WorldWideScience

Sample records for radioactive materials model-dependent

  1. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  2. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  3. Radioactive waste material disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  4. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  5. 46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100 Shipping... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials. (a) Radioactive materials must not be brought on board, used in any manner, or stored on the vessel, unless the...

  6. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, R

    1966-01-01

    The Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials is a handbook that details the safety guidelines in transporting radioactive materials. The title covers the various regulations and policies, along with the safety measures and procedures of radioactive material transport. The text first details the 1963 version of the IAEA regulation for the safe transport of radioactive materials; the regulation covers the classification of radionuclides for transport purposes and the control of external radiation hazards during the transport of radioactive materials. The next chapter deals with concerns in the im

  7. Radioactive Waste Material From Tapping Natural Resources ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Rocks around oil and gas and mineral deposits may contain natural radioactivity. Drilling through these rocks and bringing them to the surface creates radioactive waste materials. Once desired minerals have been removed from ore, the radionuclides left in the waste are more concentrated. Scientists call this waste Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material or simply TENORM.

  8. The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-09

    The Model 9977 Packaging is a single containment drum style radioactive material (RAM) shipping container designed, tested and analyzed to meet the performance requirements of Title 10 the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A radioactive material shipping package, in combination with its contents, must perform three functions (please note that the performance criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations have alternate limits for normal operations and after accident conditions): Containment, the package must “contain” the radioactive material within it; Shielding, the packaging must limit its users and the public to radiation doses within specified limits; and Subcriticality, the package must maintain its radioactive material as subcritical

  9. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The presentations made at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials are included. The purpose of the meeting was for the interchange of information on the technology and politics of radioactive material transportation. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual items. (DC)

  10. Nuclear radioactive techniques applied to materials research

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, João Guilherme; Wahl, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review materials characterization techniques using radioactive isotopes at the ISOLDE/CERN facility. At ISOLDE intense beams of chemically clean radioactive isotopes are provided by selective ion-sources and high-resolution isotope separators, which are coupled on-line with particle accelerators. There, new experiments are performed by an increasing number of materials researchers, which use nuclear spectroscopic techniques such as Mössbauer, Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC), beta-NMR and Emission Channeling with short-lived isotopes not available elsewhere. Additionally, diffusion studies and traditionally non-radioactive techniques as Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy, Hall effect and Photoluminescence measurements are performed on radioactive doped samples, providing in this way the element signature upon correlation of the time dependence of the signal with the isotope transmutation half-life. Current developments, applications and perspectives of using radioactive ion beams and tech...

  11. Radioactivity in returned lunar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The H-3, Ar-37, and Ar-39 radioactivities were measured at several depths in the large documented lunar rocks 14321 and 15555. The comparison of the Ar-37 activities from similar locations in rocks 12002, 14321, and 15555 gives direct measures of the amount of Ar-37 produced by the 2 November 1969 and 24 January 1971 solar flares. The tritium contents in the documented rocks decreased with increasing depths. The solar flare intensity averaged over 30 years obtained from the tritium depth dependence was approximately the same as the flare intensity averaged over 1000 years obtained from the Ar-37 measurements. Radioactivities in two Apollo 15 soil samples, H-3 in several Surveyor 3 samples, and tritium and radon weepage were also measured.

  12. Import/export Service of Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export service of radioactive material (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Radioactive Sources Service Please note that the radioactive sources service (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Moreover, the service being reduced transports between Swiss and French sites (and vice versa) will now be achieved by internal transport. Web site : http://cern.ch/service-radioactive-sources/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch

  13. Container and vehicle for transporting radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, Reese Stanton (United States)

    1977-09-30

    The invention deals with a container or tank or a packing unit designed to transport radioactive material and a vehicle for transporting this container. More specifically the invention relates to a container or a packing unit designed for transporting radioactive materials which generate heat. This container has improved heat dissipation properties and because of its particular structure, has a reduced weight. The invention also deals with the construction mode of a vehicle which permits the transport of such a container while presenting maximum resistance properties and a minimum weight.

  14. RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IN BIOSOLIDS: DOSE MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible tra...

  15. ALTERNATE MATERIALS IN DESIGN OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  16. Import/export Service of Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export service of radioactive material (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Radioactive Sources Service Please note that the radioactive sources service (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Moreover, the service being reduced, transports between Swiss and French sites (and vice versa) will now be achieved by internal transport. Web site : http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-sources@cern.ch

  17. Multimedia instructions for carriers of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahyun, A.; Sordi, G. M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Simpson, J. [Class 7 Limited, 9 Irk Vale Drive, Chadderton, Oldham OL1 2TW (United Kingdom); Ghobril, C. N. [Governo de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Economia Agricola, 04301-903 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Perez, C. F., E-mail: adelia@atomo.com.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2468, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sau Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    For some operators the transport regulations for transporting radioactive material are considered to be complicated and not user friendly and as a result for some operators it is difficult to identify all the transport regulatory requirements they must comply with for each type of package or radioactive material. These difficulties can result in self-checking being ineffective and as a consequence the first and important step in the safety chain is lost. This paper describes a transport compliance guide for operators that is currently under development for the South American market. This paper describes the scope and structure of the guide and examples of the information provided is given, which will be available in English, Portuguese and Spanish. It is intended that when the guide is launched before the end of 2013 it will be accessed using a bespoke software program that can run on Pc platform to provide a checklist for the operator before the shipment begins By identifying the regulatory requirements the guide is also intended to provide operators with an understanding of the structure of the transport regulations and an appreciation of the logic behind the regulatory requirements for each Un numbered package and material type listed in the transport regulations for radioactive material. It is foreseen that the interactive program can be used both operationally on a day-to-day basis and as a training tool, including refresher training, as the guide will be updated when the transport regulations are periodically changed. (Author)

  18. Transport of radioactive materials; Transporte de materiais radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material.

  19. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  20. Radioactivity of buildings materials available in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singovszka, E.; Estokova, A.; Mitterpach, J.

    2017-10-01

    In the last decades building materials, both of natural origin and containing industrial by-products, have been shown to significantly contribute to the exposure of the population to natural radioactivity. As a matter of fact, neither the absorbed dose rate in air due to gamma radiation nor the radon activity concentration are negligible in closed environments. The soil and rocks of the earth contains substances which are naturally radioactive and provide natural radiation exposures. The most important radioactive elements which occur in the soil and in rocks are the long lived primordial isotopes of potassium (40K), uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th). Therefore, additional exposures have to be measured and compared with respect to the natural radiation exposure. Further, it is important to estimate the potential risk from radiation from the environment. The paper presents the results of mass activities of 226Ra, 232Th a 40K radionuclides in cement mortars with addition of silica fume. The gamma index was calculated as well.

  1. Decontamination of radioactive materials (part II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akashi, Makoto; Shimomura, Satoshi; Hachiya, Misao [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Drifting agents accelerate the exchange process and thus promote to eliminate radioactive materials from human body. The earlier is the administration of the agent, the more effective is the elimination. Against the uptake of radioiodine by thyroid, anti-thyroid drug like NaI, Lugol`s iodine solution, propylthiouracil and methimazole are recommended. Ammonium chloride can be a solubilizer of radioactive strontium. Diuretics may be useful for excretion of radioisotopes of sodium, chlorine, potassium and hydrogen through diuresis. Efficacy of expectorants and inhalants is not established. Parathyroid extract induces decalcification and thus is useful for elimination of 32P. Steroids are used for compensating adrenal function and for treatment of inflammation and related symptoms. Chelating agents are useful for removing cations and effective when given early after contamination. EDTA and, particularly, DTPA are useful for elimination of heavy metals. For BAL (dimercaprol), its toxicity should be taken into consideration. Penicillamine is effective for removing copper and deferoxamine, for iron. Drugs for following radioisotopes are summarized: Am, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cf, C, Ce, Cs, Cr, Co, Cm, Eu, fission products, F, Ga, Au, H, In, I, Fe, Kr, La, PB, Mn, Hg, Np, P, Pu, Po, K, Pm, Ra, Rb, Ru, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, S, Tc, Th, U, Y, Zn and Zr. Lung and bronchia washing are effective for treatment of patients who inhaled insoluble radioactive particles although their risk-benefit should be carefully assessed. The present review is essentially based of NCRP Report No.65. (K.H.) 128 refs.

  2. Import/Export Service of Radioactive Material and Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export Service of radioactive material (http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ - e-mail : service-rp-shipping@cern.ch) and the Radioactive Sources Service (http://cern.ch/service-radioactive-sources - e-mail : service-radioactive-sources@cern.ch) at bldg. 24/E-024 will be closed on FRIDAY 10 SEPTEMBER 2004. Tel. 73171

  3. 75 FR 38168 - Hazardous Materials: International Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS-R-1); Draft Revision Available for Comment AGENCY... International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) ``Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' (TS-R... Radioactive Material (TS-R-1), to promote the safe and secure transportation of radioactive material. The IAEA...

  4. Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Hung, I. H.; Kim, K. K. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The project 'Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development' aims to be normal operation for the experiments at DUPIC fuel development facility (DFDF) and safe operation of the facility through the technology developments such as remote operation, maintenance and pair of the facility, treatment of various high level process wastes and trapping of volatile process gases. DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) can accommodate highly active nuclear materials, and now it is for fabrication of the oxide fuel by dry process characterizing the proliferation resistance. During the second stage from march 2005 to February 2007, we carried out technology development of the remote maintenance and the DFDF's safe operation, development of treatment technology for process off-gas, and development of treatment technology for PWR cladding hull and the results was described in this report.

  5. Gamma emitting radioactive materials in household dinnerware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Fawzia Ahmad

    A variety of commonly available household and tableware items and some specialty glass materials commonly found in everyday life were examined for their radioactivity content with two different detection and measurement methods. Dinnerware is produced mainly from clay and sand at high temperatures. Therefore, it should be expected to have some degree of radioactivity. It is also stored in confined places, which permits radon accumulation. The natural radioactivity due to the presence of 238U, 232Th and 40K in dinnerware used in houses was measured. Many dinnerware items from various origins that are sold on the open market were studied. Measurements of specific activities of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs radionuclide for the samples were carried out. The measurements were made by gamma-ray spectrometry having a high-purity germanium (HpGe) detector connected to a multichannel analyzer and a computer system. The average values of specific activities were (6.03 ± 0.54 to 223.67 ± 22.37 for 238U; 2.87 ± 0.14 to 513.85 ± 15.42 for 232Th; 28.67 ± 2.01 to 2726.70 ± 54.53 for 40K; and 0.592 ± 0.037 to 3.549 ± 0.248 for 137Cs) Bq kg-1, respectively. The glazed samples seemed to contribute most of the activity, although also unglazed samples showed some activity. The absorbed dose rates, radium equivalent and external hazard index were also calculated and tabulated. CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors were used to measure the radon track density, exhalation rate and effective radium content for the investigated samples. The exhalation rate was found to vary from 4.376 to 8.144 Bq m-2 d-1. It appears that foreign ceramic products, especially Chinese ones with high uranium content, eventually enter the country. The results from the two methods are compared and their combined uncertainties were estimated from the relation of relative combined variance. In Egypt, no special regulations exist concerning radioactivity in glazed earthenware. On the basis of the previous

  6. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  7. Radioactive material air transportation; Transporte aereo de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme [Varig Logistica (VARIGLOG), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation.

  8. Dossier: transport of radioactive materials; Dossier: le transport des matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignon, H. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction du Cycle du Combustible; Niel, J.Ch. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Canton, H. [CEA Cesta, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Brachet, Y. [Transnucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Turquet de Beauregard, G.; Mauny, G. [CIS bio international, France (France); Robine, F.; Plantet, F. [Prefecture de la Moselle (France); Pestel Lefevre, O. [Ministere de l`Equipement, des transports et du logement, (France); Hennenhofer, G. [BMU, Ministere de l`environnement, de la protection de la nature et de la surete des reacteurs (Germany); Bonnemains, J. [Association Robin des Bois (France)

    1997-12-01

    This dossier is entirely devoted to the transportation of radioactive and fissile materials of civil use. It comprises 9 papers dealing with: the organization of the control of the radioactive materials transport safety (safety and security aspects, safety regulations, safety analysis and inspection, emergency plans, public information), the technical aspects of the regulation concerning the transport of radioactive materials (elaboration of regulations and IAEA recommendations, risk assessments, defense in depth philosophy and containers, future IAEA recommendations, expertise-research interaction), the qualification of containers (regulations, test facilities), the Transnucleaire company (presentation, activity, containers for spent fuels), the packages of radioactive sources for medical use (flux, qualification, safety and transport), an example of accident during radioactive materials transportation: the Apach train derailment (February 4, 1997), the sea transport of radioactive materials (international maritime organization (OMI), international maritime dangerous goods (IMDG) code, irradiated nuclear fuel (INF) safety rules), the transport of radioactive materials in Germany, and the point of view from an external observer. (J.S.)

  9. Low radioactivity material for use in mounting radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Marshall; Metzger, Albert E.; Fox, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    Two materials, sapphire and synthetic quartz, have been found for use in Ge detector mounting assemblies. These materials combine desirable mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties with the radioactive cleanliness required to detect minimal amounts of K, Th, and U.

  10. IMPROVEMENT OF SECURITY SYSTEM OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ivashchenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the modern national system legislation in the field of transport of radioactive materials is presented, the drawbacks are identified and recommendations for creation of a single set of documents on safe transportation of radioactive substances, which is harmonized with the international law are developed.

  11. The safety of radioactive materials transport; La surete des transports de matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The rule of the radioactive materials transport contains two different objectives: the safety, or physical protection, consists in preventing the losses, the disappearances, the thefts and the diversions of the nuclear materials (useful materials for weapons); the high civil servant of defence near the Minister of Economy, Finance and Industry is the responsible authority; the safety consists in mastering the risks of irradiation, contamination and criticality presented by the radioactive and fissile materials transport, in order that man and environment do not undergo the nuisances. The control of the safety is within the competence of the Asn. (N.C.)

  12. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials: summary program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    This document contains summaries or abstracts of reports presented at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials. Separate indexing has been performed on individual items presented at this conference. (DC)

  13. Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahyun, Adelia; Sordi, Gian-Maria A.A. [ATOMO Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: atomo@atomo.com.br; Sanches, Matias P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: msanches@net.ipen.br

    2001-07-01

    The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

  14. Information from the Import/Export of radioactive material Service

    CERN Multimedia

    DGS Unit

    2010-01-01

    The radiation protection group reminds you that the import/export of all radioactive material must be declared in advance. In the case of exports, an EDH shipping request form must be completed, ticking the box “radioactive material”. In the case of imports, an electronic form must be completed before the material arrives on the CERN site. Any requests which do not comply with the above procedure will be refused. The import of any radioactive material that has not been declared in advance will be systematically refused. For further information, please consult the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Yann Donjoux / Radioactive Shipping Service Tél: +41 22 767.31.71 Fax: +41 22 766.92.00

  15. Miscellaneous radioactive materials detected during uranium mill tailings surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management directed the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pollutant Assessments Group in the conduct of radiological surveys on properties in Monticello, Utah, associated with the Mendaciously millsite National Priority List site. During these surveys, various radioactive materials were detected that were unrelated to the Monticello millsite. The existence and descriptions of these materials were recorded in survey reports and are condensed in this report. The radioactive materials detected are either naturally occurring radioactive material, such as rock and mineral collections, uranium ore, and radioactive coal or manmade radioactive material consisting of tailings from other millsites, mining equipment, radium dials, mill building scraps, building materials, such as brick and cinderblock, and other miscellaneous sources. Awareness of the miscellaneous and naturally occurring material is essential to allow DOE to forecast the additional costs and schedule changes associated with remediation activities. Also, material that may pose a health hazard to the public should be revealed to other regulatory agencies for consideration.

  16. Radiation safety in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, N. [National Maritime Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, H. [Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Radiation safety for sea transport of radioactive material in Japan has been discussed based on records of the exposed dose of sea transport workers and measured data of dose rate equivalents distribution inboard exclusive radioactive material shipping vessels. Recent surveyed records of the exposed doses of workers who engaged in sea transport operation indicate that exposed doses of transport workers are significantly low. Measured distribution of the exposed dose equivalents inboard those vessels indicates that dose rate equivalents inside those vessels are lower than levels regulated by the transport regulations of Japan. These facts clarify that radiation safety of inboard environment and handling of transport casks in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan are assured.

  17. Data assimilation on atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, Martin

    , radiological observations, e.g. dose rate measurements, can be used to improve these model predictions and to obtain real-time estimates of the atmospheric dispersion parameters. This thesis examines data assimilation in the context of atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials. In particular, it presents...... assimilation methods in a realistic setting. New experimental studies of atmospheric dispersion of radioactive material was carried out in October 2001 at the SCK"CEN in Mol, Belgium. In the Mol experiment, the radiation field from routine releases of 41 Ar is recorded by an array of gamma detectors along...... for evaluation of gamma dose rate models and for development and testing of data assimilation methods for atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials. The Mol dataset has been used for experimental evaluation of the Gaussian plume model and the RIMPUFF model; the results of these studies are presented...

  18. Manual of respiratory protection against airborne radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplin, J.L.; Held, B.J.; Catlin, R.J.

    1976-10-01

    The manual supplements Regulatory Guide 8.15, ''Acceptable Programs for Respiratory Protection''. It provides broad guidance for the planned use of respirators to protect individuals from airborne radioactive materials that might be encountered during certain operations. The guidance is intended for use by management in establishing and supervising programs and by operating personnel in implementing programs. Guidance is primarily directed to the use of respirators to prevent the inhalation of airborne radioactive materials. Protection against other modes of intake (e.g., absorption, swallowing, wound injection) is, in general, not covered nor is the use of protective equipment for head, eye, or skin protection.

  19. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials used in Samsun, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufan, M Çagatay; Disci, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, radioactivity levels of 35 different samples of 11 commonly used building materials in Samsun were measured by using a gamma spectrometry system. The analysis carried out with the high purity Germanium gamma spectrometry system. Radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K range from 6 to 54 Bq kg(-1), 5 to 88 Bq kg(-1) and 6 to 1070 Bq kg(-1), respectively. From these results, radium equivalent activities, gamma indexes, absorbed dose rates and annual effective doses were calculated for all samples. Obtained results were compared with the available data, and it was concluded that all the investigated materials did not have radiological risk.

  20. Behavior of radioactive materials and safety stock of contaminated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, Ikuo

    2017-01-28

    The radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster in 2011 has flowed into and accumulated in many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) via sewer systems; this has had a negative impact on WWTPs in eastern Japan. The behavior of radioactive materials was analyzed at four WWTPs in the Tohoku and Kanto regions to elucidate the mechanism by which radioactive materials are concentrated during the sludge treatment process from July 2011 to March 2013. Furthermore, numerical simulations were conducted to study the safe handling of contaminated sewage sludge stocked temporally in WWTPs. Finally, a dissolution test was conducted by using contaminated incinerated ash and melted slag derived from sewage sludge to better understand the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills. Measurements indicate that a large amount of radioactive material accumulates in aeration tanks and is becoming trapped in the concentrated sludge during the sludge condensation process. The numerical simulation indicates that a worker's exposure around contaminated sludge is less than 1 µSv/h when maintaining an isolation distance of more than 10 m, or when shielding with more than 20-cm-thick concrete. The radioactivity level of the eluate was undetectable in 9 out of 12 samples; in the remaining three samples, the dissolution rates were 0.5-2.7%.

  1. Removal of radioactive and other hazardous material from fluid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Troy J.; Knecht, Dieter A.; Todd, Terry A.; Burchfield, Larry A.; Anshits, Alexander G.; Vereshchagina, Tatiana; Tretyakov, Alexander A.; Aloy, Albert S.; Sapozhnikova, Natalia V.

    2006-10-03

    Hollow glass microspheres obtained from fly ash (cenospheres) are impregnated with extractants/ion-exchangers and used to remove hazardous material from fluid waste. In a preferred embodiment the microsphere material is loaded with ammonium molybdophosphonate (AMP) and used to remove radioactive ions, such as cesium-137, from acidic liquid wastes. In another preferred embodiment, the microsphere material is loaded with octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and used to remove americium and plutonium from acidic liquid wastes.

  2. Radioactive Material Transportation Requirements for the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Mark Earl; Fawcett, Ricky Lee; Bolander, Thane Weston

    2000-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) created the National Transportation Program (NTP) whose goal is to ensure the availability of safe, efficient, and timely transportation of DOE materials. The Integration and Planning Group of the NTP, assisted by Global Technologies Incorporated (GTI), was tasked to identify requirements associated with the transport of DOE Environmental Management (EM) radiological waste/material. A systems engineering approach was used to identify source documents, extract requirements, perform a functional analysis, and set up a transportation requirements management database in RDD-100. Functions and requirements for transporting the following DOE radioactive waste/material are contained in the database: high level radioactive waste (HLW), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW), nuclear materials (NM), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and transuranic waste (TRU waste). The requirements will be used in the development of standard transportation protocols for DOE shipping. The protocols will then be combined into a DOE Transportation Program Management Guide, which will be used to standardize DOE transportation processes.

  3. 10 CFR 76.81 - Authorized use of radioactive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorized use of radioactive material. 76.81 Section 76.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety... the certificate and/or approved compliance plan. Except as otherwise provided, the certificate or...

  4. Self-closing shielded container for use with radioactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.E.

    A container for storage of radioactive material comprises a container body and a closure member. The closure member is coupled to the container body to enable the closure body to move automatically from a first position (e.g., closed) to a second position (open).

  5. 44 years of testing radioactive materials packages at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shappert, L.B.; Ludwig, S.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This paper briefly reviews the package testing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1960 and then examines the trends in the testing activities that occurred during the same period. Radioactive material shipments have been made from ORNL since the 1940s. The first fully operating reactor built at the ORNL site was patterned after the graphite pile constructed by Enrico Fermi under Stagg Field in Chicago. After serving as a test bed for future reactors, it became useful as a producer of radioactive isotopes. The Isotopes Division was established at ORNL to furnish radioactive materials used in the medical community. Often these shipments have been transported by aircraft worldwide due to the short half-lives of many of the materials. This paper touches briefly on the lighter and smaller radioisotope packages that were being shipped from ORNL in large numbers and then deals with the testing of packages designed to handle large radioactive sources, such as spent fuel, and other fissile materials.

  6. A manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Jusko, M.J.; Wallo, A. III

    1989-06-01

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material at sites identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. 36 refs., 16 figs, 22 tabs.

  7. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This is a report on radioactivity survey in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on February, 1996. This data relates to radioactive materials such as total diet, rice, milk, vegetables, tea, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected at all over of Japan. In the survey report, followings are also contained; (1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, (2) Preparation of samples for analysis, (3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, (4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium and Potassium, (5) Counting, (6) Results, and (7) Contents of figure. (G.K.)

  8. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shappert, L.B.; Bowman, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Arnold, E.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1998-08-01

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE`s cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials.

  9. Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Miller, Andy; Bryan, Charles R; Kruichar, Jessica Nicole

    2015-04-07

    Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials are described. For example, a method of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei includes flowing a gas stream through an exhaust apparatus. The exhaust apparatus includes a metal fluorite-based inorganic material. The gas stream includes a radioactive species. The radioactive species is removed from the gas stream by adsorbing the radioactive species to the metal fluorite-based inorganic material of the exhaust apparatus.

  10. Radioactive materials in construction projects; Radioaktive Stoffe bei Baumassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Ralf; Ohlendorf, Frank [Baugrund Dresden IGmbH, Dresden (Germany); Kaltz, Andrea Christine [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Dresden (Germany). Ref. 53 (Strahlenschutz)

    2014-07-01

    Till 1990 residues often of the former uranium mining were partly used as building material for road construction, terrain compensation and house construction in Saxony. These recommendations for action are addressed to applicants, planners and building constructors in the engineering and construction sector. It provides information for planning, preliminary investigations, applications, construction supervision related to radiation protection measures and documentation of construction projects where radioactive materials are expected.

  11. Stochastic Modeling of Radioactive Material Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pope, Chad [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Nonreactor nuclear facilities operated under the approval authority of the U.S. Department of Energy use unmitigated hazard evaluations to determine if potential radiological doses associated with design basis events challenge or exceed dose evaluation guidelines. Unmitigated design basis events that sufficiently challenge dose evaluation guidelines or exceed the guidelines for members of the public or workers, merit selection of safety structures, systems, or components or other controls to prevent or mitigate the hazard. Idaho State University, in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratory, has developed a portable and simple to use software application called SODA (Stochastic Objective Decision-Aide) that stochastically calculates the radiation dose associated with hypothetical radiological material release scenarios. Rather than producing a point estimate of the dose, SODA produces a dose distribution result to allow a deeper understanding of the dose potential. SODA allows users to select the distribution type and parameter values for all of the input variables used to perform the dose calculation. SODA then randomly samples each distribution input variable and calculates the overall resulting dose distribution. In cases where an input variable distribution is unknown, a traditional single point value can be used. SODA was developed using the MATLAB coding framework. The software application has a graphical user input. SODA can be installed on both Windows and Mac computers and does not require MATLAB to function. SODA provides improved risk understanding leading to better informed decision making associated with establishing nuclear facility material-at-risk limits and safety structure, system, or component selection. It is important to note that SODA does not replace or compete with codes such as MACCS or RSAC, rather it is viewed as an easy to use supplemental tool to help improve risk understanding and support better informed decisions. The work was

  12. Radiological protection in North American naturally occurring radioactive material industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, D B

    2015-06-01

    All soils and rocks contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Many ores and raw materials contain relatively high levels of natural radionuclides, and processing such materials can further increase the concentrations of natural radionuclides, sometimes referred to as 'technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material' (TENORM). Examples of NORM minerals include uranium ores, monazite (a source of rare earth minerals), and phosphate rock used to produce phosphate fertiliser. Such activities have the potential to result in above background radiation exposure to workers and the public. The objective of this paper is to review the sources and exposure from NORM in North American industries, and provide a perspective on the potential radiological hazards to workers and the environment. Proper consideration of NORM issues is important and needs to be integrated in the assessment of these projects. Concerns over radioactivity and radiation amongst non-governmental organisations and the local public have resulted in the cancellation of NORM mining and mineral extraction projects, as well as inhibition of the safe use of by-product materials from various NORM industries. This paper also briefly comments on the current regulatory framework for NORM (TENORM) in Canada and the USA, as well as the potential implications of the recent activities of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for NORM industries. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Infrastructure development for radioactive materials at the NSLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprouster, D. J.; Weidner, R.; Ghose, S. K.; Dooryhee, E.; Novakowski, T. J.; Stan, T.; Wells, P.; Almirall, N.; Odette, G. R.; Ecker, L. E.

    2018-02-01

    The X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD) Beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source-II is a multipurpose instrument designed for high-resolution, high-energy X-ray scattering techniques. In this article, the capabilities, opportunities and recent developments in the characterization of radioactive materials at XPD are described. The overarching goal of this work is to provide researchers access to advanced synchrotron techniques suited to the structural characterization of materials for advanced nuclear energy systems. XPD is a new beamline providing high photon flux for X-ray Diffraction, Pair Distribution Function analysis and Small Angle X-ray Scattering. The infrastructure and software described here extend the existing capabilities at XPD to accommodate radioactive materials. Such techniques will contribute crucial information to the characterization and quantification of advanced materials for nuclear energy applications. We describe the automated radioactive sample collection capabilities and recent X-ray Diffraction and Small Angle X-ray Scattering results from neutron irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels and oxide dispersion strengthened steels.

  14. Safe Handling of Radioactive Materials. Recommendations of the National Committee on Radiation Protection. Handbook 92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is designed to help users of radioactive materials to handle the radioactive material without exposing themselves or others to radiation doses in excess of maximum permissible limits. The discussion of radiation levels is in terms of readings from dosimeters and survey instruments. Safety in the handling of radioactive materials in…

  15. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on August, 1998. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from April to September, 1995. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium 90 and Cesium 137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  16. Analysis of coal slag for naturally occurring radioactive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, H B; Rajaretnam, G

    1998-07-01

    Samples of aerosolized coal slag were collected during an abrasive blasting operation to determine the concentration of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the respirable and nonrespirable fractions. Each slag fraction was analyzed using alpha and gamma spectrometry. Since the slag is insoluble, it was necessary to dissolve samples completely by fusion with potassium fluoride and, after additional transposing and separation, mount the precipitate containing radium (Ra), the main radioactive component in NORM, on a membrane filter for alpha counting. The concentration of 226Ra in coal slag was independent of the particle size fraction and equal to 2.28 picocuries/gram (pCi/g) +/- 0.43 pCi/g, which is approximately twice the typical concentration of NORM in uncontaminated soil. Analysis of NORM by gamma spectrometry identified low concentrations of uranium, thorium, and potassium, all primordial radioactive materials that are commonly encountered in normal background soil. Integral exposure to workers from inhalation of NORM during abrasive blasting with coal slag is extremely low and could be essentially eliminated by use of appropriate respiratory protection. External radiation exposure to workers handling large quantities of NORM-contaminated coal slag during shipping or storage is also low, but would vary depending on the concentration of NORM in the slag.

  17. Radioactive materials and waste. Planning act of 28 jun 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The English translation contained in this booklet is based on Planning Act No. 2006-739 of 28 June 2006 and on articles L. 542-1 and following of the Environmental Code (as modified). It gathers all articles of the French law dealing with the activities of the ANDRA, the French national agency of radioactive wastes, and with the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste. It is provided for convenience purposes only. The French version remains the only valid and legally binding version. In order to enhance readability, all articles relating to ANDRA's activities are consolidated in this self-supporting document. The original French version of the new Act and of the Environmental Code, already published in the 'Journal officiel', are the only authentic biding texts.

  18. Radiation dose assessments for materials with elevated natural radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markkanen, M.

    1995-11-01

    The report provides practical information needed for evaluating the radiation dose to the general public and workers caused by materials containing elevated levels of natural radionuclides. The report presents criteria, exposure scenarios and calculations used to assess dose with respect to the safety requirements set for construction materials in accordance with the Finnish Radiation Act. A method for calculating external gamma exposure from building materials is presented in detail. The results for most typical cases are given as specific dose rates in table form to enable doses to be assessed without computer calculation. A number of such dose assessments is presented, as is the corresponding computer code. Practical investigation levels for the radioactivity of materials are defined. (23 refs.).

  19. Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baweja, Anar S.; Tracy, Bliss L.

    2008-08-01

    In Canada, nuclear and radiological regulatory responsibilities are shared between the provinces/territories and the federal government. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulates nuclear fuel cycle materials and man-made radionuclides under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (2000). The provinces and territories regulate NORM arising from industrial activities, not involving the nuclear fuel cycle materials. Present guideline—Canadian Guidelines for the Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)—was published in 2000 in order to bring uniformity to the management of NORM-related procedures to provide adequate radiation protection for workers and the general public. The basic premise of these guidelines is that the NORM-related activities should not be posing any greater hazard than those activities regulated under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act; these concepts are described in this paper.

  20. The inhalation of radioactive materials as related to hand contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.C.; Rohr, R.C.

    1953-09-15

    Tests performed to determine the hazard associated with the inhalation of radioactive materials as the result of smoking with contaminated hands indicate that for dry uranium compounds adhering to the palmar surfaces of the hands, approximately 1.0% of the material may be transferred to a cigarette, and that of this approximately 0.2% may appear in the smoke which is inhaled. Most of the contamination originally placed in a cigarette was found in the ash, and only 11% of the material was not recovered following burning; approximately half of this loss may be attributed to normal losses inherent in the analytical process, the recovery efficiency for which was found by supplementary experiments to be 95%.

  1. A glass-ceramic material for fixation of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozadzhiev L.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a starting mixture for the preparation of glass-ceramic material for radioactive waste (RW, consisting of 85-95 mass % basanite and 5-15 mass % oxides of elements in I-VIII group of the Periodical table of elements imitating RW, is proposed. The glass-ceramic material is obtained by melting the starting mixture in air at 1450°C for 1 hour and by further crystallization of the melts at 950°C for 30 minutes. It has been noticed that the texture of the glass-ceramic material is microgranular. The main mineral is pyroxene, while a mixture phases are magnetite, hematite and residual glass. It was shown that the RW elements are fixed in the pyroxene and partly in the admixture phases.

  2. Best Practices for the Security of Radioactive Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, D.T.; Musolino, S.

    2009-05-01

    This work is funded under a grant provided by the US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control. The Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) awarded a contract to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop best practices guidance for Office of Radiological Health (ORH) licensees to increase on-site security to deter and prevent theft of radioactive materials (RAM). The purpose of this document is to describe best practices available to manage the security of radioactive materials in medical centers, hospitals, and research facilities. There are thousands of such facilities in the United States, and recent studies suggest that these materials may be vulnerable to theft or sabotage. Their malevolent use in a radiological-dispersion device (RDD), viz., a dirty bomb, can have severe environmental- and economic- impacts, the associated area denial, and potentially large cleanup costs, as well as other effects on the licensees and the public. These issues are important to all Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Agreement State licensees, and to the general public. This document outlines approaches for the licensees possessing these materials to undertake security audits to identify vulnerabilities in how these materials are stored or used, and to describe best practices to upgrade or enhance their security. Best practices can be described as the most efficient (least amount of effort/cost) and effective (best results) way of accomplishing a task and meeting an objective, based on repeatable procedures that have proven themselves over time for many people and circumstances. Best practices within the security industry include information security, personnel security, administrative security, and physical security. Each discipline within the security industry has its own 'best practices' that have evolved over time into common ones. With respect to radiological devices and radioactive-materials security, industry best practices

  3. Radioactive material in residues of health services residues; Material radiactivo en residuos de servicios de salud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa R, A. Jr.; Recio, J.C. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rua General Severiano, 90- Botafogo, Rio de janeiro (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)

  4. Transport of radioactive material in Spain. current situation; Transporte de material radiactivo en Espana. Situacion actual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enriquez, C.; Gonzalez, O.; Rueda, C.

    2011-07-01

    The specific problems associated with the transport activity of radioactive material was identified in Spain during a conference organized by the SEPR and held in facilities to which ENRESA called different groups involved (carriers, shippers, shippers, counselors security authorities, first responders in emergencies, trainers, etc..) of the different sectors (transport of radiopharmaceuticals, encapsulated sources of fissile material, waste, etc.). During the day each group was able to identify specific problems associated with their and analyze the influence activity in the area of ??recent and future changes in the law applicable to the transport activity of radioactive material.

  5. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, Part 2. Dietary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on March, 1999. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from October, 1996 to March, 1997. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  6. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, Part 2. Dietary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on February, 1999. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from April, 1996 to September, 1996. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  7. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on September, 1998. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from Oct. 1995 to Mar. 1996. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium 90 and Cesium 137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  8. 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgeon, Richard W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-27

    This report provides the results of the 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources (RMUS), which was updated by the Environmental Protection (ENV) Division's Environmental Stewardship (ES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ES classifies LANL emission sources into one of four Tiers, based on the potential effective dose equivalent (PEDE) calculated for each point source. Detailed descriptions of these tiers are provided in Section 3. The usage survey is conducted annually; in odd-numbered years the survey addresses all monitored and unmonitored point sources and in even-numbered years it addresses all Tier III and various selected other sources. This graded approach was designed to ensure that the appropriate emphasis is placed on point sources that have higher potential emissions to the environment. For calendar year (CY) 2011, ES has divided the usage survey into two distinct reports, one covering the monitored point sources (to be completed later this year) and this report covering all unmonitored point sources. This usage survey includes the following release points: (1) all unmonitored sources identified in the 2010 usage survey, (2) any new release points identified through the new project review (NPR) process, and (3) other release points as designated by the Rad-NESHAP Team Leader. Data for all unmonitored point sources at LANL is stored in the survey files at ES. LANL uses this survey data to help demonstrate compliance with Clean Air Act radioactive air emissions regulations (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). The remainder of this introduction provides a brief description of the information contained in each section. Section 2 of this report describes the methods that were employed for gathering usage survey data and for calculating usage, emissions, and dose for these point sources. It also references the appropriate ES procedures for further information. Section 3 describes the RMUS and explains how the survey results are

  9. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES IN TRANSPORT CONFIGURATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, N.

    2010-03-04

    Drum type packages are routinely used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. These packages are designed to meet the federal regulations described in 10 CFR Part 71. The packages are transported in specially designed vehicles like Safe Secure Transport (SST) for safety and security. In the transport vehicles, the packages are placed close to each other to maximize the number of units in the vehicle. Since the RAM contents in the packagings produce decay heat, it is important that they are spaced sufficiently apart to prevent overheating of the containment vessel (CV) seals and the impact limiter to ensure the structural integrity of the package. This paper presents a simple methodology to assess thermal performance of a typical 9975 packaging in a transport configuration.

  10. Is anyone regulating naturally occurring radioactive material? A state survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, E.M.; Barisas, S.G.

    1993-08-01

    As far as we know, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has surrounded humankind since the beginning of time. However, recent data demonstrating that certain activities concentrate NORM have increased concern regarding its proper handling and disposal and precipitated the development of new NORM-related regulations. The regulation of NORM affects the management of government facilities as well as a broad range of industrial processes. Recognizing that NORM regulation at the federal level is extremely limited, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a 50-state survey to determine the extent to which states have assumed the responsibility for regulating NORM as well as the NORM standards that are currently being applied at the state level. Though the survey indicates that NORM regulation comprises a broad spectrum of controls from full licensing requirements to virtually no regulation at afl, a trend is emerging toward recognition of the need for increased regulation of potential NORM hazards, particularly in the absence of federal standards.

  11. 77 FR 66466 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Notice of Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... radioactive materials, a description of the materials, the name and activity of the isotope, the manufacturer... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Notice of Radioactive Materials AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD... the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve an extension of a previously...

  12. 77 FR 45612 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Notice of Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... radioactive materials, a description of the materials, the name and activity of the isotope, the manufacturer... Regulation; Information Collection; Notice of Radioactive Materials AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD... the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve an extension of a previously...

  13. Analysis of radioactivity concentration in naturally occurring radioactive materials used in coal-fired plants in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Geom; Kim, Si Young; Ji, Seung Woo; Park, Il; Kim, Min Jun; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Coals and coal ashes, raw materials and by-products, in coal-fired power plants contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). They may give rise to internal exposure to workers due to inhalation of airborne particulates containing radioactive materials. It is necessary to characterize radioactivity concentrations of the materials for assessment of radiation dose to the workers. The objective of the present study was to analyze radioactivity concentrations of coals and by-products at four coal-fired plants in Korea. High purity germanium detector was employed for analysis of uranium series, thorium series, and potassium 40 in the materials. Radioactivity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 40}K were 2⁓53 Bq kg{sup -1}, 3⁓64 Bq kg{sup -1}, and 14⁓431 Bq kg{sup -1} respectively in coal samples. For coal ashes, the radioactivity concentrations were 77⁓133 Bq kg{sup -1}, 77⁓105 Bq kg{sup -1}, and 252⁓372 Bq kg{sup -1} in fly ash samples and 54⁓91 Bq kg{sup -1}, 46⁓83 Bq kg{sup -1}, and 205⁓462 Bq kg{sup -1} in bottom ash samples. For flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, the radioactivity concentrations were 3⁓5 Bq kg{sup -1}, 2⁓3 Bq kg{sup -1}, and 22⁓47 Bq kg{sup -1}. Radioactivity was enhanced in coal ash compared with coal due to combustion of organic matters in the coal. Radioactivity enhancement factors for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 40}K were 2.1⁓11.3, 2.0⁓13.1, and 1.4⁓7.4 for fly ash and 2.0⁓9.2, 2.0⁓10.0, 1.9⁓7.7 for bottom ash. The database established in this study can be used as basic data for internal dose assessment of workers at coal-fred power plants. In addition, the findings can be used as a basic data for development of safety standard and guide of Natural Radiation Safety Management Act.

  14. Activities of the European Commission on safe transport of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerwen, I. van [Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General of Energy, Brussels (Commission of the European Communities (CEC))

    1997-12-31

    The current situation relating to the transport of radioactive material within the European Community is described with emphasis on the effect of the European Single Market. The topics covered include: recent developments in Community legislation with respect to radiation protection basic safety standards, shipment of waste and radioactive substances, and the transport of dangerous goods; the contribution of the European Commission to the continuous revision process of the IAEA transport regulations; the public perception of the transport of radioactive materials. (UK).

  15. 77 FR 24746 - Constraint on Releases of Airborne Radioactive Materials to the Environment for Licensees Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing a revision to Regulatory Guide (RG) 4.20, ``Constraint on Releases of Airborne Radioactive Materials to the Environment for Licensees other than Power Reactors.'' This RG provides guidance on methods acceptable to the NRC's staff for meeting the constraint on airborne emissions of radioactive material to the environment.

  16. Emergency response arrangements for the transport of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan-Warren, E. [Radioactive Materials Transport Div., Dept. for Transport, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Response arrangements are required for the transport of radioactive materials, under both transport and health and safety legislation, to safeguard persons, property and the environment in the event of incidents and emergencies. Responsibilities fall on both government and industry: government is responsible for ensuring public safety and providing information and reassurance. This responsibility is discharged for each type of incident by a nominated ''lead department'', supported as appropriate by other government departments and agencies; for their part, operators are obliged to have arrangements in place for dealing with the practicalities of any reasonably foreseeable incident, including recovery and onward transport of a package, and any required clean-up or restoration of the environment. This paper outlines both the government and industry arrangements in Great Britain. The principles of response and intervention are discussed, together with the lead department concept, regulatory requirements, and the plans developed by the transport industry to ensure a nation-wide response capability.

  17. Discharges of radioactive materials to the environment in Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Curti, A R

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is creating a database of information on radioactive discharges to atmospheric and aquatic environments from nuclear and radioactive installations, and from facilities using radionuclides in medicine, industry and research. The database is expected to facilitate the analysis of worldwide trends in discharge levels and provide a basis for assessing the impact of the discharges on humans and on the environment. In November 2002 took place the first meeting of national contact points and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN in Spanish) was present as the counterpart for the provision of discharge data from Argentina. This paper, presented in the above mentioned meeting, is a general overview of the radioactive discharges control in Argentina including the legal infrastructure, the population dose assessment methodology and the main characteristics of the facilities in the country with radioactive discharges to the environment. It is mentioned their location, release...

  18. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2007-05-30

    This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-23429, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (PDSA) and RPP-23479, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Facility. The main document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative accidents involving the release of dried radioactive waste materials from the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) and to the associated represented hazardous conditions. Appendices D through F provide the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative dried waste release accident and associated represented hazardous conditions for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Packaging Unit (WPU). The risk binning process uses an evaluation of the frequency and consequence of a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition to determine the need for safety structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls. A representative accident or a represented hazardous condition is assigned to a risk bin based on the potential radiological and toxicological consequences to the public and the collocated worker. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers because credible hazardous conditions with the potential for significant facility worker consequences are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls regardless of their estimated frequency. The controls for protection of the facility workers are described in RPP-23429 and RPP-23479. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described below.

  19. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-02-27

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  20. Transportation legislative data base : state radioactive materials transportation statute compilation, 1989-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-30

    The Transportation Legislative Data Base (TLDB) is a computer-based information service containing summaries of federal, state and certain local government statutes and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials in the United...

  1. EPA Actions in Response to Release of Radioactive Material from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides information about the actions EPA is taking to support and provide oversight of the WIPP release of radioactive material response effort, and provide information for the public.

  2. Transparency and dialogue: the keys of radioactive material transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neau, H.J.; Hartenstein, M. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    Today, public opinion, local actors, organizations and associations are expecting a transparent information on nuclear activities. The fact is, a great number already has daily instant access to information and is able to share it very quickly, thanks to new technologies. Public opinion's sensitiveness is a key element, as risk remains at the center of public concerns. The discrepancy between objectively assessed risks and perceived risks is a permanent challenge for acceptance of nuclear energy. The opponents are also using it, to build their misleading strategy. When anti-nuclear groups claim for an increasing involvement in the decision-making processes, they also get there the most efficient means to hamper our activities, namely operational information on the nuclear transport activities. In order to tackle this challenging issue, COGEMA and its parent company AREVA are engaged in improving their information policy. It has been extended to international and national transports commissioned by COGEMA LOGISTICS. Regarding the most recent transport operations, specific information policy has been implemented at the national and local level through media, information committees, trade unions. But, on the one hand, this policy is facing limits: transparency and openness stop where sensitivity and confidentiality start. On the other hand, opponents are building a challenging process, which is ''more and more''. Whatever the industry efforts are, opponents will remain unsatisfied as they cannot afford otherwise.Consequently, we need to assume a proactive policy in the field of the information on safety of radioactive material transportation. But above all, this policy must be dedicated to the public opinion. It must not be a way to answer to opponent's attacks. The industry's transparency and information must support public opinion's understanding of the important issues which are on progress: global access to the energy

  3. Assessment of terrestrial naturally occurring radioactive Material in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of natural radioactivity of 40K, 238U and 232Th in soils and mine tailings of Awo and Ede areas of Osunstate, Nigeria have been measured using a portable, advanced survey meter 992 Fluke Victoreen Gamma Scout Model for in-situ investigation and a 1 inch by 1 inch Cesium Iodide detector system.

  4. Mining of Radioactive Raw Materials as an Origin of the Nuclear Fuel Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedřich Michálek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The mining of radioactive raw materials may be considered as an origin of the nuclear fuel chain and thus determines the amount of radioactive wastes which have to be stored safety in the final stage of the fuel chain. The paper informs about the existing trends in mining of radioactive raw materials in the world, provides an overview of development in mining in the Czech Republic and of possibilities of future exploiting some uranium deposits. It points a possibility of non-traditional obtaining uranium from mine waters from underground uranium mines closed and flooded earlier.

  5. Education and training in transport of radioactive material; Educacao e treinamento em transporte de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Bruno Natanael; Pastura, Valeria da Fonseca e Silva; Mattar, Patricia; Dias, Carlos R. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the approach adopted by the Department of Transportation of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN, in the creation of the course of education and training distance for transport companies, as well as for national institutions directly involved with the theme transportation of radioactive materials. The course will consist of 20 modules containing exercises and further assessment of learning, and enable participants to understand the regulatory terminology, assimilating the philosophy of nuclear and radiation safety, prepare the shipment and identify and fill the complete documents required in an operation transport.

  6. Remote detection of radioactive material using high-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsung; Yu, Dongho; Sawant, Ashwini; Choe, Mun Seok; Lee, Ingeun; Kim, Sung Gug; Choi, EunMi

    2017-05-09

    Remote detection of radioactive materials is impossible when the measurement location is far from the radioactive source such that the leakage of high-energy photons or electrons from the source cannot be measured. Current technologies are less effective in this respect because they only allow the detection at distances to which the high-energy photons or electrons can reach the detector. Here we demonstrate an experimental method for remote detection of radioactive materials by inducing plasma breakdown with the high-power pulsed electromagnetic waves. Measurements of the plasma formation time and its dispersion lead to enhanced detection sensitivity compared to the theoretically predicted one based only on the plasma on and off phenomena. We show that lower power of the incident electromagnetic wave is sufficient for plasma breakdown in atmospheric-pressure air and the elimination of the statistical distribution is possible in the presence of radioactive material.

