consultants is for clinical practice first. Some radiologists are still a barrier to progression for consultant breast radiographers, and radiologists have a big influence in recruitment decisions. Consultant breast radiographer posts are well established, their numbers are increasing through recognition of the role and of their abilities and performance. Consultant breast radiographers state that becoming a consultant is the major achievement of their career, proving the Society of Radiographers' vision of the four-tier career structure has been well received by the radiography profession

  4. Gadolinium-containing contrast media for radiographic examinations: a position paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, Henrik S.; Almen, Torsten; Morcos, Sameh K.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that gadolinium-based contrast media could be used for radiological examinations in patients with significant renal impairment, previous severe generalized reaction to iodinated contrast media or thyroid disease about to undergo radioactive iodine treatment; however, the indications for and risks of using gadolinium agents in this way are not well known; hence, the Contrast Media Safety Committee of The European Society of Urogenital Radiology reviewed the literature to issue a position paper on this subject. A comprehensive literature review was performed and the resulting report was discussed at the Ninth European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Genoa, Italy, June 2002. Review of the literature indicates that according to experimental data on animals gadolinium-based contrast media have more nephrotoxic potential than iodinated contrast media in equivalent X-ray attenuating doses; therefore, gadolinium-based contrast media should not replace iodinated contrast media in patients with renal insufficiency for radiographic examinations. For patients with previous severe generalized reactions to iodinated contrast media, and in patients about to undergo thyroid treatment with radioactive iodine gadolinium-based contrast media in approved intravenous doses, up to 0.3 mmol/kg body weight will not give diagnostic radiographic information in most cases. Gadolinium-based contrast media are not approved for radiographic examinations. (orig.)

  5. Importance of radiographic monitoring of endoscopic sphincterotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, H.M.; Goldberg, H.I.; Shapiro, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    The radiographic features of endoscopic sphincterotomies performed in 44 patients were evaluated. Radiographic landmarks aided in proper sphincterotome placement and also disclosed conditions and anatomic variations that made catheter placement difficult. Fluoroscopic and radiographic monitoring not only assisted the performance of endoscopic sphincterotomy, but also confirmed successful results and revealed reasons for failure. Radiographic changes in the biliary tract after sphincterotomy, as well as potential complications of sphincterotomy, are discussed and illustrated

  6. Automated matching of corresponding seed images of three simulator radiographs to allow 3D triangulation of implanted seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Martin D.; Kassaee, Alireza

    1997-02-01

    To match corresponding seed images in different radiographs so that the 3D seed locations can be triangulated automatically and without ambiguity requires (at least) three radiographs taken from different perspectives, and an algorithm that finds the proper permutations of the seed-image indices. Matching corresponding images in only two radiographs introduces inherent ambiguities which can be resolved only with the use of non-positional information obtained with intensive human effort. Matching images in three or more radiographs is an `NP (Non-determinant in Polynomial time)-complete' problem. Although the matching problem is fundamental, current methods for three-radiograph seed-image matching use `local' (seed-by-seed) methods that may lead to incorrect matchings. We describe a permutation-sampling method which not only gives good `global' (full permutation) matches for the NP-complete three-radiograph seed-matching problem, but also determines the reliability of the radiographic data themselves, namely, whether the patient moved in the interval between radiographic perspectives.

  7. Radiation protection - radiographer's role and responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popli, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Ever since discovery of x-rays, radiographers has been the prime user of radiation. With the passage of time, the harmful effects of radiation were detected. Some of radiographers, radiologists and public were affected by radiation, but today with enough knowledge of radiation, the prime responsibility of radiation protection lies with the radiographers only. The radiologist and physicist are also associated with radiation protection to some extent

  8. Intra-observer reproducibility and interobserver reliability of the radiographic parameters in the Spinal Deformity Study Group's AIS Radiographic Measurement Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Natasha Radhika; Moreau, Marc J; Hill, Douglas L; Mahood, James K; Raso, James

    2005-05-01

    Retrospective cross-sectional assessment of the reproducibility and reliability of radiographic parameters. To measure the intra-examiner and interexaminer reproducibility and reliability of salient radiographic features. The management and treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) depends on accurate and reproducible radiographic measurements of the deformity. Ten sets of radiographs were randomly selected from a sample of patients with AIS, with initial curves between 20 degrees and 45 degrees. Fourteen measures of the deformity were measured from posteroanterior and lateral radiographs by 2 examiners, and were repeated 5 times at intervals of 3-5 days. Intra-examiner and interexaminer differences were examined. The parameters include measures of curve size, spinal imbalance, sagittal kyphosis and alignment, maximum apical vertebral rotation, T1 tilt, spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis, and skeletal age. Intra-examiner reproducibility was generally excellent for parameters measured from the posteroanterior radiographs but only fair to good for parameters from the lateral radiographs, in which some landmarks were not clearly visible. Of the 13 parameters observed, 7 had excellent interobserver reliability. The measurements from the lateral radiograph were less reproducible and reliable and, thus, may not add value to the assessment of AIS. Taking additional measures encourages a systematic and comprehensive assessment of spinal radiographs.

  9. Radiographic findings of miliary tuberculosis: difference in patients with and those without associated acute respiratory failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Jin Seong; Ko, Yoon Seok; Lee, In Sun; Seo, Joon Beom; Song, Koun Sick; Lim, Tae Hwan

    2002-01-01

    To determine the differences in the radiography findings of miliary tuberculosis between patients with and without associated acute respiratory failure (ARF). We retrospectively 32 patients in whom miliary tuberculosis had been diagnosed, and assigned them to one of two groups: with ARF (n=10), and without ARF (n=22). Chest radiographic findings such as presence of miliary modules, consolidation, ground-glass opacity (GGO), pleural effusion, small calcified nodules and linear opacities were assessed, the size and profusion of nodules in each of four zones were analyzed and scored using the standard radiographs of the international labor organization, and the extent of consolidation and GGO were scored according to the percentage on involved lung. We compared the radiologic findings between the two groups. Ground-glass opacity, consolidation, and pleural effusion were seen more frequently in miliary tuberculosis patinets with ARF than in those without ARF. Although the size and profusion of nodules were similar in both groups (p>0.05), consolidation and ground-glass opacity in cases of miliary tuberculosis with ARF were significantly more extensive than in those without ARF (p<0.005). GGO and consolidation were more extensive in miliary tuberculosis patients with ARF. A finding of ground-glass opacity in miliary tuberculosis patients might be an early indication of developing ARF

  10. Detection for demineralization of dental hard tissues using index-sequenced radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dong Hyun; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Kyung Sook; Park, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Gi Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Hun Kuk; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the radiographic technique for detecting the demineralization which is known as indication of dental caries. This technique was based on the comparing of multiple radiographs which was irradiated by multiple X-ray spectra. For the meaningful comparing, the multiple radiographs were reconstructed to the dosimetrically consistent images using a standard material. The difference of resulting images of same target with multiple spectra represents the difference of response of material as regards the spectra. We have found about 10% of demineralization of dental hard tissues particularly in the proximal region through the analyzing of differences. Most intriguing thing in this investigation was that the method to analyze difference shows us to an anatomic structure of dental hard tissues even if absolute values of optical density were excluded during the procedures.

  11. Arterial scan versus radiographic angiography in detection of shallow arterial ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollak, E.W.; Webber, M.M.; Cragin, M.D.; Wolfman, E.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of 99m-technetium albumin aggregated arterial scan and radiographic angiography for detection of shallow intimal carotid artery ulcerations was made in a series of 12 anesthetized dogs, having a total of 16 acute arterial ulcerations. Radiographic angiography showed positive findings related to presence of stenosis or mural thrombosis in 12 instances. Direct visualization of ulceration was only exceptionally encountered. Arterial scan detected 14 of 16 intimal ulcers. The radionuclide method was reliable even in absence of stenosis or when only minimal mural thrombosis was present. Moreover, autopsy scan of the isolated arterial segments detected all 16 intimal lesions. These results indicate that the arterial scan was a more reliable method for detection of shallow arterial ulcers in this experimental model than radiographic angiography, especially when arterial lumen stenosis or mural thrombosis was minimal or absent

  12. Detection for demineralization of dental hard tissues using index-sequenced radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dong Hyun; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Kyung Sook; Park, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Gi Ja; Choi, Sam Jin; Park, Hun Kuk [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, KyungHee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, KyungHee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to develop the radiographic technique for detecting the demineralization which is known as indication of dental caries. This technique was based on the comparing of multiple radiographs which was irradiated by multiple X-ray spectra. For the meaningful comparing, the multiple radiographs were reconstructed to the dosimetrically consistent images using a standard material. The difference of resulting images of same target with multiple spectra represents the difference of response of material as regards the spectra. We have found about 10% of demineralization of dental hard tissues particularly in the proximal region through the analyzing of differences. Most intriguing thing in this investigation was that the method to analyze difference shows us to an anatomic structure of dental hard tissues even if absolute values of optical density were excluded during the procedures.

  13. The association between knee joint biomechanics and neuromuscular control and moderate knee osteoarthritis radiographic and pain severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astephen Wilson, J L; Deluzio, K J; Dunbar, M J; Caldwell, G E; Hubley-Kozey, C L

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association between biomechanical and neuromuscular factors of clinically diagnosed mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis (OA) with radiographic severity and pain severity separately. Three-dimensional gait analysis and electromyography were performed on a group of 40 participants with clinically diagnosed mild to moderate medial knee OA. Associations between radiographic severity, defined using a visual analog radiographic score, and pain severity, defined with the pain subscale of the WOMAC osteoarthritis index, with knee joint kinematics and kinetics, electromyography patterns of periarticular knee muscles, BMI and gait speed were determined with correlation analyses. Multiple linear regression analyses of radiographic and pain severity were also explored. Statistically significant correlations between radiographic severity and the overall magnitude of the knee adduction moment during stance (r²=21.4%, P=0.003) and the magnitude of the knee flexion angle during the gait cycle (r²=11.4%, P=0.03) were found. Significant correlations between pain and gait speed (r²=28.2%, Pjoint biomechanical variables are associated with structural knee OA severity measured from radiographs in clinically diagnosed mild to moderate levels of disease, but that pain severity is only reflected in gait speed and neuromuscular activation patterns. A combination of the knee adduction moment and BMI better explained structural knee OA severity than any individual factor alone. Copyright © 2010 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Brazilian young dental practitioners' use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovaris, Karla; De Faria Vasconcelos, Karla; Do Nascimento, Eduarda Helena Leandro; Oliveira, Matheus Lima; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations by Brazilian dental practitioners in daily practice and to evaluate the advances that have occurred over the past 5 years. Dental practitioners enrolled in extension courses at the Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Brazil, responded to a self-administered questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. They were asked about sociodemographic factors and their knowledge and use of digital radiographic examinations. Descriptive analysis was performed, as well as the chi-square and Fisher exact tests, with a significance level of 5% (α=0.05). A total of 181 participants responded to the questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. Most of the respondents worked in private practice, had graduated within the last 5 years, and were between 20 and 30 years old. In 2011, 55.6% of respondents reported having ever used digital radiographic examinations, while in 2015 this number increased significantly to 85.4% (p<.0001), out of which 71.4% preferred it to conventional images. Moreover, 21.4% of respondents reported having used digital radiographic examinations for more than 3 years. A significant increase in use of intraoral digital radiography (p=0.0316) was observed in 2015. In both years, image quality and high cost were indicated, respectively, as the main advantage and disadvantage of digital radiographic examinations. This study showed that digital radiology has become more common in Brazil over the past 5 years. Most of the Brazilian dental practitioners evaluated in 2015 used digital radiographic examinations

  15. Brazilian young dental practitioners' use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovaris, Karla; de Faria Vasconcelos, Karla; do Nascimento, Eduarda Helena Leandro; Oliveira, Matheus Lima; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations by Brazilian dental practitioners in daily practice and to evaluate the advances that have occurred over the past 5 years. Dental practitioners enrolled in extension courses at the Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Brazil, responded to a self-administered questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. They were asked about sociodemographic factors and their knowledge and use of digital radiographic examinations. Descriptive analysis was performed, as well as the chi-square and Fisher exact tests, with a significance level of 5% (α=0.05). A total of 181 participants responded to the questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. Most of the respondents worked in private practice, had graduated within the last 5 years, and were between 20 and 30 years old. In 2011, 55.6% of respondents reported having ever used digital radiographic examinations, while in 2015 this number increased significantly to 85.4% (p<.0001), out of which 71.4% preferred it to conventional images. Moreover, 21.4% of respondents reported having used digital radiographic examinations for more than 3 years. A significant increase in use of intraoral digital radiography (p=0.0316) was observed in 2015. In both years, image quality and high cost were indicated, respectively, as the main advantage and disadvantage of digital radiographic examinations. This study showed that digital radiology has become more common in Brazil over the past 5 years. Most of the Brazilian dental practitioners evaluated in 2015 used digital radiographic examinations.

  16. Axial linear patellar displacement: a new measurement of patellofemoral congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urch, Scott E; Tritle, Benjamin A; Shelbourne, K Donald; Gray, Tinker

    2009-05-01

    The tools for measuring the congruence angle with digital radiography software can be difficult to use; therefore, the authors sought to develop a new, easy, and reliable method for measuring patellofemoral congruence. The abstract goes here and covers two columns. The abstract goes The linear displacement measurement will correlate well with the congruence angle measurement. here and covers two columns. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. On Merchant view radiographs obtained digitally, the authors measured the congruence angle and a new linear displacement measurement on preoperative and postoperative radiographs of 31 patients who suffered unilateral patellar dislocations and 100 uninjured subjects. The linear displacement measurement was obtained by drawing a reference line across the medial and lateral trochlear facets. Perpendicular lines were drawn from the depth of the sulcus through the reference line and from the apex of the posterior tip of the patella through the reference line. The distance between the perpendicular lines was the linear displacement measurement. The measurements were obtained twice at different sittings. The observer was blinded as to the previous measurements to establish reliability. Measurements were compared to determine whether the linear displacement measurement correlated with congruence angle. Intraobserver reliability was above r(2) = .90 for all measurements. In patients with patellar dislocations, the mean congruence angle preoperatively was 33.5 degrees , compared with 12.1 mm for linear displacement (r(2) = .92). The mean congruence angle postoperatively was 11.2 degrees, compared with 4.0 mm for linear displacement (r(2) = .89). For normal subjects, the mean congruence angle was -3 degrees and the mean linear displacement was 0.2 mm. The linear displacement measurement was found to correlate with congruence angle measurements and may be an easy and useful tool for clinicians to evaluate patellofemoral

  17. Radiographic, high detail radiographic, microangiographic and histological findings of the distal portion of the tarsus in weanling young and adult horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverty, S.; Stover, S.M.; Bélanger, D.; O'Brien, T.R.; Pool, R.R.; Pascoe, J.R.; Taylor, K.; Harrington, T.

    1991-01-01

    Clinical radiographic (LM and D35L-P1MO reviews), high detail radiographic, microangiographic and histological findings of distal portion of the tarsus of 16 horses (five weanling, four young and six adult), without known clinical histories, were evaluated to determine the sensitivity of clinical radiographs for the detection of abnormalities in the distal tarsus and the prevalence of abnormalities in this population. Clinical radiographic and high detail radiographic abnormalities were observed in at least 30 per cent of the tarsi examined. Statistical agreement between observations from clinical radiographs and corresponding post mortem high detail radiographs was not good for subchondral bone plate irregularities and joint margin changes. Three patterns of sclerosis of the medullary spongiosa were visualized on high detail radiographs; thickening of the subchondral bone plate was seen commonly in the weaning group,, whereas arching and bridging patterns were more prevalent in the young and adult groups. Bone production on the dorsal cortex of the central and third tarsal bones did not increase with age. Abnormalities in vascular perfusion and articular cartilage histology were observed in association with subchondral bone plate irregularities and focal regions of osteopenia observed on high detail radiographs

  18. Radiation protection education and training of radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsakkers, P.

    1995-01-01

    The International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technicians (ISRRT) is an international non-governmental organisation in official relationship with the World Health Organization. Over 50 countries are members of the ISRRT. The ISRRT encourages and facilitates communication between radiographers throughout the world. The ISRRT has produced several documents, e.g. ''The Role of the Radiographer in Europe''. The ISRRT has also done research and developed initiatives to analyse the quality of training of radiographers in the different member states of the EC. Research was done in the member states to analyse the efforts in the field of quality control. An extended study was performed on the current level of education in radiation protection in the European member states. The ICRP recommends in its publications the need of good training and continuing education for all radiographers. An important part of the basic training of radiographers should focus on the performance of radiation protection and quality control tests. Good daily practice can decrease patient dose in many ways. (Author)

  19. Systematic assessment of constipation on plain abdominal radiographs in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosch, Maurice van den; Graafmans, Doortje; Nievelstein, Rutger; Beek, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Constipation in childhood is common and its clinical assessment is often difficult. Plain abdominal radiography is simple and used to quantify constipation. Three scoring systems, those of Barr et al., Leech et al. and Blethyn et al., have been developed to quantify fecal loading on the abdominal radiograph. In order to determine which method is the most useful in clinical practice, we assessed the reproducibility of the three scoring systems. Plain abdominal radiographs from 40 clinically constipated children were retrospectively reviewed by two paediatric radiologists on two separate occasions. The radiographs were scored according to three different systems developed by Barr et al., Leech et al., Blethyn et al. Intraobserver variability and interobserver reproducibility were determined for each system. Kappa coefficients were calculated as indicators of inter- and intraobserver agreement for categorical outcome variables. The Leech score showed the highest reproducibility: the intraobserver agreement was high for both observers (κ values of 0.88 and 1.00, respectively, P<0.05). Furthermore, the interobserver agreement was also high: κ 0.91 in the first round and 0.84 in the second. The Leech score proved to be a highly reproducible tool for assessment of childhood constipation and is of value in clinical practice for systematic assessment of constipation on plain abdominal radiographs in children. (orig.)

  20. Systematic assessment of constipation on plain abdominal radiographs in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, Maurice van den; Graafmans, Doortje [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger; Beek, Erik [Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2006-03-15

    Constipation in childhood is common and its clinical assessment is often difficult. Plain abdominal radiography is simple and used to quantify constipation. Three scoring systems, those of Barr et al., Leech et al. and Blethyn et al., have been developed to quantify fecal loading on the abdominal radiograph. In order to determine which method is the most useful in clinical practice, we assessed the reproducibility of the three scoring systems. Plain abdominal radiographs from 40 clinically constipated children were retrospectively reviewed by two paediatric radiologists on two separate occasions. The radiographs were scored according to three different systems developed by Barr et al., Leech et al., Blethyn et al. Intraobserver variability and interobserver reproducibility were determined for each system. Kappa coefficients were calculated as indicators of inter- and intraobserver agreement for categorical outcome variables. The Leech score showed the highest reproducibility: the intraobserver agreement was high for both observers ({kappa} values of 0.88 and 1.00, respectively, P<0.05). Furthermore, the interobserver agreement was also high: {kappa} 0.91 in the first round and 0.84 in the second. The Leech score proved to be a highly reproducible tool for assessment of childhood constipation and is of value in clinical practice for systematic assessment of constipation on plain abdominal radiographs in children. (orig.)

  1. Greater body mass independently predicts less radiographic progression on X-ray and MRI over 1-2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Joshua F; Østergaard, Mikkel; George, Michael

    2014-01-01

    of radiographic progression for each BMI category (30 kg/m(2)). Within GO-BEFORE, piecewise, robust generalised estimating equations marginal models assessed the probability of MRI erosion progression for each BMI category. Multivariable linear regression models assessed baseline associations between......INTRODUCTION: Greater body mass index (BMI) has been associated with less radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated the association between BMI and joint damage progression as measured by X-ray and MRI. METHODS: 1068 subjects with RA from two clinical trials of golimumab...... (GO-BEFORE and GO-FORWARD) had radiographs performed at weeks 0, 52 and 104 and evaluated using the van der Heijde-Sharp (vdHS) scoring system. Contrast-enhanced MRIs of the dominant wrist and hand were obtained at weeks 0, 12, 24, 52 and 104. Multivariable logistic regression evaluated the risk...

  2. Predicting lower third molar eruption on panoramic radiographs after cephalometric comparison of profile and panoramic radiographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begtrup, Anders; Grønastøð, Halldis Á; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2012-01-01

    and to find a simple and reliable method for predicting the eruption of the mandibular third molar by measurements on panoramic radiographs. The material consisted of profile and panoramic radiographs, taken before orthodontic treatment, of 30 males and 23 females (median age 22, range 18-48 years......Previous studies have suggested methods for predicting third molar tooth eruption radiographically. Still, this prediction is associated with uncertainty. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the association between cephalometric measurements on profile and panoramic radiographs...... the length from the ramus to the incisors (olr-id) showed a statistically significant correlation. By combining this length with the mesiodistal width of the lower second molar, the prediction of eruption of the lower third molar was strengthened. A new formula for calculating the probability of eruption...

  3. Potential usefulness of a video printer for producing secondary images from digitized chest radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Robert M.; MacMahon, Heber; Doi, Kunio; Bosworth, Eric

    1991-05-01

    Communication between radiologists and clinicians could be improved if a secondary image (copy of the original image) accompanied the radiologic report. In addition, the number of lost original radiographs could be decreased, since clinicians would have less need to borrow films. The secondary image should be simple and inexpensive to produce, while providing sufficient image quality for verification of the diagnosis. We are investigating the potential usefulness of a video printer for producing copies of radiographs, i.e. images printed on thermal paper. The video printer we examined (Seikosha model VP-3500) can provide 64 shades of gray. It is capable of recording images up to 1,280 pixels by 1,240 lines and can accept any raster-type video signal. The video printer was characterized in terms of its linearity, contrast, latitude, resolution, and noise properties. The quality of video-printer images was also evaluated in an observer study using portable chest radiographs. We found that observers could confirm up to 90 of the reported findings in the thorax using video- printer images, when the original radiographs were of high quality. The number of verified findings was diminished when high spatial resolution was required (e.g. detection of a subtle pneumothorax) or when a low-contrast finding was located in the mediastinal area or below the diaphragm (e.g. nasogastric tubes).

  4. Ergonomic strategies to improve radiographers' posture during mammography activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernean, Nicolai; Serranheira, Florentino; Gonçalves, Pedro; Sá Dos Reis, Cláudia

    2017-08-01

    To identify alternatives for radiographers' postures while performing mammography that can contribute to reduce the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs). Radiographers' postures to positioning craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral oblique (MLO) views were simulated without any intervention for three scenarios: radiographer/patient with similar statures, radiographer smaller than patient and radiographer taller than patient. Actions were taken to modify the postures: seated radiographer; patient on a step; seated patient; radiographer on a step. All the postures were analysed using kinovea 0.8.15 software and the angles were measured twice and classified according to European standard EN1005-4: 2005. The non-acceptable angles were measured mainly during MLO positioning when radiographer was taller than the patient: 139° and 120° for arm-flexion and abduction, 72° for trunk and -24° for head/neck-flexion. The introduction of alternative postures (radiographer seated), allowed improvements in posture (60° and 99° for arm flexion and abduction, 14° for trunk and 0° for head/neck flexion), being classified as acceptable. The alternative postures simulated have the potential to reduce the risk of developing WRMSDs when radiographers and patients have different statures. • Radiographers' postures in mammography can contribute to work-related musculoskeletal disorders • Non-acceptable posture was identified for MLO breast positioning (radiographer taller than patient) • Adapting posture to patient biotype reduces the WRMSD risk for radiographers.

  5. Chest radiograph interpretation by medical students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, D.R.; Goddard, P.R.; Callaway, M.P.; Greenwood, R.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To assess the ability of final year medical students to interpret conventional chest radiographs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten conventional chest radiographs were selected from a teaching hospital radiology department library that were good radiological examples of common conditions. All were conditions that a medical student should be expected to recognize by the end of their training. One normal radiograph was included. The radiographs were shown to 52 final year medical students who were asked to describe their findings. RESULTS: The median score achieved was 12.5 out of 20 (range 6-18). There was no difference between the median scores of male and female students (12.5 and 12.3, respectively, p=0.82) but male students were more likely to be certain of their answers than female students (median certainty scores 23.0 and 14.0, respectively). The overall degree of certainty was low. On no radiograph were more than 25% of students definite about their answer. Students had received little formal radiology teaching (2-42 h, median 21) and few expressed an interest in radiology as a career. Only two (3.8%) students thought they were good at interpreting chest radiographs, 17 (32.7%) thought they were bad or awful. CONCLUSION: Medical students reaching the end of their training do not perform well at interpreting simple chest radiographs. They lack confidence and have received little formal radiological tuition. Perhaps as a result, few are interested in radiology as a career, which is a matter for concern in view of the current shortage of radiologists in the UK

  6. Inadequate pelvic radiographs: implications of not getting it right the first time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, S; Nagra, N S; Kulkarni, K; Pegrum, J; Barry, S; Hughes, R; Ghani, Y

    2017-09-01

    Introduction Pelvic radiography is a frequent investigation. European guidelines aim to ensure appropriate use and adequate quality. When initial images are inadequate, repeat radiographs are often required, which may have significant patient safety and economic implications. Objectives The study aimed to assess the adequacy of pelvic imaging across three orthopaedic centres, to identify causes for inadequate imaging and to establish the cost of inadequate imaging from financial and patient safety perspectives. Methods Pelvic radiographs were identified on Picture Archiving and Communication System software at three UK hospitals. Radiographs were assessed against European guidelines and indications for repeat imaging were analysed. Results A total of 1,531 sequential pelvic radiographs were reviewed. The mean age of patients was 60 years (range 5 months to 101 years). Of this total, 51.9% of images were suboptimal, with no significant difference across the three hospitals (P > 0.05). Hospital 3 repeated radiographs in 6.3% of cases, compare with 18.1% and 19.7% at hospitals 1 and 2, respectively (P > 0.05). Hospital 3 identified pathology missed on the initial radiograph in 1% of cases, compared with 5.4% and 5.5% at hospitals 1 and 2, respectively (P > 0.05). Out-of-hours imaging is associated with a higher rate of suboptimal quality (69.1%) compared with normal working hours (51.3%; P = 0.006). Adequacy rates vary with age (χ 2 = 43.62, P hours imaging.

  7. Linear density analysis of bone repair in rats using digital direct radiograph Análise de densidade linear para reparo ósseo em ratos utilizando radiografia digital direta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Oliveira Bozzo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess bone density measurements for analysis of repairing fractures in rats using direct digital radiography under Dexamethasone effects. Thirty (30 young adult male Wistar rats were used, with an average weight of 200g, which were submitted to general anesthetics by ethyl ether. One rib of each animal was fractured by surgical technique. The rats were divided into 2 groups, named Control group - intraperitoneal administration of saline solution 1 hour prior to operation, and Group 1: intraperitoneal administration of Dexamethasone 0.1mg/Kg of weight 1 hour prior to operation, and two postoperative doses every 12 hours. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 3, 4, 7 and 14 days. The parts containing the hemi-thorax with the fractured rib were removed and submitted to direct digital radiography, where the linear density of the two extremities of the fracture were analyzed by the Digora System. The results showed that in the control group and in Group 1 there was a gradual and significant increase in linear density. The method used made it feasible to supply data that were statistically significant in assessing the gain in bone density during the period of time analyzed. In conclusion, direct digital radiograph is useful for bone density analysis for fracture repairing. The dose of Dexamethasone was not sufficient to alter the gain in bone density at the extremities of fracture.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar densidade linear utilizando o sistema de radiografia digital direta intrabucal para verificar o ganho de densidade óssea em fraturas de ratos sob os efeitos da Dexametasona. Trinta (30 ratos Wistar machos, adultos jóvens de 200 g em média foram usados. Os animais foram submetidos á anestesia geral por inalação de éter etílico e 01 costela de cada animal foi fraturada através de técnica cirúrgica. Os ratos foram divididos em grupos de 03 repetições para cada grupo em cada período de tempo

  8. The "shadow sign": a radiographic differentiation of stainless steel versus titanium spinal instrumentation in spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Quaidoo, Sean M; Novicoff, Wendy; Park, Andrew; Arlet, Vincent

    2011-12-01

    Stainless steel spinal instrumentation has been supplanted in recent years by titanium instrumentation. Knowing whether stainless steel or titanium was used in a previous surgery can guide clinical decision making processes, but frequently the clinician has no way to know what type of metal was used. We describe the radiographic "shadow sign," in which superimposed titanium rods and screws remain radiolucent enough that the contour of the underlying components can be seen on a lateral radiograph, whereas superimposed stainless steel rods and screws are completely radiopaque. This technique was evaluated using a retrospective, randomized, and blinded radiographic comparison of titanium and stainless steel spinal instrumentation. The objective was to determine whether the "shadow sign" can reliably differentiate titanium from stainless steel spinal instrumentation. Lateral radiographs from 16 cases of posterior spinal instrumentation (6 titanium, 6 stainless steel, and 2 replicates of each to assess intraobserver reliability) were randomly selected from a database of cases performed for pediatric scoliosis in a university setting from 2005 to 2009. The cases were randomized then shown to 19 orthopaedic surgery residents, 1 spine fellow, and 2 spine attendings. After the "shadow sign" was described, the surgeons were asked to determine what type of metal each implant was made of. The κ value for both stainless steel and titanium versus the gold standard was 0.83 [standard error (SE) = 0.053], indicating excellent agreement. The κ value for agreement between raters was 0.71 (SE = 0.016) and the κ value for agreement within raters was 0.70 (SE = 0.016), both of which indicated substantial agreement. The "shadow sign" can help a clinician differentiate titanium from stainless steel spinal instrumentation based on radiographic appearance alone. Furthermore, our study reveals that the level of experience in diagnosing spinal lateral radiographs also enhances the use of

  9. Perceptions of Australian clients towards male radiographers working in breast imaging: Quantitative results from a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren-Forward, H.M.; Mackie, B.; Alchin, M.; Mooney, T.; Fitzpatrick, P.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Breast cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in Australian women, therefore early breast cancer detection is essential. Female radiographers currently conduct breast screening in Australia; however there is a projected shortage. With many women already feeling apprehensive about attending a breast examination, possible proposals to fill this shortage must be carefully considered. Training male radiographers is one proposal however, this raises some gender concerns. This study aimed to pilot an investigation into whether it would change women's willingness to attend breast screening if conducted by a male radiographer. Method: A questionnaire completed by 146 women aged over 40 asked questions on attitude, initial reaction and how they would proceed if attended to by a male in three clinical situations (Mammography; Ultrasound and Breast Surgery). Results: The results revealed that women would have had their mammogram (90%), ultrasound (95%) and surgery (100%) conducted by a male, though some would have preferred a female for mammography (25%), ultrasound (24%) and surgery (12%). A total of 9% of women agreed to the statement ‘If there were male radiographers I would not return for another screening appointment’ and 9% agreed to the statement ‘if I heard there could be male radiographers it would change my opinion of Breast Screening for the worse'. Conclusions: This first Australian study investigating the perceptions of women to male radiographers in the breast screening arena suggest that a mix of male and female radiographers could be accommodated and indicates the need for a larger national survey. - Highlights: • Over 90% would have proceeded with the examination conducted by a male radiographer. • Most women were more likely to be surprised or have no reaction if examined by a male radiographer. • Majority of women would “feel equally comfortable with a male practitioner as with a female”. • 80

  10. Effect of limb rotation on radiographic alignment in total knee arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Kerstin; Becher, Christoph; Noll, Yvonne; Ostermeier, Sven

    2010-04-01

    (SD = 3.01 degrees ) in 20 degrees internal rotation to 86.76 degrees (SD = 0.36 degrees ) in 20 degrees external rotation. Average mMPTA ( degrees ) ranged from 90.35 degrees (SD = 0.81 degrees ) in 20 degrees internal rotation to 88.49 degrees (SD = 0.52 degrees ) in 20 degrees external rotation. Average mLDTA ( degrees ) ranged from 98.89 degrees (SD = 2.3 degrees ) in 20 degrees internal rotation to 90.53 degrees (SD = 3.39 degrees ) in 20 degrees external rotation. Without an application of limb rotation, the femoral component distance ratio was measured to be 0.89 (SD = 0.01), in 20 degrees internal rotation 0.63 (SD = 0.01) and in 20 degrees external rotation 1.16 (SD = 0.01). Limb rotation had a highly statistically significant effect on measured anatomic alignment and mechanical angles. A correlation between limb rotation, anatomic mechanical angle, mechanical angles measured at femur and tibia and the femoral component distance ratio was established. As the anatomic mechanical angle and the femoral component distance ratio change linearly in the range of 20 degrees internal and external limb rotation, a calculation of the femoral component distance ratio could be used to re-calculate the limb rotation at the time of radiographic assessment to evaluate the evidence of a long leg radiograph.

  11. Determination of Radiographic Healing: An Assessment of Consistency Using RUST and Modified RUST in Metadiaphyseal Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litrenta, Jody; Tornetta, Paul; Mehta, Samir; Jones, Clifford; OʼToole, Robert V; Bhandari, Mohit; Kottmeier, Stephen; Ostrum, Robert; Egol, Kenneth; Ricci, William; Schemitsch, Emil; Horwitz, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    To determine the reliability of the Radiographic Union Scale for Tibia (RUST) score and a new modified RUST score in quantifying healing and to define a value for radiographic union in a large series of metadiaphyseal fractures treated with plates or intramedullary nails. Healing was evaluated using 2 methods: (1) evaluation of interrater agreement in a series of radiographs and (2) analysis of prospectively gathered data from 2 previous large multicenter trials to define thresholds for radiographic union. Part 1: 12 orthopedic trauma surgeons evaluated a series of radiographs of 27 distal femur fractures treated with either plate or retrograde nail fixation at various stages of healing in random order using a modified RUST score. For each radiographic set, the reviewer indicated if the fracture was radiographically healed. Part 2: The radiographic results of 2 multicenter randomized trials comparing plate versus nail fixation of 81 distal femur and 46 proximal tibia fractures were reviewed. Orthopaedic surgeons at 24 trauma centers scored radiographs at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively using the modified RUST score above. Additionally, investigators indicated if the fracture was healed or not healed. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with 95% confidence intervals was determined for each cortex, the standard and modified RUST score, and the assignment of union for part 1 data. The RUST and modified RUST that defined "union" were determined for both parts of the study. ICC: The modified RUST score demonstrated slightly higher ICCs than the standard RUST (0.68 vs. 0.63). Nails had substantial agreement, whereas plates had moderate agreement using both modified and standard RUST (0.74 and 0.67 vs. 0.59 and 0.53). The average standard and modified RUST at union among all fractures was 8.5 and 11.4. Nails had higher standard and modified RUST scores than plates at union. The ICC for union was 0.53 (nails: 0.58; plates: 0.51), which indicates moderate

  12. Reference Neutron Radiographs of Nuclear Reactor Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    Reference neutron radiographs of nuclear reactor fuel were produced by the Euraton Neutron Radiography Working Group and published in 1984 by the Reidel Publishing Company. In this collection a classification is given of the various neutron radiographic findings, that can occur in different parts...... of pelletized, annular and vibro-conpacted nuclear fuel pins. Those parts of the pins are shown where changes of appearance differ from those for the parts as fabricated. Also radiographs of those as fabricated parts are included. The collection contains 158 neutron radiographs, reproduced on photographic paper...

  13. A study of trabecular bone strength and morphometric analysis of bone microstructure from digital radiographic image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seung Yun; Lee, Sun Bok; Oh, Sung Ook; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; Kim, Jong Dae

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between morphometric analysis of microstructure from digital radiographic image and trabecular bone strength. One hundred eleven bone specimens with 5 mm thickness were obtained from the mandibles of 5 pigs. Digital images of specimens were taken using a direct digital intraoral radiographic system. After selection of ROI(100 x 100 pixel) within the trabecular bone, mean gray level and standard deviation were obtained. Fractal dimension and the variants of morphometric analysis (trabecular area, periphery, length of skeletonized trabeculae, number of terminal point, number of branch point) were obtained from ROI. Punch sheer strength analysis was performed using Instron (model 4465, Instron Corp., USA). The loading force (loading speed 1mm/min) was applied to ROI of bone specimen by a 2 mm diameter punch. Stress-deformation curve was obtained from the punch sheer strength analysis and maximum stress, yield stress, Young's modulus were measured. Maximum stress had a negative linear correlation with mean gray level and fractal dimension significantly (p<0.05). Yield stress had a negative linear correlation with mean gray level, periphery, fractal dimension and the length of skeletonized trabeculae significantly (p<0.05). Young's modulus had a negative linear correlation with mean gray level and fractal dimension significantly (p<0.05). The strength of cancellous bone exhibited a significantly linear relationship between mean gray level, fractal dimension and morphometric analysis. The methods described above can be easily used to evaluate bone quality clinically.

  14. Radiographic enhancement and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Radiographic image enhancement and analysis techniques are discussed as they apply to nondestructive inspection. A system is described which has been developed to enhance and quantitatively evaluate radiographic images using digital computer techniques. Some examples of typical applications are also presented as an introduction to this new inspection technique. (author)

  15. Agreement between radiographic and photographic trabecular patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korstjens, C.M.; Geraets, W.G.M.; Stelt, P.F. van der [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Spruijt, R.J. [Div. of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mosekilde, L. [Dept. of Cell Biology, Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark)

    1998-11-01

    Purpose: It has been hypothesized that photographs can facilitate the interpretation of the radiographic characteristics of trabecular bone. The reliability of these photographic and radiographic approaches has been determined, as have various agreements between the two approaches and their correlations with biomechanical characteristics. Material and Methods: Fourteen vertebral bodies were obtained at autopsy from 6 women and 8 men aged 22-76 years. Photographs (n=28) and radiographs (n=28) were taken of midsagittal slices from the third lumbar vertebra. The radiographs and photographs were digitized and the geometric properties of the trabecular architecture were then determined with a digital images analysis technique. Information on the compressive strength and ash density of the vertebral body was also available. Results: The geometric properties of both radiographs and photographs could be measured with a high degree of reliability (Cronbach`s {alpha}>0.85). Agreement between the radiographic and photographic approaches was mediocre as only the radiographic measurements showed insignificant correlations (p<0.05) with the biomechanical characteristics. We suggest that optical phenomena may result in the significant correlations between the photographs and the biomechanical characteristics. Conclusion: For digital image processing, radiography offers a superior description of the architecture of trabecular bone to that offered by photography. (orig.)

  16. Agreement between radiographic and photographic trabecular patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korstjens, C.M.; Geraets, W.G.M.; Stelt, P.F. van der; Spruijt, R.J.; Mosekilde, L.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: It has been hypothesized that photographs can facilitate the interpretation of the radiographic characteristics of trabecular bone. The reliability of these photographic and radiographic approaches has been determined, as have various agreements between the two approaches and their correlations with biomechanical characteristics. Material and Methods: Fourteen vertebral bodies were obtained at autopsy from 6 women and 8 men aged 22-76 years. Photographs (n=28) and radiographs (n=28) were taken of midsagittal slices from the third lumbar vertebra. The radiographs and photographs were digitized and the geometric properties of the trabecular architecture were then determined with a digital images analysis technique. Information on the compressive strength and ash density of the vertebral body was also available. Results: The geometric properties of both radiographs and photographs could be measured with a high degree of reliability (Cronbach's α>0.85). Agreement between the radiographic and photographic approaches was mediocre as only the radiographic measurements showed insignificant correlations (p<0.05) with the biomechanical characteristics. We suggest that optical phenomena may result in the significant correlations between the photographs and the biomechanical characteristics. Conclusion: For digital image processing, radiography offers a superior description of the architecture of trabecular bone to that offered by photography. (orig.)

