WorldWideScience

Sample records for radioactive ion accelerator

  1. Acceleration of radioactive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxdal, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    There is an intense interest world-wide in the use of radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for experiment. In many existing or proposed facilities ions are produced or collected at source potential, ionized and re-accelerated. Within the past year three new ISOL based facilities have added dedicated post-accelerators to deliver accelerated RIBs to experiment. The paper gives an overview of RIB accelerators present and future, and explores the inherent features in the various acceleration methods with an emphasis on heavy ion linacs. The ISAC-I and ISAC-II post-accelerators are discussed as examples. Commissioning results and initial operating experience with ISAC-I will be presented

  2. Accelerator complex for a radioactive ion beam facility at ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Since the superconducting heavy ion linac ATLAS is an ideal post-accelerator for radioactive beams, plans are being developed for expansion of the facility with the addition of a driver accelerator, a production target/ion source combination, and a low q/m pre-accelerator for radioactive ions. A working group including staff from the ANL Physics Division and current ATLAS users are preparing a radioactive beam facility proposal. The present paper reviews the specifications of the accelerators required for the facility

  3. The production of accelerated radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    During the last few years, substantial work has been done and interest developed in the scientific opportunities available with accelerated radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for nuclear physics, astrophysics, and applied research. This interest has led to the construction, development, and proposed development of both first- and second-generation RIB facilities in Asia, North America, and Europe; international conferences on RIBs at Berkeley and Louvain-la-Neuve; and many workshops on specific aspects of RIB production and science. This paper provides a discussion of both the projectile fragmentation, PF, and isotope separator on-line, ISOL, approach to RIB production with particular emphasis on the latter approach, which employs a postaccelerator and is most suitable for nuclear structure physics. The existing, under construction, and proposed facilities worldwide are discussed. The paper draws heavily from the CERN ISOLDE work, the North American IsoSpin Laboratory (ISL) study, and the operating first-generation RIB facility at Louvain-la-Neuve, and the first-generation RIB project currently being constructed at ORNL

  4. Techniques to produce and accelerate radioactive ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Penescu, Liviu Constantin; Lettry, Jacques; Cata-Danil, Gheorghe

    The production and acceleration of the Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) continues the long line of nuclear investigations started in the XIXth century by Pierre and Marie Curie, Henri Becquerel and Ernest Rutherford. The contemporary applications of the RIBs span a wide range of physics fields: nuclear and atomic physics, solid-state physics, life sciences and material science. ISOLDE is a world-leading Isotope mass-Separation On-Line (ISOL) facility hosted at CERN in Geneva for more than 40 years, offering the largest variety of radioactive ion beams with, until now, more than 1000 isotopes of more than 72 elements (with Z ranging from 2 to 88), with half-lives down to milliseconds and intensities up to 1011 ions/s. The post acceleration of the full variety of beams allows reaching final energies between 0.8 and 3.0 MeV/u. This thesis describes the development of a new series of FEBIAD (“Forced Electron Beam Induced Arc Discharge”) ion sources at CERN-ISOLDE. The VADIS (“Versatile Arc Discharge Ion Source�...

  5. Positron emission medical measurements with accelerated radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llacer, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews in some detail the process by which a heavy ion accelerator can be used to inject positron emitting radioactive particles into a human body for a range of possible medical measurements. The process of radioactive beam generation and injection is described, followed by a study of the relationship between activity that can be injected versus dose to the patient as a function of which of the positron emitting ions is used. It is found that 6 C 10 and 10 Ne 19 are the two isotopes that appear more promising for injection into humans. The design considerations for a non-tomographic instrument to obtain images from beam injections are outlined and the results of 10 Ne 19 preliminary measurements with human phantoms and actual patients for the determination of end-of-range of cancer therapy ion beams is reported. Accuracies in the order of ±1 mm in the measurements of stopping point of a therapy beam with safe doses to the patient are reported. The paper concludes with a simple analysis of requirements to extend the technique to on-line verification of cancer treatment and to nuclear medicine research and diagnostics measurements. 17 refs.; 16 figs.; 3 tabs