  7. Remote detection of radioactive material using high-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsung; Yu, Dongho; Sawant, Ashwini; Choe, Mun Seok; Lee, Ingeun; Kim, Sung Gug; Choi, EunMi

    2017-01-01

    Remote detection of radioactive materials is impossible when the measurement location is far from the radioactive source such that the leakage of high-energy photons or electrons from the source cannot be measured. Current technologies are less effective in this respect because they only allow the detection at distances to which the high-energy photons or electrons can reach the detector. Here we demonstrate an experimental method for remote detection of radioactive materials by inducing plasma breakdown with the high-power pulsed electromagnetic waves. Measurements of the plasma formation time and its dispersion lead to enhanced detection sensitivity compared to the theoretically predicted one based only on the plasma on and off phenomena. We show that lower power of the incident electromagnetic wave is sufficient for plasma breakdown in atmospheric-pressure air and the elimination of the statistical distribution is possible in the presence of radioactive material. PMID:28486438

  8. Remote detection of radioactive material using high-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsung; Yu, Dongho; Sawant, Ashwini; Choe, Mun Seok; Lee, Ingeun; Kim, Sung Gug; Choi, Eunmi

    2017-05-01

    Remote detection of radioactive materials is impossible when the measurement location is far from the radioactive source such that the leakage of high-energy photons or electrons from the source cannot be measured. Current technologies are less effective in this respect because they only allow the detection at distances to which the high-energy photons or electrons can reach the detector. Here we demonstrate an experimental method for remote detection of radioactive materials by inducing plasma breakdown with the high-power pulsed electromagnetic waves. Measurements of the plasma formation time and its dispersion lead to enhanced detection sensitivity compared to the theoretically predicted one based only on the plasma on and off phenomena. We show that lower power of the incident electromagnetic wave is sufficient for plasma breakdown in atmospheric-pressure air and the elimination of the statistical distribution is possible in the presence of radioactive material.

  9. Compilation of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warrant, M.M.; Ottinger, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the features that affect the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings currently certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report is based on a review of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings. Federal regulations that relate to the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings, as well as basic equations for leakage calculations and some of the available leakage test procedures are presented. The factors which affect the sealing capability of a closure, including the properties of the sealing surfaces, the gasket material, the closure method and the contents are discussed in qualitative terms. Information on the general properties of both elastomer and metal gasket materials and some specific designs are presented. A summary of the seal material, closure method, and leakage tests for currently certified packagings with large diameter seals is provided. 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Data about shipping of radioactive material for medical use; Datos sobre los envios de material radioactivo para uso medico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanches, M.P.; Rodrigues, D.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN/SP, Av.Professor Lineu Prestes No. 2242, Zip Code 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: msanches@ipen.br

    2006-07-01

    The transport of radioactive materials implies a risk for the personnel of the team, those members of the public and the environment. While the safety in the transports is based on the designs of the bulks, the programs of radiological protection are important to assure the radiological control to the workers, the public and the environment during the transport of these materials. Although the biggest interest in the transport of radioactive materials it spreads to be centered in the nuclear industry, the transport in great measure it happens for the materials of medical use. These are mainly transported in bulks of the A Type and excepted bulks. The transport ones are forced, by national regulations, to send to the competent authority, in our case the National Comissao of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), all the data of the transported materials. This work has by objective to aim the efforts made to settle down and to manage the data regarding the transported radioactive materials. The existent data in the Radiopharmaceuticals Center, of the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Investigations 'IPEN/CNEN' it contains the information on all the radioactive materials consigned for the transport during every year. A statistic of the number of deliveries of the radioactive material for the period from 2001 to 2005 is provided. Based on this statistic its are presented the number of bulks, the quantity of activity and the ways of the transport for the period in study. (Author)

  11. Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laili, Zalina, E-mail: liena@nm.gov.my [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, 43600, Selangor Malaysia (Malaysia); Waste and Environmental Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yasir, Muhamad Samudi [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, 43600, Selangor Malaysia (Malaysia); Wahab, Mohd Abdul [Waste and Environmental Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Solidification of radioactive waste resins using cement mixed with organic material i.e. biochar is described in this paper. Different percentage of biochar (0%, 5%, 8%, 11%, 14% and 18%) was investigated in this study. The characteristics such as compressive strength and leaching behavior were examined in order to evaluate the performance of solidified radioactive waste resins. The results showed that the amount of biochar affect the compressive strength of the solidified resins. Based on the data obtained for the leaching experiments performed, only one formulation showed the leached of Cs-134 from the solidified radioactive waste resins.

  12. Radioactivity measurements of ITER materials using the TFTR D-T neutron field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.; Abdou, M.A. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Science; Barnes, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kugel, H.W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Loughlin, M.J. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-08-01

    The availability of high D-T fusion neutron yields at TFTR has provided a useful opportunity to directly measure D-T neutron-induced radioactivity in a realistic tokamak fusion reactor environment for materials of vital interest to ITER. These measurements are valuable for characterizing radioactivity in various ITER candidate materials. for validating complex neutron transport calculations, and for meeting fusion reactor licensing requirements. The radioactivity measurements at TFTR involve potential ITER materials including stainless steel 316, vanadium, titanium, chromium, silicon, iron, cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, aluminum, copper, zinc. zirconium, niobium, and tungsten. Small samples of these materials were irradiated close to the plasma and just outside the vacuum vessel wall of TFTR, locations of different neutron energy spectra. Saturation activities for both threshold and capture reactions were measured. Data from dosimetric reactions have been used to obtain preliminary neutron energy spectra. Spectra from the first wall were compared to calculations from ITER and to measurements from accelerator-based tests.

  13. Material Not Categorized As Waste (MNCAW) data report. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, C.; Heath, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, requested all DOE sites storing valuable materials to complete a questionnaire about each material that, if discarded, could be liable to regulation. The Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program entered completed questionnaires into a database and analyzed them for quantities and type of materials stored. This report discusses the data that TSP gathered. The report also discusses problems revealed by the questionnaires and future uses of the data. Appendices contain selected data about material reported.

  14. Method for acid oxidation of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed organic waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robert A.; Smith, James R.; Ramsey, William G.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Bickford, Dennis F.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for reducing the volume of low level radioactive and mixed waste to enable the waste to be more economically stored in a suitable repository, and for placing the waste into a form suitable for permanent disposal. The invention involves a process for preparing radioactive, hazardous, or mixed waste for storage by contacting the waste starting material containing at least one organic carbon-containing compound and at least one radioactive or hazardous waste component with nitric acid and phosphoric acid simultaneously at a contacting temperature in the range of about 140.degree. C. to about 210 .degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the organic carbon-containing compound to gaseous products, thereby producing a residual concentrated waste product containing substantially all of said radioactive or inorganic hazardous waste component; and immobilizing the residual concentrated waste product in a solid phosphate-based ceramic or glass form.

  15. Natural radioactivity in construction materials; Natuerliche Radioaktivitaet in Bauprodukten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Bernd [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    Rocks and soils contain traces of uranium and thorium and their daughter products, also the primordial nuclide K-40. Most construction materials are produced from mineral raw materials and residuals from industrial processes, thus natural radionuclides can be detected. The radionuclide concentrations are relevant with respect to radiation protection. Radionuclides in construction materials can cause indoor radiation exposure due to their gamma radiation and due to inhalation of radon a gaseous nuclide that can diffuse out of the materials. Based on new legal developments in the European Union the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz is now again concerned with radiation protection issues of building materials.

  16. THERMLIB: a material property data library for thermal analysis of radioactive material transport casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikushima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The paper describes an heat conduction data library and graphical program for analysis of radioactive material transport casks. More than 1000 of material data are compiled in the data library which was produced by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Thermal data such as, density, thermal conductivity, specific heat, phase-change or solid-state, transition temperature and latent heat have been tabulated. Using this data library, a data library processing program THERMLIB for thermal analysis has been developed. Main features of THERMLIB are as follows: (1) data have been tabulated against temperature, (2) more than 1000 material data are available, (3) it is capable of graphical representations for thermal data and (4) not only main frame computer but also work stations (OS UNIX) and personal computer (OS Windows) are available for use of THERMLIB. In the paper, brief illustration of data library is presented in the first section. The second section presents descriptions of structural data. The third section provides an user`s guide for computer program and input data for THERMLIB. (author)

  17. IMPACLIB: a material property data library for impact analysis of radioactive material transport casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikushima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-12-01

    The paper describes the structural data library and graphical program for impact and stress analyses of radioactive material transport casks. Four kinds of material data, structure steels, stainless steels, leads and woods are compiled. These materials are main structural elements of casks. Structural data such as, coefficient of thermal expansion, modulus of longitudinal elasticity, modulus of transverse elasticity, Poisson`s ratio and stress-strain relationship have been tabulated. Main features of IMPACLIB are as follows: (1) data have been tabulated against temperature or strain rate, (2) thirteen kinds of polynominal fitting for stress-strain curve are available, (3) it is capable of graphical representations for structural data and (4) the IMPACLIB is able to be used on not only main frame computers but also work stations (OS UNIX) and personal computers (OS Windows 3.1). In the paper, brief illustration of data library is presented in the first section. The second section presents descriptions of structural data. The third section provides a user`s guide for computer program and input data for the IMPACLIB. (author)

  18. Evaluation of induced radioactivity in structural material of Toshiba Training Reactor 'TTR1'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Mikio; Kurosawa, Masahiko; Haruguchi, Yoshiko

    2005-01-01

    A decommissioning programme for the Toshiba Training Reactor (TTR1), a swimming pool type reactor used for reactor physics experiments and material irradiation, was started in August 2001. As a part of the programme, induced radioactivity in structural material was evaluated using neutron flux data obtained with the three-dimensional Sn code TORT. Induced activity was calculated with the isotope generation code ORIGEN-79 using activation cross section data created from multi-group library based on JENDL-3. The obtained results for radioactivities such as 60Co, 65Zn, 54Mn and 152Eu were compared with measured ones, and the present calculational method was confirmed to have enough accuracy.

  19. Materials and Fuels Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-09-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Fuels Complex facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  20. Characterization of brown rice as a certified reference material for Fukushima accident-related radioactivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Yasuhiro; Hachinohe, Mayumi; Hamamatsu, Shioka; Todoriki, Setsuko; Yunoki, Akira; Miura, Tsutomu

    2014-05-01

    We developed a certified reference material of brown rice to measure radioactivity from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The rice was planted in the spring of 2011, just after the Fukushima accident occurred, and it was harvested in the autumn of 2011. The certified value of radioactivity concentration in the rice was 33.6 Bq kg(-1) of Cs-134 and 51.8 Bq kg(-1) of Cs-137 on August 1, 2012. The reference material is being widely distributed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan. To determine the radioactivity and its uncertainties in the brown rice, we employed gamma-ray spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detector and Monte Carlo simulation. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  1. New spacing material for interstitial implantation of radioactive seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, J.; Hawliczek, R.; Kaercher, K.H.R.; Riccabona, M.

    1989-01-01

    Poly-p-dioxanon sutures (PDS) have been common in surgery as an absorbable material for years. After hardening by a particular procedure we use PDS pins as spacer material in interstitial I-125 implantations. The advantages of PDS are the mechanical qualities in contrast to catgut which causes hazards because of its soft consistency. PDS supports the efforts in optimization of seed distribution and dose application in interstitial radiotherapy.

  2. REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    XU, X. George; Zhang, X.C.

    2002-05-10

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying hazardous materials and in characterizing radioactive contamination, an interdisciplinary team from Rensselaer has conducted research in two aspects: (1) to develop terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging system that can be used to analyze environmental samples such as asbestos in the field, and (2) to develop algorithms for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profiles in real-time in the field using gamma spectroscopy. The basic research focused on the following: (1) mechanism of generating of broadband pulsed radiation in terahertz region, (2) optimal free-space electro-optic sampling for asbestos, (3) absorption and transmission mechanisms of asbestos in THz region, (4) the role of asbestos sample conditions on the temporal and spectral distributions, (5) real-time identification and mapping of asbestos using THz imaging, (7) Monte Carlo modeling of distributed contamination from diffusion of radioactive materials into porous concrete and asbestos materials, (8) development of unfolding algorithms for gamma spectroscopy, and (9) portable and integrated spectroscopy systems for field testing in DOE. Final results of the project show that the combination of these innovative approaches has the potential to bring significant improvement in future risk reduction and cost/time saving in DOE's D and D activities.

  3. Remote monostatic detection of radioactive material by laser-induced breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Joshua; Miao, Chenlong; Sprangle, Phillip

    2016-03-01

    This paper analyzes and evaluates a concept for remotely detecting the presence of radioactivity using electromagnetic signatures. The detection concept is based on the use of laser beams and the resulting electromagnetic signatures near the radioactive material. Free electrons, generated from ionizing radiation associated with the radioactive material, cascade down to low energies and attach to molecular oxygen. The resulting ion density depends on the level of radioactivity and can be readily photo-ionized by a low-intensity laser beam. This process provides a controllable source of seed electrons for the further collisional ionization (breakdown) of the air using a high-power, focused, CO2 laser pulse. When the air breakdown process saturates, the ionizing CO2 radiation reflects off the plasma region and can be detected. The time required for this to occur is a function of the level of radioactivity. This monostatic detection arrangement has the advantage that both the photo-ionizing and avalanche laser beams and the detector can be co-located.

  4. Container materials for isolation of radioactive waste in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streicher, M.A.; Andrews, A. (eds.)

    1987-10-01

    The workshop reviewed the extensive data on the corrosion resistance of low-carbon steel in simulated salt repository environments, determined whether these data were sufficient to recommend low-carbon steel for fabrication of the container, and assessed the suitability of other materials under consideration in the SRP. The panelists determined the need for testing and research programs, recommended experimental approaches, and recommended materials based on existing technology. On the first day of the workshop, presentations were made on waste package requirements; the expected corrosion environment; degradation processes, including a review of data from corrosion tests on carbon steel; and rationales for container design and materials, modeling studies, and planned future work. The second day was devoted to a panel caucus, presentation of workshop findings, and open discussion. 76 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Natural minerals and synthetic materials for sorption of radioactive anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Mun Ja; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Seung Soo

    1998-07-01

    Technetium-99 and iodine-129 are fission products with long half-lives, and exist as highly soluble anionic species. Studies on natural and synthetic materials sorbing TcO{sub 4} and/or I have been performed by several researchers. The application of these materials as an additive in the high-level waste disposal has been considered. The iron- or sulfide-containing minerals such as metal iron, iron powder, stibnite and pyrrhotite show a high capacity for TcO{sub 4} sorption. And the small amounts of activated carbon are reported to have high distribution coefficients recently. In the iodine sorption studies, sulfide-, copper-, lead- or mercury-containing minerals can be a candidate. Pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, Cu{sub 2}S and CuS reveal a high capacity for I sorption. The synthetic materials were found to have high sorption capacity and compensate the defects of natural minerals, which contain hydrous oxides such as zirconium oxide, aluminium oxide and mercarbide. The mercarbide has the high distribution coefficients for the sorption of TcO{sub 4} and I. Recently it was proposed that the synthetic clay, hydrotalcite, could be useful for the fixation of anion. However, to determine the applicability of those natural and synthetic materials as an additive to a buffer or backfill material for sorption of TcO{sub 4} and/or I, the sorption behavior of the anions on those materials under the repository conditions should be identified. (author). 32 refs., 21 tabs., 10 figs

  6. Radioactive Material in Scrap Metal | RadTown USA | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Sometimes radioactive materials are disposed of improperly and end up in scrap metal yards. You will probably never come into contact with contaminated scrap metal. If you think you have found contaminated scrap metal, do not touch it. Immediately contact your state radiation control office.

  7. The system of emergency cards for primary actions in accident at radioactive material transport in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananiev, V.V. [Div. of the Decommission of Nuclear and Radiation-Hazardous Object of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ermakov, S.V.; Ershov, V.N.; Stovbur, V.I. [FGUP ' ' Emergency Response Centre of Minatom of Russia' ' , St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shvedov, M.O. [Div. of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In the paper are reviewed the current and new designed system of the emergency cards for consignments of radioactive materials in Russian Federation, within the framework of a uniform state system of warning and liquidation of consequences of extraordinary situations and functional subsystem of warning and liquidation of accident situations of Federal Agency for Atomic Energy.

  8. Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.; Williams, G.P.; Tebes, C.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1995-05-01

    A preliminary radiological dose assessment related to equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials in production waste streams. The assessment evaluated the relative dose of these activities and included a sensitivity analysis of certain input parameters. Future studies and potential policy actions are recommended.

  9. Onsite transportation of radioactive materials at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, R.

    2015-03-03

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Transportation Safety Document (TSD) defines the onsite packaging and transportation safety program at SRS and demonstrates its compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) transportation safety requirements, to include DOE Order 460.1C, DOE Order 461.2, Onsite Packaging and Transfer of Materials of National Security Interest, and 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management (Subpart B).

  10. Transportation of radioactive materials issued from the fuel cycle; Transport des matieres radioactives du cycle du combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartenstein, M. [TN International (groupe AREVA), 78 - Montigny-le-Bretonneux (France)

    2011-01-15

    After a presentation of the context of radioactive material transportation (types of transported materials, applicable constraints), the author describes the different kinds of packaging used during the different stages of the fuel cycle in the case of light water reactors: ore concentrates, UF{sub 4} and UF{sub 6}, low enriched uranium oxide, impoverished uranium oxide, plutonium oxide, new UO{sub 2} and MOX fuel assemblies, irradiated fuel assemblies aimed at processing-recycling, uranyl nitrate, warehousing of irradiated fuels before final storage, wastes (high, very low, low and medium activity). He briefly evokes packaging for the case of fast neutron or fusion reactors. He discusses the various aspects of packaging design: safety function, applicable constraints and tests, design and material choice with respect with various issues (criticality, confinement, biological protection, heat transfer, mechanical resistance and shock damping properties, radiolysis and thermolysis, interfaces with transportation installations and means). He describes how packaging is exploited: life cycle management, fabrication, exploitation, maintenance and spare parts, end of life, documentation. He addresses how transportation is organised by evoking transport means and modes, and transport commissioning

  11. Corrosion of canister materials for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzler, Bernhard [KIT Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE)

    2017-08-15

    In the period between 1980 and 2004, corrosion studies on various metallic materials have been performed at the Research Center Karlsruhe. The objectives of these experimental studies addressed mainly the performance of canister materials for heat producing, high-level wastes and spent nuclear fuels for a repository in a German salt dome. Additional studies covered the performance of steels for packaging wastes with negligible heat production under conditions to be expected in rocksalt and in the Konrad iron ore mine. The results of the investigations have been published in journals and conference proceedings but also in ''grey literature''. This paper presents a summary of the results of corrosion experiments with fine-grained steels and nodular cast steel.

  12. A method of rapid testing of radioactivity of different materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Zabulonov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the detection of low-level ionising radiation in solid, liquid or loose materials, which is based on the use of the Bayesian approach for the estimation of probabilistic parameters and a special statistical criterion, is offered in the present paper. We describe the algorithm and show the advantages of the method. The approach can be effective even in the case of extremely low signals whose intensity is much less than the background radiation.

  13. Natural radioactive materials. We need/we use them; Natuerliche radioaktive Stoffe. Wir (ge-)brauchen sie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus Flesch [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Dresden (Germany). Strahlenschutz; Gellermann, Rainer [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Heuel-Fabianek, Burkhard [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); and others

    2017-04-01

    The articles in this edition present a small excerpt in the field of natural radioactive materials amongst others in the building industries, in the medical field or in scientific research. Due to the new radiation protection law, the natural occuring radioactive materials become more important to protect the general public.

  14. Natural Radioactivity in some building materials from Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miro, C. [Universidad de Extremadura (UEX), 10071-Caceres (Spain); Madruga, M.J.; Reis, M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    Studies of natural radiation are of great importance because it is the main source of exposure of human kind. Building materials is one of the sources which cause direct radiation exposure because of their radium, thorium and potassium content. The aim of this work is to measure gamma activity due to {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in samples of commonly used as a building materials in Spain. Cement, gypsum, plaster, marble, slates, granite and wood had been analysed. These materials are used for private and public building. Radium equivalent activities (Ra{sub eq}) and various hazard indices were also calculated to assess the radiation hazard. Results were also compared with the data available in the literature for other countries of the world. Cement, gypsum and plaster samples were collected from hardware stores. Marble, slates and granite samples were taken from different quarries. And the wood samples were taken from eucalyptus trees from forest. Activity concentrations {sup 40}K-, {sup 226}Ra- and {sup 232}Th-activity was determined by gamma spectrometry using a HPGe coaxial detector. The results show that the range of average values of the activity concentrations due to {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th were found between 37 and 1340 Bq/kg, 0.007 and 104 Bq/kg, and <0.005 and 75 Bq/kg, respectively. Maxima values were obtained in granite. Radium equivalent activities range from 3.7 Bq/kg to 283 Bq/kg, calculated in wood and granite, respectively. Therefore all the samples showed Raeq activities within the limit, 370 Bq/kg, set by UNSCEAR. Values of external hazard index for all samples under investigation are below the unity, while the internal hazard index for granite exhibits a value around the unity. Acknowledgements to the financial support of the Junta de Extremadura (project PRI09A092 and FEDER-group GRU09053). (authors)

  15. Data collection handbook to support modeling the impacts of radioactive material in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.J.; Jones, L.G.; Wang, Y.Y.; Faillace, E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Loureiro, C. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Chia, Y.P. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Geology

    1993-04-01

    A pathway analysis computer code called RESRAD has been developed for implementing US Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), and material-related (soil, concrete) parameters are used in the RESRAD code. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, measurement methodologies, and input screen locations. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD, the discussions and values are valid for other model applications.

  16. Radioactive waste and recoverable material in France. Summary of the National Inventory 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Thorough knowledge is needed if the various types of radioactive waste are to be managed openly, consistently and in a safe manner. All French radioactive material users have subscribed to this process for many years. Under the terms of the French Act of Parliament of 30 December 1991, the Government commissioned the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (or ANDRA) to carry out a survey of all the radioactive waste present on French Territory. Through its efforts to collect and confirm information from many sources over the years, that is mainly from statements made by waste producers and handlers, ANDRA has built up a database on existing waste and its geographical location. This constantly updated resource has been regularly circulated. At the beginning of the century the Government decided to extend the areas covered by this database, in response to the recommendations made by the National Review Board (CNE) and the Parliamentary Office for Evaluating Scientific and Technology Options (OPECST). This is how the first edition of the National Inventory, published in 2004, came about. The National Inventory of Radioactive Waste and Recoverable Material, presents a full panorama of radioactive waste that it groups into waste families that present homogenous characteristics. It describes the state of the waste that may be conditioned (that is, in its final form) or may not be conditioned (that is, has not been put through sufficient treatments to arrive at its final form) at the end of 2004. Furthermore it presents not only a statistical and geographical summary, but a predictive summary, as it provides waste quantity forecasts for 2010, 2020 and beyond. The Inventory also includes recoverable materials that contain radioactivity. They are always accounted for separately because of their special nature. The data is presented in a synthesis report. This summary is the general public version of the report. The synthesis report offers more in

  17. Protocol to treat people with wounds contaminated with radioactive material standpoint of radiological protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Amanda Gomes; Tauhata, Luiz; Reis, Arlene Alves; Cruz, Paulo Alberto Lima da, E-mail: amandglird@gmail.com, E-mail: tauhata@ird.gov.br, E-mail: prof.arlenealves@gmail.com, E-mail: palcruz@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bertelli Neto, Luiz, E-mail: lbertelli@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Health Physics Measurements, Radiation Protection, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    People who work in research laboratories, radioisotope production center or nuclear artifacts, nuclear medicine center, or allocated in the vicinity of nuclear facilities that suffered accidents or bombardment, may be subject to wound with radioactive material should have special treatment and follow a protocol of care. If insoluble, much of the material will be retained at the wound site and the treatment is based on human anatomical structure and need to be evaluated the deposition, retention, and release for dosimetric purpose. The incorporation of soluble material may enter in the blood stream, distributed through the body and be deposited in organs, causing committed dose of ionizing radiation, before being excreted. The behavior and the assessment of radiation exposure mechanism are described with the use of biokinetic models. Upon the occurrence of these events, the first aid care of these people should follow a well-established procedure according to the scenario, the degree of severity of each case and type of radioactive material involved. This paper seeks to establish a protocol for first care of people with wounds containing radioactive material as part of the preparation for their care in specialized medical center. Measurements were made with radionuclides, characteristic of each occurrence scenario, appropriate detectors for each situation, with the performance expected for each type or model for the depth of location, activity and committed dose rates involved, using tissue-equivalent material. Moreover, the estimated the activity and internal dose were made using the conversion factor obtained with AIDE software for radionuclide of interest. (author)

  18. Production and Evaluation of 236gNp and Reference Materials for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, Cyrus Kouroush

    This thesis is based on the development of a radiochemical separation scheme capable of separating both 236gNp and 236Pu from a uranium target of natural isotopic composition ( 1 g uranium) and 200 MBq of fission decay products. The isobaric distribution of fission residues produced following the bombardment of a natural uranium target with a beam of 25 MeV protons has been evaluated. Decay analysis of thirteen isobarically distinct fission residues were carried out using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry at the UK National Physical Laboratory. Stoichiometric abundances were calculated via the determination of absolute activity concentrations associated with the longest-lived members of each isobaric chain. This technique was validated by computational modelling of likely sequential decay processes through an isobaric decay chain. The results were largely in agreement with previously published values for neutron bombardments on natural uranium at energies of 14 MeV. Higher relative yields of products with mass numbers A 110-130 were found, consistent with the increasing yield of these radionuclides as the bombarding energy is increased. Using literature values for the production cross-section for fusion of protons with uranium targets, it is estimated that an upper limit of approximately 250 Bq of activity from the 236Np ground state was produced in this experiment. Using a radiochemical separation scheme, Np and Pu fractions were separated from the produced fission decay products, with analyses of the target-based final reaction products made using Inductively Couple Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high-resolution alpha and gamma-ray spectrometry. In a separate research theme, reliable measurement of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials is of significance in order to comply with environmental regulations and for radiological protection purposes. The thesis describes the standardisation of three reference materials, namely Sand, Tuff and TiO2 which

  19. AGING PERFORMANCE OF VITON GLT O-RINGS IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, E; Kerry Dunn, K; Elizabeth Hoffman, E; Elise Fox, E; Kathryn Counts, K

    2007-05-07

    Radioactive material packages used for transportation of plutonium-bearing materials often contain multiple O-ring seals for containment. Packages such as the Model 9975 are also being used for interim storage of Pu-bearing materials at the Savannah River Site (SRS). One of the seal materials used in such packages is Viton{reg_sign} GLT fluoroelastomer. The aging behavior of containment vessel O-rings based on Viton{reg_sign} GLT at long-term containment term storage conditions is being characterized to assess its performance in such applications. This paper summarizes the program and test results to date.

  20. Nondestructive NMR technique for moisture determination in radioactive materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumeier, S.; Gerald, R.E. II; Growney, E.; Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.

    1998-12-04

    This progress report focuses on experimental and computational studies used to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting, quantifying, and monitoring hydrogen and other magnetically active nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu) in Spent nuclear fuels and packaging materials. The detection of moisture by using a toroid cavity NMR imager has been demonstrated in SiO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} systems. The total moisture was quantified by means of {sup 1}H NMR detection of H{sub 2}O with a sensitivity of 100 ppm. In addition, an MRI technique that was used to determine the moisture distribution also enabled investigators to discriminate between bulk and stationary water sorbed on the particles. This imaging feature is unavailable in any other nondestructive assay (NDA) technique. Following the initial success of this program, the NMR detector volume was scaled up from the original design by a factor of 2000. The capacity of this detector exceeds the size specified by DOE-STD-3013-96.

  1. Effect of self-glazing on reducing the radioactivity levels of red mud based ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Shuo [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Wu, Bolin, E-mail: wubolin3211@gmail.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China)

    2011-12-30

    Graphical abstract: Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm{sup 3}; compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation level has clear change regularity that the radioactivity levels of red mud (6360 Bq) are obvious declined, and can be reduced to that of the natural radioactive background of Guilin Karst landform, China (3600 Bq). It will not only consume large quantities of red mud, but also decrease the production cost of self-glazing RMCM. And the statement of this paper will offer effective ways to reduce the radioactivity level of red mud. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The self-glazing phenomenon in red mud system was first discovered in our research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation levels of red mud can be reduced efficiently by self-glazing layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red mud based ceramic materials will not cause harm to environment and humans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This research possesses important economic significances to aluminum companies. - Abstract: Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm{sup 3}; compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation

  2. Standard Guide for Unrestricted Disposition of Bulk Materials Containing Residual Amounts of Radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the techniques for obtaining approval for release of materials encountered in decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) from restricted use. This would be addressed in the decommissioning plan (E 1281). It applies to materials that do not meet any of the requirements for regulatory control because of radioactivity content. Fig. 1 shows the logic diagram for determining the materials that could be considered for release. Materials that negotiate this logic tree are referred to as “candidate for release based on dose.” 1.2 The objective of this guide is to provide a methodology for distinguishing between material that must be carefully isolated to prevent human contact from that that can be recycled or otherwise disposed of. It applies to material in which the radioactivity is dispersed more or less uniformly throughout the volume of the material (termed residual in bulk form) as opposed to surface contaminated objects. 1.3 Surface contaminated objects are materials externally co...

  3. Legal aspects of the maritime transport of radioactive materials its regulation in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, S

    2001-01-01

    This work has the object to analyse the International as much as National legal frameworks, the scopes and limits of the instruments which form it as well as the congruous that exist between them and the situation which actually prevails in the maritime transport field of radioactive materials in worldwide level and in Mexico taking into account the technical advances, the operational experience and radiological protection principles. In the chapter 1, the background on the uses of nuclear energy are described and its development by more of fifty years. The chapter 2 analyses about the establishment of nuclear technologies in Mexico as well as their evolution in medicine, agriculture, research and electric power generation areas. In chapter 3 it was analysed the role what the International Organizations have been playing for the establish of an International legal framework in the maritime transport of radioactive materials field. In the chapter 4, the International legal framework was analysed which is appli...

  4. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Certificates of compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    This volume contains all Certificates of Compliance for radioactive material packages effective September 14, 1979. Purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory.

  5. Systematic Study of Trace Radioactive Impurities in Candidate Construction Materials for EXO-200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, D.S.; Grinberg, P.; Weber, P.; Baussan, E.; Djurcic, Z.; Keefer, G.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Vuilleumier, J.-M.; Akimov, D.; Bellerive, A.; Bowcock, M.; Breidenbach, M.; Burenkov, A.; Conley, R.; Craddock, W.; Danilov, M.; DeVoe, R.; Dixit, M.; Dolgolenko, A.; /Alabama U. /NRC-INMS /Neuchatel U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Colorado State U. /Laurentian U. /Maryland U. /UC, Irvine

    2007-10-24

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) will search for double beta decays of 136Xe. We report the results of a systematic study of trace concentrations of radioactive impurities in a wide range of raw materials and finished parts considered for use in the construction of EXO-200, the first stage of the EXO experimental program. Analysis techniques employed, and described here, include direct gamma counting, alpha counting, neutron activation analysis, and high-sensitivity mass spectrometry.

  6. Property Valuation and Radioactive Materials Transportation: A Legal, Economic and Public Perception Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, J. A.; Thrower, A. W.; Widmayer, D. A.; Portner, W.

    2003-02-26

    The shipment of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico raised a serious socioeconomic issue - the potential devaluation of property values due to the transportation of TRU waste from generator sites to the disposal facility. In 1992, the New Mexico Supreme Court held in City of Santa Fe v. Komis that a loss in value from public perception of risk was compensable. This issue has become an extremely important one for the development of the Yucca Mountain repository in Nevada for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Much research has been conducted about the potential impacts of transportation of spent fuel and radioactive waste. This paper examines the pertinent studies conducted since the Komis case. It examines how the public debate on radioactive materials transportation continues and is now focused on transportation of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. Finally, the paper suggests a path forward DOE can take to address this issue.

  7. Management of waste from the use of radioactive material in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education safety guide

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations and guidance on the > fulfilment of the safety requirements established in Safety Standards > Series No. WS-R-2, Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, > Including Decommissioning. It covers the roles and responsibilities of > different bodies involved in the predisposal management of radioactive > waste and in the handling and processing of radioactive material. It > is intended for organizations generating and handling radioactive > waste or handling such waste on a centralized basis for and the > regulatory body responsible for regulating such activities.  > Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the > environment; 3. Roles and responsibilities; 4. General safety > considerations; 5. Predisposal management of radioactive waste; 6. > Acceptance of radioactive waste in disposal facilities; 7. Record > keeping and reporting; 8. Management systems; Appendix I: Fault > schedule for safety assessment and environmental impact assessment; > Ap...

  8. Radioactivity decontamination of materials commonly used as surfaces in general-purpose radioisotope laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Natalia M; Tesán, Fiorella C; Zubillaga, Marcela B; Salgueiro, María J

    2014-12-01

    In accord with as-low-as-reasonably-achievable and good-manufacturing-practice concepts, the present study evaluated the efficiency of radioactivity decontamination of materials commonly used in laboratory surfaces and whether solvent spills on these materials affect the findings. Four materials were evaluated: stainless steel, a surface comprising one-third acrylic resin and two-thirds natural minerals, an epoxy cover, and vinyl-based multipurpose flooring. Radioactive material was eluted from a (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator, and samples of the surfaces were control-contaminated with 37 MBq (100 μL) of this eluate. The same procedure was repeated with samples of surfaces previously treated with 4 solvents: methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, and ethanol. The wet radioactive contamination was allowed to dry and then was removed with cotton swabs soaked in soapy water. The effectiveness of decontamination was defined as the percentage of activity removed per cotton swab, and the efficacy of decontamination was defined as the total percentage of activity removed, which was obtained by summing the percentages of activity in all the swabs required to complete the decontamination. Decontamination using our protocol was most effective and most efficacious for stainless steel and multipurpose flooring. Moreover, treatment with common organic solvents seemed not to affect the decontamination of these surfaces. Decontamination of the other two materials was less efficient and was interfered with by the organic solvents; there was also great variability in the overall results obtained for these other two materials. In expanding our laboratory, it is possible for us to select those surface materials on which our decontamination protocol works best. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  9. Naturally occurring radioactive materials in construction integrating radiation protection in Reuse

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeyers, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Construction (COST Action NORM4Building) discusses the depletion of energy resources and raw materials and its huge impact not only on the building market, but also in the development of new synthetic building materials, whereby the reuse of various (waste) residue streams becomes a necessity. It is based on the outcome of COST Action TU 1301, where scientists, regulators, and representatives from industry have come together to present new findings, sharing knowledge, experiences, and technologies to stimulate research on the reuse of residues containing enhanced concentrates of natural radionuclides (NORM) in tailor-made building materials. Chapters address legislative issues, measurement, and assessment of building materials, physical and chemical aspects, from raw materials, to residues with enhanced concentrations of natural radionuclides (NORM), processes, building products containing NORM, and end-of-life and reuse requirements. Presents a holistic app...

  10. Novel methods for estimating 3D distributions of radioactive isotopes in materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Y., E-mail: y.iwamoto0805@ruri.waseda.jp [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kataoka, J.; Kishimoto, A.; Nishiyama, T.; Taya, T.; Okochi, H.; Ogata, H. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Yamamoto, S. [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-20, Daikominami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya-shi, Aichi 461-8673 (Japan)

    2016-09-21

    In recent years, various gamma-ray visualization techniques, or gamma cameras, have been proposed. These techniques are extremely effective for identifying “hot spots” or regions where radioactive isotopes are accumulated. Examples of such would be nuclear-disaster-affected areas such as Fukushima or the vicinity of nuclear reactors. However, the images acquired with a gamma camera do not include distance information between radioactive isotopes and the camera, and hence are “degenerated” in the direction of the isotopes. Moreover, depth information in the images is lost when the isotopes are embedded in materials, such as water, sand, and concrete. Here, we propose two methods of obtaining depth information of radioactive isotopes embedded in materials by comparing (1) their spectra and (2) images of incident gamma rays scattered by the materials and direct gamma rays. In the first method, the spectra of radioactive isotopes and the ratios of scattered to direct gamma rays are obtained. We verify experimentally that the ratio increases with increasing depth, as predicted by simulations. Although the method using energy spectra has been studied for a long time, an advantage of our method is the use of low-energy (50–150 keV) photons as scattered gamma rays. In the second method, the spatial extent of images obtained for direct and scattered gamma rays is compared. By performing detailed Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4, we verify that the spatial extent of the position where gamma rays are scattered increases with increasing depth. To demonstrate this, we are developing various gamma cameras to compare low-energy (scattered) gamma-ray images with fully photo-absorbed gamma-ray images. We also demonstrate that the 3D reconstruction of isotopes/hotspots is possible with our proposed methods. These methods have potential applications in the medical fields, and in severe environments such as the nuclear-disaster-affected areas in Fukushima.

  11. BENTONITE-QUARTZ SAND AS THE BACKFILL MATERIALS ON THE RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY

    OpenAIRE

    Raharjo Raharjo

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of the contribution of quartz sand in the bentonite mixture as the backfill materials on the shallow land burial of radioactive waste has been done. The experiment objective is to determine the effect of quartz sand in a bentonite mixture with bentonite particle sizes of -20+40, -40+60, and -60+80 mesh on the retardation factor and the uranium dispersion in the simulation of uranium migration in the backfill materials. The experiment was carried out by the fixed bed metho...

  12. Assessment of the natural radioactivity and radiological hazards in Turkish cement and its raw materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, S

    2008-02-01

    The natural radioactivity due to presence of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K radionuclides in raw materials, intermediate products (clinker) and end products (22 different cement types) was measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry with HPGe detector. The specific radioactivity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the analyzed cement samples ranged from 12.5+/-0.3 to 162.5+/-1.7Bqkg(-1) with a mean of 40.5+/-26.7Bqkg(-1), 6.7+/-0.3 to 124.9+/-2.5Bqkg(-1) with a mean of 26.1+/-18.9Bqkg(-1) and 64.4+/-2.3 to 679.3+/-18.2Bqkg(-1) with a mean of 267.1+/-102.4Bqkg(-1), respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), the gamma-index, the emanation coefficient, the (222)Rn mass exhalation rate and the indoor absorbed dose rate were estimated for the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in all samples. The calculated Ra(eq) values of cement samples (37.2+/-8.7-331.1+/-15.5Bqkg(-1) with a mean of 98.3+/-53.8) are lower than the limit of 370Bqkg(-1) set for building materials. The Ra(eq) values were compared with the corresponding values for cement of different countries. The mean indoor absorbed dose rate is slightly higher than the population-weighted average of 84nGyh(-1).

  13. Radioactive materials system of the ININ (SMATRAD); Sistema de Materiales Radiactivos del ININ (SMATRAD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero G, E.; Ledezma F, L.E.; Valdivia R, D. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The radioactive iodine (I-131) it is an isotope created starting from the iodine with the purpose of emitting radiation for medicinal use. When a small dose of I-131 is ingested, this is absorbed in the sanguine torrent in the gastrointestinal tract (Gl) and it is concentrated by the blood on the thyroid gland, where it begins to destroy the cells. This treatment makes that the activity of the thyroid decreases in great measure and in some cases it can transform an hyperactive thyroid in a hypoactive thyroid which requires additional treatments. The sodium iodide I-131 is one of the products elaborated and marketed by the ININ in the Radiopharmaceuticals and Radioisotopes production plant, dependent of the Radioactive Material Department of the Nuclear Applications in the Health Management. The Plant is the only one in its type that exists in the country, it has Sanitary License and Good Practice of Production Certificate, emitted by the Secretary of Health, and licenses for the handling and the transportation of radioactive material, sent by the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards. Also, the quality system of the plant is certified under the ISO 9001:2000 standard. (Author)

  14. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawl, Richard R [ORNL; Scofield, Patricia A [ORNL; Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low

  15. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  16. Mixed-layered bismuth--oxygen--iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2015-01-06

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  17. IAEA-447: a new certified reference material for environmental radioactivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhashiro, A; Tarjan, S; Ceccatelli, A; Kis-Benedek, G; Betti, M

    2012-08-01

    The environment program of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) includes activities to produce and certify reference materials for environmental radioactivity measurements. This paper describes methodologies applied in preparation and certification of the new IAEA-447 moss-soil certified reference material. In this work, the massic activities and associated standard uncertainties of (40)K, (90)Sr, (137)Cs, (208)Tl, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (212)Pb, (214)Pb, (214)Bi, (226)Ra, (228)Ac, (234)Th, (234)U, (238)U, (238)Pu, (239+240)Pu, (241)Pu and (241)Am were established. Details of the analytical methods including radiochemical procedures were reported. Analytical challenges and lessons learned from the reported results in the worldwide IAEA proficiency test using this material was summarized and best analytical practices to improve the performance for environmental radioactivity determinations were recommended. IAEA-447 is an important reference material for quality control and method validation of gamma-ray spectrometry and radiochemical analytical procedures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transportation legislative data base: State radioactive materials transportation statute compilation, 1989--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    The Transportation Legislative Data Base (TLDB) is a computer-based information service containing summaries of federal, state and certain local government statutes and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The TLDB has been operated by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) under cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management since 1992. The data base system serves the legislative and regulatory information needs of federal, state, tribal and local governments, the affected private sector and interested members of the general public. Users must be approved by DOE and NCSL. This report is a state statute compilation that updates the 1989 compilation produced by Battelle Memorial Institute, the previous manager of the data base. This compilation includes statutes not included in the prior compilation, as well as newly enacted laws. Statutes not included in the prior compilation show an enactment date prior to 1989. Statutes that deal with low-level radioactive waste transportation are included in the data base as are statutes from the states of Alaska and Hawaii. Over 155 new entries to the data base are summarized in this compilation.

  19. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the Shpack site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J.J.; Yu, C.; Monette, F.; Jones, L.

    1991-08-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the Shpack site in Norton, Massachusetts. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Shpack site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following decontamination. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation. Three potential scenarios were considered for the site; the scenarios vary with regard to time spent at the site, sources of water used, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded for uranium (including uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) within 1000 years, provided that the soil concentration of combined uranium (uranium-234 and uranium-238) at the Shpack site does not exceed the following levels: 2500 pCi/g for Scenario A (recreationist: the expected scenario); 1100 pCi/g for Scenario B (industrial worker: a plausible scenario); and 53 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident farmer using a well water as the only water source: a possible but unlikely scenario). The uranium guidelines derived in this report apply to the combined activity concentration of uranium-234 and uranium-238 and were calculated on the basis of a dose of 100 mrem/yr. In setting the actual uranium guidelines for the Shpack site, DOE will apply the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy to the decision-making process, along with other factors, such as whether a particular scenario is reasonable and appropriate. 8 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, T.E.

    1993-11-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines were derived for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) Environmental Restoration (ER) site in Davis, California. The guideline derivation was based on a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code was used in this evaluation. This code implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three potential site utilization scenarios were considered with the assumption that following ER action, the site will be used without radiological restrictions. The defined scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded, provided that the soil concentrations of these radionuclides at the LEHR site do not exceed the scenario-specific values calculated by this study. Except for the extent of the contaminated zone (which is very conservative), assumptions used are as site-specific as possible, given available information. The derived guidelines are single- radionuclide guidelines and are linearly proportional to the dose limit used in the calculations. In setting the actual residual soil contamination guides for the LEHR site, DOE will apply the as low as reasonably achievable policy to the decision-making process, along with other factors such as whether a particular scenario is reasonable and appropriate, as well as using site-specific inputs to computer models based on data not yet fully determined.

  1. Assessing the management system to demonstrate the safe of transport of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Natanael C.; Mattar, Patricia M.; Pontes, Andre T., E-mail: nbruno@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pmattar@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: atpontes@id.uff.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Radioactive materials are used for medical purposes, to avoid greenhouse gas effect in energy production plants, food and other products sterilization, research and sophisticated measurement technologies. Transport of radioactive material involves a range of actors each one having specific responsibilities for safety. Through Management System, consignors and carriers fulfil objective evidences that safety requirements are met in practice, while compliance assurance programs allow regulatory bodies and/or competent authorities to demonstrate to society that public, workers and environment are protected. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), safety has to be achieved and maintained through an effective management system. This system should integrate all elements of management so that requirements for safety are established and applied consistently with other requirements, including those related to human performance, quality and security, and that safety is not compromised by other requirements or demands. Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), the Brazilian Regulatory Body for the safe transport of radioactive materials, adopt international standards to establish safety requirements deemed relevant for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property, and to provide for the application of these standards. Seeking for continuous improvement, the adherence of the practices adopted by CNEN's Transport Safety Unit (TSU) against the recommendations from the IAEA was assessed. This assessment led to the elaboration of proposals for improvement as well as the identification of good practices. The methodology used to perform this assessment was the SARIS methodology, developed by the IAEA. This paper will describe the most relevant findings of this study. (author)

  2. Malevolent use of radioactive materials: An international exercise in the analysis of gamma-spectrometric data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowdall, M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Palsson, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    with isotopes and activities that present significant challenges with respect to identification and quantification using gamma ray spectrometry. The MALRAD international exercise was designed to provide a practice opportunity for authorities and laboratories to work with synthetic gamma-spectrometric data......The past years have seen a broadening in the focus of emergency preparedness and first response towards situations involving the malevolent use of radioactive materials in a variety of contexts. Many of these contexts are such that first responders and responsible authorities may be faced...

  3. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Summary report of NRC approved packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages for radioactive material packages effective September 14, 1979. Purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory.

  4. Kalman filtration of radiation monitoring data from atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, M.; Lauritzen, B.; Madsen, H.

    2004-01-01

    A Kalman filter method using off-site radiation monitoring data is proposed as a tool for on-line estimation of the source term for short-range atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials. The method is based on the Gaussian plume model, in which the plume parameters including the source term...... exhibit a ‘random walk’ process. The embedded parameters of the Kalman filter are determined through maximum-likelihood estimation making the filter essentially free of external parameters. The method is tested using both real and simulated radiation monitoring data. For simulated data, the method...

  5. A monitoring programme for the detection of illicit radioactive materials entering UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tattersall, P.; Macdonald, A.; Mccoll, N. [Health Protection Agency, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    A trial of 'portal' monitoring systems for the detection of radioactive materials entering the UK was undertaken at three seaports in 20 02. This was project Cyclamen, co-ordinated by the Home Office and operated by H M Customs and Excise officers. Following the trial Operation Cyclamen commenced in 2004 extending the detection capabilities to different types of traffic and utilising both fixed and mobile detection systems. This paper considers the radiological protection aspects, both regulatory and operational, of Cyclamen operations and reviews some detection events. Risk assessment, training provision and the development of scenarios for multi-agency table-top exercises are considered in greater detail.

  6. BENTONITE-QUARTZ SAND AS THE BACKFILL MATERIALS ON THE RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raharjo Raharjo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the contribution of quartz sand in the bentonite mixture as the backfill materials on the shallow land burial of radioactive waste has been done. The experiment objective is to determine the effect of quartz sand in a bentonite mixture with bentonite particle sizes of -20+40, -40+60, and -60+80 mesh on the retardation factor and the uranium dispersion in the simulation of uranium migration in the backfill materials. The experiment was carried out by the fixed bed method in the column filled by the bentonite mixture with a bentonite-to-quartz sand weight percent ratio of 0/100, 25/75, 50/50, 75/25, and 100/0 on the water saturated condition flown by uranyl nitrate solution at concentration (Co of 500 ppm. The concentration of uranium in the effluents in interval 15 minutes represented as Ct was analyzed by spectrophotometer, then using Co and Ct, retardation factor (R and dispersivity ( were determined. The experiment data showed that the bentonite of -60+80 mesh and the quartz sand of -20+40 mesh on bentonite-to-quartz sand with weight percent ratio of 50/50 gave the highest retardation factor and dispersivity of 18.37 and 0.0363 cm, respectively.   Keywords: bentonite, quartz sand, backfill materials, radioactive waste

  7. Materials science and biophysics applications at the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, U

    2011-01-01

    The ISOLDE isotope separator facility at CERN provides a variety of radioactive ion beams, currently more than 800 different isotopes from ~65 chemical elements. The radioisotopes are produced on-line by nuclear reactions from a 1.4 GeV proton beam with various types of targets, outdiffusion of the reaction products and, if possible, chemically selective ionisation, followed by 60 kV acceleration and mass separation. While ISOLDE is mainly used for nuclear and atomic physics studies, applications in materials science and biophysics account for a significant part (currently ~15%) of the delivered beam time, requested by 18 different experiments. The ISOLDE materials science and biophysics community currently consists of ~80 scientists from more than 40 participating institutes and 21 countries. In the field of materials science, investigations focus on the study of semiconductors and oxides, with the recent additions of nanoparticles and metals, while the biophysics studies address the toxicity of metal ions i...