  17. An evaluation of musculoskeletal discomfort experience by radiographers performing mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, A.G.; May, J

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether breast screening radiographers experience any problems of musculoskeletal discomfort, and if so the nature and extent of these problems. The study was then further extended to investigate and determine possible occupational, causal or contributory factors, and to suggest recommendations to help alleviate any discomfort. To investigate this problem five main approaches were undertaken. These consisted of; a national survey, an observational study, the comparison of the physical measurements of the mammography units with anthropometric data, a detailed task analysis, and a body mapping study. The national survey set out to determine if the nature and frequency of such problems were higher in mammography than in other areas of radiography or in the general population. Additionally, comparisons were made with non-radiographic staff working at the same breast screening centres. Video recordings of radiographers performing breast screening were also made and posture analysis performed on these data. A detailed task analysis was conducted to identify interaction points and possible problems between the radiographer and the equipment which she is required to use. Physical measurements of the mammography units were made and compared with anthropometric measurements and guidelines. The body mapping study measured the build up of discomfort throughout the working day on several different mammography units. The results from the survey questionnaire indicated that some breast screening radiographers do experience musculoskeletal problems, and that these are different in nature and prevalence from the musculoskeletal discomfort reported by the two control groups. The prevalence of back pain reported by radiographers undertaking mammography was higher than that present in the normal population. No comparison could be made with other body areas as data regarding other types of musculoskeletal discomfort in the general population are

  18. The relationship between age and the mandibular cortical bone thickness by using panoramic radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun Suk; Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon

    2010-01-01

    This study was to determine the relationship between age and the mandibular cortical bone thickness on panoramic radiograph. Panoramic radiographs of 360 patients (180 men and 180 women) over 20 years old, who visited the Chonbuk National University Hospital from January to December in 2007, were assessed. The subjects were divided into 5 age groups. Five indices such as cortical bone thickness at the gonion (GI), antegonion (AI), and below the mental foramen (MI), the panoramic mandibular index (PMI), the mandibular cortical index (MCI) were measured on panoramic radiographs. All five indices including GI, AI, MI, PMI, and MCI showed significant differences between third decade and over 8 decade groups (p,0.05). PMI, MI and GI showed significant differences with gender statistically (p<0.05). The mandibular cortical bone thickness showed negative correlation with age, and the value of the thickness (PMI, MI, and GI) was greater in men than in women.

  19. Radiographic differentiation of enchondroma from low-grade chondrosarcoma in the fibula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendell, Scott D. [Department of Radiology, Duke University, Box 3808, 27710, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiology E-2, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, 55905, SW Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Collins, Mark S.; Adkins, Mark C.; Sundaram, Murali; Unni, Krishnan K. [Department of Radiology E-2, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, 55905, SW Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2004-08-01

    To evaluate demographic and radiographic features that may differentiate between enchondroma and low-grade chondrosarcoma of the fibula. The radiographs of ninety-three histologically-confirmed cartilaginous tumors of the fibula were retrospectively reviewed along with demographic information as to patient age and gender. Fifty-four enchondromas and thirty-nine low-grade chondrosarcomas were included in the study. Multiple previously-established radiographic features distinguishing enchondroma from chondrosarcoma were evaluated in each fibular tumor in a consensus manner by two experienced, board-certified and fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists. Five radiographic features were shown to statistically favor chondrosarcoma over enchondroma in the fibula. These were soft-tissue mass (p<0.0001), periosteal reaction (p=0.008), cortical disruption in the juxta-articular fibula (p=0.0133), cortical thickening (p=0.032), and tumor size greater than 4 cm (p=0.0046). No statistically-significant demographic differences were found between patients with enchondroma and chondrosarcoma of the fibula. When two or more of the identified features of malignancy are identified in the same patient, chondrosarcoma is 2.4 times more likely than in those patients exhibiting none of the features of malignancy. Soft-tissue mass, periosteal reaction, cortical disruption in the juxta-articular fibula, cortical thickening, and tumor size greater than 4 cm indicate chondrosarcoma over enchondroma of the fibula. Radiographs demonstrating more than one of the identified malignant features are more likely to be due to chondrosarcoma than radiographs demonstrating none or only one of the identified features. No unique malignant features of chondrosarcoma in the fibula were observed when compared to previous descriptions of these tumors in the long and short tubular bones of the appendicular skeleton. (orig.)

  20. Radiographic differentiation of enchondroma from low-grade chondrosarcoma in the fibula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendell, Scott D.; Collins, Mark S.; Adkins, Mark C.; Sundaram, Murali; Unni, Krishnan K.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate demographic and radiographic features that may differentiate between enchondroma and low-grade chondrosarcoma of the fibula. The radiographs of ninety-three histologically-confirmed cartilaginous tumors of the fibula were retrospectively reviewed along with demographic information as to patient age and gender. Fifty-four enchondromas and thirty-nine low-grade chondrosarcomas were included in the study. Multiple previously-established radiographic features distinguishing enchondroma from chondrosarcoma were evaluated in each fibular tumor in a consensus manner by two experienced, board-certified and fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists. Five radiographic features were shown to statistically favor chondrosarcoma over enchondroma in the fibula. These were soft-tissue mass (p<0.0001), periosteal reaction (p=0.008), cortical disruption in the juxta-articular fibula (p=0.0133), cortical thickening (p=0.032), and tumor size greater than 4 cm (p=0.0046). No statistically-significant demographic differences were found between patients with enchondroma and chondrosarcoma of the fibula. When two or more of the identified features of malignancy are identified in the same patient, chondrosarcoma is 2.4 times more likely than in those patients exhibiting none of the features of malignancy. Soft-tissue mass, periosteal reaction, cortical disruption in the juxta-articular fibula, cortical thickening, and tumor size greater than 4 cm indicate chondrosarcoma over enchondroma of the fibula. Radiographs demonstrating more than one of the identified malignant features are more likely to be due to chondrosarcoma than radiographs demonstrating none or only one of the identified features. No unique malignant features of chondrosarcoma in the fibula were observed when compared to previous descriptions of these tumors in the long and short tubular bones of the appendicular skeleton. (orig.)

  1. The effect of aluminium screen on the quality of radiographic image using x-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azali Muhammad; Azhar Azmi; Mohd Soot Ahmad; Hafizul Abd Ghani

    2002-01-01

    The effect of different thickness of aluminium screen on the quality of radiographic image and the exposure time have been studied. The specimen used was based on the steel step wedge having thickness ranging from minimum 10 mm up to maximum 15 mm. The specimen was exposed to 100 kV up to 190 kV x-radiation by using single wall single image (SWSI) radiographic technique. The radiographic film D7 used in this study, which sandwiched with metallic screen made of aluminium, or lead was inserted into flexible cassette. The quality of the radiograph was then evaluated by observing the appearance of DIN wire type image quality indicator (IQI) 10ISO16 and the density difference (ΔD) of two adjacent steps on the radiograph, i.e. the subject contrast. The result shows that at a certain applied voltage (kV), the used of different thickness of aluminium screens give significant effect on the Δ D. Besides that the radiographic image quality in term of visibility of the smallest wire of IQI on radiograph also increases with decreasing kV for all types of aluminium screen. It is observed as well the effect of thickness of aluminium screen on subject contrast depends on the kV, i.e. for kV ranging from 100 up to 190 kV the subject contrast increases with increasing thickness of aluminium screen. The comparison of these results with radiograph using lead screen was also presented in this paper. (Author)

  2. Radiographic manifestations of hypochondroplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heselson, N G; Cremin, B J [Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Beighton, P

    1979-01-01

    Hypochrondroplasia is an inherited skeletal dysplasia that resembles achondroplasia in mild degree. Radiographic manifestations encountered in 12 affected individuals in South Africa include slight shortening of all segments of the tubular bones, moderate caudal diminution of the lumbar interpedicular distances, increased lumbar lordosis with cacral tilt and distal prolongation of the fibular. Hypochondroplasia can be distinguished from other osteochondrodystrophies such as achondroplasia, pseudo-achondroplasia and metaphyseal chondroplasia by the recognition of it clinical and radiographic manifestations.

  3. Incidence of Radiographic Cystic Lesions Associated With Unerupted Teeth in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Sam G; Krakowski Volker, Mary; Luskin, Ira R

    2016-12-01

    Medical records and radiographs were retrospectively reviewed over a 3-year period (2012-2015) from dogs presented to a private dental referral practice. Medical records were evaluated for the diagnosis of impacted or embedded teeth. The identified dogs' radiographs were reviewed for the presence of radiographically significant cystic lesions that were associated with the impacted or embedded teeth. Radiographic criteria were established by the authors for the purposes of identifying cystic lesions in dogs of different breeds and sizes, using established indices from human dental pathology as a basis. When histopathology results were available, they were reviewed and reported. In this study, 136 dogs ranging in age from 3 months to 17 years were diagnosed with 213 unerupted teeth during the study period. There were 62 (29.1%) of the 213 radiographically apparent cystic lesions identified based on the criteria proposed in this study. In this study, 146 (68.5%) of the 213 unerupted teeth were identified as mandibular first premolar teeth. Histopathology was obtained on 28 (45.1%) of the 62 diagnosed cystic lesions. Dentigerous cysts accounted for 20 (71.4%) of the 28 cystic lesions. Brachycephalic breeds were overrepresented in this study. Boxer, pug, Shih Tzu, and Boston terrier dogs were most likely to present with cystic lesions associated with unerupted teeth. Seventeen (85%) of the 20 cases with a histopathologic diagnosis of dentigerous cyst were found within these 4 brachycephalic breeds.

  4. Consultant radiographers: Profile of the first generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, Lesley J.; Maehle, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this research is to examine the profile of first generation consultant radiographers: their demographics, educational backgrounds, qualifications and training, career experience and progression, teaching, lecturing and research activities. Method: Participant recruitment was drawn from the Society and College of Radiographers consultant radiographer group. Data collection involved a self-administered paper based and web based questionnaire. Results: Participant response rate of 55% (n = 11). Conclusions: The profile of the first consultant radiographer cohort reflects a diverse and eclectic mix. While some aspects of their development such as educational background, clinical training and skills enhancement are comparable to nurse consultants, clinical experience and employment history show some differences. Commitment to development of expert clinical skills is evident within the profile of the first generation cohort of consultant radiographers however research and leadership training are not strong features.

  5. Consultant radiographers: Profile of the first generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, Lesley J., E-mail: l.forsyth@rgu.ac.u [School of Health Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, AB10 7QG (United Kingdom); Maehle, Valerie [Faculty of Health and Social Care, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, AB10 7QG (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Aim: The aim of this research is to examine the profile of first generation consultant radiographers: their demographics, educational backgrounds, qualifications and training, career experience and progression, teaching, lecturing and research activities. Method: Participant recruitment was drawn from the Society and College of Radiographers consultant radiographer group. Data collection involved a self-administered paper based and web based questionnaire. Results: Participant response rate of 55% (n = 11). Conclusions: The profile of the first consultant radiographer cohort reflects a diverse and eclectic mix. While some aspects of their development such as educational background, clinical training and skills enhancement are comparable to nurse consultants, clinical experience and employment history show some differences. Commitment to development of expert clinical skills is evident within the profile of the first generation cohort of consultant radiographers however research and leadership training are not strong features.

  6. Paediatric Northern Score centile charts for the chest radiograph in cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, J.; Conway, S.P.; Mehta, A.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To create the first national centile charts for the chest radiograph Northern Score using the UK Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Database (UKCFD). Materials and methods: All active patients for 2002 from the UKCFD were analysed in 1-year cohorts from 0 to 18 years. Northern Score results from the annual review forms were used to construct centile lines for the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th centiles. Results: There were 1806 patients with recorded Northern Score data for 2002 (927 male patients, male:female ratio 1.05). The centile chart demonstrates a quasi-linear rise throughout childhood. A Northern Score in excess of age in years equates to >95th centile in school-aged CF patients. Conclusion: This centile chart provides a disease-specific reference range for monitoring individual patients or for evaluating therapeutic change using the dominant chest radiograph scoring system in the UK. Patients, parents and clinicians may find these useful during the annual review process

  7. Linear intra-bone geometry dependencies of the radius: Radius length determination by maximum distal width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, S.F.; Krusche-Mandl, I.; Huf, W.; Mall, G.; Fialka, C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate possible linear intra-bone geometry dependencies by determining the relation between the maximum radius length and maximum distal width in two independent populations and test for possible gender or age effects. A strong correlation can help develop more representative fracture models and osteosynthetic devices as well as aid gender and height estimation in anthropologic/forensic cases. Methods: First, maximum radius length and distal width of 100 consecutive patients, aged 20–70 years, were digitally measured on standard lower arm radiographs by two independent investigators. Second, the same measurements were performed ex vivo on a second cohort, 135 isolated, formalin fixed radii. Standard descriptive statistics as well as correlations were calculated and possible gender age influences tested for both populations separately. Results: The radiographic dataset resulted in a correlation of radius length and width of r = 0.753 (adj. R 2 = 0.563, p 2 = 0.592) and side no influence on the correlation. Radius length–width correlation for the isolated radii was r = 0.621 (adj. R 2 = 0.381, p 2 = 0.598). Conclusion: A relatively strong radius length–distal width correlation was found in two different populations, indicating that linear body proportions might not only apply to body height and axial length measurements of long bones but also to proportional dependency of bone shapes in general.

  8. Interpretation and evaluation of radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    After digestion, the interpreter must interpreted and evaluate the image on film, usually many radiograph stuck in this step, if there is good density, so there are no problem. This is a final stage of radiography work and this work must be done by level two or three radiographer. This is a final stages before the radiographer give a result to their customer for further action. The good interpreter must know what kind of artifact, is this artifact are dangerous or not and others. In this chapter, the entire artifact that usually showed will be discussed briefly with the good illustration and picture to make the reader understand and know the type of artifact that exists.

  9. Radiographic evaluation of INBONE total ankle arthroplasty: a retrospective analysis of 30 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datir, Abhijit; Xing, Minzhi; Kakarala, Aparna; Terk, Michael R.; Labib, Sameh A.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to retrospectively describe the radiographic assessment of INBONE total ankle arthroplasty in 30 patients using validated linear and angular measurements and to correlate these findings with the final surgical outcome over a 2-year follow-up period. Thirty consecutive patients (21 females, nine males; mean age, 64.8 years) underwent INBONE total ankle arthroplasty during 2007-2011. After IRB approval, a retrospective pre- and post-operative radiographic analysis was performed using validated linear and angular measurements. The pre- and post-operative assessment included the tibial angle, talar angle, tibial slope, and coronal deformity. Post-operative measurements also included the talocalcaneal angle, joint space height, talar height, lateral tibial component angle, lateral talar component angle, and anteroposterior tibial component angle. The post-operative bone loss, subluxation, positioning, and subsidence were also assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using two-sample t test and Fisher's exact test. Out of 30 patients, 23 had a successful clinical outcome with intact prosthesis at a 2-year follow-up. The only variables with significant correlation (p < 0.05) to the post-surgical outcome were the lateral talar component angle (p = 0.002) and the mean difference between pre- and post-operative tibial slope (p = 0.001). The coronal deformity had significant mean difference between pre- and post-operative values (p < 0.001); however, it lacked a significant correlation to the final surgical outcome. None of the categorical variables had a significant correlation with post-surgical outcome. In our retrospective study, only the lateral talar component angle and the mean difference between the pre- and post-operative tibial slope had significant correlation with post-surgical outcome in INBONE ankle arthroplasty. These measurements may be helpful in radiographic assessment of the INBONE ankle arthroplasty. (orig.)

  10. Non-linear indices of heart rate variability during endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Milana Drumond Ramos; Pita Neto, Ivo Cavalcante; Martiniano, Eli Carlos; Monteiro, Larissa Raylane Lucas; Ramos, José Lucas Souza; Garner, David M; Valenti, Vitor Engácia; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de

    2016-01-01

    Dental treatment promotes psychosomatic change that can influence the procedure and compromise the general well-being of the patient. In this context, it highlights the importance of evaluating the function of the autonomic nervous system in individuals undergoing endodontic treatment. Thus, this manuscript aimed to analyse cardiac autonomic modulation, through non-linear indices of heart rate variability (HRV) during endodontic treatment. Analysis of 50 subjects of either sex aged between 18 and 40 years diagnosed with irreversible pulp necrosis of lower molars undergoing endodontic treatment was undertaken. We carried out fractal and symbolic analysis of HRV, which was recorded in the first session of the endodontic treatment at four intervals: T1: 0-10 min before the onset of the treatment session; T2: 0-10 min after the application of anaesthesia; T3: throughout the period of treatment; and T4: 0-30 min after the end of the treatment session. There was reduction of α1 in T2 compared to T1 and T4 (p endodontic treatment, and after applying local anaesthetic the parasympathetic component of HRV increases. These data indicate that endodontic treatment acutely overcharges the heart, supporting the stress involved in this situation.

  11. Radiographers' professional knowledge regarding parameters and safety issues in plain radiography: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajollahi, A R; Fouladi, D F; Ghojazadeh, M; Movafaghi, A

    2014-08-01

    To review the knowledge of radiographers and examine the possible sociodemographic and situational contributors to this knowledge. A questionnaire survey was devised and distributed to a cohort of 120 radiographers. Each questionnaire contained two sections. In the first section, background data, including sex, age, highest academic level, grade point average (GPA), length of time from graduation, work experience as a radiographer and the status of previous refresher course(s), were collected. The second section contained 17 multiple-choice questions concerning radiographic imaging parameters and safety issues. The response rate was 63.8%. In univariate analytic model, higher academic degree (p workplace (p = 0.04) and taking previous refresher course(s) (p = 0.01) were significantly associated with higher knowledge score. In multivariate analytic model, however, higher academic degree (B = 1.62; p = 0.01), higher GPA (B = 0.50; p = 0.01) and taking previous refresher course(s) (B = -1.26; p = 0.03) were independently associated with higher level of knowledge. Age, sex, length of time from graduation and work experience were not associated with the respondents' knowledge score. Academic background is a robust indicator of a radiographer's professional knowledge. Refresher courses and regular knowledge assessments are highly recommended. This is the first study in the literature that examines professional knowledge of radiographers in terms of technical and safety issues in plain radiography. Academic degree, GPA and refresher courses are independent predictors of this knowledge. Regular radiographer professional knowledge checks may be recommended.

  12. Brazilian young dental practitioners' use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovaris, Karla; De Faria Vasconcelos, Karla; Do Nascimento, Eduarda Helena Leandro; Oliveira, Matheus Lima; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz; Haiter-Neto, Francisco [Div. of Oral Radiology, Dept. of Oral Diagnosis, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations by Brazilian dental practitioners in daily practice and to evaluate the advances that have occurred over the past 5 years. Dental practitioners enrolled in extension courses at the Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Brazil, responded to a self-administered questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. They were asked about sociodemographic factors and their knowledge and use of digital radiographic examinations. Descriptive analysis was performed, as well as the chi-square and Fisher exact tests, with a significance level of 5% (α=0.05). A total of 181 participants responded to the questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. Most of the respondents worked in private practice, had graduated within the last 5 years, and were between 20 and 30 years old. In 2011, 55.6% of respondents reported having ever used digital radiographic examinations, while in 2015 this number increased significantly to 85.4% (p<.0001), out of which 71.4% preferred it to conventional images. Moreover, 21.4% of respondents reported having used digital radiographic examinations for more than 3 years. A significant increase in use of intraoral digital radiography (p=0.0316) was observed in 2015. In both years, image quality and high cost were indicated, respectively, as the main advantage and disadvantage of digital radiographic examinations. This study showed that digital radiology has become more common in Brazil over the past 5 years. Most of the Brazilian dental practitioners evaluated in 2015 used digital radiographic examinations.

  13. Animal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter presents historical x rays of a wide variety of animals taken within 5 years of the discovery of x radiation. Such photos were used as tests or as illustrations for radiographic publications. Numerous historical photographs are included. 10 refs

  14. Formative feedback in the clinical practice setting: What are the perceptions of student radiographers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, P.; Wilford, B.

    2016-01-01

    The role of feedback to a learner's development has been well established. There is an absence of studies relating to student radiographers experience of gaining and applying formative feedback. This study investigated processes involved in gaining written formative feedback in the clinical practice setting as well as the impact feedback had on student radiographers learning. The data was collected from radiography students at two higher education institutions by electronic questionnaire comprising scaled and open questions. There was a response rate of 37% (n = 103/279). Scaled data was analysed using inferential statistics and the qualitative data helped explain the findings. The majority of students recognised radiographers were frequently busy; resulting in feedback that is generic and not always timely. There is strength of opinion 82.6% (n = 85/103) that student radiographers do not work with any one radiographer consistently enough to enable the provision of constructive and meaningful feedback. There appears to be difficulty in obtaining the comments but the evidence shows they are valued. The majority of students seek feedback that is specific and will clearly identify areas for development. They reflect on feedback as well as use self-criticism of their practice performance indicating the development of autonomous skills. The challenge of enabling consistent one to one working with radiographers, the need to maximise a learning culture within practice environments and ensuring full engagement by radiographers and students could be addressed by modification of the feedback system, a working group being formed from students, supervising radiographers and academic tutors. - Highlights: • Students value constructive criticism and on-going verbal feedback. • Written feedback is not always easy to obtain because of pressures on staff time. • Student radiographers are rarely able to work consistently with the same person. • Student and mentor

  15. Comparisons of radiographic and electrocardiographic abnormalities in canine heartworm disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvert, C.A.; Losonsky, J.M.; Brown, J.; Lewis, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Thoracic radiographs and electrocardiograms from 137 dogs with heartworm infection were independently evaluated and comparisons were made of (1) the presence or absence of right ventricular enlargement as assessed by these two diagnostic tests and (2) the presence or absence of right-sided congestive heart failure relative to the degree of right ventricular enlargement and ECG criteria of RVH. Radiographic evidence of severe, but not moderate, right ventricular enlargement was associated with right-sided congestive heart failure. Similarly the presence of three or more, but not fewer than three, ECG criteria of RVH were associated with right-sided congestive heart failure. If either the thoracic radiographs or the ECG indicated that severe right ventricular enlargement was absent, right-sided congestive heart failure was seldom present. The most accurate correlation of the radiographic evaluation of severe right ventricular enlargement was afforded by the presence of three or more ECG criteria of RVH. ECG criteria of RVH such as R/S v4 , + T v10 MEA x , and S 11 are highly specific tests; while S V2 is a highly sensitive but not highly specific test. The ECG is a good confirmation test of the presence of severe right ventricular enlargement and is a good exclusion test for the absence of right-sided congestive heart failure. (author)

  16. An evaluation of musculoskeletal discomfort experience by radiographers performing mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, A.G.; May, J.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether breast screening radiographers experience any problems of musculoskeletal discomfort, and if so the nature and extent of these problems. The study was then further extended to investigate and determine possible occupational, causal or contributory factors, and to suggest recommendations to help alleviate any discomfort. To investigate this problem five main approaches were undertaken. These consisted of; a national survey, an observational study, the comparison of the physical measurements of the mammography units with anthropometric data, a detailed task analysis, and a body mapping study. The national survey set out to determine if the nature and frequency of such problems were higher in mammography than in other areas of radiography or in the general population. Additionally, comparisons were made with non-radiographic staff working at the same breast screening centres. Video recordings of radiographers performing breast screening were also made and posture analysis performed on these data. A detailed task analysis was conducted to identify interaction points and possible problems between the radiographer and the equipment which she is required to use. Physical measurements of the mammography units were made and compared with anthropometric measurements and guidelines. The body mapping study measured the build up of discomfort throughout the working day on several different mammography units. The results from the survey questionnaire indicated that some breast screening radiographers do experience musculoskeletal problems, and that these are different in nature and prevalence from the musculoskeletal discomfort reported by the two control groups. The prevalence of back pain reported by radiographers undertaking mammography was higher than that present in the normal population. No comparison could be made with other body areas as data regarding other types of musculoskeletal discomfort in the general population are

  17. Radiographic detection of artificial intra-bony defects in the edentulous area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, N; Jacobs, R; Coucke, W; van Steenberghe, D; Quirynen, M

    2009-03-01

    Since intra-bony pathologies might jeopardize implant outcome, their preoperative detection is crucial. In sixteen human cadaver bloc sections from upper and lower jaws, artificial defects with progressively increasing size (n=7) have been created. From each respective defect, analogue and digital intra-oral radiographs were taken, the latter processed via a periodontal filter and afterwards presented in black-white as well as in colour, resulting in three sets of 7 images per bloc section. Eight observers were asked to diagnosis an eventual defect on randomly presented radiographs, and at another occasion to rank each set based on the defect size. The clinicians were only able to identify a defect, when the junctional area was involved, except for bony pieces with a very homogeneous structure. For longitudinal evaluation of healing bone (e.g. after tooth extraction), colour digital images can be recommended. These observations indicate that intra-oral radiographs are not always reliable for the detection of any intra-bony defect.

  18. Radiographic parameters of the hip joint from birth to adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Than, P.; Kranicz, J.; Bellyei, A. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Univ. of Pecs, Medical Faculty, Ifjusag utja (Hungary); Sillinger, T. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Szt Gyorgy County Hospital, Szekesfehervar (Hungary)

    2004-03-01

    Background: Various qualitative and quantitative radiological geometrical parameters can be of great help when assessing dysplasia of the hip joint and in understanding developmental processes of the infant hip. There are few data on the normal values of the hip joint at different ages. Objective: To perform radiographic measurements on hip joints considered to be anatomically normal and to provide data for each age group, thus describing features of the radiographic development of the hip. Materials and methods: Radiographs were examined from 355 children (age 0-16 years) undergoing examination for scoliosis (long film), urography or plain abdominal radiography. Qualitative and quantitative signs were observed and measured, focusing on the Hilgenreiner, Wiberg and Idelberger angles and the decentric distance. Results: Before the age of 9 years measurable data from neighbouring age groups differed significantly, indicating typical radiological changes of the joint. For the same age range, qualitative changes could also be observed. After 9 years of age, radiological development of the normal hip joint during childhood is much slower. (orig.)

  19. Radiographer emergency department hot reporting: An assessment of service quality and feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Maryann [Division of Radiography, School of Health Studies, University of Bradford, Trinity Road, Bradford, West Yorkshire BD5 0BB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.l.hardy1@bradford.ac.uk; Spencer, Nicholas; Snaith, Beverly [Mid Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Radiology Department, Pinderfields General Hospital, Aberford Road, Wakefield WF1 4DG (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: Radiographer reporting has been implemented widely as cold reporting. This study aimed to compare hot and cold reports by the same radiographer to establish whether there was any significant difference in the diagnostic outcome. Method: Three experienced radiographers reported 1618 musculoskeletal trauma cases over a 3 month period. These cases were stratified for age (0-17 years; 18-50 years; 51 years+) and a random sample of 400 cases selected (95% confidence interval, 90% power) for delayed reporting. Both reports were independently compared by 2 experienced film readers. Results: Radiographs and notes on 391 (97.8%; n = 391/400) cases were located (age range 3 months to 97 years) for cold reporting. The diagnostic outcome of the reports was concordant in 357 cases (91.3%; n = 357/391) and discrepant in 34 cases (8.7%; n = 34/391). Logistic regression performed on age stratified discrepancies indicated that paediatric cases had increased odds of receiving discrepant reports (OR = 3.34; p = 0.005; 95% CI [1.44-7.74]). Hot and cold report agreement was high ({kappa} = 0.87). McNemar's test demonstrated no significant difference in the report discrepancies (p = 0.189). Conclusion: No significant difference was demonstrated between the diagnostic outcome of radiographer hot reports, issued whilst working within the trauma radiography department at time of patient attendance, and cold reports.

  20. Radiographer emergency department hot reporting: An assessment of service quality and feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, Maryann; Spencer, Nicholas; Snaith, Beverly

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Radiographer reporting has been implemented widely as cold reporting. This study aimed to compare hot and cold reports by the same radiographer to establish whether there was any significant difference in the diagnostic outcome. Method: Three experienced radiographers reported 1618 musculoskeletal trauma cases over a 3 month period. These cases were stratified for age (0-17 years; 18-50 years; 51 years+) and a random sample of 400 cases selected (95% confidence interval, 90% power) for delayed reporting. Both reports were independently compared by 2 experienced film readers. Results: Radiographs and notes on 391 (97.8%; n = 391/400) cases were located (age range 3 months to 97 years) for cold reporting. The diagnostic outcome of the reports was concordant in 357 cases (91.3%; n = 357/391) and discrepant in 34 cases (8.7%; n = 34/391). Logistic regression performed on age stratified discrepancies indicated that paediatric cases had increased odds of receiving discrepant reports (OR = 3.34; p = 0.005; 95% CI [1.44-7.74]). Hot and cold report agreement was high (κ = 0.87). McNemar's test demonstrated no significant difference in the report discrepancies (p = 0.189). Conclusion: No significant difference was demonstrated between the diagnostic outcome of radiographer hot reports, issued whilst working within the trauma radiography department at time of patient attendance, and cold reports

  1. Sensitivity of radiographic features and specificity of scintigraphic imaging in hand osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckland-Wright, J.C.; MacFarlane, D.G.; Lynch, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    We undertook to determine which of the radiographic features most reliably detected the presence and disease progression in osteoarthritis in the hand; and which of the radiographic features corresponded with the radionuclide bone scan images. 32 patients with osteoarthritis had X5 macroradiographs taken of their wrists and hands at 6 monthly intervals over an 18 month period. The high magnification and resolution of microfocal radiography permitted quantitative detection of the extent and change in joint space width, subchondral sclerosis, osteophytosis and juxtaarticular radiolucencies. 4-hour technetium 99 m methylene bisphophonate bone scans were taken at 0 and 12 months and the activity of the tracer uptake at each joint scored. The latter was compared with the radiographic features at each visit and the changes between visits analysed. In hand OA the most sensitive radiographic parameters for detecting disease were osteophytes, subchondral sclerosis and justaarticular radiolucencies, with radionuclide imaging demonstrating the increased activity in bone formation associated with the growth and remodelling of osteophytes. Changes in the number and size of osteophytes and joint space narrowing were the only reliable and sensitive parameters for assessing disease progression. We conclude that in osteoarthritis, the bony changes progress significantly before the occurrence of radiographically evident joint space narrowing indicative of cartilage thinning. (authors). 48 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs

  2. The relationship between clinical characteristics, radiographic osteoarthritis and 3D bone area: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, A J; Dube, B; Hensor, E M A; Kingsbury, S R; Peat, G; Bowes, M A; Conaghan, P G

    2014-10-01

    Radiographic measures of osteoarthritis (OA) are based upon two dimensional projection images. Active appearance modelling (AAM) of knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables accurate, 3D quantification of joint structures in large cohorts. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between clinical characteristics, radiographic measures of OA and 3D bone area (tAB). Clinical data and baseline paired radiographic and MRI data, from the medial compartment of one knee of 2588 participants were obtained from the NIH Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). The medial femur (MF) and tibia (MT) tAB were calculated using AAM. 'OA-attributable' tAB (OA-tAB) was calculated using data from regression models of tAB of knees without OA. Associations between OA-tAB and radiographic measures of OA were investigated using linear regression. In univariable analyses, height, weight, and age in female knees without OA explained 43.1%, 32.1% and 0.1% of the MF tAB variance individually and 54.4% when included simultaneously in a multivariable model. Joint space width (JSW), osteophytes and sclerosis explained just 5.3%, 14.9% and 10.1% of the variance of MF OA-tAB individually and 17.4% when combined. Kellgren Lawrence (KL) grade explained approximately 20% of MF OA-tAB individually. Similar results were seen for MT OA-tAB. Height explained the majority of variance in tAB, confirming an allometric relationship between body and joint size. Radiographic measures of OA, derived from a single radiographic projection, accounted for only a small amount of variation in 3D knee OA-tAB. The additional structural information provided by 3D bone area may explain the lack of a substantive relationship with these radiographic OA measures. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiographic signs and diagnosis of dental disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellows, J.

    1993-01-01

    Dental radiographs are critical for the complete assessment and treatment of dental diseases. Dental radiography is commonly used to evaluate congenital dental defects, periodontal disease, orthodontic manipulations, oral tumors, endodontic treatments, oral trauma, and any situation where an abnormality is suspected. Although standard radiographic equipment and film can be used to produce dental radiographs, dental X-ray equipment and film provide superior quality images and greater convenience of animal patient positioning. An understanding of normal dental radiographic anatomy is important when interpreting dental radiographs. Stage III periodontitis is the earliest stage of periodontal disease at which radiographic abnormalities become apparent. Bone loss associated with periodontal disease can be classified as either horizontal or vertical. Periapical radiolucencies can represent granulomas, cysts, or abscesses, whereas periapical radiodensities may represent sclerotic bone or condensing osteitis. Lytic lesions of the bone of the jaw often represent oral neoplasms. Neoplasms also can displace or disrupt teeth in the dental arch. Resorptive lesions can be external or internal and appear as radiolucent areas involving the external surface of the root or the pulp cavity, respectively. Feline dental resorptive lesions, also known as odontoclastic resorptions, are a specific form of dental resorptive lesions unique to cats

  4. Radiographic heart-volume estimation in normal cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlberg, N.E.; Hansson, K.; Svensson, L.; Iwarsson, K.

    1989-01-01

    Heart volume mensuration was evaluated on conventional radiographs from eight normal cats in different body positions using computed tomography (CT). Heart volumes were calculated from orthogonal thoracic radiographs in ventral and dorsal recumbency and from radiographs exposed with a vertical X-ray beam in dorsal and lateral recumbency using the formula for an ellipsoid body. Heart volumes were also estimated with CT in ventral, dorsal, right lateral and left lateral recumbency. No differences between heart volumes from CT in ventral recumbency and those from CT in right and left lateral recumbency were seen. In dorsal recumbency, however, significantly lower heart volumes were obtained. Heart volumes from CT in ventral recumbency were similar to those from radiographs in ventral and dorsal recumbency and dorsal/left lateral recumbency. Close correlation was also demonstrated between heart volumes from radiographs in dorsal/ left lateral recumbency and body weights of the eight cats

  5. Quantitative analysis of alveolar bone change following implant placement using intraoral radiographic subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroyuki; Kanda, Shigenobu; Tanaka, Takemasa

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure for quantitative analysis using intraoral radiographs of alveolar bone after placement of dental implants and to consider the validity of the method. We evaluated the ten patients (2 males and 8 females, average age: 48.4 years-old), who were treated with dental implant operation in the site of mandibular molar region, since October of 1999 until September of 2000 in Kimura Dental Clinic (Kumamoto, Japan). We evaluated the intraoral radiographs taken pre- and post- operatively and at follow-up examination. To detect alveolar bone change on radiograph, we adopted the digital subtraction method. Although the radiographs were taken under an ordinary technique with cone indicator, we did not apply the standardized technique with fixing material customized for each patient. Therefore, we used geometric correction and density compensation before subtraction. We assessed the basic statistical values (mean, variance, kurtosis and skewness) of the region of interest (ROI) of the subtracted images. Also, we noted PPD (probing pocket depth) and BOP (bleeding on probing) at each site as indicators of clinical findings and all implanted sites were classified according to the PPD or BOP, i.e. PPD increased group ''PPD (+)'' and PPD stable group ''PPD (-)'', likewise BOP positive group ''BOP (+)'' and negative group ''BOP (-)''. We considered the statistical values of ROI in each group and compared these findings. Mean and variance values of PPD (+) were higher than those of PPD (-) and there was a significant difference in mean value (p=0.031). Similarly, mean and variance values of BOP (+) were statistically higher than those of BOP (-) (p=0.041 and p=0.0087, respectively). Concerning kurtosis and skewness, there was no difference between PPD (+) and PPD (-), or between BOP (+) and BOP (-). Using our method, the radiographs taken for follow-up examination could be assessed quantitatively. It is suggested that geometric

  6. Improving Continuing Professional Development opportunities for radiographers: A single centre evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Barry J.; Wade, Demetri

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to identify current barriers to CPD and generate ideas for strategies to overcome these issues. Further aims were to gather an overview of respondents' understanding and opinions of CPD. Methods: An online survey was used to acquire information from departmental band 5 and band 6 radiographers. Descriptive statistical analysis and thematic analysis were performed to understand demographics and individuals' behaviours and experiences. Findings: Radiographers (n = 33) were sent an invitation via email providing a response rate of 75.8% (n = 25), with 20 females (80%) and 5 males (20%). 52% (n = 13) dedicate less than three hours a month. Participants highlighted time restraint as their biggest barrier to CPD. They also indicated a reluctance to use their own time to undertake work-related learning, despite exhibiting positive attitudes towards CPD. Radiographers see CPD as a vital and necessary, career-long learning process and they recognise the impacts on service provision. The notion of dedicated study time was unanimously suggested as the best approach to increase commitment to CPD. Conclusion: Radiographers demonstrated positive opinions of CPD, yet it was evident that many are not undertaking activities during their own time and it was acknowledged that opportunities during work time are limited. The provision of study time in work was suggested as an approach to improve radiographer's opportunities to complete CPD. Training sessions underlining the necessity of CPD in maintaining registration, what constitutes CPD and reinforcement of the benefits of systematic recording of CPD should be provided. - Highlights: • 80% believe they do not do enough CPD, 52% dedicate less than 3 h a month. • Radiographers are aware of the positive impact of learning on development. • Training should be given as a strategy to address radiographers' CPD inactivity. • The overarching theme relating to barriers to CPD is

  7. Measure by image analysis of industrial radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillault, B.

    1988-01-01

    A digital radiographic picture processing system for non destructive testing intends to provide the expert with computer tool, to precisely quantify radiographic images. The author describes the main problems, from the image formation to its characterization. She also insists on the necessity to define a precise process in order to automatize the system. Some examples illustrate the efficiency of digital processing for radiographic images [fr

  8. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of modular knee replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartier, P.; Mammeri, M.; Villers, P.

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-five modular total knee replacements, 54 of them unicompartmental, have been reviewed. The average follow-up was three years. The major indication for operation was pain. A precise preoperative radiographic evaluation and a technique for a positioning the components are described. This had led to a significant improvement in the clinical and radiographic results in 67 out of 95 knees which were operated on. The modifications concern the orientation of the tibial cut, the placing of the femoral components and the correction of axial deviation. The main causes of the 13% of failures in our series were either errors in positioning the components or a preoperative diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Unicompartmental replacement gave similar results in both valgus and varus knees, and the morbidity was lower than in the bicompartmental replacements. The best results were obtained in osteoarthristic knees in elderly patients and in posttraumatic osteoarthritis. (orig.)

  9. Advanced radiographic scanning, enhancement and electronic data storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoie, C.; Rivest, D.