  6. The 1+ → n+ transformation for the radioactive ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, N.; Lamy, T.; Bruandet, J.F.; Bouly, J.L.; Curdy, J.C.; Geller, R.; Sole, P.; Sortais, P.; Vieux-Rochaz, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    The radioactive ions are produced as single-charge ions either starting from nuclear reactions induced by a high energy primary beam, or by neutron bombarding of a target. However, in order to obtain beams of several MeV per nucleon, il will be convenient of transforming the mono-charged ions issued from the production source, in multicharged ions. Consequently, an operation should be implemented to transform the 1+ charge state into n+ state, with a double requirement of maximal yield and minimal response time. The objectives are a particle yield of several percents and a response time below 1 second, taking into account the low lifetimes of certain radioactive nuclei. The conjoint achievement of both high charged states and maximal beam intensity forced us to make a choice for an ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) type source to realize the transformation 1+ → n+

  7. Proceedings of the workshop on prospects for research with radioactive beams from heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1984-04-01

    The SuperHILAC Users Executive Committee organized a workshop on Prospects for Research with Radioactive Beams from Heavy Ion Accelerators. The main purpose of the workshop was to bring together a diverse group of scientists who had already done experients with radioactive beams or were interested in their use in the future. The topics of the talks ranged from general nuclear physics, astrophysics, production of radioactive beams and high energy projectile fragmentation to biomedical applications. This publication contains the abstracts of the talks given at the workshop and copies of the viewgraphs as they were supplied to the editor

  8. A singly charged ion source for radioactive 11C ion acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Suzuki, K.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K.

    2016-02-01

    A new singly charged ion source using electron impact ionization has been developed to realize an isotope separation on-line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive 11C ion beams. Low-energy electron beams are used in the electron impact ion source to produce singly charged ions. Ionization efficiency was calculated in order to decide the geometric parameters of the ion source and to determine the required electron emission current for obtaining high ionization efficiency. Based on these considerations, the singly charged ion source was designed and fabricated. In testing, the fabricated ion source was found to have favorable performance as a singly charged ion source.

  9. First radioactive ions charge bred in REXEBIS at the REX-ISOLDE accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, B H; Fostner, O; Wenander, F; Ames, F; Reisinger, K; Liljeby, L; Skeppstedt, Ö; Jonson, B; Nyman, G H

    2003-01-01

    REXEBIS is the charge breeder of the REX-ISOLDE post accelerator. The radioactive 1$^{+}$ ions produced at ISOLDE are accumulated, phase-space cooled and bunched in the REXTRAP, and thereafter injected into the EBIS with an energy up to 60 keV. The REXEBIS produced the first charge bred ions in August 2001 and has been running nearly non-stop during September to December 2001. It has delivered stable $^{39}$K$^{10+}$ and $^{23}$Na$^{6+}$ beams generated in the ion source in front of REXTRAP with a Na$^{7+}$ current exceeding 70 pA (6x10$^{7}$ p/s). Stable $^{27}$Al$^{7+}$ and $^{23}$Na$^{6+}$ from ISOLDE and also the first radioactive $^{26}$Na$^{7+}$ and $^{24}$Na$^{7+}$ beams (just 5x10$^{5}$ p/s) have been charge bred and accelerated for tests of the experimental setup. Despite some problems with the electron gun, which had one breakdown after about 1500 hours of operation and displays slow changes of the emission conditions, the EBIS is working remarkably stable (24 hours / 7 days a week). We will report ...

  10. Nuclear structure and astrophysics with accelerated beams of radioactive ions: A new multidisciplinary research tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    After a brief discussion of the techniques for producing accelerated radioactive ion beams (RIBs), several recent scientific applications are mentioned. Three general nuclear structure topics, which can be addressed using RIBs, are discussed in some detail: possible modifications of the nuclear shell structure near the particle drip lines; various possibilities for decoupling the proton and neutron mass distributions for weakly bound nuclei; and tests of fundamental nuclear symmetries for self-conjugate and nearly self-conjugate nuclei. The use of RIBs to study r- and rp-process nucleosynthesis also is discussed

  11. Beam Dynamics Design Studies of a Superconducting Radioactive Ion Beam Post-accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, MA; Pasini, M

    2011-01-01

    The HIE-ISOLDE project at CERN proposes a superconducting upgrade to increase the energy range and quality of the radioactive ion beams produced at ISOLDE, which are currently post- accelerated by the normal conducting REX linac. The specification and design choices for the HIE-ISOLDE linac are outlined along with a comprehensive beam dynamics study undertaken to understand and mitigate the sources of beam emittance dilution. The dominant cause of transverse emittance growth was attributed to the coupling between the transverse and longitudinal motions through the phase dependence of the rf defocusing force in the accelerating cavities. A parametric resonance induced by the coupling was observed and its excitation surveyed as a function of trans- verse phase advance using numerical simulations and analytic models to understand and avoid the regions of transverse beam instability. Other sources of emittance growth were studied and where necessary ameliorated, including the beam steering force in the quarter-wa...