  8. Refuses and delays in the transportation by ship of radioactive material; Recusas e demoras no transporte maritimo de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Clarice; Sobreira, Ana Celia [REM Industria e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    Some Class 7 materials can only be transported by ship, making that load and unload activities can be done in a port. In the Brazil, the port of Santos posses the most volume of cargo manipulation, and cargoes which contain radioactive material are always present with all manipulation requisites according to applicable regulations. The transport and manipulation operations of radioactive material are performed in accordance with national and international requisites but, some individuals posses yet a high risk perception according to our experience, involving members of Brazilian port authorities, the Navy and cargoes handlers at the ports. So, exist yet a high quantity of refuses and delays during the transport by ship. Therefore, a communication strategy was developed and applied, to inform the risk perception, supplying information on the very principles of ionizing radiation, legislation and uses of radiation, and so, diminishing the quantity of refuses and delays. From that initial communication strategy on, it becomes evident the necessity of training and conscience making a movement for the problem of refuses and delays be diminished

  9. A workshop on developing risk assessment methods for medical use of radioactive material. Volume 1: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortorelli, J.P. [ed.] [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-08-01

    A workshop was held at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, August 16--18, 1994 on the topic of risk assessment on medical devices that use radioactive isotopes. Its purpose was to review past efforts to develop a risk assessment methodology to evaluate these devices, and to develop a program plan and a scoping document for future methodology development. This report contains a summary of that workshop. Participants included experts in the fields of radiation oncology, medical physics, risk assessment, human-error analysis, and human factors. Staff from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) associated with the regulation of medical uses of radioactive materials and with research into risk-assessment methods participated in the workshop. The workshop participants concurred in NRC`s intended use of risk assessment as an important technology in the development of regulations for the medical use of radioactive material and encouraged the NRC to proceed rapidly with a pilot study. Specific recommendations are included in the executive summary and the body of this report. An appendix contains the 8 papers presented at the conference: NRC proposed policy statement on the use of probabilistic risk assessment methods in nuclear regulatory activities; NRC proposed agency-wide implementation plan for probabilistic risk assessment; Risk evaluation of high dose rate remote afterloading brachytherapy at a large research/teaching institution; The pros and cons of using human reliability analysis techniques to analyze misadministration events; Review of medical misadministration event summaries and comparison of human error modeling; Preliminary examples of the development of error influences and effects diagrams to analyze medical misadministration events; Brachytherapy risk assessment program plan; and Principles of brachytherapy quality assurance.

  10. Statistics on the traffic of radioactive material, and the resulting radiation exposures, in the European Union and applicant countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, J.S. [NRPB, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Lizot, M.T. [IRSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Trivelloni, S. [APAT, Rome (Italy); Schwarz, G. [GRS, Cologne (Germany); Hienen, J.F.A. van [NRG, Petten (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    Radioactive materials of natural or artificial origin are of widespread use across the world and are transported within and between countries. A wide range of materials are transported, from small quantities of radiopharmaceuticals for medical use to highly radioactive spent nuclear fuel and vitrified wastes arising from the nuclear fuel cycle. The handling and transport of these radioactive materials can give rise to radiation exposure of workers, and of members of the public. Statistical information on the transport of radioactive material and the radiation doses arising from these operations are important to: demonstrate the efficacy of the IAEA Transport Regulations, provide support for the continuous review and revision process of the IAEA Transport Regulations, provide guidance and support to national, regional and international transport regulatory activities, support and guide compliance assurance, provide data for assessing and evaluating the doses and risks to workers and to members of the public, identify needs and trends in national and international transport activities, and provide factual information to assist in addressing public concern on these issues. A study has been carried out on behalf of the European Commission in 2001/ 2002 by expert organisations in five EU Member States with two main objectives: To collect and compile information on the type, volume and radiological characteristic of, and the doses from radioactive material shipments in the European Union (EU) and in the countries applying for accession to the EU, and To perform statistical analyses on the traffic of radioactive material shipments in EU Member States and in the applicant countries, where possible, by: type of package, type of transport, radiation exposures of workers and members of the public, and, use of radioactive material. This paper summarises the methods and principal findings of that study.

  11. Fracture mechanics based design for radioactive material transport packagings -- Historical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.A.; Salzbrenner, D.; Sorenson, K.; McConnell, P.

    1998-04-01

    The use of a fracture mechanics based design for the radioactive material transport (RAM) packagings has been the subject of extensive research for more than a decade. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has played an important role in the research and development of the application of this technology. Ductile iron has been internationally accepted as an exemplary material for the demonstration of a fracture mechanics based method of RAM packaging design and therefore is the subject of a large portion of the research discussed in this report. SNL`s extensive research and development program, funded primarily by the U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation, Energy Management and Analytical Services (EM-76) and in an auxiliary capacity, the office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, is summarized in this document along with a summary of the research conducted at other institutions throughout the world. In addition to the research and development work, code and standards development and regulatory positions are also discussed.

  12. Analysis of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abkowitz, M.D.; Abkowitz, S.B.; Lepofsky, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report examines the extent of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials. It is seen principally as a scoping effort, to establish whether there is a need for DOE to undertake a more formal approach to studying human factors in radioactive waste transport, and if so, logical directions for that program to follow. Human factors effects are evaluated on driving and loading/transfer operations only. Particular emphasis is placed on the driving function, examining the relationship between human error and safety as it relates to the impairment of driver performance. Although multi-modal in focus, the widespread availability of data and previous literature on truck operations resulted in a primary study focus on the trucking mode from the standpoint of policy development. In addition to the analysis of human factors accident statistics, the report provides relevant background material on several policies that have been instituted or are under consideration, directed at improving human reliability in the transport sector. On the basis of reported findings, preliminary policy areas are identified. 71 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Standards and guidelines pertinent to the development of decommissioning criteria for sites contaminated with radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, H.W.

    1978-08-01

    A review of existing health and safety standards and guidelines has been undertaken to assist in the development of criteria for the decontamination and decommissioning of property contaminated with radioactive material. During the early years of development of the nuclear program in the United States, a number of sites were used which became contaminated with radioactive material. Many of these sites are no longer useful for nuclear activities, and the U.S. DOE desires to develop criteria for the management of these sites for future uses. Radiation protection standards promulgated by ICRP, NCRP, and ANSI have been considered. Government regulations, from the Code of Federal Regulations and the legal codes of various states, as well as regulatory guidelines with specific application to decommissioning of nuclear facilities also have been reviewed. In addition, recommendations of other scientific organizations such as the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council Advisory Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation were considered. Finally, a few specific recommendations and discussions from current literature were included. 28 references.

  14. Data Collection Handbook to Support Modeling Impacts of Radioactive Material in Soil and Building Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Charley [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kamboj, Sunita [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Cheng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cheng, Jing-Jy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This handbook is an update of the 1993 version of the Data Collection Handbook and the Radionuclide Transfer Factors Report to support modeling the impact of radioactive material in soil. Many new parameters have been added to the RESRAD Family of Codes, and new measurement methodologies are available. A detailed review of available parameter databases was conducted in preparation of this new handbook. This handbook is a companion document to the user manuals when using the RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE code. It can also be used for RESRAD-BUILD code because some of the building-related parameters are included in this handbook. The RESRAD (onsite) has been developed for implementing U.S. Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), crops and livestock, human intake, source characteristic, and building characteristic parameters are used in the RESRAD (onsite) code. The RESRAD-OFFSITE code is an extension of the RESRAD (onsite) code and can also model the transport of radionuclides to locations outside the footprint of the primary contamination. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, and measurement methodologies. It also provides references for sources of additional information. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD Family of Codes, the discussions and values are valid for use of other pathway analysis models and codes.

  15. Dose control in road transport of radioactive material; Controle de dose em transporte rodoviario de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerulis, Eduardo

    2013-07-01

    The radiation doses to workers in the transport of radioactive material should be as low as reasonably achievable. The average doses of drivers and loaders, sampled in this thesis should be decreased. The demonstration of doses control in a road vehicle with radioactive material required by the current Brazilian regulation, CNEN NE 5.01 should be written in its own printed form with exposure values obtained in normally occupied positions from workers and members of the public, even when the consignment does not need 'exclusive use' (⅀IT ≤50). Through bibliographic research, modeling and field research, this research work shows that this demonstration of the control should be done by writing the registration accumulation of load, limited (⅀IT ≤50), also in the own printed form. It is for a better control method, in order to avoid the use of measuring equipment, to build standardization with foreign regulations, to the current occupational doses of radioprotection technicians, the costs and time, (important for consignment with radiopharmaceuticals short half-life) would be all smaller. Exposure values of the parameters used with this method are smaller than regulatory limits. The segregation distances between loads and the cabins of vehicles shall be showed by Brazilian regulation updated to contribute to these aims. (author)

  16. Communications issues for international radioactive materials transport, Post 9/11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.A. [International Transport, BNFL, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Hartenstein, M. [Transport External Affairs, Marketing, Sales and Projects Div., Cogema Logistics, Saint Quentin en Yvelines (France); Nawano, M. [Transport Headquarters, Overseas Reprocessing Committee, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11{sup th} 2001 in New York and Washington (9/11) have increased government, public and media concern over terrorist attacks in general and attack on transport systems in particular. Antinuclear groups have increasingly made unsubstantiated claims about the terrorist threat to Radioactive Materials Transport and the consequences of such a threat being realised. At the same time, the international and national security regulations relating to Nuclear Materials Transport have been reviewed and tightened since 9/11. These changes have in some cases restricted the information that can be made publicly available. It is against this background that the Industry must operate and seek to inform the public through its communications activities whilst remaining within the new security framework of security regulations. These activities must necessarily provide sufficient information to counter the incorrect claims made by opponents, allay fears of the public as far as possible and provide factual and scientifically rigorous data without compromising security.

  17. Compendium of federal and state radioactive materials transportation laws and regulations: Transportation Legislative Database (TLDB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-01

    The Transportation Legislative Database (TLDB) is an on-line information service containing detailed information on legislation and regulations regarding the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The system is dedicated to serving the legislative and regulatory information needs of the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies; state, tribal, and local governments; the hazardous materials transportation industry; and interested members of the general public. In addition to the on-line information service, quarterly and annual Legal Developments Reports are produced using information from the TLDB. These reports summarize important changes in federal and state legislation, regulations, administrative agency rulings, and judicial decisions over the reporting period. Information on significant legal developments at the tribal and local levels is also included on an as-available basis. Battelle's Office of Transportation Systems and Planning (OTSP) will also perform customized searches of the TLDB and produce formatted printouts in response to specific information requests.

  18. THERMAL EVALUATION OF DRUM TYPE RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING ARRAYS IN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, N

    2009-04-27

    Drum type packages are routinely used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. These packages are designed to meet the federal regulations described in 10 CFR 71.[1] In recent years, there has been a greater need to use these packagings to store the excess fissile material, especially plutonium for long term storage. While the design requirements for safe transportation of these packagings are well defined, the requirements for safe long term storage are not well established. Since the RAM contents in the packagings produce decay heat, it is important that they are stored carefully to prevent overheating of the containment vessel (CV) seals to prevent any leakage and the impact limiter to maintain the package structural integrity. This paper analyzes different storage arrays for a typical 9977 packaging for thermal considerations and makes recommendations for their safe storage under normal operating conditions.

  19. Smuggling of radioactive substances. Swedish capacity to detect and analyze; Smuggling av radioaktivt material. Sveriges foermaaga till detektion och analys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringbom, A.; Spjuth, L. [Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-04-01

    This report is the result of a survey of the existing Swedish national capability to detect an attempt to smuggle nuclear material or other radioactive substances. The capacity to perform a more thorough analysis of a seized sample has also been investigated. The study shows that Sweden today has a small capacity to disclose a smuggling attempt of such materials. The limited detection capacity that exists is not sensitive enough for this purpose, and is not used in an optimal way. Furthermore, relevant education of the custom officers is needed. Today, a national capability for an initial analysis of seized material exists, but action plans describing the handling of the material should be resolved. The high number of seizures of radioactive material in countries having a better detection capability indicates that illicit trafficking of radioactive materials is still a problem. In Sweden, we so far do not have many reported incidents of illicit trafficking - partly due to our limited capacity to detect radioactive material - however, we do not know how many incidents that really have occurred. Fixed installations for detection at the border controls are the most efficient way to improve our capacity for detecting nuclear material. An initial pilot study is suggested to be able to estimate the need. Increased education of the custom officers, establishment of formal routines for handling and analysis of seized materials, and to formalise the contacts with international analysis laboratories are also identified as important factors to be improved.

  20. Evolution of cement based materials in a repository for radioactive waste and their chemical barrier function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzler, Bernhard; Metz, Volker; Schlieker, Martina; Bohnert, Elke [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE)

    2015-07-01

    The use of cementitious materials in nuclear waste management is quite widespread. It covers the solidification of low/intermediate-level liquid as well as solid wastes (e.g. laboratory wastes) and serves as shielding. For both high-level and intermediate-low level activity repositories, cement/concrete likewise plays an important role. It is used as construction material for underground and surface disposals, but more importantly it serves as barrier or sealing material. For the requirements of waste conditioning, special cement mixtures have been developed. These include special mixtures for the solidification of evaporator concentrates, borate binding additives and for spilling solid wastes. In recent years, low-pH cements were strongly discussed especially for repository applications, e.g. (Celine CAU DIT COUMES 2008; Garcia-Sineriz, et al. 2008). Examples for relevant systems are Calcium Silicate Cements (ordinary Portland cement (OPC) based) or Calcium Aluminates Cements (CAC). Low-pH pore solutions are achieved by reduction of the portlandite content by partial substitution of OPC by mineral admixtures with high silica content. The blends follow the pozzolanic reaction consuming Ca(OH){sub 2}. Potential admixtures are silica fume (SF) and fly ashes (FA). In these mixtures, super plasticizers are required, consisting of polycarboxilate or naphthalene formaldehyde as well as various accelerating admixtures (Garcia-Sineriz, et al. 2008). The pH regime of concrete/cement materials may stabilize radionuclides in solution. Newly formed alteration products retain or release radionuclides. An important degradation product of celluloses in cement is iso-saccharin acid. According to Glaus 2004 (Glaus and van Loon 2004), it reacts with radionuclides forming dissolved complexes. Apart from potentially impacting radionuclide solubility limitations, concrete additives, radionuclides or other strong complexants compete for surface sites for sorbing onto cement phases. In

  1. 10 CFR 40.27 - General license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license for custody and long-term care of residual... LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.27 General license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites. (a) A general license is issued for the custody of and long...

  2. Resrad-recycle: a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing radioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-Jy; Kassas, Bassel; Yu, Charley; Amish, John; LePoire, Dave; Chen, Shih-Yew; Williams, W A; Wallo, A; Peterson, H

    2004-11-01

    RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data.

  3. Evaluation of radiation shielding performance in sea transport of radioactive material by using simple calculation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, N.; Ohnishi, S. [National Maritime Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Sawamura, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Nishimura, K. [Computer Software Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    A modified code system based on the point kernel method was developed to use in evaluation of shielding performance for maritime transport of radioactive material. For evaluation of shielding performance accurately in the case of accident, it is required to preciously model the structure of transport casks and shipping vessel, and source term. To achieve accurate modelling of the geometry and source term condition, we aimed to develop the code system by using equivalent information regarding structure and source term used in the Monte Carlo calculation code, MCNP. Therefore, adding an option to use point kernel method to the existing Monte Carlo code, MCNP4C, the code system was developed. To verify the developed code system, dose rate distribution in an exclusive shipping vessel to transport the low level radioactive wastes were calculated by the developed code and the calculated results were compared with measurements and Monte Carlo calculations. It was confirmed that the developed simple calculation method can obtain calculation results very quickly with enough accuracy comparing with the Monte Carlo calculation code MCNP4C.

  4. Manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines using RESRAD, Version 5.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.; Zielen, A.J.; Cheng, J.J. [and others

    1993-09-01

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material. It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating doses, risks, and guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. Two new pathways, radon inhalation and soil ingestion, have been added to RESRAD. Twenty-seven new radionuclides have also been added, and the cutoff half-life for associated radionuclides has been reduced to six months. Other major improvements to the RESRAD code include the ability to run sensitivity analyses, the addition of graphical output, user-specified dose factors, updated databases, an improved groundwater transport model, optional input of a groundwater concentration and a solubility constant, special models for tritium and carbon-14, calculation of cancer incidence risk, and the use of a mouse with menus.

  5. The Evolution of U.S. Transportation Regulations for Radioactive Materials?A Retrospective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafner, R

    2008-04-28

    The discussion in this Chapter is a highly condensed version of the information presented previously in Chapter 52 of the 2nd Edition of the Companion Guide to the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code.[1] The full text of the previous Chapter 52, i.e., Development of U.S. Regulations for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials - A Look Back over the Past 40 Years, could not be reproduced here. Therefore, this Chapter offers a high-level overview of the information presented previously, including all of the appropriate references. For the most part, the material that was not included in this version of Chapter 52 is available in the public domain. Due to the sheer volume of the information, readers interested in the preamble-only versions of the material referenced in this Chapter are redirected to Reference [1]. Readers interested in the full-text versions of the material referenced in this Chapter are redirected to the appropriate Federal Register and/or U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) websites. Because some of the material dates back to pre-website times, readers interested in the full-text versions of some of the references may have to rely on the services of their local libraries.

  6. Gammafet - fixed-wing gamma survey for the detection of radioactive materials. Finnish support to IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, M. [Defence Technical Research Centre (Finland); Nikkinen, M. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-06-01

    Finland has the operational capability to make airborne gamma ray measurements in emergency situations. The original purpose of airborne radiation mapping was to determine hazardous areas containing radioactive fallout after nuclear accidents or the use of nuclear weapons. Regular exercises are held annually to keep operational functionality at high level for this purpose. The knowledge and achieved practice can easily be extended to use in international radiation monitoring campaigns. The presented guidelines are based on Finnish knowhow, but it is not limited to use with Finnish equipment. The report describes the method and its usability in detecting the chain of nuclear material production using aerial gamma ray measurements. Technical details are given on how to manage measurement tasks, and information is also given on what is detectable from an aeroplane and how it is detected. The ability to use the airborne detection system has been tested to reveal the use of undeclared nuclear material. Various scenarios were considered with which to reveal clandestine nuclear material production, enrichment, and nuclear waste trails. The exercises arranged during this programme show that it is possible to reveal such clandestine activities. The fixed-wing gamma measurement technique developed under this contract is ready for detecting significant amounts of nuclear material efficiently and cost effectively. Large areas can be screened to find suspicious sub-areas for more accurate inspection. The approximate cost of screening is USD 17.4 per square kilometre. (orig.)

  7. Corrosion of container materials for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K.S.; Park, H.S.; Yeon, J.W.; Ha, Y.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    In the corrosion aspect of container for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, disposal concepts and the related container materials, which have been developed by advanced countries, have been reviewed. The disposal circumstances could be divided into the saturated and the unsaturated zones. The candidate materials in the countries, which consider the disposal in the unsaturated zone, are the corrosion resistant materials such as supper alloys and stainless steels, but those in the saturated zone is cupper, one of the corrosion allowable materials. By the results of the pitting corrosion test of sensitized stainless steels (such as 304, 304L, 316 and 316L), pitting potential is decreased with the degree of sensitization and the pitting corrosion resistance of 316L is higher than others. And so, the long-term corrosion experiment with 316L stainless steel specimens, sebsitized and non-sensitized, under the compacted bentonite and synthetic granitic groundwater has been being carried out. The results from the experiment for 12 months indicate that no evidence of pitting corrosion of the specimens has been observed but the crevice corrosion has occurred on the sensitized specimens even for 3 months. (author). 33 refs., 19 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Results from an official inspection on the transportation of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Thomas [TUEV SUED Energietechnik GmbH, Filderstadt (Germany); Kosbadt, Oliver [Ministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Verkehr Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The German legislation for dangerous goods includes general regulations as well as specific requirements for the real transport processes. Thus an enterprise which is involved in the transportation of dangerous goods has to appoint at least one safety adviser (SA) for the transport of dangerous goods. This is included in Segment 1.8.3 of the European arrangement concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by road (ADR) as well as in paragraph 1 of the 'Verordnung ueber die Bestellung von Gefahrgutbeauftragten und die Schulung der beauftragten Personen in Unternehmen und Betrieben (Gefahrgutbeauftragtenverordnung, GbV)' (ordinance concerning the safety adviser for the transport of dangerous goods). After 1.7.2 ADR the transportation of radioactive materials is to be subjected to a radiation protection program (RPP). After 1.7.3 ADR quality assurance programs (QAP) are to be established and implemented for all aspects of transportation. (orig.)

  9. Geospatial analyses and system architectures for the next generation of radioactive materials risk assessment and routing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganter, J.H.

    1996-02-01

    This paper suggests that inexorable changes in the society are presenting both challenges and a rich selection of technologies for responding to these challenges. The citizen is more demanding of environmental and personal protection, and of information. Simultaneously, the commercial and government information technologies markets are providing new technologies like commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software, common datasets, ``open`` GIS, recordable CD-ROM, and the World Wide Web. Thus one has the raw ingredients for creating new techniques and tools for spatial analysis, and these tools can support participative study and decision-making. By carrying out a strategy of thorough and demonstrably correct science, design, and development, can move forward into a new generation of participative risk assessment and routing for radioactive and hazardous materials.

  10. Assessment of radiation hazards due to natural radioactivity in some building materials used in Egyptian dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhat, M E

    2009-02-01

    Different types of Egyptian building materials from various locations in Cairo and its suburbs have been analysed for natural radioactivity using gamma ray spectrometry. Concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were in the ranges of (12 +/- 2.8-65 +/- 6.5), (5 +/- 1.8-60 +/- 6.7) and (159 +/- 3.8-920 +/- 12.7 Bq kg(-1)), respectively. The minimum concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K was found in gravel samples, whereas the maximum in granite samples. The results are compared with the published data of other countries and with the world average limits. The radiological hazard parameters: radium equivalent activity, gamma index, alpha index, absorbed dose rate and the annual exposure rate, were determined to assess the radiation hazards associated with Egyptian buildings. All studied samples are lower than world average limits.

  11. Guidelines for conducting impact tests on shipping packages for radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mok, G.C.; Carlson, R.W.; Lu, S.C.; Fischer, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    Federal regulation (10 CFR Part 71) specifies a number of impact conditions (free-drop, penetration, and puncture), under which a package for the transport of radioactive materials must be tested or evaluated to demonstrate compliance with the regulation. This report is a comprehensive guide to the planning and execution of these impact tests. The report identifies the required considerations for both the design, pre-, and post-test inspections of the test model and the measurement, recording, analysis, and reporting of the test data. The report also presents reasons for the requirements, identifies the major difficulties in meeting these requirements, and suggests possible methods to overcome the difficulties. Discussed in substantial detail is the use of scale models and instrumented measurements.

  12. Criteria for selection of target materials and design of high-efficiency-release targets for radioactive ion beam generation

    CERN Document Server

    Alton, G D; Liu, Y

    1999-01-01

    In this report, we define criteria for choosing target materials and for designing, mechanically stable, short-diffusion-length, highly permeable targets for generation of high-intensity radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for use at nuclear physics and astrophysics research facilities based on the ISOL principle. In addition, lists of refractory target materials are provided and examples are given of a number of successful targets, based on these criteria, that have been fabricated and tested for use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF).

  13. National inventory of the radioactive wastes and the recycling materials; Inventaire national des dechets radioactifs et des matieres valorisables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, M.C

    2006-07-01

    This synthesis report presents the 2006 inventory of the radioactive wastes and recycling materials, in France. It contains 9 chapters: a general introduction, the radioactive wastes (definition, classification, origins and management), the inventory methodology (organization, accounting and prospecting, exhaustiveness and control tools), main results (stocks, prevision for the period 2005-2020, perspectives after 2020), the inventory for producers or owners (front end fuel cycle, electric power plants, back end fuel cycle, wastes processing and maintenance facilities, researches centers, medical activities, industrial activities, non nuclear industries using nuclear materials, defense center, storage and disposal), the polluted sites, examples of foreign inventories, conclusion and annexes. (A.L.B.)

  14. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, S.; McGuire, S.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Behling, U.H.; Behling, K.; Goldin, D. [Cohen (S.) and Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has received two petitions to amend its regulations in 10 CFR Parts 20 and 35 as they apply to doses received by members of the public exposed to patients released from a hospital after they have been administered radioactive material. While the two petitions are not identical they both request that the NRC establish a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) per year for individuals exposed to patients who have been administered radioactive materials. This Regulatory Analysis evaluates three alternatives. Alternative 1 is for the NRC to amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to use the more stringent dose limit of 1 millisievert per year in 10 CFR 20.1301(a) for its patient release criteria. Alternative 2 is for the NRC to continue using the existing patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 of 1,110 megabecquerels of activity or a dose rate at one meter from the patient of 0.05 millisievert per hour. Alternative 3 is for the NRC to amend the patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts for patient release. The evaluation indicates that Alternative 1 would cause a prohibitively large increase in the national health care cost from retaining patients in a hospital longer and would cause significant personal and psychological costs to patients and their families. The choice of Alternatives 2 or 3 would affect only thyroid cancer patients treated with iodine-131. For those patients, Alternative 3 would result in less hospitalization than Alternative 2. Alternative 3 has a potential decrease in national health care cost of $30,000,000 per year but would increase the potential collective dose from released therapy patients by about 2,700 person-rem per year, mainly to family members.

  15. Environment - sustainable management of radioactive materials and radioactive - report evaluation; Environnement - gestion durable des matieres et dechets radioactifs - examen du rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    The economic affairs commission evaluated the report of M. Henri Revol on the law project n 315 of the program relative to the sustainable management of the radioactive materials and wastes. It precises and discusses the choices concerning the researches of the three axis, separation and transmutation, deep underground disposal and retrieval conditioning and storage of wastes. The commission evaluated then the report on the law project n 286 relative to the transparency and the security in the nuclear domain. It precises and discusses this text objectives and the main contributions of the Senate discussion. (A.L.B.)

  16. Radioactivity in consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)

    1978-08-01

    Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various products containing radioactive sources.

  17. Radioactivity assessment of some building materials from Little Poland Region; Analiza promieniotworczosci niektorych materialow budowlanych z obszaru Malopolski

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, J.; Cywicka-Jakiel, T.; Mazur, J.; Loskiewicz, J.; Swakon, J.; Tracz, G. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    In the paper are presented the results of building materials analysis connected with radiation protection. The concentration of natural radioactive elements (K, U, Th), and the values of f{sup 1} and f{sup 2} coefficients are measured for these materials. The values for ceramic building materials and for cellular concretes are composed. The utility of f{sup 2} parameter is unformally discussed. (author). 9 refs, 12 figs, 3 tabs.

  18. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials (CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)), which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  19. Radiological impact associated with the transport by road of radioactive material in Spain; Impact radiologique lie au transport par route de matieres radioactives en Espagne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, J.A. [TECNATOM, Prevention Service, Avenida Montes de Oca 1, 28703 San Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid (Spain); EUITI, Dept. Electrical Engineering, Polytechnic University of Madrid (Spain); Gutierrez, F. [EUITI, Dept. Industrial and Polymer Chemistry, Polytechnic University of Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Questions relating to the transport of radioactive materials are very much an issue of current interest due to the increasing mobility of the materials involved in the nuclear fuel cycle, commitment to the environment, the safety and protection of persons and the corresponding regulatory legal framework. The radiological impact associated with this type of transport was assessed by means of a new data-processing tool that may be of use and serve as complementary documentation to that included in transport regulations. Thus, by determining the level of radiation at a distance of one metre from the transport vehicle and by selecting a route, the associated impacts will be obtained, such as the affected populations, the dose received by the most highly exposed individual, the overall radiological impact, the doses received by the population along the route and the possible detriment to their health. The most important conclusion is that the emissions of ionising radiation from the transport of radioactive material by road in Spain are not significant as regards the generation of adverse effects on human health, and that their radiological impact may be considered negligible. (authors)

  20. Modular glovebox connector and associated good practices for control of radioactive and chemically toxic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, M D; Mewhinney, C J; Newton, G J

    1999-01-01

    Design and associated good practices are described for a modular glovebox connector to improve control of radioactive and chemically toxic materials. The connector consists of an anodized aluminum circular port with a mating spacer, gaskets, and retaining rings for joining two parallel ends of commercially available or custom-manufactured glovebox enclosures. Use of the connector allows multiple gloveboxes to be quickly assembled or reconfigured in functional units. Connector dimensions can be scaled to meet operational requirements for access between gloveboxes. Options for construction materials are discussed, along with recommendations for installation of the connector in new or retrofitted systems. Associated good practices include application of surface coatings and caulking, use of disposable glovebags, and proper selection and protection of gasket and glove materials. Use of the connector at an inhalation toxicology research facility has reduced the time and expense required to reconfigure equipment for changing operational requirements, the dispersion of contamination during reconfigurations, and the need for decommissioning and disposal of contaminated enclosures.

  1. Utilization of concrete as a construction material in the concept of Radioactive Waste Storage in Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Hudoba

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear power energy for the production of electricity seems to be, along with the alterantive ways like the wind, solar and geothermal energy, the only possibility how to cover the increasing needs for the energy in the human population. The adoption of nuclear power energy concept for the production of electricity is always a hot topic of discussion not only on the professional, but also on the political level. The join of problem of the electricity production in nuclear power plants is the disposal and storing of radioactive waste. The increasing amount of low and medium radioactive waste needs a serious concept of a long term policy in the radioactive waste management. In general, a period of 300 years is a minimum time span in which the storing facilities have to guarantie the safety of human population and environment against radiation and radiation-chemical danger. A correct design of the storage place for the radioactive waste is a challenge for experts in the fields of material science, geoscience, construction etc. This paper is dealing with the basic information about the concept, material and construction basis of the low a medium radioactive waste storage in Slovak Republic.

  2. Simplified data assimilation for simulating wet deposition distribution of radioactive materials in FDNPP accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saya, A.; Yoshikane, T.; Chang, E. C.; Yoshimura, K.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the massive earthquakes and tsunami on March 11th 2011 in Eastern Japan, Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) was severely damaged. Radioactive materials were released and spread out by atmospheric advection-diffusion. Especially on March 21 - 23th when precipitation was observed, "hotspot" where the high concentration was detected locally. This area was formed in the metropolitan area in Kanto region. Thus, pollution at water treatment plants because of the deposition became a concern. Therefore, the reliable information of the hotspot is expected. Currently, atmospheric transport simulations by numerical models are developed for reproduction of the distribution. However, there are some uncertainties in the simulations. In the case of hotspot, accuracy of simulated precipitation have to be well considered because the hotspot seemed to be formed by wet deposition. We modified the stable isotope mode of Regional Spectral Model (IsoRSM) to enable to simulate the transport of the radioactive tracers, namely 131I and 137Cs, by including the dry and wet deposition processes. As the simplified data assimilation, simulated precipitation was replaced with Radar-AMeDAS precipitation data (RAP). RAP was assimilated in the post-process, after running simulations, to redistribute wet deposition of 137Cs. The ratio of 137Cs deposited from the cumulative vertical column with precipitation in the domain was not changed, however its pattern was redistributed corresponding with RAP and simulated concentration. As a result, the redistributed wet deposition was within factor 10 to 2 compared with the fallout data in Kanto region, and further data assimilation would be contributed. In addition, we found that due to the arrival time of the plume in the morning on 21st and the border time of daily observation data of fallout, validation result might be worse even though hourly distributions are well simulated.

  3. Measurement of natural radioactivity in building materials of Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India using gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravisankar, R; Vanasundari, K; Chandrasekaran, A; Rajalakshmi, A; Suganya, M; Vijayagopal, P; Meenakshisundaram, V

    2012-04-01

    The natural level of radioactivity in building materials is one of the major causes of external exposure to γ-rays. The primordial radionuclides in building materials are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the radioactivity level in building materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the specific activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in commonly used building materials from Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India, using gamma-ray spectrometer. The radiation hazard due to the total natural radioactivity in the studied building materials was estimated by different approaches. The concentrations of the natural radionuclides and the radium equivalent activity in studied samples were compared with the corresponding results of different countries. From the analysis, it is found that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 49 CFR 173.427 - Transport requirements for low specific activity (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport requirements for low specific activity... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.427 Transport requirements for low specific... must be transported in accordance with the following conditions: (1) The external dose rate may not...

  5. Radiological Health Protection Issues Associated with Use of Active Detection Technology Systems for Detection of Radioactive Threat Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    enriched uranium (HEU) and 239 Pu, which are radioactive materials that could be used in a nuclear explosive device. ADT systems 14 are...in approximately the 0.5 to 10 GeV domain. 2.3.3 Neutrons The use of a proton beam or a deuterium -tritium (D-T) generator is the most plausible

  6. Emergency management of the individuals potentially contaminated by radioactive material and management of the hospitalization path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Muni

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The organization that has to face the radiological emergencies in a nuclear disaster or terroristic attack must be carefully planned. In the hospitals with a level one Emergency Department, it is possible to draw a pathway for the contaminated patients, based on internal resources and on the recommendations of the nuclear medicine associations (as AIMN – Associazione Italiana di Medicina Nucleare; SNM – Society of Nuclear Medicine. The “Santi Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo” hospital in Alessandria is a modern hospital and is the reference of an extended area, for its many highly specialized departments. In this background, and in a hospital with a level one Emergency Department, there are three qualified departments, able to play a primary role in the emergency management of the individuals potentially contaminated by nuclear materials: Emergency Department, Nuclear Medicine Unit and Health Physics Unit. Therefore the Alessandria Hospital is suitable to admit patients potentially contaminated by radioactive material, to determ i n e the level of contamination, to decontaminate them in the emergency decontamination area, to hospitalise and treat them in the nuclear medicine rooms.

  7. A procedure for estimating site specific derived limits for the discharge of radioactive material to the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Hallam, J; Jones, J A

    1983-01-01

    Generalised Derived Limits (GDLs) for the discharge of radioactive material to the atmosphere are evaluated using parameter values to ensure that the exposure of the critical group is unlikely to be underestimated significantly. Where the discharge is greater than about 5% of the GDL, a more rigorous estimate of the derived limit may be warranted. This report describes a procedure for estimating site specific derived limits for discharges of radioactivity to the atmosphere taking into account the conditions of the release and the location and habits of the exposed population. A worksheet is provided to assist in carrying out the required calculations.

  8. Natural radioactivity level in materials used for medieval vaulting in the territory of the central Balkan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić Igor S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of an investigation undertaken to determine the level of natural radioactivity in the traditional building materials used for medieval indoor vaulted constructions in the territory of the central Balkan region. Indoor radiation exposure varies appreciably if it comes from the earth building materials, hence the presence of natural radioisotopes of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in masonry vaulted constructions was analyzed using gamma ray spectrometry. In addition, the internal health hazard index, the absorbed dose rates and the effective annual doses were calculated. The results were then compared both with the reported data from the previous studies concerning the territory of the Balkan Peninsula, as well as with the worldwide values for the materials of historic buildings. The results obtained from the materials examined in this paper all showed the radioactivity levels below the maximum permitted values. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171007 i br. 43009

  9. GPU-based parallel computing in real-time modeling of atmospheric transport and diffusion of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcelo C. dos; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Schirru, Roberto; Pinheiro, André, E-mail: jovitamarcelo@gmail.com, E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.br, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: apinheiro99@gmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Atmospheric radionuclide dispersion systems (ARDS) are essential mechanisms to predict the consequences of unexpected radioactive releases from nuclear power plants. Considering, that during an eventuality of an accident with a radioactive material release, an accurate forecast is vital to guide the evacuation plan of the possible affected areas. However, in order to predict the dispersion of the radioactive material and its impact on the environment, the model must process information about source term (radioactive materials released, activities and location), weather condition (wind, humidity and precipitation) and geographical characteristics (topography). Furthermore, ARDS is basically composed of 4 main modules: Source Term, Wind Field, Plume Dispersion and Doses Calculations. The Wind Field and Plume Dispersion modules are the ones that require a high computational performance to achieve accurate results within an acceptable time. Taking this into account, this work focuses on the development of a GPU-based parallel Plume Dispersion module, focusing on the radionuclide transport and diffusion calculations, which use a given wind field and a released source term as parameters. The program is being developed using the C ++ programming language, allied with CUDA libraries. In comparative case study between a parallel and sequential version of the slower function of the Plume Dispersion module, a speedup of 11.63 times could be observed. (author)

  10. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Uranium-Rich Coals and Associated Coal Combustion Residues from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Nancy; Vengosh, Avner; Dai, Shifeng

    2017-11-21

    Most coals in China have uranium concentrations up to 3 ppm, yet several coal deposits are known to be enriched in uranium. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in these U-rich coals and associated coal combustion residues (CCRs) have not been well characterized. Here we measure NORM (Th, U, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, and (210)Pb) in coals from eight U-rich coal deposits in China and the associated CCRs from one of these deposits. We compared NORM in these U-rich coals and associated CCRs to CCRs collected from the Beijing area and natural loess sediments from northeastern China. We found elevated U concentrations (up to 476 ppm) that correspond to low (232)Th/(238)U and (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios (≪1) in the coal samples. (226)Ra and (228)Ra activities correlate with (238)U and (232)Th activities, respectively, and (226)Ra activities correlate well with (210)Pb activities across all coal samples. We used measured NORM activities and ash yields in coals to model the activities of CCRs from all U-rich coals analyzed in this study. The activities of measured and modeled CCRs derived from U-rich coals exceed the standards for radiation in building materials, particularly for CCRs originating from coals with U > 10 ppm. Since beneficial use of high-U Chinese CCRs in building materials is not a suitable option, careful consideration needs to be taken to limit potential air and water contamination upon disposal of U- and Ra-rich CCRs.

  11. DISPERSION AND SORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF URANIUM IN THE ZEOLITE-QUARTZ MIXTURE AS BACKFILL MATERIAL IN THE RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Poernomo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment of sorption and dispersion characteristics of uranium in the zeolite-quartz mixture as candidate of raw material of backfill material in the radioactive waste repository has been performed. The objective is to know the effect of zeolite and quartz grain size on the zeolite-to-quartz weight ratio that gives porosity (ε, permeability (K, and dispersivity (α of uranium in the zeolite-quartz mixture as backfill material. The experiment was carried out by fixed bed method in the column filled by the zeolite-quartz mixture with zeolite-to-quartz weight percent ratio of 100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 40/60, 20/80, 0/100 wt. % in the water saturated condition flowed by uranyl nitrate solution of 500 ppm concentration (Co as uranium simulation which was leached from immobilized radioactive waste in the repository. The concentration of uranium in the effluents represented as Ct were analyzed by spectrophotometer Corning Colorimeter 253 every 15 minutes, then using Co and Ct uranium dispersivity (α in the backfill material was determined. The experiment data shown that 0.196 mm particle size of zeolite and 0.116 mm particle size of quartz on the zeolite-to-quartz weight ratio of 60/40 wt. % with ε = 0.678, K = 3.345x10-4 cm/second, and α = 0.759 cm can be proposed as candidate of raw material of backfill material in the radioactive waste repository.   Keywords: backfill material, quartz, radioactive waste, zeolite

  12. INVESTIGATION OF THE PRESENCE OF DRUGSTORE BEETLES WITHIN CELOTEX ASSEMBLIES IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G

    2008-06-04

    During normal operations at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Hanford, WA, drugstore beetles, (Stegobium paniceum (L.) Coleoptera: Anobiidae), were found within the fiberboard subassemblies of two 9975 Shipping Packages. Initial indications were that the beetles were feeding on the Celotex{trademark} assemblies within the package. Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is used in numerous radioactive material packages serving as both a thermal insulator and an impact absorber for both normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident conditions. The Department of Energy's Packaging Certification Program (EM-63) directed a thorough investigation to determine if the drugstore beetles were causing damage that would be detrimental to the safety performance of the Celotex{trademark}. The Savannah River National Laboratory is conducting the investigation with entomological expertise provided by Clemson University. The two empty 9975 shipping packages were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory in the fall of 2007. This paper will provide details and results of the ongoing investigation.

  13. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, S.; McGuire, S.A.

    1997-02-01

    This regulatory analysis was developed to respond to three petitions for rulemaking to amend 10 CFR parts 20 and 35 regarding release of patients administered radioactive material. The petitions requested revision of these regulations to remove the ambiguity that existed between the 1-millisievert (0.1-rem) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) public dose limit in Part 20, adopted in 1991, and the activity-based release limit in 10 CFR 35.75 that, in some instances, would permit release of individuals in excess of the current public dose limit. Three alternatives for resolution of the petitions were evaluated. Under Alternative 1, NRC would amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to match the annual public dose limit in Part 20 of 1 millisievert (0.1 rem) TEDE. Alternative 2 would maintain the status quo of using the activity-based release criteria currently found in 10 CFR 35.75. Under Alternative 3, the NRC would revise the release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) TEDE.

  14. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs)

    CERN Document Server

    Xhixha, Gerti; Callegari, Ivan; Colonna, Tommaso; Hasani, Fadil; Mantovani, Fabio; Shala, Ferat; Strati, Virginia; Kaçeli, Merita Xhixha

    2015-01-01

    Because potential Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed without regulatory criteria in many decades, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) has been performed. Among 52 gamma-ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples, we discover that relatively low activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K, which are 23 +/- 2 Bq/kg, 23 +/- 2 Bq/kg, 24 +/- 3 Bq/kg and 549 +/- 12 Bq/kg, respectively, come from oil-sand produced by hydrocarbon extraction from molasses formations. The mineralogical characterization together with the 228Ra/40K and 226Ra/40K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirm the geological and geodynamic model that predicts a dismantling of Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (+/- standard deviations) of the radium isotopes (226Ra, 228Ra) and of the 228Th and 40K radionuclides in soil samples are determined...

  15. An analysis of the qualification criteria for small radioactive material shipping packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    The RAM package design certification process has two important elements, testing and acceptance. These terms sound very similar but they have specific meanings. Qualification testing in the context of this study is the imposition of simulated accident test conditions upon the candidate package design. (Normal transportation environments may also be included.) Following qualification testing, the acceptance criteria provide the performance levels which, if demonstrated, indicate the ability of the RAM package to sustain the severity of the qualification testing sequence and yet maintain specified levels of package integrity. This study has used Severities of Transportation Accidents as a data base to examine the regulatory test criteria which are required to be met by small packages containing Type B quantities of radioactive material (RAM). The basic findings indicate that the present regulatory test standards provide significantly higher levels of protection for the surface transportation modes (truck, rail) than for RAM packages shipped by aircraft. It should also be noted that various risk assessment studies have shown that the risk to the public due to severe transport accidents by surface and air transport modes is very low. A key element in this study was the quantification of the severity of the transportation accident environment and the severity of the present qualification test standards (called qualification test standards in this document) so that a direct comparison could be made between them to assess the effectiveness of the existing qualification test standards. The manner in which this was accomplished is described.

  16. An overview of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-12-01

    Oil and gas extraction and processing operations sometimes accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) at concentrations above normal in by-product waste streams. Results from NORM surveys indicate that radionuclide concentrations can be quite variable, ranging from undetectable to extremely high levels. To date, efforts to characterize the geographic distribution of NORM have been limited by poor statistical representation. In addition, the fate of NORM in the environment has not been fully defined, and few human health risk assessment have been conducted. Both the petroleum industry and regulators are becoming increasingly concerned about the presence of NORM. At present, most existing federal environmental regulations do not address oil and gas NORM, and only a few states have developed regulatory programs. Available data suggest that the occurrence of NORM (and associated health risks) is significant enough to warrant increased regulatory control. However, before these regulations can be developed, additional research is needed to (1) better characterize the occurrence and distribution of NORM throughout the industry, (2) quantify hazards posed by NORM to industry workers and the general public, and (3) develop effective waste treatment and minimization technologies that will lower the risk associated with NORM and reduce disposal costs.

  17. Construction of a naturally occurring radioactive material project in the BeAAT hazardous waste facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuahmad, H

    2015-06-01

    This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is produced during exploration and production operations of subsidiaries of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) in the United Arab Emirates, and accumulates in drilling tubulars, plant equipment, and components. These NORM hazardous wastes need to be managed in such a way that they do not damage human health and the environment. The primary radionuclides of concern in the oil and gas industries are radium-226 and radium-228. These radioisotopes are the decay products of uranium and thorium isotopes that are present in subsurface formations from which hydrocarbons are produced. While uranium and thorium are largely immobile, radium is slightly more soluble and may become mobilised in the fluid phases of the formation (International Association of Oil & Gas Producers, 2008). In order to treat and dispose of NORM waste products safely, ADNOC's subsidiary 'TAKREER' is developing a new facility, on behalf of all ADNOC subsidiaries, within the existing Central Environmental Protection Facilities (BeAAT) in Ruwais city. The NORM plant is envisaged to treat, handle, and dispose of NORM waste in the forms of scale, sludge, and contaminated equipment. The NORM treatment facility will cover activities such as decontamination, volume reduction, NORM handling, and concrete immobilisation of NORM waste into packages for designated landfilling. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.; Williams, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.; Tebes, C.L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1996-09-01

    A preliminary radiological dose assessment of equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in production waste streams. The assessment estimated maximum individual dose equivalents for workers and the general public. Sensitivity analyses of certain input parameters also were conducted. On the basis of this assessment, it is concluded that (1) regulations requiring workers to wear respiratory protection during equipment cleaning operations are likely to result in lower worker doses, (2) underground injection and downhole encapsulation of NORM wastes present a negligible risk to the general public, and (3) potential doses to workers and the general public related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment can be controlled by limiting the contamination level of the initial feed. It is recommended that (1) NORM wastes be further characterized to improve studies of potential radiological doses; (2) states be encouraged to permit subsurface disposal of NORM more readily, provided further assessments support this study; results; (3) further assessment of landspreading NORM wastes be conducted; and (4) the political, economic, sociological, and nonradiological issues related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment be studied to fully examine the feasibility of this disposal option.

  19. ASN: regional day of information and exchange on transport of radioactive materials - 4 February 2010; ASN: journee regionale d'information et d'echanges sur le transport de matieres radioactives - 4 fevrier 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This document gathers Power Point presentations made during a meeting on the transport of radioactive materials. The contributions addressed the following topics: results of a survey based on questionnaires sent to actors of this sector, regulatory framework and radioprotection plan, case of parcels not submitted to the authority concerned, declaration of transport interesting or significant events, ASN inspections, the transport of radioactive products by the IBt Bebig company in France, the activities of the Institut de Soudure Industrie (industry welding institute), the activities of the ISO Life company specialized in health product transportation, the activities of the Securidis company (a consulting company for activities related to hazardous materials transportation, and notably radioactive materials), the activities a the ACE Environnement company (specialized in building diagnosis), the point of view of an academic research unit on radioactive material transportation, the experience of the hospital sector in radioactive source transportation, the experience of the Advanced Accelerator Applications company in radioactive material transportation, and a discussion on regulation application

  20. National architectures for the detection of nuclear and radioactive materials at port facilities; Arquitecturas nacionales de deteccion de material nuclear y radiactivo en instalaciones portuarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, A.