    2003-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that radiographs deteriorate with time. Substantial cost is attributed to cataloguing and storage. To eliminate deterioration issues and save time retrieving radiographs, laser scanning techniques were developed in conjunction with viewing and enhancement software. This will allow radiographs to be successfully scanned and stored electronically for future reference. Todays radiographic laser scanners are capable Qf capturing images with an optical density of up to 4.1 at 256 grey levels and resolutions up to 4096 pixels per line. An industrial software interface was developed for the nondestructive testing industry so that, certain parameters such as scan resolution, number of scans, file format and location to be saved could be adjusted as needed. Once the radiographs have been scanned, the tiff images are stored, or retrieved into Radiance software (developed by Rivest Technologies Inc.), which will help to properly interpret the radiographs. Radiance was developed to allow the user to quickly view the radiographs correctness or enhance its defects for comparison and future evaluation. Radiance also allows the user to zoom, measure and annotate areas of interest. Physical cost associated with cataloguing, storing and retrieving radiographs can be eliminated. You can now successfully retrieve and view your radiographs from CD media or dedicated hard drive at will. For continuous searches and/or field access, dedicated hard drives controlled by a server would be the media of choice. All scanned radiographs will be archived to CD media (CD-R). Laser scanning with a proper acquisition interface and easy to use viewing software will permit a qualified user to identify areas of interest and share this information with his/her colleagues via e-mail or web data access. (author)

  10. [Radiographic and histological study of a case of apexification in a human molar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, C C

    1989-01-01

    A case of apexification in a lower right second molar is described. Radiographs demonstrate apical closure with a different morphological pattern from that of the lower left second molar. Following extraction, after 15 months, serial histologic sections show calcified tissue obturating the apical foramen, well adapted to the initial dentin and cementum walls. Inside some small areas containing connective tissue with capillaries can be observed. The histologic and radiographic observations indicate that apical closure occurs as a result of differentiation of periodontal apical cells.

  11. Radiographic aspects of xeroradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, G.U.V.; Fatouros, P.P.

    1980-01-01

    The quality of a conventional radiographic image can be characterized in terms of five basic parameters; density, contrast, latitude, resolution and noise. Since xeroradiographic images exhibit very limited broad area contrasts, and image formation is predominantly due to edge enhancement, a straightforward description of image quality using the same five parameters is not adequate. A detailed study was made of the radiographic aspects of xeroradiography with special reference to mammography, and a summary of major findings to date with appropriate references to published papers is presented

  12. Radiologist perceptions of radiographer role development in Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, Lesley J. [School of Health Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Faculty of Health and Social Care, Garthdee Road, Garthdee, Aberdeen AB10 7QG (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: l.forsyth@rgu.ac.uk; Robertson, Elizabeth M. [Department of Radiology, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZN (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: e.m.robertson@arh.grampian.scot.nhs.uk

    2007-02-15

    Aim: To survey the perceptions of the Scottish radiology community in relation to radiographer role development. Methods: A postal questionnaire was sent to all consultant radiologists recorded on the NHS Scotland database of consultants. Results: Response rate was 63%. (i) Respondents considered increased professional standing of radiographers, best use of manpower resources, reduced pressure on the service and improved recruitment and retention, as positive advantages of radiographer development. (ii) The potential impact on radiology specialist registrar training, lack of clear medico-legal responsibilities and radiographers recognising the limitations of their abilities were identified as the main areas of radiologist anxiety. (iii) Fifty-seven percent did not consider current post-registration radiography education and training resources adequate to underpin the requirement of developed roles. (iv) Barriers to radiographer development were identified as lack of radiography and radiology staff, suitable education, financial constraints, traditional views and resistance to change. (v) Eighty-two percent reported support for radiographer role development and willingness to participate actively in developments. Conclusion: Despite reservations Scottish radiologists are supportive of the development of radiography colleagues, however, guidance is required on the medico-legal and accountability aspects of radiographers assuming new roles. Radiologist involvement in education and training for new roles may increase their confidence and trust in radiographers to work within the limitations of their competency and training.

  13. Radiologist perceptions of radiographer role development in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, Lesley J.; Robertson, Elizabeth M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To survey the perceptions of the Scottish radiology community in relation to radiographer role development. Methods: A postal questionnaire was sent to all consultant radiologists recorded on the NHS Scotland database of consultants. Results: Response rate was 63%. (i) Respondents considered increased professional standing of radiographers, best use of manpower resources, reduced pressure on the service and improved recruitment and retention, as positive advantages of radiographer development. (ii) The potential impact on radiology specialist registrar training, lack of clear medico-legal responsibilities and radiographers recognising the limitations of their abilities were identified as the main areas of radiologist anxiety. (iii) Fifty-seven percent did not consider current post-registration radiography education and training resources adequate to underpin the requirement of developed roles. (iv) Barriers to radiographer development were identified as lack of radiography and radiology staff, suitable education, financial constraints, traditional views and resistance to change. (v) Eighty-two percent reported support for radiographer role development and willingness to participate actively in developments. Conclusion: Despite reservations Scottish radiologists are supportive of the development of radiography colleagues, however, guidance is required on the medico-legal and accountability aspects of radiographers assuming new roles. Radiologist involvement in education and training for new roles may increase their confidence and trust in radiographers to work within the limitations of their competency and training

  14. Glass Foreign Body Hand Radiograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Ehsani-Nia, DO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 27-year-old female sustained an injury to her left hand after she tripped and fell on a vase. She presented to the emergency department (ED complaining of pain over the laceration. Upon examination, patient presented with multiple small abrasions of the medial aspect of the left 5thdigit that are minimally tender. Additionally, she has one 0.5cm linear laceration of the medial aspect of the 5thmetacarpal with severe tenderness in the area and palpable underlying foreign body. Significant findings: Left hand plain radiography demonstrated a subcutaneous foreign body medial to the 5thmetacarpal that is radiopaque, trapezoidal in shape, and measures approximately 11mm x 3mm. Discussion: Laceration repairs are amongst the most common procedures in the emergency department; however, consideration for foreign body is often underdiagnosed. Imaging is performed in only about 11% of all traumatic wounds in the ED.1 Of those injuries relating to the hand that are subsequently imaged, about 15% are found to have a foreign body.2,3 Additionally, it is estimated that foreign bodies are present in 7% to 8.7% of all wounds caused by glass objects.4,5 Glass is among the most common foreign bodies in lacerations, and fortunately they are radiopaque and relatively well visualized radiographically. It has been demonstrated that 2mm glass foreign bodies have a 99% detection rate with radiography, and 1mm glass foreign bodies an 83% detection rate.6 Patient perception of foreign body has a positive predictive value of 31%, making it a poor source in influencing clinical decision-making to obtain wound radiographs.3 Clinicians should have a high suspicion for foreign body in lacerations, particularly those caused by glass, and utilize close physical examination and imaging for evaluation. Topics: Radiography, glass, foreign body, trauma

  15. A radiographic analysis of implant component misfit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sharkey, Seamus

    2011-07-01

    Radiographs are commonly used to assess the fit of implant components, but there is no clear agreement on the amount of misfit that can be detected by this method. This study investigated the effect of gap size and the relative angle at which a radiograph was taken on the detection of component misfit. Different types of implant connections (internal or external) and radiographic modalities (film or digital) were assessed.

  16. The use and abuse of radiographic grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    It is generally accepted that scattered radiation degrades the quality of the radiographic image. When this problem occurs, a radiographic grid may be applied which necessitates an increase in exposure. Investigations are reported in the following areas: reasons for the introduction of a radiographic grid; the ratio between kilovoltage and grid ratio; techniques resulting in higher contrast and resolution at low patient dose and the abuse of grids

  17. Comparison of tentative radiographic working length with and without grid versus electronic apex locator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanikonda Rambabu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The apical termination of obturation is the most important factor influencing the success of root canal treatment (RCT. Working length (WL is the key element in achieving this. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare and evaluate the preoperative estimated WL with conventional radiograph and with grid radiograph, with reference to electronic apex locator (EAL in single-rooted teeth. Settings and Design: Thirty permanent anterior teeth with complete root formation indicated for RCT were included in this study. Materials and Methods: Conventional radiograph (Group 1 and conventional radiograph with external grid (Group 2 were made before access opening. WL with EAL (Group 3 was determined after access opening. Statistical Analysis: The statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA was used to compare the WLs of three groups, and the statistical significance was considered to be P ≤ 0.05. ANOVA, post hoc test were made to measure the intergroup comparison, and Pearson correlation values were obtained. Results and Conclusion: The results of the study showed a higher correlation between grid WL and apex locator WL than conventional WL and apex locator WL. Preoperative metrics with radiographic grid along with the apex locator is a better measuring tool compared to the conventional radiographic WL in a single-rooted tooth.

  18. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. (a) Identification. A radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer is a device intended to be used to...

  19. Complications from radiographer-performed double contrast barium enemas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vora, P.; Chapman, A. E-mail: anthony.chapman@leedsth.nhs.uk

    2004-04-01

    AIM: To determine the types and rates of complications encountered by radiographers when performing double contrast barium enemas (DCBE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven hundred and forty-one questionnaires were posted to radiographers who had in the last 5 years attended one of the biannual barium enema training courses. RESULTS: Of 741 questionnaires posted 407 (54.9%) were returned completed. Approximately 348,000 barium enema examinations had been performed. Fifty-nine radiographers reported 89 complications, including 13 intra-peritoneal and 11 extra-peritoneal perforations. There were five deaths (mortality 1 in 70,000). Deaths resulted from two of 24 (10%) perforations, two of 45 (5%) cardiac events and one cerebrovascular accident that occurred during an examination. CONCLUSIONS: Radiographers have been regularly performing DCBEs for almost a decade. The mortality for radiographer-performed DCBE is similar to that previously reported for radiologists, although a slightly higher rate of perforation is noted and so this is an area where radiographer training should be targeted.

  20. Complications from radiographer-performed double contrast barium enemas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vora, P.; Chapman, A.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the types and rates of complications encountered by radiographers when performing double contrast barium enemas (DCBE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven hundred and forty-one questionnaires were posted to radiographers who had in the last 5 years attended one of the biannual barium enema training courses. RESULTS: Of 741 questionnaires posted 407 (54.9%) were returned completed. Approximately 348,000 barium enema examinations had been performed. Fifty-nine radiographers reported 89 complications, including 13 intra-peritoneal and 11 extra-peritoneal perforations. There were five deaths (mortality 1 in 70,000). Deaths resulted from two of 24 (10%) perforations, two of 45 (5%) cardiac events and one cerebrovascular accident that occurred during an examination. CONCLUSIONS: Radiographers have been regularly performing DCBEs for almost a decade. The mortality for radiographer-performed DCBE is similar to that previously reported for radiologists, although a slightly higher rate of perforation is noted and so this is an area where radiographer training should be targeted

  1. The LLNL Flash X-Ray Induction Linear Accelerator (FXR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multhauf, L G

    2002-01-01

    The FXR is an induction linear accelerator used for high-speed radiography at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Experimental Test Site. It was designed specifically for the radiography of very thick explosive objects. Since its completion in 1982, it has been very actively used for a large variety of explosives tests, and has been periodically upgraded to achieve higher performance. Upgrades have addressed machine reliability, radiographic sensitivity and resolution, two-frame imaging by double pulsing improvements that are described in detail in the paper. At the same time, the facility in which it was installed has also been extensively upgraded, first by adding space for optical and interferometric diagnostics, and more recently by adding a containment chamber to prevent the environmental dispersal of hazardous and radioactive materials. The containment addition also further expands space for new non-radiographic diagnostics. The new Contained Firing Facility is still in the process of activation. At the same time, FXR is continuing to undergo modifications aimed primarily at further increasing radiographic resolution and sensitivity, and at improving double-pulsed performance

  2. Radiographic manifestations of arthritis in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Z.S.; Norman, A.; Solomon, G.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to familiarize the radiologist with a newly discovered association between arthritis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiographic findings in 31 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection referred to their rheumatology clinic with musculoskeletal complaints. The patients carried a wide range of clinical diagnosis including Reiter syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, undifferentiated seronegative arthritis, isolated enthesopathies, rheumatoid arthritis and osteonecrosis. Radiographs were available in 24 of the 31 patients, and in 20 they showed radiographic features of arthritis, which included soft-tissue swelling periarticular osteoporosis, synovial effusions, sacroiliitis, periosteal reaction, joint space narrowing, marginal erosions, and osteonecrosis. Although the radiographic abnormalities were frequently mild, they were significant, given the short duration of disease in many of their patients (weeks to months) at the time radiographs were obtained. The range of radiographic findings in their series was varied and paralleled the wide range of clinical diagnoses. No findings were pathognomonic for HIV-associated arthritis. Nevertheless, HIV infection needs to be considered in any patient belonging to a recognized risk group who presents with musculoskeletal disease. This is particularly important since immunosupressive drugs used for the treatment of arthritis can be detrimental to patients with HIV infection

  3. Radiographers' preconditions for evidence-based radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, Sanna-Mari; Liikanen, Eeva

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is essential in today's health care, but its establishment requires several preconditions from individuals and organizations (e.g. knowledge, understanding, attitudes, abilities, self-confidence, support, and resources). Previous studies suggest that radiographers do generate and use evidence in their work, but evidence-based radiography (EBR) is not yet used routinely as established practice, especially in terms of research utilization. This paper aims to describe radiographers' preconditions for EBR, and their participation in research activities. Main focus is on research utilization. Using an electronic questionnaire developed for this study, a survey was conducted: data collected from Finnish radiographers and radiotherapists (N = 438) were analysed both statistically and qualitatively. The final response rate was 39%. The results suggest radiographers' preconditions for EBR to consist of knowledge of research, significance of research activities, research-orientated way of working, and support. In addition, adequate resourcing is essential. Reading scientific journals, participation in research activities, a higher degree of education, and senior post seem to be significant promoters of EBR and research utilization. The results support the notion that EBR, and especially research utilization, are not yet well-established in Finland, and radiographers' viewpoints concerning the role and significance of research evidence and research activities still seem to vary.

  4. Radiographic evaluation of the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiographic evaluation of the foot in the patient with diabetes mellitus is discussed in this paper. According to the author, it can only be of value when the soft tissue and bony and joint pathologic conditions, which occur more frequently in the diabetic patient are also considered and understood. Although not pathognomic for diabetes mellitus, neuroarthopathy, osteomyelitis, soft tissue infection, and some rheumatic disorders are present with greater frequency in diabetic populations than in non-diabetic populations. Frequently, edema, erythema, hyperthermia, and tenderness are present as nonspecific clinical findings, in which case radiographic evaluation is called upon to define the specific etiology of a particular patient's pathology. Unfortunately, many radiographic, computerized tomographic, and radionuclide studies demonstrate less than optimal positive and negative predictive values unless interpreted in view of clinical history and examination and integrated with the results of other laboratory data. Radiographic evaluation of the diabetic foot may be utilized to establish the presence of disease, the extent of pedal involvement, and the response to therapy. The establishment of the nature of disease processes from radiographic findings alone, however, may be problematic. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis, for example, rests on the recovery of the offending microorganisms from bone aspiration or culture

  5. Radiographic features of periapical cysts and granulomas

    OpenAIRE

    Zain, R. B.; Roswati, N.; Ismail, K.

    1989-01-01

    Many studies have been reported on radiographic lesion sizes of periapical lesions. However no studies have been reported on prevalences of subjective radiographic features in these lesions except for the early assumption that a periapical cyst usually exhibit a radiopaque cortex. This study is conducted to evaluate the prevalences of several subjective radiographic features of periapical cysts and granulomas in the hope to identify features that maybe suggestive of either diagnosis. The resu...

  6. Comparison of film/screen and PCR digital lateral cervical spine radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, D.I.; Kreipke, D.L.; Tarver, R.; Braunstein, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors compared film/screen and Phillips computed radiography (PCR) radiographs of the cervical spine. In 109 patients. fiilm/screen and digital radiographs were compared for adequate visualization (readability) of bone, soft tissue, and trachea. The lowest cervical vertebra seen was noted in each case. The radiographs were interpreted by four radiologists, and both interobserver and intraobserver consistency were measured. Of the PCR radiographs, 97% were readable with a viewbox alone. Of the film/screen radiographs, 9% were readable with a viewbox. With a hotlight, 83% of the film/screen radiographs became readable. Bone, soft tissue, and trachea were better seen on PCR radiographs than on film/screen radiographs (P<.001). There was less interobserver variation on digital radiographs. Readability of cervical spine radiographs was significantly improved with PCR

  7. Radiographic identification of the equine ventral conchal bulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, C M; Townsend, N B; Barnett, T P; Barakzai, S Z

    Involvement of the ventral conchal sinus (VCS) is an important diagnostic and prognostic feature in cases of the equine sinus disease. The authors aimed to ascertain if the caudo-dorsal extension of the VCS, the ventral conchal bulla (VCB) is identifiable on plain radiographs of cadaver skulls without sinus disease. Bilateral frontonasal sinus flaps were made in 10 equine cadaver skulls. Plain lateral, lateral oblique and dorso-ventral radiographs were then obtained followed by the same views taken with stainless steel wire outlining the caudal border of the VCB. Plain radiographs were randomised and blindly evaluated by two observers who marked where they believed the VCB to be positioned. This was then correlated with the true position of the VCB using radiographs with wires in place. The ease of identification of the VCB was classified as 'easy' or 'difficult'. The VCB was correctly identified in 70 per cent of lateral radiographs, but only 45 per cent of lateral oblique radiographs and 17 per cent of dorso-ventral radiographs. If a clinician was confident that he or she could identify the VCB, they were usually correct. Conversely if the clinician judged VCB identification as 'difficult', they usually identified it incorrectly. In the authors' clinical experience, the VCB of horses with sinusitis involving this compartment is more radiologically evident than in clinically normal horses. Knowledge of the normal radiographic anatomy of this structure should aid clinicians in identifying horses with sinusitis affecting the VCS.

  8. Contribution to identification of factors causing radiographic image unsharpness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branzan, C.; Popescu, A.; Radu, R.

    1995-01-01

    Radiographic image quality is crucial for the ability of the radiographic method to give us a maximum information about the macroscopic structure of materials and pieces, investigated by penetrating radiation. Radiographic image quality depends on several factors. A high quality image is able to show small and typical defects. One of the most important factor affecting radiographic image is unsharpness. The total effective unsharpness of the film must be some function of several factors and their contribution is taken into account by summing up different kinds of unsharpness: geometric unsharpness, internal unsharpness, screen unsharpness, and accidental unsharpness. This work analyses the weight of the radiographic image unsharpness and the possibilities for determining its influence on the quality of the radiographic image. (author)

  9. Radiographic estimation in seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kërliu, Suzana; Rexhepi, Mjellma

    2011-08-01

    Long since it have been suggested that a subpopulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, diagnosed with negative rheumatoid factor tests, represents a clinical entity quite distinct from that of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our aim was to establish a scientific comparative analysis between seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, regarding some radiological and clinical parameters, applied for the first time on patients from Kosovo. Two hundred fifty patients with rheumatoid arthritis according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria were retrospectively studied by analysis the radiographic damage and clinical parameters of the disease, using a data base. All examinees were between 25-60 years of age (Xb=49.96, SD=10.37) with disease duration between 1-27 years (Xb = 6.41, SD=6.47). All patients underwent a standardised evaluation radiographs. Baseline standardised poster anterior radiographs of hands and feet and radiographs of other joints, depending on indications, were assessed. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate values correlated with the radiological damages and statistical difference was found for seronegative subset (r=0.24, p<0.01). Longer duration of the disease resulted in the increase of radiological changes in both subsets (r=0.66, p<0.01) seronegative, (r=0.49, p<0.01) seropositive. Anatomic changes of IInd and IIIrd level were nearly equally distributed in both subsets, 76 (60.8%) seronegative, 75 (60%) seropositive. Radiological damages are nearly equal in both subsets, elevate in relation to the duration of the disease and correlate with ESR values. Regarding the sero-status, differences within sex, with some exceptions, are not relevant. Although there are some definite quantitative and qualitative differences regarding sero-status, obviously there is a great deal of overlap between the two groups.

  10. Radiographic estimation in seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjollca Sahatçiu-Meka

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Long since it have been suggested that a subpopulation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, diagnosed with negative rheumatoid factor tests, represents a clinical entity quite distinct from that of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Our aim was to establish a scientific comparative analysis between seronegative and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, regarding some radiological and clinical parameters, applied for the first time on patients from Kosovo. Two hundred fifty patients with rheumatoid arthritis according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria were retrospectively studied by analysis the radiographic damage and clinical parameters of the disease, using a data base. All examinees were between 25-60 years of age (Xb=49.96, SD=10.37 with disease duration between 1-27 years (Xb = 6.41, SD=6.47. All patients underwent a standardised evaluation radiographs. Baseline standardised poster anterior radiographs of hands and feet and radiographs of other joints, depending on indications, were assessed. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate values correlated with the radiological damages and statistical difference was found for seronegative subset (r=0.24, p<0.01. Longer duration of the disease resulted in the increase of radiological changes in both subsets (r=0.66, p<0.01 seronegative, (r=0.49, p<0.01 seropositive. Anatomic changes of IInd and IIIrd level were nearly equally distributed in both subsets, 76 (60.8% seronegative, 75 (60% seropositive. Radiological damages are nearly equal in both subsets, elevate in relation to the duration of the disease and correlate with ESR values. Regarding the sero-status, differences within sex, with some exceptions, are not relevant. Although there are some definite quantitative and qualitative differences regarding sero-status, obviously there is a great deal of overlap between the two groups.

  11. Influence of pelvic position on radiographic measurements of the prosthetic acetabular component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoren, B.; Sahlstedt, B.; Uppsala Univ.

    1990-01-01

    A change in the position of a prosthetic acetabular component between two different radiographic examinations indicates loosening, and may be observed as tilting or migration of the socket. To determine the apparent changes in socket position caused by improper positioning of the pelvis, a full-scale model of a pelvis with attached prosthetic sockets was examined radiographically in different positions. The projected alignment of the Charnley socket indicator wire against the inter-tuberosity line was markedly influenced by the positioning of the pelvis. An alternative way of measuring the alignment is to use the long axis of the projected ellipse of the outer circumferential groove in the socket polyethylene. The thus defined socket alignment was not influenced by the positioning of the pelvis within the investigated range. No apparent socket migration was recorded within the range of pelvic rotation and inclination studied. (orig.)

  12. Validation of the plain chest radiograph for epidemiologic studies of airflow obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musk, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    The chest radiographs of 125 industrial workers from rural New South Wales were examined for overinflated lungs, with and without attenuated midzonal vessels. Although the mean values of a comprehensive range of pulmonary function tests in the whole group were within normal limits, the nine subjects whose radiographs showed overinflated lungs and attenuated vessels had significantly impaired pulmonary function in comparison with 85 subjects with normal radiographs. The mean values for these nine subjects, expressed as a percentage of the mean value for subjects with normal radiographs, were: forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 75%; total lung capacity, 107%; residual volume, 143%; transpulmonary pressure at maximum inspiration, 60%; static deflation compliance, 158%; lung volume at transpulmonary pressure 10 cm H 2 O, 132%; transfer factor, 79%; and transfer factor/alveolar volume, 77%. Similar results were obtained by a second observer. Those subjects with overinflation but no vascular attenuation had significantly larger mean values for vital capacity and alveolar volume but no significant difference in total lung capacity or other tests of the mechanical properties of the lungs. Agreement on the presence of a positive sign between the two observers expressed as a percentage of those considered positive by either was 81% for overinflation and 62% for attenuated midzonal vessels. The results indicate that in groups of subjects with normal-average values of pulmonary function, the plain chest radiograph may provide information concerning pulmonary structure that is reflected in tests of function

  13. Radiographic correlates of hallux valgus severity in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Arcangelo Paul R

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The severity of hallux valgus is easily appreciated by its clinical appearance, however x-ray measurements are also frequently used to evaluate the condition, particularly if surgery is being considered. There have been few large studies that have assessed the validity of these x-ray observations across a wide spectrum of the deformity. In addition, no studies have specifically focused on older people where the progression of the disorder has largely ceased. Therefore, this study aimed to explore relationships between relevant x-ray observations with respect to hallux valgus severity in older people. Methods This study utilised 402 x-rays of 201 participants (74 men and 127 women aged 65 to 94 years. All participants were graded using the Manchester Scale - a simple, validated system to grade the severity of hallux valgus - prior to radiographic assessment. A total of 19 hallux valgus-related x-ray observations were performed on each set of x-rays. These measurements were then correlated with the Manchester Scale scores. Results Strong, positive correlations were identified between the severity of hallux valgus and the hallux abductus angle, the proximal articular set angle, the sesamoid position and congruency of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. As hallux valgus severity increased, so did the frequency of radiographic osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and a round first metatarsal head. A strong linear relationship between increased relative length of the first metatarsal and increased severity of hallux valgus was also observed. Conclusions Strong associations are evident between the clinical appearance of hallux valgus and a number of hallux valgus-related x-ray observations indicative of structural deformity and joint degeneration. As it is unlikely that metatarsal length increases as a result of hallux valgus deformity, increased length of the first metatarsal relative to the second metatarsal may

  14. Radiographic alterations of the frontal sinus morphology according to variations of the vertical angle in posteroanterior radiographs of the skull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonan Ferreira Silva

    2014-03-01

    The frontal sinuses play a highly relevant role in comparative human identification processes. Since forensic radiology is a branch in the forensic sciences, adequate radiological analysis of the frontal sinuses is essential for comparative human identifications. The current study investigates radiographic morphological changes in the frontal sinuses according to vertical angle distortions in posteroanterior (PA radiographs. A standard PA radiograph of the skull of an adult was obtained. Eight addition PA radiographs were taken at different vertical angles. Frontal sinuses were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively according to Ribeiro´s (2000 technique. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses revealed significant image distortions. Further, overlapping anatomical structures were reported when PA radiographs were analyzed in negative angulation distortions (from -10° to -40°. Positive and negative angular distortions up to 20º slightly affected the qualitative morphological analysis. However, 10° positive and negative distortions provided a significant interference in quantitative analysis and impaired the measuring process. Most forensic techniques for the analysis of frontal sinuses comprise measurements of morphological distances. Distortions of approximately 10° or over in vertical angulation of cranial PA radiographs should be avoided so that more accurate comparative human identifications could be achieved.

  15. A computerized system to measure interproximal alveolar bone levels in epidemiologic, radiographic investigations. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, F.R.; Jon-And, C.; Frithiof, L.; Soeder, P.Oe.; Lavstedt, S.

    1988-01-01

    The aims of the study were to adapt a computerized system to epidemiologic conditions, for rapid full-mouth measurements of alveolar bone levels from X5-magnified periapical radiographs and to analyze the variations in measurement due to different system components. Full-mouth measurements of interproximal alveolar bone height in percentage of root and tooth lengths were completed within av average time of 15 min. per set of radiographs. An analysis of variance showed that the examiner variation in measurement of a linear scale distance was 0.02 mm. The measurement accuracy was different for different distances. Each distance (d) measured with this system should therefore be calibrated with the equation Y = -0.007 - 0.014 (log 3d - 1.50) where Y is the estimate of measurement accuracy. The present computerized system enabled rapid recordings and demonstrated good measurement precision and accuracy. These are valuable features in epidemiologic investigations

  16. Association between grip strength and hand and knee radiographic osteoarthritis in Korean adults: Data from the Dong-gu study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Wen

    Full Text Available We assessed whether grip strength was related to various types of radiographic damage in Korean adults with osteoarthritis (OA.Data from 2,251 subjects enrolled in the Dong-gu study, who had no hand joint pain, were analyzed to investigate the relationship between grip strength and OA. Hand grip strength was measured using a hand-held dynamometer, and radiographs of the hand and knee were scored according to a semi-quantitative grading system. Multiple linear regressions were used to explore associations between grip strength and radiographic features of OA.Grip strength in men and women was negatively related to hand (both p < 0.001 and knee (men, p < 0.001; women, p = 0.010 OA after adjusting for confounders. Hand (men, p < 0.001; women, p = 0.001 and knee (both p < 0.001 joint space narrowing (JSN showed the strongest associations with low grip strength, regardless of gender. Moreover, the severity of hand osteophytes in women (p = 0.001, and subchondral cysts (men, p < 0.001 was correlated with low grip strength in both genders.Among subjects without hand joint pain, low grip strength was associated significantly with hand and knee radiographic OA, regardless of gender. Among all types of OA radiographic damage, low grip strength showed the strongest association with JSN.

  17. Implementation of a dedicated digital projectional radiographic system in thoracic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, D.R.; Batra, P.; Hayrapetian, A.S.; Brown, K.; Morioka, C.A.; Steckel, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated digital radiographic system was evaluated with respect to image quality and impact on diagnosis relative to conventional chest radiographs for a variety of focal and diffuse lung processes. Digital images were acquired with a stimulable phosphor plate detector that was scanned by a semiconductor laser for immediate digitalization to a 2,048 X 2,464 X 10-bit image. Digital images were displayed on a 2,048-line monitor and printed on 14 X 17-inch film with use of a laser film printer (Kodak). Preliminary results with this system, including the effects of user interaction with the display monitor, inverse intensity display, and regional magnification techniques, indicate that it may be successfully implemented for thoracic imaging

  18. Unicystic Jaw Lesions: A Radiographic Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giju George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The unilocular radiolucencies remain the topic of much interest for the clinicians and histhopathologists for decades. Adequate use of diagnostic aids and careful observation will clinically help the dentist to arrive at a proper diagnosis and renders quality treatment to patients. Despite of the development of various cross-sectional imaging modalities, the radiograph still remains as the first and most important investigation. Jaw bone lesions, especially unilocular ones, are difficult to diagnose radiologically because of their similar radiographic appearance. It is, thus, very important for the clinician to have a sound knowledge of various radiographic features of the tooth and its supporting structures.

  19. Reliability of radiographic measurements for acute distal radius fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Narelle J.; Asadollahi, Saeed; Parrish, Frank; Ridgway, Jacqueline; Tran, Phong; Keating, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The management of distal radial fractures is guided by the interpretation of radiographic findings. The aim of this investigation was to determine the intra- and inter-observer reliability of eight traditionally reported anatomic radiographic parameters in adults with an acute distal radius fracture. Five observers participated. All were routinely involved in making treatment decisions based on distal radius fracture radiographs. Observers performed independent repeated measurements on 30 radiographs for eight anatomical parameters: dorsal shift (mm), intra-articular gap (mm), intra-articular step (mm), palmar tilt (degrees), radial angle (degrees), radial height (mm), radial shift (mm), ulnar variance (mm). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and the magnitude of retest errors were calculated. Measurement reliability was summarised as high (ICC > 0.80), moderate (0.60–0.80) or low (<0.60). Intra-observer reliability was high for dorsal shift and palmar tilt; moderate for radial angle, radial height, ulnar variance and radial shift; and low for intra-articular gap and step. Inter-observer reliability was high for palmar tilt; moderate for dorsal shift, ulnar variance, radial angle and radial height; and low for radial shift, intra-articular gap and step. Error magnitude (95 % confidence interval) was within 1–2 mm for intra-articular gap and step, 2–4 mm for ulnar variance, 4–6 mm for radial shift, dorsal shift and radial height, and 6–8° for radial angle and palmar tilt. Based on previous reports of critical values for palmar tilt, ulnar variance and radial angle, error margins appear small enough for measurements to be useful in guiding treatment decisions. Our findings indicate that clinicians cannot reliably measure values ≤1 mm for intra-articular gap and step when interpreting radiographic parameters using the standardised methods investigated in this study. As a guide for treatment selection, palmar tilt, ulnar variance and radial angle

  20. Knowledge of practising radiographers of the supraspinatus outlet projection for shoulder impingement syndrome in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.; Morton, D.G.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: There are many projections in plain film imaging to demonstrate the specific aspects of the anatomy of the shoulder. However, reproducing the required projections can be challenging especially if radiographers are not familiar with the projections and their evaluation criteria. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the knowledge of practising radiographers regarding the supraspinatus outlet projection for shoulder impingement syndrome. Method: A quantitative, exploratory and descriptive design was followed. The population served as the sample and included all the practising radiographers in the public and private hospitals of a metropolitan municipality in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. A total of 84 respondents completed the structured, self-administered questionnaire. Results: The data revealed that in many cases, the majority of radiographers in the study, due to inadequate knowledge levels would not be able to produce an optimal radiographic image of the supraspinatus outlet. The results of the chi-squares indicated statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between public and private hospitals regarding certain aspects of the scapular Y projection and SOP. Conclusion: It was found that the radiographers in the study had inadequate knowledge of scapular Y projections and SOPs in relation to SIS. Therefore, it is essential to ensure that radiographers are updated on their knowledge of radiographic practice on a continuous basis. - Highlights: • Many radiographers unable to produce an optimal image of the supraspinatus outlet. • Radiographers had poor knowledge of scapular Y and supraspinatus outlet projections. • It is essential that radiographers update their knowledge of radiographic practice.

  1. Adult Sail Sign: Radiographic and Computed Tomographic Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yu-Jin; Han, Daehee; Koh, Young Hwan; Zo, Joo Hee; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Lee, Jeong Sang; Moon, Hyeon Jong; Kim, Jong Seung; Chun, Eun Ju; Youn, Byung Jae; Lee, Chang Hyun; Kim, Sam Soo (Dept. of Radiology, Cheil General Hospital, Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (KR))

    2008-02-15

    Background: The sail sign is a well-known radiographic feature of the pediatric chest. This sign can be observed in an adult population as well, but for a different reason. Purpose: To investigate the sail sign appearing in adult chest radiography. Material and Methods: Based on two anecdotal adult cases in which frontal chest radiographs showed the sail sign, we prospectively screened radiographs of 10,238 patients to determine the incidence of the sail sign found in adults in their 40s or older. The cause of the sail sign was assessed using computed tomography (CT). Results: The sail sign was revealed in 10 (seven males, three females; median age 60.6 years) of 10,238 patients. Of these 10 patients with a sail sign on frontal radiographs, eight underwent CT. The frontal radiographs of these 10 patients showed a concave superior margin toward the lung in nine patients, a concave inferior margin in five, and a double-lined inferior margin in three. Lateral radiographs disclosed a focal opacity over the minor fissure in five of six patients, which was either fuzzy (n = 4) or sharp (n = 1) in its upper margin, and was sometimes double lined in the inferior margin (n = 3). CT revealed the anterior mediastinal fat to be the cause of the radiographic sail sign, which stretched laterally from the mediastinum to insinuate into the minor fissure. Conclusion: The incidence of sail sign on adult chest radiographs is about 0.1%. The sign is specific enough to eliminate the need for more sophisticated imaging

  2. Adult Sail Sign: Radiographic and Computed Tomographic Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yu-Jin; Han, Daehee; Koh, Young Hwan; Zo, Joo Hee; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Lee, Jeong Sang; Moon, Hyeon Jong; Kim, Jong Seung; Chun, Eun Ju; Y oun, Byung Jae; Lee, Chang Hyun; Kim, Sam Soo

    2008-01-01

    Background: The sail sign is a well-known radiographic feature of the pediatric chest. This sign can be observed in an adult population as well, but for a different reason. Purpose: To investigate the sail sign appearing in adult chest radiography. Material and Methods: Based on two anecdotal adult cases in which frontal chest radiographs showed the sail sign, we prospectively screened radiographs of 10,238 patients to determine the incidence of the sail sign found in adults in their 40s or older. The cause of the sail sign was assessed using computed tomography (CT). Results: The sail sign was revealed in 10 (seven males, three females; median age 60.6 years) of 10,238 patients. Of these 10 patients with a sail sign on frontal radiographs, eight underwent CT. The frontal radiographs of these 10 patients showed a concave superior margin toward the lung in nine patients, a concave inferior margin in five, and a double-lined inferior margin in three. Lateral radiographs disclosed a focal opacity over the minor fissure in five of six patients, which was either fuzzy (n = 4) or sharp (n = 1) in its upper margin, and was sometimes double lined in the inferior margin (n = 3). CT revealed the anterior mediastinal fat to be the cause of the radiographic sail sign, which stretched laterally from the mediastinum to insinuate into the minor fissure. Conclusion: The incidence of sail sign on adult chest radiographs is about 0.1%. The sign is specific enough to eliminate the need for more sophisticated imaging

  3. Adult sail sign: radiographic and computed tomographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Jin; Han, Daehee; Koh, Young Hwan; Zo, Joo Hee; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Lee, Jeong Sang; Moon, Hyeon Jong; Kim, Jong Seung; Chun, Eun Ju; Youn, Byung Jae; Lee, Chang Hyun; Kim, Sam Soo

    2008-02-01

    The sail sign is a well-known radiographic feature of the pediatric chest. This sign can be observed in an adult population as well, but for a different reason. To investigate the sail sign appearing in adult chest radiography. Based on two anecdotal adult cases in which frontal chest radiographs showed the sail sign, we prospectively screened radiographs of 10,238 patients to determine the incidence of the sail sign found in adults in their 40s or older. The cause of the sail sign was assessed using computed tomography (CT). The sail sign was revealed in 10 (seven males, three females; median age 60.6 years) of 10,238 patients. Of these 10 patients with a sail sign on frontal radiographs, eight underwent CT. The frontal radiographs of these 10 patients showed a concave superior margin toward the lung in nine patients, a concave inferior margin in five, and a double-lined inferior margin in three. Lateral radiographs disclosed a focal opacity over the minor fissure in five of six patients, which was either fuzzy (n = 4) or sharp (n = 1) in its upper margin, and was sometimes double lined in the inferior margin (n = 3). CT revealed the anterior mediastinal fat to be the cause of the radiographic sail sign, which stretched laterally from the mediastinum to insinuate into the minor fissure. The incidence of sail sign on adult chest radiographs is about 0.1%. The sign is specific enough to eliminate the need for more sophisticated imaging.

  4. Common pitfalls in radiographic interpretation of the Thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godshalk, C.P.

    1994-01-01

    Errors in radiographic interpretation of the thorax are common. Many mistakes result from interpreting normal anatomic variants as abnormalstructures, such as misdiagnosing dorsal and rightward deviation of the cranial thoracic trachea on lateral radiographs of normal dogs. Some of the more common errors specifically relate to misinterpretation of radiographs made on obese patients. The age of the patient also plays a role in misdiagnosis. Aging cats seem to have a horizontally positioned heart on lateral radiographs, and older dogs, primarily collies,often have pulmonary osteomas that are misdiagnosed as metastatic neoplastic disease or healed pulmonary fungal infections

  5. Method for taking X radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, G.

    1983-01-01

    The method is aimed at obtaining X radiographs of any human organ with the aid of an X-ray-shadowless radiation detector of a dose measuring device, which is arranged between patient and imaging system, and of a controlling microprocessor system, so that the image-forming parameters are automatically adjusted to the specific properties of the patient. This procedure minimices the efforts in preparing the radiograph and the radiation exposure of the patient

  6. Neonates do not need to be handled for radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slade, Dawn; Alfaham, Mazin; Davis, Peter; Tuthill, David; Harrison, Sara; Morris, Susan; Guildea, Zoe

    2005-01-01

    The handling of sick neonates may have detrimental effects such as hypoxia or bradycardia. Such handling is inevitable due to the frequent need for practical procedures; however, minimising handling reduces these adverse events and may improve outcome. Radiography is one of the commonest procedures performed on neonates. Usually the infant is lifted and placed onto the radiographic cassette; however, modern incubators often incorporate a tray beneath the mattress in which the radiographic cassette can be placed without the need to disturb the infant. To compare the quality of chest radiographs taken using the standard direct contact method, with those taken using the under-tray technique. A series of chest radiographs taken over a 21-month period were analysed independently by two consultant paediatric radiologists unaware of the radiographic details. The position of the radiograph, i.e. direct contact or under-tray, was determined by the radiographer. Radiographic quality was scored on the following features: exposure, blurring, rotation, cut-off or coning, and side markers. A subjective score was also included. The results from each radiologist were analysed separately. Seventy chest radiographs were analysed - 25 standard method, 45 under-tray. A statistically significant advantage for the under-tray method was seen on two analyses - radiologist 1 for exposure, and radiologist 2 for cut-off. No other significant differences were noted. There were no differences in the infants' weights or radiation exposure. The under-tray method for taking radiographs may produce films of at least equivalent quality to the standard method. Since the standard method involves handling with potential desaturation and bradycardia, this technique should cease. (orig.)