  12. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, S.A.; Puzynin, I.V.; Samoilov, V.N.; Sissakian, A.N. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    The project of a high current pulsed linear ion accelerator is described in this paper. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, a system of charge and energy separation, an inductor accelerator and an output system. The ion source with explosive ion emission can produce all kinds of ions. The separation system includes a pulsed magnetic system. The inductors are based on amorphous iron with inside magnetic elements. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  13. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Puzynin, I.V.; Samoilov, V.N.; Sissakian, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    The project of a high current pulsed linear ion accelerator is described in this paper. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, a system of charge and energy separation, an inductor accelerator and an output system. The ion source with explosive ion emission can produce all kinds of ions. The separation system includes a pulsed magnetic system. The inductors are based on amorphous iron with inside magnetic elements. 3 refs., 3 figs

  14. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, S A; Puzynin, I V; Samojlov, V N; Sissakyan, A N [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    A new high-current pulsed linear induction accelerator proposed for application in beam-driven transmutation technologies is described. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, of ion separation and induction accelerating systems, and of an output system for extracting an ion beam into open air. An ion source with explosive ion emission, capable of producing various kinds of ions, is used as an injector. The ion separator exploits a pulsed magnetic system. The induction acceleration structure includes inductors with amorphous iron cores. Imbedded magnetic elements assure the ion beam transport. Main parameters of the accelerator are given in the paper and the design of an ion injector is discussed in more detail. (J.U.). 3 figs., 3 refs.

  15. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Puzynin, I.V.; Samojlov, V.N.; Sissakyan, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    A new high-current pulsed linear induction accelerator proposed for application in beam-driven transmutation technologies is described. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, of ion separation and induction accelerating systems, and of an output system for extracting an ion beam into open air. An ion source with explosive ion emission, capable of producing various kinds of ions, is used as an injector. The ion separator exploits a pulsed magnetic system. The induction acceleration structure includes inductors with amorphous iron cores. Imbedded magnetic elements assure the ion beam transport. Main parameters of the accelerator are given in the paper and the design of an ion injector is discussed in more detail. (J.U.). 3 figs., 3 refs

  16. Trapping radioactive ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, Heinz-Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning.

  17. Trapping radioactive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, H.-J.; Blaum, K.

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning

  18. Problems raised by radioactive ion acceleration in the SPIRAL project. Accelerator tuning and stabilisation; Problemes poses par l`acceleration d`ions radioactifs dans le project SPIRAL. Reglage et stabilisation de l`accelerateur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boy, L. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France)

    1997-12-31

    This study is related to the SPIRAL project. This facility uses a cyclotron to accelerate radioactive ion beams produced in a thick target by the Grant Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds primary beam. The low intensity of radioactive beams and the mixing of several species imply special tuning methods and associated diagnostics. Also, a cyclotron and the beam line will be used to switch from this tuning beam to the radioactive one. We present a theoretical study and a numerical simulation of the tuning of five radioactive beams using three different methods. the beam dynamic is performed through the injection beam line and the cyclotron up to the electrostatic deflector. Within the frame of these methods we have described all the SPIRAL beam diagnostics. Construction and test of a new low intensity diagnosis based on a plastic scintillator for phase measurement inside the cyclotron is described in details. (author). 63 refs.

  19. The use of aluminum nitride to improve Aluminum-26 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry measurements and production of Radioactive Ion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Meghan S.; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo; Liu, Yuan; Mills, Gerald D.; Romero-Romero, Elisa; Stracener, Daniel W.