    2009-07-01

    The basic objective of the national architectures is to protect people and the environment against a possible misuse of nuclear and radioactive materials. This issue has become even more important in recent years because maritime transport currently amounts to 80% of world trade, growing from 83 million shipments in 1990 to 334 million in 2005. (Author)

  1. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Gdowski, G.E. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free, high-purity copper), CDA 613 (aluminum bronze), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are candidates for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. Waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as borosilicate glass, and will be sent to the prospective repository site at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluxes of gamma radiation outside the containers. In this environment, container materials might degrade by atmospheric oxidation, general aqueous phase corrosion, localized corrosion (LC), and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This volume is a critical survey of available data on pitting and crevice corrosion of the copper-based candidates. Pitting and crevice corrosion are two of the most common forms of LC of these materials. Data on the SCC of these alloys is surveyed in Volume 4. Pitting usually occurs in water that contains low concentrations of bicarbonate and chloride anions, such as water from Well J-13 at the Nevada Test Site. Consequently, this mode of degradation might occur in the repository environment. Though few quantitative data on LC were found, a tentative ranking based on pitting corrosion, local dealloying, crevice corrosion, and biofouling is presented. CDA 102 performs well in the categories of pitting corrosion, local dealloying, and biofouling, but susceptibility to crevice corrosion diminishes its attractiveness as a candidate. The cupronickel alloy, CDA 715, probably has the best overall resistance to such localized forms of attack. 123 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-04-01

    Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides in the repository will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluences of gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including atmospheric oxidation; uniform aqueous phase corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; sensitization and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This report is an analysis of data relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three austenitic candidate alloys. The candidates are compared in terms of their susceptibilities to these forms of corrosion. Although all three candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these types of localized corrosion (LC); such resistance is important because pits can penetrate the metal and serve as crack initiation sites. Both Types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented in Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma radiation has been found to enhance SCC in Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while the effects of microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. 211 refs., 49 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. TRASMAR 2: improved tele operated mobile robot for the radioactive material transport; TRASMAR 2: Robot movil teleoperado mejorado para el transporte de material radiactivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia de los Rios, A. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Zamora S, C.A.; Garduno G, M. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: asegovia@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research of Mexico (ININ), a new robot version for the radioactive material transport was developed trying to diminish the radiation quantity to which the ININ personnel is exposed taking it away by this way of the radioactive substance. The robot is operated by means of a remote control, for that which two data transmission modules by radiofrequency are used. As much the remote control as the vehicle control system were implemented with the help of micro controllers. Presently document the main characteristics of this mobile robot are explained, which is a more economic and functional version that it predecessor. (Author)

  4. Radioactive materials deposition in Iwate prefecture, northeast japan, due to the Fukushima dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Hideyuki

    2013-04-01

    A catastrophic earthquake occurred in March 11, 2011, and additional tsunami gave the big damage along the pacific coastline of the northeast Japan. Tsunami also caused the accident of Fukushima dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP), released of massive amount of radioactive materials to all over the northeast to central Japan. Ministry of Education, cultural, sports, science and technology (MEXT), Japan, carried out the airborne monitoring survey on several times, however, it is impossible to know the deposition of low level radiation under 0.1μSv/h. On the other hand, radioactive material was detected in Iwate by farm and livestock products, and it was necessary to understand an accurate contamination status in Iwate prefecture. Behavior of radioactive material is very similar to the ashfall by the volcanic eruption. Therefore, it is possible to apply the knowledge of volcanology to evaluation of the natural radiation dose. The author carried out the detailed contamination mapping across the Iwate prefecture. To γ-ray measurement, using scintillation counter A2700 of the clearpulse, measured on 1m grass field above ground, for one minute. The total measurement point became more than 800 point whole in Iwate. Field survey were carried out from April to November, 2011, therefore, it is necessary to consider to the half - life of the radioactive element of the cesium 134 and 137. In this study, the author reconstructed a deposition of April, 2011, just after the accident. In addition, the author also carried out the revision of the natural radiation dose included in the granite and so on. From the result, Concentration of radioactive materials depend on the topography, it tend to high concentrate in the basin or along the valley. The feeble deposition 0.01-0.2μsv/h with the radioactive material was recognized in whole prefecture. High contamination area distributed over the E-W directions widely in the southern part of the prefecture, and it also existence of the

  5. Automated MCNP photon source generation for arbitrary configurations of radioactive materials and first-principles calculations of photon detector responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, G.P.; Schrandt, R.G.; Kriese, J.T.

    1988-03-01

    A patch to the Los Alamos Monte Carlo code MCNP has been developed that automates the generation of source descriptions for photons from arbitrary mixtures and configurations of radioactive isotopes. Photon branching ratios for decay processes are obtained from national and international data bases and accesed directly from computer files. Code user input is generally confined to readily available information such as density, isotopic weight fractions, atomic numbers, etc. of isotopes and material compositions. The availbility of this capability in conjunction with the ''generalized source'' capability of MCNP Version 3A makes possible the rapid and accurate description of photon sources from complex mixtures and configurations of radioactive materials, resulting in imporved radiation transport predictive capabilities. This capability is combined with a first - principles calculation of photon spectrometer response - functions for NaI, BGO, and HPGe for E..gamma.. )approxreverse arrowlt) 1 MeV. 25 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  6. Calculation of releases of radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid effluents from boiling water reactors (BWR-GALE Code)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bangart, R.L.; Bell, L.G.; Boegli, J.S.; Burke, W.C.; Lee, J.Y.; Minns, J.L.; Stoddart, P.G.; Weller, R.A.; Collins, J.T.

    1978-12-01

    The calculational procedures described in the report reflect current NRC staff practice. The methods described will be used in the evaluation of applications for construction permits and operating licenses docketed after January 1, 1979, until this NUREG is revised as a result of additional staff review. The BWR-GALE (Boiling Water Reactor Gaseous and Liquid Effluents) Code is a computerized mathematical model for calculating the release of radioactive material in gaseous and liquid effluents from boiling water reactors (BWRs). The calculations are based on data generated from operating reactors, field tests, laboratory tests, and plant-specific design considerations incorporated to reduce the quantity of radioactive materials that may be released to the environment.

  7. Radioactive wastes and valorizable materials in France: summary of the 2004 national inventory; Dechets radioactifs et matieres valorisables en France: resume de l'inventaire national 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The French national inventory of radioactive wastes is a reference document for professionals and scientists of the nuclear domain and also for any citizen interested in the management of radioactive wastes. This summary document contains: 1 - general introduction; 2 - classification of radioactive wastes: the 5 main categories; 3 - origin of the wastes; 4 - processing and conditioning; 5 - inventory of existing wastes: geographical inventory, inventory per category; 6 - prospective inventory: prospective scenarios, forecasting of waste production; 7 - valorizable radioactive materials; 8 - synthesis and perspective; 9 - glossary. (J.S.)

  8. Experiments with radioactive materials at schools. Didactically important and possible without risk; Experimente mit radioaktiven Stoffen an Schulen. Didaktisch wichtig und gefahrlos moeglich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahlbruch, Jan-Willem [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiooekologie und Strahlenschutz

    2017-04-01

    The basis for the understanding of radioactivity and radioprotection is formed in the secondary school. Therefore, the German-Swiss Radiation Protection Association has been trying to support the appropriate teaching of relevant topics in school for a long time. Unfortunately experiments with radioactive materials are hampered in Germany by complex and confusing legislation. In this contribution the framework is described which is given by the German legislation for the use of radioactive sources in secondary schools. Additionally, proposals for different simple experiments with radioactivity are presented, alternative methods like e.g. virtual experiments are introduced and a recommendation for a simplified regulatory framework is made.

  9. Determination of radioactive materials in granite used as ornamental rocks; Determinacao de materiais radioativos em granitos utilizados como rochas ornamentais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, Humberto Terrazas; Barbosa, Joao Batista Santos; Murta, Clecio Campi; Rocha, Francisco de Assis [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)). E-mail: salasht@urano.cdtn.br; Nalini Junior, Herminio Arias; Mendes, Julio Cesar [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Dept. de Geologia

    2000-07-01

    For environment quality control, either in a global or regional perspective, the determination of the radioactivity present in the minerals of rocks must be included. This control is carried out through specific analysis, applied to all geological materials used in civil architecture design and other applications (e.g. artistic). To date, the radioactivity of rocks has not been specifically studied, from which an adequate and comprehensive systematics is applied, in order to determine the radioactive minerals and their corresponding alterations. In Brazil, the industry of ornamental rocks is continually increasing at high rates, with a growing variety of rocks being commercialized locally as well as abroad. To a certain extent, the technical characterization of these rocks, through standard procedures defined by standardization institutions, is already available worldwide. However, among the petrographic properties specified for these rocks, minor or accessory minerals (less than 1%) are not adequately determined and detected. Among these components are radioactive minerals and, occasionally, carriers of precious metals, rare earths and other economically important minerals. (author)

  10. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: Assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhixha, G.; Baldoncini, M.; Callegari, I.; Colonna, T.; Hasani, F.; Mantovani, F.; Shala, F.; Strati, V.; Xhixha Kaçeli, M.

    2015-11-01

    Because potential Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed without regulatory criteria in many decades, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) has been performed. Among 52 gamma-ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples, we discover that relatively low activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K, which are 23 +/- 2 Bq/kg, 23 +/- 2 Bq/kg, 24 +/- 3 Bq/kg and 549 +/- 12 Bq/kg, respectively, come from oil-sand produced by hydrocarbon extraction from molasses formations. The mineralogical characterization together with the 228Ra/40K and 226Ra/40K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirm the geological and geodynamic model that predicts a dismantling of Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (+/- standard deviations) of the radium isotopes (226Ra, 228Ra) and of the 228Th and 40K radionuclides in soil samples are determined to be 20 +/- 5 Bq/kg, 25 +/- 10 Bq/kg, 25 +/- 9 Bq/kg and 326 +/- 83 Bq/kg, respectively. Based on these arguments, the future radiological assessment of other fields in the region can be strategically planned focusing on the oil-sands from molasses sediments. No disequilibrium in the 228Ra decay segment has been observed in soil, sludge and oil-sand samples within the standard uncertainties. After a detailed radiological characterization of the four main oilfields, we can conclude that the outdoor absorbed dose rate never exceeds the worldwide population weighted average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air from terrestrial gamma radiation.

  11. Risk communication considerations to facilitate the screening of mass populations for potential contamination with radioactive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, R J; Sprau, D D; Morecook, R C

    2008-11-01

    Experience gained during a field training exercise with a Medical Reserve Corps unit on the screening of large groups of individuals for possible contamination with radioactive material revealed that while exercise participants were generally attentive to the proper use of protective equipment and detectors, they tended to overlook important basic risk communications aspects. For example, drill participants did not actively communicate with the persons waiting in line for screening, a step which would provide re-assurance, possibly minimize apprehension, and would clarify expectations. When questioned on this issue of risk communication, drill participants were often able to craft ad hoc messages, but the messages were inconsistent and likely would not have significantly helped diminish anxiety and maintain crowd control. Similar difficulties were encountered regarding messaging for persons determined to be contaminated, those departing the screening center, and those to be delivered to the media. Based on these experiences, the need for a suggested list of risk communication points was identified. To address this need, a set of risk communication templates were developed that focused on the issues likely to be encountered in a mass screening event. The points include issues such as the importance of remaining calm, steps for minimizing possible intake or uptake, considerations for those exhibiting acute injuries, expected screening wait times, the process to be followed and the information to be collected, the process to be undertaken for those exhibiting contamination, and symptoms to watch for after departure. Drill participants indicated in follow-up discussions that such pre-established risk communication templates would serve to enhance their ability to assist in times of emergency and noted the potential broader applicably of the approach for use in responses for other disasters types as well.

  12. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhixha, G; Baldoncini, M; Callegari, I; Colonna, T; Hasani, F; Mantovani, F; Shala, F; Strati, V; Xhixha Kaçeli, M

    2015-11-01

    The Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) that are potentially generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed of without regulations for many decades, and therefore, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) was performed. A total of 52 gamma ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples were performed. We discovered that relatively low activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K, with concentrations of 23±2Bq/kg, 23±2Bq/kg, 24±3Bq/kg and 549±12Bq/kg, respectively, came from the oil-sands produced by the hydrocarbon extraction of the molasses formations. The mineralogical characterizations and the (228)Ra/(40)K and (226)Ra/(40)K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirmed the predictions of the geological and geodynamic models of a dismantling of the Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (±standard deviations) of the radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) and of the (228)Th and (40)K radionuclides in soil samples were 20±5Bq/kg, 25±10Bq/kg, 25±9Bq/kg and 326±83Bq/kg, respectively. Based on the measurements in this study, the future radiological assessments of other fields in the region should be strategically planned to focus on the oil-sands from the molasses sediments. Disequilibrium in the (228)Ra decay segment was not observed in the soil, sludge or oil-sand samples within the standard uncertainties. After a detailed radiological characterization of the four primary oil fields, we concluded that the outdoor absorbed dose rate never exceeded the worldwide population weighted average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air from terrestrial gamma radiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental Verification on Remote Detectability of Concealed Radioactive Material Based on the Plasma Discharge Delay Time using High-Power Millimeter-Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongsung; Yu, Dongho; Sawant, Ashwini; Choe, Mun Seok; Lee, Ingeun; Choi, Eunmi

    2016-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a remote detection method of a radioactive source by plasma breakdown using high-power millimeter-wave source, gyrotron. A number of free electrons near the radioactive source are much higher than those of without the radioactive source (roughly 10 particles/cm3) owing to the interaction of air molecules and strong gamma rays generated by radioactive material. The RF wave beam is focused in ambient air, and the plasmas discharge occurs involving random delay time which means a time interval between the RF wave and a fluorescent light caused by the plasma. We observed that the delay time decreased significantly due to the high density of free electrons in Ar plasma with an existence of Co60 radioactive material. This technique of delay time measurement shows 1000 times more sensitive than a method of detectable mass equation to identify the existence of radioactive source remotely. It is the first experimental verification of radioactive material detection using a high power gyrotron. This study shows that a remote detection of radioactive material based on analysis of precise delay time measurement could be feasible by using a high power millimeter/THz wave gyrotron. NRF-2013R1A1A2061062, NRF-2012-Global Ph.D. Fellowship Program.

  14. Technical guide management of waste materials with radioactive contents in biological research centers; Guia tecnica de gestion de materiales residuales con contenido radiactivo en centro de investigacion biologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias, M. T.; Pulido, J.; Sastre, G.; Sanchez, A.; Usera, F.

    2013-07-01

    The guide presented offers significant improvements in the management procedures of waste materials with radioactive contents, in addition to unifying modes of action on radioactive facilities for research and teaching. The guide has been developed within the activities of the SEPR in collaboration with ENRESA. (Author)

  15. A workshop on developing risk assessment methods for medical use of radioactive material. Volume 2: Supporting documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortorelli, J.P. [ed.] [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-08-01

    A workshop was held at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, August 16--18, 1994 on the topic of risk assessment on medical devices that use radioactive isotopes. Its purpose was to review past efforts to develop a risk assessment methodology to evaluate these devices, and to develop a program plan and a scoping document for future methodology development. This report contains presentation material and a transcript of the workshop. Participants included experts in the fields of radiation oncology, medical physics, risk assessment, human-error analysis, and human factors. Staff from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) associated with the regulation of medical uses of radioactive materials and with research into risk-assessment methods participated in the workshop. The workshop participants concurred in NRC`s intended use of risk assessment as an important technology in the development of regulations for the medical use of radioactive material and encouraged the NRC to proceed rapidly with a pilot study. Specific recommendations are included in the executive summary and the body of this report.

  16. Training on Transport Security of Nuclear/Radioactive Materials for Key Audiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Ronald; Liu, Yung; Shuler, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Packaging Certification Program (PCP), Office of Packaging and Transportation, Office of Environmental Management has sponsored a series of three training courses on Security of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Materials during Transport. These courses were developed and hosted by Argonne National Laboratory staff with guest lecturers from both the U.S. and international organizations and agencies including the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), DOE national laboratories, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), and the World Institute for Nuclear Security (WINS). Each of the three courses held to date were one-week in length. The courses delved in detail into the regulatory requirements for transport security, focusing on international and U.S.-domestic requirements and guidance documents. Lectures, in-class discussions and small group exercises, including tabletop (TTX) and field exercises were designed to enhance the learning objectives for the participants. For example, the field exercise used the ARG-US radio frequency identification (RFID) remote surveillance system developed by Argonne for DOE/PCP to track and monitor packages in a mock shipment, following in-class exercises of developing a transport security plan (TSP) for the mock shipment, performing a readiness review and identifying needed corrective actions. Participants were able to follow the mock shipment on the webpage in real time in the ARG-US Command Center at Argonne including “staged” incidents that were designed to illustrate the importance of control, command, communication and coordination in ensuring transport security. Great lessons were learned based on feedback from the participant’s course evaluations with the series of the courses. Since the

  17. Users manual. Pursuit program of use licenses of radioactive material or generator equipment of ionizing radiations; Manual del usuario. Programa de seguimiento de licencias de uso de material radiactivo o equipos generadores de radiaciones ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerril M, V.M.; Villarreal, J.E

    1992-05-15

    The objective of the program 'Databases for the pursuit of licenses of use of radioactive material', it consists on the application of a computer system carried out in dbase IV that it allows the control of the all the information related with those licenses for use, possession and storage of radioactive material or generator equipment of ionizing radiations. (Author)

  18. Phosphated minerals to be used as radioactive reference materials; Minerais fosfatados para serem utilizados como materiais de referencia radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braganca, M.J.C.S.; Tauhata, L. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI); Clain, A.F. [Universidade Severino Sombra, Vassouras, RJ (Brazil); Moreira, I. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC/Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2003-07-01

    The production and the supplying of certified reference materials, or deliberated contaminated materials containing natural radionuclides for laboratories which analyses environmental samples are fundamentals for the correct measurements of their radioactive levels. This analysis quality represents a important step for the safeguards of the population health, and quality control of the imported and exported products, such as minerals, agricultural and raw materials. The phosphate rocks, containing significant concentrations of thorium, and used as raw material and fertilizers justified a study for better characterization and distinction to be used cas certified reference radioactive materials. Therefore, samples from the two carboanalytical-alkaline chimneys (Araxa and Catalao), and one from metasedimentar origin (Patos de Minas), distant 100 km from each other, were collected and chemical and cholecystographic characterized by optical emission, X-ray diffraction and fluorescence. The element concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis, ICP-MS and ICP-AES. The results, after multivariate statistical analysis and study of correlations among elements, have shown geochemical similarities of the phosphates from Araxa and Catalao, and differences from Patos de Minas, despite of the geographic proximity. The concentration of thorium between 200 and 500 (mg/g) allows to use such minerals as reference materials.

  19. The use of composite ferrocyanide materials for treatment of high salinity liquid radioactive wastes rich in cesium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropov, Andrey S. [National Nuclear Centre of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Shakarim Semey State Univ. (Kazakhstan); Satayeva, Aliya R. [Shakarim Semey State Univ. (Kazakhstan); Mikhalovsky, Sergey [Nazarbayev Univ. (Kazakhstan); Brighton Univ. (United Kingdom); Cundy, Andrew B. [Brighton Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    The use of composite materials based on metal ferrocyanides combined with natural mineral sorbents for treatment of high salinity Cs-containing liquid radioactive waste (LRW) was investigated. The study indicated that among the investigated composites, the best sorption characteristics for Cs were shown by materials based on copper ferrocyanide. Several factors affecting the removal of cesium from LRW, namely total salt content, pH and organic matter content, were also investigated. High concentrations of complexing organic matter significantly reduced the sorption capacity of ferrocyanide sorbents.

  20. On The Application of Flow Forming to the Fabrication of Type B Radioactive Material Package Containment Vessels, Rev. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mok, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); DeMicco, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fischer, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hagler, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Russell, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wen, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hafner, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anderson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-07-02

    Flow forming is a modernized and improved version of metal spinning, which is one of the oldest methods of chipless forming. The metal spinning method used a pivoted pointer to manually push a metal sheet mounted at one end of a spinning mandrel. As a result, the modernized version of metal spinning, i.e. flow forming evolved. The recent proposal in the radioactive material (RAM) packaging community to use flow forming for mass production of small containment vessels for drum packages is a natural continuation of the trend. We will discuss how the vessel can have the special material properties and stabilities required for a RAM containment vessel.

  1. Methodology in the handling of the waste radioactive material; Metodologia en el manejo del material radiactivo de desecho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emeterio H, M., E-mail: miguel.emeterio@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The methodology in the management of radioactive waste is constituted by an administrative part and seven technical stages: transport, classification, segregation, conditioning, treatment, packages qualification and final disposition (storage). In their diverse stages the management deserves a special attention, due to the increment of the use and application of the nuclear energy and radioactive substances, for such a reason should be managed in such a way that the exposed personnel safety and the public in general is guaranteed, protecting the integrity of the environment. (Author)

  2. Pennsylvania's technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material experiences and studies of the oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, David J

    2015-02-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's experiences and ongoing studies related to technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in the oil and gas industry. It has been known for many years that Pennsylvania's geology is unique, with several areas having relatively high levels of natural uranium and thorium. In the 1950s, a few areas of the state were evaluated for commercial uranium production. In the late 1970s, scoping studies of radon in homes prompted the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) to begin planning for a larger state-wide radon study. The BRP and Oil and Gas Bureau also performed a TENORM study of produced water in the early 1990s for a number of conventional oil and gas wells. More recently, BRP and the Bureau of Solid Waste developed radiation monitoring regulations for all Pennsylvania solid waste disposal facilities. These were implemented in 2001, prompting another evaluation of oil and gas operations and sludge generated from the treatment of conventionally produced water and brine but mainly focused on the disposal of TENORM solid waste in the state's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D landfills. However, since 2008, the increase in volumes of gas well wastewater and levels of Ra observed in the unconventional shale gas well flow-back fracking water has compelled DEP to fully re-examine these oil and gas operations. Specifically, with BRP in the lead, a new TENORM study of oil and gas operations and related wastewater treatment operations has been initiated (), supported by an American National Standards Institute standard on TENORM () and a U.S. Government Accountability Office report on shale resource development and risks (). This study began in early 2013 and will examine the potential public and worker radiation exposure and environmental impact as well as re-evaluate TENORM waste disposal. This

  3. Atmospheric dispersion characteristics of radioactive materials according to the local weather and emission conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Hye Yeon; Kang, Yoon Hee; Kim, Yoo Keun [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Sang Keun [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This study evaluated the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive material according to local weather conditions and emission conditions. Local weather conditions were defined as 8 patterns that frequently occur around the Kori Nuclear Power Plant and emission conditions were defined as 6 patterns from a combination of emission rates and the total number of particles of the {sup 137}Cs, using the WRF/HYSPLIT modeling system. The highest mean concentration of {sup 137}Cs occurred at 0900 LST under the ME4{sub 1} (main wind direction: SSW, daily average wind speed: 2.8 ms{sup -1}), with a wide region of its high concentration due to the continuous wind changes between 0000 and 0900 LST; under the ME3 (NE, 4.1 ms{sup -1}), the highest mean concentration of {sup 137}Cs occurred at 1500 and 2100 LST with a narrow dispersion along a strong northeasterly wind. In the case of ME4{sub 4} (S, 2.7 ms{sup -1}), the highest mean concentration of {sup 137}Cs occurred at 0300 LST because {sup 137}Cs stayed around the KNPP under low wind speed and low boundary layer height. As for the emission conditions, EM1{sub 3} and EM2{sub 3} that had the maximum total number of particles showed the widest dispersion of {sup 137}Cs, while its highest mean concentration was estimated under the EM1{sub 1} considering the relatively narrow dispersion and high emission rate. This study showed that even though an area may be located within the same radius around the Kori Nuclear Power Plant, the distribution and levels of {sup 137}Cs concentration vary according to the change in time and space of weather conditions (the altitude of the atmospheric boundary layer, the horizontal and vertical distribution of the local winds, and the precipitation levels), the topography of the regions where {sup 137}Cs is dispersed, the emission rate of {sup 137}Cs, and the number of emitted particles.

  4. 49 CFR 173.469 - Tests for special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be determined by— (i) A method no less sensitive than the leaching assessment prescribed in paragraph... prescribed in the International Organization for Standardization document ISO 9978-1992(E): “Radiation protection—Sealed radioactive sources—Leakage test methods” (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). (b) Test...

  5. Constraint-Based Routing Models for the Transport of Radioactive Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Steven K [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a historic programmatic interest in the safe and secure routing, tracking, and transportation risk analysis of radiological materials in the United States. In order to address these program goals, DOE has funded the development of several tools and related systems designed to provide insight to planners and other professionals handling radioactive materials shipments. These systems include the WebTRAGIS (Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System) platform. WebTRAGIS is a browser-based routing application developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focused primarily on the safe transport of spent nuclear fuel from US nuclear reactors via railway, highway, or waterway. It is also used for the transport planning of low-level radiological waste to depositories such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility. One particular feature of WebTRAGIS is its coupling with high-resolution population data from ORNL s LandScan project. This allows users to obtain highly accurate population count and density information for use in route planning and risk analysis. To perform the routing and risk analysis WebTRAGIS incorporates a basic routing model methodology, with the additional application of various constraints designed to mimic US Department of Transportation (DOT), DOE, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Aside from the routing models available in WebTRAGIS, the system relies on detailed or specialized modal networks for the route solutions. These include a highly detailed network model of the US railroad system, the inland and coastal waterways, and a specialized highway network that focuses on the US interstate system and the designated hazardous materials and Highway Route Controlled Quantity (HRCQ) -designated roadways. The route constraints in WebTRAGIS rely upon a series of attributes assigned to the various components of the different modal networks. Routes are determined via a

  6. Radioactively contaminated metallic materials: the search for a global solution; Materiales metalicos con contaminacion radiactiva: en busca de una solucion global

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, S.

    2009-07-01

    Radioactively contaminated metallic materials: the search for a global solution. Tarragona hosted the first International Conference on Control and Management of Inadvertent Radioactive Material in Metal Scrap, which was sponsored by the IAEA and organised by various Spanish entities, among them the CSN. The meeting served for the exchange of ideas and precautionary measures, a field in which Spain already has a long and recognised experience, and focussed on the voluntary Protocol, endorsed by the majority of the Spanish steelyards. (Author)

  7. SORPTION AND DISPERSION OF STRONTIUM RADIONUCLIDE IN THE BENTONITE-QUARTZ-CLAY AS BACKFILL MATERIAL CANDIDATE ON RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Poernomo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment of sorption and dispersion characteristics of strontium in the mixture of bentonite-quartz, clay-quartz, bentonite-clay-quartz as candidate of raw material for backfill material in the radioactive waste repository has been performed. The objective of this research is to know the grain size effect of bentonite, clay, and quartz on the weight percent ratio of bentonite to quartz, clay to quartz, bentonite to clay to-quartz can be gives physical characteristics of best such as bulk density (rb, effective porosity (e, permeability (K, best sorption characteristic such as distribution coefficient (Kd, and best dispersion characteristics such as dispersivity (a and effective dispersion coefficient (De of strontium in the backfill material candidate. The experiment was carried out in the column filled by the mixture of bentonite-quartz, clay-quartz, bentonite-clay-quartz with the weight percent ratio of bentonite to quartz, clay to quartz, bentonite to clay to quartz of 100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 40/60, 20/80, 0/100 respectively at saturated condition of water, then flowed 0.1 N Sr(NO32 as buffer solution with tracer of 0.05 Ci/cm3 90Sr as strontium radionuclide simulation was leached from immobilized radioactive waste in the radioactive waste repository. The concentration of 90Sr in the effluents represented as Ct were analyzed by Ortec b counter every 30 min, then by using profile concentration of Co and Ct, values of Kd, a and De of 90Sr in the backfill material was determined. The experiment data showed that the best results were -80+120 mesh grain size of bentonite, clay, quartz respectively on the weight percent ratio of bentonite to clay to quartz of 70/10/20 with physical characteristics of rb = 0.658 g/cm3, e = 0.666 cm3/cm3, and K = 1.680x10-2 cm/sec, sorption characteristic of Kd = 46.108 cm3/g, dispersion characteristics of a = 5.443 cm, and De = 1.808x10-03 cm2/sec can be proposed as candidate of raw material of backfill material

  8. A probabilistic assessment code system for derivation of clearance levels of radioactive materials. PASCLR user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tomoyuki [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Takeda, Seiji; Kimura, Hideo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-01-01

    It is indicated that some types of radioactive material generating from the development and utilization of nuclear energy do not need to be subject regulatory control because they can only give rise to trivial radiation hazards. The process to remove such materials from regulatory control is called as 'clearance'. The corresponding levels of the concentration of radionuclides are called as 'clearance levels'. In the Nuclear Safety Commission's discussion, the deterministic approach was applied to derive the clearance levels, which are the concentrations of radionuclides in a cleared material equivalent to an individual dose criterion. Basically, realistic parameter values were selected for it. If the realistic values could not be defined, reasonably conservative values were selected. Additionally, the stochastic approaches were performed to validate the results which were obtained by the deterministic calculations. We have developed a computer code system PASCLR (Probabilistic Assessment code System for derivation of Clearance Levels of Radioactive materials) by using the Monte Carlo technique for carrying out the stochastic calculations. This report describes the structure and user information for execution of PASCLR code. (author)

  9. The nucleo-electricity and the handling of radioactive materials; La nucleoelectricidad y el manejo de materiales radioactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuapio Ortiz, Hector [Sindicato Unico de Trabajadores de la Industria Nuclear (SUTIN), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper deals on the subject of radioactive materials handling, therefore the author presents primarily a brief resume on the different kinds of low level radioactive wastes that are to be expected from the different industrial and medical applications of the radioactivity, at the same time he presents an estimation of the wastes generated annually in our country. This document contains an annex which deals on the research and development of the nuclear energy, covering subjects such as: The term source, reprocessing of irradiated fuels, quantitative assessment, the thermo-chemical databank, the storage of irradiated fuel elements, the radiation effects; also the projects STRIPA, hydrocoin, SYVAC, ISIRS are described [Espanol] Esta ponencia trata sobre el manejo de materiales radioactivos, por lo tanto el autor presenta primeramente un breve resumen de las clases de residuos de bajo nivel que cabe esperar de las distintas aplicaciones industriales y medicas de la radioactividad, al mismo tiempo presenta una estimacion de los residuos que se generan anualmente en nuestro pais. Este documento contiene un anexo en el que se trata la investigacion y desarrollo de la energia nuclear, abordando temas como: El termino fuente, reelaboracion de combustibles irradiados, estimacion cuantitativa, el banco termoquimico de datos, el almacenamiento de elementos combustibles irradiados, los efectos de la radiacion, tambien se describen los proyectos: STRIPA, hydrocoin, SYVAC, ISIRS

  10. Limiting values for radioactive materials in food; Grenzwerte fuer radioaktive Stoffe in Lebensmitteln. Beispiel Tschernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The contribution describes the fundamentals of radiation protection: LNT (linear, no threshold) hypotheses, ALARA (a slow as reasonably achievable), limiting values. Using the example the nuclear accident in Chernobyl the differences in contamination development in different foodstuffs in Germany is demonstrated including recommended limiting values and the radiation exposures after 30 years due to consumption of contaminated food. The natural radioactivity is about 0.3 mSv/year.

  11. Establishment and utilization of radiological protection programs for the transport of radioactive material; Establecimiento y utilizacion de programas de proteccion radiologica para el transporte de material radiactivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez V, J.; Capadona, N. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250 (1429) Buenos Aires, (Argentina)]. e-mail: jlvietri@sede.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    The present work has by objective to indicate rules for the establishment and the use of the Radiological Protection Programs (PPR) that are of application to the transport of radioactive materials according to that required by the Transport Regulation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The PPR are established and applied in systematic form for remittent, transport and addressees, to consider the measures of radiological protection and its appropriately control during the transport stages of radioactive material. In particular, in the work it is analyzed the PPR applied to the operative stage, in the one that can be considered as one of the more important documents to use since it summarizes the evaluations and the necessary controls of radiological protection. Also it is analyzed the importance that this document gets ready on the base that it converges in the the analyses, evaluations and data that have been kept in mind during the previous stages of design of bundles and production of packings, the types and quantities of involved bundles, as well as of considering the quantities of expeditions and its frequencies, the ways of transport, etc. It is included a brief description of the parts that the PPR conforms on the base of that suggested in the advanced draft of the TS-G-1.5 Guide 'Radiation Protection Programmes for Transport of Radioactive Material', of October, 2005, of the IAEA: objectives. necessity, scope, basic elements of a PPR in function of the occupational dose. assignment of functions and responsibilities for the establishment of a PPR, evaluation and dose optimization, surface contamination, segregation and other protection measures, responses in emergencies. training and administration systems for baled and transport of radioactive material. Next an example of PPR for the transport of bundles of the A Type by lorry with content of radiopharmaceuticals that are the bundles more used worldwide in the expeditions of

  12. Waste management facilities cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.; Burton, D.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains cost information on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex waste streams that will be addressed by DOE in the programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) project. It describes the results of the task commissioned by DOE to develop cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste. It contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled (<200 mrem/hr contact dose) and remote-handled (>200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste are estimated. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations.

  13. Application of ion beams in materials science of radioactive waste forms: focus on the performance of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido, Frederico [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3-Universite Paris-Sud, Batiments 104-108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France)]. E-mail: garrido@csnsm.in2p3.fr; Nowicki, Lech [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Thome, Lionel [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3-Universite Paris-Sud, Ba-hat timents 104-108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France)

    2005-10-15

    Ion beam techniques provide unique tools for the qualification of radioactive waste forms. They address three major issues: (i) the simulation by ion irradiation of the stability of a matrix submitted to radiative environment; (ii) the doping of a material with stable or radioactive elements which simulate the species to be confined; (iii) the characterisation of a material via nuclear microanalysis techniques. Among various classes of nuclear matrices the spent nuclear fuel is widely considered as a potential candidate for the stabilisation of radioactive wastes in scenarios of long term interim storage or final geological disposal. Illustrative examples revealing the potentialities of the use of ion beams either as a pure characterisation tool - to investigate the chemical stability of the UO{sub 2} matrix under an oxygen potential - or in a combined way (e.g. irradiation/characterisation, doping/characterisation) - to explore the radiation stability and the behaviour of foreign species - are presented. Transformations (stoichiometry, depth and structure of growing hyperstoichiometric U{sub 4}O{sub 9}/U{sub 3}O{sub 7} oxides) occurring during low-temperature air oxidation of uranium dioxide single crystals are reported. Swift heavy ion irradiation of UO{sub 2} single crystals leads to a peculiar single crystal-polycrystal transformation (i.e. polygonisation of the fluorite-type structure of the material). Irradiation of UO{sub 2} at low energy shows that the damage production is directly linked to the energy deposited in nuclear elastic collisions. The lattice location of helium atoms (generated in large amount during the storage period) in interstitial octahedral positions is discussed.

  14. Natural radioactivity in some building materials in Cuba and their contribution to the indoor gamma dose rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigido Flores, Osvaldo; Barreras Caballero, Aldo A.; Montalvan Estrada, Alberto; Queipo Garcia, Maite [Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, Camaguey (Cuba). Centro de Atencion a la Actividad Nuclear. Lab. de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental]. E-mail: sean@caonao.cmw.inf.cu; Zerquera, Juan Tomas [Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, La Habana (Cuba). Agencia de Energia Nuclear. Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones

    2001-07-01

    The natural radioactivity of some building materials commonly used in Cuba was measured by gamma spectrometry. Typical concentrations, so far encountered, are in the ranges: 47 to 2511 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 40} K; 9 to 71 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 226} Ra; and 2 to 38 Bq.kg{sup -1} for {sup 232} Th. The external gamma ray absorbed doses in indoor air, and the corresponding effective dose equivalents in a typical dwelling are presented in this work. (author)

  15. Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide Content on the Preparation of Peroxotitanate Materials for the Treatment of Radioactive Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wein-Duo Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modification of peroxotitanate using hydrogen peroxide significantly improved the ion-exchange capacity of titanate materials as sorbents for metal ions contained in a radioactive waste simulant solution. The effects of hydrogen peroxide content (hydrogen peroxide/titanium isopropoxide molar ratios, hereafter expressed as H/T on the properties of as-prepared titanate synthesized at 130°C and at pH of 6-7, followed by freeze-drying, were investigated. The peroxotitanate materials thus obtained were characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, TEM, EDX, ICP, and Raman spectroscopy. At an H/T ratio of 2, peroxotitanate predominantly exhibited an amorphous structure, with a clearly observed tubular or fibrous structure. Furthermore, peroxotitanate modified at an H/T ratio of 2 exhibited the best ion-exchange capacity of 191 mg g−1 for metal ions contained in a radioactive waste simulant solution. Hence, these peroxotitanate materials are suitable for removing metal ions from wastewater, especially lanthanide ions (Ln3+ and Sr2+.

  16. Titanium carbide-carbon porous nanocomposite materials for radioactive ion beam production: processing, sintering and isotope release properties

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081922; Stora, Thierry

    2017-01-26

    The Isotope Separator OnLine (ISOL) technique is used at the ISOLDE - Isotope Separator OnLine DEvice facility at CERN, to produce radioactive ion beams for physics research. At CERN protons are accelerated to 1.4 GeV and made to collide with one of two targets located at ISOLDE facility. When the protons collide with the target material, nuclear reactions produce isotopes which are thermalized in the bulk of the target material grains. During irradiation the target is kept at high temperatures (up to 2300 °C) to promote diffusion and effusion of the produced isotopes into an ion source, to produce a radioactive ion beam. Ti-foils targets are currently used at ISOLDE to deliver beams of K, Ca and Sc, however they are operated at temperatures close to their melting point which brings target degradation, through sintering and/or melting which reduces the beam intensities over time. For the past 10 years, nanostructured target materials have been developed and have shown improved release rates of the produced i...

  17. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multi-modal transportation network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-10-28

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, all focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  18. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multimodal transportation network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, and focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  19. Guide relative to the regulatory requirements applicable to the radioactive materials transport in airport area; Guide relatif aux exigences reglementaires applicables au transport des matieres radioactives en zone aeroportuaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    This guide makes an inventory of all the points necessary for the correct functioning of the transport of radioactive materials in airport zone. Stowage of the parcels, program of radiological protection (P.R.P.), operation of transport, quality assurance, radiation dose evaluation, radiation monitoring, dose optimization, storage management, are the principal points of this guide. (N.C.)

  20. The transport of radioactive materials presents particular risks because the matters circulate at the nearest of public; Le transport de matieres radioactives presente des risques particuliers car les matieres circulent au plus pres du public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The transport of radioactive materials is the object of a particular attention of public authority. The object of this work is to present the approach of deep protection that has been chosen to provide the reliability of these transports. (N.C.)

  1. Accidents with radioactive materials 1996-2000; Incidenten met radioactieve stoffen 1996-200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breas, G. [Groep Handhaving Straling, Stoffen en Producten, Inspectie Milieuhygiene Zuid-West, Ministerie van Volkshuisvesting, Ruimtelijke Ordening en Milieuhygiene VROM, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    The Dutch Inspection for Environmental Protection recently issued two reports on registered incidents with radioactive substances in the periods 1996-1998, and 1999-2000. The main points from both reports are discussed in this article and a few special examples are highlighted. [Dutch] De Inspectie Milieuhygiene van het ministerie van VROM heeft recent twee rapporten uitgegeven over de geregistreerde incidenten in de perioden 1996-1998 en 1999-2000 en een in het Engels vertaalde versie over de laatste periode bestemd voor buitenlandse relaties. De hoofdpunten uit beide rapporten worden hier beschreven en enkele bijzondere voorbeelden worden nader toegelicht.

  2. Device for the collection of radio-active materials in the form of dust or powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellriegel, W.

    1980-05-14

    The dust contaminated with radio-activity formed when drilling cement and concrete is sucked in by suction plant via a line into a closed container. The container itself stands in a barrel with or without concrete shielding. The suction plant produces the subpressure in the container via a suction line. This is fixed on the lid of the container and has a filter at its suction opening inside the container. The filter consists of several fibre air-filter mats, which are arranged inside the filter housing at an angle to the air and dust flow and displaced relative to each other.

  3. Training and improvement of professional person: multimedia training for radioactive material transport; Capacitacao e aperfeicoamento profissional: treinamento multimidia para transporte de materiais radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahyun, A.; Sordi, G.M., E-mail: asahyun@ipen.br, E-mail: adelia@atomo.com.br [ATOMO - Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear S/S Ltda, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ghobril, C.N., E-mail: nabil@sp.gov.br [Governo de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Economia Agricola - IEA; Levy, D.S.; Levy, P.J., E-mail: patrick@omiccron.com.br [Omiccron Programacao Grafica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The international transport of radioactive materials depends on national regulations of different countries, through which they pass. Therefore, it is necessary to learn the international recommendations in order to avoid contradictions among each country own regulations that can make radioactive materials transport impracticable. Information Technology and Communication has grown in Brazil and abroad, increasing demand for long distance learning, since it allows simultaneous training and education of a large number of geographically distant people in short time. The development of this first web-based course of transport for radioactive materials considered many advantages when compared to traditional courses, such as: agility in developing, translating and updating courses; facility of access and compatibility with various educational platforms all over the world. The course covers five topics. It presents regulations for transportation of dangerous materials and categorizes radioactive materials; it discusses the requirements and classification of radioactive material packing; ir discusses different risk labels and when they should be used; it presents responsibility and administrative requirements. Furthermore, considering the increasing use of mobile computing, the content is supposed to be automatically adjusted to different devices, allowing the user to make use of multiple access points without losing the sequence of the course. Initially developed in Portuguese and Spanish, this technology allows the dissemination of knowledge in Portuguese and Spanish spoken countries. It is our target to expand this Project, translating the course to other languages. The monitoring of access profiles and users feedback will guide the development of the next courses for the sector. (author)

  4. Transportation of radioactive materials: a summary of state and local legislative requirements for the period ending December 31, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, N.P.; Goins, L.F.; Fowler, J.W.; Owen, P.T.

    1986-04-01

    This report lists 670 adopted US state and local laws that impact the transportation of radioactive materials. The report was generated from information contained in the Legislative Database (LDB), a comprehensive, interactive database developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy and the Joint Integration Office. Laws are sorted alphabetically by state, with state and local bills listed separately and sorted by date of adoption. Each citation contains the following information: locale (geographical areas and political jurisdictions affected by the action), bill number, bill title, bill sponsor, history of bill status, comments, and abstract. Seven indexes are provided to assist the reader in locating legislation of interest: locale, bill number, title word (permuted), sponsor, transport restriction (type of transportation restriction specified, e.g., escort, notify, permit, ban), transport mode (mode of transportation specified, e.g., truck, rail, barge), and keyword. This report adds new legislation to the information contained in last year's report, ''Transportation of Radioactive and Hazardous Materials: A Summary of State and Local Legislative Requirements for the Period Ending December 31, 1981,'' ORNL/TM-9563, published in September 1985.

  5. Conversion of radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes into borosilicate glass using the glass material oxidation and dissolution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.; Elam, K.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A new vitrification process has been invented. The Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS) allows direct conversion of radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes to borosilicate glass. GMODS directly converts metals, ceramics and amorphous solids to glass, oxidizes organics with the residue converted to glass, and converts halides (such as chlorides) to borosilicate glass and a secondary sodium halide stream. The glass is designed to meet EPA criteria for chemically non-hazardous waste forms. Laboratory work has demonstrated the conversion of stainless steel, aluminum, cerium (a plutonium surrogate), uranium, Zircaloy, multiple oxides and other materials to glass. Equipment options have been identified for processing rates between 1 and 100,000 t/y. Significant work, including a pilot plant, is required to develop GMODS for applications at an industrial scale.

  6. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  7. Radioactive Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  8. 49 CFR 173.418 - Authorized packages-pyrophoric Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) materials, as referenced in the § 172.101 table of this subchapter, in quantities not exceeding A2 per package must be transported in DOT Specification 7A packagings constructed of materials that will not...

  9. Use of a size-resolved 1-D resuspension scheme to evaluate resuspended radioactive material associated with mineral dust particles from the ground surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Masahide; Mikami, Masao; Tanaka, Taichu Y; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Kita, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Yutaka; Yoshida, Naohiro; Toyoda, Sakae; Satou, Yukihiko; Kinase, Takeshi; Ninomiya, Kazuhiko; Shinohara, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    A size-resolved, one-dimensional resuspension scheme for soil particles from the ground surface is proposed to evaluate the concentration of radioactivity in the atmosphere due to the secondary emission of radioactive material. The particle size distributions of radioactive particles at a sampling point were measured and compared with the results evaluated by the scheme using four different soil textures: sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, and silty loam. For sandy loam and silty loam, the results were in good agreement with the size-resolved atmospheric radioactivity concentrations observed at a school ground in Tsushima District, Namie Town, Fukushima, which was heavily contaminated after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Though various assumptions were incorporated into both the scheme and evaluation conditions, this study shows that the proposed scheme can be applied to evaluate secondary emissions caused by aeolian resuspension of radioactive materials associated with mineral dust particles from the ground surface. The results underscore the importance of taking soil texture into account when evaluating the concentrations of resuspended, size-resolved atmospheric radioactivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Second version of France's National Radioactive Materials and Waste Management Plan: an ambitious road-map for progress on sustainable radioactive materials and waste management; Seconde edition du Plan national de gestion des matieres et des dechets radioactifs: ue feuille de route ambitieuse pour progresser dans la gestion durable des matieres et des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, C. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, adjointe au directeur du transport et des sources, 75 - Paris (France)

    2011-02-15

    France's National Radioactive Materials and Waste Management Plan (PNGMDR) aims at drawing up regular reviews of application of the management policy regarding radioactive substances, according to a framework defined by Law. It is drawn up by a multidisciplinary work-group, chaired by the Directorate-General for Energy and Climate (DGEC) and the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN). The Plan is updated every three years and the second version was finalized at the end of 2009. The PNGMDR Plan is intended to be exhaustive. It embraces radioactive waste, reusable radioactive materials, sealed sources, technologically-enhanced naturally-occurring radioactive waste, as well as mining residue and spoil. It presents existing storage and disposal solutions and identifies needs for storage or disposal based on the national inventory of radioactive materials and waste, together with the facilities that need to be developed. The studies carried out under the PNGMDR must also ensure that waste management within each of these channels is optimised. Lastly, the Plan sets research and studies objectives, especially as related to waste for which there is as yet no disposal channel. The main recommendations contained in the Plan, together with milestones and deadlines related to radioactive materials and waste management are taken up in French regulations via provisions set out in a decree and an order stipulating the applicable requirements. (author)

  11. Radiation sensitive devices and systems for detection of radioactive materials and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Dale K

    2014-12-02

    Radiation sensitive devices include a substrate comprising a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to resonate responsive to non-ionizing incident radiation. Systems for detecting radiation from a special nuclear material include a radiation sensitive device and a sensor located remotely from the radiation sensitive device and configured to measure an output signal from the radiation sensitive device. In such systems, the radiation sensitive device includes a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements positioned on the radiation sensitive material. Methods for detecting a presence of a special nuclear material include positioning a radiation sensitive device in a location where special nuclear materials are to be detected and remotely interrogating the radiation sensitive device with a sensor.