  7. Radiographic evaluation of dentigerous cyst with cone beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Chan; Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to accurately analyze the radiographic characteristics of dentigerous cyst (DC) with multiplanar images of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Thirty eight radiographically and histopathologically proven cases of DCs were analyzed with panoramic radiograph and CBCT, retrospectively. The radiographic CT pattern, symmetry of radiolucency around the unerupted tooth crown, ratio of long length to short length, degree of cortical bone alternation, effects on adjacent tooth, and cyst size were analyzed. Relative frequencies of these radiographic features were evaluated. In order to compare the CBCT features of DC with those of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), 9 cases of OKCs were analyzed with the same method radiographically. DCs consisted of thirty unilocular cases (79.0%), seven lobulated cases (18.4%) and one multilocular case (2.6%). Eight were asymmetric (21.0%) and thirty were symmetric (79.0%). Maxillary DC showed rounder shape than mandibular DC (L/S ratio; maxilla 1.32, mandible 1.67). Alternations of lingual cortical bone (14 cases, 48.2%) were more frequent than those of buccal side (7 cases, 24.1%). CBCT images of DC showed definite root resorption and bucco-lingual tooth displacement. These findings were hardly observed on panoramic radiographs of DCs. Comparison of CBCT features of DC with those of OKC showed several different features. CBCT images of DC showed various characteristic radiographic features. Therefore, CBCT can be helpful for the diagnosis of DC radiographically.

  8. Radiographic evaluation of dentigerous cyst with cone beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Chan; Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [School of Dentisity, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to accurately analyze the radiographic characteristics of dentigerous cyst (DC) with multiplanar images of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Thirty eight radiographically and histopathologically proven cases of DCs were analyzed with panoramic radiograph and CBCT, retrospectively. The radiographic CT pattern, symmetry of radiolucency around the unerupted tooth crown, ratio of long length to short length, degree of cortical bone alternation, effects on adjacent tooth, and cyst size were analyzed. Relative frequencies of these radiographic features were evaluated. In order to compare the CBCT features of DC with those of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), 9 cases of OKCs were analyzed with the same method radiographically. DCs consisted of thirty unilocular cases (79.0%), seven lobulated cases (18.4%) and one multilocular case (2.6%). Eight were asymmetric (21.0%) and thirty were symmetric (79.0%). Maxillary DC showed rounder shape than mandibular DC (L/S ratio; maxilla 1.32, mandible 1.67). Alternations of lingual cortical bone (14 cases, 48.2%) were more frequent than those of buccal side (7 cases, 24.1%). CBCT images of DC showed definite root resorption and bucco-lingual tooth displacement. These findings were hardly observed on panoramic radiographs of DCs. Comparison of CBCT features of DC with those of OKC showed several different features. CBCT images of DC showed various characteristic radiographic features. Therefore, CBCT can be helpful for the diagnosis of DC radiographically.

  9. Relationships between rotator cuff tear types and radiographic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Chun, Kyung Ah; Lee Soo Jung; Kang, Min Ho; Yi, Kyung Sik; Zhang, Ying [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    To determine relationships between different types of rotator cuff tears and radiographic abnormalities. The shoulder radiographs of 104 patients with an arthroscopically proven rotator cuff tear were compared with similar radiographs of 54 age-matched controls with intact cuffs. Two radiologists independently interpreted all radiographs for; cortical thickening with subcortical sclerosis, subcortical cysts, osteophytes in the humeral greater tuberosity, humeral migration, degenerations of the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints, and subacromial spurs. Statistical analysis was performed to determine relationships between each type of rotator cuff tears and radiographic abnormalities. Inter-observer agreements with respect to radiographic findings were analyzed. Humeral migration and degenerative change of the greater tuberosity, including sclerosis, subcortical cysts, and osteophytes, were more associated with full-thickness tears (p < 0.01). Subacromial spurs were more common for full-thickness and bursal-sided tears (p < 0.01). No association was found between degeneration of the acromioclavicular or glenohumeral joint and the presence of a cuff tear. Different types of rotator cuff tears are associated with different radiographic abnormalities.

  10. Relationships between rotator cuff tear types and radiographic abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Chun, Kyung Ah; Lee Soo Jung; Kang, Min Ho; Yi, Kyung Sik; Zhang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    To determine relationships between different types of rotator cuff tears and radiographic abnormalities. The shoulder radiographs of 104 patients with an arthroscopically proven rotator cuff tear were compared with similar radiographs of 54 age-matched controls with intact cuffs. Two radiologists independently interpreted all radiographs for; cortical thickening with subcortical sclerosis, subcortical cysts, osteophytes in the humeral greater tuberosity, humeral migration, degenerations of the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints, and subacromial spurs. Statistical analysis was performed to determine relationships between each type of rotator cuff tears and radiographic abnormalities. Inter-observer agreements with respect to radiographic findings were analyzed. Humeral migration and degenerative change of the greater tuberosity, including sclerosis, subcortical cysts, and osteophytes, were more associated with full-thickness tears (p < 0.01). Subacromial spurs were more common for full-thickness and bursal-sided tears (p < 0.01). No association was found between degeneration of the acromioclavicular or glenohumeral joint and the presence of a cuff tear. Different types of rotator cuff tears are associated with different radiographic abnormalities.

  11. Radiographer-performed stereotactic needle core biopsy: Making a difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Anne-Marie [School of Health Studies, University of Bradford, Unity Building, 25 Trinity Road, Bradford BD5 0BB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.m.dixon@leeds.ac.uk; Dearnley, Christine [School of Health Studies, University of Bradford, Unity Building, 25 Trinity Road, Bradford BD5 0BB (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    This case study describes a qualitative investigation of the experiences of 14 experienced mammography radiographers who successfully undertook a formal programme of education and training in stereotactic needle core biopsy (SNCB) of the breast. They now routinely perform SNCB within symptomatic and screening breast services in a variety of NHS hospitals across the country. All 14 radiographers completed a semi-structured postal questionnaire approximately six months after the end of the course. A tentative theory derived from the data suggests that the professional challenge associated with radiographer-performed SNCB builds personal confidence and effects positive change. Three main categories emerging from the data - challenge, confidence and change are underpinned by two main themes - educational, professional and service drivers that promote the realisation of goals and vision; and personal, peer and external motivation sustained by respect, recognition and reward. SNCB role extension as explored in this study is having a positive and transformational impact on patient users of breast diagnostic clinical services and on the professional health carers providing them. The key drivers for this as identified in the study are a formal educational experience, professional role extension opportunities and the NHS modernisation process. The participants experienced positive change as individuals and as professional breast cancer multidisciplinary team members. Academic and financial rewards, respect and recognition from colleagues across professional disciplines and from patients, were key motivators that sustained the process. This study indicates that radiographer-performed SNCB can help deliver the NHS Plan and the NHS Cancer Plan and in doing so has the potential to improve the working lives of health care professionals and ultimately to improve the quality of care for patients.

  12. Radiographer-performed stereotactic needle core biopsy: Making a difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Anne-Marie; Dearnley, Christine

    2008-01-01

    This case study describes a qualitative investigation of the experiences of 14 experienced mammography radiographers who successfully undertook a formal programme of education and training in stereotactic needle core biopsy (SNCB) of the breast. They now routinely perform SNCB within symptomatic and screening breast services in a variety of NHS hospitals across the country. All 14 radiographers completed a semi-structured postal questionnaire approximately six months after the end of the course. A tentative theory derived from the data suggests that the professional challenge associated with radiographer-performed SNCB builds personal confidence and effects positive change. Three main categories emerging from the data - challenge, confidence and change are underpinned by two main themes - educational, professional and service drivers that promote the realisation of goals and vision; and personal, peer and external motivation sustained by respect, recognition and reward. SNCB role extension as explored in this study is having a positive and transformational impact on patient users of breast diagnostic clinical services and on the professional health carers providing them. The key drivers for this as identified in the study are a formal educational experience, professional role extension opportunities and the NHS modernisation process. The participants experienced positive change as individuals and as professional breast cancer multidisciplinary team members. Academic and financial rewards, respect and recognition from colleagues across professional disciplines and from patients, were key motivators that sustained the process. This study indicates that radiographer-performed SNCB can help deliver the NHS Plan and the NHS Cancer Plan and in doing so has the potential to improve the working lives of health care professionals and ultimately to improve the quality of care for patients

  13. Use of Radiographic Densitometry to Predict the Bone Healing Index in Distraction Osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saw

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Bone lengthening with distraction osteogenesis involves prolonged application of an external fixator frame. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of callus has been described using various imaging modalities but there is no simple reliable and readily available method. This study aims to investigate the use of a densitometer to analyze plain radiographic images and correlate them with the rate of new bone formation as represented by the bone healing index. A total of 34 bone lengthening procedures in 29 patients were retrospectively reviewed. We used an X-Rite 301 densitometer to measure densities of new callus on plain radiographs taken at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. Patients aged below 16y had significantly lower BHIs indicating faster bone healing and shorter duration of treatment. The ratio of radiographic densities between centre and edge of the new bone measured from plain radiographs taken at 8 weeks correlated positively with the eventual BHI of the patient. This method provides a simple and easy way to predict the rate of bone healing at an early stage of treatment and may also allow remedial action to be taken for those with poor progress in bone formation.

  14. Subtalar coalition: usefulness of the C sign on lateral radiographs of the ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Hyun; Ahn, Joong Mo; Lee, Min Hee; Yoon, Hye Kyung; Kim, Sung Moon; Shin, Myung Jin; Kang, Heung Sik

    2001-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of the talocalcaneal C sign in the diagnosis of subtalar coalition, as seen on lateral radiographs of the ankle. Lateral radiographs of 12 ankles in 11 patients were included in this study. Twelve subtalar coalitions were confirmed by surgery (n=6), or by CT and/or MR (n=6). The presence of the talocalcaneal C sign on lateral ankle radiographs was determined. The C sign was continuous in six feet and interrupted in the remaining six. Subtalar coalition occurred simultaneously inthe middle and posterior subtalar joints in two cases, the posterior subtalar joint only in six, and in the middle subtalar joint only in four. In six cases confirmed at surgery, subtalar coalitions consisted of both synostosis and non-osseous fusion (synchondrosis and/or syndesmosis) and in one case of middle subtalar coalition, there was a bony bridge. The remaining six cases. confirmed at CT or MRI, involved both synostosis and non-osseous fusion (n=1) or non-osseous fusion only (n=5). In the diagnosis of subtalar coalition, the talocalcaneal C sign, seen on lateral radiographs of the ankle, is a useful indicator

  15. Appearance of the mandibular incisive canal on panoramic radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, R.; Mraiwa, N.; van Steenberghe, D.; Sanderink, G.C.H.; Quirynen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Panoramic radiographs are routinely used in the dental office for various diagnostic purposes. This study aimed to evaluate the visibility of neurovascular structures in the mandibular interforaminal region on such radiographs. Panoramic radiographs were obtained with a Cranex Tome (Soredex) from

  16. Automatic Quantification of Radiographic Wrist Joint Space Width of Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yinghe; Vincken, Koen L; van der Heijde, Desiree; de Hair, Maria J H; Lafeber, Floris P; Viergever, Max A

    2017-11-01

    Objective: Wrist joint space narrowing is a main radiographic outcome of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Yet, automatic radiographic wrist joint space width (JSW) quantification for RA patients has not been widely investigated. The aim of this paper is to present an automatic method to quantify the JSW of three wrist joints that are least affected by bone overlapping and are frequently involved in RA. These joints are located around the scaphoid bone, viz. the multangular-navicular, capitate-navicular-lunate, and radiocarpal joints. Methods: The joint space around the scaphoid bone is detected by using consecutive searches of separate path segments, where each segment location aids in constraining the subsequent one. For joint margin delineation, first the boundary not affected by X-ray projection is extracted, followed by a backtrace process to obtain the actual joint margin. The accuracy of the quantified JSW is evaluated by comparison with the manually obtained ground truth. Results: Two of the 50 radiographs used for evaluation of the method did not yield a correct path through all three wrist joints. The delineated joint margins of the remaining 48 radiographs were used for JSW quantification. It was found that 90% of the joints had a JSW deviating less than 20% from the mean JSW of manual indications, with the mean JSW error less than 10%. Conclusion: The proposed method is able to automatically quantify the JSW of radiographic wrist joints reliably. The proposed method may aid clinical researchers to study the progression of wrist joint damage in RA studies. Objective: Wrist joint space narrowing is a main radiographic outcome of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Yet, automatic radiographic wrist joint space width (JSW) quantification for RA patients has not been widely investigated. The aim of this paper is to present an automatic method to quantify the JSW of three wrist joints that are least affected by bone overlapping and are frequently involved in RA. These joints

  17. Cell design for the DARHT linear induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, M.; Allison, P.; Earley, L.; Liska, D.; Mockler, C.; Ruhe, J.; Tucker, H.; Walling, L.

    1991-01-01

    The Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrotest (DARHT) facility will employ two linear induction accelerators to produce intense, bremsstrahlung x- ray pulses for flash radiography. The accelerator cell design for a 3- kA, 16--20 MeV, 60-ns flattop, high-brightness electron beam is presented. The cell is optimized for high-voltage stand-off while also minimizing the its transverse impedance. Measurements of high- voltage and rf characteristics are summarized. 7 refs., 5 figs

  18. The radiographic manifestations of hypochondroplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heselson, N.G.; Cremin, B.J.; Beighton, P.

    1979-01-01

    Hypochrondroplasia is an inherited skeletal dysplasia that resembles achondroplasia in mild degree. Radiographic manifestations encountered in 12 affected individuals in South Africa include slight shortening of all segments of the tubular bones, moderate caudal diminution of the lumbar interpedicular distances, increased lumbar lordosis with cacral tilt and distal prolongation of the fibular. Hypochondroplasia can be distinguished from other osteochondrodystrophies such as achondroplasia, pseudo-achondroplasia and metaphyseal chondroplasia by the recognition of it clinical and radiographic manifestations. (author)

  19. Industrial radiography on radiographic paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1977-11-01

    An investigation was performed to compare the quality of radiographic paper with that of X-ray film, after a review had been made of the rather scarce literature on the subject. The equipment used throughout the investigation is described, and characteristic curves for Agfa-Gevaert and Kodak papers exposed with different intensifying screens in the low and intermediate voltage range are reproduced. The relative speed, contrast and exposure latitude were computed from these curves. The quality of the radiographic image was checked on U/Al blocks and plates, Al and Fe blocks, and fiber-reinforced composites. Exposure charts for Al and Fe were made for various paper and screen combinations. Both the sharpness of the radiographic image as well as the influence of processing on speed and contrast were checked. Examples are given of the practical application of the paper for radiography of castings, weldings, solderings, assemblies, etc. (author)

  20. Caries detection in dental radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Caries, or the decay of teeth are difficult to automatically detect in dental radiographs because of the small area of the image that is occupied by the decay. Images of dental radiographs has distinct regions of homogeneous gray levels, and therefore naturally lead to a segmentation based automatic caries detection algorithm. This paper describes a method for caries detection based on a multiclass, area independent thresholding and segmenting scheme. This multiclass thresholding algorithm is an extension of the uniform error threshold, an area independent, distribution free thresholding method used for images of only two classes of objects. The authors first consider the problem of caries detection and the image features that characterize the presence of caries. Next, the uniform error threshold is reviewed, and the general multiclass uniform error threshold algorithm is presented. This algorithm is used to automatically detect caries in dental radiographs

  1. The importance of plain radiographic signs for emergency aortography in blunt chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, K.A.; Trost, K.; Bargon, G.

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective study of plain radiographic findings in 11 patients with traumatic rupture of the aorta was conducted, and the results compared with the incidence of numerous chest x-rays signs previously described in 294 cases of angiographically proven thoracic aorta dissection. It is concluded that positive plain radiographic signs obtained from patients with blunt chest trauma reveal high sensitivity and may thus be used as an indication for emergency aortography. However, since this procedure lacks 100% specificity even those patients with normal x-ray findings but clinically and/or anamnestically adequate thoracic trauma should be submitted to aortography. (orig.) [de

  2. Clinical and radiographic assessment of approximal carious lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espelid, I.; Tveit, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the radiographic diagnosis of approximal carious lesions with visual observations of the approximal surfaces and within drilled Class II cavities (made into the pulp). Sound (n=28) and carious (n=123) approximal surfaces of extracted premolars and molars were radiographed. The radiographs were studied by seven observers to diagnose caries. Lesions without cavitation were most often classified as sound (61.3%). When lesions had cavities, the rate of detection increased to 89.1%. Sound surfaces were erroneously classified as carious in 15.7% of cases. Statistically, about 6 our of every 10 qualitative assessments of lesion depth on the basis of radiographs, correctly recorded lesions as being in enamel or extending into dentin. The interexaminer variation in radiographic caries diagnosis were mostly due to difference in diagnostic criteria, whereas differences in diagnostic capability were less important

  3. Radiographic and Clinical Analysis of Lateral Epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillito, Matthew; Soong, Maximillian; Martin, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    The literature suggests that radiographs may be unnecessary in the initial evaluation of lateral epicondylitis because treatment is rarely altered as a result of the radiographic findings. The most commonly reported radiographic finding is calcification at the lateral epicondyle. Our goal was to perform a quantitative and qualitative analysis of this finding to determine its importance and possible relationship with various clinical factors and patient-reported measures. All patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis by a single surgeon during a 5-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Age, sex, laterality, hand dominance, pain visual analog scale, duration of symptoms, Quick-Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire score, and history of steroid injection were recorded. Calcifications on standard elbow radiographs, acquired digitally and viewed at 200% magnification on a 24-inch monitor, were characterized by size and relationship with the lateral epicondyle. We reviewed 245 patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis. A total of 115 elbows (47%) demonstrated lateral epicondyle calcifications. Patients with and without calcifications were similar with regard to clinical factors, as were patients with larger or smaller lesions. Eighty-five elbows (35%) had additional radiographic findings. Treatment was not altered by the radiographic findings in any case. Lateral epicondyle calcifications are much more common in lateral epicondylitis than previously reported, possibly owing to modern digital radiography and magnification, although they do not appear to be related to clinical factors including patient-reported measures. Thus, patients and surgeons should be careful to avoid overinterpretation of such findings. Although radiographs may be helpful in ruling out additional pathology, we did not find other clinically important contributions to the initial evaluation and management of this condition, and thus we do not recommend their routine use

  4. Early characteristic radiographic changes in mucolipidosis II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Lillian M. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital and Stanford University, Pediatric Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Lachman, Ralph S. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital and Stanford University, Pediatric Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States); University of California, International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Although mucolipidosis type II has similar metabolic abnormalities to those found in all the mucopolysaccharidoses and mucolipidoses, there are distinctive diagnostic radiographic changes of mucolipidosis II in the perinatal/newborn/infant period. To describe the early characteristic radiographic changes of mucolipidosis II and to document when these changes manifest and resolve. We retrospectively reviewed radiographs and clinical records of 19 cases of mucolipidosis II from the International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry (1971-present; fetal age to 21/2 years). A radiologist with special expertise in skeletal dysplasias evaluated the radiographs. The most common abnormalities were increased vertebral body height (80%, nonspecific), talocalcaneal stippling (86%), periosteal cloaking (74%) and vertebral body rounding (50%). Unreported findings included sacrococcygeal sclerosis (54%) and vertebral body sclerosis (13%). Rickets and hyperparathyroidism-like (pseudohyperparathyroidism) changes (rarely reported) were found in 33% of cases. These changes invariably started in the newborn period and resolved by 1 year of age. The conversion from these early infantile radiographic features to dysostosis multiplex changes occurred in 41% of cases, and within the first year after birth. Several findings strongly suggest the diagnosis of mucolipidosis II, including cloaking in combination with one or more of the following radiographic criteria: talocalcaneal stippling, sacrococcygeal or generalized vertebral body sclerosis, vertebral body rounding, or rickets/hyperparathyroidism-like changes in the perinatal/newborn/infancy period. These findings are not found in the other two forms of mucolipidosis nor in any of the mucopolysaccharidoses. (orig.)

  5. Early characteristic radiographic changes in mucolipidosis II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Lillian M.; Lachman, Ralph S.

    2016-01-01

    Although mucolipidosis type II has similar metabolic abnormalities to those found in all the mucopolysaccharidoses and mucolipidoses, there are distinctive diagnostic radiographic changes of mucolipidosis II in the perinatal/newborn/infant period. To describe the early characteristic radiographic changes of mucolipidosis II and to document when these changes manifest and resolve. We retrospectively reviewed radiographs and clinical records of 19 cases of mucolipidosis II from the International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry (1971-present; fetal age to 21/2 years). A radiologist with special expertise in skeletal dysplasias evaluated the radiographs. The most common abnormalities were increased vertebral body height (80%, nonspecific), talocalcaneal stippling (86%), periosteal cloaking (74%) and vertebral body rounding (50%). Unreported findings included sacrococcygeal sclerosis (54%) and vertebral body sclerosis (13%). Rickets and hyperparathyroidism-like (pseudohyperparathyroidism) changes (rarely reported) were found in 33% of cases. These changes invariably started in the newborn period and resolved by 1 year of age. The conversion from these early infantile radiographic features to dysostosis multiplex changes occurred in 41% of cases, and within the first year after birth. Several findings strongly suggest the diagnosis of mucolipidosis II, including cloaking in combination with one or more of the following radiographic criteria: talocalcaneal stippling, sacrococcygeal or generalized vertebral body sclerosis, vertebral body rounding, or rickets/hyperparathyroidism-like changes in the perinatal/newborn/infancy period. These findings are not found in the other two forms of mucolipidosis nor in any of the mucopolysaccharidoses. (orig.)

  6. A radiographic study of pediatric ulnar anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravino, Mattia; Oni, Julius K; Sala, Debra A; Chu, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The adult ulna has a unique bony architecture that has been described in the literature, but, to the best of our knowledge, the ulnar anatomy in children has not been described. We examined 75 anteroposterior (AP) and 64 lateral radiographs (29 were bilateral) of 50, 0.5- to 11-year-old, healthy children's forearms. On AP radiographs, the total ulnar length, the ulnar proximal angle, the ulnar distal angle, and the distance between each angle from the tip of the triceps insertion; and, on lateral radiographs, the ulnar length and bow deviation were measured. The correlation between age and radiographic measurements, differences based on sex, differences compared with adults' measurements, and interobserver/intraobserver reliability were assessed. Age had a very strong/strong positive correlation with length/distance measurements on both AP and lateral radiographs. Only AP ulnar distal angle was significantly different between sexes (females > males). Compared with the adult ulnar studies, the AP proximal angle in children is significantly smaller and the location of this angle is significantly more distal. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were very good for length/distance measurements on AP and lateral radiographs. The knowledge of pediatric ulnar anatomy could be helpful in the treatment of forearm deformities due to multiple hereditary exostosis and osteogenesis imperfecta, and in the treatment of ulnar fractures, particularly in Monteggia variants, where restoration of the correct forearm anatomy is essential to obtain good clinical and functional results. Study of diagnostic test, Level II.

  7. Radiographer performed single contrast small bowel enteroclysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Robert L.; Slack, Nicola; Harvey, Richard F.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To analyse the technical success and reporting sensitivity of radiographer performed small bowel enteroclysis (SBE) undertaken by a specialist radiographer according to a standard technique [Nolan DJ, Cadman PJ. The small bowel enema made easy. Clinical Radiology 1987;38(3):295-301]. Methods: Patients (1413) had 1646 SBE in 10 years from May 1992 to April 2002. The original request card and the separate radiographer and consultant radiologist reports were reviewed. Where the radiology reports were discordant or inconclusive, the clinical notes were also reviewed. Results: Patients (1022) X-ray films were available. Nine hundred and forty-three (93.3%) SBEs had been successfully completed. Radiographer and consultant radiologist reporting had a 99.3% concordance. There was a 98.4% sensitivity for Crohn's disease (181 of 184 cases where Crohn's disease was the clinical final diagnosis). Overall reporting sensitivity was 93.7% although correct 'probably normal and abnormal' reporting bias suggests a sensitivity of 96.9%. Sixty of 943 (6.4%) reports were inconclusive. Of 1022 patients, 68 (6.6%) of small bowel intubations were not achieved, or else consent was withdrawn at the time of the procedure. Conclusion: Specialist radiographers can perform small bowel enteroclysis with a reporting sensitivity equal to that of a consultant radiologist. Radiographers accustomed to providing an SBE service become skilled at passing fine bore feeding tubes into the small bowel and can provide this service also

  8. Radiographic findings in pulmonary hypertension from unresolved embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, W.W. III; Hoeck, B.E.; Chitwood, W.R. Jr.; Lyerly, H.K.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Chen, J.T.T.

    1985-04-01

    Pulmonary artery hypertension with chronic pulmonary embolism is an uncommon entity that is potentially treatable with pulmonary embolectomy. Although the classic radiographic features have been described, several recent investigators report a significant percentage of these patients with normal chest radiographs. In a series of 22 patients, no normal radiographs were seen. Findings included cardiomegaly (86.4%) with right-sided enlargement (68.4%), right descending pulmonary artery enlargement (54.5%), azygos vein enlargement (27.3%), mosaic oligemia (68.2%), chronic volume loss (27.3%), atelectasis and/or effusion (22.7%), and pleural thickening (13.6%). Good correlation with specific areas of diminished vascularity was seen on chest radiographs compared with pulmonary angiograms.

  9. Radiographic findings in pulmonary hypertension from unresolved embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.W. III; Hoeck, B.E.; Chitwood, W.R. Jr.; Lyerly, H.K.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Chen, J.T.T.

    1985-01-01

    Pulmonary artery hypertension with chronic pulmonary embolism is an uncommon entity that is potentially treatable with pulmonary embolectomy. Although the classic radiographic features have been described, several recent investigators report a significant percentage of these patients with normal chest radiographs. In a series of 22 patients, no normal radiographs were seen. Findings included cardiomegaly (86.4%) with right-sided enlargement (68.4%), right descending pulmonary artery enlargement (54.5%), azygos vein enlargement (27.3%), mosaic oligemia (68.2%), chronic volume loss (27.3%), atelectasis and/or effusion (22.7%), and pleural thickening (13.6%). Good correlation with specific areas of diminished vascularity was seen on chest radiographs compared with pulmonary angiograms

  10. Radiographic caries diagnosis and restorative treatment decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mileman, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with a single diagnostic technique: the bitewing radiograph, and the way it is used by dentists to decide on patient treatment need for interproximal caries. The variation in caries diagnosis and treatment decisions using bitewing radiographs is described and the radiographic criteria of choice for minimizing over and undertreatment according to a norm are investigated. Three possible diagnostic strategies in interproximal caries diagnosis using a decision analysis approach are described and evaluated, and the effect of the reported diagnostic behaviour and knowledge of practicing Dutch dentists in their use of bitewing radiographs for the diagnosis and treatment of interproximal caries is described and analyzed. (Auth.)

  11. Evaluation of underexposed conventional radiographs after digitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, W.

    1993-01-01

    Inadequate exposure of analogue radiographs is reported in the literature to occur in 5-25% of cases. Therefore, the present study was performed to test whether selective image processing after digitization could reveal diagnostic details on underexposed radiographs. In addition, the minimal exposure values required for diagnostic purposes after adequate image processing were studied. Phantom studies, organ preparations and measurements of physical parameters with decreasing exposure values were performed. The detection of anatomic and pathologic (nondisplaced fracture lines, microcalcification and renal stones) structures were evaluated by 12 readers. Radiographs with exposure values 20-40% lower than 'ideal' values can provide adequate diagnostic images after digital processing. The diagnostic information is significantly impaired with values under 50% of the correct exposure values. In conclusion, this method is adequate to save underexposed radiographs for diagnostic purposes and to avoid repeated examinations. (orig.) [de

  12. Do general radiographic examinations resemble a person-centred environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayre, C.M.; Blackman, S.; Eyden, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim and objective: It is argued whether general radiographic examinations adhere to a person-centred approach within the direct digital radiography (DDR) environment. General radiographic examinations continue to increase and constitute approximately 90% of all examinations undertaken in the clinical environment. This study explored the potential impact patients experience whilst undergoing general imaging examinations. Method: An ethnographic methodology provided insight of two general radiography environments in the United Kingdom (UK) using participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Findings: The findings highlighted an ‘in and out’ culture whereby patients are ‘hurried’ and ‘rushed’ out of X-ray rooms in response to increasing time pressures experienced by diagnostic radiographers. In addition, this study challenged that patients may begin to rank ‘speed’ and ‘waiting times’ above other elements of radiographic care thus presenting new challenges for radiographers within the clinical environment. Conclusion: It is asserted that radiographers should remain holistic healthcare professionals and not begin to resemble operators on the production line. Further, it challenges whether patients are beginning to rank aspects of radiographic care within contemporary practices. Advances in knowledge: Few studies have explored the radiographer–patient relationship within the DDR environment, yet this study provides insight of person-centred practices within contemporary practices. - Highlights: • Challenges whether the use of DDR conforms to a person-centred approach. • Challenges whether radiographers are ‘treating patients as persons’ using DDR. • Patients may begin to rank ‘speed’ and ‘waiting times’ above other aspects of radiographic care.

  13. A survey of radiographers' confidence and self-perceived accuracy in frontline image interpretation and their continuing educational preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neep, Michael J [Department of Medical Imaging, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Centre for Functioning and Health Research, Metro South Health, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); School of Public Health and Social Work and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Steffens, Tom [Department of Medical Imaging, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Owen, Rebecca [Radiation Oncology Mater Centre, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); McPhail, Steven M [Centre for Functioning and Health Research, Metro South Health, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); School of Public Health and Social Work and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Department of Medical Imaging, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    The provision of a written comment on traumatic abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system detected by radiographers can assist referrers and may improve patient management, but the practice has not been widely adopted outside the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian radiographers' perceptions of their readiness for practice in a radiographer commenting system and their educational preferences in relation to two different delivery formats of image interpretation education, intensive and non-intensive. A cross-sectional web-based questionnaire was implemented between August and September 2012. Participants included radiographers with experience working in emergency settings at four Australian metropolitan hospitals. Conventional descriptive statistics, frequency histograms, and thematic analysis were undertaken. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test examined whether a difference in preference ratings between intensive and non-intensive education delivery was evident. The questionnaire was completed by 73 radiographers (68% response rate). Radiographers reported higher confidence and self-perceived accuracy to detect traumatic abnormalities than to describe traumatic abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system. Radiographers frequently reported high desirability ratings for both the intensive and the non-intensive education delivery, no difference in desirability ratings for these two formats was evident (z = 1.66, P = 0.11). Some Australian radiographers perceive they are not ready to practise in a frontline radiographer commenting system. Overall, radiographers indicated mixed preferences for image interpretation education delivered via intensive and non-intensive formats. Further research, preferably randomised trials, investigating the effectiveness of intensive and non-intensive education formats of image interpretation education for radiographers is warranted.

  14. A survey of radiographers' confidence and self-perceived accuracy in frontline image interpretation and their continuing educational preferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neep, Michael J; Steffens, Tom; Owen, Rebecca; McPhail, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    The provision of a written comment on traumatic abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system detected by radiographers can assist referrers and may improve patient management, but the practice has not been widely adopted outside the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian radiographers' perceptions of their readiness for practice in a radiographer commenting system and their educational preferences in relation to two different delivery formats of image interpretation education, intensive and non-intensive. A cross-sectional web-based questionnaire was implemented between August and September 2012. Participants included radiographers with experience working in emergency settings at four Australian metropolitan hospitals. Conventional descriptive statistics, frequency histograms, and thematic analysis were undertaken. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test examined whether a difference in preference ratings between intensive and non-intensive education delivery was evident. The questionnaire was completed by 73 radiographers (68% response rate). Radiographers reported higher confidence and self-perceived accuracy to detect traumatic abnormalities than to describe traumatic abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system. Radiographers frequently reported high desirability ratings for both the intensive and the non-intensive education delivery, no difference in desirability ratings for these two formats was evident (z = 1.66, P = 0.11). Some Australian radiographers perceive they are not ready to practise in a frontline radiographer commenting system. Overall, radiographers indicated mixed preferences for image interpretation education delivered via intensive and non-intensive formats. Further research, preferably randomised trials, investigating the effectiveness of intensive and non-intensive education formats of image interpretation education for radiographers is warranted

  15. A case of a found radiographic source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucelj, B.; Korun, M.; Kavsek, D.; Kreft, Z.; Krizman, M.; Martincic, R.; Rosman, M.; Sutej, T.

    1996-01-01

    High dose-rate levels were detected outdoors in the vicinity of a bunker used for storage of radiographic sources in a plant which manufactures metallic products. The investigation revealed that radiation was due to a buried sealed radiographic source, containing 28 GBq of 137 Cs. A special republic radiological emergency team removed the source in a carefully planned operation. There was no evidence for overexposure of the population or of radiographic and other workers of the plant. The highest dose to the recovery team was 50 μSv

  16. Radiographic findings in immunodeficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obregon, R.; Lynch, D.A.; Cink, T.M.; Newell, J.D.; Kirkpatrick, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the chest radiographs and high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans in patients with immunodeficiency disorders and define the role of HRCT. Thirty-three cases were retrospectively graded according to the consensus of two radiologists. Patients with HIV seropositivity and asthma were excluded. HRCT was performed in 12 cases with standard techniques. Diagnoses included common variable hypogammaglobulinemia (n = 19), X-linked agammaglobulinemia (n = 4), chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (n = 4), and selective immunoglobulin g deficiencies (n = 2). Chest radiographs showed bronchiectasis in 11 of 33 cases with a predominant lower lobe distribution (82%). Nodules were present in six cases and mucus plugs in four cases. HRCT showed bronchiectasis in nine of 12 cases; in five of these nine cases, bronchiectasis was not apparent on chest radiographs. Other HRCT findings included segmental air trapping (four of 12), mucus plugs (three of 12), hazy consolidation (four of 12), nodules (five of 12), and bronchiolectasis (two of 12). Therapy was altered in seven of 12 cases in which HRCT was performed. Most pertinent to clinical management were the presence of a thymoma (n = 1) and severe focal of diffuse bronchiectasis

  17. Radiographic testing of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.; Zscherpel, U.; Raedel, C.; Weidemann, G.; Meinel, D.; Goebbels, J.; Ewert, U.; Hasenstab, A.; Buecherl, T.

    2007-01-01

    Wood is an old and established consumption and construction material. It is still the most common material for constructing furniture, roofs, playgrounds and mine supports. In contrast to steel and concrete, wood warns of extreme loads by creaking. Its mechanical stability is more influenced by decay than by peripheral cracks. While external cracks are visible, internal decay by fungus growth is undetectable from outside. This may be a safety problem in supporting structures. The best analysis of the internal structure is provided by computed tomography, but this is also the most complex method, much more so than simple radiographic testing. However, the latter is made inaccurate by scattered radiation resulting from internal moisture. With the image processing options of digital radiographic techniques, the structural information can be separated effectively from noise. In contrast to X-ray and gamma radiography, neutron radiography provides information on the spatial distribution of moisture. In healthy wood, water is conducted in the sapwood while the hardwood is dry. Moisture in hardwood is caused by infestations, e.g. fungus growth. The contribution presents a comparative analysis of the available radiographic methods. (orig.)

  18. Large Format Radiographic Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrer, J. S.; Stewart, Lacey; Wilke, M. D.; King, N. S.; Baker A, S.; Lewis, Wilfred

    1999-01-01

    Radiographic imaging continues to be a key diagnostic in many areas at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Radiographic recording systems have taken on many form, from high repetition-rate, gated systems to film recording and storage phosphors. Some systems are designed for synchronization to an accelerator while others may be single shot or may record a frame sequence in a dynamic radiography experiment. While film recording remains a reliable standby in the radiographic community, there is growing interest in investigating electronic recording for many applications. The advantages of real time access to remote data acquisition are highly attractive. Cooled CCD camera systems are capable of providing greater sensitivity with improved signal-to-noise ratio. This paper begins with a review of performance characteristics of the Bechtel Nevada large format imaging system, a gated system capable of viewing scintillators up to 300 mm in diameter. We then examine configuration alternatives in lens coupled and fiber optically coupled electro-optical recording systems. Areas of investigation include tradeoffs between fiber optic and lens coupling, methods of image magnification, and spectral matching from scintillator to CCD camera. Key performance features discussed include field of view, resolution, sensitivity, dynamic range, and system noise characteristics

  19. Radiographic study on temporomandibular joint Arthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Dong Soo [Dept. of Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University , Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-11-15

    The author analysed the routine radiographic changes and clinical symptoms of 205 cases of temporomandibular joint arthrosis. The clinical symptoms of the patients were classified and the morphological changes of condylar head, articular eminence, and articular fossa were analyzed and discussed from radiographic view point. The positional change of condylar head and articular fossa relation in TMJ arthrosis were observed. The frequencies of coincidence between the site of complaints and the site of the abnormal images which could be detected were examined. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Bone erosion, deformity, marginal proliferation and sclerosis were selected from many abnormal images as the radiographic diagnostic criteria of TMJ arthritic lesions. 2. Abnormal radiographic findings were revealed in 150 cases (73.9%) of 205 total TMJ arthrosis cases and site with abnormal findings coincided with the site of complaints in 105 cases (70.7%) of 150 cases and coincidence rates were higher above fourth decades than below third decades. 3. Sclerosis of the abnormal radiographic findings could be found more often below third decades than above fourth decades. 4. The positional changes of condylar head were revealed in 176 cases (85.9%) of 205 total cases. 5. Pain complaints were revealed in 170 cases(82.9%) and clicking sounds were revealed in 120 cases (58.6%) of clinical symptoms of TMJ arthrosis. 6. No tendency was found so far the differential diagnosis between pain dysfunction syndrome and osteoarthrosis of TMJ.