    2015-10-01

    We present results and discuss the use of aluminum nitride as a promising source material for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) science applications of 26Al isotopes. The measurement of 26Al in geological samples by AMS is typically conducted on Al2O3 targets. However, Al2O3 is not an ideal source material because it does not form a prolific beam of Al- required for measuring low-levels of 26Al. Multiple samples of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), aluminum nitride (AlN), mixed Al2O3-AlN as well as aluminum fluoride (AlF3) were tested and compared using the ion source test facility and the stable ion beam (SIB) injector platform at the 25-MV tandem electrostatic accelerator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Negative ion currents of atomic and molecular aluminum were examined for each source material. It was found that pure AlN targets produced substantially higher beam currents than the other materials and that there was some dependence on the exposure of AlN to air. The applicability of using AlN as a source material for geological samples was explored by preparing quartz samples as Al2O3 and converting them to AlN using a carbothermal reduction technique, which involved reducing the Al2O3 with graphite powder at 1600 °C within a nitrogen atmosphere. The quartz material was successfully converted to AlN. Thus far, AlN proves to be a promising source material and could lead towards increasing the sensitivity of low-level 26Al AMS measurements. The potential of using AlN as a source material for nuclear physics is also very promising by placing 26AlN directly into a source to produce more intense radioactive beams of 26Al.

  20. Heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelzer, C.

    1974-01-01

    This review of the present state of work on heavy-ion accelerators pays particular attention to the requirements for nuclear research. It is divided into the following sections: single-particle versus collective acceleration, heavy-ion accelerators, beam quality, and a status report on the UNILAC facility. Among the topics considered are the recycling cyclotron, linacs with superconducting resonators, and acceleration to the GeV/nucleon range. (8 figures, 2 tables) (U.S.)

  1. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  2. Ion sources for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1974-01-01

    A limited review of low charge sate positive and negative ion sources suitable for accelerator use is given. A brief discussion is also given of the concepts underlying the formation and extraction of ion beams. Particular emphasis is placed on the technology of ion sources which use solid elemental or molecular compounds to produce vapor for the ionization process

  3. Recent radioactive ion beam program at RIKEN and related topics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. RIKEN; radioactive ion beams; magic numbers. PACS No. 21.10.-k. 1. Introduction. In RIKEN, there are several heavy ion accelerators. Main accelerator is the RIKEN ring cyclotron (RRC) with K = 540, that has been operated from 1986. The RRC has two injectors; one is heavy ion linear accelerator that has been ...

  4. Radioactive ion beam facilities at INFN LNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rifuggiato, D; Calabretta, L; Celona, L; Chines, F; Cosentino, L; Cuttone, G; Finocchiaro, P; Pappalardo, A; Re, M; Rovelli, A

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive ion beams are produced at INFN- Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) by means of the two operating accelerators, the Tandem and the Superconducting Cyclotron (CS), originally designed to accelerate stable beams. Both the ISOL (Isotope Separation On Line) and the IFF (In-Flight Fragmentation) methods are exploited to produce RIBs in two different ways at different energies: in the first case, the Cyclotron is the primary accelerator and the Tandem accelerates the secondary beams, while in the second case radioactive fragments are produced by the Cyclotron beam in a thin target with energies comparable to the primary beam energy. The ISOL facility is named EXCYT (Exotics at the Cyclotron and Tandem) and was commissioned in 2006, when the first radioactive beam ( 8 Li) has been produced. The IFF installation is named FRIBs (in Flight Radioactive Ion Beams), and it has started to produce radioactive beams in 2001, placing a thin target in the extraction beam line of the Cyclotron. The development of both facilities to produce and accelerate radioactive ion beams at LNS, is briefly described, with some details on the future prospects that are presently under consideration or realization.

  5. Collective ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, B.B.; Faehl, R.J.; Newberger, B.S.; Shanahan, W.R.; Thode, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Progress achieved in the understanding and development of collective ion acceleration is presented. Extensive analytic and computational studies of slow cyclotron wave growth on an electron beam in a helix amplifier were performed. Research included precise determination of linear coupling between beam and helix, suppression of undesired transients and end effects, and two-dimensional simulations of wave growth in physically realizable systems. Electrostatic well depths produced exceed requirements for the Autoresonant Ion Acceleration feasibility experiment. Acceleration of test ions to modest energies in the troughs of such waves was also demonstrated. Smaller efforts were devoted to alternative acceleration mechanisms. Langmuir wave phase velocity in Converging Guide Acceleration was calculated as a function of the ratio of electron beam current to space-charge limiting current. A new collective acceleration approach, in which cyclotron wave phase velocity is varied by modulation of electron beam voltage, is proposed. Acceleration by traveling Virtual Cathode or Localized Pinch was considered, but appears less promising. In support of this research, fundamental investigations of beam propagation in evacuated waveguides, of nonneutral beam linear eigenmodes, and of beam stability were carried out. Several computer programs were developed or enhanced. Plans for future work are discussed