  12. The SEWD guideline on the security of other radioactive materials. What are the consequences for radiography?; Die SEWD-Richtlinie zur Sicherung von sonstigen radioaktiven Stoffen. Was bedeutet dies fuer die Radiographie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosbadt, Oliver [Ministerium fuer Umwelt, Klima und Energiewirtschaft, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    The situation of an aggravated international terroristic threat since the attacks in 2001 has invoked the consideration of abusive use of radioactive materials. In Germany the SEWD guideline for requirements concerning ''other'' radioactive materials including the evaluation of the hazard potential of radioactive materials, security categories, safety requirements and related security measures for different applications. The nondestructive materials testing will be concerned by this guideline due to the application of radioactive sources with high activity. The contribution discusses the most important aspects.

  13. Direct measurement of nanoscale lithium diffusion in solid battery materials using radioactive tracer of {sup 8}Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S.C. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP), Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Watanabe, Y.X.; Hirayama, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Imai, N. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Center for Nuclear Studies (CNS), Tokyo University, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Jung, H.S.; Miyatake, H.; Oyaizu, M. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Osa, A.; Otokawa, Y.; Matsuda, M.; Nishio, K.; Makii, H.; Sato, T.K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Shirane 2-4, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kuwata, N.; Kawamura, J. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advance Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ueno, H. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kim, Y.H. [Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kimura, S.; Mukai, M. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2016-06-01

    We have developed an in situ and nanoscale Li diffusion measurement method in Li battery materials using an α-emitting radioactive {sup 8}Li tracer. In this method, while implanting a low-energy (8 keV) {sup 8}Li beam, the α particles emitted at a small angle (10°) relative to the sample surface were detected as a function of time. Measurement for Li diffusion coefficients in a spinel phase LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} (LMO) thin film has been started, which is used as an electrode in a Li ion secondary battery. An obvious Li diffusion effect in LMO was observed at the sample temperature of 623 K, and the further measurement is underway.

  14. Comparison of the MARC and CRAC2 programs for assessing the radiological consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material

    CERN Document Server

    Hemming, C R; Charles, D; Ostmeyer, R M

    1983-01-01

    This report describes a comparison of the MARC (Methodology for Assessing Radiological Consequences) and CRAC2 (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences, version 2) computer programs for assessing the radiological consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material. A qualitative comparison has been made of the features of the constituent sub-models of the two codes, and potentially the most important differences identified. The influence of these differences has been investigated quantitatively by comparison of the predictions of the two codes in a wide variety of circumstances. Both intermediate quantities and endpoints used as a measure of risk have been compared in order to separate the variables more clearly. The results indicate that, in general, the predictions of MARC and CRAC2 are in good agreement.

  15. Environmental impact assessment of radioactive materials during sea transportation: Case study of plutonium released in the ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niel, J.Ch.

    1996-12-31

    The objectives of the environmental impact assessments of radioactive materials are at first given. The NSPI (Nuclear Safety Protection Institut) is jointly involved in these assessments. Currently, the NSPI is studying the case of plutonium release. The summary of this study is given. Indeed, to perform this assessment, the marine environment has to be modelled on a large scale and the exposure path to be calculated. Hypothesis has been made on the release phenomena as well. The proposed model, the origin of contamination, the hypothesis for the calculation and the exposure pathway are then explained. All the sea products are supposed to be eaten within the European countries. Cumulated collective doses for European countries after 50 years should be 160 man Sv in the western part of the Channel and 4.47 man Sv in the north eastern part of the atlantic ocean. (O.M.). 2 refs.

  16. Deposition, adhere and remobilization of radioactive nuclide on surface and materials covered on the earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanabusa, Tatsuo; Chiba, Masaru; Kurita, Susumu; Sato, Junji; Maki, hiroatsu; Okada, Kikuo; Mori, Hideaki [Meteorological Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of radioactive nuclide released from nuclear installation on human body, new model with retraveling process was developed. This retraveling process was changed by the surface state of the earth, for example, soil, grass (field) and tree. Study method of retraveling of particles adhered on grass and tree into the atmosphere was the following: the relation between particles retraveling rate and wind velocity was observed by a wind tunnel experiment. Then, the retraveling experiment was carried out in the natural environment. The effect of environmental factor on the retraveling rate was studied by comparing two experiments. Then, an experimental equation was derived from these results. We used Ophiopogon japonicus Ker-Gawl, Eurya emarginata Makino and Lycopodium clavatum L. as samples of grass, tree and particles, respectably. On grass, the retraveling rate decreased monotonously at the wind tunnel experiment, but it was changed by time at the experiment in the field. When a light set up in the wind tunnel and the capture rate of particle on the surface of grass was measured, the results showed the capture decreased monotonously under no light. However, when the wind tunnel lighted up well, the capture increase 3 times as much as no light. So that, sun light affected on retraveling of particle. (S.Y.)

  17. Hydrogeochemical and spectroscopic studies of radioactive materials in Ayrakan and Cheshmeh Shotori areas, northeastern Isfahan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Esmaeili Vardanjani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Groundwaters hydrochemistry of Ayrakan and Cheshmeh Shotori areas and geochemistry of rare earth elements, indicate Ayrakan alkali granite as the origin of uranium and other dissolved elements in groundwaters of these areas. Geochemical and hydrogeochemical studies as well as the trend of uranium and thorium transition and mobility in aqueous environments of these areas indicate uranium adsorption by iron hydroxide (goethite as the deterrent agent against uranium transition and mobility from depth to surface. Gamma-ray spectroscopic study of sediments from Cheshmeh Shotori area by HPGe detector indicates the presence of 226Ra in high contents and as the radioactive nuclide that is the reason for high activity of these sediments. Production of 226Ra from 238U decay, shorter half-life of 226Ra compared to 238U, radium transition by groundwaters from depth to surface as well as hydrogeochemical evidences, all suggest the possibility of existence of hidden uranium deposit and uranium mineralization in depth and the distance between Ayrakan and Cheshmeh Shotori areas.

  18. Characterization of uranium carbide target materials to produce neutron-rich radioactive beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tusseau-Nenez, Sandrine; Roussière, Brigitte; Barré-Boscher, Nicole [Institut de Physique Nucléaire (UMR8608) CNRS/IN2P3 – Université Paris Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Gottberg, Alexander [CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Corradetti, Stefano; Andrighetto, Alberto [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Universit‘a 2, 35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Cheikh Mhamed, Maher; Essabaa, Saïd [Institut de Physique Nucléaire (UMR8608) CNRS/IN2P3 – Université Paris Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Franberg-Delahaye, Hanna; Grinyer, Joanna [Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France); Joanny, Loïc [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (UMR 6226) CNRS – Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 RENNES Cedex (France); Lau, Christophe [Institut de Physique Nucléaire (UMR8608) CNRS/IN2P3 – Université Paris Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Le Lannic, Joseph [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes (UMR 6226) CNRS – Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 RENNES Cedex (France); Raynaud, Marc; Saïd, Abdelhakim [Institut de Physique Nucléaire (UMR8608) CNRS/IN2P3 – Université Paris Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Stora, Thierry [CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); and others

    2016-03-01

    In the framework of a R&D program aiming to develop uranium carbide (UC{sub x}) targets for radioactive nuclear beams, the Institut de Physique Nucléaire d’Orsay (IPNO) has developed an experimental setup to characterize the release of various fission fragments from UC{sub x} samples at high temperature. The results obtained in a previous study have demonstrated the feasibility of the method and started to correlate the structural properties of the samples and their behavior in terms of nuclear reaction product release. In the present study, seven UC{sub x} samples have been systematically characterized in order to better understand the correlation between their physicochemical characteristics and release properties. Two very different samples, the first one composed of dense UC and the second one of highly porous UC{sub x} made of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, were provided by the ActILab (ENSAR) collaboration. The others were synthesized at IPNO. The systems for irradiation and heating necessary for the release studies have been improved with respect to those used in previous studies. The results show that the open porosity is hardly the limiting factor for the fission product release. The homogeneity of the microstructure and the pore size distribution contributes significantly to the increase of the release. The use of carbon nanotubes in place of traditional micrometric graphite particles appears to be promising, even if the homogeneity of the microstructure can still be enhanced.

  19. Development of U.S. Regulations for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials - A Look Back Over the Past 40 Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafner, R S

    2005-08-29

    The discussion in this Chapter is a relatively straightforward, chronological description of the development of U.S. transportation regulations for radioactive materials over the past 40 years. Although primarily based on the development of U.S. regulations for the shipment of what is now known as Type B quantities of radioactive materials, the information presented details the interactions between a number of U.S. governmental agencies, commissions, and departments, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). For the most part, the information that follows was taken directly from the Federal Register, between 1965 and 2004, which, within the boundaries of the U.S., is considered law, or at least policy at the federal level. Starting in 1978, however, the information presented also takes a look at a series of so-called Guidance Documents, including Regulatory Guides (Reg. Guides), NUREGs, and NUREG/CRs. Developed originally by the U.S. Atomic Energy Agency (AEC), and later adapted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NUREGs and NUREG/CRs cited in this Chapter clearly specify a preferred methodology that can be used to meet the regulatory requirements of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR Part 71, or, more simply, 10 CFR 71). As is appropriate for the discussion in this Chapter, the methodology preferred by the NRC, not as law but as guidance, was adapted directly from the requirements of the ASME's Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The information provided below is provided with little embellishment. By taking the information directly from the Federal Register, it becomes a story that tells itself. The information is self-consistent, and it provides all of the details behind the numerous policy decisions that led to the development of the U.S. regulations, as they were in their time, and as they are now.

  20. National inventory of radioactive wastes and recoverable materials 2006. Descriptive catalogue of radioactive waste families; Inventaire national des dechets radioactifs et des matieres valorisables 2006. Catalogue descriptif des familles de dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Real comprehensive overview of radioactive wastes, the national inventory of radioactive wastes and recoverable materials describes the situation in France of the wastes that can be conditioned (in their definitive form) or not. It presents also the waste production quantities foreseen for 2010, 2020 and beyond. This document is a complement to the synthesis report and to the geographic inventory of radioactive wastes in France and details the classification of wastes by families (wastes with similar characteristics). For each family of wastes, the description comprises a general presentation and some photos. It comprises also some data such as the position of the family in the French classification, the industrial activity at the origin of the waste, the production situation of the waste in concern (finished, in progress, not started). Some information about the raw waste are given and the conditioning process used is described. Some figures complete the description, like: the past and future production quantities, the evaluation of the radioactivity of the waste family in 2004 and 2020, and the evaluation of the thermal power when available. Finally, some information are given about the presence of compounds with a specific risk of toxicity. (J.S.)

  1. Radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials and end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruthagiri, G; Rajamannan, B; Suresh Jawahar, K

    2013-12-01

    Studies have been planned to obtain activity and associated radiation hazards in ceramic raw materials (quartz, feldspar, clay, zircon, kaolin, grog, alumina bauxite, baddeleyite, masse, dolomite and red mud) and end products (ceramic brick, glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) as the activity concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium vary from material to material. The primordial radionuclides in ceramic raw materials and end products are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the activity level in these materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in ceramic raw materials and end products. The activity of these materials has been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometry, which contains an NaI(Tl) detector connected to multichannel analyser (MCA). Radium equivalent activity, alpha-gamma indices and radiation hazard indices associated with the natural radionuclides are calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplace and industrial buildings is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants.

  2. PATRAM 2004 - The 14th international symposium on the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The 14th International Symposium on the Packaging and Transport of Radioactive Materials, PATRAM 2004, was held at the Estrel Convention Center in Berlin, Germany, from 20-24 September 2004. PATRAM '04 was held under the auspices of the German Federal Ministry for Transport, Building and Housing (BMNBW), and was hosted by the German Bundesanstalt fur Materialforschung und -Prufung (BAM). Further, the conference was held in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the US Institute for Nuclear Materials Management. As with past PATRAM conferences, this one covered a wide range of topics that are of concern to the nuclear materials transport industry; regulations, operations, technical analyses and testing, design, institutional issues, security, risk assessment and emergency response. Presentation of these topics was provided through a number of fora, plenary presentations, panel presentations, oral presentations, posters and technical tours. Coupled with the opening reception on Monday evening and the coffee breaks, a forum was provided at this PATRAM that allowed all participants ample opportunities to increase their technical knowledge, to learn about compelling issues around the world and to network with colleagues. (orig.)

  3. Assessment of natural radioactivity and radiological hazards in building materials used in Yan'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinwei; Li, Nan; Yang, Guang; Zhao, Caifeng

    2013-03-01

    The concentration of natural radionuclides in commonly used building materials collected from Yan'an, China, was determined using gamma ray spectroscopy with a NaI(Tl) detector. The activity concentration of ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th, and ⁴⁰K in the studied building materials ranges from 9.4-73.1, 11.5-86.9, and 258.9-1,055.1 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and the world mean values for soil. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex), internal hazard index (Hin), indoor air absorbed dose rate, and annual effective dose rate due to natural radionuclides in samples were estimated to assess radiological hazards for people living in dwellings made of the studied building materials. The calculated Raeq values of all building materials (75.7-222.1 Bq kg⁻¹) are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg⁻¹. The values of Hex and Hin are less than unity. The mean values of indoor air absorbed dose rates of all building materials (101.0 ± 14.1-177.0 ± 6.8 nGy h⁻¹) are higher than the world population-weighted average of 84 nGy h⁻¹, while the mean values of annual effective dose range from 0.50 ± 0.07-0.87 ± 0.03 mSv y⁻¹, which are lower than the recommended limit of 1 mSv y⁻¹. It is found that these materials may be used safely as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards to inhabitants.

  4. Incidents with materials (natural radioactive materials) in Saxony; Vorkommnisse mit Materialien (radioaktive Stoffe natuerlichen Ursprungs) im Freistaat Sachsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flesch, Klaus [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Dresden (Germany). Strahlenschutz; Philipp, Thomas [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Dresden-Pillnitz (Germany). Strahlenschutz

    2017-04-01

    In Saxony materials with unknown origin have to be registered and tested with mobile or stationary radiation monitoring facilities and classified according the radiation protection regulations. Experiences with respective incidents are discussed in the contribution.

  5. National inventory of radioactive wastes and valorizable materials. Synthesis report; Inventaire national des dechets radioactifs et des matieres valorisables. Rapport de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This national inventory of radioactive wastes is a reference document for professionals and scientists of the nuclear domain and also for any citizen interested in the management of radioactive wastes. It contains: 1 - general introduction; 2 - the radioactive wastes: definition, classification, origin and management; 3 - methodology of the inventory: organization, accounting, prospective, production forecasting, recording of valorizable materials, exhaustiveness, verification tools; 4 - general results: radioactive waste stocks recorded until December 31, 2002, forecasts for the 2003-2020 era, post-2020 prospects: dismantling operations, recording of valorizable materials; 5 - inventory per producer or owner: front-end fuel cycle facilities, power generation nuclear centers, back-end fuel cycle facilities, waste processing or maintenance facilities, civil CEA research centers, non-CEA research centers, medical activities (diagnostics, therapeutics, analyses), various industrial activities (sources fabrication, control, particular devices), military research and experiment centers, storage and disposal facilities; 6 - elements about radioactive polluted sites; 7 - examples of foreign inventories; 8 - conclusion and appendixes. (J.S.)

  6. Survey of matrix materials for solidified radioactive high-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurwell, W.E.

    1981-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been investigating advanced waste forms, including matrix waste forms, that may provide a very high degree of stability under the most severe repository conditions. The purpose of this study was to recommend practical matrix materials for future development that most enhance the stability of the matrix waste forms. The functions of the matrix were reviewed. Desirable matrix material properties were discussed and listed relative to the matrix functions. Potential matrix materials were discussed and recommendations were made for future matrix development. The matrix mechanically contains waste cores, reduces waste form temperatures, and is capable of providing a high-quality barrier to leach waters. High-quality barrier matrices that separate and individually encapsulate the waste cores are fabricated by powder fabrication methods, such as sintering, hot pressing, and hot isostatic pressing. Viable barrier materials are impermeable, extremely corrosion resistant, and mechanically strong. Three material classes potentially satisfy the requirements for a barrier matrix and are recommended for development: titanium, glass, and graphite. Polymers appear to be marginally adequate, and a more thorough engineering assessment of their potential should be made.

  7. Main organic materials in a repository for high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta [Vita vegrandis, Hindaas (Sweden); Grive, Mireia; Gaona, Xavier; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi [Enviros Consulting, Valldoreix, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    A compilation of the origin and composition of organic material possibly left in a repository is made. Recommendations of precautions and actions for the different material are listed as well. As a brief summary, the different categories of organic material of relevance for the repository are: 1. Microorganisms. Their effect would be mainly a reduction of the redox potential in the initial stages after the repository closure. They may contribute to the depletion of the oxygen entrapped due to the repository construction. This effect would not jeopardize the stability of the repository. If the dominating microorganisms in the anaerobic environment are sulphate-reducing bacteria, oxidation of organic material would lead to formation of HS{sup -}. The produced sulphide can corrode copper under anaerobic conditions, if it reaches the canisters. Another effect of microorganisms would be the increase of the complexing capacity of the groundwater due to excreted metabolites. The impact of these compounds is not yet clear, although it will surely not be very important, due to the low amounts of the excreted substances. 2. Materials in the ventilation air. Their effect will probably be a contribution to the maintenance of reducing conditions in the area, although it is likely that this effect will be minimal or negligible. 3. Construction materials. Among them we can highlight organic materials present in concrete, asphalt, bentonite and wood. The most important compounds from the repository safety perspective will be those hydrocarbons from asphalt that may contribute to decreasing the redox potential around the repository, and the products of degradation of cellulose. This last category of compounds may contribute to enhance the complexing capacity of the groundwater around the repository and it is recommended to minimize the amount of cellulose left in the repository. 4. Fuels and engine emissions. No important effects from these organics in the repository are expected

  8. The research on effect of radioactive material concentration and radiation to DNA plant. (The research on precedence foundation engineering field in fiscal 1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagara, S.; Tsurudome, K.; Tokizawa, T. [Environmental Research and Development Group, Ningyo Toge Environment Engineering Center, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan)

    1999-05-01

    For the purpose of effect of radioactive material concentration and radiation to DNA in plant, this study carried out laboratory experiment using soil from the Yotsugi mill-tailings dam which contained radionuclides such as uranium and radium. In present experiment, the Arabidopsis in which gene sequence had been clarified was used as a model plant, and the existence of the mutation of the gene was confirmed. In addition, the Imaging Plate method (IP) was applied to the detection of the radioactive material, and the applicability of IP for the analysis of the radioactive material migration was evaluated. In fiscal 1997, DNA amplification by the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) method was carried out using DNA extracted from the Arabidopsis. The result showed that chalcone synthesis gene examined, when radiation and effect by the radioactive material are analyzed, could be amplified. From results of IP-image of the Arabidopsis which is grown in the soil from Yotsugi mill-tailings dam, it was able to be confirmed that radiation distribution in the plant body is measured, and the way opened it in the measuring method of the small radiation. This study promotes the experiment in the cooperation with Okayama Univ.. JNC was in charge of from the rearing of the plant to the DNA amplification operation. And Okayama Univ. was in charge of the operation that contains the DNA recombination experiment from sub-cloning to sequence. (author)

  9. PATRAM '92: 10th international symposium on the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials [Papers presented by Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-01-01

    This document provides the papers presented by Sandia Laboratories at PATRAM '92, the tenth International symposium on the Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials held September 13--18, 1992 in Yokohama City, Japan. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. (FL)

  10. Legal aspects of the maritime transport of radioactive materials: its regulation in Mexico; Aspectos legales del transporte maritimo de materiales radioactivos: su regulacion en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar M, S

    2001-07-01

    This work has the object to analyse the International as much as National legal frameworks, the scopes and limits of the instruments which form it as well as the congruous that exist between them and the situation which actually prevails in the maritime transport field of radioactive materials in worldwide level and in Mexico taking into account the technical advances, the operational experience and radiological protection principles. In the chapter 1, the background on the uses of nuclear energy are described and its development by more of fifty years. The chapter 2 analyses about the establishment of nuclear technologies in Mexico as well as their evolution in medicine, agriculture, research and electric power generation areas. In chapter 3 it was analysed the role what the International Organizations have been playing for the establish of an International legal framework in the maritime transport of radioactive materials field. In the chapter 4, the International legal framework was analysed which is applied to the transport of radioactive materials. Finally, the chapter 5 analyses and poses the requirements and necessities which lead Mexico to legislate broadly the transport of radioactive materials taking as basis International instruments from which the state is part also from some other agreements is analysed its adhesion to them. (Author)

  11. 49 CFR 173.476 - Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) to (202) 366-3753 or (202) 366-3650, or by electronic mail (e-mail) to “[email protected]dot.gov.”. Each... not apply in those cases where A1 equals A2 and the material is not required to be described on the...

  12. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.W.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-09-22

    One of the most significant factors impacting the performance of waste package container materials under repository relevant conditions is the thermal environment. This environment will be affected by the areal power density of the repository, which is dictated by facility design, and the dominant heat transfer mechanism at the site. The near-field environment will evolve as radioactive decay decreases the thermal output of each waste package. Recent calculations (Buscheck and Nitao, 1994) have addressed the importance of thermal loading conditions on waste package performance at the Yucca Mountain site. If a relatively low repository thermal loading design is employed, the temperature and relative humidity near the waste package may significantly affect the degradation of corrosion allowance barriers due to moist air oxidation and radiolytically enhanced corrosion. The purpose this report is to present a literature review of the potential degradation modes for moderately corrosion resistant nickel copper and nickel based candidate materials that may be applicable as alternate barriers for the ACD systems in the Yucca Mountain environment. This report presents a review of the corrosion of nickel-copper alloys, summaries of experimental evaluations of oxidation and atmospheric corrosion in nickel-copper alloys, views of experimental studies of aqueous corrosion in nickel copper alloys, a brief review of galvanic corrosion effects and a summary of stress corrosion cracking in these alloys.

  13. The Technological Enhancement of Normally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Red Mud due to the Production of Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice O. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the level of technological enhancement of normally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM in the red mud waste due to the production of alumina in Jamaica. Technological enhancements factors (TEF were determined for the uranium, thorium, actinium series, their progenies, and the nonseries potassium-40 using gamma spectrometry. The study concluded that bauxite production technologically enhances the uranium progenies Th-234, Pb-214, Bi-214, and Pa-234 and the thorium-232 progenies Ac-228, Pb-212, and Bi-212 in red mud. The actinium series was technologically enhanced, but K-40 and the thorium daughter, Tl-208, were reduced. The spectrometric comparison of Tl-208 (at 510 keV was unexpected since its other photopeaks at 583 keV, 934 keV, and 968 keV were markedly different. An explanation for this anomaly is discussed. An explanation regarding the process of accumulation and fractionation of organically derived phosphate deposits and potassium-feldspar is offered to explain the spectrometric differences between the alumina product and its waste material, red mud.

  14. Benchmark Studies of Induced Radioactivity Produced in LHC Materials, Pt II Specific Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, M.; Mayer, S.; Roesler, S.; Ulrici, L.; /CERN; Khater, H.; Prinz, A.; Vincke, H.; /SLAC

    2006-04-12

    A new method to estimate remanent dose rates, to be used with the Monte Carlo code FLUKA, was benchmarked against measurements from an experiment that was performed at the CERN-EU high-energy reference field facility. An extensive collection of samples of different materials were placed downstream of and laterally to a copper target, intercepting a positively charged mixed hadron beam with a momentum of 120 GeV/c. Emphasis was put on the reduction of uncertainties such as careful monitoring of the irradiation parameters, the use of different instruments to measure dose rates, detailed elemental analyses of the irradiated materials and detailed simulations of the irradiation experiment. Measured and calculated dose rates are in good agreement.

  15. Safety analysis report -- Packages LP-50 tritium package (Packaging of fissile and other radioactive materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, A.A.; McCarthy, P.G.; Edl, J.W.; Chalfant, G.G. (comps.); Cadelli, G.

    1975-05-01

    Elemental tritium is shipped at low pressure in a stainless steel container (LP-50) surrounded by an aluminum vessel and Celotex insulation at least 4 in. thick in a steel drum. Each package contains a large quantity (greater than a Type A quantity) of nonfissile material, as defined in AECM 0529. This report provides the details of the safety analysis performed for this type container.

  16. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user.

  17. Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinson, D.W.; Nutt, W.M.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27.

  18. First characterisation of natural radioactivity in building materials manufactured in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhixha, G; Ahmeti, A; Bezzon, G P; Bitri, M; Broggini, C; Buso, G P; Caciolli, A; Callegari, I; Cfarku, F; Colonna, T; Fiorentini, G; Guastaldi, E; Mantovani, F; Massa, G; Menegazzo, R; Mou, L; Prifti, D; Rossi Alvarez, C; Sadiraj Kuqi, Dh; Shyti, M; Tushe, L; Xhixha Kaçeli, M; Zyfi, A

    2013-07-01

    This study focuses on the radiological characterisation of building materials manufactured in Albania by using a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were, respectively, 644.1±64.2, 33.4 ± 6.4 and 42.2 ± 7.6 Bq kg(-1) in the clay brick samples and 179.7 ± 48.9, 55.0 ± 5.8 and 17.0 ± 3.3 Bq kg(-1) in the cement samples. The calculated activity concentration index (ACI), varied from 0.48±0.02 to 0.63±0.04 in the clay brick samples and from 0.29±0.03 to 0.37±0.02 in the cement samples. Based on the ACI, all of the clay brick and cement samples were categorised as A1 materials. The authors can exclude (at 3σ level) any restriction of their use as bulk materials.

  19. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Materials and Energy Corporation Sealed Sources at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Gregory [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-05-15

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Materials and Energy Corporation (M&EC) Sealed Source waste stream (PERM000000036, Revision 0) is suitable for shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Disposal of the M&EC Sealed Source waste meets all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual,” Chapter IV, Section P performance objectives (DOE 1999). The M&EC Sealed Source waste stream is recommended for acceptance without conditions.

  20. Law project on the radioactive materials and wastes management 2006 recommendations presented by Anne Duthilleul; Projet de loi sur la gestion des matieres et des dechets radioactifs 2006 avis presente par Mme Anne Duthilleul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document provides recommendations on the law project concerning the radioactive material and wastes management. It precises the law objectives, the french particularities concerning the radioactive wastes and materials management, the public debate in France, the evaluation of the researches, the recommendations of the economic and social council. (A.L.B.)

  1. Benchmark Studies of Induced Radioactivity Produced in LHC Materials, Pt I: Remanent Dose Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, M.; Mayer, S.; Roesler, S.; Ulrici, L.; /CERN; Khater, H.; Prinz, A.; Vincke, H.; /SLAC

    2006-04-12

    Samples of materials which will be used in the LHC machine for shielding and construction components were irradiated in the stray radiation field of the CERN-EU high-energy reference field facility. After irradiation, the specific activities induced in the various samples were analyzed with a high-precision gamma spectrometer at various cooling times, allowing identification of isotopes with a wide range of half-lives. Furthermore, the irradiation experiment was simulated in detail with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. A comparison of measured and calculated specific activities shows good agreement, supporting the use of FLUKA for estimating the level of induced activity in the LHC.

  2. Radiological dose assessment for residual radioactive material in soil at the clean slate sites 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    A radiological dose assessment has been performed for Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 at the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 390 kilometers (240 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The assessment demonstrated that the calculated dose to hypothetical individuals who may reside or work on the Clean Slate sites, subsequent to remediation, does not exceed the limits established by the US Department of Energy for protection of members of the public and the environment. The sites became contaminated as a result of Project Roller Coaster experiments conducted in 1963 in support of the US Atomic Energy Commission (Shreve, 1964). Remediation of Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 is being performed to ensure that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works on a Clean Slate site should not exceed 100 millirems per year. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline (RESRAD) computer code was used to assess the dose. RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines (Yu et al., 1993a). In May and June of 1963, experiments were conducted at Clean Slate Sites 1, 2, and 3 to study the effectiveness of earth-covered structures for reducing the dispersion of nuclear weapons material as a result of nonnuclear explosions. The experiments required the detonation of various simulated weapons using conventional chemical explosives (Shreve, 1964). The residual radioactive contamination in the surface soil consists of weapons grade plutonium, depleted uranium, and their radioactive decay products.

  3. Development of the NIST bone ash standard reference material for environmental radioactivity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z; Inn, K G; Altzitzoglou, T; Arnold, D; Cavadore, D; Ham, G J; Korun, M; Wershofen, H; Takata, Y; Young, A

    1998-01-01

    The bone ash standard reference material (SRM), a blend of 4% contaminated human bone and 96% diluent bovine bone, has been developed for radiochemical method validation and quality control for radio-bone analysis. The massic activities of 90Sr, 226Ra, 230Th, 232Th, 234U, 235U, 238U, 238Pu, (239 + 240)Pu and (243 + 244)Cm were certified using a variety of radiochemical procedures and detection methods. Measurements confirmed undetectable radionuclide heterogeneity down to a sample size of 5 g. thereby implying adequate blending of particulate materials with dilution factors of up to 17,900. The results among most of the intercomparison laboratories and their methods were consistent. Disequilibrium was observed for decay chains: 234U(0.67 mBq/g)-230Th(0.47 mBq/g)-226Ra(15.1 mBq/g)-210Pb(23 mBq/g)-210Po(13 mBq/g) and 232Th(0.99 mBq/g)-228 Ra(6.1 mBq/g)-228Th(7.1 mBq/g). The disequilibria were the results of mixing occupationally contaminated human bone with natural bovine bone and the fractionation during internal biological processes. The massic activity of 210Pb, 228Th and 241Am were not certified because of insufficient 228Ra and 241Pu data and lack of knowledge in how 222Rn and its daughters will be fractionated in the SRM bottle over time.

  4. THE NGA-DOE GRANT TO EXAMINE CRITICAL ISSUES RELATED TO RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND MATERIALS DISPOSITION INVOLVING DOE FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ann M. Beauchesne

    1999-01-31

    Through the National Governors' Association (NGA) project ''Critical Issues Related to Radioactive Waste and Materials Disposition Involving DOE Facilities'' NGA brings together Governors' policy advisors, state regulators, and DOE officials to examine critical issues related to the cleanup and operation of DOE nuclear weapons and research facilities. Topics explored through this project include: (1) Decisions involving disposal of mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and disposition of nuclear materials; (2) Decisions involving DOE budget requests and their effect on environmental cleanup and compliance at DOE facilities; (3) Strategies to treat mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and their effect on individual sites in the complex; (4) Changes to the FFCA site treatment plans as a result of proposals in the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure plan and contractor integration analysis; (5) Interstate waste and materials shipments; and (6) Reforms to existing RCRA and CERCLA regulations/guidance to address regulatory overlap and risks posed by DOE wastes. The overarching theme of this project is to help the Department improve coordination of its major program decisions with Governors' offices and state regulators and to ensure such decisions reflect input from these key state officials and stakeholders. This report summarizes activities conducted during the quarter from October 1, 1998 through January 31, 1999, under the NGA grant. The work accomplished by the NGA project team during the past four months can be categorized as follows: (1) maintained open communication with DOE on a variety of activities and issues within the DOE environmental management complex; (2) maintained communication with NGA Federal Facilities Compliance Task Force members regarding DOE efforts to formulate a configuration for mixed low-level waste and low-level treatment and disposal, external regulation of DOE; and

  5. THE NGA-DOE GRANT TO EXAMINE CRITICAL ISSUES RELATED TO RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND MATERIALS DISPOSITION INVOLVING DOE FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ann B. Beauchesne

    1998-09-30

    Through the National Governors' Association (NGA) project ''Critical Issues Related to Radioactive Waste and Materials Disposition Involving DOE Facilities'' NGA brings together Governors' policy advisors, state regulators, and DOE officials to examine critical issues related to the cleanup and operation of DOE nuclear weapons and research facilities. Topics explored through this project include: (1) Decisions involving disposal of mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and disposition of nuclear materials; (2) Decisions involving DOE budget requests and their effect on environmental cleanup and compliance at DOE facilities; (3) Strategies to treat mixed, low-level, and transuranic (TRU) waste and their effect on individual sites in the complex; (4) Changes to the FFCA site treatment plans as a result of proposals in the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure plan and contractor integration analysis; (5) Interstate waste and materials shipments; and (6) Reforms to existing RCRA and CERCLA regulations/guidance to address regulatory overlap and risks posed by DOE wastes. The overarching theme of this project is to help the Department improve coordination of its major program decisions with Governors' offices and state regulators and to ensure such decisions reflect input from these key state officials and stakeholders. This report summarizes activities conducted during the quarter from June 1, 1998 through September 30, 1998, under the NGA grant. The work accomplished by the NGA project team during the past four months can be categorized as follows: (1) maintained open communication with DOE on a variety of activities and issues within the DOE environmental management complex; (2) maintained communication with NGA Federal Facilities Compliance Task Force members regarding DOE efforts to formulate a configuration for mixed low-level waste and low-level treatment and disposal, external regulation of DOE; and

  6. Efforts of Uzbekistan to prevent nuclear terrorism and smuggling of radioactive and nuclear materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, V D; Karimov, Yu N; Podkovirin, A I; Shipilov, N N; Yuldashev, B S; Fazylov, M I

    2005-01-01

    Uzbekistan is located on the cross-roads from the north--Russia, Western Europe--to the south--Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq and others. The appearance of terrorist organizations urged some Asian countries to make the nuclear weapons, the making the task of stopping the transportation of nuclear materials and technologies from the north (from countries possessing nuclear weapon) to the south (to countries desiring to have weapons and its components) a reality. To resolve this problem, on the main transportation routes, "Yantar" stationary radiation monitors of Russian production were installed, and development and production of monitors of our own make was started. This paper covers these works as well as those on preventing possible terrorist attacks on nuclear objects of Uzbekistan.

  7. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strum, M.J.; Weiss, H.; Farmer, J.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1988-06-01

    This volume surveys the effects of welding on the degradation modes of three austenitic alloys: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. These materials are candidates for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. The metallurgical characteristics of fusion welds are reviewed here and related to potential degradation modes of the containers. Three specific areas are discussed in depth: (1) decreased resistance to corrosion in the forms of preferential corrosion, sensitization, and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking, (2) hot cracking in the heat-affected zone and the weld zone, and (3) formation of intermetallic phases. The austenitic alloys are ranked as follows in terms of overall weldability: Alloy 825 (best) > Type 316L stainless steel > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 108 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Experimental assessment of non-treated bentonite as the buffer material of a radioactive waste repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J; Kang, C H; Whang, J

    2001-05-01

    The bentonite-based material being evaluated in several countries as potential barriers and seals for a nuclear waste disposal system is of mostly sodium type, whereas most bentonite available in Korea is known to be of calcium type. In order to investigate whether local Korean bentonite could be useful as a buffer or sealing material in an HLW repository system, raw bentonites sampled from the south-east area of Korea were examined in terms of their physicochemical properties such as surface area, CEC, swelling rate, and distribution coefficient. The diffusion behavior of some radionuclides of interest in compacted bentonite was also investigated. Considering that HLW generates decay heat over a long time, the thermal effect on the physicochemical properties of bentonite was also included. Four local samples were identified as Ca-bentonite through XRD and chemical analysis. Of the measured values of surface area, CEC and swelling rate of the local samples, Sample-A was found to have the greatest properties as the most likely candidate barrier material. The distribution coefficients of Cs-137, Sr-85, Co-60 and Am-241 for Sample-A sample were measured by the batch method. Sorption equilibrium was reached in around 8 to 10 days, but that of Sr was found to be reached earlier. Comparing the results of this study with the reference data, domestic bentonite was found to have a relatively high sorption ability. For the effect of varying concentration on sorption, the values of Kd peaked at 10(-9)-10(-7) mol/l of radionuclide concentration. In XRD analysis, the (001) peak of Sample-A was fully collapsed above 200 degrees C. The shoulder appearing at about 150 degrees C in the DSC curve was found to be evidence that Sample-A is predominated by Ca-montmorillonite. The loss of swelling capacity and CEC of Sample-A started at about 100 degrees C. The swelling data and the (001) peak intensity of the heat-treated sample showed that they were linearly interrelated. The measured

  9. Preparation of in-house reference soil sample containing high levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials from the oil industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Masri, M S; Aba, A; Al-Hamwi, A; Shakhashiro, A

    2004-12-01

    An in-house reference soil sample containing high levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials collected from contaminated areas in the Syrian oilfields has been prepared as a part of the quality assurance program in AECS. Homogeneity of the sample has been examined using three methods, viz. particle size distribution of the sample matrix, total alpha/beta counting and gamma spectrometry. In conjunction with Dixon and Grubb tests as statistical tools, ten random samples from the original sample were used for this investigation. Reference values for the three radium isotopes (224Ra, 226Ra, 228Ra) were determined using gamma spectrometry equipped with HPGe detectors having high relative efficiencies of 80%, while the reference value of 210Pb in the sample was determined using radiochemical separation and counting of its daughter 210Po by alpha spectrometry. ANOVA analysis was used to estimate the uncertainties due to measurement and inhomogeneity of the sample; uncertainty due to inhomogeneity was found to be around 2.6 times the measurement uncertainty.

  10. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of radioactive material by tomographic gamma scanning

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the nondestructive assay (NDA) of gamma ray emitting radionuclides inside containers using tomographic gamma scanning (TGS). High resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify the radionuclides of interest. The attenuation of an external gamma ray transmission source is used to correct the measurement of the emission gamma rays from radionuclides to arrive at a quantitative determination of the radionuclides present in the item. 1.2 The TGS technique covered by the test method may be used to assay scrap or waste material in cans or drums in the 1 to 500 litre volume range. Other items may be assayed as well. 1.3 The test method will cover two implementations of the TGS procedure: (1) Isotope Specific Calibration that uses standards of known radionuclide masses (or activities) to determine system response in a mass (or activity) versus corrected count rate calibration, that applies to only those specific radionuclides for which it is calibrated, and (2) Respo...

  11. Radiation effects on polymers for coatings on copper canisters used for the containment of radioactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortley, Aba; Bonin, H. W.; Bui, V. T.

    2008-05-01

    The present work proposes applying polyurethane coatings as an additional barrier in the design of Canadian nuclear waste disposal containers. The goal of the present research is to investigate the physico-mechanical integrity of a natural castor oil-based polyurethane (COPU) to be used as a coating material in pH-radiation-temperature environments. As the first part to these inquiries, the present paper investigates the effect of a mixed radiation field supplied by a SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear research reactor on COPUs that differ only by their isocyanate structure. FTIR, DSC, DMA, WAXS, and MALDI are used to characterize the changes that occur as a result of radiation and to relate these changes to polymer structure and composition. The COPUs used in the present work have demonstrated sustained physico-mechanical properties up to accumulated doses of 2.0 MGy and are therefore suitable for end-uses in radiation environments such as those expected in the deep geological repository.

  12. Help guide for the application of regulatory requirements on the transport of radioactive material; Guia de ayuda para la aplicacion de requisitos reglementarios sobr el transporte de material radiactivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Rodriguez, S.; Acena Moreno, V.; Zamora Martin, F.; Rubio de Juan, E.

    2011-07-01

    The regulation of transport of radioactive material by road in Spain refers to compliance with the requirements of the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) in force. The structure presented by this legislation, which is international, and the inclusion in it of requirements that apply to other dangerous goods makes it difficult to consult the requirements that specifically apply to the transport of radioactive material. Therefore, the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) has found it necessary to publish a guide that facilitates users to comply with its provisions and, consequently, this transport security.

  13. Evaluation of total effective dose due to certain environmentally placed naturally occurring radioactive materials using a procedural adaptation of RESRAD code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Z S; Thompson, K H; Kearfott, K J

    2009-07-01

    Due to a recent upward trend in the price of uranium and subsequent increased interest in uranium mining, accurate modeling of baseline dose from environmental sources of radioactivity is of increasing interest. Residual radioactivity model and code (RESRAD) is a program used to model environmental movement and calculate the dose due to the inhalation, ingestion, and exposure to radioactive materials following a placement. This paper presents a novel use of RESRAD for the calculation of dose from non-enhanced, or ancient, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). In order to use RESRAD to calculate the total effective dose (TED) due to ancient NORM, a procedural adaptation was developed to negate the effects of time progressive distribution of radioactive materials. A dose due to United States' average concentrations of uranium, actinium, and thorium series radionuclides was then calculated. For adults exposed in a residential setting and assumed to eat significant amounts of food grown in NORM concentrated areas, the annual dose due to national average NORM concentrations was 0.935 mSv y(-1). A set of environmental dose factors were calculated for simple estimation of dose from uranium, thorium, and actinium series radionuclides for various age groups and exposure scenarios as a function of elemental uranium and thorium activity concentrations in groundwater and soil. The values of these factors for uranium were lowest for an adult exposed in an industrial setting: 0.00476 microSv kg Bq(-1) y(-1) for soil and 0.00596 microSv m(3) Bq(-1) y(-1) for water (assuming a 1:1 234U:238U activity ratio in water). The uranium factors were highest for infants exposed in a residential setting and assumed to ingest food grown onsite: 34.8 microSv kg Bq(-1) y(-1) in soil and 13.0 microSv m(3) Bq(-1) y(-1) in water.

  14. Regulatory analysis on emergency preparedness for fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees. Draft report for comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, S.A.

    1985-06-01

    Potential accidents for 15 types of fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees were analyzed. The most potentially hazardous accident, by a large margin, was determined to be the sudden rupture of a heated multi-ton cylinder of UF/sub 6/. Acute fatalities offsite are probably not credible. Acute permanent injuries may be possible for many hundreds of meters, and clinically observable transient effects of unknown long term consequences may be possible for distances up to a few miles. These effects would be caused by the chemical toxicity of the UF/sub 6/. Radiation doses would not be significant. The most potentially hazardous accident due to radiation exposure was determined to be a large fire at certain facilities handling large quantities of alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., Po-210, Pu-238, Pu-239, Am-241, Cm-242, Cm-244) or radioiodines (I-125 and I-131). However, acute fatalities or injuries to people offsite due to accidental releases of these materials do not seem plausible. The only other significant accident was identified as a long-term pulsating criticality at fuel cycle facilities handling high-enriched uranium or plutonium. An important feature of the most serious accidents is that releases are likely to start without prior warning. The releases would usually end within about half an hour. Thus protective actions would have to be taken quickly to be effective. There is not likely to be enough time for dose projections, complicated decisionmaking during the accident, or the participation of personnel not in the immediate vicinity of the site. The appropriate response by the facility is to immediately notify local fire, police, and other emergency personnel and give them a brief predetermined message recommending protective actions. Emergency personnel are generally well qualified to respond effectively to small accidents of these types.

  15. Environmental Pathway Models-Ground-Water Modeling in Support of Remedial Decision Making at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Joint Interagency Environmental Pathway Modeling Working Group wrote this report to promote appropriate and consistent use of mathematical environmental models in the remediation and restoration of sites contaminated by radioactive substances.

  16. Self-attenuation as a function of gamma ray energy in naturally occurring radioactive material in the oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsap, D W; Landsberger, S

    2015-03-01

    Self-attenuation correction factors were experimentally determined using radioactive point sources in combination with a subject material of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) obtained from oil exploration waste products. The self-attenuation correction factors were taken across a range of gamma ray energies from 41.73 to 1408.0keV. It is noted that the greatest amount of self-attenuation occurs in the energy regime below 200keV and rises to near zero attenuation at higher energies for these types of samples. For the 46.5keV gamma ray of (210)Pb there can be an underestimation of 62%. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Monte Carlo simulations of radioactive waste encapsulated by bisphenol-A polycarbonate and effect of bismuth-III oxide filler material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Tonguç

    2017-06-01

    Radioactive waste generated from the nuclear industry and non-power applications should carefully be treated, conditioned and disposed according to the regulations set by the competent authority(ies). Bisphenol-a polycarbonate (BPA-PC), a very widely used polymer, might be considered as a potential candidate material for low level radioactive waste encapsulation. In this work, the dose rate distribution in the radioactive waste drum (containing radioactive waste and the BPA-PC polymer matrix) was determined using Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, the change of mechanical properties of BPA-PC was estimated and their variation within the waste drum was determined for the periods of 15, 30 and 300 years after disposal to the final disposal site. The change of the dose rate within the waste drum with different contents of bismuth-III oxide were also simulated. It was concluded that addition of bismuth-III oxide filler decreases the dose delivered to the polymeric matrix due to photoelectric effect.

  18. Assessment of Radioactive Materials and Heavy Metals in the Surface Soil around the Bayanwula Prospective Uranium Mining Area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Haribala; Hu, Bitao; Wang, Chengguo; Bao, Shanhu; Sai, Gerilemandahu; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Yuhong

    2017-03-14

    The present work is the first systematic and large scale study on radioactive materials and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area in China. In this work, both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides and heavy metals in 48 surface soil samples were analyzed using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) γ spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The obtained mean activity concentrations of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs were 25.81 ± 9.58, 24.85 ± 2.77, 29.40 ± 3.14, 923.0 ± 47.2, and 5.64 ± 4.56 Bq/kg, respectively. The estimated average absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose rate were 76.7 ± 3.1 nGy/h and 83.1 ± 3.8 μSv, respectively. The radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, and internal hazard index were also calculated, and their mean values were within the acceptable limits. The estimated lifetime cancer risk was 3.2 × 10-4/Sv. The heavy metal contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb from the surface soil samples were measured and their health risks were then assessed. The concentrations of all heavy metals were much lower than the average backgrounds in China except for lead which was about three times higher than that of China's mean. The non-cancer and cancer risks from the heavy metals were estimated, which are all within the acceptable ranges. In addition, the correlations between the radionuclides and the heavy metals in surface soil samples were determined by the Pearson linear coefficient. Strong positive correlations between radionuclides and the heavy metals at the 0.01 significance level were found. In conclusion, the contents of radionuclides and heavy metals in surface soil around the Bayanwula prospective uranium mining area are at a normal level.

  19. Report on the evaluation of the national plan on radioactive wastes and materials management; Rapport sur l'evaluation du plan national de gestion des matieres et des dechets radioactifs (PNG-MDR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    This document constitutes the evaluation of the first edition of the National Plan on radioactive wastes and materials management. It presents the definitive or temporary solutions for the radioactive wastes management, the national plan juridical framework defined by the laws of 1991 and 2006 and the first evaluation and perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  20. N.590 National assembly. Law project of program relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes; N. 590 Assemblee Nationale. Projet de loi de programme relatif a la gestion durable des matieres et des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document presents the different articles of the law text n. 590 on the management of the radioactive wastes and materials. It concerns the obligations and the liabilities of producers and users of radioactive spent fuels and wastes. (A.L.B.)

  1. Recommendations for action in case of semi-finished casting until after detecting radioactive material in steel melting process; Recomendaciones de actuacion en caso de colar hasta semiproducto, tras detectar material radiactivo en proceso de fusion de acero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamo Pascual, V.; Lopez Rodriguez, M. C.