  20. Radiographic study on temporomandibular joint Arthrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Dong Soo

    1980-01-01

    The author analysed the routine radiographic changes and clinical symptoms of 205 cases of temporomandibular joint arthrosis. The clinical symptoms of the patients were classified and the morphological changes of condylar head, articular eminence, and articular fossa were analyzed and discussed from radiographic view point. The positional change of condylar head and articular fossa relation in TMJ arthrosis were observed. The frequencies of coincidence between the site of complaints and the site of the abnormal images which could be detected were examined. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Bone erosion, deformity, marginal proliferation and sclerosis were selected from many abnormal images as the radiographic diagnostic criteria of TMJ arthritic lesions. 2. Abnormal radiographic findings were revealed in 150 cases (73.9%) of 205 total TMJ arthrosis cases and site with abnormal findings coincided with the site of complaints in 105 cases (70.7%) of 150 cases and coincidence rates were higher above fourth decades than below third decades. 3. Sclerosis of the abnormal radiographic findings could be found more often below third decades than above fourth decades. 4. The positional changes of condylar head were revealed in 176 cases (85.9%) of 205 total cases. 5. Pain complaints were revealed in 170 cases(82.9%) and clicking sounds were revealed in 120 cases (58.6%) of clinical symptoms of TMJ arthrosis. 6. No tendency was found so far the differential diagnosis between pain dysfunction syndrome and osteoarthrosis of TMJ.

  1. Radiographic scanner apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wake, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The preferred embodiment of this invention includes a hardware system, or processing means, which operates faster than software. Moreover the computer needed is less expensive and smaller. Radiographic scanner apparatus is described for measuring the intensity of radiation after passage through a planar region and for reconstructing a representation of the attenuation of radiation by the medium. There is a source which can be rotated, and detectors, the output from which forms a data line. The detectors are disposed opposite the planar region from the source to produce a succession of data lines corresponding to the succession of angular orientations of the source. There is a convolver means for convolving each of these data lines, with a filter function, and a means of processing the convolved data lines to create the representation of the radiation attenuation in the planar region. There is also apparatus to generate a succession of data lines indicating radiation attenuation along a determinable path with convolver means. (U.K.)

  2. Black Lung Benefits Act: standards for chest radiographs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-17

    Physicians and adjudicators use chest radiographs (X-rays) as a tool in evaluating whether a coal miner suffers from pneumoconiosis (black lung disease). Accordingly, the Department's regulations implementing the Black Lung Benefits Act allow the submission of radiographs in connection with benefit claims and set out quality standards for administering and interpreting film-based chest radiographs. This final rule updates the Department's existing film-radiograph standards and provides parallel standards for digital radiographs. This rule also updates outdated terminology and removes certain obsolete provisions.

  3. Automatic Cobb Angle Determination From Radiographic Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardjono, Tri Arief; Wilkinson, Michael H. F.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Purnama, Ketut E.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. Automatic measurement of Cobb angle in patients with scoliosis. Objective. To test the accuracy of an automatic Cobb angle determination method from frontal radiographical images. Summary of Background Data. Thirty-six frontal radiographical images of patients with scoliosis. Methods.

  4. Reflections on the role of consultant radiographers in the UK: What is a consultant radiographer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.; Henwood, S.; Miller, P.

    2016-01-01

    Context: This paper is the second paper from a two year in depth case study, exploring the role of consultant radiographers in the UK. Methods: A longitudinal case study approach was used to determine the role of consultant radiographers. Interviews were used to explore experiences of being a consultant, which were analysed using thematic analysis. Eight consultant radiographers participated (Note, two of the consultants withdrew after the first interview due to workload). Therefore two consultants were interviewed only once. The remaining six consultants were interviewed twice over a 12 month period. Findings: The data presented in this paper explores the nature of the role, differences between roles, the four domains of practice, and how the role fits into local organisational structures. The study shows wide variation in the types of roles undertaken, reflecting that the creation of these roles were in response to local clinical need and often related to an individual practitioner's skills. The broad scope of the role was shown across all the consultants, with evidence of roles developing into new areas of service delivery. Conclusions: The paper offers insight into the role(s) of consultant radiographers in the UK. The range and scope of their practice is extensive, with much variation. It is evident that the clinical aspect of the role dominates, with research being the least supported domain of practice. There remains a lack of clarity around the role, with concerns about remuneration and other limitations that may restrict the role developing further. - Highlights: • This paper shows the variation in roles between consultant radiographers. • The commonality with medical roles is highlighted. • Problem solving is identified as a core skill in consultant radiography. • Consultants offered evidence of the roles developing service provision. • While all four domains of practice are covered, research is the least well supported.

  5. The one-leg standing radiograph

    OpenAIRE

    Pinsornsak, P.; Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis wa...

  6. Film holder for radiographing tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.V.; Foster, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    A film cassette is described which may be easily placed about tubing or piping and readily held in place while radiographic inspection is performed. A pair of precurved light-impervious semi-rigid plastic sheets, hinged at one edge, enclose sheet film together with any metallic foils or screens. Other edges are made light-tight with removable caps, and the entire unit is held securely about the object to be radiographed with a releasable fastener such as a strip of Velcro

  7. Film holder for radiographing tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Earl V.; Foster, Billy E.

    1976-01-01

    A film cassette is provided which may be easily placed about tubing or piping and readily held in place while radiographic inspection is performed. A pair of precurved light-impervious semi-rigid plastic sheets, hinged at one edge, enclose sheet film together with any metallic foils or screens. Other edges are made light-tight with removable caps, and the entire unit is held securely about the object to be radiographed with a releasable fastener such as a strip of Velcro.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of barium enemas performed by radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lorraine; Desai, Sharad

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To assess the cost-effectiveness of barium enemas performed by radiographers compared to those performed by consultant radiologists. METHOD: Prospective study of 200 barium enemas carried out by a senior radiographer and a consultant radiologist. The sample was a consecutive sample of adult out-patients over a 3-month period, with no exclusion. The length of time of the enema and the numbers and grades of staff involved in the procedure were recorded. This was translated into staffing costs using the appropriate pay scales. RESULTS: The barium enemas performed by the superintendent radiographer were more cost-effective than those performed by the consultant radiologist (1406 pounds for 100 radiographer-performed barium enemas compared to 1787 pounds for 100 carried out by the consultant radiologist). CONCLUSION: In terms of staffing costs, radiographers performing barium enemas not only liberates radiologist time, it is also a cost-effective method of providing an out-patient barium enema service. Brown, L. and Desai, S. (2002)

  9. Neutron radiographic findings in light water reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1979-06-01

    The assessment of neutron radiographs of nuclear fuel elements can be much easier, faster and simpler if reference can be made to typical defects, which can be revealed by neutron radiography. In other fields of industrial radiography collections of reference radiographs, showing typical defects in welding, or casting have been completed and published long ago. Since 1974 neutron radiography is routinely used at Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark, for the quality and performance control of nuclear fuel. About 2000 neutron radiographs were taken, mainly during the post irradiation examination of light water reactor fuel. During assessment of neutron radiographs some typical defects of the fuel were found and it was felt that a classification of such defects will help to speed up the assessment procedure. Therefore an attempt was made to establish such a classification, which is currently used at Risoe now. This classification is presented in this atlas, which contains 36 neutron radiographs reproduced on film (in original size) and on paper (twice enlarged). (author)

  10. Radiographers' performance in chest X-ray interpretation: the Nigerian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbe, N O; Akpan, B E

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the performance of Nigerian radiographers in interpretation of plain chest radiographs and to assess whether age, years since qualification and sector of practice are associated with performance. Methods: A test set of 50 radiographs containing 23 cases with no pathology (normal) and 27 abnormal cases (cardiopulmonary conditions) independently confirmed by 3 radiologists were presented to 51 radiographers in a random order. Readers independently evaluated radiographs for absence or presence of disease and stated the location, radiographic features and diagnosis. Readers self-reported their age, years since qualification and sector of practice. Receiver operating characteristic was used to assess the performance. Mann–Whitney U test was used to assess whether age, years since qualification and sector of practice were associated with performance. Results: Mean location sensitivity was 88.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.787–0.980]. Mean sensitivity and specificity were 76.9 (95% CI, 0.658–0.864) and 79.8 (95% CI, 0.658–0.864), respectively. Age was not associated with performance (p = 0.07). Number of years qualified as radiographer (p = 0.005) and private practice (p = 0.004) were positively associated with performance. Conclusion: Nigerian radiographers can correctly report chest radiographs to a reasonable standard, and performance is associated with number of years since qualification and the sector of practice. Advances in knowledge: There are less than 300 radiologists serving a Nigerian population of about 170 million; therefore, X-ray interpretation by radiographers deserves consideration. Nigerian radiographers have potential to interpret chest X-ray in the clinical setting, and this may significantly improve radiology service delivery in this region. PMID:25966290

  11. Radiographic arthrosis after elbow trauma: interobserver reliability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenhovius, A.; Karanicolas, P.J.; Bhandari, M.; Ring, D.; Kampen, A. van; et al.,

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study measured observer variation in radiographic rating of elbow arthrosis. METHODS: Thirty-seven independent orthopedic surgeons graded the extent of elbow arthrosis in 20 consecutive sets of plain radiographs, according to the Broberg and Morrey rating system (grade 0, normal joint;

  12. Radiographic Arthrosis After Elbow Trauma: Interobserver Reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenhovius, Anneluuk; Karanicolas, Paul Jack; Bhandari, Mohit; Ring, David; Allan, Cristopher; Axelrod, Terry; Baratz, Mark; Beingessner, Daphne; Cassidy, Charles; Coles, Chad; Conflitti, Joe; Rocca, Gregory Della; van Dijk, C. Niek; Elmans, L. H. G. J.; Feibe, Roger; Frihagen, Frede; Gosens, Taco; Greenberg, Jeffrey; Grosso, Elena; Harness, Neil; van der Heide, Huub; Jeray, Kyle; Kalainov, David; van Kampen, Albert; Kawamura, Sumito; Kloen, Peter; McCormac, Bob; McKee, Michael; Page, Richard; Pesantez, Rodrigo; Peters, Anil; Petrisor, Brad; Poolman, Rudolf; Richardson, Martin; Seiler, John; Swiontkowski, Marc; Trumble, Thomas; Wright, Thomas; Zalavras, Charalampos; Zura, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study measured observer variation in radiographic rating of elbow arthrosis. Methods Thirty-seven independent orthopedic surgeons graded the extent of elbow arthrosis in 20 consecutive sets of plain radiographs, according to the Broberg and Morrey rating system (grade 0, normal joint;

  13. Radiographic abnormalities in tricyclic acid overdose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnell, R.M.; Richardson, M.L.; Vincent, J.M.; Godwin, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Several case reports have described adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to tricyclic acid (TCA) overdose. During a 1-year period 83 patients requiring intubation secondary to drug overdose were evaluated. Abnormalities on chest radiographs occurred in 26 (50%) of the 54 patients with TCA overdose, compared to six (21%) of the 29 patients overdosed with other drugs. In addition, five (9%) of the patients with TCA overdose subsequently had radiographic and clinical abnormalities meeting the criteria for ARDS. Only one (3%) of the patients with non-TCA overdose subsequently had change suggesting ARDS. TCAs should be added to the list of drugs associated with ARDS, and TCA overdose should be considered a major risk factor in the development of radiographically evident abnormalities

  14. Opportunistic esophagitis in AIDS: Radiographic diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.S.; Woldenberg, R.; Herlinger, H.; Laufer, I.

    1987-01-01

    Between 1983 and 1986, 35 of 90 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had double-contrast esophagograms to rule out opportunistic esophagitis. The radiographs were reviewed without knowledge of the clinical or endoscopic findings. Candida esophagitis was diagnosed radiographically in 17 patients who had varying degrees of plaque formation and viral esophagitis in three who had discrete ulcers without plaques. All three patients with viral esophagitis (herpes in 2 and cytomegalo virus in one) and 15 of 17 with Candida esophagitis had endoscopic and/or clinical corroboration of the radiographic diagnosis. Thus, the authors' experience suggests that fungal and viral esophagitis can often be differentiated on double-contrast esophagography, so that appropriate antifungal or antiviral therapy can be instituted without need for endoscopic intervention

  15. Radiographic features of appendiceal colic in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schisgall, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of appendiceal colic was introduced in 1980 to explain the common problem of recurrent crampy abdominal pain (RAP) in children. Children with appendiceal colic often have inspissated casts of stool as foreign bodies of the appendix. The radiographic findings of 115 children operated upon for appendiceal colic have been reviewed. The radiographic features of this syndrom have included: filling defects of the appendix (83% incidence of inspissated casts of stool within the appendix); partial filling of the appendix (44% incidence of fecal casts); retained barium behind 72 h (92% incidence of fecal casts blocking egress of barium); non-visualization of the appendix (42% incidence of fecal casts); and distention of the appendix (100% incidence of fecal casts). The correlation of radiographic and operative findings will be presented. A rational approach to the radiographic workup of a child with RAP will be presented. (orig.)

  16. General radiographic attributes of optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters: A basic insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Y.; Hashim, S.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Bradley, D. A.; Ahmad, N. E.; Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, A.; Kadir, A. B. A.

    2018-06-01

    We report the ubiquitous radiographic characteristics of optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLD) so called nanoDot OSLDs (Landauer Inc., Glendwood, IL). The X-ray irradiations were performed in free air ambiance to inspect the repeatability, the reproducibility, the signal depletion, the element correction factors (ECFs), the dose response and the energy dependence. Repeatability of multiple readouts after single irradiation to 10 mGy revealed a coefficient of variation below 3%, while the reproducibility in repeated irradiation-readout-annealing cycles was above 2%. The OSL signal depletion for three nanoDots with simultaneous irradiation to 20 mGy and sequential readouts of 25 times displayed a consistent signal reduction ≈0.5% per readout with R2 values over 0.98. ECFs for individual OSLDs were varied from 0.97 to 1.03. In the entire dose range under 80 kV, a good linearity with an R2 exceeding 0.99 was achieved. Besides, the percentage difference between OSLD and ion-chamber dose was less than 5%, which was superior to TLD. The X-ray photon irradiated energy response factors (between 0.76 and 1.12) in the range of 40-150 kV (26.1-61.2 keV) exhibited significant energy dependence. Indeed, the nanoDot OSLDs disclosed good repeatability, reproducibility and linearity. The OSLDs measured doses were closer to ion-chamber doses than that of TLD. It can be further improved up to ≈3% by applying the individual dosimeter ECF. On top, the energy dependent uncertainties can be minimized using the energy correction factors. It is established that the studied nanoDot OSLDs are prospective for measuring entrance dose in general radiographic practices.

  17. Radiographic diagnoses and treatment decisions on approximal caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espelid, I.

    1987-01-01

    Mineral loss which represents a threshold value for radiographic diagnosis, cannot be defined exactly. For clinical use 10% mineral loss in the direction of the X-ray beam may constitute a border line lesion for radiographic detection, and caries lesions without cavitation seemed to be beyond this diagnostic threshold. The degree of caries estimated by using radiographs is fairly closely related to the depth of the tissue changes recorded in the prepared cavity. Radiographic examinations more often lead to underestimation than overestimation of the degree of caries. Radiographic caries diagnoses made at different degrees of penetration toward the pulp showed insignificant variations with respect to quality, but the observers were more confident of caries being present (used more strict criterion) when they scored caries in inner dentin. Consensus on diagnostic criteria and improved diagnostic quality are considerably more important to the quality of therapeutic decisions on approximal caries than viewing conditions and film density. A semi-radiopaque material in Class II fillings seems to offer advantages compared to amalgam in respect of the diagnosis of secondary caries and marginal defects. There is a danger that dentists will restore approximal caries lesions too early and before these can be diagnosed in dentin radiographically

  18. Atlas of Radiographic Features of Osteoarthritis of the Ankle and Hindfoot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Virginia Byers; Kilfoil, Terrence M; Hash, Thomas W.; McDaniel, Gary; Renner, Jordan B; Carrino, John A.; Adams, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a radiographic atlas of osteoarthritis (OA) for use as a template and guide for standardized scoring of radiographic features of OA of the ankle and hindfoot joints. Method Under Institutional Review Board approval, ankle and hindfoot images were selected from a cohort study and from among cases that underwent ankle radiography during a 6-month period at Duke University Medical Center. Missing OA pathology was obtained through supplementation of cases with the assistance of a foot and ankle specialist in Orthopaedic surgery and a musculoskeletal radiologist. Images were obtained and reviewed without patient identifying information. Images went through multiple rounds of review and final images were selected by consensus of the study team. For intra-rater and inter-rater reliability, the kappa statistic was calculated for two readings by 3 musculoskeletal radiologists, a minimum of two weeks apart, of ankle and hindfoot radiographs from 30 anonymized subjects. Results The atlas demonstrates individual radiographic features (osteophyte and joint space narrowing) and Kellgren Lawrence grade for all aspects of the talocrural (ankle joint proper) and talocalcaneal (subtalar) joints. Reliability of scoring based on the atlas was quite good to excellent for most features indicated. Additional examples of ankle joint findings are illustrated including sclerosis, os trigonum, subchondral cysts and talar tilt. Conclusions It is anticipated that this atlas will assist with standardization of scoring of ankle and hindfoot OA by basic and clinical OA researchers. PMID:26318654

  19. Atlas of radiographic features of osteoarthritis of the ankle and hindfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, V B; Kilfoil, T M; Hash, T W; McDaniel, G; Renner, J B; Carrino, J A; Adams, S

    2015-12-01

    To develop a radiographic atlas of osteoarthritis (OA) for use as a template and guide for standardized scoring of radiographic features of OA of the ankle and hindfoot joints. Under Institutional Review Board approval, ankle and hindfoot images were selected from a cohort study and from among cases that underwent ankle radiography during a 6-month period at Duke University Medical Center. Missing OA pathology was obtained through supplementation of cases with the assistance of a foot and ankle specialist in Orthopaedic surgery and a musculoskeletal radiologist. Images were obtained and reviewed without patient identifying information. Images went through multiple rounds of review and final images were selected by consensus of the study team. For intra-rater and inter-rater reliability, the kappa statistic was calculated for two readings by three musculoskeletal radiologists, a minimum of two weeks apart, of ankle and hindfoot radiographs from 30 anonymized subjects. The atlas demonstrates individual radiographic features (osteophyte and joint space narrowing (JSN)) and Kellgren-Lawrence grade for all aspects of the talocrural (ankle joint proper) and talocalcaneal (subtalar) joints. Reliability of scoring based on the atlas was quite good to excellent for most features indicated. Additional examples of ankle joint findings are illustrated including sclerosis, os trigonum, subchondral cysts and talar tilt. It is anticipated that this atlas will assist with standardization of scoring of ankle and hindfoot OA by basic and clinical OA researchers. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of a radiographic scoring technique for the assessment of dogs with elbow osteochondrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, S.

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study was made of 335 dogs with elbow osteochondrosis that had been seen at the Royal Veterinary College in 1977 to 1987. The most commonly affected breeds were the labrador, retriever and rottweiler. Males were affected more often than females. The condition was bilateral in 50 per cent of cases and the peak age for the onset of lameness was four to six months. In rottweilers, the lesions found at exploratory arthrotomy were predominantly abnormalities of the coronoid process, while in retrievers and labradors lesions most commonly affected the medial humeral condyle or the coronoid process. A scoring system for grading the standard projection (lateral and postero-anterior) radiographs was devised and the score was correlated with the lesion found at surgery. Some cases were reviewed radiographically and any alteration in the degree of periarticular arthrosis, seen as an increase in radiographic score, was noted. The exact extent of the lesion found at surgery was recorded diagrammatically in 65 cases. It did not prove possible to predict from the radiographic score the nature and extent of the lesion and no correlation could be found between the radiographic score [and clinical degree of lameness. The scoring system did have some merit for reviewing cases because an increase in score indicated the extent to which joint changes had advanced

  1. Comparative analysis of human and bovine teeth: radiographic density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luis Oshiro Tanaka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since bovine teeth have been used as substitutes for human teeth in in vitro dental studies, the aim of this study was to compare the radiographic density of bovine teeth with that of human teeth to evaluate their usability for radiographic studies. Thirty bovine and twenty human teeth were cut transversally in 1 millimeter-thick slices. The slices were X-rayed using a digital radiographic system and an intraoral X-ray machine at 65 kVp and 7 mA. The exposure time (0.08 s and the target-sensor distance (40 cm were standardized for all the radiographs. The radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin of each slice were obtained separately using the "histogram" tool of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The mean radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin were calculated by the arithmetic mean of the slices of each tooth. One-way ANOVA demonstrated statistically significant differences for the densities of bovine and human enamel (p 0.05. Based on the results, the authors concluded that: a the radiographic density of bovine enamel is significantly higher than that of human enamel; b the radiodensity of bovine coronal dentin is statistically lower than the radiodensity of human coronal dentin; bovine radicular dentin is also less radiodense than human radicular dentin, although this difference was not statistically significant; c bovine teeth should be used with care in radiographic in vitro studies.

  2. Reliability of radiographic parameters in adults with hip dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terjesen, Terje [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Department of Orthopaedics, Oslo (Norway); Gunderson, Ragnhild B. [Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Department of Radiology, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-07-15

    To assess the reliability of radiographic measurements in adults previously treated for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and to clarify whether these parameters differ according to position of the patient (supine versus standing). Fifty-one patients (41 females and 10 males) with 63 affected hips were included in the study. The mean follow-up period was 45 (44-49) years in the patients who had not undergone total hip replacement (THR). Anteroposterior radiographs of the pelvis were taken with the patient in the supine and in the standing position. Measurements used for residual hip dysplasia were center-edge (CE) angle and migration percentage (MP). The joint space width (JSW) was measured at three or four locations of the upper, weight-bearing part of the joint, and the shortest distance was termed the minimum joint space width (minJSW). One radiologist and one orthopaedic surgeon, each with more than 30 years of experience, independently measured the radiographic parameters. The limits of agreement (LOA) of the CE angle (mean interobserver difference {+-} 2SD) were within the range -8 to 7 . The LOA of the MP were in the range -8 to 8% and of the minJSW -0.6 to 1.1 mm. The mean differences in CE angle between supine and standing radiographs (supine - standing) ranged from -1.1 to 0.0 and the mean differences in MP between supine and standing positions were below 1%. The mean positional differences in minJSW were below 0.1 mm and were not statistically significant. The interobserver variations with regard to CE angle, MP, and minJSW were moderate, indicating that these are reliable measurements in clinical practice. Femoral head coverage and JSW did not significantly differ between supine and weight-bearing positions. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of osteoporosis using conventional radiographic methods and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anburajan, M.

    2001-01-01

    In India, conventional radiographs play a major part in evaluating osteoporosis since advanced bone densitometers are expensive and not widely available. Our aim in this study was to investigate the usefulness of conventional radiographic methods, viz., clavicle and metacarpal radiogrammetry, quantitative vertebral morphometry, Singh's index, hip geometry compared to a sophisticated method, viz., DXA for studying osteoporosis in south Indian men (n=663) and women (n=741). This study provides data on BMD of the proximal femur in normal south Indian females. In women, aged above 65 years, BMD of femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward's triangle decreased by 0.90%, 0.84%, and 1.66% per annum, respectively. In 45 pre- and post-menopausal women without fractures, total hip BMD correlated significantly ( p 2 =0.47), medial cortical thickness of the femoral shaft (r 2 =0.38) and neck (r 2 =0.29), combined cortical thickness (CCT) and %CCT of the clavicle (r 2 =0.54 each), and the second metacarpal (r 2 =0.51 and r 2 =0.53, respectively). On comparing variables studied for osteoporotic women with corresponding values in the premenopausal group, the average difference in SD from the mean was greatest for clavicle radiogrammetry (-3.7 SD for %CCT of the clavicle). An empirical formula for predicting total hip BMD with good sensitivity was derived from a multiple linear regression equation involving three independent variables, viz., CCT, %CCT of the clavicle (measured from the chest radiograph) and the patient's age. This author's equation, with modified weightings, has 82% sensitivity and 94% specificity and a positive and negative predictive value of 88% and 91% respectively. A chest radiograph in combination with the formula would serve as a readily available, inexpensive tool for assessing post-menopausal osteoporosis, especially in developing countries

  4. Effects of Edentulism on Mandibular Morphology: Evaluation of Panoramic Radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Okşayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The objective of this study was to evaluate morphological changes of the mandible in edentulous and dentate subjects using panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods. Panoramic radiographs were divided into the following three groups: Group I (completely edentulous group, Group II (old dentate group and Group III (young dentate group. The research parameters of gonial angle, condylar height, ramus height, ramus notch depth, and antegonial notch depth were measured on panoramic radiographs. The Kruskal-Wallis statistical test was used to determine significant differences in mandibular morphological parameters among the three groups. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the subgroups. Results. Significant differences were found only in ramus height between three groups. According to the Mann-Whitney U test, a significant difference was exhibited among Groups I and II in the ramus height parameter. No significant differences were found in the gonial angle, condylar height, ramus notch depth, or antegonial notch depth when comparing the young dentate, old dentate, and completely edentulous subjects. Conclusions. Significant differences were found only in ramus height between the groups. Ramus height may be an indicator that changed by years and tooth loss. It must be considered that ramus height can be decreased in edentulism.

  5. Digitization of radiographic inspection for pipeline girth welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, Shimpei

    2016-01-01

    In radiographic inspection for the girth welded joints of natural gas pipeline, film radiographic testing (FRT) is applied presently in Japan. However, as of July 2016, the work of establishing JIS standard for radiographic inspection with digital detector is in progress. In order to provide users with the merit of digitization as soon as possible, the authors have developed NSDART (Nittetsu-Sumikin digital detector array technology) as a field X-ray inspection system for the girth welded joints of pipeline. This paper reports the required performances discussed in face of development of NSDART, selection of digital detector, and outline of NSDART, and shows part of the radiographic images acquired with NSDART. As required performances, the following were established: (1) required image quality for radiographic image, (2) identifiable minimum wire diameter of transmission meter, (3) density range of radiographic image and value of gradation meter, (4) spatial resolution via Duplex Wire, (5) X-ray generator, (6) real time performance, and (7) display for observing radiographic image. As for the selection of digital detector, flat panel detector was judged to be the most suitable, and its incorporation to NSDART was determined. NSDART devices are composed of a magnet-wheeled self-propelled imaging device, personal computer, controller, and externally installed display for judgment. (A.O.)

  6. Potentialities of fluorography in radiographic testing of nuclear power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, Yu.V.; Kapustin, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    Results of fluorography of steel 5-250 mm thick with the application of different radiation sources in accordance with existing test requirements and standards for NPP equipment under industrial conditions, are presented. Sensitivity curves of fluorographic and radiographic testing methods using the RUP-150/300-10 X-ray device, LUEh-15-15000 D linear accelerator flaw detectors with 192 Yr, 60 Co, 137 Cs sources, are given. The radiation energy range is 24O keV-8 MeV. It is shown that fluorographic method meets the requirements of sensitivity and is recommended to test welded joints 5-220 mm thick in NPP equipment under laboratory and industrial conditions

  7. Normal radiographic findings. 4. act. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.

    2003-01-01

    This book can serve the reader in three ways: First, it presents normal findings for all radiographic techniques including KM. Important data which are criteria of normal findings are indicated directly in the pictures and are also explained in full text and in summary form. Secondly, it teaches the systematics of interpreting a picture - how to look at it, what structures to regard in what order, and for what to look in particular. Checklists are presented in each case. Thirdly, findings are formulated in accordance with the image analysis procedure. All criteria of normal findings are defined in these formulations, which make them an important didactic element. (orig.)

  8. Advanced and extended scope practice of diagnostic radiographers in Scotland: Exploring strategic imaging service imperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, I; Mathers, S A; McConnell, J

    2017-08-01

    The development of diagnostic imaging services manifests features specific to the Scottish environment, in particular development of the radiographic workforce through implementing skills mix and role developments to enhance outcomes for patients. A component of a College of Radiographers Industry Partnership Scheme (CoRIPS) supported study, this research investigates perspectives of strategic service managers with Health Board responsibility for service delivery. A questionnaire survey was administered to strategic service managers across Scotland (N = 14), followed up with telephone interviews. There was a return rate of 57% (n = 8) for the questionnaires and n = 4 agreed to be interviewed. Data collected related to radiographer roles across their Board area; awareness and understanding of service development issues and features as well as perspective on opportunities and barriers in the context of Scottish Government policy, workforce logistics, attitudes and inter-professional relationships. The results indicate evidence of financial, logistical and political barriers to service evolution, offset by a sense of optimism that scope for beneficial change may be approaching. There are a range of significant initiatives in place and an appetite exists to pursue the development of radiographer roles and skill mix for the benefit of service users more generally. The difficulties in achieving change are well understood and there are basic issues related to finance and industrial relations. There are also however, cultural elements to contend with in the form of attitudes demonstrated by some radiographers and significantly, the radiological community whose influence on the practice of independently regulated radiographers seems incongruent. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiographic evaluation of caudal vena cava size in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmkuhl, L.B.; Bonagura, J.D.; Biller, D.S.; Hartman, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    Dilation of the caudal vena cava (CVC) on lateral thoracic radiographs is often interpreted as suggestive of right-sided congestive heart failure, To quantitate the clinical utility of evaluating CVC size as an indicator of right-sided heart disease, we compared the ratio of the diameter of the CVC as measured on a left lateral thoracic radiograph to the descending aorta (Ao), length of the thoracic vertebra above the tracheal bifurcation (VL), and width of the right fourth rib (R4) in 35 dogs with right heart disease and 35 control dogs, Each CVC ratio(CVC/Ao, CVC/VL, CVC/R4) was statistically larger in dogs with right heart disease, Response operating characteristic curves and likelihood ratios were used to determine ratios helpful in identifying dogs with right heart disease. A CVC/Ao > 1.50, CVC/VL > 1.30, or CVC/R4 > 3.50 are strongly suggestive of a right-sided heart abnormality in a patient

  10. Commitment of the radiographer - does it matter to the patient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blagoeva, D.; Shuleva, L.; Goudeva, V.; Stoinova, V.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Radiographers are responsible for providing safe and accurate imaging examinations in a wide range of clinical environments, using a variety of imaging modalities and techniques so that appropriate management and treatment of patients and clients can proceed. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss: the responsibilities of radiographer in the clinical radiology department; their professional judgment to decide how to achieve a diagnostic outcome; the relationship patient/radiographer; the impact of the radiographer on patient care. Patient care and advocacy has always been an integral part of the radiography profession. The radiographer should respect the patient at all the times, be genuine in nature and empathies with the patient‘s condition. Good listening and observational skills are also very important components. The radiographers are personally accountable for their work and professional conduct

  11. Chest Radiographic Findings in Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five hundred newly diagnosed cases of Pulmonary Tuberculosis were treated with directly observed short-course treatment and 100 of them had chest radiographic examination done. The various chest radiographic patterns in the 100 subjects were studied and included: Fluffy exudative changes 80(80%), fibrosis 70(70%) ...

  12. Development Of A Dynamic Radiographic Capability Using High-Speed Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence E.

    1985-02-01

    High-speed video equipment can be used to optically image up to 2,000 full frames per second or 12,000 partial frames per second. X-ray image intensifiers have historically been used to image radiographic images at 30 frames per second. By combining these two types of equipment, it is possible to perform dynamic x-ray imaging of up to 2,000 full frames per second. The technique has been demonstrated using conventional, industrial x-ray sources such as 150 Kv and 300 Kv constant potential x-ray generators, 2.5 MeV Van de Graaffs, and linear accelerators. A crude form of this high-speed radiographic imaging has been shown to be possible with a cobalt 60 source. Use of a maximum aperture lens makes best use of the available light output from the image intensifier. The x-ray image intensifier input and output fluors decay rapidly enough to allow the high frame rate imaging. Data are presented on the maximum possible video frame rates versus x-ray penetration of various thicknesses of aluminum and steel. Photographs illustrate typical radiographic setups using the high speed imaging method. Video recordings show several demonstrations of this technique with the played-back x-ray images slowed down up to 100 times as compared to the actual event speed. Typical applications include boiling type action of liquids in metal containers, compressor operation with visualization of crankshaft, connecting rod and piston movement and thermal battery operation. An interesting aspect of this technique combines both the optical and x-ray capabilities to observe an object or event with both external and internal details with one camera in a visual mode and the other camera in an x-ray mode. This allows both kinds of video images to appear side by side in a synchronized presentation.

  13. Development of a dynamic radiographic capability using high-speed video

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, L.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    High-speed video equipment can be used to optically image up to 2000 full frames per second or 12,000 partial frames per second. X-ray image intensifiers have historically been used to image radiographic images at 30 frames per second. By combining these two types of equipment, it is possible to perform dynamic x-ray imaging of up to 2,000 full frames per second. The technique has been demonstrated using conventional, industrial x-ray sources such as 150 kV and 300 kV constant potential x-ray generators, 2.5 MeV Van de Graaffs, and linear accelerators. A crude form of this high-speed radiographic imaging has been shown to be possible with a cobalt 60 source. Use of a maximum aperture lens makes best use of the available light output from the image intensifier. The x-ray image intensifier input and output fluors decay rapidly enough to allow the high frame rate imaging. Data are presented on the maximum possible video frame rates versus x-ray penetration of various thicknesses of aluminum and steel. Photographs illustrate typical radiographic setups using the high speed imaging method. Video recordings show several demonstrations of this technique with the played-back x-ray images slowed down up to 100 times as compared to the actual event speed. Typical applications include boiling type action of liquids in metal containers, compressor operation with visualization of crankshaft, connecting rod and piston movement and thermal battery operation. An interesting aspect of this technique combines both the optical and x-ray capabilities to observe an object or event with both external and internal details with one camera in a visual mode and the other camera in an x-ray mode. This allows both kinds of video images to appear side by side in a synchronized presentation

  14. Automated characterization of perceptual quality of clinical chest radiographs: Validation and calibration to observer preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samei, Ehsan; Lin, Yuan; Choudhury, Kingshuk R.; Page McAdams, H.

    2014-01-01

    . Results: The observer study indicated that, for each image quality attribute, the averaged observer ranking strongly correlated with the algorithmic ranking (linear correlation coefficient R > 0.92), with highest correlation (R = 1) for lung gray level and the lowest (R = 0.92) for mediastinum noise. There was a strong concordance between the observers in terms of their rankings (i.e., Kendall’s tau agreement > 0.84). The observers also generally indicated similar tolerance and preference levels in terms of acceptable ranges, as 85% of the values were close to the overall tolerance or preference levels and the differences were smaller than 0.15. Conclusions: The observer study indicates that the previously proposed technique provides a robust reflection of the perceptual image quality in clinical images. The results established the range of algorithmic outputs for each metric that can be used to quantitatively assess and qualify the appearance quality of clinical chest radiographs

  15. Automated characterization of perceptual quality of clinical chest radiographs: Validation and calibration to observer preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samei, Ehsan, E-mail: samei@duke.edu [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Departments of Radiology, Physics, Biomedical Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke Clinical Imaging Physics Group, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Lin, Yuan [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Departments of Radiology and Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Choudhury, Kingshuk R. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology and Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Page McAdams, H. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    . Results: The observer study indicated that, for each image quality attribute, the averaged observer ranking strongly correlated with the algorithmic ranking (linear correlation coefficient R > 0.92), with highest correlation (R = 1) for lung gray level and the lowest (R = 0.92) for mediastinum noise. There was a strong concordance between the observers in terms of their rankings (i.e., Kendall’s tau agreement > 0.84). The observers also generally indicated similar tolerance and preference levels in terms of acceptable ranges, as 85% of the values were close to the overall tolerance or preference levels and the differences were smaller than 0.15. Conclusions: The observer study indicates that the previously proposed technique provides a robust reflection of the perceptual image quality in clinical images. The results established the range of algorithmic outputs for each metric that can be used to quantitatively assess and qualify the appearance quality of clinical chest radiographs.

  16. Radiographic features of bisphosphonate therapy in pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grissom, L.E.; Theodore Harcke, H. [Dept. of Medical Imaging, Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Nemours Children' s Clinic, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Background: Pediatric patients are being treated with bisphosphonates for low bone mineral density. Skeletal radiographic findings have been described with bisphosphonates given orally and intravenously. Objective: To determine and describe the radiographic findings of cyclic intravenous bisphosphonate therapy in the growing skeleton. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of radiographs of 32 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta or cerebral palsy treated with intravenous bisphosphonates on a quarterly schedule. Results: Principal observations were metaphyseal bands and increased bone mineral density. The bands varied in spacing according to the age of the patient, rate of growth, and the location of the metaphysis. Fractures continued to be seen in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. Conclusion: Cyclic bisphosphonate therapy results in distinctive radiographic findings in the growing skeleton. (orig.)

  17. Radiographic features of bisphosphonate therapy in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grissom, L.E.; Theodore Harcke, H.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Pediatric patients are being treated with bisphosphonates for low bone mineral density. Skeletal radiographic findings have been described with bisphosphonates given orally and intravenously. Objective: To determine and describe the radiographic findings of cyclic intravenous bisphosphonate therapy in the growing skeleton. Materials and methods: Retrospective review of radiographs of 32 patients with osteogenesis imperfecta or cerebral palsy treated with intravenous bisphosphonates on a quarterly schedule. Results: Principal observations were metaphyseal bands and increased bone mineral density. The bands varied in spacing according to the age of the patient, rate of growth, and the location of the metaphysis. Fractures continued to be seen in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta. Conclusion: Cyclic bisphosphonate therapy results in distinctive radiographic findings in the growing skeleton. (orig.)

  18. Equipment for fully automatic radiographic pipe inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basler, G.; Sperl, H.; Weinschenk, K.

    1977-01-01

    The patent describes a device for fully automatic radiographic testing of large pipes with longitudinal welds. Furthermore the invention enables automatic marking of films in radiographic inspection with regard to a ticketing of the test piece and of that part of it where testing took place. (RW) [de

  19. Reestablishment of radiographic kidney size in Miniature Schnauzer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jungmin; Yun, Sookyung; Lee, Jeosoon; Chang, Dongwoo; Choi, Mincheol; Yoon, Junghee

    2017-01-10

    Kidney size may be altered in renal diseases, and the detection of kidney size alteration has diagnostic and prognostic values. We hypothesized that radiographic kidney size, the kidney length to the second lumbar vertebra (L2) length ratio, in normal Miniature Schnauzer dogs may be overestimated due to their shorter vertebral length. This study was conducted to evaluate radiographic and ultrasonographic kidney size and L2 length in clinically normal Miniature Schnauzers and other dog breeds to evaluate the effect of vertebral length on radiographic kidney size and to reestablish radiographic kidney size in normal Miniature Schnauzers. Abdominal radiographs and ultrasonograms from 49 Miniature Schnauzers and 54 other breeds without clinical evidence of renal disease and lumbar vertebral abnormality were retrospectively evaluated. Radiographic kidney size, in the Miniature Schnauzer (3.31 ± 0.26) was significantly larger than that in other breeds (2.94 ± 0.27). Relative L2 length, the L2 length to width ratio, in the Miniature Schnauzer (1.11 ± 0.06) was significantly shorter than that in other breeds (1.21 ± 0.09). However, ultrasonographic kidney sizes, kidney length to aorta diameter ratios, were within or very close to normal range both in the Miniature Schnauzer (6.75 ± 0.67) and other breeds (7.16 ± 1.01). Thus, Miniature Schnauzer dogs have breed-specific short vertebrae and consequently a larger radiographic kidney size, which was greater than standard reference in normal adult dogs. Care should be taken when evaluating radiographic kidney size in Miniature Schnauzers to prevent falsely diagnosed renomegaly.