  6. First Results with TIGRESS and Accelerated Radioactive Ion Beams from ISAC: Coulomb Excitation of 20,21,29Na

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, M. A.; Hurst, A. M.; Svensson, C. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.; Cline, D.; Hackman, G.; Pearson, C. J.; Stoyer, M. A.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Barton, C. J.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Buchmann, L.; Churchman, R.; Cifarelli, F.; Colosimo, S. J.; Cooper, R. J.; Cross, D. S.; Dashdorj, D.; Demand, G. A.; Dimmock, M. R.; Djongolov, M.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Gallant, A. T.; Garrett, P. E.; Gray-Jones, C.; Green, K. L.; Grint, A. N.; Grinyer, G. F.; Harkness, L. J.; Hayes, A. B.; Kanungo, R.; Leach, K. G.; Kulp, W. D.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Lee, G.; Lloyd, S.; Maharaj, R.; Martin, J.-P.; Millar, B. A.; Moisan, F.; Morton, A. C.; Mythili, S.; Nelson, L.; Newman, O.; Nolan, P. J.; Orce, J. N.; Oxley, D. C.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Phillips, A. A.; Porter-Peden, M.; Ressler, J. J.; Rigby, S. V.; Roy, R.; Ruiz, C.; Sarazin, F.; Scraggs, D. P.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Triambak, S.; Waddington, J. C.; Walker, P. M.; Wan, J.; Whitbeck, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.; Wood, J. L.

    2009-03-01

    The TRIUMF-ISAC Gamma-Ray Escape Suppressed Spectrometer (TIGRESS) is a state-of-the-art γ-ray spectrometer being constructed at the ISAC-II radioactive ion beam facility at TRIUMF. TIGRESS will be comprised of twelve 32-fold segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) clover-type γ-ray detectors, with BGO/CsI(Tl) Compton-suppression shields, and is currently operational at ISAC-II in an early-implementation configuration of six detectors. Results have been obtained for the first experiments performed using TIGRESS, which examined the A = 20, 21, and 29 isotopes of Na by Coulomb excitation.

  7. Ion optics for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enge, H.A.

    1974-01-01

    A review is given of ion-optic devices used in particle accelerators, including electrostatic lenses, magnetic quadrupoles, and deflecting magnets. Tube focusing in dc accelerators is also treated, and a novel scheme for shaping the electrodes to produce strong focusing is described. The concepts of emittance (phase space) and emittance conservation are briefly discussed. Chromatic and spatial aberrations are introduced, and it is shown how they can be calculated and sometimes substantially reduced. Some examples are given

  8. Collective focusing ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldin, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The principal subject of this dissertation is the trapping confinement of pure electron plasmas in bumpy toroidal magnetic fields, with particular attention given to the trapping procedure and the behavior of the plasma during the final equilibrium. The most important aspects of the equilibrium studied were the qualitative nature of the plasma configuration and motion and its density, distribution and stability. The motivation for this study was that an unneutralized cloud of electrons contained in a toroidal system, sufficiently dense and stable, may serve to electrostatically focus ions (against centrifugal and self space charge forces) in a cyclic ion accelerator. Such an accelerator, known as a Collective Focusing Ion Accelerator (CFIA) could be far smaller than conventional designs (which use external magnetic fields directly to focus the ions) due to the smaller gyro-radium of an electron in a magnetic field of given strength. The electron cloud generally drifted poloidally at a finite radius from the toroidal minor axis. As this would preclude focusing ions with such clouds, damping this motion was investigated. Finite resistance in the normally perfectly conductive vessel wall did this. In further preparation for a working CFIA, additional experiments studied the effect of ions on the stability of the electron cloud

  9. Heavy ion accelerator GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    This article presents GANIL, a large national heavy ion accelerator. The broad problems of nuclear physics, atomic physics, astrophysics and physics of condensed media which can be approached and studied with this machine are discussed first, after which the final construction project is described. The project comprises a circular injector, a separated sector cyclotron up beam stripper, and a second separated cyclotron downstream [fr