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive sources are used throughout the world for a wide variety of beneficial purposes. This use of sources leads associated regulatory control to avoid risks. An orphan source is one that has never been under regulatory control or having been, the source has been lost, stolen or removed without authorization. The steel industry has been one of the most affected by this problem. in this context, there have been some cases in which a radioactive source has been introduced in the hidden oven between scrap and has been fused with this, resulting in the dispersal of radioactive material. It has prepared a document guide in order to create a procedure to be followed in these cases. (Author)

  2. Implementation of standards at a research institute. Storage and keeping of radioactive materials following DIN 25422; Umsetzung von Normen in einem Forschungsinstitut. Sichere Aufbewahrung und Lagerung radioaktiver Stoffe nach DIN 25422

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeble, T.; Weinand, U. [Fraunhofer-INT, Euskirchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The secure storage and keeping of radioactive materials is increasingly important especially in times of a growing threat by terrorists. Authorities and users are jointly recommended to adapt the storage and keeping of radioactive materials to increasing security requirements. Here the different possibilities to fulfil the requirements regarding fire prevention and theft prevention which in Germany are set by DIN 25422 were determined for the radioactive materials and their storage and keeping places present in a research institute. The required measures were than agreed about with the relevant authority. Difficulties which are occurring due to the demanding combination of requirements out of the areas of radiation protection, fire prevention, and theft prevention are discussed. The storage and keeping of radioactive materials especially such of high activity requires a high level of security which must be continuously adapted to rising requirements.

  3. Submicro and Nano Structured Porous Materials for the Production of High-Intensity Exotic Radioactive Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, Sandrina; Stora, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    ISOLDE, the CERN Isotope Separator On-line DEvice is a unique source of low energy beams of radioactive isotopes - atomic nuclei that have too many or too few neutrons to be stable. The facility is like a small ‘chemical factory’, giving the possibility of changing one element to another, by selecting the atomic mass of the required isotope beam in the mass separator, rather as the ‘alchemists’ once imagined. It produces a total of more than 1000 different isotopes from helium to radium, with half-lives down to milliseconds, by impinging a 1.4 GeV proton beam from the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) onto special targets, yielding a wide variety of atomic fragments. Different components then extract the nuclei and separate them according to mass. The post-accelerator REX (Radioactive beam EXperiment) at ISOLDE accelerates the radioactive beams up to 3 MeV/u for many experiments. A wide international user radioactive ion beam (RIB) community investigates fundamental aspects of nuclear physics, particle...

  4. Protocol for therapy of people who suffered wounds from radioactive material in radiological and nuclear accidents; Protocolo para trato de pessoas que sofreram ferimentos com material radioativo em acidentes radiologicos e nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Amanda Gomes

    2015-07-01

    The handling of glassware in ampoules, containing solution is very common in research or production laboratories. During manipulation, there is a likelihood of occurrence of incidents such as the breaking of ampoules or glass vials containing material in liquid or powdered form which may cause a wound to the possibility of contamination with handled material. When the solution is radioactive there is a concern due to the risk of incorporation of that material. According to NCRP 156, the scientific literature contains over 2100 cases of wounds contaminated with radionuclides and more than 90% of the reported cases occurred in the hands and arms, but mainly on the fingers. Despite having no cases of wounds reported radioactive material in Brazil or a protocol developed by the National Agencies, applications and hence the manipulation of radionuclides is increasing in the country, rising the possibility of wound occurrence contaminated by radionuclides. In this work was proposed a methodology for management of individuals who suffered wounds from radioactive material in cases of nuclear accidents and radiological emergencies that present intake, which consisted of four steps: definition of the accident scenario, individual triage of the public or workers, proper measurements with detectors PRD, IdentiFINDER2 and germanium in different thicknesses material tissue-equivalent, and later adoption of first aid measures consisting of attendance, monitoring of contaminated personnel, evaluation of effective dose and direct to specialized medical center. As an example of results it follows the case of {sup 241}Am where the best performance was obtained by measurements with the shielded HPGe (7%) and the shielded and collimation of 0.5 cm IdentiFINDER2 (10%). While, unshielded PRD, unshielded or shielded side IdentiFINDER2 and unshielded TeCd showed performance ranging from 30 to 70%. In general, the uncertainties obtained had values below 1.5%. In this work a protocol for

  5. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  6. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present or...

  7. Radioactivity measurements principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Spernol, A

    2012-01-01

    The authors have addressed the basic need for internationally consistent standards and methods demanded by the new and increasing use of radioactive materials, radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds. Particular emphasis is given to the basic and practical problems that may be encountered in measuring radioactivity. The text provides information and recommendations in the areas of radiation protection, focusing on quality control and the precautions necessary for the preparation and handling of radioactive substances. New information is also presented on the applications of both traditiona

  8. Distribution of naturally occurring radioactive materials in sediments from the Ebro river reservoir in Flix (Southern Catalonia, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mola, M.; Palomo, M.; Penalver, A.; Aguilar, C. [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcelli Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria (URAIS), Consorci d' Aiguees de Tarragona (CAT), Ctra Nacional 340, km 1094, 43895 L' Ampolla (Spain); Borrull, F., E-mail: francesc.borrull@urv.cat [Departament de Quimica Analitica i Quimica Organica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcelli Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria (URAIS), Consorci d' Aiguees de Tarragona (CAT), Ctra Nacional 340, km 1094, 43895 L' Ampolla (Spain)

    2011-12-30

    Industrial waste containing radioactive isotopes (from U-decay series) was released into Ebro river basin due to the activity of a dicalcium phosphate (DCP) plant for a period of more than two decades. Gross alpha, gross beta, {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb activities were determined in several sludge samples taken at different depths from different points in the area of influence of the DCP plant located in Flix. Samples were collected from two different zones: one in front of the DCP plant and the second in front of a wastewater treatment plant installed several years after the DCP plant. The data obtained verify the influence of industrial DCP production on radioactivity levels present in the area.

  9. Radioactively Contaminated Sites | RadTown USA | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-12

    If radioactive materials are used or disposed of improperly, they can contaminate buildings and the environment. Every site requiring cleanup is different depending on the type of facility, the radioactive elements involved and the concentration of the radioactive elements.

  10. Derivation of strontium-90 and cesium-137 residual radioactive material guidelines for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, University of California, Davis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1993-04-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for strontium-90 and cesium-137 were derived for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) site in Davis, California. The guideline derivation was based on a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; this code implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three potential site utilization scenarios were considered with the assumption that, for a period of 1,000 years following remedial action, the site will be utilized without radiological restrictions. The defined scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded within 1,000 years for either strontium-90 or cesium-137, provided that the soil concentrations of these radionuclides at the LEHR site do not exceed the following levels: 71,000 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 91 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario A (researcher: the expected scenario); 160,000 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 220 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario B (recreationist: a plausible scenario); and 37 pCi/g for strontium-90 and 32 pCi/g for cesium-137 for Scenario C (resident farmer ingesting food produced in the contaminated area: a plausible scenario). The derived guidelines are single-radionuclide guidelines and are linearly proportional to the dose limit used in the calculations. In setting the actual strontium-90 and cesium-137 guidelines for the LEHR site, DOE will apply the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy to the decision-making process, along with other factors such as whether a particular scenario is reasonable and appropriate.

  11. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  12. Simulated Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  13. Handling of radioactive materials in relation to the dismantling of the nuclear power plant Wuergassen; Behandlung von radioaktiven Stoffen im Zuge des Rueckbaus des Kernkraftwerkes Wuergassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, T. [Schmutz GmbH, Weil am Rhein (Germany); Korth, P. [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    During the decommissioning activities of the nuclear power plant Wuergassen (KWW) the decontamination of power plant components to minimise radioactive waste takes a high priority in the processing of waste material. In the illustration the operation of the two abrasive blasting units (SA 1 and SA 2) and the installations of the ''decont station'' the decontamination technology and the processing of the dismantled components is described. Examples demonstrate the success of the decontamination measures. Statements regarding the development steps made to the abrasive blasting unit 1 (SA 1) and the protective clothing used complete the illustration. (orig.)

  14. Methodology for the characterization and radioactive tracing of a reference to the control of radioactive material in steel mills; Metodologia para la caracterizacion y trazado radiactivo de un material de referencia para el control radiactivo en acerias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejuto Mendieta, M.; Crespo Vazquez, M. T.; Peyres Medina, V.; Garcia-Torano, E.; Perez del Villar, L.

    2013-07-01

    One of the tasks which corresponded you to the Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation CIEMAT, consists of the preparation of the reference standards of a black slag from steel making drawn {sup 2}26Ra, {sup 1}37Cs, {sup 6}0Co. This work summarizes the steps followed for the preparation of the reference standards of the slag, including the physical sample preparation, chemical, mineralogical and radioactive characterization as well as the development of the method of path with the above listed radionuclides. (Author)

  15. Malicious release of radioactive materials in urban area. Exposure of the public and emergency staff, protective measures; Boeswillige Freisetzung radioaktiver Stoffe in urbanen Bereichen. Exposition von Bevoelkerung und Einsatzpersonal, Schutzmassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Wolfgang [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin ITEM, Hannover (Germany). Bereich Aerosolforschung und Analytische Chemie; Lange, Florentin

    2016-07-01

    The preparedness for hypothetical radiological scenarios is part of the tasks for governmental authorities, safety and emergency organizations and the staff in case of the incident. The EURATOM guideline for radiation protection has to be implemented into national laws. According to the guidelines it is required that emergency planning has to be prepared for hypothetical radiological scenarios including terroristic or other maliciously motivated attacks using radioactive materials. The study includes assumptions on the released respirable radioactivity, restriction of the hazardous area, wind induced re-suspension of radioactive dusts and inhalation exposure, and mitigation measures.

  16. [Measures against Radiation Exposure Due to Large-Scale Nuclear Accident in Distant Place--Radioactive Materials in Nagasaki from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Sera, Koichiro; Takatsuji, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    To investigate human health effects of radiation exposure due to possible future nuclear accidents in distant places and other various findings of analysis of the radioactive materials contaminating the atmosphere of Nagasaki due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The concentrations of radioactive materials in aerosols in the atmosphere of Nagasaki were measured using a germanium semiconductor detector from March 2011 to March 2013. Internal exposure dose was calculated in accordance with ICRP Publ. 72. Air trajectories were analyzed using NOAA and METEX web-based systems. (134)Cs and (137)Cs were repeatedly detected. The air trajectory analysis showed that (134)Cs and (137)Cs flew directly from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant from March to April 2011. However, the direct air trajectories were rarely detected after this period even when (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected after this period. The activity ratios ((134)Cs/(137)Cs) of almost all the samples converted to those in March 2011 were about unity. This strongly suggests that the (134)Cs and (137)Cs detected mainly originated from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. Although the (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations per air volume were very low and the human health effects of internal exposure via inhalation is expected to be negligible, the specific activities (concentrations per aerosol mass) were relatively high. It was found that possible future nuclear accidents may cause severe radioactive contaminations, which may require radiation exposure control of farm goods to more than 1000 km from places of nuclear accidents.

  17. Study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. Part 2: Preliminary feasibility screening study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes in concentrations, matrix materials, and containers designed for storage on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, R. E.; Wohl, M. L.; Thompson, R. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1972-01-01

    The results are reported of a preliminary feasibility screening study for providing long-term solutions to the problems of handling and managing radioactive wastes by extraterrestrial transportation of the wastes. Matrix materials and containers are discussed along with payloads, costs, and destinations for candidate space vehicles. The conclusions reached are: (1) Matrix material such as spray melt can be used without exceeding temperature limits of the matrix. (2) The cost in mills per kw hr electric, of space disposal of fission products is 4, 5, and 28 mills per kw hr for earth escape, solar orbit, and solar escape, respectively. (3) A major factor effecting cost is the earth storage time. Based on a normal operating condition design for solar escape, a storage time of more than sixty years is required to make the space disposal charge less than 10% of the bus-bar electric cost. (4) Based on a 10 year earth storage without further processing, the number of shuttle launches required would exceed one per day.

  18. Law project modified by the Senate, of the program relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes; Projet de loi modifie par le Senat, de programme relatif a la gestion durable des matieres et des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    In the framework of a sustainable development and of the nuclear energy development, the France decided by the law of the 30 December 1991, to study three axis or researches: the radioactive wastes transmutation, their deep underground disposal and their storage during ten years. Today, after evaluation of the researches results a law project on the sustainable management of the radioactive materials and wastes, has been prepared. This document presents the different articles of the law. (A.L.B.)

  19. Rapid screening of natually occurring radioactive nuclides({sup 2}'3{sup 8}U, {sup 232}Th) in raw materials and by-products samples using XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Young; Lim, Chung Sup [Radiation Biotechnology and Applied Radioiostope Science, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Myoung; Ji, Young Yong; Chung, Kun Ho; Lee, Wan No; Kang, Mun Ja [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Byung Uck [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    As new legislation has come into force implementing radiation safety management for the use of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), it is necessary to establish a rapid and accurate measurement technique. Measurement of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th using conventional methods encounter the most significant difficulties for pretreatment (e.g., purification, speciation, and dilution/enrichment) or require time-consuming processes. Therefore, in this study, the applicability of ED-XRF as a non-destructive and rapid screening method was validated for raw materials and by-product samples. A series of experiments was conducted to test the applicability for rapid screening of XRF measurement to determine activity of {sup 238}U and {sup 23{sup 2}}Th based on certified reference materials (e.g., soil, rock, phosphorus rock, bauxite, zircon, and coal ash) and NORM samples commercially used in Korea. Statistical methods were used to compare the analytical results of ED-XRF to those of certified values of certified reference materials (CRM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results of the XRF measurement for {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th showed under 20% relative error and standard deviation. The results of the U-test were statistically significant except for the case of U in coal fly ash samples. In addition, analytical results of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th in the raw material and by-product samples using XRF and the analytical results of those using ICP-MS (R{sup 2}≥0.95) were consistent with each other. Thus, the analytical results rapidly derived using ED-XRF were fairly reliable. Based on the validation results, it can be concluded that the ED-XRF analysis may be applied to rapid screening of radioactivities ({sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th) in NORM samples.

  20. Estimation of radioactivity level and associated radiological hazards of limestone and gypsum used as raw building materials in Rawalpindi/Islamabad region of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Rahmat; Ali, Safdar; Hussain, Manzur

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to asses the radioactivity level of limestone and gypsum and its associated radiological hazard due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials. Representative samples of limestone and gypsum were collected from cement factories located in the Rawalpindi/Islamabad region of Pakistan and were analysed by using an N-type high-purity germanium detector of 80 % relative efficiency. The average activity concentration of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were 60.22±3.47, 29.25±5.23 and 4.07±3.31 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in limestone and 70.86±4.1, 5.01±2.10 and 4.49±3.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in gypsum. The radiological hazard parameters radium equivalent activities, absorbed dose rate in air, external hazard index, internal hazard index, annual effective dose equivalent, gamma index and alpha index were computed. The results of the average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th and radiological hazard parameters were within the range of the reported average worldwide/United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation values. It is concluded that limestone and gypsum used in the Rawalpindi/Islamabad region does not pose any excessive radiological health hazard as a building raw materials and in industrial uses.

  1. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  2. Marked disequilibrium between {sup 234}Th and {sup 230}Th of the {sup 238}U natural radioactive decay chain in IAEA reference materials n. 312, 313 and 314

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaianni, A. [Dipartimento di Geologia e Geofisica dell' Universita di Bari, Via Orabona, 4 - 70125 Bari (Italy); I.N.F.N. Sezione di Bari, Via G. Amendola, 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy); D' Erasmo, G. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica dell' Universita di Bari, Via G. Amendola, 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy); I.N.F.N. Sezione di Bari, Via G. Amendola, 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy); Pantaleo, A., E-mail: pantaleo@ba.infn.i [I.N.F.N. Sezione di Bari, Via G. Amendola, 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy); Schiavulli, L. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica dell' Universita di Bari, Via G. Amendola, 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy); I.N.F.N. Sezione di Bari, Via G. Amendola, 173 - 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    A new laboratory for the spectroscopy of natural radioactivity with a good energy resolution is presented. It consists of two distinct parts equipped, respectively, the first one with a HpGe {gamma}-ray detector, whose setup has been already completed, and the second one with large area Silicon {alpha}-ray detectors and a radiochemical section for thin {alpha}-samples preparation, whose setup is yet in progress and will be the argument of a separate work. The {gamma}-ray spectrometer was calibrated by means of IAEA Reference Materials n. 312, 313, 314 and 375. A large difference from the predictions of secular equilibrium emerged between the activities of {sup 234}Th and {sup 230}Th in Materials n. 312, 313 and 314.

  3. The storage of tritium, radioactive isotope of hydrogen: materials and aging; Le stockage du tritium, isotope radioactif de l'hydrogene: materiaux et vieillissement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiebault, St.; Moysan, I.; Contreras, S.; Paul-Boncour, V.; Decamps, B.; Percheron-Guegan, A

    2007-07-01

    After some generalities on the reasons of using tritium, on the specificities of this hydrogen isotope and the interest of a solid storage, this work presents the different materials generally used. These materials studied in this work are called tritides. They all present the property of retaining {sup 3}He, product of the tritium radioactive decay, trapped in their matrix. This property allows to recover tritium which is practically free of {sup 3}He, but on the other hand, the presence of {sup 3}He, insoluble in the metal, generate some defects in the solid and induce changes of the tritides storage properties. These phenomena on the whole are called 'aging'. (O.M.)

  4. Source term estimation and the isotopic ratio of radioactive material released from the WIPP repository in New Mexico, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, P

    2016-01-01

    After almost 15 years of operations, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) had one of its waste drums breach underground as a result of a runaway chemical reaction in the waste it contained. This incident occurred on February 14, 2014. Moderate levels of radioactivity were released into the underground air. A small portion of the contaminated underground air also escaped to the surface through the ventilation system and was detected approximately 1 km away from the facility. According to the source term estimation, the actual amount of radioactivity released from the WIPP site was less than 1.5 mCi. The highest activity detected on the surface was 115.2 μBq/m(3) for (241)Am and 10.2 μBq/m(3) for (239+240)Pu at a sampling station located 91 m away from the underground air exhaust point and 81.4 μBq/m(3) of (241)Am and 5.8 μBq/m(3) of (239+240)Pu at a monitoring station located approximately 1 km northwest of the WIPP facility. The dominant radionuclides released were americium and plutonium, in a ratio that matches the content of the breached drum. Air monitoring across the WIPP site intensified following the first reports of radiation detection underground to determine the extent of impact to WIPP personnel, the public, and the environment. In this paper, the early stage monitoring data collected by an independent monitoring program conducted by the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring & Research Center (CEMRC) and an oversight monitoring program conducted by the WIPP's management and operating contractor, the Nuclear Waste Partnership (NWP) LLC were utilized to estimate the actual amount of radioactivity released from the WIPP underground. The Am and Pu isotope ratios were measured and used to support the hypothesis that the release came from one drum identified as having breached that represents a specific waste stream with this radionuclide ratio in its inventory. This failed drum underwent a heat and gas producing reaction that overpowered its vent and

  5. Low-Activity Radioactive Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2003 EPA published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) to collect public comment on alternatives for disposal of waste containing low concentrations of radioactive material ('low-activity' waste).

  6. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Radioactive transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive Transformations describes Ernest Rutherford's Nobel Prize-winning investigations into the mysteries of radioactive matter. In this historic work, Rutherford outlines the scientific investigations that led to and coincided with his own research--including the work of Wilhelm Rӧntgen, J. J. Thomson, and Marie Curie--and explains in detail the experiments that provided a glimpse at special relativity, quantum mechanics, and other concepts that would shape modern physics. This new edition features a comprehensive introduction by Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek which engagingly explains how Rutherford's early research led to a better understanding of topics as diverse as the workings of the atom's nucleus, the age of our planet, and the fusion in stars.

  8. Radioactive alchemy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2014-07-15

    For any entity involved in radioactive waste management, turning lead into gold means succeeding with minimising the volumes and optimizing the long-term containment of ultimate waste to be disposed of. With this purpose, they perform R and D on different sorting, treatment and disposal technology, as explained by Frederic Plas from Andra (France), Jan Deckers from Belgoprocess (Belgium) and Wilhelm Bollingerfehr from DBE Technology (Germany). (orig.)

  9. Near-field investigation of the explosive dispersal of radioactive material based on a reconstructed spherical blast-wave flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, David; Ivan, Lucian

    2017-06-01

    A "dirty bomb" is a type of radiological dispersal device (RDD) that has been the subject of significant safety and security concerns given the disruption that would result from a postulated terrorist attack. Assessing the risks of radioactive dose in a hypothetical scenario requires models that can accurately predict dispersion in a realistic environment. Modelling a RDD is complicated by the fact that the most important phenomena occur over vastly disparate spatial and temporal length scales. Particulate dispersion in the air is generally considered on scales of hundreds to thousands of meters, and over periods of minutes and hours. Dispersion models are extremely sensitive, however, to the particle size and source characterization, which are determined in distances measured in micrometers to meters, over milliseconds or less. This study examines the extent to which the explosive blast determines the transport of contaminant particles relative to the atmospheric wind over distances relevant to "near-field" dispersion problems (i.e., hundreds of meters), which are relevant to urban environments. Our results indicate that whether or not the effect of the blast should be included in a near-field dispersion model is largely dependent on the size of the contaminant particle. Relatively large particles (i.e., >40 μm in diameter), which are most likely to be produced by a RDD, penetrate the leading shock front, thereby avoiding the reverse blast wind. Consequently, they travel much farther than suspended aerosols (dispersion problems in urban environments, the transport of contaminants from the blast wave may be integral to accurately predicting their dispersion. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Communication from the Radioactive Shipping Service

    CERN Multimedia

    DDGS Unit

    2011-01-01

    The radioactive materials Import/Export service reminds you that all movements of potentially radioactive material must be declared in advance. For exports, shipping requests must be made via the EDH request form, ticking the box “radioactive material”. For imports, an electronic form must be completed before the arrival of the material. Requests which do not comply with the above procedure and any unauthorized imports of radioactive material will be refused.The same applies to imports/exports of radioactive sources. All necessary information is given in the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Yann Donjoux / Radioactive Shipping Service Phone: +41 22 767.31.71 Fax: +41 22 766.92.00 Email: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch

  11. Transport of radioactive substances; Der Transport radioaktiver Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  12. Management and control of radioactive wastes in Ghana | Gbadago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is responsible for monitoring and tracking all radioactive materials imported, stored or exported. The profile of radioactive sources in active use are also presented, in addition to spent radioactive sources currently in the custody of the NRWMC as part of the inventory for creating databases on radioactive wastes in Ghana.

  13. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Document Server

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  14. Summary evaluation of the video, {open_quotes}Transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials: Safety for all concerned{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, M.C.; Young, C.F.

    1993-07-01

    Outreach materials are often developed and distributed without evaluation of their effectiveness. This report provides a glimpse of the effectiveness of one of the US Department of Energy`s videos on transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials. Data from a survey developed by Modern Talking Picture Service, Inc. are summarized. This survey was sent to recipients of the video at three to six weeks after they had received and viewed the video. The response rate is unknown; hence, the results suggest the range of perspectives on the video, rather than the representativeness of those perspectives. The results are also limited by incomplete responses to the survey. Most respondents were middle school and high school teachers who resided throughout the country. Respondents used the video in nearly all school subjects. Most respondents indicated that the video was fairly good and appreciated the factual information, although some saw it as propaganda. Respondents indicated that they would like additional information on hazardous wastes, nuclear power, and transportation. The test crashes were mentioned as a highlight of the video. Recommendations for revising the video and survey are included.

  15. Environment - Sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes - Audition of M Francois Loos, Ministry delegate at the Industry; Environnement - Gestion durable des matieres et des dechets radioactifs - Audition de M. Francois Loos, ministre delegue a l'industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document is the presentation of the audition of the Ministry delegate at the Industry, concerning the law project n.315 of the program relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. The Ministry discussed the law text, precises the three researches axis concerning the long dated management of high activity and long life radioactive wastes, the National plan of management and the legislation. He defined the consolidating of an independent evaluation, the public information and the bond commissions. (A.L.B.)

  16. Use of selective adsorbents for adsorption and concentration of radioactive isotopes difficult measurement; Empleo de materials adsorbentes selectivos para la adsorcion y contration de isotopos radiactivos de dificil medida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, L.; Medina, F.

    2011-07-01

    The work are focused on obtaining a selective adsorbent material to separate from the effluent of nuclear energy plants the radioactive isotopes with high average lifetimes that are in very low concentrations in order to treat them separately from the rest of waste. For this target we have worked with different materials, focusing on the utilization of the adsorptive capacity of layered double hydroxides, which can be reconstructed after being burned hosting anions in the interlayers space. (Author)

  17. Investigation of induced radioactivity in the Linac-Adone accelerator complex for the management of the decommissioned material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Juan Carlos; Bedogni, Roberto; Esposito, Adolfo; Cancio, David

    2007-03-01

    The LINAC-ADONE accelerator complex of the INFN-LNF Frascati National Laboratories, operating for 27 y prior to the commissioning of DAPhiNE, was dismantled in 1993. The scraps resulting from the decommissioning of LINAC-ADPhiNE have been temporarily stored in the same Frascati laboratory, waiting for definitive disposal. Relying on recommendations of the IAEA, European Commission and Italian committees, an experimental characterization study of the LNF repository was performed. The main objective was a classification of the scraps on the basis of internationally recognized "clearance levels," which are 0.1 Bq g(-1) for the isotopes of interest for this work. Secondly, a measurement of the materials suspected to be above 0.1 Bq g(-1) was planned. Activation isotopes were expected from the aluminum, copper, steel, and iron of the LINAC and the ADONE ring sections. For screening purposes, the repository area has been divided into zones, where in-situ measurements with a portable HP-Ge detector have been performed. In addition, small samples have been cut from a representative number of pieces, and accurate laboratory measurements have been made with a low background HP-Ge spectrometer. The experimental results are in good agreement with other studies and show that a large part of the material is below the mentioned specific activity level.

  18. Evaluation of effects to the health by liberations to the atmosphere of radioactive material of nucleo electric plants; Evaluacion de efectos a la salud por liberaciones a la atmosfera de material radiactivo de centrales nucleoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez F, C.; Araiza M, E. [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)] e-mail: carimtz@hotmail.com

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effects on the population health border to a nuclear power station and to estimate the consequences caused by the liberation of radioactive material using the MACCS code (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System), developed to evaluate the risks for have a severe accident in nuclear plants and to calculate the consequences outside of the one place. The code presents the radiological consequences in form of a complementary accumulative distribution function (CCDF). Graphics of the one total fatal cancerous and immediate damages against the occurrence probability, for a known term source and with the meteorological data of the Laguna Verde power station in one period from 1989 to 1998 and without considering measures of protection to the population. When analyzing these results an it is observed similar behavior in every year for the specific cases of radius of 0 to 16 Km and of 0 to 70 Km. The main parameters required by the one code in the enter file is the Inventory of radioactive products present to the beginning of the accident, the atmospheric source term, the one number of liberated feathers, its heights and temperatures, the meteorological data of the site, the distribution of the border population to the same one and the soil type. It is concluded that it is necessary an additional estimation that consider population's census and current characteristics of the area for to be able to observe the consequences variation. (Author)

  19. Assessment of natural radioactivity and radiological hazards in building materials used in the Tiruvannamalai District, Tamilnadu, India, using a statistical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Raghu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One-hundred-fifty-one samples of six types of building materials were collected from different locations of the Tiruvannamalai District, Tamilnadu, and were analyzed using a gamma ray spectroscopy system. From the results, the highest values observed in the specific activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were 116.1 (soil 106.67 (sand and 527.533 (tiles in Bq kg−1, while the lowest values observed in the specific activities of the same radionuclides were 35.73, 37.75 and 159.83 for cement in Bq kg−1, respectively. The potential radiological hazards were assessed by calculating the radium equivalent activity (Raeq, the indoor absorbed gamma dose rate (DR, the annual effective dose rate (HR, the activity utilization index (I, the alpha index (Iα, the gamma index (Iγ, and the external hazard (Hex and internal hazard (Hin indices. The estimated mean value of the absorbed dose rate of 148.35 nGy h−1 is slightly higher than the world average value of 84 nGy h−1, and the annual effective dose in the studied samples is 0.1824 mSv y−1, which is lower than the recommended limit. Multivariate statistical methods are applied to determine the existing relationship between radionuclides and radiological health hazard parameters and to identify the maximum contribution of radionuclide in radioactivity. The values of the hazard indices were below the recommended levels; therefore, it is concluded that the buildings constructed from such materials are safe for the inhabitants. The findings from this research will be useful to assess the radiation hazards of building materials in humans.

  20. Sulfate-reducing bacteria release barium and radium from naturally occurring radioactive material in oil-field barite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, E.J.P.; Landa, E.R.; Kraemer, T.; Zielinski, R.

    2001-01-01

    Scale and sludge deposits formed during oil production can contain elevated levels of Ra, often coprecipitated with barium sulfate (barite). The potential for sulfate-reducing bacteria to release 226 Ra and Ba (a Ra analog) from oil-field barite was evaluated. The concentration of dissolved Ba increased when samples containing pipe scale, tank sludge, or oil-field brine pond sediment were incubated with sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio sp., Str LZKI, isolated from an oil-field brine pond. However, Ba release was not stoichiometric with sulfide production in oil-field samples, and sulfate-reducing activity was predictable from the amount of Ba released. As with Ba, only a fraction of the 226Ra expected from the amount of sulfide produced was released, and most of the Ra remained associated with the solid material.

  1. THE DIGESTIVE UTILIZATION OF LYSINE FROM PROTEIC RAW MATERIALS WITH SUPPLEMENTARY ADDITION OF LLYSINE MARKED WITH RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE 3H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA MARIN

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of that study was to evaluate the influence of supplementary addition with Llysine to protein raw materials used in the compound feed on the retention rate and apparent digestibility of lysine, as well as the utilization in the organism of their amino acid. The results indicate that the lysine utilization in the organism is negatively influenced when the ratio between methionine and lysine is reduced (0,19%, indicating that in the compound feed the ratio between the two essential amino acids must be equilibrated (0.34-0.37%, which determines a lysine deposit in higher quantities in muscles and liver. The apparent digestibility of lysine from the sunflower meal (80.46% was improved by supplementation with L-lysine, analogous to soybean meal (81.82%.

  2. Proposed program for and present status of the Geological Survey's investigation of domestic resources of radioactive raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulter, A.P.; Killeen, P.L.; Page, G.B.; Rubey, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    This interim report is designed to show the present status of the Geological Survey's information and the parts of a comprehensive program necessary to improve our information about the raw material resources of uranium and thorium. Rarely in geologic work has it been necessary. to determine so completely a nation's resources of useful minerals in so brief a span of time. Ordinarily, information on mineral resources Is accumulated during a long period of years. However, uranium and thorium were suddenly thrust from a position of subsidiary economic interest into one of great strategic importance. Information concerning their occurrence must, therefore, be obtained as rapidly as reliable methods of investigation will permit. Accordingly the program must be at once comprehensive and carried out over an area more extensive than is usual in the search for and appraisal of most other mineral resources.

  3. NSR&D Program Fiscal Year 2015 Funded Research Stochastic Modeling of Radioactive Material Releases Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, Jason P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pope, Chad [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Toston, Mary [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maas, Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Nonreactor nuclear facilities operating under the approval authority of the U.S. Department of Energy use unmitigated hazard evaluations to determine if potential radiological doses associated with design basis events challenge or exceed dose evaluation guidelines. Unmitigated design basis events that sufficiently challenge dose evaluation guidelines or exceed the guidelines for members of the public or workers, merit selection of safety structures, systems, or components or other controls to prevent or mitigate the hazard. Idaho State University, in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratory, has developed a portable and simple to use software application called SODA (Stochastic Objective Decision-Aide) that stochastically calculates the radiation dose distribution associated with hypothetical radiological material release scenarios. Rather than producing a point estimate of the dose, SODA produces a dose distribution result to allow a deeper understanding of the dose potential. SODA allows users to select the distribution type and parameter values for all of the input variables used to perform the dose calculation. Users can also specify custom distributions through a user defined distribution option. SODA then randomly samples each distribution input variable and calculates the overall resulting dose distribution. In cases where an input variable distribution is unknown, a traditional single point value can be used. SODA, developed using the MATLAB coding framework, has a graphical user interface and can be installed on both Windows and Mac computers. SODA is a standalone software application and does not require MATLAB to function. SODA provides improved risk understanding leading to better informed decision making associated with establishing nuclear facility material-at-risk limits and safety structure, system, or component selection. It is important to note that SODA does not replace or compete with codes such as MACCS or RSAC; rather it is viewed as an

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2007-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, consists of seven inactive sites located in the Yucca Flat area and one inactive site in the Pahute Mesa area. The eight CAU 545 sites consist of craters used for mud disposal, surface or buried waste disposed within craters or potential crater areas, and sites where surface or buried waste was disposed. The CAU 545 sites were used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat area during the 1950s through the early 1990s, and in Area 20 in the mid-1970s. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, this Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Fieldwork will be conducted following approval.

  5. The choice of individual dose criterion at which to restrict agricultural produce following an unplanned release of radioactive material to atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Dionian, J

    1985-01-01

    In the event of an accidental release of radioactive material to atmosphere, the introduction of emergency countermeasures will be based on the need to limit the risk to individuals. However, it has been suggested that a form of cost-benefit analysis may be used as an input to decisions on the withdrawal of countermeasures, although it is recognised that these decisions may be influenced by factors other than those directly related to radiological protection. In this study, a method based on cost-benefit analysis is illustrated for assessing the optimum level of individual dose at which restrictions on agricultural production may be considered. This requires monetary values to be assigned to both the lost food production and to the health detriment, expressed as the collective effective dose equivalent commitment. It has been assumed in this analysis that food-supply restrictions are both introduced and withdrawn at the same projected level of annual individual dose. The effect on the optimum dose level of th...

  6. A mobile dose prediction system based on artificial neural networks for NPP emergencies with radioactive material releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Schirru, Roberto; Gomes, Kelcio J.; Cunha, José Luiz, E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.br, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    This work presents the approach of a mobile dose prediction system for NPP emergencies with nuclear material release. The objective is to provide extra support to field teams decisions when plant information systems are not available. However, predicting doses due to atmospheric dispersion of radionuclide generally requires execution of complex and computationally intensive physical models. In order to allow such predictions to be made by using limited computational resources such as mobile phones, it is proposed the use of artificial neural networks (ANN) previously trained (offline) with data generated by precise simulations using the NPP atmospheric dispersion system. Typical situations for each postulated accident and respective source terms, as well as a wide range of meteorological conditions have been considered. As a first step, several ANN architectures have been investigated in order to evaluate their ability for dose prediction in hypothetical scenarios in the vicinity of CNAAA Brazilian NPP, in Angra dos Reis, Brazil. As a result, good generalization and a correlation coefficient of 0.99 was achieved for a validation data set (untrained patterns). Then, selected ANNs have been coded in Java programming language to run as an Android application aimed to plot the spatial dose distribution into a map.In this paper, the general architecture of the proposed system is described; numerical results and comparisons between investigated ANN architectures are discussed; performance and limitations of running the Application into a commercial mobile phone are evaluated and possible improvements and future works are pointed. (author)

  7. Effect of leachability on environmental risk assessment for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in petroleum oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajaretnam, G.; Blasio, C.; Lovins, K.; Spitz, H.B. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Elevated concentrations of NORM often occur in petroleum oil fields. The NORM generated by oil field operations comes from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th contained in geologic materials. The predominant NORM radionuclide brought to the surface by produced water is radium, which co-precipitates with barium in the form of complex compounds of sulfates, carbonates, and silicates in sludge and scale. These NORM deposits are highly stable and very insoluble under ambient conditions at the surface. However, the co-precipitated radium matrix is not thermodynamically stable at reducing conditions, and all of the radium trapped in it could be released to the environment. The leachability of radium from NORM deposits due to acid-rain and other aging processes are generally unknown. Experiments have been performed on soil samples collected from eastern Kentucky oil fields to find the leachability of radium due to change in pH, temperature, sulfate ion concentration, and accelerated aging of the soil. The average concentration of radium in the soil is in the order of 5.92 Bq g{sup -1}. The risk assessment for different scenarios using the RESRAD code show that the annual total dose to a person living or working on this NORM contaminated soil will be in the range of 6.4-9.6 mSv for the initial 100 years. However, as the soil ages from exposure to acid rain, ultraviolet light from the sun, irradiation from the decay of {sup 226}Ra and its progeny and other kinds of reducing conditions, the solubility of radium in the NORM also changes. Results of accelerated aging and other leaching studies with these samples of soil show that the available radium for uptake increase over time with a corresponding increase in dose to the exposed individuals.

  8. Management and control of radioactive wastes in Ghana | Gbadago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Actions taken to educate the public, industrialists, health workers and other users of radioactive materials on the national system of control of radioactive wastes are presented. The roles of NRWMC as the institution responsible for collection, treatment and safe disposal of spent and disused radio-active materials are ...

  9. Selective extraction of naturally occurring radioactive Ra2+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, F.W.B.; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David

    2005-01-01

    Organic extractants play a significant role in the selective removal of radioactive cations from waste streams. Although, literature on the selective removal of man-made radioactive material such as Americium (Am) is widespread, the selective removal of naturally occurring radioactive material such

  10. Radioactive waste storage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Daniel E. [Colorado Christian Univ., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  11. Fact Sheet: Environmental Pathway Models-Ground-Water Modeling in Support of Remedial Decision Making at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet was designed to be used by technical staff responsible for identifying and implementing flow and transport models to support cleanup decisions at hazardous and radioactive waste sites.

  12. Wyoming bentonites. Evidence from the geological record to evaluate the suitability of bentonite as a buffer material during the long-term underground containment of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, J. [Conterra AB (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    In the Swedish programme for the deep, geological disposal of radioactive wastes, bentonite is planned to be used as a barrier material to reduce groundwater flow and minimise radionuclide migration into the geosphere. One of the possible threats to long-term bentonite stability is the gradual incursion of saline water into the repository confines which may reduce the swelling capacity of the bentonite, even to the extent of eliminating the positive effects of mixing bentonite into backfill materials. Important information may be obtained from the study of analogous processes in nature (i.e. natural analogue or natural system studies) where bentonite, during its formation, has been in long-term contact with reducing waters of brackish to saline character. Type bentonites include those mined from the Clay Spur bed at the top of the Cretaceous Mowry Formation in NE Wyoming and demarcated for potential use as a barrier material (e.g. MX-80 sodium bentonite) in the Swedish radioactive waste programme. This bentonite forms part of the Mowry Shale which was deposited in a southern embayment of the late Albian Western Interior Cretaceous sea (Mowry Sea). The question is whether these bentonite deposits show evidence of post-deposition alteration caused by the sea water in which they were deposited, and/or, have they been altered subsequently by contact with waters of increasing salinity? Bentonites are the product of pyroclastic fall deposits thought to be generated by the type of explosive, subaerial volcanic activity characteristic of Plinian eruptive systems. In Wyoming the overall composition of the original ash varied from dacite to rhyolite, or latite to trachyte. The ash clouds were carried to high altitudes and eastwards by the prevailing westerly winds before falling over the shallow Mowry Sea and forming thin but widespread and continuous horizons on sea floor muds and sands. Whilst bentonites were principally wind-transported, there is evidence of some water

  13. Simple method for estimating soil mass loading onto plant surface using magnetic material content as a soil indicator - Influence of soil adhesion to vegetation on radioactive cesium concentration in forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunaga, Yoshihito; Harada, Hisatomi

    2016-11-01

    A simple technique for estimating soil mass loading on vegetation was developed using magnetic material content as an indicator of soil adhesion. Magnetic material contents in plant and soil samples were determined by a magnetic analyzer. High recovery rates of 85-97% were achieved in a recovery test in which additional soil was added to powdered plant materials [stem of forage corn (Zea mays L.), aboveground part of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)] at addition rates of 12.3-200 g dry soil kg-1 dry plant material including soil. Samples of different Japanese cultivated soils were tested and showed a range of magnetic contents of 1.27-16.1 g kg-1 on a dry weight basis. These levels are considered adequate for determining soil contamination in plant materials. Then, we applied this method for confirming the effect of soil adhesion on radioactive cesium concentrations in plant samples obtained at the area affected by the 2011 nuclear accident in Japan. The mean soil mass loading (±standard deviation) on forage rye (Secale cereale L.) showing mild lodging was 0.8 ± 0.6 g kg-1, but was 7.4 ± 5.0 g kg-1 for plants with serious lodging. No soil loading was detected on rye plants that showed no lodging. Radioactive cesium concentrations in the rye samples increased linearly with the increase in soil mass loading caused by plant lodging, and consequently mean radioactive cesium concentration for rye plants with serious lodging was about 2.7 times higher than that with no lodging. Cesium radioactivity in forage was affected by variations in soil mass loading onto forage plants caused by changes in plant growth and differences between plant species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Clearance of materials, buildings and land with low content of radioactive materials. Methodology and documentation; Frigivelse af materialer og omraeder med lavt aktivitetsindhold. Metodebeskrivelse og dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Lauridsen, B.; Soegaard-Hansen, J.; Warming, L

    2003-06-01

    The concepts and methods of clearance of materials originating from the decommissioning af the nuclear facilities at Risoe National Laboratory are described as well as procedures for clearance of buildings and land. The recommendations from international organisations as well as national regulation on clearance are presented. Methods for characterisation and separation of waste being candidate for clearance are presented.Di .erent methodologies for determining the content of radionuclides in candidate waste for clearance are discussed,and the need for and construction of a low-level laboratory for activity analyses in both bulky and less bulky subjects is described. Laboratory analyses, documentation of results and education of health physics personnel is presented. (au)

  15. Geologic investigation of the Virgin River Valley salt deposits, Clark County, southeastern Nevada, to investigate their suitability for possible storage of radioactive waste material as of September 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-12-31

    The results from a geologic investigation of the Virgin River Valley salt deposits, Clark County, southeastern Nevada, to examine their suitability for further study and consideration in connection with the possible storage of radioactive waste material are given. The results indicate that (1) approximately one-half of the salt body underlies the Overton Arm of Lake Mead and that the dry land portion of the salt body that has a thickness of 1,000 feet or more covers an area of about four and one-half square miles; (2) current tectonic activity in the area of the salt deposits is believed to be confined to seismic events associated with crustal adjustments following the filling of Lake Mead; (3) detailed information on the hydrology of the salt deposit area is not available at present but it is reported that a groundwater study by the U.S. Geological Survey is now in progress; (4) there is no evidence of exploitable minerals in the salt deposit area other than evaporites such as salt, gypsum, and possibly sand and gravel; (5) the salt deposit area is located inside the Lake Mead Recreation Area, outlined on the accompanying Location Plat, and several Federal, State, and Local agencies share regulatory responsibilities for the activities in the area; (6) other salt deposit areas of Arizona and Nevada, such as the Detrital Valley, Red Lake Dome, Luke Dome, and Mormon Mesa area, and several playa lake areas of central Nevada may merit further study; and (7) additional information, as outlined, is needed to more thoroughly evaluate the salt deposits of the Virgin River Valley and other areas referred to above.

  16. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the phos- phorous can be derived from phosphate ore that con- tains elevated levels of uranium and ... public are encouraged to contact their state radiation control program for advice. 2 Glossary Alpha Particle A ...

  17. [Radioactive burden resulting from zirconia implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Brandies, E; Pratzel, H; Wendt, T

    1991-10-01

    Due to its mechanical properties circonia is an interesting implantation material. However, it may contain a certain amount of radioactive isotopes. The measurement of alpha-emission reveals varying amounts of radiation. As a result, a declaration of radioactivity should be required for circonia implants and only circonia with low emission levels should be used for implantation purposes.

  18. Licence template for mobile handling and storage of radioactive substances for the nondestructive testing of materials; Mustergenehmigung zur ortsveraenderlichen Verwendung und Lagerung radioaktiver Stoffe im Rahmen der zerstoerungsfreien Materialpruefung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, A. [Niedersaechsisches Ministerium fuer Umwelt, Energie und Klimaschutz (Germany); Schumann, J. [Landesamt fuer Arbeitsschutz, Gesundheitsschutz und technische Sicherheit, Berlin (Germany); Huhn, W.

    2016-07-01

    The Technical Committee ''Radiation Protection'' (Fachausschuss ''Strahlenschutz'') and the Laender Committee ''X-ray ordinance'' (Laenderausschuss ''Roentgenverordnung'') have appointed a working group for the formulation of licence templates for the nationwide use of X-ray equipment or handling of radioactive substances. To date, the following licence templates have been adopted: - Mobile operation of X-ray equipment under technical radiography to the coarse structural analysis in material testing; - Mobile operation of a handheld X-ray fluorescence system; - Mobile operation of a flash X-ray system; - Operation of an X-ray system for teleradiology The licence template ''Mobile handling and storage of radioactive substances for the nondestructive testing of materials'' is scheduled for publication. The licence template ''Practices in external facilities and installations'' is currently being revised. The licence template ''Mobile handling and storage of radioactive substances for the nondestructive testing of materials'' is used as an example to demonstrate the legal framework and the results of the working group.

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, in Areas 2, 3, 9, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (1996, as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit 545 is comprised of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): • 02-09-01, Mud Disposal Area • 03-08-03, Mud Disposal Site • 03-17-01, Waste Consolidation Site 3B • 03-23-02, Waste Disposal Site • 03-23-05, Europium Disposal Site • 03-99-14, Radioactive Material Disposal Area • 09-23-02, U-9y Drilling Mud Disposal Crater • 20-19-01, Waste Disposal Site While all eight CASs are addressed in this CADD/CR, sufficient information was available for the following three CASs; therefore, a field investigation was not conducted at these sites: • For CAS 03-08-03, though the potential for subsidence of the craters was judged to be extremely unlikely, the data quality objective (DQO) meeting participants agreed that sufficient information existed about disposal and releases at the site and that a corrective action of close in place with a use restriction is recommended. Sampling in the craters was not considered necessary. • For CAS 03-23-02, there were no potential releases of hazardous or radioactive contaminants identified. Therefore, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 545 concluded that: “Sufficient information exists to conclude that this CAS does not exist as originally identified. Therefore, there is no environmental concern associated with CAS 03-23-02.” This CAS is closed with no further action. • For CAS 03-23-05, existing information about the two buried sources and lead pig was considered to be

  20. Induced radioactivity in LDEF components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, B. A.; Fishman, G. J.; Parnell, T. A.; Laird, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    A systematic study of the induced radioactivity of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is being carried out in order to gather information about the low earth orbit radiation environment and its effects on materials. The large mass of the LDEF spacecraft, its stabilized configuration, and long mission duration have presented an opportunity to determine space radiation-induced radioactivities with a precision not possible before. Data presented include preliminary activities for steel and aluminum structural samples, and activation subexperiment foils. Effects seen in the data show a clear indication of the trapped proton anisotropy in the South Atlantic Anomaly and suggest contributions from different sources of external radiation fluxes.

  1. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses. Annual report 2013; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung. Jahresbreicht 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachenberger, Claudia; Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela; Loebke-Reinl, Angelika; Peter, Josef (comps.) [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    The report on environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure 2013 includes data concerning the following issues: sources of natural and artificial radioactivity, radon in buildings, radioactive materials in construction materials and industrial products, nuclear weapon tests, the consequences of reactor accidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima, nuclear facilities, occupational exposure, radiation exposure from medical applications, handling of radioactive materials in research and technology, radioactive wastes, radiation accidents and specific incidents.