  20. Acquired image quality in digital industrial radiographic equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cristiane de Queiroz; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Oliveira, Davi F.

    2008-01-01

    The computerized radiographic application in the industrial area is a recent event. The imaging plate is the equipment used as imaging receiver during the exposition radiographic technique, which consists of a flexible photostimulable phosphor screen, capable of storing the photons energy of the incident X and γ rays and of a reading unit which uses a laser device to stimulate a visible light. As two types of phosphor screen are manufactured, one for general use (General Plate - GP) and another one for specific using (High Resolution-HR), one of the objectives of this study was to evaluate the spatial resolution capability in both plates using the Kodak equipment. Furthermore, equipment from different makers, Kodak and General Electric Company - GE, were compared. Two phosphor screen HR were used as the main objective of this study. Imaging Quality Indicators - IQI were used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the images in accordance with ASME and DIN standard. The results show that after evaluating the GP and HR Kodak plates, the HR plate was capable of showing a larger resolution of details. However, after evaluating the performance of the HR Kodak plate and GE plate, over the same acquisition condition and with the same size of the laser focal set of 87 μm, the results show a superiority in the GE equipment used for industrial radiographic, mainly for processed images in each specific ambient of digital processing and its performance in meeting satisfactorily the ASME code and the DIN standard. (author)

  1. The reliability of tablet computers in depicting maxillofacial radiographic landmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadinada, Aditya; Mahdian, Mina; Sheth, Sonam; Chandhoke, Taranpreet K.; Gopalakrishna, Aadarsh; Potluri, Anitha; Yadav, Sumit [University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine, Farmington (United States)

    2015-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the reliability of the identification of anatomical landmarks in panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs on a standard medical grade picture archiving communication system (PACS) monitor and a tablet computer (iPad 5). A total of 1000 radiographs, including 500 panoramic and 500 lateral cephalometric radiographs, were retrieved from the de-identified dataset of the archive of the Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology of the University Of Connecticut School Of Dental Medicine. Major radiographic anatomical landmarks were independently reviewed by two examiners on both displays. The examiners initially reviewed ten panoramic and ten lateral cephalometric radiographs using each imaging system, in order to verify interoperator agreement in landmark identification. The images were scored on a four-point scale reflecting the diagnostic image quality and exposure level of the images. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two displays regarding the visibility and clarity of the landmarks in either the panoramic or cephalometric radiographs. Tablet computers can reliably show anatomical landmarks in panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs.

  2. Matching hand radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffman, J.A.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Bernelot Moens, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Biometric verification and identification methods of medical images can be used to find possible inconsistencies in patient records. Such methods may also be useful for forensic research. In this work we present a method for identifying patients by their hand radiographs. We use active appearance

  3. Effects of Different Viewing Conditions on Radiographic Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahkameh Moshfeghi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Optimum viewing conditions facilitate identification of radiographic details and decrease the need for retakes, patients’ costs and radiation dose. This study sought to evaluate the effects of different viewing conditions on radiographic interpretation.Materials and Methods: This diagnostic study was performed by evaluating radiograph of a 7mm-thick aluminum block, in which 10 holes with 2mm diameters were randomly drilled with depths ranging from 0.05 mm to 0.50mm. The radiograph was viewed by four oral radiologists independently under four viewing conditions, including a white light viewing light box in a lit room, yellow light viewing light box in a lit room, white light viewing light box in a dark room and yellow light viewing light box in a dark room. Number of circular shadows observed on the film was recorded. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA.Results: The mean number of detected circular shadows was 6.75, 7.5, 7.25 and 7.75 in white light viewing light box in a lit room, white light viewing light box in a dark room, yellow light viewing light box in a lit room and yellow light viewing light box in a dark room, respectively. Although the surrounding illumination had statistically significant effect on the radiographic details (P≤0.03, the light color of the viewing light box had no significant effect on visibility of the radiographic details.Conclusion: White and yellow light of the viewing light box had no significant effect on visibility of the radiographic details but more information was obtained in a dark room.

  4. Hand joint space narrowing and osteophytes are associated with magnetic resonance imaging-defined knee cartilage thickness and radiographic knee osteoarthritis: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Ida K; Cotofana, Sebastian; Englund, Martin; Kvien, Tore K; Dreher, Donatus; Nevitt, Michael; Lane, Nancy E; Eckstein, Felix

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether features of radiographic hand osteoarthritis (OA) are associated with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-defined knee cartilage thickness, radiographic knee OA, and 1-year structural progression. A total of 765 participants in Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI; 455 women, mean age 62.5 yrs, SD 9.4) obtained hand radiographs (at baseline), knee radiographs (baseline and Year 1), and knee MRI (baseline and Year 1). Hand radiographs were scored for presence of osteophytes and joint space narrowing (JSN). Knee radiographs were scored according to the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) scale. Cartilage thickness in the medial and lateral femorotibial compartments was measured quantitatively from coronal FLASHwe images. We examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between features of hand OA (total osteophyte and JSN scores) and knee cartilage thickness, 1-year knee cartilage thinning (above smallest detectable change), presence of knee OA (KL grade ≥ 3), and progression of knee OA (KL change ≥ 1) by linear and logistic regression. Both hand OA features were included in a multivariate model (if p ≤ 0.25) adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Hand JSN was associated with reduced knee cartilage thickness (ß = -0.02, 95% CI -0.03, -0.01) in the medial femorotibial compartment, while hand osteophytes were associated with the presence of radiographic knee OA (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.18; multivariate models) with both hand OA features as independent variables adjusted for age, sex, and BMI). Radiographic features of hand OA were not associated with 1-year cartilage thinning or radiographic knee OA progression. Our results support a systemic OA susceptibility and possibly different mechanisms for osteophyte formation and cartilage thinning.

  5. Effect of cigarette smoking on the detection of small radiographic opacities in inorganic dust diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.D.; Gamsu, G.

    1988-01-01

    Whether cigarette smoking can cause radiographic opacities indistinguishable from those due to pneumoconiosis remains controversial. The situation becomes clearer when one limits the abnormalities to those that can be standardized under the International Labour Office (ILO) classification system. The bulk of the evidence indicates that, using the ILO system, cigarette smoking alone is not associated with radiographic opacities that would be mistaken for pneumoconiosis with sufficient frequency to be of any practical importance. The effects of cigarette smoking, as a cofactor, in conjunction with occupational dust exposure depend on the type of dust. No relationship has been convincingly demonstrated for coal dust or silica. Only with asbestos exposure does there appear to be a significant cigarette smoking-associated increase in the frequency of irregular radiographic opacities. This increase does not appear to translate into a restrictive impairment in pulmonary function. The limited information available indicates that the features of asbestosis on high-resolution computed tomography are not similarly related to cigarette smoking. Additional research is needed to substantiate the relationship between smoking and occupational exposure to dust of many types, and also the possible imaging and pathophysiologic significance of their interactions. 47 references

  6. Use your good judgement - Radiographers' knowledge in image production work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, W.; Lundberg, N.; Hillergard, K.

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown that the demand for radiography services has markedly increased and radiographers' work has become more complex as their role has changed. More specifically, it entails new activities, new ways of communicating and new responsibilities. This means that radiographers work in new ways and need new ways to learn. The knowledge needed in this learning process is still unexplored. The aim of this study is to identify and present how radiographers use knowledge in image production work using PACS. This is explored by studying how radiographers use their knowledge in practice. The study adopts a qualitative approach, using participant observation of and semi-structured interviews with radiographers at five Swedish hospitals. To identify properties of knowledge, Blackler's theory of knowledge components was applied. The results of this study show that radiographers use the knowledge components in different situations in their image production work. They use embrained knowledge in planning X-ray examinations and in viewing images. Encoded knowledge is required for the use of various kinds of documentation, such as manuals and protocols. Embodied knowledge is action-oriented and involves 'gut feelings'. The study also illustrates that radiographers use their knowledge at different levels as routine actors or as reflective actors, in a more static way or with a flexible attitude, more unreflectively or more as critical reflectors, and finally more as performing automatic action or problem-solving action. This study concludes that radiographers need more reflective actors in the image production process when working with PACS. The study also illustrates that radiographers need to be flexible in their work; there is little room for static work. In work they need to analyze images, it is not enough to 'check them off'; they cannot just read documents, you need to interpret them to optimize work performance. Overall, radiographers need to have a critical and

  7. Radiographic evaluation of coxofemoral joint laxity in dogs part II: Comparison of stress-radiographic positioning techniques in dogs with hip dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duangdaun Kaenkangploo; Phiwipha Kamonrat; Marissak Kalpravidh

    2002-01-01

    Two stress-radiographic positioning techniques for evaluation of coxofemoral joint laxity in dogs with hip dysplasia were compared with the standard technique. Forty, healthy, large breed dogs were divided into two groups of 20 dogs. Group 1 had normal hips. Group 2 were dogs with mild to moderated grade of hip dysplasia according to the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) standard. Dogs were anesthetized and placed in dorsal recumbency before 3 radiographic techniques, standard hip-extended, 60 deg and 90 deg stress techniques, were taken. For the 60 deg stress technique, hind legs were extended in parallel to each other at 60 deg to the table top and femoral heads were manually pushed craniodorsally during exposure. For the 90 deg stress technique, femurs were positioned perpendicular to the table top, stifles were 90 deg flexed and adducted and femoral heads were manually pushed in a craniodorsal direction during exposure. Subluxation index (SI) and dorsolateral subluxation score (DLS score) of coxofemoral joints were assessed from radiographs. The SI of normal dogs from standard, 60 deg and 90 deg stress techniques were 0.15, 0.20 and 0.23 and of dysplastic dogs were 0.34, 0.40 and 0.41 respectively. The degress of subluxation assessed from the two stress technique radiographs were significantly greater (p0.05) than those shown on the standard technique radiographs in both groups of dogs. DLS scores of normal dogs from standard, 60 deg and 90 deg stress techniques were 65.1, 64.3 and 61.0 percent and of dysplastic dogs were 55.4, 53.6 and 47.6 percent respectively. Mean of DLS scores assessed from the 90 deg radiographs was significantly lower (p0.05) than those assessed from radiographs of other two teachniques in both groups of dogs. The findings suggested that the 90 deg stress technique is more efficient than the standard and 60 deg stress techniques for radiographic evaluation of coxofemoral joint laxity in dogs with mild hip dysplasia and early

  8. A descriptive study of the radiographic density of implant restorative cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, Chandur; Hess, Timothy; Faber, Thomas; Piñeyro, Alfonso; Chen, Curtis S K

    2010-05-01

    Cementation of implant prostheses is a common practice. Excess cement in the gingival sulcus may harm the periodontal tissues. Identification of the excess cement may be possible with the use of radiographs if the cement has sufficient radiopacity. The purpose of this study was to compare the radiographic density of different cements used for implant prostheses. Eight different cements were compared: TempBond Original (TBO), TempBond NE (TBN), Fleck's (FL), Dycal (DY), RelyX Unicem (RXU), RelyX Luting (RXL), Improv (IM), and Premier Implant Cement (PIC). Specimen disks, 2 mm in thickness, were radiographed. Images were made using photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plates with standardized exposure values. The average grey level of the central area of each specimen disk was selected and measured in pixels using a software analysis program, ImageTool, providing an average grey level value representative of radiodensity for each of the 8 cements. The radiodensity was determined using the grey level values of the test materials, which were recorded and compared to a standard aluminum step wedge. An equivalent thickness of aluminum in millimeters was calculated using best straight line fit estimates. To assess contrast effects by varying the exposure settings, a second experiment using 1-mm-thick cement specimens radiographed at both 60 kVp and 70 kVp was conducted. The PSP plates with specimens were measured for a grey level value comparison to the standard aluminum step wedge, using the same software program. The highest grey level values were recorded for the zinc cements (TBO, TBN, and FL), with the 1-mm specimen detectable at both 60- and 70-kVp settings. A lower grey level was recorded for DY, indicative of a lower radiodensity compared to the zinc cements, but higher than RXL and RXU. The implant-specific cements had the lowest grey level values. IM could only be detected in 2-mm-thick sections with a lower aluminum equivalence value than the previously mentioned

  9. Sodium hypophosphite radiographic process using an ammoniacal nickel developer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeyer, R.K.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effect of four factors on the yield of nickel from samples of sodium hypophosphite which were exposed to 60 Co gamma radiation and then treated to an ammoniacal nickel chloride developer. The factors included sample mass, radiation exposure, development time, and concentration of NiCl 2 in the developer. Optimum normalized yields were obtained with a sample mass of 0.5 g, an exposure of 1.2 x 10 6 rad, and a development time of 8 h. The yield of Ni was observed to increase linearly with developer concentration. Attempts to prepare radiographic emulsions containing sodium hypophosphite met with limited success as only ethyl cellulose proved successful, and even these exhibited reduced sharpness of the image after only one or two days of storage

  10. Chest radiographic findings of tsutsugamushi disease and murine typhus in Chunchon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heung Chul; Han, Tae Giun; Jang, Won Ho; Hwang, Woo Chul; Park, Man Soo; Lee, Myoung Gu; Kim, Yoon Won [School of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Choong Ki [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    To evaluate the chest radiographic findings of rickettsial disease including murine typhus and tsutsugamushi disease in Chunchon. Chest radiographic films of 81 cases diagnosed as rickettsial disease(55 cases of tsutsugamushi disease, 26 cases of murine typhus) by immunofluorescence test were retrospectively analyzed. Main serotypes of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were Gilliam and Karp. Incidence rate of tsutsugamushi disease was 2.1 times greater than that of murine typhus. Chest radiographs were abnormal in 63.6% of tsutsugamushi disease, and in 30.8% of murine typhus. Radiographic findings were Kerly's B line, reticulonodular densities, hilar enlargement, pleural effusion, and splenomegaly in both entities, but pulmonary consolidation was only found in tsutsugamushi disease. The patients with the abnormal radiographic findings were statistically well correlated with cardiomegaly ({rho} < 0.01) and azygos engorgement ({rho} < 0.05), as compared to the patients with normal radiographic findings. Radiographic findings of both murine typhus and tsutsugamushi disease were interstitial pattern. But the chest radiographs in patients with tsutsugamushi disease showed more severe pattern with higher rate of abnormality.

  11. Chest radiographic findings of tsutsugamushi disease and murine typhus in Chunchon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heung Chul; Han, Tae Giun; Jang, Won Ho; Hwang, Woo Chul; Park, Man Soo; Lee, Myoung Gu; Kim, Yoon Won; Park, Choong Ki

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the chest radiographic findings of rickettsial disease including murine typhus and tsutsugamushi disease in Chunchon. Chest radiographic films of 81 cases diagnosed as rickettsial disease(55 cases of tsutsugamushi disease, 26 cases of murine typhus) by immunofluorescence test were retrospectively analyzed. Main serotypes of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were Gilliam and Karp. Incidence rate of tsutsugamushi disease was 2.1 times greater than that of murine typhus. Chest radiographs were abnormal in 63.6% of tsutsugamushi disease, and in 30.8% of murine typhus. Radiographic findings were Kerly's B line, reticulonodular densities, hilar enlargement, pleural effusion, and splenomegaly in both entities, but pulmonary consolidation was only found in tsutsugamushi disease. The patients with the abnormal radiographic findings were statistically well correlated with cardiomegaly (ρ < 0.01) and azygos engorgement (ρ < 0.05), as compared to the patients with normal radiographic findings. Radiographic findings of both murine typhus and tsutsugamushi disease were interstitial pattern. But the chest radiographs in patients with tsutsugamushi disease showed more severe pattern with higher rate of abnormality

  12. Chest radiographic findings of tsutsugamushi disease and murine typhus in Chunchon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heung Chul; Han, Tae Giun; Jang, Won Ho; Hwang, Woo Chul; Park, Man Soo; Lee, Myoung Gu; Kim, Yoon Won [School of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Choong Ki [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    To evaluate the chest radiographic findings of rickettsial disease including murine typhus and tsutsugamushi disease in Chunchon. Chest radiographic films of 81 cases diagnosed as rickettsial disease(55 cases of tsutsugamushi disease, 26 cases of murine typhus) by immunofluorescence test were retrospectively analyzed. Main serotypes of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were Gilliam and Karp. Incidence rate of tsutsugamushi disease was 2.1 times greater than that of murine typhus. Chest radiographs were abnormal in 63.6% of tsutsugamushi disease, and in 30.8% of murine typhus. Radiographic findings were Kerly's B line, reticulonodular densities, hilar enlargement, pleural effusion, and splenomegaly in both entities, but pulmonary consolidation was only found in tsutsugamushi disease. The patients with the abnormal radiographic findings were statistically well correlated with cardiomegaly ({rho} < 0.01) and azygos engorgement ({rho} < 0.05), as compared to the patients with normal radiographic findings. Radiographic findings of both murine typhus and tsutsugamushi disease were interstitial pattern. But the chest radiographs in patients with tsutsugamushi disease showed more severe pattern with higher rate of abnormality.

  13. Radiographic and tomographic study of the elbow joint in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendyk-Grunkraut, Alessandra; Martin, Claudia M.; Souza, Alexandre N.A.; Patricio, Geni Cristina F.; Lorigados, Carla A.B.; Matera, Julia M.; Fonseca-Pinto, Ana C.B.C.

    2017-01-01

    Elbow dysplasia disease includes an united anconeal process, fragmented medial coronoid process, osteochondrosis of humeral trochlea, articular incongruity and degenerative joint disease. The aim of this study was to present detailed morphologic and morphometric aspects of the elbow joint in dog in clinical and correlate with radiographic and tomographic (CT) exam. Inter-observer variation for articular incongruity measurements by CT, comparative analysis in the radiographic exam, angle in ulnar notch and its comparative analysis between radiographic and tomographic agreement examination in 44 elbow of dogs with different ages were evaluated. The statistics analyses included the kappa coefficient and interclass correlation and Fischer's test and McNemar's test. It was evidenced that individual performance of each radiographic incidence had poor agreement with the tomographic exam, suggesting that the accomplishment of more than two radiograph views are needed. There was no agreement between the three evaluators in the ulnar notch angle at radiographic and tomographic exams. However, there was good/moderate agreement for articular incongruity measurement in the sagittal plane between evaluators. It was possible to conclude that none of the five radiographic incidences was better than the others for radiographic analysis because each incidence had a better identification of a particular elbow compartment; measurements at the tomographic exam to evaluate radioulnar incongruity had no reproductiveness in the frontal plane, but in sagittal plan had a good/moderate agreement between observers and the angle in ulnar notch presented no repeatability at radiographic exam and no reproductiveness at tomographic exam. (author)

  14. Comparison of extravascular lung water volume with radiographic findings in dogs with experimentally increased permeability pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, A.; Okumura, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Hagio, M.; Fujinaga, T.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between extravascular lung water volume (ELWV) and chest radiographical findings was studied in general-anesthetized beagles. The dogs were experimentally injected with oleic acid to increase pulmonary vascular permeability. When the ELWV value in the dogs increased more than approximately 37% from the control value, their chest radiographs began to show signs of pulmonary edema. At this time, the chest X-ray density increased to 10% above the control level. PaO2 decreased, and PaCO2 increased after the administration of oleic acid. This clearly showed that the pulmonary gas exchange function was reduced following increasing ELWV. This comparison showed that probably the thermal-sodium double indicator dilution measurement of ELWV can detect slight hyperpermeability pulmonary edema that does not show on chest radiographs. The chest radiograph was therefore not suitable for the detection of slight pulmonary edema, because it did not show any changes in the early stages in hyperpermeability pulmonary edema

  15. Methodology to evaluation of the density in radiographic image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzada, M.J.Q.; Pela, C.A.; Belangero, W.D.; Santos-Pinto, R.

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed in order to optimize the optical densitometry technique in radiographic images by the setorization of the characteristic curves of the radiographic films. We used 24 radiographs of a stepped aluminium wedge that were taken without rigorous control development and manually revealed. The densitometric values of the steps images and its thickness, for each radiographic, was utilized to generate its particular mathematics expressions that represent its characteristic densitometric curves and then it were used for setorization. The densitometric values were obtained by a Macbeth TD528 densitometer. The study showed an optimization in the representation of the relationship between the optical density of the steps images of the wedge and its correspondent thickness, provided by the setorization, with mean square error around 10 -5 . This optimization will allow the use of this methodology in quantitative evaluations of bone mass, by radiographic images. (author)

  16. Normal left ventricular emptying in coronary artery disease at rest: analysis by radiographic and equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denenberg, B.S.; Makler, P.T.; Bove, A.A.; Spann, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    The volume ejected early in systole has been proposed as an indicator of abnormal left ventricular function that is present at rest in patients with coronary artery disease with a normal ejection fraction and normal wall motion. The volume ejected in systole was examined by calculating the percent change in ventricular volume using both computer-assisted analysis of biplane radiographic ventriculograms at 60 frames/s and equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculograms. Ventricular emptying was examined with radiographic ventriculography in 33 normal patients and 23 patients with coronary artery disease and normal ejection fraction. Eight normal subjects and six patients with coronary artery disease had both radiographic ventriculography and equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography. In all patients, there was excellent correlation between the radiographic and radionuclide ventricular emptying curves (r . 0.971). There were no difference in the ventricular emptying curves of normal subjects and patients with coronary artery disease whether volumes were measured by radiographic or equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography. It is concluded that the resting ventricular emptying curves are identical in normal subjects and patients with coronary artery disease who have a normal ejection fraction and normal wall motion

  17. Radiographic anatomy of the medial coronoid process of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyabayashi, T.; Takiguchi, M.; Schrader, S.C.; Biller, D.S.

    1995-01-01

    Mediolateral, flexed mediolateral, mediocaudal-laterocranial 15 degrees oblique (extended and supinated mediolateral), and craniolateral-caudomedial 20 degrees to 30 degrees oblique radiographs of 16 elbow-joint specimens were produced to study the radiographic anatomy of the medial coronoid process. On the mediolateral view, the cranial point of the coronoid process was at the level of the distal one-third of the radial epiphysis. Degree of superimposition of the proximal radius and ulna determined how the medial coronoid process was projected on the radiographs. Mediocaudal-laterocranial oblique radiographs best showed the cranial outline of the medial coronoid process with moderate superimposition of the proximal radius and ulna

  18. Optimizing radiation exposure for CT localizer radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohrer, Evelyn; Maeder, Ulf; Fiebich, Martin [Univ. of Applied Sciences, Giessen (Germany). Inst. of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection-IMPS; Schaefer, Stefan; Krombach, Gabriele A. [Univ. Hospital Giessen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Noel, Peter B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2017-08-01

    The trend towards submillisievert CT scans leads to a higher dose fraction of localizer radiographs in CT examinations. The already existing technical capabilities make dose optimization of localizer radiographs worthwhile. Modern CT scanners apply automatic exposure control (AEC) based on attenuation data in such a localizer. Therefore not only this aspect but also the detectability of anatomical landmarks in the localizer for the desired CT scan range adjustment needs to be considered. The effective dose of a head, chest, and abdomen-pelvis localizer radiograph with standard factory settings and user-optimized settings was determined using Monte Carlo simulations. CT examinations of an anthropomorphic phantom were performed using multiple sets of acquisition parameters for the localizer radiograph and the AEC for the subsequent helical CT scan. Anatomical landmarks were defined to assess the image quality of the localizer. CTDI{sub vol} and effective mAs per slice of the helical CT scan were recorded to examine the impact of localizer settings on a helical CT scan. The dose of the localizer radiograph could be decreased by more than 90% while the image quality remained sufficient when selecting the lowest available settings (80 kVp, 20 mA, pa tube position). The tube position during localizer acquisition had a greater impact on the AEC than the reduction of tube voltage and tube current. Except for the use of a pa tube position, all changes of acquisition parameters for the localizer resulted in a decreased total radiation exposure. A dose reduction of CT localizer radiograph is necessary and possible. In the examined CT system there was no negative impact on the modulated helical CT scan when the lowest tube voltage and tube current were used for the localizer.

  19. Radiographic assessment of venous catheter position in children: Value of the lateral view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, D.D.; Brasch, R.C.; Gooding, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Frontal chest radiographs can be misleading in the evaluation of central venous catheter placement. Lateral chest radiographs were obtained, in addition to the standard frontal radiographs, in 25 young children. In five (20%) of the children, the catheters were found to be malpositioned, and the frontal radiograph showed evidence of the abnormality in all five. The lateral radiographs also showed evidence of the abnormality in all five children; however, in three of the five, the lateral radiographs provided additional, more specific, diagnostic information. The lateral chest radiographs also demonstrated satisfactory catheter positioning in three other children in whom the frontal radiographs suggested abnormal positioning. Accurate assessment of catheter position was possible in all patients using both frontal and lateral chest radiographs. Injection of contrast material was not necessary to locate malpositioned catheters. Lateral radiographs are recommended whenever an abnormal catheter position is suspected clinically or from findings on the routine frontal radiograph. (orig.)

  20. An investigation into current protocols and radiographer opinions on contrast extravasation in Irish CT departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleary, N.; McNulty, J.P.; Foley, S.J.; Kelly, E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Iodinated contrast extravasation is a serious complication associated with intravenous administration in radiology. Departmental protocols and the radiographer's approach on both prevention techniques and treatment will affect the prevalence of extravasation, and the eventual outcome for the patient when it does occur. Aims: To examine contrast extravasation protocols in place in Irish CT departments for alignment with European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) Guidelines (2014); to establish radiographer's opinions on contrast extravasation; and to examine radiographer adherence to protocols. Methods: Contrast extravasation protocols from a purposively selected sample of CT departments across Ireland (n = 6) were compared to ESUR guidelines, followed by an online survey of CT radiographers practicing in the participating centres. Results: All participating CT departments (n = 5) had written protocols in place. High risk patients, such as elderly or unconscious, were identified in most protocols, however, children were mentioned in just one protocol and obese patients were not specified in any. The response rate of CT radiographers was 23% (n = 24). 58% (n = 14) of respondents indicated that contrast extravasation was more likely during CTA examinations. While high levels of confidence in managing extravasation were reported, suggested treatment approaches, and confidence in same, was more variable. Clinical workload in CT departments was also identified as a factor impacting on patient care and management. Conclusion: While contrast extravasation protocols were generally in line with ESUR Guidelines, high risk patients may not be getting sufficient attention. More radiographer awareness of patient monitoring needs, particularly in busy departments with a heavy workload may also reduce extravasation risk, and improve management of same. - Highlights: • Irish protocols on contrast extravasation are generally in line with

  1. Pinhole bone scan mapping of metabolic profiles in osteoarthritis of the knee: a radiographic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. H.; Kim, H. H.; Chung, Y. A.; Chung, S. K.; Bahk, Y. W. [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is mixture of damage to a joint and reaction induced therefrom. Heterogeneity, slow change and no proper means of assessing pathology make it a difficult disease to study. Diagnosis can be made by radiography when OA is established. But subtle metabolic change without radiographic alteration can only be detected by bone scan. Present study was performed to assess metabolic profiles of OA of the knee with various radiographic and preradiographic changes using pinhole bone scan (PBS). PBS and radiography were taken at the same time or a few days apart. We used single-head gamma camera and a 4-mm pinhole collimator. Patients were 9 men and 19 women (30-74 yr with mean being 55). PBS was correlated with radiography in each case. Increased tracer uptake was seen in 111 lesions in 28 knees. Intensity was arbitrarily graded into Grade 0-2. The results were divided into group with radiographic change (n=85; Table) and group without (n=26). Generally, tracer uptake was much intense in the sclerotic and cystic form. In radiographically normal group pathological uptake occurred mostly in subchondral bone (n=17) and some in the femoral condyle (n=9) denoting that subchondral bone is the most vulnerable. PBS is sensitive indicator of metabolic alternations in various disease processes of OA in both radiographically normal and abnormal cases.

  2. Factors for lifelong job retention among Swiss radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, P.; Meystre, N. Richli; Mamboury, N.

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, a shortage of radiographers in the three radiology domains, radio-diagnostic, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine, is supposed to increase in the upcoming years. As job satisfaction has been shown to contribute to workplace retention, one purpose of the study was to explore the relationship between workplace retention and duration in the profession with job satisfaction. The study was based on two surveys. The institutional survey was addressed to all chiefs of radiology units in hospitals and ambulatory institutes (340, response rate 48%). All radiographers were asked to complete the individual survey (3000, response rate 25%). Two thirds of radiographers had been employed for five or more years in the same workplace, and nearly half intended to stay for 10 more years. The professional lifespan of radiographers is estimated to be approximately 27 years. 75% expressed their satisfaction with key aspects of professional activity, including the content of the work, autonomy, technology and their relationships with professionals and patients. These factors were not linked to a particular workplace, but to the profession itself. The radiographers build their own propitious work environment, even if salary and recognition by physicians are contributing to their dissatisfaction. The retention in the profession, consolidated by a high level of satisfaction, is an essential feature for a workforce policy. However, active measures for reinforcing retention are still necessary when considering that a lifelong career needs challenges and rewards. Additionally, the retention rate does not provide a guarantee adequacy for the future projected needs in the profession. - Highlights: • Retention in the profession, with a high level of satisfaction, is a major point for a workforce policy. • Job satisfaction of radiographers is not linked to a particular workplace, but to the profession itself. • The professional lifespan of radiographers in Switzerland is

  3. Occupational kneeling and radiographic tibiofemoral and patellofemoral osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Søren; Egund, Niels; Jensen, Lilli Kirkeskov

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The objective of our study was to evaluate the association between occupational kneeling and compartment specific radiographic tibiofemoral (TF) and patellofemoral (PF) osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Questionnaire data and bilateral knee radiographs were obtained in 134 male...

  4. Understanding chest radiographic anatomy with MDCT reformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussmann, A.R. [Department of Radiology, Thoracic Imaging, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Ko, J.P., E-mail: jane.ko@nyumc.or [Department of Radiology, Thoracic Imaging, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Chest radiograph interpretation requires an understanding of the mediastinal reflections and anatomical structures. Computed tomography (CT) improves the learning of three-dimensional (3D) anatomy, and more recently multidetector CT (MDCT) technology has enabled the creation of high-quality reformations in varying projections. Multiplanar reformations (MPRs) of varying thickness in the coronal and sagittal projections can be created for direct correlation with findings on frontal and lateral chest radiographs, respectively. MPRs enable simultaneous visualization of the craniocaudal extent of thoracic structures while providing the anatomic detail that has been previously illustrated using cadaveric specimens. Emphasis will be placed on improving knowledge of mediastinal anatomy and reflections including edges, lines, and stripes that are visible on chest radiographs.

  5. Comparison of three contrast radiographic techniques in the dog large intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, L.; Thibaut, J.; Olhaberry, E.; Born, R.; Deppe, R.

    1994-01-01

    In order to compare three radiographic techniques -pneumocolon, barium enema and double contrast- in the large intestine of the dog, three radiographic series in ventrodorsal and right lateral projections were taken. Six healthy adult dogs of both sexes with an approximate weight between 5 to 10 kg were used. Three enemas were administered 24, 12 and 2 hrs. before the series of radiographs were taken. Then dogs were anaesthetized with sodium tiopental (20 mg/kg iv) and the contrast media were introduced. Pneumocolon was carried out in the first series introducing air (20 cc/kg) in the large intestine through a Foley rectal catheter. Radiographs were taken in both projections, after 5 and 15min. respectively. Barium enema was performed in the second series introducing barium sulfate (18%) in the large intestine through a Foley rectal catheter (25 cc/kg); 5 and 15 min. later, the radiographs were taken. In the third series -double contrast- the barium sulfate, which was obtained from each dog using a catheter, was substituted by a volume of air equal to that obtained from the contrast medium. Later the radiographs were taken in both projections. The radiographic plates of each series were analized comparing the characteristics of: radiographic density, outline and volume. With the pneumocolon barium enema and double contrast, the radiographic density was, in most cases, low, high and inter-mediate respectively. The radiographic outline was, in most cases, regular for the three techniques. Thee radiographic volume was similar in all of the series. From the results obtained, it is concluded that double contrast best outlines the intestinal mucosa and more information can be obtained from it [es

  6. Bond-based linear indices of the non-stochastic and stochastic edge-adjacency matrix. 1. Theory and modeling of ChemPhys properties of organic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Martínez-Albelo, Eugenio R; Casañola-Martín, Gerardo M; Castillo-Garit, Juan A; Echevería-Díaz, Yunaimy; Zaldivar, Vicente Romero; Tygat, Jan; Borges, José E Rodriguez; García-Domenech, Ramón; Torrens, Francisco; Pérez-Giménez, Facundo

    2010-11-01

    Novel bond-level molecular descriptors are proposed, based on linear maps similar to the ones defined in algebra theory. The kth edge-adjacency matrix (E(k)) denotes the matrix of bond linear indices (non-stochastic) with regard to canonical basis set. The kth stochastic edge-adjacency matrix, ES(k), is here proposed as a new molecular representation easily calculated from E(k). Then, the kth stochastic bond linear indices are calculated using ES(k) as operators of linear transformations. In both cases, the bond-type formalism is developed. The kth non-stochastic and stochastic total linear indices are calculated by adding the kth non-stochastic and stochastic bond linear indices, respectively, of all bonds in molecule. First, the new bond-based molecular descriptors (MDs) are tested for suitability, for the QSPRs, by analyzing regressions of novel indices for selected physicochemical properties of octane isomers (first round). General performance of the new descriptors in this QSPR studies is evaluated with regard to the well-known sets of 2D/3D MDs. From the analysis, we can conclude that the non-stochastic and stochastic bond-based linear indices have an overall good modeling capability proving their usefulness in QSPR studies. Later, the novel bond-level MDs are also used for the description and prediction of the boiling point of 28 alkyl-alcohols (second round), and to the modeling of the specific rate constant (log k), partition coefficient (log P), as well as the antibacterial activity of 34 derivatives of 2-furylethylenes (third round). The comparison with other approaches (edge- and vertices-based connectivity indices, total and local spectral moments, and quantum chemical descriptors as well as E-state/biomolecular encounter parameters) exposes a good behavior of our method in this QSPR studies. Finally, the approach described in this study appears to be a very promising structural invariant, useful not only for QSPR studies but also for similarity

  7. Radiographic assessment of disease progression in rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing early disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wick, M.C.

    2002-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common systemic disease predominantly involving the joints. Since the pathogenesis, etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms of RA have only been partially elucidated, a definitive therapy has not been established. Precise diagnosis and follow-up therapy requires objective quantification, and radiological analyses are considered to be the most appropriate method. The aim of this study was to retrospectively determine the time-dependent progression of joint damage in patients with pharmacologically-treated RA, and to determine which therapeutic agents demonstrate the highest efficacy. Outpatient records, laboratory values, therapy schemes and radiographs from hands and feet of 150 RA patients were collected, analyzed and statistically evaluated. Radiographs were quantified using the Larsen score and supportively using the 'RheumaCoach-Rheumatology' computer software. Our observations reveal that radiologically-detectable damage is most pronounced during the first year of disease, while mitigated and generally progressing linearly thereafter. Overall Larsen scores linearly increased from year 0 to 10 (r=0.853), during which the mean Larsen score increased 7.93 ± 0.76 per year. During the first year, RA progression was similar regardless of the medication administered (gold-compounds, AU; chloroquine, CQ; methotrexate, MTX; sulfasalazine SSZ). While MTX and CQ treatment showed no difference when examined as mean 5-year increment of Larsen score, AU and SSZ showed up to 3 fold higher RA progression compared with MTX. The Larsen score in year 1 did not correlate with that of years 2 to 5. In contrast, Larsen scores in year 2 were linearly related to each of the subsequent 3 years. Despite similar ESR values in various medication groups, cumulative ESR correlated with RA progression, and its reduction with therapeutic efficacy. In conclusion, this study found that, (i) early DMARD-treated RA progressed more rapidly during the first than

  8. Main factors of efficiency of automated radiographic complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopov, V.S.; Voronin, S.A.; Grachev, A.V.; Golenishchev, I.A.; Majorov, A.N.; Meshalkin, I.A.