  10. Post-acceleration of sup 7 Be at the Louvain-la-Neuve radioactive ion beam facility

    CERN Document Server

    Gaelens, M; Loiselet, M; Ryckewaert, G

    2003-01-01

    The development of an intense and pure post-accelerated sup 7 Be beam at Louvain-la-Neuve will be discussed. Given its properties (metallic nature, long half-life (53 days)) and the special beam parameters required (multi-charge ions, high purity), a range of special techniques had to be investigated. At Louvain-la-Neuve, sup 7 Be is produced by irradiating a lithium target with 30 mu A of 27 MeV protons and is extracted using offline chemical separation techniques. Because of the large amounts of activity required, the chemistry has to be adapted for use in hotcells. The ionization is performed with an Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with the sup 7 Be injected in the source by means of sputtering. Special techniques have to be used to prevent the beryllium atoms from being lost on the plasma chamber walls. A dedicated heated plasma chamber for the ion source was developed. The ionization efficiency was increased by studying the chemistry involved in the ion source. The atoms are ionized to the 1+ or ...

  11. Ion accelerators for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobodrian, R.J.; Potvin, L.

    1991-01-01

    The main purpose of the accelerators is to allow ion implantation in space stations and their neighborhoods. There are several applications of interest immediately useful in such environment: as ion engines and thrusters, as implanters for material science and for hardening of surfaces (relevant to improve resistance to micrometeorite bombardment of exposed external components), production of man made alloys, etc. The microgravity environment of space stations allows the production of substances (crystalline and amorphous) under conditions unknown on earth, leading to special materials. Ion implantation in situ of those materials would thus lead uninterruptedly to new substances. Accelerators for space require special design. On the one hand it is possible to forego vacuum systems simplifying the design and operation but, on the other hand, it is necessary to pay special attention to heat dissipation. Hence it is necessary to construct a simulator in vacuum to properly test prototypes under conditions prevailing in space

  12. Medical heavy ion accelerator proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, R.A.

    1985-05-01

    For several decades, accelerators designed primarily for research in nuclear and high energy physics have been adapted for biomedical research including radiotherapeutic treatment of human diseases such as pituitary disorders, cancer, and more recently, arteriovascular malformations. The particles used in these treatments include pions, protons and heavier ions such as carbon, neon, silicon and argon. Maximum beam energies must be available to penetrate into an equivalent of about 30 cm of water, requiring treatment beams of 250 to 1000 MeV/nucleon. Certain special treatments of superficial melanoma, however, require that beam energies as low as 70 MeV/nucleon also be available. Intensities must be adequate to complete a 100 rad treatment fraction in about 1 minute. For most heavy ion treatments, this corresponds to 10 7 -10 9 ions/second at the patient. Because this research is best conducted in a dedicated, hospital-based facility, and because of the clinical need for ultra-high reliability, the construction of new and dedicated facilities has been proposed. Heavy ion accelerators can provide a variety of ions and energies, permitting treatment plans that exploit the properties of the ion best suited to each individual treatment, and that employ radioactive beams (such as 11 C and 19 Ne) to precisely confirm the dose localization. The favored technical approach in these proposals utilizes a conventional, strong-focusing synchrotron capable of fast switching between ions and energies, and servicing multiple treatment rooms. Specialized techniques for shaping the dose to conform to irregularly-shaped target volumes, while simultaneously sparing surrounding, healthy tissue and critical structures, are employed in each treatment room, together with the sophisticated dosimetry necessary for verification, monitoring, and patient safety. 3 refs., 8 figs

  13. Accelerator development for a radioactive beam facility based on ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K. W.

    1998-01-01

    The existing superconducting linac ATLAS is in many respects an ideal secondary beam accelerator for an ISOL (Isotope separator on-line) type radioactive beam facility. Such a facility would require the addition of two major accelerator elements: a low charge state injector for the existing heavy ion linac, and a primary beam accelerator providing 220 MV of acceleration for protons and light ions. Development work for both of these elements, including the option of superconducting cavities for the primary beam accelerator is discussed

  14. Accelerator development for a radioactive beam facility based on ATLAS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K. W.

    1998-01-08

    The existing superconducting linac ATLAS is in many respects an ideal secondary beam accelerator for an ISOL (Isotope separator on-line) type radioactive beam facility. Such a facility would require the addition of two major accelerator elements: a low charge state injector for the existing heavy ion linac, and a primary beam accelerator providing 220 MV of acceleration for protons and light ions. Development work for both of these elements, including the option of superconducting cavities for the primary beam accelerator is discussed.