  2. Naturally occurring radioactive materials in the gas and oil industry : origin, transport and deposition of stable lead and 210Pb from Dutch gas reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    The omnipresence of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides (NORs) within the Earth is well-known. Since long, radioactive decay of NORs has been recognised as the primary source of our internal planetary heat, and driving force of volcanism and the movement of plates forming the Earth's crust. Since NORs

  3. Naturally occurring radioactive materials in the gas and oil industry : origin, transport and deposition of stable lead and 210Pb from Dutch gas reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    The omnipresence of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides (NORs) within the Earth is well-known. Since long, radioactive decay of NORs has been recognised as the primary source of our internal planetary heat, and driving force of volcanism and the movement of plates forming the Earth's crust. Since

  4. Sensor integration in radioactive environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfensteller, Mark; Schilp, Michael; Eursch, Andreas; Zaeh, Michael F.

    2004-12-01

    Radioactive material of high activity levels has to be handled in a nuclear medicine environment. Until now most of these activities are done manually or by rudimentally automated processes. To increase radiation safety and process quality, smart automation strategies for these processes have to be developed. Especially long-term processes with radioactive materials have to be automated in early stages of development. This leads to a certain flexibility regarding requirements demanding an adjustable automation concept. The application of radiation hardened sensors is expensive but even these sensors will be destroyed by radiation effects. To allow therefore standard sensors to be used in radioactive environments, different strategies have been tested: In general, the sensors must be applied in a way to allow an easy access to sensors for replacement purposes. But this approach might not be sophisticated. An additional solution is the reduction of exposure of sensitive parts such as electronics. This means dividing the sensor in a measuring part which is placed in the radioactive environment and in a sensitive, shielded control part as it is realized by fibre optic sensors. The implementation of these approaches is demonstrated in sensor applications for radium handling systems e. g. contactless control of the needle clearance of a dispensing system via a fibre optic sensor. Further scenarios for sensor integration problems are presented in this paper.

  5. Elements to diminish radioactive accidents; Elementos para disminuir accidentes radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes I, M.E.; Ramirez G, F.P. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, C.P. 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In this work it is presented an application of the cause-effect diagram method or Ichikawa method identifying the elements that allow to diminish accidents when the radioactive materials are transported. It is considered the transport of hazardous materials which include radioactive materials in the period: December 1996 until March 1997. Among the identified elements by this method it is possible to mention: the road type, the radioactive source protection, the grade driver responsibility and the preparation that the OEP has in the radioactive material management. It is showed the differences found between the country inner roads and the Mexico City area. (Author)

  6. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  7. Study on the safety during transport of radioactive materials. Pt. 4. Events during transport. Final report work package 6; Untersuchungen zur Sicherheit bei der Befoerderung radioaktiver Stoffe. T. 4. Ereignisse bei der Befoerderung. Abschlussbericht zum Arbeitspaket 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentuc, Florence-Nathalie

    2014-09-15

    This report presents the results from a data collection and an evaluation of the safety significance of events in the transportation of radioactive material by all modes on public routes in Germany. Systems for reporting and evaluation of the safety significance of events encountered in the transport of radioactive material are a central element in monitoring and judging the adequacy and effectiveness of the transport regulations and their underlying safety philosophy, this allows for revision by experience feedback (lessons learned). The nationwide survey performed covering the period from the mid 1990s through 2013 identified and analysed a total of 670 transport events varying in type and severity. The vast majority of recorded transport events relate to minor deviations from the provisions of the transport regulations (e.g. improper markings and error in transport documents) or inappropriate practices and operational procedures resulting in material damage of packages and equipment such as handling incidents. Severe traffic accidents and fires represented only a small fraction (ca. 3 percent) of the recorded transport events. Four transport events were identified in the reporting period to have given rise to environmental radioactive releases. Three transport events have reportedly resulted in minor radiation exposures to the transport personnel; in one case an exposure in excess of the statutory annual dose limit for the public seems possible. Based on the EVTRAM scale, with seven significance levels, the broad majority of transport events has been classified as ''non-incidents'' (Level 0) and ''events without affecting the safety functions of the package'' (Level 1). On the INES scale most transport events would be classified as events with ''no safety significance'' (Below Scale/Level 0). The survey results show no serious deficiencies in the transport of radioactive material, supporting the

  8. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the oil and gas processing and production facilities; La contaminacion radiactiva de origen natural (CRON) en las instalaciones de produccion y procesamiento de aceite y gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najera F, J. [PEMEX Exploracion y Produccion, Lima (Peru)

    1994-12-31

    NORM contamination is produced by concentration in petroleum facilities of naturally occurring radioactive materials. The presence of NORM in petroleum reservoirs and in the oil and gas industry has been widely recognized. It`s not a critical technical problem if you proceed timely to solve it. NORM is a great but controllable hazard to the human health and the environment, and represents a severe waste management problem. We suggest to the latino american oil companies to conduct studies to detect NORM contamination in their facilities an use to them to plan the appropriate actions to control the situation. (author). 15 refs.

  9. PERSPECTIVE: Fireworks and radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenecker, Katharina

    2009-09-01

    both reaction products and unburnt constituents of a pyrotechnic mixture. One major environmental concern in pyrotechnics focuses on the emission of heavy metals. This is the topic discussed in the article by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek in this issue [4]. A possible interrelationship between respiratory effects and fireworks emissions of barium-rich aerosols was also raised last year [5]. In recent years the potential hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material has become of importance to the scientific community. Naturally occurring radionuclides can be of terrestrial or cosmological origin. Terrestrial radionuclides were present in the presolar cloud that later contracted in order to build our solar system. These radionuclides—mainly heavy metals—and their non-radioactive isotopes are nowadays fixed in the matrix of the Earth's structure. Usually, their percentage is quite small compared to their respective stable isotopes—though there are exceptions like in the case of radium. The problem with environmental pollution due to naturally occurring radioactive material begins when this material is concentrated due to mining and milling, and later further processed [6]. Environmental pollution due to radioactive material goes back as far as the Copper and Iron Ages, when the first mines were erected in order to mine ores (gold, silver, copper, iron, etc), resulting in naturally occurring radioactive material being set free with other dusts into the atmosphere. So where is the link between pyrotechnics and radioactivity? In this article presented by Georg Steinhauser and Andreas Musilek [4], the pyrotechnic ingredients barium nitrate and strontium nitrate are explored with respect to their chemical similarities to radium. The fundamental question, therefore, was whether radium can be processed together with barium and strontium. If so, the production and ignition of these pyrotechnic ingredients could cause atmospheric pollution with radium aerosols

  10. Method Validation for the Gamma-ray Spectrometric Determination of Natural Radioactive Nuclides in NORM Samples - Method Validation for the Gamma-ray Spectrometric Determination of Natural Radionuclides in raw materials and by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Young-Yong; Lim, Jong-Myoung; Jang, Mee; Kim, Chang-Jong; Chung, Kun Ho; Kang, Mun Ja; Choi, Geun-Sik [Environmental Radioactivity Assessment Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111, Daedeok-daero 989, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    It has established the 'Act on safety control of radioactive rays around living environment' in Korea, since 2011, to protect the public from natural occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and their by-products. The increasing concerns regarding the radioactivity of those materials therefore dictate many demands for the radioactive analysis for them. There are several methods to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides, such as {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and so on, through a radiochemical analysis using an alpha spectrometer, mass spectrometer and liquid scintillation counter. However, gamma-ray spectroscopy still has an effect on the assessment of radioactive concentration for these nuclides and their progenies. To adapt a gamma spectrometer to the determination of natural radionuclides, the feasibility of their analysis methods should be first verified and validated with respect to accuracy and time and cost constraints. In general, one of the well-known processes in analyzing uranium with a gamma spectrometer is an indirect measurement using the secular equilibrium state with their progenies in a sample. This method, however, demands the time elapsed about 3 weeks to reach the equilibrium state between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn and the sufficient integrity of a sample bottle to prevent the leakage of radon isotopes which is a form of noble gas. The simple and quick method is to directly measure a full energy absorption peak of 186.2 keV from {sup 226}Ra without the secular equilibrium state between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn in the common sample bottle. However, this direct measurement also has difficulties about the interference with a full energy absorption peak of 185.7 keV from {sup 235}U. In this study, direct measurement with the interference correction technique, which uses several reference peaks for gamma-rays from {sup 235}U and {sup 234}Th, and indirect measurement, which means the identification of {sup

  11. 10 CFR 61.41 - Protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactivity. 61.41 Section 61.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR... from releases of radioactivity. Concentrations of radioactive material which may be released to the... maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as is reasonably...

  12. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  13. Radioactive waste management in member states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this part of the report is to present a brief overview of key issues in radioactive waste management on a nation-by-nation basis. Member State representatives were asked to address nine questions in no more than three or four pages. Hence, by design, the presentations are not comprehensive. Even so, the information set out here should provide the reader valuable insights into the nature of problems associated with radioactive waste management. The materials may also be used as a ready reference for specific information about radioactive waste management in individual Member States as well as for comparative purposes. (author).

  14. Program law n. 2006-739 of the 28 June 2006 relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes: presentation by article; La loi de programme n. 2006-739 du 28 juin 2006 relative a la gestion durable des matieres et dechets radioactifs: presentation par article

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The french law of 1991, decided to define management solutions in the radioactive wastes management policy, is now over. The results of researches led to the promulgation of a new planing act, the law of the 28 June 2006. This law concerns the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. It takes also in account a public debate, organized in September 2005 by the National Commission for Public Debate. The Law project architecture can be described in three main points: the implementing of a national policy of radioactive materials and wastes, a better transparency and democratic control and the implementing of specific modalities for the organization and the financing of spent fuels and radioactive wastes management. This document presents what is in the different articles, with a special attention to the contributions of the parliamentary debate. (A.L.B.)

  15. Device for the collection of radioactive materials in the form of dust or powder. Vorrichtung zum Sammeln von radioaktiven, staub- oder pulverfoermigen Stoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellriegel, W.

    1986-04-30

    The dust contaminated with radioactivity formed when drilling cement and concrete is sucked in by suction plant via a line into a closed container. The container itself stands in a barrel with or without concrete shielding. The suction plant produces the subpressure in the container and has a filter at its suction opening inside the container. The filter consists of several fibre air-filter mats, which are arranged inside the filter housing at an angle to the air and dust flow and displaced relative to each other.

  16. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  17. Radioactivity and its measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Garfinkel, S B

    1980-01-01

    Begins with a description of the discovery of radioactivity and the historic research of such pioneers as the Curies and Rutherford. After a discussion of the interactions of &agr;, &bgr; and &ggr; rays with matter, the energetics of the different modes of nuclear disintegration are considered in relation to the Einstein mass-energy relationship as applied to radioactive transformations. Radiation detectors and radioactivity measurements are also discussed

  18. Monitoring of specific activities of long-lived radioactive elements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lanre Lawal

    and health issues. Radioactive materials could be naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM). Knowledge and understanding of ... some of the environmental health indicators (in this case the specific ... building, welding and metallurgy, abattoirs, block moulding (sand ...

  19. Induced radioactivity at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A description of some of the problems and some of the advantages associated with the phenomenon of induced radioactivity at accelerator centres such as CERN. The author has worked in this field for several years and has recently written a book 'Induced Radioactivity' published by North-Holland.

  20. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  1. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one…

  2. Radioactive Fallout From Nuclear Weapons Testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Detonating nuclear weapons above ground sends radioactive materials into the atmosphere from the ground level up to very high elevations. Overtime, these materials settle out of the atmosphere and fall to the ground. Fallout typically contains hundreds of different radionuclides. Since the end of aboveground nuclear weapons testing, radionuclides have largely decayed away.

  3. Postmortem Examination After Exposure to Radioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait Özsoy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Radioactivity is used for diagnostic and treatment purposes, but it can also be used in criminal activity. Further evaluation of radioactivity use in criminal offenses by forensic medicine is necessary. According to the Turkish Criminal law, the severity of destruction caused on the body by any agent carries importance in the decision making process by the court for final penalty. Homicide by chemical, biologic or nuclear weapons are considered to be purposeful homicide and punished with life sentence. In that regard, autopsy and post-mortem examinations can be requested from physicians to determine the cause of death after homicide cases in which radioactive material has been used. During the autopsy, additional safety precautions should be taken and continued during morgue and funeral processes. The methods of protection from radioactive material depend on the type of radiation and the half life of the agent. Therefore, radiation quantity should be measured prior to autopsy and a risk assessment should be made. When necessary, help needs to be requested from the radiation safety specialists. In this article, topics that need special attention during the post-mortem examinations of corpses that hold radioactivity are discussed. Key words: Radioactive elements, autopsy, safety, occupational health

  4. Disposal of radioactive waste. Some ethical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, Christian

    2014-07-01

    The threat posed to humans and nature by radioactive material is a result of the ionizing radiation released during the radioactive decay. The present use of radioactivity in medicine research and technologies produces steadily radioactive waste. It is therefore necessary to safely store this waste, particularly high level waste from nuclear facilities. The decisive factors determining the necessary duration of isolation or confinement are the physical half-life times ranging with some radionuclides up to many million years. It has therefore been accepted worldwide that the radioactive material needs to be confined isolated from the biosphere, the habitat of humans and all other organisms, for very long time periods. Although it is generally accepted that repositories for the waste are necessary, strong public emotions have been built up against the strategies to erect such installations. Apparently transparent information and public participation has been insufficient or even lacking. These problems have led to endeavours to achieve public acceptance and to consider ethical acceptability. Some aspects of such discussions and possibilities will be taken up in this contribution. This article is based on the work of an interdisciplinary group. The results have been published in 'Radioactive Waste - Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal' by C. Streffer, C.F. Gethmann, G. Kamp et al. in 'Ethics of Sciences and Technology Assessment', Volume 38, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  5. Electrochemistry and Radioactive Wastes: A Scientific Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Abed Elaziz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radioactive wastes are arising from nuclear applications such as nuclear medicine and nuclear power plants. Radioactive wastes should be managed in a safe manner to protect human beings and the environment now and in the future. The management strategy depends on collection, segregation, treatment, immobilization, and disposal. The treatment process is a very important step in which the hazardous materials were converted to a more concentrated, less volume and less movable materials. Electrochemistry is the branch of chemistry in which the passage of electric current was producing a chemical change. Electrochemical treatment of radioactive wastes is widely used all over the world. It has a number of advantages and hence benefits. Electrochemistry can lead to remote, automatic control and increasing safety. The present work is focusing on the role of electrochemistry in the treatment of radioactive wastes worldwide. It contains the fundamentals of electrochemistry, the brief story of radioactive wastes, and the modern trends in the electrochemical treatment of radioactive wastes. An overview of electrochemical decomposition of organic wastes, electrochemical reduction of nitrates, electro- precipitation, electro- ion exchange, and electrochemical remediation of soil are outlined. The main operating factors, the mechanism of decontamination, energy consumption and examples of field trials are considered.

  6. Hazardous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... words like: Acid Alkali Carcinogenic Caution Corrosive Danger Explosive Flammable Irritant Radioactive Unstable Warning A label called the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) will tell you if a material is ...

  7. Report realized on behalf of the economic affairs, the environment and the territory commission, on the law project modified by the Senate, after urgency declaration (n. 3121), of program relative to the sustainable management of the radioactive materials and wastes; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire sur le projet de loi, modifie par le Senat, apres declaration d'urgence (n. 3121), de programme relatif a la gestion durable des matieres et des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birraux, C

    2006-06-15

    This report presents and discusses the modifications realized by the Senate on the law project relative to the sustainable management of the radioactive materials and wastes. It details then the different articles in three main chapters: the national policy for the sustainable radioactive materials and wastes, the organization and the financing of the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes, the control and the penalties. (A.L.B.)

  8. Investigation of the behaviour of impact limiting devices of transport casks for radioactive materials in the package approval and risk analysis; Untersuchung des Verhaltens stossdaempfender Bauteile von Transportbehaeltern fuer radioaktive Stoffe in Bauartpruefung und Risikoanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Martin

    2009-08-20

    Transport casks for radioactive materials with a Type-B package certificate have to ensure that even under severe accident scenarios the radioactive content remains safely enclosed, in an undercritical arrangement and that ionising radiation is sufficiently shielded. The impact limiter absorbs in an accident scenario the major part of the impact energy and reduces the maximum force applied on the cask body. Therefore the simulation of the behaviour of impact limiting devices of transport casks for nuclear material is of great interest for the design assessment in the package approval as well as for risk analysis in the field of transport of radioactive materials. The behaviour of the impact limiter is influenced by a number of parameters like impact limiter construction, material properties and loading conditions. Uncertainties exist for the application of simplified numerical tools for calculations of impact limiting devices. Uncertainities exist when applying simplified numerical tools. A model describing the compression of wood in axial direction of wood under large deformations for simulation with complex numerical procedures like dynamic Finite Element Methods has not been developed yet. Therefore this thesis concentrates on deriving a physical model for the behaviour of wood and analysing the applicability of different modeling techniques. A model describing the compression of wood in axial direction under large deformations was developed on the basis of an analysis of impact limiter of prototypes of casks for radioactive materials after a 9-m-drop-test and impact tests with wooden specimens. The model describes the softening, which wood under large deformation exhibits, as a function of the lateral strain constraint. The larger the lateral strain restriction, the more energy wood can absorb. The energy absorption capacity of impact limiter depends therefore on the ability of the outer steel sheet structure to prevent wood from evading from the main

  9. Radioactivity; La radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  10. Radioactive deposits in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, George W.; Lovering, Tom G.

    1954-01-01

    Reconnaissance examination by Government geologists of many areas, mine properties, and prospects in California during the period between 1948 and 1953 has confirmed the presence of radioactive materials in place at more than 40 localities. Abnormal radioactivity at these localities is due to concentrations of primary and secondary uranium minerals, to radon gas, radium (?), and to thorium minerals. Of the known occurrences only three were thought to contain uranium oxide (uranitite or pitchblende), 4 contained uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals, 12 contained secondary uranium minerals, such as autunite, carnotite, and torbernite, one contained radon gas, 7 contained thorium minerals, and, at the remaining 16 localities, the source of the anomalous radiation was not positively determined. The occurrences in which uranium oxide has been tentatively identified include the Rathgeb mine (Calaveras County), the Yerih group of claims (San Bernardino County), and the Rainbow claim (Madera County). Occurrences of secondary uranium minerals are largely confined to the arid desert regions of south-eastern California including deposits in San Bernardino, Kern, Inyo, and Imperial Counties. Uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals have been reported from pegmatite and granitic rock in southeastern and eastern California. Thorium minerals have been found in vein deposits in eastern San Bernardino County and from pegmatites and granitic rocks in various parts of southeastern California; placer concentrations of thorium minerals are known from nearly all areas in the State that are underlain, in part, by plutonic crystalline rocks. The primary uranium minerals occur principally as minute accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, or with base-metal sulfide minerals in veins. Thorium minerals also occur as accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, in placer deposits derived from such rock, and, at Mountain Pass, in veins

  11. Key players and legislative framework relative to radioactive materials and waste management; Principaux acteurs et cadre legislatif de la gestion des matieres et dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birraux, C. [Office Parlementaire d' Evaluation des Choix Scientifiques et Technologiques (OPECST), 75 - Paris (France)

    2011-02-15

    While French industry as a whole appears to have bowed slightly under increasing pressure from the competition in an international economic arena that is becoming more and more open and diverse, France's nuclear industry has firmly held onto its position as world leader, secured during the seventies and eighties. This is the result of sustained national investment in research to constantly improve the performance and safety of the solutions deployed; it is also due to the dynamism of the companies involved, which have successfully developed their international base while maintaining a firm national foothold; it is also due to a consistent commitment on the part of the public authorities, which have provided sound guidelines, while placing greater emphasis on transparency and giving structure to crucial dialogue with the public. France is also one of the first countries that has developed a nuclear power programme, to have set up an organisation, a framework and a coherent strategy regarding the management of all its radioactive waste. (author)

  12. NKS 1999 intercomparison of measurements of radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange Fogh, C. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2000-12-01

    34 laboratories have returned radioactivity measurements on six different environmental samples. The samples were analysed for their content of gamma emitters, Sr-90, transuranics and Tc-99. The samples materials are described and the results presented. Some scatter was observed in measurements of Cs-137 in low-level samples such as dry milk, meat and hay. The scatter was less pronounced for sediments and seaweed material that had higher levels of radioactivity. In general, the most of the results were consistent with a few laboratories reporting outlying values. An exception was seawater where no clear agreement could be found for the activity of Cs-137. (au)

  13. Radioactive substances in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsuumi, Ryo; Endo, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Akihiko; Kannotou, Yasumitu; Nakada, Masahiro; Yabuuchi, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    A 9.0 magnitude (M) earthquake with an epicenter off the Sanriku coast occurred at 14: 46 on March 11, 2011. TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F-1 NPP) was struck by the earthquake and its resulting tsunami. Consequently a critical nuclear disaster developed, as a large quantity of radioactive materials was released due to a hydrogen blast. On March 16(th), 2011, radioiodine and radioactive cesium were detected at levels of 177 Bq/kg and 58 Bq/kg, respectively, in tap water in Fukushima city (about 62km northwest of TEPCO F-1 NPP). On March 20th, radioiodine was detected in tap water at a level of 965 Bq/kg, which is over the value-index of restrictions on food and drink intake (radioiodine 300 Bq/kg (infant intake 100 Bq/kg)) designated by the Nuclear Safety Commission. Therefore, intake restriction measures were taken regarding drinking water. After that, although the all intake restrictions were lifted, in order to confirm the safety of tap water, an inspection system was established to monitor all tap water in the prefecture. This system has confirmed that there has been no detection of radioiodine or radioactive cesium in tap water in the prefecture since May 5(th), 2011. Furthermore, radioactive strontium ((89) Sr, (90)Sr) and plutonium ((238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu) in tap water and the raw water supply were measured. As a result, (89) Sr, (238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu were undetectable and although (90)Sr was detected, its committed effective dose of 0.00017 mSv was much lower than the yearly 0.1 mSv of the World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water quality. In addition, the results did not show any deviations from past inspection results.

  14. Radioactive sources service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Dear Users, A new web interface is now available for requesting radioactive sources: http://cern.ch/rp-sources/request This link is also available from the radioactive sources service main page: http://cern.ch/rp-sources From now on, please submit your request via the above interface, which has been developed in order to improve the service. Thank you in advance for your collaboration!

  15. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Murray E; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  16. Temporary Personal Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Fred

    2012-01-01

    As part of a bone scan procedure to look for the spread of prostate cancer, I was injected with radioactive technetium. In an effort to occupy/distract my mind, I used a Geiger counter to determine if the radioactive count obeyed the inverse-square law as a sensor was moved away from my bladder by incremental distances. (Contains 1 table and 2…

  17. Radioactive gold ring dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.A.; Aldrich, J.E. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada))

    1990-08-01

    A superficial squamous cell carcinoma developed in a woman who wore a radioactive gold ring for more than 30 years. Only part of the ring was radioactive. Radiation dose measurements indicated that the dose to basal skin layer was 2.4 Gy (240 rad) per week. If it is assumed that the woman continually wore her wedding ring for 37 years since purchase, she would have received a maximum dose of approximately 4600 Gy.

  18. Thermodynamic stability of radioactivity standard solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iroulard, M.G

    2007-04-15

    The basic requirement when preparing radioactivity standard solutions is to guarantee the concentration of a radionuclide or a radioelement, expressed in the form of activity concentration (Ac = A/m (Bq/g), with A: activity and m: mass of solution). Knowledge of the law of radioactive decay and the half-life of a radionuclide or radioelement makes it possible to determine the activity concentration at any time, and this must be confirmed subsequently by measurement. Furthermore, when radioactivity standard solutions are prepared, it is necessary to establish optimal conditions of thermodynamic stability of the standard solutions. Radioactivity standard solutions are prepared by metrology laboratories from original solutions obtained from a range of suppliers. These radioactivity standard solutions must enable preparation of liquid and/or solid radioactivity standard sources of which measurement by different methods can determine, at a given instant, the activity concentration of the radionuclide or radioelement present in the solution. There are a number of constraints associated with the preparation of such sources. Here only those that relate to the physical and chemical properties of the standard solution are considered, and therefore need to be taken into account when preparing a radioactivity standard solution. These issues are considered in this document in accordance with the following plan: - A first part devoted to the chemical properties of the solutions: - the solubilization media: ultra-pure water and acid media, - the carriers: concentration, oxidation state of the radioactive element and the carrier element. - A second part describing the methodology of the preparation, packaging and storage of standard solutions: - glass ampoules: the structure of glasses, the mechanisms of their dissolution, the sorption phenomenon at the solid-solution interface, - quartz ampoules, - cleaning and packaging: cleaning solutions, internal surface coatings and

  19. 10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radioactive contamination control. 39.69 Section 39.69... Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive contamination control. (a) If the licensee detects evidence that a sealed source has ruptured or licensed materials have caused contamination, the licensee...

  20. Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Liquid Metal Processing Lab.

    1996-04-01

    Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

  1. Radioactivity in food crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  2. Obtaining and Investigating Unconventional Sources of Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides examples of naturally radioactive items that are likely to be found in most communities. Additionally, there is information provided on how to acquire many of these items inexpensively. I have found that the presence of these materials in the classroom is not only useful for teaching about nuclear radiation and debunking the…

  3. The reactivity of clay materials in a context of metallic corrosion: application to disposal of radioactive wastes in deep argillaceous formations; Reactivite des materiaux argileux dans un contexte de corrosion metallique: application au stockage des dechets radioactifs en site argileux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perronnet, M

    2004-10-15

    In order to confine radioactive wastes in deep settings, it is envisaged to use some natural clay materials and bentonites. Their stability when in contact with metallic iron, main component of the canisters, is studied. These studies show that the reactivity of such materials is mainly controlled by those of their di-octahedral smectites and kaolinites. On the contrary, the presence of sulfides stops the Fe(0)-clays reaction. The kind of reaction products depends on the quantity of available metallic iron. When pH is over 7, the Fe(0) is oxidized consecutive to a physical contact with the oxidant agents of the smectite (H{sup +}, OH{sup -} et Fe{sup 3+}). This reaction is favored by the heterogeneities of the lateral surfaces of the smectite, which then describes a micro-environments in which some serpentines grow up if the iron supply is sufficient. Such new-crystallization imply a decrease of the confinement properties of the clay barrier. (author)

  4. Model dependence of peripheral NN phase parameters at medium energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloet, W. M.; Tjon, J. A.

    1984-11-01

    The model dependence of high L partial waves in nucleon-nucleon scattering for Tlab=400-1000 MeV is studied. Unlike at low energy, model predictions are not unique. This is due to the delta isobar, which plays a major role in determining high L inelasticities as well as real phase shifts. The differences between various model predictions are mainly due to the use of different delta propagators and delta vertex functions.

  5. Model dependence of peripheral NN phase parameters at medium energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloet, W.M.; Tjon, J.A.

    1984-11-01

    The model dependence of high L partial waves in nucleon-nucleon scattering for T/sub lab/ = 400--1000 MeV is studied. Unlike at low energy, model predictions are not unique. This is due to the delta isobar, which plays a major role in determining high L inelasticities as well as real phase shifts. The differences between various model predictions are mainly due to the use of different delta propagators and delta vertex functions.

  6. Public involvement in radioactive waste management decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    Current repository siting efforts focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is conducting exploratory studies to determine if the site is suitable. The state of Nevada has resisted these efforts: it has denied permits, brought suit against DOE, and publicly denounced the federal government`s decision to study Yucca Mountain. The state`s opposition reflects public opinion in Nevada, and has considerably slowed DOE`s progress in studying the site. The Yucca Mountain controversy demonstrates the importance of understanding public attitudes and their potential influence as DOE develops a program to manage radioactive waste. The strength and nature of Nevada`s opposition -- its ability to thwart if not outright derail DOE`s activities -- indicate a need to develop alternative methods for making decisions that affect the public. This report analyzes public participation as a key component of this openness, one that provides a means of garnering acceptance of, or reducing public opposition to, DOE`s radioactive waste management activities, including facility siting and transportation. The first section, Public Perceptions: Attitudes, Trust, and Theory, reviews the risk-perception literature to identify how the public perceives the risks associated with radioactivity. DOE and the Public discusses DOE`s low level of credibility among the general public as the product, in part, of the department`s past actions. This section looks at the three components of the radioactive waste management program -- disposal, storage, and transportation -- and the different ways DOE has approached the problem of public confidence in each case. Midwestern Radioactive Waste Management Histories focuses on selected Midwestern facility-siting and transportation activities involving radioactive materials.

  7. The tritium storage, radioactive isotope of the hydrogen: materials and aging; Le stockage du tritium, isotope radioactif de l'hydrogene: materiaux et vieillissement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiebaut, S.; Moysan, I.; Contreras, S. [CEA Valduc (DTMN/SHDT/LDMP), 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Paul-Boncour, V.; Percheron-Guegan, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS-LCMTR), 94 - Thiais (France); Decamps, B

    2007-07-01

    After some generalities on the tritium utilization, this isotope specificities and the interest of the solid storage, this presentation detailed the different materials used: the hydrides. They have the advantage of delivering high purity tritium {sup 3}He free, but the {sup 3}He trapped in the metal induces large structural and microstructural changes in the host lattice leading to modifications of tritium storage properties with aging time which can be seen on Pressure-composition isotherms. In this paper the P-c isotherms evolution are followed and the created defects are characterized by X diffraction and transmission electronic microscopy. (A.L.B.)

  8. The work of the High Commission for transparency and information on nuclear safety concerning the management of radioactive materials and waste; Les travaux du Haut Comite pour la transparence et l'information sur la securite nucleaire sur la gestion des matieres et dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revol, H. [Haut Comite pour la Transparence et l' Information sur la Securite Nucleaire - HCTISN, 92 - La Defense (France)

    2011-02-15

    Created by law in June 2006, the High Committee for Transparency and Information about Nuclear Security (HCTISN) is a pluralist instance dedicated to information, consultation and debates on issues related to nuclear activities and their impacts on environment and health. Currently chaired by a honorary senator, the High committee is composed of about forty persons who meet at least every three months. The subject of sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste is one of the main topical issues examined by the High committee. Since 2009, a dedicated think-tank has been set up to deal with questions of information, consultation and transparency all along the decision making process for the creation of a new storage installation for radioactive waste. In 2010, the High committee has been mandated by the Ministry in charge of nuclear safety to draw up a report on the transparency in the field of management of waste and materials produced at each stage of fuel cycle. Management of radioactive waste continues to raise discussion and rich debates within the High committee. In 2011, the High committee's intentions are to organize public information, consultations and debates about sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste. (author)

  9. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  10. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reistad, O.; Dowdall, M.; Selnaes, O. G.; Standring, W. J. F.; Hustveit, S.; Steenhuisen, F.; Sorlie, A.

    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site

  11. The Effect of Soil Radioactivity in Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hosseini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the sources of natural occurring radiation was soils. The purpose of article was to determine soil pollution by radiation absorbed dose rate, radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, annual gonad dose equivalent and annual effective dose equivalent. Methods & Materials: The soil samples was located in Chahbahar city in Blouchestan of Iran, was chosen for studying of radioactivity. It was collected from twenty five points, each one in three separate places with 100 meter distance (twelve in western and thirteen in eastern sites in the region. Then, each three soil samples were mixed and dried as one sample. The radioactivity concentration was measured in soil samples by gamma spectrometer. Results: The natural radioactivity doses of soil in studied samples resulted in average absorbed dose rate, 42.92 ±4.03 nGy h-1; radium equivalent activity, 86.79±8.26 Raeq per Bqkg- the external hazard index, 1:8231.86±327.76; the annual gonad dose equivalent, 322.9±31.6 μSvh-1; and the annual effective dose equivalent 193.15μSvh-1.The results of study were compared with the international recommended values and radioactivity measurements in soils of different countries. Conclusion: The contribution of natural radioactivity in pollution of area in comparison to ICRP was low.

  12. Radioactive waste study released

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowhaluk, Bohdan

    A National Research Council (NRC) panel has concluded that the technology for safely storing radioactive waste is ready for confirmation in a test facility. At the same time, the panel proposed safety standards that are more stringent than standards currently proposed by some government agencies. The report, Study of the Isolation System for the Geologic Disposal of Radioactive Wastes, was funded by the Department of Energy as part of its effort to comply with a Congressional mandate to open a national radioactive waste storage facility by the end of the century.The Waste Isolation Panel of the NRC's Board on Radioactive Waste Management did not choose a specific site for the first U.S. repository because the state of current technology does not allow the U.S. to design, construct, and safely operate a full-fledged site. However, the panel's chairman, Thomas H. Pigford, of the University of California at Berkeley, believes that the goal established by Congress can be met.

  13. MODEL RADIOACTIVE RADON DECAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Parovik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In a model of radioactive decay of radon in the sample (222Rn. The model assumes that the probability of the decay of radon and its half-life depends on the fractal properties of the geological environment. The dependencies of the decay parameters of the fractal dimension of the medium.

  14. Disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorp, Frits; Grogan, Helen; McCombie, Charles

    The aim of radioactive and non-radioactive waste management is to protect man and the environment from unacceptable risks. Protection criteria for both should therefore be based on similar considerations. From overall protection criteria, performance criteria for subsystems in waste management can be derived, for example for waste disposal. International developments in this field are summarized. A brief overview of radioactive waste sorts and disposal concepts is given. Currently being implemented are trench disposal and engineered near-surface facilities for low-level wastes. For low-and intermediate-level waste underground facilities are under construction. For high-level waste site selection and investigation is being carried out in several countries. In all countries with nuclear programmes, the predicted performance of waste disposal systems is being assessed in scenario and consequence analyses. The influences of variability and uncertainty of parameter values are increasingly being treated by probabilistic methods. Results of selected performance assessments show that radioactive waste disposal sites can be found and suitable repositories can be designed so that defined radioprotection limits are not exceeded.

  15. Fallout Radioactivity and Epiphytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. T. Odum; George Ann Briscoe; C. B. Briscoe

    1970-01-01

    After relatively high levels of fallout retention were dicovered in the epiphytic mossy forest of the Luquillo Mountains durin 1962, a survey of the distribution of radioactivity in the rain forest system was made with beta counting of 1500 samples supplemented with gamma spectra. High levels, up to 4138 counts per minute per gram, were found mainly in or on green...

  16. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  17. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  18. Radioactivity: A Natural Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronneau, C.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is misinformation people have on the subject of radiation. The importance of comparing artificial source levels of radiation to natural levels is emphasized. Measurements of radioactivity, its consequences, and comparisons between the risks induced by radiation in the environment and from artificial sources are included. (KR)

  19. Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that the radioactive sources service will be open by appointment only every Monday, Wednesday and Friday during CERN working hours (instead of alternate weeks). In addition, please note that our 2007 schedule is available on our web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources

  20. Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that the radioactive sources service will be open by appointment only every Monday, Wednesday and Friday during CERN working hours (instead of alternate weeks). In addition, please note that our 2007 schedule is available on our web site. http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources

  1. Impact of cementitious materials decalcification on transfer properties: application to radioactive waste deep repository; Influence de la decalcification de materiaux cimentaires sur les proprietes de transfert: application au stockage profond de dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlot, C

    2005-09-15

    Cementitious materials have been selected to compose the engineering barrier system (EBS) of the French radioactive waste deep repository, because of concrete physico-chemical properties: the hydrates of the cementitious matrix and the pH of the pore solution contribute to radionuclides retention; furthermore the compactness of these materials limits elements transport. The confinement capacity of the system has to be assessed while a period at least equivalent to waste activity (up to 100.000 years). His durability was sustained by the evolution of transfer properties in accordance with cementitious materials decalcification, alteration that expresses structure long-term behavior. Then, two degradation modes were carried out, taking into account the different physical and chemical solicitations imposed by the host formation. The first mode, a static one, was an accelerated decalcification test using nitrate ammonium solution. It replicates the EBS alteration dues to underground water. Degradation kinetic was estimated by the amount of calcium leached and the measurement of the calcium hydroxide dissolution front. To evaluate the decalcification impact, samples were characterized before and after degradation in term of microstructure (porosity, pores size distribution) and of transfer properties (diffusivity, gas and water permeability). The influence of cement nature (ordinary Portland cement, blended cement) and aggregates type (lime or siliceous) was observed: experiments were repeated on different mortars mixes. On this occasion, an essential reflection on this test metrology was led. The second mode, a dynamical degradation, was performed with an environmental permeameter. It recreates the EBS solicitations ensured during the re-saturation period, distinguished by the hydraulic pressure imposed by the geologic layer and the waste exothermicity. This apparatus, based on triaxial cell functioning, allows applying on samples pressure drop between 2 and 10 MPa and

  2. Environmental Radioactivity, Temperature, and Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riland, Carson A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports that environmental radioactivity levels vary with temperature and precipitation and these effects are due to radon. Discusses the measurement of this environmental radioactivity and the theory behind it. (JRH)

  3. Hazardous Material Packaging and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-04

    This is a student training course. Some course objectives are to: recognize and use standard international and US customary units to describe activities and exposure rates associated with radioactive material; determine whether a quantity of a single radionuclide meets the definition of a class 7 (radioactive) material; determine, for a given single radionuclide, the shipping quantity activity limits per 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 173.435; determine the appropriate radioactive material hazard class proper shipping name for a given material; determine when a single radionuclide meets the DOT definition of a hazardous substance; determine the appropriate packaging required for a given radioactive material; identify the markings to be placed on a package of radioactive material; determine the label(s) to apply to a given radioactive material package; identify the entry requirements for radioactive material labels; determine the proper placement for radioactive material label(s); identify the shipping paper entry requirements for radioactive material; select the appropriate placards for a given radioactive material shipment or vehicle load; and identify allowable transport limits and unacceptable transport conditions for radioactive material.

  4. Experimental determination of re-suspension data of particle-bound radioactive materials of relevant contaminated surfaces in case of radiological emergencies for the radioactive exposure assessment of the emergency staff and affected persons due to re-suspension; Experimentelle Bestimmung von Resuspensionsdaten partikelgebundener radioaktiver Stoffe von relevanten kontaminierten Oberflaechen bei radiologischen Notfaellen zur Beurteilung einer Exposition von Einsatzpersonal und betroffenen Personen durch Resuspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Wolfgang; Loedding, Hubert; Lange, Florentin

    2012-01-15

    Accidental and intentional release of radioactive materials, for example in the wake of a nuclear accident, causes contamination of surfaces in the outdoor environment, in buildings and the clothing of humans. Resuspension of radioactive material from contaminated surfaces is the dominant source of radioactive inhalation exposure of first responders and emergency personnel at the accident site as well as in emergency care centres during the time period following the event. The assessment of the aerosol borne activity concentration is based on reasonable assumptions or measurements of the surface contamination and a quantitative understanding of the resuspension process. In this project the resuspension rate of respirable particles (< 10 {mu}m) and its dependence on time and influencing parameters was measured. Special emphasis was directed to the early phase after the release event. Using a versatile, small scale flow channel set-up, wind resuspension and resuspension caused by transient or continuous mechanical forces impacting on the surfaces was investigated. The flux of particles resuspended from small test surfaces was detected by an optical particle size spectrometer. Influencing parameters such properties of contaminated surfaces, wind speed, type of particle etc. could be easily varied. Well defined contaminations of the test surfaces were prepared in a settling chamber by dry and wet deposition using aerosolized dry powders of spherical (silver) and agglomerated (cerium oxide) particles, and sprays of aqueous solutions of cesium chloride, respectively. In the latter case the surface was dried after deposition of the liquid droplets leading to a surface contamination of CsCl crystals adhering stronger to the surface than particulates. The resuspension rate for surfaces contaminated by wet deposition is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower compared to the situation for dry deposition, irrespective of the resuspension mechanism. The air flow induced resuspension

  5. Report realized on behalf of the economic affairs, the environment and the territory commission on the law project, after urgency declaration, of the program relative to the sustainable management of materials and radioactive wastes; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire sur le projet de loi, apres declaration d'urgence, de programme relatif a la gestion des matieres et des dechets radioactifs (n. 2977)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birraux, C

    2006-03-15

    In 1991 the France decided to intensify its researches in the high activity radioactive wastes management domain. The law of the 30 December 1991 relative to the radioactive wastes management, decided that a period of 15 years would be devoted to the research of very long dated solutions. Taking into account these researches, a law project has been composed. After a recall of the today situation of radioactive materials and wastes in France and the knowledge since 1991, this document presents the law project. (A.L.B.)

  6. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolson, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C.

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1.

  7. Radioactive ion beams for solid state research

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes are widely used in many research fields. In some applications they are used as tracers after diffusion or after activation in the material itself through nuclear reactions. For research in solid state physics, the ion implantation technique is the most flexible and convenient method to introduce the radioactive isotopes in the materials to be studied, since it allows the control of the ion dose, the implantation depth and the isotopic purity. The on-line coupling of isotope separators to particle accelerators, as is the case of the ISOLDE facility at CERN, allows the obtention of a wide range of high purity short lived isotopes. Currently, the most stringent limitation for some applications is the low acceleration energy of 60 keV of the ISOLDE beam. In this communication a short review of the current applications of the radioactive beams for research in solid state physics at ISOLDE is done. The development of a post-accelerator facility for MeV radioactive ions is introduced and the adv...

  8. [Loss and uncontrolled use of radioactive sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, P

    2005-01-01

    In the course of history, exposure to radioactive sources escaping regular control, has been the main cause of fatal accidents, with the exception of the reactor accident at Chernobyl. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, numerous lost sources have been found, sometimes with serious physical damage. The attacks of September 11, 2001 have focussed the attention on the possibility of nuclear terrorism. Although the risks of fatal consequences are rather limited, the possible uncontrolled exposure to ionizing radiation has an important psycho-social impact on the population. After a brief survey of the types of radioactive sources for medical and industrial applications and a discussion of the risks and exposure routes, possible scenarios are illustrated by well documented case histories. The main conclusions of this analysis are: Radioactive materials are not unique as a potential threat by toxic materials. The most serious consequences for individuals occur as the result of external radiation, mostly with skin contact with medium-active sources which are relatively easily accessible. The collective impact is mostly psycho-social and is more important for a dispersed contamination of the environment. Many sources are detected via medical complaints. The knowledge of the specific symptoms is consequently very important. A dispersion of radioactive contamination has usually considerable economic consequences. Accidents occur particularly, but certainly not exclusively, in relatively unstable countries. Change of owner or final evacuation of the source constitute a critical phase in many scenarios.

  9. Radioactive waste management; Gerencia de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan.

  10. Hydrocolloid-Stabilized Magnetite for Efficient Removal of Radioactive Phosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Vellora Thekkae Padil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid radioactive waste is a common by-product when using radioactive isotopes in research and medicine. Efficient remediation of such liquid waste is crucial for increasing safety during the necessary storage of the material. Herein, we present a novel Gum Karaya stabilized magnetite for the efficient removal of radioactive phosphorus 32P from liquid radioactive waste. This environmentally friendly material is well suited to be used as a nanohydrogel for the removal of liquid waste, which can then be stored in a smaller space and without the risk of the spills inherent to the initial liquid material. The maximum adsorption capacity of the GK/M in this study was found to be 15.68 GBq/g. We present a thorough morphological characterization of the synthesised GK/M, as well as a discussion of the possible phosphorus adsorption mechanisms.

  11. Handbook of radioactivity analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The updated and much expanded Third Edition of the "Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis" is an authoritative reference providing the principles, practical techniques, and procedures for the accurate measurement of radioactivity from the very low levels encountered in the environment to higher levels measured in radioisotope research, clinical laboratories, biological sciences, radionuclide standardization, nuclear medicine, nuclear power, fuel cycle facilities and in the implementation of nuclear forensic analysis and nuclear safeguards. The Third Edition contains seven new chapters providing a reference text much broader in scope than the previous Second Edition, and all of the other chapters have been updated and expanded many with new authors. The book describes the basic principles of radiation detection and measurement, the preparation of samples from a wide variety of matrices, assists the investigator or technician in the selection and use of appropriate radiation detectors, and presents state-of-the-ar...

  12. PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.M. Jr.; Barton, G.B.

    1961-11-14

    A process for treating radioactive waste solutions prior to disposal is described. A water-soluble phosphate, borate, and/or silicate is added. The solution is sprayed with steam into a space heated from 325 to 400 deg C whereby a powder is formed. The powder is melted and calcined at from 800 to 1000 deg C. Water vapor and gaseous products are separated from the glass formed. (AEC)

  13. Radioactive Ion Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Stora, T

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the basic requirements for ion sources designed and operated in radioactive ion beam facilities. The facilities where these sources are operated exploit the isotope separation online (ISOL) technique, in which a target is combined with an ion source to maximize the secondary beam intensity and chemical element selectivity. Three main classes of sources are operated, namely surface-type ion sources, arc discharge-type ion sources, and finally radio-frequenc...

  14. Law project modified by the Senate of the program relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes; Projet de loi, Modifie par le Senat, de programme relatif a la gestion durable des matieres et des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    The document presents the different articles of the law project dealing with the terminology, the radioactive wastes storage and disposal, the safety and the transport, the financing, the liabilities, the control and the sanctions. (A.L.B.)

  15. Advice of the French nuclear safety authority concerning the researches relative to the management of high activity and long lived radioactive wastes as carried out in the framework of the December 30, 1991 law, and links with the national plan of management of radioactive wastes and valorizable materials (PNGDR-MV); Avis de l'Autorite de Surete Nucleaire sur les recherches relatives a la gestion des dechets a haute activite et a vie longue (HAVL) menees dans le cadre de la loi du 30 decembre 1991, et liens avec le PNGDR-MV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    This document reports on the main conclusions of the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) after 15 years of researches on radioactive wastes management carried out in the framework of the law 91-1381 from December 30, 1991. The advice of the ASN is not limited to the high level and long lived radioactive wastes. It presents first the dispositions of the December 30, 1991 law which fixes the main trends of the researches on radioactive waste management. Then it recalls the role of the ASN and of its technical means in the three axes of research (separation-transmutation, conditioning and long-duration storage, disposal in deep geologic formation): safety at all waste management steps, management consistency for all waste-types, development of suitable processes for each category of waste. The position of the ASN with respect to each axis of research is detailed and some recommendations and additional information needs are expressed. A schedule is proposed for the implementation of a storage facility in the argilite formation near the Bure site. Then it refers to the implementation of a national plan of management of radioactive wastes and valorizable materials, in particular concerning the low level and long lived wastes, the used sealed sources, the tritiated wastes and the naturally radioactive wastes (uranium mine tailings). (J.S.)

  16. Radioactivity in the Swiss army?; Radioaktivitaet in der Schweizer Armee?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuercher, Markus [Kompetenzzentrum Strahlenschutz VBS, Spiez (Switzerland). BABS-LABOR SPIEZ

    2012-07-01

    The Swiss army is using radioactive materials in the frame or light sources for night combat capabilities. After the Second World War radioactive materials were used in larger amounts as fluorescent paints (Ra-226) in instruments, markers and illumination points. Due to the strong radiation protection problems the radium was eliminated by other light sources (H-3, beta-light). As a consequence of the conservation of historical army material radium is still available. Museums and collectors were sensitized to avoid inappropriate handling and illegal disposal of these materials.

  17. Low-level radioactive waste regulation: Science, politics and fear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, M.E. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    An inevitable consequence of the use of radioactive materials is the generation of radioactive wastes and the public policy debate over how they will be managed. In 1980, Congress shifted responsibility for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes from the federal government to the states. This act represented a sharp departure from more than 30 years of virtually absolute federal control over radioactive materials. Though this plan had the enthusiastic support of the states in 1980, it now appears to have been at best a chimera. Radioactive waste management has become an increasingly complicated and controversial issue for society in recent years. This book discusses only low-level wastes, however, because Congress decided for political reasons to treat them differently than high-level wastes. The book is based in part on three symposia sponsored by the division of Chemistry and the Law of the American Chemical Society. Each chapter is derived in full or in part from presentations made at these meetings, and includes: (1) Low-level radioactive wastes in the nuclear power industry; (2) Low-level radiation cancer risk assessment and government regulation to protect public health; and (3) Low-level radioactive waste: can new disposal sites be found.