    1978-01-01

    The amount of work providing an assessment of the efficiency of a complex for automatized radiographic control is considered. The technique involves four stages. An analysis was performed to ascertain the efficiency of control of flaw detectability with regard to each of the stages of radiographic control. The relationships used in determining control efficiency and cited in the paper serve as a foundation for optimizing the technical parameters of the devices of the automatized complex and for creating calculation methods for generalized assessments of the efficiency of radiographic control

  9. Characteristic calcaneal ossification: an additional early radiographic finding in infants with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Sachi [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Victoria, Teresa [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kayserili, Huelya [Koc University School of Medicine (KUSOM), Medical Genetics Department, Istanbul (Turkey); Zackai, Elaine [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Medical Genetics, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nishimura, Gen; Haga, Nobuhiko; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Miyazaki, Osamu [The Research Committee on Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva, Tokyo (Japan); Kitoh, Hiroshi [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); The Research Committee on Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    We have clinically encountered children with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva who had abnormal calcaneal ossification. To evaluate whether calcaneal ossification variants are significant radiographic findings in children with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Lateral feet radiographs in nine children who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva were reviewed. The studies were obtained during infancy or early childhood. Fourteen lateral foot radiographs of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva were available for this study (ages at examination: 1-104 months). Four children ages 2 months to 11 months showed double calcaneal ossification centers; 7 children had plantar calcaneal spurs that decreased in size with age. Overall, eight of nine children with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva demonstrated double calcaneal ossifications and/or plantar calcaneal spurs in infancy or childhood. Double calcaneal ossification centers in early infancy and plantar calcaneal spurs in childhood are frequently seen in children with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva and may be a useful radiologic indicator for early diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. Dental radiographic units - radiation safety and patient doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagpal, J.S.; Varadharajan, Geetha

    2001-01-01

    Three models of dental radiographic machines have been examined for radiation safety. Using TL dosemeters, doses received by the patients at chest level and the gonads have been estimated. Care should be taken to shield gonads during dental radiographic examinations. (author)

  11. A survey of the radiographic cassettes disinfection of university hospitals in seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol; Park, Peom; Kim, Moon Sun; Kim, Dong Sung

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to prevent nosocomial infection in patients through contact of radiographic cassettes. Data were collected from radiographers working in 29 university hospitals in Seoul in February and March 2001. Radiographic cassettes were disinfected daily in 5 hospitals, weekly in 4 hospitals, monthly in 5 hospitals, bimonthly in 1 hospital and once every three months in another hospital. 12 other hospitals do not practice regular disinfections of radiographic cassettes. Gauze soaked in disinfectant solution is used in 7 hospitals while 11 hospitals used cotton and cloth soaked in disinfectant solution to clean the radiographic cassettes. 26 hospitals used 99% alcohol based disinfectant solutions while 3 hospitals used 75% alcohol based disinfectant, 26 hospitals use of intercourse cassettes outpatients and in patients. In 26 hospitals, all patients shared the same set of radiographic cassettes used in the hospitals, or in 26 hospitals, separate sets of radiographic cassettes are used for outpatients and inpatients. Separate sets of cassettes are used for ICU and inpatients in 6 others hospitals. 23 hospitals used the same sets of radiographic cassettes for all their patients. radiographic cassettes are cleaned in wash area in the study room of the radiographic department in 17 hospitals. 12 other hospitals do not have designated cleaning areas for the cassettes. All radiographers practiced hands washing with soap. All 29 hospitals surveyed have infection control committee. However, only 9 out of the 29 hospitals surveyed provided Infection · disinfections control education to radiographers. Only 3 hospitals have radiographers sitting in the infection control committee. Infection management education is conducted in 63 hospitals annually, twice a year in 1 hospital and once every 3 months in 2 hospitals

  12. Radiographic analysis of partial or total vertebral body resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitten, C.G.; Hammer, G.H.; El-Khoury, G.Y.; Hugus, J.; Weinstein, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    Partial and total vertebrectomies are used in the treatment of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the spine. Serial radiographic studies are crucial in the follow-up of patients with vertebrectomies. This paper presents 33 cases and illustrates radiographic examples of both successful and complicated vertebrectomies, including radiographic signs of local tumor recurrence, loosening, migration or fracture of the hardware or methylmethacrylate, bone graft failure, and progressive spinal instability

  13. Influence of Radiographic Positioning on Canine Sacroiliac and Lumbosacral Angle Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan; Savage, Mason; Naughton, Brian; Singh, Susheela; Robertson, Ian; Roe, Simon C; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Mathews, Kyle G

    2018-01-01

     To evaluate the influence of radiographic malpositioning on canine sacroiliac and lumbosacral inclination angles.  Using canine cadavers, lateral pelvic radiographs were acquired with the radiographic beam in a neutral position and then rotated 5, 10 and 15° to mimic rotational malpositioning. The focal point of the beam was then focused over the abdomen and again over mid-diaphysis of the femur to mimic an abdominal or femoral radiographic study.  Five degrees of rotational malpositioning did not influence measurements of sacroiliac or lumbosacral inclination, but malpositioning by more than 5° led to a significant decrease in both sacroiliac and lumbosacral angles. Moving the focal point to the femur significantly decreased the measured lumbosacral angle. Abdominally centred radiographs had no effect on lumbosacral and sacroiliac angle measurements.  When evaluating canine lumbosacral and sacroiliac angles radiographically, pelvic rotation of more than 5° should be avoided as should the use of lateral radiographs centred over the femur. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  14. Is the frontal radiograph alone sufficient to evaluate for pneumonia in children?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Strife, Janet L.; Johnson, Neil D.; Atherton, Harry D.; Kotagal, Uma R.; Pommersheim, William

    2004-01-01

    In our cost- and radiation-conscious environment, the feasibility of performing only a frontal radiograph for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children needs to be reassessed. To determine the diagnostic efficacy of the frontal radiograph alone in comparison to the frontal and lateral combined radiographs for the radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia in children. Three radiologists retrospectively and independently reviewed the frontal radiographs alone and separately reviewed the frontal and lateral radiographs of 1,268 children referred from the emergency room for chest radiographs. A majority interpretation of at least two radiologists for the frontal views alone was compared with majority interpretation of the frontal and lateral combined views for the radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia. ''Pneumonia'' was defined as a focus of streaky or confluent lung opacity. For the radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia, the sensitivity and specificity of the frontal view alone were 85% and 98%, respectively. For the confluent lobar type of pneumonia, the sensitivity and specificity increased to 100%. When the frontal view alone yields a diagnosis of confluent lobar pneumonia, this is highly reliable. However, nonlobar types of infiltrates will be underdiagnosed in 15% of patients using the frontal view alone. The clinical impact of these radiographically underdiagnosed pneumonias needs to be assessed prior to implementing the practice of using only frontal radiographs for diagnosing pneumonia. (orig.)

  15. Is the frontal radiograph alone sufficient to evaluate for pneumonia in children?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigsby, Cynthia K. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, OH 45229, Cincinnati (United States); Department of Medical Imaging No. 9, Children' s Memorial Hospital, 2300 Children' s Plaza, IL 60614, Chicago (United States); Strife, Janet L.; Johnson, Neil D. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, OH 45229, Cincinnati (United States); Atherton, Harry D.; Kotagal, Uma R. [Department of Health Policy and Clinical Effectiveness, Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, OH 45229, Cincinnati (United States); Pommersheim, William [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, OH 45229, Cincinnati (United States); Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Meads Hall, 2nd Floor, NC 27157, Winston-Salem (United States)

    2004-05-01

    In our cost- and radiation-conscious environment, the feasibility of performing only a frontal radiograph for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children needs to be reassessed. To determine the diagnostic efficacy of the frontal radiograph alone in comparison to the frontal and lateral combined radiographs for the radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia in children. Three radiologists retrospectively and independently reviewed the frontal radiographs alone and separately reviewed the frontal and lateral radiographs of 1,268 children referred from the emergency room for chest radiographs. A majority interpretation of at least two radiologists for the frontal views alone was compared with majority interpretation of the frontal and lateral combined views for the radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia. ''Pneumonia'' was defined as a focus of streaky or confluent lung opacity. For the radiographic diagnosis of pneumonia, the sensitivity and specificity of the frontal view alone were 85% and 98%, respectively. For the confluent lobar type of pneumonia, the sensitivity and specificity increased to 100%. When the frontal view alone yields a diagnosis of confluent lobar pneumonia, this is highly reliable. However, nonlobar types of infiltrates will be underdiagnosed in 15% of patients using the frontal view alone. The clinical impact of these radiographically underdiagnosed pneumonias needs to be assessed prior to implementing the practice of using only frontal radiographs for diagnosing pneumonia. (orig.)

  16. Estimated accuracy of classification of defects detected in welded joints by radiographic tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, M.H.S.; De Silva, R.R.; De Souza, M.P.V.; Rebello, J.M.A.; Caloba, L.P.; Mery, D.

    2004-01-01

    This work is a study to estimate the accuracy of classification of the main classes of weld defects detected by radiography test, such as: undercut, lack of penetration, porosity, slag inclusion, crack or lack of fusion. To carry out this work non-linear pattern classifiers were developed, using neural networks, and the largest number of radiographic patterns as possible was used as well as statistical inference techniques of random selection of samples with and without repositioning (bootstrap) in order to estimate the accuracy of the classification. The results pointed to an estimated accuracy of around 80% for the classes of defects analyzed. (author)

  17. Estimated accuracy of classification of defects detected in welded joints by radiographic tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, M.H.S.; De Silva, R.R.; De Souza, M.P.V.; Rebello, J.M.A. [Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, Dept., of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Caloba, L.P. [Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro, Dept., of Electrical Engineering, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mery, D. [Pontificia Unversidad Catolica de Chile, Escuela de Ingenieria - DCC, Dept. de Ciencia de la Computacion, Casilla, Santiago (Chile)

    2004-07-01

    This work is a study to estimate the accuracy of classification of the main classes of weld defects detected by radiography test, such as: undercut, lack of penetration, porosity, slag inclusion, crack or lack of fusion. To carry out this work non-linear pattern classifiers were developed, using neural networks, and the largest number of radiographic patterns as possible was used as well as statistical inference techniques of random selection of samples with and without repositioning (bootstrap) in order to estimate the accuracy of the classification. The results pointed to an estimated accuracy of around 80% for the classes of defects analyzed. (author)

  18. Evaluating the role of the diagnostic research radiographer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Karen; Edwards, Hazel

    2011-01-01

    The NHS has an increasingly strong focus on evidence-based medicine to underpin policy making and the development of a culture of evaluation and learning. Good quality research is the foundation for this ethos. Numbers of research projects and clinical trials involving imaging are increasing and therefore more radiographers are contributing to these studies but perhaps on some occasions they may be unaware. This paper describes the benefits of having a dedicated research radiographer within a radiology department to organise and monitor studies. We explain the procedures of the research process, the knowledge and skills that such a radiographer requires and the value of coordination and governance in developing a culture of research in a radiology department. We make suggestions to overcome perceived barriers to engaging with research and discuss the advantages and limitations of the role. Others who are considering appointing a dedicated research radiographer may find our experience helpful.

  19. Ellipsometric measurements of the refractive indices of linear alkylbenzene and EJ-301 scintillators from 210 to 1000 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Chan Tseung, H; Tolich, N

    2011-01-01

    We report on ellipsometric measurements of the refractive indices of linear alkylbenzene-2,5-diphenyloxazole (LAB-PPO), Nd-doped LAB-PPO and EJ-301 scintillators to the nearest ± 0.005, in the wavelength range 210-1000 nm.

  20. Reading screening mammograms - Attitudes among radiologists and radiographers about skill mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Lena Westphal; Brodersen, John

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Because of shortage of personnel for the Danish mammography screening programme, the aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes of radiologists and radiographers towards a future implementation of radiographers reading screening mammograms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven...... of managers, and improved working relations. Organization related obstacles: shortage of radiographers and negative attitudes of managers. Professional related possibilities: positive experience with skill mix. Professional related obstacles: worries about negative consequences for the training...... and financial consequences of skill mix. Despite of this all radiologists and radiographers experienced with skill mix were strong advocates for reading radiographers....

  1. New view on the initial development site and radiographic classification system of osteoarthritis of the knee based on radiographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ki-Ho

    2012-12-01

    Radiographic pathology of severe osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK) such as severe osteophyte at tibial spine (TS), compartment narrowing, marginal osteophyte, and subchondral sclerosis is well known. Kellgren-Lawrence grading system, which is widely used to diagnose OAK, describes narrowing-marginal osteophyte in 4-grades but uses osteophyte at TS only as evidence of OAK without detailed-grading. However, kinematically the knee employs medial TS as an axis while medial and lateral compartments carry the load, suggesting that early OAK would occur sooner at TS than at compartment. Then, Kellgren-Lawrence system may be inadequate to diagnose early-stage OAK manifested as a subtle osteophyte at TS without narrowing-marginal osteophyte. This undiagnosed-OAK will deteriorate becoming a contributing factor in an increasing incidence of OAK. This study developed a radiographic OAK-marker based on both osteophyte at TS and compartment narrowing-marginal osteophyte and graded as normal, mild, moderate, and severe. With this marker, both knee radiographs of 1,728 patients with knee pain were analyzed. Among 611 early-stage mild OAK, 562 or 92% started at TS and 49 or 8% at compartment. It suggests the initial development site of OAK, helping develop new site-specific radiographic classification system of OAK accurately to diagnose all severity of OAK at early, intermediate, or late-stage. It showed that Kellgren-Lawrence system missed 92.0% of early-stage mild OAK from diagnosis. A subtle osteophyte at TS is the earliest radiographic sign of OAK. A new radiographic classification system of OAK was suggested for accurate diagnosis of all OAK in severity and at stage.

  2. Relationship between stress ankle radiographs and injured ligaments on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Chung, Myung Ki; Won, Sung Hun; Lee, Seung Yeol; Park, Moon Seok; Kwon, Soon-Sun

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the relationship between the injured lateral ankle ligaments on MRI and stress ankle radiographs. Two hundred and twenty-nine consecutive patients (mean age 35.5 years, SD 14.6 years; 136 males and 93 females) that underwent ankle stress radiographs and MRI for lateral ankle instability were included. Tibiotalar tilt angle and anterior translation of talus were measured on stress ankle radiographs. Degree of lateral ligaments (anterior talofibular, calcaneofibular, and posterior talofibular) and deltoid ligament injuries were evaluated and scored as intact (0), partial injury (1), and complete injury (2) on MR images. Effusion of ankle joint was also recorded. The effects of gender, age, injuries of ligaments, and ankle joint effusion on stress radiographs were statistically analyzed. Gender (p = 0.010), age (p = 0.020), and anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) injury (p < 0.001) were the factors significantly affecting tibiotalar tilt angle. Posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL) injury (p = 0.014) was found to be the only significant factor affecting the anterior translation on the anterior drawer radiographs. ATFL injury and PTFL injury on MRI significantly affected tibiotalar tilt angle and anterior drawer on stress radiographs. Other factors, such as age and gender, need to be considered in evaluating radiographic lateral ankle instability. (orig.)

  3. Radiographer-led breast boost localisation – A service evaluation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.; Comins, C.

    2015-01-01

    A radiation boost to the tumour bed as part of breast conserving therapy reduces the rate of local recurrence. Radiographer-led planning for tangential field radiotherapy has been the practice at our centre since 2007. The transition from conventional simulation to computed tomography (CT) and virtual simulation enhanced the radiographer's role in the breast planning process. Electron boost mark ups continued to be marked up freehand by doctors using available imaging to determine tumour bed. The paper reports on a service evaluation undertaken to establish a change in practice for electron breast boosts to be simulated using the virtual simulator by suitably trained radiographers. The retrospective simulation of ten patients confirmed the consistency of radiographer tumour bed localisation, followed by the prospective simulation of ten patients' boost fields. The introduction of a radiographer-led planning breast boost service has given greater autonomy and job satisfaction to individuals as well as resulting in a cost effective use of available resources. - Highlights: • A service evaluation study was undertaken to train a radiographer to perform breast boost planning. • Retrospective breast boost planning established proposed technique was workable. • Prospective planning by radiographer proved their competence. • Introduction of new technique provided job satisfaction and service improvement

  4. Image quality preferences among radiographers and radiologists. A conjoint analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ween, Borgny; Kristoffersen, Doris Tove; Hamilton, Glenys A.; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the image quality preferences among radiographers and radiologists. The radiographers' preferences are mainly related to technical parameters, whereas radiologists assess image quality based on diagnostic value. Methods: A conjoint analysis was undertaken to survey image quality preferences; the study included 37 respondents: 19 radiographers and 18 radiologists. Digital urograms were post-processed into 8 images with different properties of image quality for 3 different patients. The respondents were asked to rank the images according to their personally perceived subjective image quality. Results: Nearly half of the radiographers and radiologists were consistent in their ranking of the image characterised as 'very best image quality'. The analysis showed, moreover, that chosen filtration level and image intensity were responsible for 72% and 28% of the preferences, respectively. The corresponding figures for each of the two professions were 76% and 24% for the radiographers, and 68% and 32% for the radiologists. In addition, there were larger variations in image preferences among the radiologists, as compared to the radiographers. Conclusions: Radiographers revealed a more consistent preference than the radiologists with respect to image quality. There is a potential for image quality improvement by developing sets of image property criteria

  5. Pulmonary edema: radiographic differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Dong Soo; Choi, Young Hi; Kim, Seung Cheol; An, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jee Young; Park, Hee Hong

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using chest radiography to differentiate between three different etiologies of pulmonary edema. Plain chest radiographs of 77 patients, who were clinically confirmed as having pulmonary edema, were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were classified into three groups : group 1 (cardiogenic edema : n = 35), group 2 (renal pulmonary edema : n = 16) and group 3 (permeability edema : n = 26). We analyzed the radiologic findings of air bronchogram, heart size, peribronchial cuffing, septal line, pleural effusion, vascular pedicle width, pulmonary blood flow distribution and distribution of pulmonary edema. In a search for radiologic findings which would help in the differentiation of these three etiologies, each finding was assessed. Cardiogenic and renal pulmonary edema showed overlapping radiologic findings, except for pulmonary blood flow distribution. In cardiogenic pulmonary edema (n=35), cardiomegaly (n=29), peribronchial cuffing (n=29), inverted pulmonary blood flow distribution (n=21) and basal distribution of edema (n=20) were common. In renal pulmonary edema (n=16), cardiomegaly (n=15), balanced blood flow distribution (n=12), and central (n=9) or basal distribution of edema (n=7) were common. Permeability edema (n=26) showed different findings. Air bronchogram (n=25), normal blood flow distribution (n=14) and peripheral distribution of edema (n=21) were frequent findings, while cardiomegaly (n=7), peribronchial cuffing (n=7) and septal line (n=5) were observed in only a few cases. On plain chest radiograph, permeability edema can be differentiated from cardiogenic or renal pulmonary edema. The radiographic findings which most reliably differentiated these two etiologies were air bronchogram, distribution of pulmonary edema, peribronchial cuffing and heart size. Only blood flow distribution was useful for radiographic differentiation of cardiogenic and renal edema

  6. Limitations of radiographs in evaluating non-displaced osteochondral lesions of the talus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dheer, Sachin; Khan, Mustafa; Zoga, Adam C.; Morrison, William B.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate what limitations, if any, radiographs have in detecting and characterizing the morphology of non-displaced OCLTs (size, cystic change, fragmentation, and avascular necrosis [AVN]). Thirty-three OCLTs in 32 patients were reviewed in consensus by a board-certified, fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist and orthopedic surgeon, on radiographs and MRI examinations performed within 15 days of one another. Location, dimensions, and characteristics of the OCLT (fragmentation, bone marrow edema, cystic change, and necrosis) were documented on the radiographs and MRI examinations. There was an average of 7.5 days (range: 1-15 days) between the MRIs and radiographs. Eighteen (55%) medial and 15 (45%) lateral OCLTs were found; none was displaced. OCLTs were categorized into three groups: Group 1 - initially diagnosed with radiographs (4/33; 12%), Group 2 - diagnosed with radiographs only after MRI correlation (20/33; 61%), and Group 3 - not identifiable on radiographs despite MRI correlation (9/33; 27%). The dimensions of all of the lesions in Groups 1 and 2 were underestimated on radiographs. Only 1 of the 4 (25%) lesions in Group 1 and 1 of the 20 (5%) lesions in Group 2 could be measured in the anteroposterior (AP) dimension (using a lateral radiograph). The most common radiographic appearance of non-displaced OCLTs was an ''ill-defined'' lucency at the talar dome (20/33; 61%). Across all three groups, fragmentation, cystic change, and AVN were radiographically apparent in 3/10 (30%), 4/19 (21%), and 1/6 (17%) cases respectively. Compared with MRI, radiographs are limited in their evaluation of the size (particularly the AP dimension) and characteristics (fragmentation, cystic change, and AVN) of non-displaced OCLTs. The most common appearance of non-displaced OCLTs is an ''ill-defined'' lucency at the talar dome. When this appearance is also considered, the estimated retrospective sensitivity of radiographs improves considerably. (orig.)

  7. Radiographic follow-up study of Little Leaguer's shoulder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanematsu, Yoshiji; Iwase, Takenobu; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Sairyo, Koichi; Kashiwaguchi, Shinji; Iwame, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Little Leaguer's shoulder is a syndrome involving the proximal humeral epiphyseal plate. Conservative treatment usually resolves the symptoms. However, there are no reports of a radiographic follow-up study of this disease. The purpose of this study was to show the radiographic healing process of Little Leaguer's shoulder. A total of 19 male baseball players diagnosed as having Little Leaguer's shoulder were retrospectively evaluated. The mean age at first presentation was 12.7 years. External rotation anteroposterior radiographs of the shoulder were taken. All patients were treated with rest from throwing, and no throwing was recommended until remodeling was confirmed. Follow-up radiographs were taken at 1-month intervals to assess healing. All patients were observed until healing was confirmed radiographically, after which they returned to baseball. The mean follow-up period was 8.5 months. In addition to radiography, patients were asked whether they had any symptoms and whether they had been able to return to baseball. At the first examination, radiographs showed a wider epiphyseal plate of the throwing side compared with the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder. Healing was observed in all cases. Healing occurred first along the medial side and was then extended laterally. The mean time required for healing was 4.7 months. All patients were able to return to playing baseball at their pre-injury level of play and were asymptomatic when examined at the final follow-up. The healing process of Little Leaguer's shoulder advanced from medial to lateral, and healing was achieved about 5 months after initial examination. (orig.)

  8. Radiographic findings in tuberculosis of the calvarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patankar, T.; Varma, R.; Krishnan, A.; Prasad, S. [Dept. of Radiology, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Parel, Bombay (India); Desai, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Bombay (India); Castillo, M. [Dept. of Radiology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2000-07-01

    We reviewed the pattern of involvement of the calvarium by tuberculosis (TB) in five patients and the role of imaging in its management. Four patients presented with localised scalp swelling and one with generalized seizures. Radiographs revealed lucent lesions with minimal surrounding sclerosis in the frontal (2), parietal (2) and occipital (1) bones. CT showed lesions involving the entire thickness of the calvarium and accompanying contrast-enhancing soft tissue. The patient presenting with seizures had a ring-enhancing lesion in the parietal lobe in addition to the extra-axial lesions. Although radiographs in all cases demonstrated calvarial TB, CT showed the extent of the defect, involvement of adjacent soft tissues, and in one case an intra-axial lesion. Radiographs suffice for follow-up of these patients. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of the styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, Chandramani B; Asrani, Mukesh K

    2010-01-01

    The styloid process is an anatomical structure, whose clinical importance is not well understood. Proper clinical and radiographic evaluation can detect an elongated styloid process and calcification of the stylohyoid ligament. It has been reported that 2 – 28% of the general population show radiographic evidence of mineralization of a portion of the stylohyoid chain. The elongated styloid process may be symptomatic in many cases. Panoramic radiography is the best imaging modality to view the styloid process bilaterally. To assess the styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs. The study was conducted on 500 digital panoramic radiographs available in the archives of our department as soft copies. These radiographs were taken using a digital panoramic system. The radiographic length of the styloid process was measured on both sides using the measurement toolbars on the accompanying analysis software. For statistical analysis we used the unpaired t test, Chi-square test, and one-way ANOVA test, as necessary. The average length of the left styloid was 25.41 ± 6.32 mm and that of the right styloid was 25.53 ± 6.62 mm. The length of both styloids increased with age and males had longer styloids than females. Elongated styloids were present in 19.4% of the panoramic radiographs. Langlais type I elongated styloids and a partial calcification pattern were more common than others. Panoramic radiography is useful for detection of an elongated styloid process and / or ossification of the stylohyoid ligament in patients with or without symptoms, and helps avoid a misdiagnosis of tonsillar pain or pain of dental, pharyngeal, or muscular origin

  10. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A stable radiographic scanning agent on a sup(99m)Tc basis has been developed. The substance contains a pertechnetate reduction agent, tin(II)-chloride, chromium(II)-chloride, or iron(II)-sulphate, as well as an organospecific carrier and ascorbic acid or a pharmacologically admissible salt or ester of ascorbic acid. (VJ) [de

  11. Radiographic findings of primary lung cancer with delayed detection on chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Min; Kim, Jin Hwan; Jung, Bin Young; Jun, Kwang Jin; Jeong, Ki Ho; Kim, Ju Ok; Kim, Sun Young; Yang, Chang Kyu

    1999-01-01

    To analyze the causes of delayed detection of lung cancer on chest radiographs. We retrospectively reviewed 105 cases in which an initial diagnosis of lung cancer, based on an examination of plain radiographs, had been missed or misinterpreted. All occurred between October 1993 and April 1997. We reviewed the initial chest radiographs and compared the features noted with those seen on later chest radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) images. Undetected lung cancer was identified in 56 patients (56/105, 53.3%) It had been hidden by superimposed structures (41, 73.2%), overlapped by combined benign diseases (12, 21.4%), or the nodules were subtle (3, 5.4%). Of the 41 lung cancers hidden by a superimposed structure, the central type accounted for 29 (70.7%) and the peripheral type for 12 (29.3%). The 29 central type had been hidden by the left hilum (n=15), the right hilum (n=10), the heart (n=3), or a rib (n=1). The twelve peripheral type were hidden by a rib (n=7), the heart (n=2), the diaphragm (n=2), or the left hilum (n=1). Of the 12 lung cancers overlapped by combined benign diseases, pulmonary tuberculosis (n=6), pleural effusion (n=4), congestive heart failure (n=1), and diffuse interstitial lung disease (n=1) were present at the time of interpretation. The misinterpreted lung cancers were identified in 49 patients (49/105, 46.7%) and were seen to be combined with benign disease (16, 32.6%), or as obstructive pneumonia without a central mass (15, 30.6%), air-space consolidation (7, 14.3%), cavity (7, 14.3%), double lesion (2, 4.1%), or young age below 26 years (2,4.1%). Of the 16 lung cancers misinterpreted as combined disease, pulmonary tuberculosis (n=14) and pleural disease (n=2) had been initially diagnosed. Most commonly, lung cancer was missed or misinterpreted because it was hidden by a normal structure or combined with a benign disease. Perceptual errors can be reduced by appropriate techniques and the scrutiny of trouble spots such as the

  12. Occupational stress among radiographers: the impact of sonagraphy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sonography responsibility on radiographers did not have any significant effect on psychosocial stress. A balance in the extended role could aid efficiency in service delivery while improving the social strength of the individual. Keywords: Occupational stress; radiographers; sonographers. Internet Journal of Medical Update ...

  13. Determining paediatric patient thickness from a single digital radiograph-a proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Mark; Vinnicombe, Sarah; Sutton, David G

    2018-04-05

    This work presents a proof of principle for a method of estimating the thickness of an attenuator from a single radiograph using the image, the exposure factors with which it was acquired and a priori knowledge of the characteristics of the X-ray unit and detector used for the exposure. It is intended this could be developed into a clinical tool to assist with paediatric patient dose audit, for which a measurement of patient size is required. The proof of principle used measured pixel value and effective linear attenuation coefficient to estimate the thickness of a Solid Water attenuator. The kerma at the detector was estimated using a measurement of pixel value on the image and measured detector calibrations. The initial kerma was estimated using a lookup table of measured output values. The effective linear attenuation coefficient was measured for Solid Water at varying kV p . 11 test images of known and varying thicknesses of Solid Water were acquired at 60, 70 and 81 kV p . Estimates of attenuator thickness were made using the model and the results compared to the known thickness. Estimates of attenuator thickness made using the model differed from the known thickness by 3.8 mm (3.2%) on average, with a range of 0.5-10.8 mm (0.5-9%). A proof of principle is presented for a method of estimating the thickness of an attenuator using a single radiograph of the attenuator. The method has been shown to be accurate using a Solid Water attenuator, with a maximum difference between estimated and known attenuator thickness of 10.8 mm (9%). The method shows promise as a clinical tool for estimating abdominal paediatric patient thickness for paediatric patient dose audit, and is only contingent on the type of data routinely collected by Medical Physics departments. Advances in knowledge: A computational model has been created that is capable of accurately estimating the thickness of a uniform attenuator using only the radiographic image, the exposure factors with which

  14. Radiographic features of teriparatide-induced healing of femoral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngwoo Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Teriparatide is a drug that is used to increase bone remodeling, formation, and density for the treatment of osteoporosis. We present three cases of patients with a femoral insufficiency fracture. The patients were administered teripatatide in an attempt to treat severe osteoporosis and to enhance fracture healing. We found several radiographic features around the femoral fractures during the healing period. 1 Callus formation was found at a very early stage in the treatment. Teriparatide substantially increased the unusually abundant callus formation around the fracture site at 2 weeks. Moreover, this callus formation continued for 8 weeks and led to healing of the fracture. 2 Abundant callus formation was found circumferentially around the cortex with a ‘cloud-like’ appearance. 3 Remodeling of the teriparatide-induced callus formation was found to be part of the normal fracture healing process. After 1 year, normal remodeling was observed on plain radiographs. These findings indicate that teriparatide can be used as an adjuvant therapy in the management of femoral insufficiency fractures.

  15. Standardization of thorax, skull and pelvis radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, D.R.; Ghilardi Netto, T.; Trad, C.S.; Brochi, M.A. Corte; Duarte, S.B.; Pina, S.R.

    2001-01-01

    The radiographic techniques for production of chest, skull and pelvis exam were determined for the standard patient. These techniques produced the quality image with smaller dose, for a standard patient, at any conventional X-ray equipment. The radiographic contrast produced for these techniques was measured utilizing the realistic-analytic phantom and classified as an ideal radiographic contrast. This work has the aim to keep the standard of the quality image, for any thickness of patients usually found in clinic routine of the radiodiagnosis service, satisfying the relation risk-benefit for the patient and cost- benefit for the institution. (author)

  16. Development of low-silver radiographic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, V.A.; Novikov, I.A.; Nikitin, V.F.; Krasnyj-Admoni, L.V.; Valevich, M.I.; Belyj, N.G.; Grom, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    The results of investigations on radiographic testing of welded joints of St20, 08Kh18N10T steels, the AMG-6 alloy, copper, titanium using radiographic detectors with the low silver content are presented. The roentgenographic and photographic paper, as well as the samples of experimental films with heavy elements in the photolayer are tested using intensifying screens of different types. Experimental films containing silver 2 times as less as standard X-ray films are shown to provide the similar sensitivity of testing under equal conditions, but the exposure time is two times higher. Prints on the radiophotographic paper in quality and exposure time approach to prints obtained on the RT-1 film containing silver 10 times less than that in the roentgenographic film. The exposure time of the radiographic paper is several times less than that of the ''unibrom'' contrast paper. The testing sensitivity decreases to some extent in this case

  17. Contribution of the endosteal surface of cortical bone to the trabecular pattern seen on IOPA radiographs: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P T Ravikumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A study was conducted to assess the contribution of the cancellous and endosteal surface of the cortical bone to the trabecular pattern seen in an IOPA radiograph. Materials and methods: An in vitro study analyzing the contribution of the endosteal surface of cortical bone and cancellous bone to the trabecular pattern was conducted, using 60 specimens of desiccated human mandibles. The mode of execution involved IOPA radiographic evaluation of premolarmolar segments in the specimens before and after removal of cancellous bone. The radiographs were numbered for identification and subjected to evaluation by 5 dentomaxillofacial radiologists who were doubleblinded to ensure an unbiased interpretation. Results: The trabecular pattern appreciation by the experts in the IOPA radiographs before and after removal of cancellous bone displayed immaculate correlation as per the Goodman-Kruskal Gamma Coefficient values which was 0.78 indicating a very large correlation. The relative density of trabecular pattern was significantly higher in radiograph before than after removal of cancellous bone with p-value less than 0.05. Conclusion: Based on these results it was adjudged that both the cancellous and endosteal surface of cortical bone contributed significantly to the trabecular pattern in an IOPA radiograph.

  18. The screening pelvic radiograph in pediatric trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, M.J.; Aickin, R.; Kolbe, A.; Teele, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Background. Pelvic radiographs are routinely obtained in adult trauma to optimise early management. In adults, pelvic fractures are associated with high early transfusion requirement, high injury severity scores and an increased incidence of other abdominal and thoracic injuries. It is unclear whether this holds true in children. Objective. To determine whether the screening pelvic radiograph is necessary in paediatric trauma. Materials and methods. The notes of all patients who presented after trauma to the Starship Children's Hospital and were triaged to the resuscitation room during 1997 were reviewed. Results of initial radiography were obtained and correlated with later imaging. Results. Our review of 444 injured children seen over a period of 1 year revealed that of 347 children who had screening pelvic radiographs, only 1 had a pelvic fracture. The fracture in this child was clinically apparent and required no specific treatment. Conclusions. The presence of a pelvic fracture is rare in injured children. By omitting screening pelvic radiographs there are potential benefits, including reduced radiation exposure to children and cost savings. Uninterpretable or abnormal clinical examination or haematuria requires further investigation, but routine screening for pelvic fracture is unnecessary. (orig.)

  19. Prevalence and pattern of radiographic intervertebral disc degeneration in Vietnamese: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Lai, Thai Q; Mai, Linh D; Doan, Minh C; Pham, Hoa N; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2015-06-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is one of the most common skeletal disorders, yet few data are available in Asian populations. We sought to assess the prevalence and pattern of radiographic IDD in a Vietnamese population. This population-based cross-sectional investigation involved 170 men and 488 women aged ≥40 years, who were randomly sampled from the Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam). Anthropometric data, clinical history and self-reported back and neck pain were ascertained by a questionnaire. Plain radiographs (from the cervical spine, thoracic spine to the lumbar spine) were examined for the presence of disc space narrowing and/or osteophytosis using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading system. The presence of radiographic IDD was defined if the KL grade was 2 or greater in at least one disc. The prevalence of radiographic IDD was 62.4% (n = 106) in men and 54.7% (n = 267) in women. The most frequently affected site was the lumbar spine with prevalence being 50.6 and 43.2% in men and women, respectively. The prevalence of IDD increased with advancing age: 18.8% among those aged 40-49 years, and increased to 83.4% in those aged ≥60 years. Self-reported neck pain and lower back pain were found in 30 and 44% of individuals, respectively. There was no statistically significant association between self-reported neck pain and cervical spine OA. These data suggest that radiographic IDD is highly prevalent in the Vietnamese population, and that self-reported back pain is not a sensitive indicator of IDD.

  20. Radiographic Relevance of the Distal Medial Cuneiform Angle in Hallux Valgus Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Daniel J; Smith, Abigail; Fowler, Troy

    2016-01-01

    The angle formed by the distal articular facet of the medial cuneiform has been evaluated and discussed by various investigators. However, no consistent method has been available to radiograph and measure this entity. The wide variability of the angle is not conducive to comparative analysis. Additionally, investigators have noted that the angles observed (obliquity) vary greatly because of changes in radiographic angle, foot position, rotation of the first ray, and declination of the first metatarsal. Recognizing that these variables exist, we propose a reproducible assessment using digital radiography and application of deformity of correction principles. Our results have indicated a mean distal medial cuneiform angle of 20.69° in normal feet, 23.51° with moderate hallux valgus, and 20.41° with severe hallux valgus deformity. The radiograph beam was kept at 15° from the coronal plane. An inverse relationship was found between the distal medial cuneiform angle and bunion severity. This was in contrast to our expected hypothesis. The overall angle of the first metatarsal-medial cuneiform did, however, correlate with the severity of the bunion deformity (p hallux valgus. A better indicator appears to be the first metatarsal-medial cuneiform angle. This pathologic entity is a 3-dimensional one that incorporates the joint morphology of the first ray, triplane osseous positioning, and soft tissue imbalances. Perhaps, 3-dimensional computed tomography imaging will provide better insight into this entity. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiographic and scintigraphic evaluation of total knee arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.; Soudry, M.

    1986-01-01

    Various radiographic and scintigraphic methods are used to supplement clinical findings in the evaluation of total knee arthroplasty and its complications. Serial roentgenograms offer reliable information for diagnosing mechanical loosening. Wide and extensive radiolucency at the cement-bone interface and shift in position and alignment of prosthetic components can be seen in almost all cases by the time revision is necessary. Radiographic abnormalities are usually not present in acute infection, but are often present in chronic infection. Bone scanning has a high sensitivity for diagnosis of infection or loosening, but is nonspecific because increased uptake is often present around asymptomatic total knee arthroplasties with normal radiographs. Differential bone and Gallium scanning and scanning with Indium 111-labeled leukocytes have a greater specificity for diagnosis of infection than does bone or Gallium scanning alone. Routine radiographic and scintigraphic studies have shown a high incidence of deep vein thrombosis in the calf after total knee arthroplasty. Clinically significant pulmonary embolization is infrequent

  2. Elimination of hand-wrist radiographs for maturity assessment in children needing orthodontic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Khal, Hessa A.; Wong, Ricky W.K.; Rabie, A.B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the validity of the cervical vertebra maturation (CVM) method as an indicator of skeletal age during the circumpubertal period by correlating the CVM method with the hand-wrist maturation (HWM) method in an attempt to eliminate the need for hand-wrist radiographs for maturity assessment. Hand-wrist and lateral cephalometric radiographs of 400 Chinese were randomly selected. The age for girls was between 10 years and 15 years and for boys it was between 12 years and 17 years, so that they were within the circumpubertal period. The CVM was assessed by a method developed by Baccetti and co-workers, whereas hand-wrist maturation was assessed by Fishman's method. The CVM was significantly correlated with HWM skeletal age. (Spearman's r boys 0.9206, girls = 0.9363). All the patients in cervical vertebra stage 3 (CVS3) of CVM corresponded to skeletal maturation indicator 2 (SMI2) or SMI3 stages of HWM (around the peak of the growth spurt). The method error was insignificant. CVM is a valid indicator of skeletal growth during the circumpubertal period. This work will provide dental practitioners with information on jaw growth modification therapy. (orig.)

  3. Elimination of hand-wrist radiographs for maturity assessment in children needing orthodontic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Khal, Hessa A.; Wong, Ricky W.K.; Rabie, A.B.M. [University of Hong Kong, Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Prince Philip Dental Hospital, Hong Kong (China)

    2008-03-15

    Our aim was to evaluate the validity of the cervical vertebra maturation (CVM) method as an indicator of skeletal age during the circumpubertal period by correlating the CVM method with the hand-wrist maturation (HWM) method in an attempt to eliminate the need for hand-wrist radiographs for maturity assessment. Hand-wrist and lateral cephalometric radiographs of 400 Chinese were randomly selected. The age for girls was between 10 years and 15 years and for boys it was between 12 years and 17 years, so that they were within the circumpubertal period. The CVM was assessed by a method developed by Baccetti and co-workers, whereas hand-wrist maturation was assessed by Fishman's method. The CVM was significantly correlated with HWM skeletal age. (Spearman's r boys = 0.9206, girls = 0.9363). All the patients in cervical vertebra stage 3 (CVS3) of CVM corresponded to skeletal maturation indicator 2 (SMI2) or SMI3 stages of HWM (around the peak of the growth spurt). The method error was insignificant. CVM is a valid indicator of skeletal growth during the circumpubertal period. This work will provide dental practitioners with information on jaw growth modification therapy. (orig.)

  4. The role of a consultant breast radiographer: A description and a reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Judith; Hogg, Peter; Henwood, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Consultant radiographers are a relatively new concept within the British healthcare system, with them being first established in 2003. Consultant radiographer job roles are broad and include advanced clinical activities (often being similar in nature to those delivered by medical practitioners, e.g. radiologists), professional leadership, teaching and education and service improvement. Given their relative novelty almost no literature exists to describe in detail specific roles of consultant breast radiographers. Consequently, in this article we use a case study approach to describe and reflect critically upon the role of one consultant breast radiographer. The article commences with a general introduction about consultant radiographers; it then progresses to outline the context in which the case study of the breast consultant radiographer sits. Through description and reflective commentary we take the reader through the role of the consultant breast radiographer to highlight where the role has had perceived value and also to highlight where the role has been particularly challenging for the post holder. As a consequence of the case study approach taken, the article is written partly in the first person (taken from interview comments made by the consultant breast radiographer) and partly in the third person. The final element of the article is a reflective commentary given by the consultant radiographer regarding her feelings about her first few years as a consultant breast radiographer

  5. Conversion into numerical form of radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappabianca, C.; Della Rocca, A.B.; Ferriani, S.

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic means are widely used for non destructive testing. However, human and technological factors strongly influence reliability of the results and further use of these technique. Image Processing can help to overtake those difficulties if radiographic films are previously digitized. This paper shows methods and equipments used in this field. The system EDI (Enea Digital. Imagery) operating in Casaccia Energy Research Centre is described

  6. Influence of radiographic contrast media on phagocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, F.; Georgsen, J.; Grunnet, N.; Aalborg Sygehus

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of radiographic contrast media (CM) on human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PML), the ability of these cells to ingest latex particles after in vitro exposure to five different radiographic contrast media was investigated. All CM inhibited the phagocytic properties of PML. The inhibition was dose dependent. The inhibitory effect was partly due to hyperosmolality but CM specific inhibition was also evident. (orig.)

  7. Chest radiographic findings in bronchogenic carcinoma in pakistani population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, M.I.; Ali, B.; Majeed, H.; Qureshi, F.

    2008-01-01

    To observe the common radiographic findings in histologically confirmed cases of bronchogenic carcinoma. This descriptive study comprised of 35 consecutive histopathologically / cytological confirmed cases of bronchogenic carcinoma that were admitted from January 2000 to April 2003 in Bahawal Victoria Hospital Bahawalpur. Plain chest radiographs were obtained in all cases Two radiologists blinded to the cell types were asked to interpret the radiographs. Hilar mass was the major manifestation in 62.8% cases. Chest radiographs showed 7 different types of lesions in four cell varieties in 35 cases, these included hilar mass in 62% cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Cavitation and rib erosion were found exclusively in squamous cell type carcinoma. In small cell carcinomas, hilar Involvement was present in 83.3% cases. Half of large cell carcinomas and one case of adenocarcinoma presented with a peripheral mass. Hilar mass was seen in 50% cases with adenocarcinoma Wide mediastinum was seen only in cases with small cell carcinoma. The chest radiograph findings in bronchogenic carcinoma has more or less a standard patterns which Can help the physician in better suspicion and diagnosis. (author)

  8. Justification of radiographic examinations: What are the key issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vom, Jason; Williams, Imelda

    2017-09-01

    Justification of radiographic examinations is the practice of evaluating requested radiological examinations to assess for clinical merit and appropriateness based on clinical notes and patient information. This implies that justification in radiography requires the evaluation of requested examinations, the justification of exposures being applied and determining whether patients fit the recommended criteria for the procedure. Medico-legal requirements by the professional registration body, the Medical Radiation Practice Board of Australia (MRPBA), identify justification as an advocated and obligatory practice for radiographers. Yet, justification remains an inconsistent practice implemented amongst Australian radiographers. This review aims to identify associated barriers inhibiting the consistent practice of justification and the hesitance by radiographers in practicing justification responsibilities. It also recommends a change in workplace culture which encourages radiographers to accept a more autonomous role that cultivates critical thinking, reflection and research-informed decision making as justification will ultimately benefit patients. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  9. Normal radiographic findings. 4. act. ed.; Roentgennormalbefunde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, T.B. [Gemeinschaftspraxis fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Dillingen (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    This book can serve the reader in three ways: First, it presents normal findings for all radiographic techniques including KM. Important data which are criteria of normal findings are indicated directly in the pictures and are also explained in full text and in summary form. Secondly, it teaches the systematics of interpreting a picture - how to look at it, what structures to regard in what order, and for what to look in particular. Checklists are presented in each case. Thirdly, findings are formulated in accordance with the image analysis procedure. All criteria of normal findings are defined in these formulations, which make them an important didactic element. (orig.)

  10. Radiographic aspects of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the miniature dachshund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirberger, R.M.; Lobetti, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The thoracic radiographic changes of Pneumocystis carinii in 7 miniature Dachshunds were reviewed, The dogs were 7-12 months old and presented with polypnea, exercise intolerance and clinical signs suggestive of immune-incompetence. P. carinii pneumonia was diagnosed in all the dogs using transtracheal aspirate cytology and confirmed at postmortemin 3 dogs that died. Radiographically, diffuse pulmonary changes we represent and varied from a mild interstitial and bronchial pattern to an alveolar pattern. Radiographic evidence of cor pulmonale was present in 1 dog. The most severe radiographic changes were seen in 2 of the dogs that died

  11. Pulp polyp - A periapical lesion: Radiographic observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandagal V Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulp polyp (PP is a chronic hyperplastic condition resulting in formation of granulation tissue and proliferative mass. The radiographic appearance of PP has innumerable presentations. Diagnosing and treatment planning of periapical lesions, heavily relies on the radiographic changes surrounding the root structures. Objective: To evaluate different radiographic periapical changes in clinically detected PP patients. Materials and Methods: Patients reporting to Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and who were clinically diagnosed with PP by an oral diagnostician were subjected to radiographic examination. Digital intraoral periapical radiographs of 50 patients with PP were taken. Various periapical changes in the digital radiographs were recorded by a skilled oral radiologist. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS ver 17.0 and P-value was set at <0.05 as significant. Result: Periapical changes like periodontal space widening (PDLW, loss of lamina dura, periapical abscess, periapical granuloma, hypercementosis, condensing osteitis and root resorption were noted. Periodontal space widening was seen in all patients (100%, loss of lamina dura was noted in 72%, periapical rarefying osteitis in 56%, condensing osteitis in 8%, hypercementosis, periapical granuloma, and root resorption were seen in 4% of PP patients. Majority of PP were asymptomatic (66%. Pulp polyp was commonly seen in mandibular first molar followed by mandibular second molar and maxillary first molar. Statistically significant difference was noticed between periapical changes in PP patients (P value <0.0001. All PP patients showed definite periapical changes suggesting it to be a periapical lesion. Conclusion: Pulp polyp is confined to the pulpal portion of the tooth which, may or may not cause changes in periapical region. The results of the present study showed that majority of the PP patients were associated with definite periapical

  12. Modeling dental radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Bureau of Radiological Health has been actively collaborating with the Clinical Investigations Branch, NIDR, in applied research involving diagnostic use of ionizing radiation in dentistry. This work has centered on the search for alternatives to conventional radiographic systems in an attempt to improve diagnostic performance while reducing the required exposure. The basic approach involves analysis of factors limiting performance of properly defined diagnostic tasks and the modeling alternative systems with an eye toward increasing objective measures of performance. Previous collaborative work involved using a nonlinear model to compare various x-ray spectra. The data were expressed as brightness-contrast versus exposure for simulated tasks of clinical interest. This report supplements these findings by extending the number of parameters under investigation and modifying the mode of data display so that an actual radiographic image can be simulated on a television screen

  13. Estimation of entrance dose on chest radiographs according to the exposure index on Computerized Radiology System: preliminary results; Estimativa de dose de entrada a partir do indice de exposicao em sistema CR: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donomai, Luana Kaoru; Jornada, Tiago da Silva; Daros, Kellen Adriana Curci, E-mail: luana.donomai@gmail.com, E-mail: tiagosjornada@gmail.com, E-mail: daros.kellen@unifesp.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Digital radiology has improved image quality in radiographs in comparison to screen/film systems though the visual control of the quantity of radiation involved on these exams became more demanding due to the low perception of over and underexposed images. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the exposure index (EI) from chest examinations and relate them to the entrance skin dose. Indices from 29 patients and kerma entrance dose were correlated. A correlation coefficient equal to 0,6881 was calculated. EI and entrance dose are correlated positive and moderately, indicating the relevance to deepen the subject. (author)

  14. Radiographic diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernia: review of 60 cases in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Changbaig

    2004-06-01

    Sixty cases of diaphragmatic hernia in dogs and cats were radiologically reviewed and categorized by their characteristic radiographic signs. Any particular predilection for age, sex, or breed was not observed. Liver, stomach and small intestine were more commonly herniated. At least two radiographs, at different angles, were required for a valid diagnosis, because some radiographic signs were not visible in a single radiographic view and more clearly detectable in two radiographic views. In addition to previously reported radiographic signs for diaphragmatic hernia, we found that the location of the stomach axis and the displacement of tracheal and bronchial segments were also useful radiographic signs.

  15. Evaluation of the styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    More Chandramani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The styloid process is an anatomical structure, whose clinical importance is not well understood. Proper clinical and radiographic evaluation can detect an elongated styloid process and calcification of the stylohyoid ligament. It has been reported that 2 - 28% of the general population show radiographic evidence of mineralization of a portion of the stylohyoid chain. The elongated styloid process may be symptomatic in many cases. Panoramic radiography is the best imaging modality to view the styloid process bilaterally. Aim: To assess the styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 500 digital panoramic radiographs available in the archives of our department as soft copies. These radiographs were taken using a digital panoramic system. The radiographic length of the styloid process was measured on both sides using the measurement toolbars on the accompanying analysis software. For statistical analysis we used the unpaired t test, Chi-square test, and one-way ANOVA test, as necessary. Results: The average length of the left styloid was 25.41 ± 6.32 mm and that of the right styloid was 25.53 ± 6.62 mm. The length of both styloids increased with age and males had longer styloids than females. Elongated styloids were present in 19.4% of the panoramic radiographs. Langlais type I elongated styloids and a partial calcification pattern were more common than others. Conclusion: Panoramic radiography is useful for detection of an elongated styloid process and / or ossification of the stylohyoid ligament in patients with or without symptoms, and helps avoid a misdiagnosis of tonsillar pain or pain of dental, pharyngeal, or muscular origin.

  16. Radiographers' commitment to continuing professional development: A single-centre evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine radiographers' commitment to continuing professional development (CPD), and to ascertain what types of activities are preferred so a model for provision of departmental activities could be developed. Methods: An online survey was used to obtain information from all departmental radiographers regarding their commitment to CPD. Statistical analysis, using Spearman's Rho and Chi-Square test, was utilised to investigate any associations. Results: All radiographers (n = 57) were invited via email. A response rate of 67% (n = 38) prevailed. Radiographers feel CPD is important and a positive correlation existed with feelings regarding compulsory CPD (r value = .718, P value = .001). Thirty-four percent had logged the SOR-recommended twelve or more pieces of CPD in the last 2 years. One to three hours a month is the preferred amount of own time radiographers are willing to dedicate. Negative correlations exist between the amount of own time radiographers are willing to commit to CPD activities and their feelings regarding compulsory CPD (r value = −.419, P value = .009), and HCPC audit (r value = −.509, P value .001). Conclusion: Although radiographers recognise the importance of CPD many spend less than four hours of their own time a month on CPD. Departmental activities should be free, short lasting, lunchtime presentations with theory presentation that encourage interaction and discussion with inclusion of practical elements. Further research investigating the barriers that prevent radiographers from partaking in CPD and the causes for insufficient CPD records is recommended. - Highlights: • The large majority of radiographers feel CPD is important or very important to them. • The majority had positive opinions regarding compulsory CPD and HCPC audit. • 50% of radiographers commit less than 4 h of their own time to CPD. • As radiographers get older they log less CPD and commit less time to CPD.

  17. Cases report of ossifying fibroma showing various radiographic appearances in posterior mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Do; Oh, Seung Hwan; Son, Hyun Jin

    2010-01-01

    Common radiographic appearances of ossifying fibroma (OF) are well demarcated margin, radiolucent or mixed lesion. Lesions for the radiographic differential diagnosis with OF include fibrous dysplasia, focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. Other confusing lesions might be the mixed lesions such as calcifying odontogenic cyst, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, and benign cementoblastoma. We reported three cases of OF in posterior mandible. These cases showed a little distinguished radiographic features of OF and diagnosed from a combination of clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic information. We need to further refine radiographic and histopathological features of OF and other confusing lesions with literatures review because some cases of these lesions are not easily differentiated radiographically and histopathologically.

  18. Cases report of ossifying fibroma showing various radiographic appearances in posterior mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Oh, Seung Hwan [School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun Jin [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Eulji University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Common radiographic appearances of ossifying fibroma (OF) are well demarcated margin, radiolucent or mixed lesion. Lesions for the radiographic differential diagnosis with OF include fibrous dysplasia, focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. Other confusing lesions might be the mixed lesions such as calcifying odontogenic cyst, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, and benign cementoblastoma. We reported three cases of OF in posterior mandible. These cases showed a little distinguished radiographic features of OF and diagnosed from a combination of clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic information. We need to further refine radiographic and histopathological features of OF and other confusing lesions with literatures review because some cases of these lesions are not easily differentiated radiographically and histopathologically.

  19. Limitations of radiographs in evaluating non-displaced osteochondral lesions of the talus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dheer, Sachin [Department of Radiology, Kennedy Health System, Cherry Hill, NJ (United States); Khan, Mustafa [University of Toledo Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Toledo, OH (United States); Zoga, Adam C.; Morrison, William B. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-04-15

    To evaluate what limitations, if any, radiographs have in detecting and characterizing the morphology of non-displaced OCLTs (size, cystic change, fragmentation, and avascular necrosis [AVN]). Thirty-three OCLTs in 32 patients were reviewed in consensus by a board-certified, fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist and orthopedic surgeon, on radiographs and MRI examinations performed within 15 days of one another. Location, dimensions, and characteristics of the OCLT (fragmentation, bone marrow edema, cystic change, and necrosis) were documented on the radiographs and MRI examinations. There was an average of 7.5 days (range: 1-15 days) between the MRIs and radiographs. Eighteen (55%) medial and 15 (45%) lateral OCLTs were found; none was displaced. OCLTs were categorized into three groups: Group 1 - initially diagnosed with radiographs (4/33; 12%), Group 2 - diagnosed with radiographs only after MRI correlation (20/33; 61%), and Group 3 - not identifiable on radiographs despite MRI correlation (9/33; 27%). The dimensions of all of the lesions in Groups 1 and 2 were underestimated on radiographs. Only 1 of the 4 (25%) lesions in Group 1 and 1 of the 20 (5%) lesions in Group 2 could be measured in the anteroposterior (AP) dimension (using a lateral radiograph). The most common radiographic appearance of non-displaced OCLTs was an ''ill-defined'' lucency at the talar dome (20/33; 61%). Across all three groups, fragmentation, cystic change, and AVN were radiographically apparent in 3/10 (30%), 4/19 (21%), and 1/6 (17%) cases respectively. Compared with MRI, radiographs are limited in their evaluation of the size (particularly the AP dimension) and characteristics (fragmentation, cystic change, and AVN) of non-displaced OCLTs. The most common appearance of non-displaced OCLTs is an ''ill-defined'' lucency at the talar dome. When this appearance is also considered, the estimated retrospective sensitivity of radiographs

  20. Physical and clinical evaluation of new high-strip-density radiographic grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, K.; Frank, P.H.; Chan, H.P.; Vyborny, C.J.; Makino, S.; Iida, N.; Carlin, M.

    1983-01-01

    The imaging performance of new high-strip-density (HSD) grids having 57 lines/cm was compared with that of conventional low-strip-density (LSD) grids having 33 or 40 lines/cm. The unique advantage of HSD grids is that, under most standard radiographic conditions, the grid lines are not noticeable on the final image, even if the grid is stationary. This is due to the combined effect of the high fundamental spatial frequency of HSD grids, the modulation transfer function of screen-film systems and of the human visual system, and scattered radiation. Monte Carlo simulation studies, phantom images, and clinical evaluation indicate that HSD grids can provide contrast improvement factors and Bucky factors that are comparable to or slightly better than those obtained with LSD grids. Therefore, it may now be possible to eliminate moving Bucky trays from radiographic tables and fluoroscopic devices

  1. Radiographic differentiation of atypical tuberculosis from mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarver, R.D.; Pearcy, E.A.; Conces, D.J. Jr.; Mathur, P.N.

    1987-01-01

    The chest radiographs of 95 patients with the new diagnosis of atypical turberculosis were reviewed to determine if any significant differences between atypical tuberculosis and that caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis could be discerned. Findings included upper lobe involvement in B4 of the 95 patients and cavities in 76, with nearly equal groups having no, moderate, or extensive surrounding alveolar disease. Nodules were common; in six patients a nodule was the sole manifestation of disease. Adenopathy was seen in 12 of the 95 patients, atlectasis in 45, pleural thickening in 90, and effusions in three. These radiographic findings did not allow the radiographic differentiation of atypical tuberculosis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

  2. Skeletal changes mimicking intrathoracic disease on chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelderen, WFC van

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Various chest radiographs are illustrated to demonstrate features where bony changes may mimic intrathoracic disease. To confirm the skeletal origin and nature, further conventional radiographs often suffice, and the need for CT or scintigraphy may therefore be obviated. At the time of presentation for radiography of the chest, further pertinent clinical details can be obtained from the patient by the department staff, as required. All previous radiographs and radiological reports should be readily available. In order to add to the educational value of the 13 cases illustrated, all are presented in quiz format, with the answers and further images included in the text.

  3. Radiographic appearance of the navicular bone in sound horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser-Hotz, B.; Ueltschi, G.

    1992-01-01

    Radiographs of the navicular bone in 523 sound horses were reviewed. Detailed evaluation criteria were used. The incidence of radiographic changes and variations in normal horses were recorded. Results were tested for right-left limb difference and for age relationship. Variation in shape and bone structure was commonly seen in the navicular bone. Radiographic changes with an incidence of less than 2% included flexor cortex defects and calcification on the flexor surface. Fragments at the distal navicular bone border, calcification in the impar ligament and enthesiophytes at the proximal border were radiographic findings with an incidence of 2% to 10%. Abnormal canals at the distal border were found in 11% horses. Elongation of the lateral proximal extremity was commonly found. The mean width of the flexor cortex was 3.6 mm

  4. A survey to assess audit mechanisms practised by skeletal reporting radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, H.C.; Manning, D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the role of plain film reporting radiographers and the methods they employ to evaluate the quality of their performance. Method: The survey was conducted in 2003. Questionnaires were sent, via the universities, to radiographers who had registered on a post-graduate musculoskeletal image interpretation course at a University in England since their introduction (9 years earlier). Results: The response rate was 37% (n = 112). Sixty-four percent of the trained reporting radiographers surveyed are creating independent reports on musculoskeletal images and an additional 15% contribute to a double reporting system. Twenty-one percent of the reporting radiographers in this study are not undertaking audit of their practice. Of the 79% who are participating in audit programmes the variety of methods being used are widespread. In order to protect against litigation, 19% of reporting radiographers have a portfolio of evidence supporting their competency; 71% have a specific job description for their advanced role; 73% of reporting radiographers are members of a trade union; and 82% of reporting radiographers work to a departmental protocol. Conclusion: The majority of reporting radiographers are participating in some form of audit. However, it is imperative that the sizeable minority who are not should initiate this process promptly. It is important that national standards are set so that these audit processes become embedded into practice for the protection of both the patient and radiographer. The inconsistency shown with regard to audit processes and protection against litigation suggests that further clarification is required from the professional bodies

  5. A survey to assess audit mechanisms practised by skeletal reporting radiographers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, H.C. [Directorate of Radiology, Royal Liverpool University Hospital Trust, Prescot Street, Liverpool L7 8XP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: helen.jones@rlbuht.nhs.uk; Manning, D. [School of Medical Imaging Sciences, St. Martin' s College, Lancaster LA1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    Purpose: This study investigates the role of plain film reporting radiographers and the methods they employ to evaluate the quality of their performance. Method: The survey was conducted in 2003. Questionnaires were sent, via the universities, to radiographers who had registered on a post-graduate musculoskeletal image interpretation course at a University in England since their introduction (9 years earlier). Results: The response rate was 37% (n = 112). Sixty-four percent of the trained reporting radiographers surveyed are creating independent reports on musculoskeletal images and an additional 15% contribute to a double reporting system. Twenty-one percent of the reporting radiographers in this study are not undertaking audit of their practice. Of the 79% who are participating in audit programmes the variety of methods being used are widespread. In order to protect against litigation, 19% of reporting radiographers have a portfolio of evidence supporting their competency; 71% have a specific job description for their advanced role; 73% of reporting radiographers are members of a trade union; and 82% of reporting radiographers work to a departmental protocol. Conclusion: The majority of reporting radiographers are participating in some form of audit. However, it is imperative that the sizeable minority who are not should initiate this process promptly. It is important that national standards are set so that these audit processes become embedded into practice for the protection of both the patient and radiographer. The inconsistency shown with regard to audit processes and protection against litigation suggests that further clarification is required from the professional bodies.

  6. Stabilized radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    A stable composition useful in preparation of technetium-99m-based radiographic scanning agents has been developed. The composition contains a stabilizing amount of gentisate stabilizer selected from gentisic acid and its soluble pharmaceutically-acceptable salts and esthers. (E.G.)

  7. An improved method to accurately calibrate the gantry angle indicators of the radiotherapy linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Liyun; Ho, S.-Y.; Du, Y.-C.; Lin, C.-M.; Chen Tainsong

    2007-01-01

    The calibration of the gantry angle indicator is an important and basic quality assurance (QA) item for the radiotherapy linear accelerator. In this study, we propose a new and practical method, which uses only the digital level, V-film, and general solid phantoms. By taking the star shot only, we can accurately calculate the true gantry angle according to the geometry of the film setup. The results on our machine showed that the gantry angle was shifted by -0.11 deg. compared with the digital indicator, and the standard deviation was within 0.05 deg. This method can also be used for the simulator. In conclusion, this proposed method could be adopted as an annual QA item for mechanical QA of the accelerator

  8. Computing eye gaze metrics for the automatic assessment of radiographer performance during X-ray image interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Laura; Bond, Raymond; Hughes, Ciara; McConnell, Jonathan; McFadden, Sonyia

    2017-09-01

    To investigate image interpretation performance by diagnostic radiography students, diagnostic radiographers and reporting radiographers by computing eye gaze metrics using eye tracking technology. Three groups of participants were studied during their interpretation of 8 digital radiographic images including the axial and appendicular skeleton, and chest (prevalence of normal images was 12.5%). A total of 464 image interpretations were collected. Participants consisted of 21 radiography students, 19 qualified radiographers and 18 qualified reporting radiographers who were further qualified to report on the musculoskeletal (MSK) system. Eye tracking data was collected using the Tobii X60 eye tracker and subsequently eye gaze metrics were computed. Voice recordings, confidence levels and diagnoses provided a clear demonstration of the image interpretation and the cognitive processes undertaken by each participant. A questionnaire afforded the participants an opportunity to offer information on their experience in image interpretation and their opinion on the eye tracking technology. Reporting radiographers demonstrated a 15% greater accuracy rate (p≤0.001), were more confident (p≤0.001) and took a mean of 2.4s longer to clinically decide on all features compared to students. Reporting radiographers also had a 15% greater accuracy rate (p≤0.001), were more confident (p≤0.001) and took longer to clinically decide on an image diagnosis (p=0.02) than radiographers. Reporting radiographers had a greater mean fixation duration (p=0.01), mean fixation count (p=0.04) and mean visit count (p=0.04) within the areas of pathology compared to students. Eye tracking patterns, presented within heat maps, were a good reflection of group expertise and search strategies. Eye gaze metrics such as time to first fixate, fixation count, fixation duration and visit count within the areas of pathology were indicative of the radiographer's competency. The accuracy and confidence of

  9. Evaluation of contrast in duplicated radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunthy, K.H.; Weinberg, R.

    1982-01-01

    This investigation evaluated changes in the contrast of duplicated radiographs made at different ultraviolet light exposures. Increasing ultraviolet light exposure had different effects on the duplicates of originals of different background densities. When correctly exposed, a duplicate radiograph enhanced contrast. When originals had the same contrast but different background densities, their duplicates did not have the same contrast. It was not possible to duplicate accurately all the different contrasts measured on an original. It was possible, however, to produce duplicates with all contrasts greater than those of the original

  10. An evaluation of radiographer performed and interpreted barium swallows and meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judson, E.E.; Nightingale, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether radiographers are able to perform and interpret barium swallows and meals (BSM) to an acceptable standard. Materials and methods: A retrospective audit was performed of all radiographer-managed BSMs over a 4-year period in an acute hospital. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse patient demographics, radiation doses, referral sources, and imaging findings. Radiographer reports were compared with radiologist reports assumed to be the reference standard, and correlated with patient outcomes via electronic record searches and case note scrutiny. Reporting accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated. Results: Three radiographers performed a total of 962 BSMs in the 4-year audit period, including a varied and complex case-mix. Only 13 (0.01%) cases were abandoned due to technical reasons, with all other examinations of diagnostic quality. Although radiation dose levels were initially variable, following the installation of modern fluoroscopy equipment they remained comfortably within the national and regional diagnostic reference levels. Consultant radiologists verified the majority of the radiographer reports, with the most experienced radiographer independently reporting 230 cases (24%). Follow-up of patient outcome was possible in 935 cases. The overall radiographer accuracy based on the 935 cases was 98.9%, sensitivity 98%, and specificity 98.9%. Conclusions: Appropriately trained radiographers are able to perform and interpret BSM examinations to a very high standard.

  11. Vascular calcifications on the preoperative radiograph: harbinger of tourniquet failure in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woelfle-Roos, Julia Verena; Dautel, Laura; Bieger, Ralf; Reichel, Heiko [University of Ulm, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ulm (Germany); Mayer, Benjamin [University of Ulm, Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometrics, Ulm (Germany); Woelfle, Klaus-Dieter [Klinikum Augsburg, Vascular Surgery Division, Surgical Center, Augsburg (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    Vascular calcifications on the preoperative radiograph of patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) often give rise to concern, as their clinical relevance remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these vascular calcifications - especially medial artery calcifications (MACs), which increase arterial stiffness - were associated with tourniquet failure and thus with increased intraoperative blood loss. A total of 765 patients who underwent primary TKA with a tourniquet (cuff pressure 350 mmHg) between 2009 and 2011 were screened for vascular calcifications on the preoperative radiograph. Vascular calcifications were classified into intimal and medial artery calcifications. Intraoperative blood loss of patients with and without MAC was compared, and a mixed linear regression model was used to adjust for the presence of several confounding factors (e.g., obesity, operating time). None of the 50 (6.5%) patients with MAC showed signs of tourniquet failure. Intraoperative blood loss of patients with MAC was not significantly elevated compared to the overall study group (p = 0.592) even when corrected for the presence of several confounding factors. We found no evidence that vascular calcifications seen on the preoperative radiograph might be associated with tourniquet failure. However, surgeons should be aware of this possibility as tourniquet failure might become more common considering the ongoing trend toward minimizing cuff pressures. (orig.)

  12. Gold-wire artifacts on diagnostic radiographs: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keestra, Johan Anton Jochum; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Quirynen, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This report described a case in which diagnostic radiographs showed irregular dense radiopaque strings and curved lines in the head and neck area. These artifacts could lead to misinterpretation since they may obscure anatomical structures and/or mask critical structures/pathologies. A more detailed history of the patient indicated that these strings originated from a facelift procedure in which a gold-wire technique was used. Considering that such intervention may cause a radiodiagnostic burden, it should be included in the anamnesis prior to radiography.

  13. Gold-wire artifacts on diagnostic radiographs: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keestra, Johan Anton Jochum; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Quirynen, Marc [Dept. of Oral Health Sciences, KU Leuven and Dentistry, University Hospitals, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-03-15

    This report described a case in which diagnostic radiographs showed irregular dense radiopaque strings and curved lines in the head and neck area. These artifacts could lead to misinterpretation since they may obscure anatomical structures and/or mask critical structures/pathologies. A more detailed history of the patient indicated that these strings originated from a facelift procedure in which a gold-wire technique was used. Considering that such intervention may cause a radiodiagnostic burden, it should be included in the anamnesis prior to radiography.

  14. A novel tool for automated evaluation of radiographic weld images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopalan, C.; Venkatraman, B.; Jayakumar, T.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Raj, B.

    2004-01-01

    Radiography is one of the oldest and the most widely used NDT method for the detection of volumetric defects in welds and castings. Once a radiograph of a weld or a casting or an assembly is taken, the radiographer examines the same. The task of the radiographer consists of identifying the defects and quantitatively evaluating the same based on codes and specifications. Radiographic interpretation primarily depends on the expertise of the individual radiographer. To overcome the subjectivity involved in human interpretation, it is thus desirable to develop a computer based automated system to aid in the interpretation of radiographs. Towards this goal, the authors have developed a flowchart chalking out the various stages involved. Typical weld images of tube to tubesheet weld joints were digitised using high resolution digitiser. The images were segmented and 52 invariant moments were computed to be used as features. The results of these are presented in this paper. Once the features (invariant moments) are extracted and ranked, a neural network classifier based on error back-propagation has to classify the (top ranking) features and evaluate the image for acceptance or rejection. (author)

  15. Evaluation of a standardised radiographic technique of the equine hoof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummer, M.; Lischer, C.; Ohlerth, S.; Vargas, J.; Auer, J.

    2004-01-01

    Radiography of the equine hoof is often used to obtain a diagnosis. Quantitative interpretation, especially for research purposes requires high quality and accuracy of radiographs. The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate a radiographic technique for the lateromedial (LM) and the dorsopalmar (DP) view of the equine hoof. Ten radiographs for each view from one cadaver limb and from both front feet in a standing horse were taken in order to assess repeatability of the radiographic technique. The method requires easy to use adjustable and portable equipment and strictly defined external radio opaque markers on the hoof capsule. The digitalised radiographs were processed and analysed with the software package Metron PXTM, measuring 13 parameters in the LM view and 10 parameters in the DP view, respectively. Results show that with few exceptions measurements of these parameters revealed a coefficient of variation that was smaller than 0.05. It was concluded that this easy to use standardised radiographic technique ensures excellent accuracy and repeatability for both the LM and DP view. Hence, this method provides an adequate tool for quantitative assessment of the equine hoof, inter- and intraindividually

  16. Chest radiographic findings in neurotuberculosis without pulmonary signs and symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurangzeb, S.; Badshah, M.; Khan, B.R.S.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the chest radiographic findings in patients of adult neurotuberculosis, with no pulmonary signs and symptoms. A total of 100 patients fulfilling pre-defined criteria of neurotuberculosis were included. Chest radiographic (CXR) evidence of pulmonary TB was looked for in those patients and its frequency, pattern and association with the clinical grades at presentation was determined by using Chi-square test. Out of the 100 patients of neurotuberculosis, with no clinical evidence of pulmonary TB, radiographic evidence of pulmonary TB was seen in only 30% patients. The predominant patterns on CXR were apical infiltration (26.6%), military mottling (20%) and hilar enlargement (16.6%). Positive CXR was found in 16.7% patients in clinical grade I and 40% and 43.3% in patients in grade II and III respectively. There was a strong association of grade II and grade III with positive chest radiographic findings (p= 0.03). Patients of neurotuberculosis may have chest radiographic evidence of pulmonary TB even in the absence of pulmonary signs and symptoms at presentation. There is a strong association of clinical grade II and grade III with positive chest radiographic findings. (author)

  17. Is the owner entitled to radiographs taken of his animal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung, K.

    1990-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany a veterinarian owns radiographs taken of animals in his practice. They have to be filed like any other results of diagnostic procedures. This is important, because evidence is required in the case of a law suit. On the other hand, it has to be stressed that taking radiographs is the subject of a free contract between owner and veterinarian. So it is possible to take the radiographs solely with the purpose of giving them to the owner, who may have them analysed by any other veterinarian of his choice. This is especially true in hip radiographs, which are evaluated and filed by an adjudicator of the breed association. In any case the radiologist has the obligation to lend the radiographs to another veterinarian on request for inspection. The second veterinarian has to give them back as soon as possible

  18. Bias lighting in a radiographic apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcbride, T.R.; Richey, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The radiographic system includes an x-ray source for irradiating a patient with x-radiation. An image intensifier receives the xradiation which has traversed the patient and produces an optical image of a radiation shadowgraph of the examined area of the patient. A television camera converts the optical image into a video signal. An image processor stores each frame of the video signal generated by the television camera as an electronic image of the optical image viewed on the image intensifier. Alternately , a plurality of frames from the television camera may be combined to produce a composite image. A bias light is provided adjacent the target of a television camera to illuminate the target before an optical image from the image intensifier is monitored by the television camera. This improves the linearity of the response of the television camera, particularly to low amplitude light intensities on the first few video frames generated by the camera

  19. Xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.A.; Smith, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an anatomic reference for the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) using xeroradiography† and conventional radiography. The entire body of three adult fish was radiographed using standard xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Two xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate the normal skeletal and soft-tissue anatomy of the channel catfish

  20. MINAC, A new radiographic inspection capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapides, M.E.; Schonberg, R.

    1983-01-01

    In service, radiographic inspection of thick section, metallic components has historically been limited to the capabilities of radioisotopic sources such as cobalt and iridium. Although practical in many applications, these sources tend to be restricted by output intensity, by resolution obtainable, and by the physical size and weight of necessary transport shielding. In nuclear plant applications, any radiography is also frequently inhibited by the presence of a radiation background from activated corrosion products on the inspection object which may fog the film before the desired exposure is achieved. In recognition of these limitations and the need for improved capability in the conduct of mandated ten-year inspection of U.S. nuclear plant components such as reactor coolant pumps, pressure vessel nozzles and valve bodies, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) undertook the development of a high energy, X-ray device appropriate for in service inspection of thick section (up to approximately 30 cm of steel) components. The development was conducted by Schonberg Radiation (U.S.A). The product, MINAC, a miniaturized linear accelerator system, has been in use in many plant inspections since April 1981. This paper describes the development and typical applications of MINAC

  1. Conventional versus virtual radiographs of the injured pelvis and acetabulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Julius A.; Rao, Allison J.; Pouliot, Michael A.; Bellino, Michael [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Beaulieu, Christopher [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Evaluation of the fractured pelvis or acetabulum requires both standard radiographic evaluation as well as computed tomography (CT) imaging. The standard anterior-posterior (AP), Judet, and inlet and outlet views can now be simulated using data acquired during CT, decreasing patient discomfort, radiation exposure, and cost to the healthcare system. The purpose of this study is to compare the image quality of conventional radiographic views of the traumatized pelvis to virtual radiographs created from pelvic CT scans. Five patients with acetabular fractures and ten patients with pelvic ring injuries were identified using the orthopedic trauma database at our institution. These fractures were evaluated with both conventional radiographs as well as virtual radiographs generated from a CT scan. A web-based survey was created to query overall image quality and visibility of relevant anatomic structures. This survey was then administered to members of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA). Ninety-seven surgeons completed the acetabular fracture survey and 87 completed the pelvic fracture survey. Overall image quality was judged to be statistically superior for the virtual as compared to conventional images for acetabular fractures (3.15 vs. 2.98, p = 0.02), as well as pelvic ring injuries (2.21 vs. 1.45, p = 0.0001). Visibility ratings for each anatomic landmark were statistically superior with virtual images as well. Virtual radiographs of pelvic and acetabular fractures offer superior image quality, improved comfort, decreased radiation exposure, and a more cost-effective alternative to conventional radiographs. (orig.)

  2. Chest radiographic features of human metapneumovirus infection in pediatric patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Daniel Dunnavant, F.; Singh, Sudha P.; Ellis, Wendy D. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nashville, TN (United States); Payne, Daniel C. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Zhu, Yuwei [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, TN (United States); Griffin, Marie R. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Health Policy, Nashville, TN (United States); Edwards, Kathryn M. [Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Williams, John V. [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-12-15

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was identified in 2001 and is a common cause of acute respiratory illness in young children. The radiologic characteristics of laboratory-confirmed HMPV acute respiratory illness in young children have not been systematically assessed. We systematically evaluated the radiographic characteristics of acute respiratory illness associated with HMPV in a prospective cohort of pediatric patients. We included chest radiographs from children <5 years old with acute respiratory illness who were enrolled in the prospective New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) study from 2003 to 2009 and were diagnosed with HMPV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Of 215 HMPV-positive subjects enrolled at our tertiary care children's hospital, 68 had chest radiographs obtained by the treating clinician that were available for review. Two fellowship-trained pediatric radiologists, independently and then in consensus, retrospectively evaluated these chest radiographs for their radiographic features. Parahilar opacities were the most commonly observed abnormality, occurring in 87% of children with HMPV. Hyperinflation also occurred frequently (69%). Atelectasis (40%) and consolidation (18%) appeared less frequently. Pleural effusion and pneumothorax were not seen on any radiographs. The clinical presentations of HMPV include bronchiolitis, croup and pneumonia. Dominant chest radiographic abnormalities include parahilar opacities and hyperinflation, with occasional consolidation. Recognition of the imaging patterns seen with common viral illnesses like respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and HMPV might facilitate diagnosis and limit unnecessary antibiotic treatment. (orig.)

  3. Chest radiographic features of human metapneumovirus infection in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Daniel Dunnavant, F.; Singh, Sudha P.; Ellis, Wendy D.; Payne, Daniel C.; Zhu, Yuwei; Griffin, Marie R.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Williams, John V.

    2017-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was identified in 2001 and is a common cause of acute respiratory illness in young children. The radiologic characteristics of laboratory-confirmed HMPV acute respiratory illness in young children have not been systematically assessed. We systematically evaluated the radiographic characteristics of acute respiratory illness associated with HMPV in a prospective cohort of pediatric patients. We included chest radiographs from children <5 years old with acute respiratory illness who were enrolled in the prospective New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) study from 2003 to 2009 and were diagnosed with HMPV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Of 215 HMPV-positive subjects enrolled at our tertiary care children's hospital, 68 had chest radiographs obtained by the treating clinician that were available for review. Two fellowship-trained pediatric radiologists, independently and then in consensus, retrospectively evaluated these chest radiographs for their radiographic features. Parahilar opacities were the most commonly observed abnormality, occurring in 87% of children with HMPV. Hyperinflation also occurred frequently (69%). Atelectasis (40%) and consolidation (18%) appeared less frequently. Pleural effusion and pneumothorax were not seen on any radiographs. The clinical presentations of HMPV include bronchiolitis, croup and pneumonia. Dominant chest radiographic abnormalities include parahilar opacities and hyperinflation, with occasional consolidation. Recognition of the imaging patterns seen with common viral illnesses like respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and HMPV might facilitate diagnosis and limit unnecessary antibiotic treatment. (orig.)

  4. Minimally invasive distal linear metatarsal osteotomy combined with selective release of lateral soft tissue for severe hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hiroyuki; Suda, Yasunori; Takeshima, Kenichiro; Kokubo, Tetsuro; Ishii, Ken; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Niki, Yasuo

    2018-03-21

    Minimally invasive techniques for hallux valgus have been widely used to treat mild to moderate hallux valgus deformities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of distal linear metatarsal osteotomy (DLMO), which is one of the minimally invasive techniques, for severe hallux valgus. 95 patients (141 feet) with severe hallux valgus underwent DLMOs. Lateral soft tissue release (LSTR) was performed at the same time for the cases selected by an original manual test. The satisfaction level, the Japanese Society of Surgery of the Foot (JSSF) hallux scale score, and weight-bearing radiographs of the foot were assessed preoperatively and after more than 24 months. In addition, the clinical and radiographic outcomes were compared among three groups divided by the kind of LSTR: no LSTR; manual correction; and open release through skin incision. Although the first metatarsal bone was significantly shortened, dorsiflexed, and elevated on postoperative radiographs, the rate of satisfaction was 87.2% (123/141), and the mean JSSF hallux scale score improved significantly from 60.4 (44-73) to 90.4 (65-100). The mean hallux valgus and intermetatarsal angles also improved significantly from 45.5° (40.0-60.0°) to 10.3° (-28.0-40.9°) and from 19.9° (14.0-28.7°) to 8.3° (-1.6-18.5°), respectively. Delayed union (18 feet), metatarsalgia (16 feet), recurrence (22 feet), and hallux varus (22 feet) were observed, and they were more obvious in DLMO combined with open release through a skin incision. DLMO combined selectively with LSTR is an effective procedure for correcting severe hallux valgus. However, the indication for open release with DLMO should be considered carefully. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. [Transparency regime: semiotics of radiographical images in urological diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M; Fangerau, H

    2012-10-01