  18. Radiological evaluation of shielding devices type CPb-m and CPb-g used for radioactive material handling and transportation of CENTIS, Cuba; Evaluacion radiologica de los dispositivos de blindaje tipo CPb-m y CPb-g utilizados para la manipulacion y transportacion de los preparados radiactivos del CENTIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Rondon, Manuel; Torres Berdeguez, Mirta B. [Centro de Tecnologia Nuclear, San Jose de las Lajas (Cuba); Hernandez Rivero, Aerulio T.; Gutierrez Ravelo, Romay [Centro de Isotopos, XX (Cuba)

    1999-11-01

    This work has presented procedures applied for radiological evaluation of gamma shielding devices type CPb-m and CPb-g, used to 30-50 mCi respectively, asseverating a dose rate lower than 2 mSv/h and satisfying the requirements of radiological safety for handling and transportation of radioactive materials. The results has been shown and discussed 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed in this volume: shielding and criticality; transportation accidents; physical security in transit; transport forecasting and logistics; transportation experience, operations and planning; regulation; standards and quality assurance; risk analysis; and environmental impacts. Separate abstracts are prepared for individual items. (DC)

  20. The medical applications of radioactive tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.G.

    1947-12-31

    This report provides a broad yet in depth overview of the use of radioactive materials as tracers in medicine and biology for the period of 1935--1947. Particular attention is paid to is of radio-sodium, radio-iodine, radio-iron, radio-phosphorus, radio-strontium, and fission products. The main thrust of this paper is human rather than animal work and focuses in work that has been published.

  1. Radioactive elements in Paleozoic coals of Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbuzov, S.I.; Rikhvanov, L.P.; Volostnov, A.V.; Varlachev, V.A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-05-01

    The geochemistry of radioactive elements was examined in the Kuznetsk, Minusinsk, Tunguska, and Gorlovo Paleozoic coal basins in Siberia. Quantitative analytical techniques (INAA, delayed neutron analysis, and XRF) were used to study 2600 samples of coals and their host rocks. The average U and Th concentrations in the coals are 2 and 3 ppm, respectively. The lateral and vertical variability of the distribution of radioactive elements was examined on the scale of coal basins, deposits, and individual coal seams. It was determined that elevated U and Th concentrations in coals are often related to rock blocks enriched in radioactive elements in the surroundings of the basins or are correlated with volcanic activity during coal accumulation. High concentrations of these elements in coal seams are restricted to zones near the tops of the seams and the soil zones, the boundaries of partings, or to beds enriched in pyroclastic material. Using the f-radiography method, it was determined that the main mechanism of U accumulation in coals is its sorption on the organic matter. Thorium is contained in both the mineral and the organic constituents of coals. An increase in the ash contents of coals with clarke radioactivity is associated with an increase in the contents of U and Th in the mineral matter.

  2. Radioactive Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Stora, T

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the basic requirements for ion sources designed and operated in radioactive ion beam facilities. The facilities where these sources are operated exploit the isotope separation online (ISOL) technique, in which a target is combined with an ion source to maximize the secondary beam intensity and chemical element selectivity. Three main classes of sources are operated, namely surface-type ion sources, arc discharge-type ion sources, and finally radio-frequency-heated plasma-type ion sources.

  3. Radioactivity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Tuniz, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Radioactivity: A Very Short Introduction explains radioactivity and discusses its fundamental role in nature. Radioactivity remains misunderstood and feared perhaps because nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses, and can undoubtedly do great harm if appropriate precautions are not taken. Radioactivity in the stars and in the Earth and its wide range of applications in biomedicine, science, industry, agriculture are described, as well as the mechanisms of nuclear fission and fusion, and the harnessing of nuclear power. The issues surrounding safety and security and the increasing concerns about nuclear terrorism are also considered.

  4. Accumulation of radioactive cesium released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in terrestrial cyanobacteria Nostoc commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hideaki; Shirato, Susumu; Tahara, Tomoya; Sato, Kenji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released large amounts of radioactive substances into the environment and contaminated the soil of Tohoku and Kanto districts in Japan. Removal of radioactive material from the environment is an urgent problem, and soil purification using plants is being considered. In this study, we investigated the ability of 12 seed plant species and a cyanobacterium to accumulate radioactive material. The plants did not accumulate radioactive material at high levels, but high accumulation was observed in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. In Nihonmatsu City, Fukushima Prefecture, N. commune accumulated 415,000 Bq/kg dry weight (134)Cs and 607,000 Bq kg(-1) dry weight (137)Cs. The concentration of cesium in N. commune tended to be high in areas where soil radioactivity was high. A cultivation experiment confirmed that N. commune absorbed radioactive cesium from polluted soil. These data demonstrated that radiological absorption using N. commune might be suitable for decontaminating polluted soil.

  5. Geochemical signature of radioactive waste: oil NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Gilberto T. de Paula; Costa-de-Moura, Jorge; Gomes, Carlos de Almeida; Sampaio, Emidio A. Lopes, E-mail: gilberto.costa@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jcmoura@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: cgomes@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Controle de Rejeitos e Transporte de Materiais Radioativos

    2017-07-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Agency (CNEN) rules all nuclear activity in Brazil as demanded by the Federal Constitution, articles 21, XXIII, and 177, V, and by the Federal Acts 4.118/62 and 10.308/2001. Therefore, the CNEN is responsible for any radioactive waste disposal in the country. Oil Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (Oil NORM) in this paper refers to waste coming from oil exploration. Oil NORM has called much attention during the last decades, mostly because it is not possible to determine its primary source due to the actual absence of regulatory control mechanism. There is no efficient regulatory tool which allows determining the origin of such NORM wastes even among those facilities under regulatory control. This fact may encourage non-authorized radioactive material transportation, smuggling and terrorism. The aim of this project is to provide a geochemical signature for each oil NORM waste using its naturally occurring isotopic composition to identify its origin. The here proposed method is a specific geochemical modeling of oil sludge NORM samples which are analyzed for radioisotopes normally present in oil pipes, such as {sup 228}Ac, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb. The activity ratios are plotted in scatter diagrams. This method was successfully tested with data of different sources obtained from analysis reports from the Campos Basin/Brazil and from literature. (author)

  6. Management of radioactive waste generated in nuclear medicine; Gestion de los residuos radiactivos generados en medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz Perez, P.

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear medicine is a clinical specialty in which radioactive material is used in non-encapsulated form, for the diagnosis and treatment of patients. Nuclear medicine involves administering to a patient a radioactive substance, usually liquid, both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This process generates solid radioactive waste (syringes, vials, gloves) and liquid (mainly the patient's urine). (Author)

  7. Report of safety of the characterizing system of radioactive waste; Informe de seguridad del sistema caracterizador de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A.; Jimenez D, J.; Reyes L, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1998-09-15

    Report of safety of the system of radioactive waste of the ININ: Installation, participant personnel, selection of the place, description of the installation, equipment. Proposed activities: operations with radioactive material, calibration in energy, calibration in efficiency, types of waste. Maintenance: handling of radioactive waste, physical safety. Organization: radiological protection, armor-plating, personal dosemeter, risks and emergency plan, environmental impact, medical exams. (Author)

  8. A new model dependency ratio for European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna Zamaro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Sometimes referred to as ‘the demographic time bomb,’ the European Union, state and local governments are concerned about the impact of an ageing population on both sustainable economic development and the demand for health and social support services. Seeking to mitigate these pressures, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD has developed a policy framework Live Longer: Work Longer and the World Health Organization (WHO has set a policy framework for Active Ageing which maintains that early life course interventions can reduce levels of disability and dependency in older age. The WHO European Healthy Cities Network (WHO-EHCN promotes healthy urban planning to encourage healthy lifestyles and maintain older people as a resource in the workplace and to their communities. Our objective is to develop a new model dependency ratio (NMDR for European cities which synthesises these three policy frameworks.

    Methods: Starting from the classic formulation of the dependency ratio (DR, which compares the 'dependent' population segments with the working-age or 'productive' segments, the model is developed in six stages, drawing on data from secondary European and national sources and from primary sources contained in Healthy Ageing Profiles of fifteen (WHO-EHCN cities.

    Results: From an orthodox baseline, the second stage of modelling increases the DR by moving economically inactive people of working age from denominator to numerator. Thereafter, refinements introduced in stages three to six, gradually reduce the DR.

    Conclusions: The NMDR challenges the 'demographic time bomb' predicted by orthodox formulations and can be used as a tool by city decision makers.

  9. Radioactivity of the moon, planets, and meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkou, Y. A.; Fedoseyev, G. A.

    1977-01-01

    Analytical data is summarized for the content of natural radioactive elements in meteorites, eruptive terrestrial rocks, and also in lunar samples returned by Apollo missions and the Luna series of automatic stations. The K-U systematics of samples analyzed in the laboratory are combined with data for orbital gamma-ray measurements for Mars (Mars 5) and with the results of direct gamma-ray measurements of the surface of Venus by the Venera 8 lander. Using information about the radioactivity of solar system bodies and evaluations of the content of K, U, and Th in the terrestrial planets, we examine certain aspects of the evolution of material in the protoplanetary gas-dust cloud and then in the planets of the solar system.

  10. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  11. Arduino based radioactive tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Rashid, Mohd Fazlie Bin Abdul; Rahman, Anwar Bin Abdul; Ramlan, Atikah

    2017-01-01

    There is a clear need to strengthen security measures to prevent any malevolent use or accidental misuse of radioactive sources. Some of these radioactive sources are regularly transported outside of office or laboratory premises for work and consultation purposes. This paper present the initial development of radioactive source tracking system, which combined Arduino microcontroller, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) technologies. The tracking system will help the owner to monitor the movement of the radioactive sources. Currently, the system is capable of tracking the movement of radioactive source through the GPS satellite signals. The GPS co-ordinate could either be transmitted to headquarters at fixed interval via Short Messaging Service (SMS) to enable real time monitoring, or stored in a memory card for offline monitoring and data logging.

  12. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1996-06-06

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities since startup in 1944 through calendar year 1995. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, liquid waste data are not included in this document. This annual report provides a summary of the radioactive solid waste received in the both the 200-East and 200-West Areas during the calendar year 1995.

  13. Environmental radioactive intercomparison program and radioactive standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilbeck, G. [Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Radioactivity Intercomparison Program described herein provides quality assurance support for laboratories involved in analyzing public drinking water under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Regulations, and to the environmental radiation monitoring activities of various agencies. More than 300 federal and state nuclear facilities and private laboratories participate in some phase of the program. This presentation describes the Intercomparison Program studies and matrices involved, summarizes the precision and accuracy requirements of various radioactive analytes, and describes the traceability determinations involved with radioactive calibration standards distributed to the participants. A summary of program participants, sample and report distributions, and additional responsibilities of this program are discussed.

  14. Utilization of coal fly ash in solidification of liquid radioactive waste from research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the potential utilization of fly ash was investigated as an additive in solidification process of radioactive waste sludge from research reactor. Coal formations include various percentages of natural radioactive elements; therefore, coal fly ash includes various levels of radioactivity. For this reason, fly ashes have to be evaluated for potential environmental implications in case of further usage in any construction material. But for use in solidification of radioactive sludge, the radiological effects of fly ash are in the range of radioactive waste management limits. The results show that fly ash has a strong fixing capacity for radioactive isotopes. Specimens with addition of 5-15% fly ash to concrete was observed to be sufficient to achieve the target compressive strength of 20 MPa required for near-surface disposal. An optimum mixture comprising 15% fly ash, 35% cement, and 50% radioactive waste sludge could provide the solidification required for long-term storage and disposal. The codisposal of radioactive fly ash with radioactive sludge by solidification decreases the usage of cement in solidification process. By this method, radioactive fly ash can become a valuable additive instead of industrial waste. This study supports the utilization of fly ash in industry and the solidification of radioactive waste in the nuclear industry.

  15. Radioactive waste management in the former USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-06-01

    Radioactive waste materials--and the methods being used to treat, process, store, transport, and dispose of them--have come under increased scrutiny over last decade, both nationally and internationally. Nuclear waste practices in the former Soviet Union, arguably the world's largest nuclear waste management system, are of obvious interest and may affect practices in other countries. In addition, poor waste management practices are causing increasing technical, political, and economic problems for the Soviet Union, and this will undoubtedly influence future strategies. this report was prepared as part of a continuing effort to gain a better understanding of the radioactive waste management program in the former Soviet Union. the scope of this study covers all publicly known radioactive waste management activities in the former Soviet Union as of April 1992, and is based on a review of a wide variety of literature sources, including documents, meeting presentations, and data base searches of worldwide press releases. The study focuses primarily on nuclear waste management activities in the former Soviet Union, but relevant background information on nuclear reactors is also provided in appendixes.

  16. Radioactive decay data tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    The estimation of radiation dose to man from either external or internal exposure to radionuclides requires a knowledge of the energies and intensities of the atomic and nuclear radiations emitted during the radioactive decay process. The availability of evaluated decay data for the large number of radionuclides of interest is thus of fundamental importance for radiation dosimetry. This handbook contains a compilation of decay data for approximately 500 radionuclides. These data constitute an evaluated data file constructed for use in the radiological assessment activities of the Technology Assessments Section of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The radionuclides selected for this handbook include those occurring naturally in the environment, those of potential importance in routine or accidental releases from the nuclear fuel cycle, those of current interest in nuclear medicine and fusion reactor technology, and some of those of interest to Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the estimation of annual limits on intake via inhalation and ingestion for occupationally exposed individuals.

  17. Method for evaluation of doses from ingestion of polonium, bismuth and lead as natural radioactive material(NORM); Metodo de evaluacion de dosis por ingestion de polonio, bismuto y plomo como materiales radiactivos naturales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, Vanessa; Puerta, Anselmo; Morales, Javier, E-mail: vpenam@ullal.edu.co, E-mail: japuerta@unal.edu.co, E-mail: jmorales@unal.cdu.co [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Grupo de Fisica Radiologica

    2013-07-01

    In this work was carried out an evaluation of dose from ingestion of radioactive daughters of radon (lead, bismuth and polonium), taking into account ages from three months up to adult men, using the new model of the human alimentary tract HATM and methodology of calculating doses proposed by the ICRP publication 103, which allows the estimation of dose based on the concentration of the radionuclide present in the diet or in the water of consumption.

  18. Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Report realized by the commission of the economical Affairs on the law project, adopted by the National Assembly after urgency declaration, of the program relative to the sustainable management of the radioactive materials and wastes; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des Affaires economiques sur le projet de loi, adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale apres declaration d'urgence, de programme relatif a la gestion durable des matieres et des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revol, H

    2006-07-01

    In the framework of a sustainable development and of the nuclear energy development, the France decided by the law of the 30 December 1991, to study three axis or researches: the radioactive wastes transmutation, their deep underground disposal and their storage during ten years. Today, after evaluation of the researches results a law project on the sustainable management of the radioactive materials and wastes, has been prepared. This document is the approval of the law project and presents some amendments. (A.L.B.)

  20. Environmental radioactivity survey in Suwon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Keun; Park, Jong Mi [Kyunghee Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The project is carried out to monitor the change of environmental radioactivity in Suwon, and to provide a systematic data for radiation monitoring and counter measurement at a radiological emergency situation. Also the survey of natural environmental radioactivities in the samples was conducted to make the reliable data base for evaluation of internal exposure and environmental contamination of radiation. This report contains the data of gamma exposure rates and radioactivities of airborne dust, fallout, precipitation and tap water which were analyzed periodically by Suwon regional monitoring station m 2003. Also it contains the data of natural radioactivity levels of environmental samples such as soil, drinking water, indicator plant(mugwort, pine-needle), agricultural and forest products, and processed food(tea)

  1. Radioactive waste engineering and management

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes essential and effective management for reliably ensuring public safety from radioactive wastes in Japan. This is the first book to cover many aspects of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle to research and medical use, allowing readers to understand the characterization, treatment and final disposal of generated wastes, performance assessment, institutional systems, and social issues such as intergenerational ethics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help to understand radioactive waste management in context.

  2. Radioactivity of the Cooling Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E. P.

    1943-03-01

    The most important source of radioactivity at the exit manifold of the pile will be due to O{sup 19}, formed by neutron absorption of O{sup 18}. A recent measurement of Fermi and Weil permits to estimate that it will be safe to stay about 80 minutes daily close to the exit manifolds without any shield. Estimates are given for the radioactivities from other sources both in the neighborhood and farther away from the pile.

  3. THE USE OF POLYMERS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, E.; Fondeur, F.

    2013-04-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), one of the largest U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, has operated since the early 1950s. The early mission of the site was to produce critical nuclear materials for national defense. Many facilities have been constructed at the SRS over the years to process, stabilize and/or store radioactive waste and related materials. The primary materials of construction used in such facilities are inorganic (metals, concrete), but polymeric materials are inevitably used in various applications. The effects of aging, radiation, chemicals, heat and other environmental variables must therefore be understood to maximize service life of polymeric components. In particular, the potential for dose rate effects and synergistic effects on polymeric materials in multivariable environments can complicate compatibility reviews and life predictions. The selection and performance of polymeric materials in radioactive waste processing systems at the SRS are discussed.

  4. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

  5. The transport safety of radioactive matters; La surete des transports des matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landier, D.; Louet, Ch.A.; Robert, Ch. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Binet, J. [Commission europeenne, DG Energie et transports, Bruxelles (Belgium); Malesys, P. [TN International, 75 - Paris (France); Pourade, C. [Societe Dangexpress, 78 - St Remy l' Honore (France); Le Meur, A.; Robert, M. [Societe Nationale des Chemins de fer Francais, 75 - Paris (France); Turquet de Beauregard, G.Y.; Hello, E. [CIS bio, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Laumond, A. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Regnault, Ph.; Gourlay, M. [AREVA NC, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France); Bruhl, G. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dir. de la Protection et de la Surete Nucleaire, 92 (France); Malvache, P.; Dumesnil, J. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Cohen, B. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Sert, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Clamart (France); Pain, M. [Ministere de l' Interieur, et de l' Amenagement du Territoire, Dir. de la Defense et la Securite Civiles, 75 - Paris (France); Green, L.; Hartenstein, M. [World Nuclear Transport Institute, London (United Kingdom); Stewart, J. [Ministere des Transport, Royaume Uni (United Kingdom); Cottens, E.; Liebens, M. [Agence Federale de Controle Nucleaire (Belgium); Marignac, Y. [Wise, 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-02-15

    Since the control of transport of radioactive materials was given to A.S.N. 10 years ago, A.S.N. has strengthened the radioactive material transport inspections, in particular of the designers, manufacturers, carriers and consignors. A.S.N. has implemented INES scale for incidents during transport. It has participated as much as possible to IAEA working groups in order to improve the international regulatory framework. And, supported by I.R.S.N., A.S.N. has performed a periodic safety review of existing package models and has approved new models incorporating innovative design features. Finally, A.S.N. has tested its emergency responses to procedures to an accident involving the transport of radioactive materials. All these actions taken together have led to improvement in and reinforcement of the safety culture among the transport operators; this has been acknowledged by a recent audit T.R.A.N.S.A.S. performed by IAEA. In spite of all these actions, there are not approved by the competent authority. As A.S.N. is in charge of every field in radioprotection, this should help to intensify the control. In addition, the different kinds of transport are also tackled as rail transport with S.N.C.F. radiological risk training, air transport through nuclear medicine. Some experience feedback are given such radioactive waste transport to the storage facilities in the Aube or how to protect the population after a nuclear transport incident with the O.R.S.E.C.-T.M.S. plans. (N.C.)

  6. High flow air sampling for determination of alpha long half-life emitters: area monitoring of a radioactive material disposal; Amostragem de ar de alto fluxo para determinacao de alfa emissores de meia vida longa: monitoracao de area em um deposito de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, W.S. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (SR/FCN/INB), Itatiaia, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radioprotecao. Fabrica do Combustivel Nuclear; Kelecom, A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos. Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais

    2015-07-01

    The Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) is a mine and closed uranium plant, located in Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. It has a radioactive material disposal composed primarily of pie II and mesothorium. It is stored in six sheds designated C-01, C-02, C-05, C-06, C-07 and C-09. This study aims to present the high flow area monitoring program and results obtained in 2009. The threshold derived from concentration in the air was 0.25 Bq m{sup -3}. The average of the activity concentrations in 2009 were: for C-01 1.17 Bq m{sup -3}; C-02 0.006 Bq m{sup -3}; C-05 1.98 Bq m{sup -3}; C-06 2.14 Bq m{sup -3}; C-07 0.34 Bq m{sup -3} and C-09 0,025 Bq m{sup -3}. Such values indicate that the control stay is an important factor in occupational workers' control, as well as the use of EPI's and behavioral care, besides radioprotection training to allow the access to the areas. No worker, supervisor or visitor reached the limit research.

  7. Clays in natural and engineered barriers for radioactive waste confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Andra organised an International Symposium on the use of Natural and Engineered Clay-based Barriers for the Containment of Radioactive Waste hold at the Congress Centre of Tours, France, in March 2005. The symposium provided an opportunity to take stock of the potential properties of the clay-based materials present in engineered or natural barriers in order to meet the containment specifications of a deep geological repository for radioactive waste. It was intended for specialists working in the various disciplines involved with clays and clay based minerals, as well as scientists from agencies and organisations dealing with investigations on the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste. The themes of the Symposium included geology, geochemistry, transfers of materials, alteration processes, geomechanics, as well as the recent developments regarding the characterisation of clays, as well as experiments in surface and underground laboratories. The symposium consisted of plenary sessions, parallel specialized sessions and poster sessions. (author)

  8. Equipment for the management of spent fuels and radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, C. C. F.; Carter, C. C.; Doubt, H. A. [GEC Alsthom Engineering System Ltd., Leicester (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-15

    UK experience over the last thirty years with the design and implementation of equipment for the management of spent fuels and radioactive wastes has ranged from remote handling, through encapsulation and containerisation, to the medium-term storage of heat-producing fuels and wastes in the dry state. The design principles involved in handling, transporting and storing hazardous materials safely and reliably, while ensuring biological shielding, containment and cooling of radioactive materials, are common to the various kinds of equipment presented in this paper, even though the individual requirements may be very different. The UK nuclear programme over the last thirty years has encouraged the development of extensive expertise in the engineering of equipment for the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste. This expertise can be applied with benefit to the Korean nuclear programme.

  9. Bonded carbon or ceramic fiber composite filter vent for radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassell, Gilbert W.; Brugger, Ronald P.

    1985-02-19

    Carbon bonded carbon fiber composites as well as ceramic or carbon bonded ceramic fiber composites are very useful as filters which can separate particulate matter from gas streams entraining the same. These filters have particular application to the filtering of radioactive particles, e.g., they can act as vents for containers of radioactive waste material.

  10. Environmental radioactivity assessment for Bayburt, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucukomeroglu, B; Kurnaz, A; Cevik, U [Department of Physics, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Damla, N [Department of Physics, Batman University, Batman (Turkey); Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Taskin, H [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Centre, Altinsehir Yolu, Halkali, Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: ndamla@ktu.edu.tr

    2009-09-01

    This study assesses the results of environmental radioactivity measurements for Bayburt Province in the Eastern Black Sea area of Turkey. Using {gamma}-ray spectrometry, activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K and a fission product {sup 137}Cs were investigated in soil samples. The activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in various building materials such as sand, cement and marble and in drinking waters were determined. The activity concentrations vary from 16 to 54 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, from 10 to 21 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and from 113 to 542 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K in building materials. The mean specific activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in drinking waters were 93, 30 and 504 mBq l{sup -1}, respectively. The concentrations of gross {alpha} and {beta} radioactivity in drinking water samples collected from four different sampling stations have been determined. The results show that the gross {alpha} and {beta} activities are lower than the screening levels given by the World Health Organization (WHO), which are a maximum contaminant level of 0.5 Bq l{sup -1} and 1.0 Bq l{sup -1} gross {alpha} and {beta} radioactivity, respectively, in drinking water. Indoor radon measurements were made in 44 dwellings in Bayburt by using Cr-39 detectors. Radon concentrations in dwellings in Bayburt varied from 17 to 125 Bq m{sup -3} and the average value was 56 Bq m{sup -3}. The results obtained in this study indicate that the region has a background radiation level that is within the typical natural range and shows no significant departures from other parts of the country.

  11. Collection and Segregation of Radioactive Waste. Principals for Characterization and Classification of Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziewinska, K.M.

    1998-09-28

    Radioactive wastes are generated by all activities which utilize radioactive materials as part of their processes. Generally such activities include all steps in the nuclear fuel cycle (for power generation) and non-fuel cycle activities. The increasing production of radioisotopes in a Member State without nuclear power must be accompanied by a corresponding development of a waste management system. An overall waste management scheme consists of the following steps: segregation, minimization, treatment, conditioning, storage, transport, and disposal. To achieve a satisfactory overall management strategy, all steps have to be complementary and compatible. Waste segregation and minimization are of great importance mainly because they lead to cost reduction and reduction of dose commitments to the personnel that handle the waste. Waste characterization plays a significant part in the waste segregation and waste classification processes, it implicates required waste treatment process including the need for the safety assessment of treatment conditioning and storage facilities.

  12. Policy bill of program on the radioactive materials and wastes management. Press conference. Intervention of Francois Loos, Ministry delegate to the Industry; Projet de loi de programme sur la gestion des matieres et dechets radioactifs. Conference de presse. Intervention de Francois Loos, ministre delegue a l'Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document provides the presentation of Francois Loos concerning the policy bill on the program of radioactive materials and wastes. Three axis of researches are decided: the separation and transmutation, the deep underground disposal and long dated storage and conditioning processes. The bill institutes a national radioactive materials and waste management plan and defines a programme and calendar for research and work leading to implementation of this plan, which will comprise three major points: with a view to looking to reduce the quantity of waste, spent nuclear fuels taken from the nuclear power plants will be reprocessed for recycling in the plants; waste which cannot be recycled will be packaged in a robust matrix and then temporarily stored on the surface; after interim storage, waste which cannot be finally disposed of in a surface facility, will be placed in a deep geological reversible repository. In order to monitor each step in this plan, the bill strengthens independent assessment of research and involves greater information of the public. With regard to financing, the bill clarifies the fact that economic development of the departments concerned by research into disposal options and the research itself will be financed by additional taxes on the operators of nuclear installations. (A.L.B.)

  13. Uranium Glass: A Glowing Alternative to Conventional Sources of Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Roeland

    2017-01-01

    There is a relatively simple way of using radioactive material in classroom experiments: uranium glass, which provides teachers with a suitable substance. By using the right computer software and a radiation sensor, it can be demonstrated that uranium glass emits radiation at a greater rate than the background radiation and with the aid of UV…

  14. CHAPTER 5-RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J.

    2010-05-05

    The ore pitchblende was discovered in the 1750's near Joachimstal in what is now the Czech Republic. Used as a colorant in glazes, uranium was identified in 1789 as the active ingredient by chemist Martin Klaproth. In 1896, French physicist Henri Becquerel studied uranium minerals as part of his investigations into the phenomenon of fluorescence. He discovered a strange energy emanating from the material which he dubbed 'rayons uranique.' Unable to explain the origins of this energy, he set the problem aside. About two years later, a young Polish graduate student was looking for a project for her dissertation. Marie Sklodowska Curie, working with her husband Pierre, picked up on Becquerel's work and, in the course of seeking out more information on uranium, discovered two new elements (polonium and radium) which exhibited the same phenomenon, but were even more powerful. The Curies recognized the energy, which they now called 'radioactivity,' as something very new, requiring a new interpretation, new science. This discovery led to what some view as the 'golden age of nuclear science' (1895-1945) when countries throughout Europe devoted large resources to understand the properties and potential of this material. By World War II, the potential to harness this energy for a destructive device had been recognized and by 1939, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman showed that fission not only released a lot of energy but that it also released additional neutrons which could cause fission in other uranium nuclei leading to a self-sustaining chain reaction and an enormous release of energy. This suggestion was soon confirmed experimentally by other scientists and the race to develop an atomic bomb was on. The rest of the development history which lead to the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 is well chronicled. After World War II, development of more powerful weapons systems by the United States and the Soviet Union continued to

  15. Environmental radioactivity survey in Andong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Zi Hong; Jo, Kum Ju [Andong Regional Radioactivity Monitoring Station, Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    The objectives of the project are to monitor an abnormal level in Andong area and to provide a base line data on environmental radiation/radioactivity levels in case of any radiological emergency situation. The project is important in view of protecting the public health from the potential hazards of radiation and keeping up the clean environment. This report simonizes and interprets environmental radiation/radioactivity monitoring samples : Gamma exposure rates, airborne dust, precipitation, fall out and drinking-water. Environmental samples 2 kinds of indicator plant, 4 kinds of mushroom, 7 kinds of nut and seeds, and drinking waters. Among the all 2003 radiological monitoring and environmental data in Andong area were not found the extraordinary data. And a nation-wide environmental radiation/radioactivity level survey results were all background levels attributed to terrestrial and cosmic radiation.

  16. Radioactive waste integrated management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, D. Y.; Choi, S. S.; Han, B. S. [Atomic Creative Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, we present an integrated management system for radioactive waste, which can keep watch on the whole transporting process of each drum from nuclear power plant temporary storage house to radioactive waste storage house remotely. Our approach use RFID(Radio Frequency Identification) system, which can recognize the data information without touch, GSP system, which can calculate the current position precisely using the accurate time and distance measured from satellites, and the spread spectrum technology CDMA, which is widely used in the area of mobile communication.

  17. Some points in legal regulation of radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhankin, Anatoly; Levin, Alexander

    1999-07-01

    In Russia, the system of the legal acts regulating radioactive waste management is now in progress. Development of the federal norms and regulations on the use of atomic energy is a responsibility of Gosatomnazdor. This presentation describes in detail the work done by Gosatomnadzor in 1997/1998 on the development of the legal documents regulating the management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear material. A document of special importance is ''Burial of Radioactive Wastes. Principles, Criteria and Basic Safety Requirements''. This is discussed in some detail. For all stages of radioactive waste management, safety criteria for population and personnel are set up in strict analogy with current legislation for any other type of radiological hazard. A combined, or hybrid, safety criterion is suggested for estimation of long-term safety of radioactive waste repository systems, for the period upon termination of the established administrative monitoring after closing the repository. A dose criterion is accepted for normal radiation exposure and a risk criterion for potential radiation exposure. The safety of radioactive waste repository should be ensured by means of graded safeguard throughout the entire period of burial. Graded safeguard is based on independent barriers on the way of ionising radiation and emission of radioactive substances into the environment and protection and maintenance of these barriers. Examples show how the provisions of the document are applied in practice in the permafrost area of Russia. Permafrost soil has low water permeability, which is significant because underground water is the main transport medium in case of a leakage from a repository.

  18. Research programme on radioactive wastes; Forschungsprogramm Radioaktive Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckhardt, A. [Eidgenoessische Kommission fuer die Sicherheit der Kernanlagen (KSA), Brugg (Switzerland); Hufschmid, P. [Kommission Nukleare Entsorgung (KNE), Bern (Switzerland); Jordi, S. [Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Berne (Switzerland); Schanne, M. [Institut fuer Angewandte Medienwissenschaft (IAM), Zuercher Hochschule, Winterthur (Switzerland); Vigfusson, J. [Hauptabteilung fuer die Sicherheit der Kernanlagen (HSK), Brugg (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (DETEC) takes a look at work done within the framework of the research programme on radioactive wastes. The paper discusses the development of various projects and the associated organisations involved. Both long-term and short-term topics are examined. The long-term aspects of handling radioactive wastes include organisation and financing as well as the preservation of know-how and concepts for marking the repositories. Communication with the general public on the matter is looked at along with public perception, opinion-making and acceptance. Waste storage concepts are looked at in detail and aspects such as environmental protection, monitoring concepts, retrievability and encasement materials are discussed. Finally, ethical and legal aspects of radioactive waste repositories are examined. The paper is completed with appendixes dealing with planning, co-ordination and the responsibilities involved

  19. LRT 2006: 2. topical workshop in low radioactivity techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, P.; Piquemal, F.; Ford, R.; Yakushev, E.; Pandola, L.; Franco, D.; Bellini, F.; Hubert, Ph.; Laubenstein, M.; Abt, I.; Bongrand, M.; Schnee, R.; Dusan, B.; Chen, M.; Piquemal, F.; Nachab, A.; Zuzel, G.; Simgen, H.; Navick, X.F.; Pedretti, M.; Wojcik, M.; Sekiya, H.; Kim, Y.; Kishimoto, T.; Dawson, J.; Borjabad, S.; Perrot, F.; Gurriaran, R.; Nikolayko, A.; Hubert, Ph

    2006-07-01

    This second topical workshop in low radioactivity techniques is intended to bring together experts in the field of low background techniques, especially applied to dark matter experiments, double beta decay experiments and neutrino detection in underground laboratories. This workshop has been organized into 7 sessions: 1) underground facilities (where a worldwide review is made), 2) neutron and muon induced background, isotope production, 3) low background counting techniques and low background detectors, 4) techniques for radon reduction, purified noble gases and liquid scintillator purification, 5) low levels on Pb-Bi-Po{sup 210} and surface background, 6) low radioactivity detector components and material purification, and 7) low radioactive techniques in other applications (particularly to check the geographical origin of food-products or to date wine. This document is made up of the slides of the presentations.

  20. Radioactive standards and calibration methods for contamination monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-06-01

    Contamination monitoring in the facilities for handling unsealed radioactive materials is one of the most important procedures for radiation protection as well as radiation dose monitoring. For implementation of the proper contamination monitoring, radiation measuring instruments should not only be suitable to the purpose of monitoring, but also be well calibrated for the objective qualities of measurement. In the calibration of contamination monitoring instruments, quality reference activities need to be used. They are supplied in different such as extended sources, radioactive solutions or radioactive gases. These reference activities must be traceable to the national standards or equivalent standards. On the other hand, the appropriate calibration methods must be applied for each type of contamination monitoring instruments. In this paper, the concepts of calibration for contamination monitoring instruments, reference sources, determination methods of reference quantities and practical calibration methods of contamination monitoring instruments, including the procedures carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and some relevant experimental data. (G.K.)

  1. Characterization of defects in semiconductors using radioactive isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Deicher, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Radioactive atoms have been used in solid-state physics and in material science for many decades. Besides their classical application as tracer for diffusion studies, nuclear techniques such as Mossbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, and emission channeling have used nuclear properties to gain microscopical information on the structural and dynamical properties of solids. The availability of many different radioactive isotopes as a clean ion beam at facilities like ISOLDE/CERN has triggered a new era involving methods sensitive for the optical and electronic properties of solids, especially in the field of semiconductor physics. Spectroscopic techniques like photoluminescence (PL), deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), and Hall effect gain a new quality by using radioactive isotopes. Due to their decay the chemical origin of an observed electronic and optical behavior of a specific defect or dopant can be unambiguously identified. This contribution will highlight a few examples to illustrat...

  2. Radioactive Waste Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal

    CERN Document Server

    Streffer, Christian; Kamp, Georg; Kröger, Wolfgang; Rehbinder, Eckard; Renn, Ortwin; Röhlig, Klaus-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Waste caused by the use of radioactive material in research, medicine and technologies, above all high level waste from nuclear power plants, must be disposed of safely. However, the strategies discussed for the disposal of radioactive waste as well as proposals for choosing a proper site for final waste disposal are strongly debated. An appropriate disposal must satisfy complex technical requirements and must meet stringent conditions to appropriately protect man and nature from risks of radioactivity over very long periods. Ethical, legal and social conditions must be considered as well. An interdisciplinary team of experts from relevant fields compiled the current status and developed criteria as well as strategies which meet the requirements of safety and security for present and future generations. The study also provides specific recommendations that will improve and optimize the chances for the selection of a repository site implementing the participation of stakeholders including the general public an...

  3. Is natural radioactivity and ionizing radiation necessary for us and our earth?; Sind (natuerliche) Radioaktivitaet und ionisierende Strahlung fuer uns und unsere Erde notwendig?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelkle, Hansruedi [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Physikdepartement

    2017-04-01

    Artificial radioactive materials and ionizing radiation are used in medicine, industry and science. Is there also a purpose in the sense of Aristoteles that nothing on earth is unnecessary? The contribution discusses examples of natural radioactivity in the atmosphere, the production of geothermal energy and the role of radioactivity and ionizing radiation in evolution.

  4. USING STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL TO MONITOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE CHARACTERIZATION AT A RADIOACTIVE FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WESTCOTT, J.L.; JOCHEN; PREVETTE

    2007-01-02

    Two facilities for storing spent nuclear fuel underwater at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State are being removed from service, decommissioned, and prepared for eventual demolition. The fuel-storage facilities consist of two separate basins called K East (KE) and K West (KW) that are large subsurface concrete pools filled with water, with a containment structure over each. The basins presently contain sludge, debris, and equipment that have accumulated over the years. The spent fuel has been removed from the basins. The process for removing the remaining sludge, equipment, and structure has been initiated for the basins. Ongoing removal operations generate solid waste that is being treated as required, and then disposed. The waste, equipment and building structures must be characterized to properly manage, ship, treat (if necessary), and dispose as radioactive waste. As the work progresses, it is expected that radiological conditions in each basin may change as radioactive materials are being moved within and between the basins. It is imperative that these changing conditions be monitored so that radioactive characterization of waste is adjusted as necessary.

  5. USING STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL TO MONITOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE CHARACTERIZATION AT A RADIOACTIVE FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WESTCOTT, J.L.

    2006-11-15

    Two facilities for storing spent nuclear fuel underwater at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State being removed from service, decommissioned, and prepared for eventual demolition. The fuel-storage facilities consist of two separate basins called K East (KE) and K West (KW) that are large subsurface concrete pools filled with water, with a containment structure over each. The basins presently contain sludge, debris, and equipment that have accumulated over the years. The spent fuel has been removed from the basins. The process for removing the remaining sludge, equipment, and structure has been initiated for the basins. Ongoing removal operations generate solid waste that is being treated as required, and then disposed. The waste, equipment and building structures must be characterized to properly manage, ship, treat (if necessary), and dispose as radioactive waste. As the work progresses, it is expected that radiological conditions in each basin may change as radioactive materials are being moved within and between the basins. It is imperative that these changing conditions be monitored so that radioactive characterization of waste is adjusted as necessary.

  6. Measurement of radioactive nuclides in the `Mayak` region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasoedov, B.F. [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Novikov, A.P. [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The study of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic impact and, primarily, by radioactive nuclides is one of the main scientific problems facing contemporary science. Radioecological monitoring, decision making on remediation of polluted areas need detailed information about distribution of radioactive nuclides in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, knowledge about radioactive nuclide occurrence forms and migration patterns. Experimental tests of nuclear and thermonuclear weapon in atmosphere and underground, nuclear power engineering and numerous accidents that took place at the nuclear power plants (NPP), unauthorized dump of radioactive materials in various places of the ocean and pouring off the strongly dump of radioactive wastes from ships and submarine equipped with nuclear power engines made artificial radionuclides a constant and unretrievable component of the modern biosphere, becoming an additional unfavorable ecological factor. As regards Former Sovient Union (FSU) the most unfavorable regions are Southern Ural, zones suffered from Chernobyl Accident, Altay, Novaya Zemlya, some part of West Siberia near Seversk (Tomsk-7) and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26). (orig.)

  7. The ''invisible'' radioactive scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoernstad, T.; Ramsoey, T

    1999-04-01

    Production and up-concentration of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in the petroleum industry has attracted steadily increasing attention during the last 15 years. Most production engineers today associate this radioactivity with precipitates (scales) and sludges in production tubing, pumps, valves, separators, settling tanks etc., wherever water is being transported or treated. {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra are the most well known radioactive constituents in scale. Surprisingly little known is the radioactive contamination by {sup 210}Pb and progeny {sup 210}Bi and {sup 210}Po. These are found in combination with {sup 226}Ra in ordinary scale, often in layer of non-radioactive metallic lead in water transportation systems, but also in pure gas and condensate handling systems ''unsupported'' by {sup 226}Ra, but due to transportation and decay of the noble gas {sup 222}Rn in NG/LNG. This latter contamination may be rather thin, in some cases virtually invisible. When, in addition, the radiation energies are low enough for not being detectable on the equipment outer surface, its existence has for most people in the industry been a secret. The report discusses transportation and deposition mechanisms, detection methods and provides some examples of measured results from the North Sea on equipment sent for maintenance. It is concluded that a regular measurement program for this type of contamination should be mandatory under all dismantling processes of transportation and fluid handling equipment for fluids and gases offshore and onshore.

  8. 78 FR 7818 - Request To Amend a License To Export Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... radioactive The total Amend to: 1) Remove Mexico. December 28, 2012; January waste as slightly quantity... Materials or decontamination of imported in Facilities'' to polyvinyl alcohol accordance with remove Impact...

  9. Radioactivity in Dutch consumer products

    CERN Document Server

    Janssen, M P M

    2002-01-01

    This study took place within the framework of a general update of the average radiation dose for the Dutch population. It focuses on consumer products in which radionuclides have been intentionally incorporated and on radiation-emitting devices that can be supplied to members of the public without special surveillance. Eleven consumer products were studied in more detail. The radiation from these products determined 90% of the total collective dose due to consumer products in the Netherlands in 1988. Individual and collective doses are presented here for each product. The total collective dose has decreased from 130 personSv in 1988 to 4.6 personSv at present. This reduction was attributed to: a decrease in the number of radioactive products (gas mantles), lower estimates of the number of radioactive products present in the Netherlands thanks to new information (camera lenses, smoke detectors containing Ra-226), replacement of radioactive by non-radioactive products (gas mantles, dental protheses), and a lowe...

  10. Fission approach to cluster radioactivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Fission theory is used to explain α decay. Also, the analytical superasymmetric fission. (ASAF) model is successfully employed to make a systematic search and to predict, with other mod- els, cluster radioactivity. The macroscopic–microscopic method is illustrated for the superheavy nucleus 286Fl. Then a few ...

  11. Fission approach to cluster radioactivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-08-04

    Aug 4, 2015 ... Fission theory is used to explain decay. Also, the analytical superasymmetric fission (ASAF) model is successfully employed to make a systematic search and to predict, with other models, cluster radioactivity. The macroscopic–microscopic method is illustrated for the superheavy nucleus 286Fl. Then a ...

  12. Traps for neutral radioactive atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Sprouse, G D; Grossman, J S; Orozco, L A; Pearson, M R

    2002-01-01

    We describe several methods for efficiently injecting a small number of radioactive atoms into a laser trap. The characteristics of laser traps that make them desirable for physics experiments are discussed and several different experimental directions are described. We describe recent experiments with the alkali element Fr and point to future directions of the neutral atom trapping program.

  13. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  14. History and environmental setting of LASL near-surface land disposal facilities for radioactive wastes (Areas A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and T). A source document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, M.A.

    1977-06-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has been disposing of radioactive wastes since 1944. The LASL Materials Disposal Areas examined in this report, Areas A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and T, are solid radioactive disposal areas with the exception of Area T which is a part of the liquid radioactive waste disposal operation. Areas A, G, and T are currently active. Environmental studies of and monitoring for radioactive contamination have been done at LASL since 1944.

  15. Proceedings No. 41. Audition of M. Francois Loos, Delegate Minister of Industry, about the law project relative to the management of radioactive materials and wastes; Compte rendu n. 41. Audition de M. Francois Loos, ministre delegue a l'industrie, sur le projet de loi relatif a la gestion des matieres et dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    The project of law about the management of radioactive materials and wastes is the logical continuation of the law no 91-1381 from December 30, 1991 relative to the researches on radioactive waste management. At the occasion of the presentation of this law project at the board of ministers, F. Loos, the French minister of industry, presented this project the same day also at the house of commons. This document is the proceedings of the audition of F. Loos. It comprises a brief recall of the researches carried out so far and a presentation of the 3 main points of the project of law: reprocessing of spent fuels and recycling in reactors, interim surface storage of non-recyclable wastes, and underground reversible disposal of ultimate wastes. One aspect of the project concerns the scheduling of future research works according to the 3 ways defined in the 1991 law: storage, disposal and transmutation. This presentation is followed by questions from the deputies about some particular points of the project like the safety aspects, the selection of storage sites, the acceptance and information of the public, the financial aspects etc. (J.S.)

  16. Gel nano-particulates against radioactivity; Des nanoparticules en gel contre la radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deroin, Ph

    2004-11-01

    The Argonne research center (USA) has developed a 'super-gel' compound, a polymer close to those used in baby's diapers, which can reach a 90% efficiency in the radioactive decontamination of porous materials, like bricks or concrete. The contaminated materials are sprayed with a mixture of polymer gel and wetting agent with nano-particulates in suspension. Under the action of the wetting agent, radioactivity migrates from the pores to the gel and is trapped by the nano-particulates. The drying and recycling of the gel allows to reduce the volume of radioactive wastes. Short paper. (J.S.)

  17. Environmental aspects of commercial radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 10: environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant; environmental effects related to transporting radioactive wastes associated with LWR fuel reprocessing and fabrication; environmental effects related to radioactive waste management associated with LWR fuel reprocessing - retrievable waste storage facility; environmental effects related to geologic isolation of LWR fuel reprocessing wastes; and integrated systems for commercial radioactive waste management. (LK)

  18. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.

    1997-02-01

    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  19. Radioactive and mixed waste - risk as a basis for waste classification. Symposium proceedings No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-21

    The management of risks from radioactive and chemical materials has been a major environmental concern in the United states for the past two or three decades. Risk management of these materials encompasses the remediation of past disposal practices as well as development of appropriate strategies and controls for current and future operations. This symposium is concerned primarily with low-level radioactive wastes and mixed wastes. Individual reports were processed separately for the Department of Energy databases.

  20. Assessment of environmental radioactivity for Batman, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damla, Nevzat; Cevik, Ugur; Kobya, Ali Ihsan; Ataksor, Berna; Isik, Umit

    2010-01-01

    The province of Batman, located in southern Anatolia, has a population of approximately 500,000. To our knowledge, there exists no information regarding the environmental radioactivity in this province. Therefore, gamma activity measurements in soil, building materials and water samples and an indoor radon survey have been carried out in the Batman province. The mean activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and a fission product (137Cs) were 35+/-8, 25+/-10, 274+/-167 and 12+/-7 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in the soil samples. The concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the selected building materials ranged from 18 to 48 Bq kg(-1), 8 to 49 Bq kg(-1) and 68 to 477 Bq kg(-1), respectively. All the calculated radium equivalent (Raeq) activity values of the building material samples are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1), equivalent to a gamma-dose of 1.5 mSv year(-1). The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in tap waters collected from the study area were determined with mean specific activity concentrations of 42+/-15, 35+/-9 and 524+/-190 mBq L(-1), respectively. Indoor radon measurements were made at 95 dwellings in Batman using a CR-39 detector. The radon concentration levels were found to vary from 23 to 145 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic mean of the measured radon concentration levels was found to be 84 Bq m(-3) with a standard deviation value of 23 Bq m(-3). The measurement results obtained in this study did not significantly differ from those taken in other parts of the country. The data generated in this study can be used to determine whether the Batman province is in a normal or high background radiation area and provides a valuable database for future estimations of the impact of radioactive pollution.