  15. Heavy ion accelerating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottier, Jacques.

    1977-01-01

    The heavy ion accelerating structure concerned in this invention is of the kind that have a resonance cavity inside which are located at least two longitudinal conducting supports electrically connected to the cavity by one of their ends in such a way that they are in quarter-wavelength resonance and in phase opposition. Slide tubes are electrically connected alternatively to one or the other of the two supports, they being electrically connected respectively to one or the other end of the side wall of the cavity. The feature of the structure is that it includes two pairs of supports symmetrically placed with respect to the centre line of the cavity, the supports of one pair fitted overhanging being placed symmetrically with respect to the centre line of the cavity, each slide tube being connected to the two supports of one pair. These support are connected to the slide wall of the cavity by an insulator located at their electrically free end. The accelerator structure composed of several structures placed end to end, the last one of which is fed by a high frequency field of adjustable amplitude and phase, enables a heavy ion linear accelerator to be built [fr

  16. Development of the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatum, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) construction project has been completed and the first radioactive ion beam has been successfully accelerated. The project, which began in 1992, has involved numerous facility modifications. The Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron has been converted from an energy booster for heavy ion beams to a light ion accelerator with internal ion source. A target-ion source and mass analysis system have been commissioned as key components of the facility's radioactive ion beam injector to the 25MV tandem electrostatic accelerator. Beam transport lines have been completed, and new diagnostics for very low intensity beams have been developed. Work continues on a unified control system. Development of research quality radioactive beams for the nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics communities continues. This paper details facility development to date

  17. Proceedings of national seminar on physics with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintalapudi, S.N.; Shyam, R.

    1991-01-01

    This volume containing the proceedings of the national seminar on physics with radioactive ion beams gives a broad overview of the developments taking place in the area of nuclear physics and accelerator physics with special emphasis on the utilization of radioactive ion beams for various studies. Topics covered include studies on nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics and the wide ranging applications of radioactive ion beams in these and other areas of nuclear sciences. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  18. Review of ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.

    1990-06-01

    The field of ion acceleration to higher energies has grown rapidly in the last years. Many new facilities as well as substantial upgrades of existing facilities have extended the mass and energy range of available beams. Perhaps more significant for the long-term development of the field has been the expansion in the applications of these beams, and the building of facilities dedicated to areas outside of nuclear physics. This review will cover many of these new developments. Emphasis will be placed on accelerators with final energies above 50 MeV/amu. Facilities such as superconducting cyclotrons and storage rings are adequately covered in other review papers, and so will not be covered here

  19. BEARS: Radioactive ion beams at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Guo, F.Q.; Haustein, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    BEARS (Berkeley Experiments with Accelerated Radioactive Species) is an initiative to develop a radioactive ion-beam capability at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The aim is to produce isotopes at an existing medical cyclotron and to accelerate them at the 88 inch Cyclotron. To overcome the 300-meter physical separation of these two accelerators, a carrier-gas transport system will be used. At the terminus of the capillary, the carrier gas will be separated and the isotopes will be injected into the 88 inch Cyclotron's Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source. The first radioactive beams to be developed will include 20-min 11 C and 70-sec 14 O, produced by (p,n) and (p,α) reactions on low-Z targets. A test program is currently being conducted at the 88 inch Cyclotron to develop the parts of the BEARS system. Preliminary results of these tests lead to projections of initial 11 C beams of up to 2.5 x 10 7 ions/sec and 14 O beams of 3 x 10 5 ions/sec

  20. Experiments with SIRA - the radioactive ion separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelique, J.C.; Orr, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    There are two main techniques to obtain radioactive ion beams. One, consisting in the fragmentation of projectile in a thin target followed by a separation carried out with LISE or SISSI type spectrometers or by an alpha spectrometer is used currently at GANIL. The second one, the ISOL (Isotope Separator One-Line) is presently under study on the SIRa benchmark, as part of the SPIRaL (Source de Production d'Ions Radioactifs en Ligne). A high energy light ion beam is stopped by a thick target to produce radioactive nuclei by various reactions in the target. The target, usually of carbon, is heated at around 1800 deg. C in order to accelerate the migration of the atoms produced at the target surface. These atoms are then diffused by a transfer tube up to plasma region where they are ionized and then accelerated. As projectiles the GANIL project makes use of a large variety of heavy ions. A table containing the radioactive ion beam characteristics (charge state and lifetime), the primary beams, the yields and the expected intensities to be obtained with SPIRaL is presented. Also, data concerning the production rates of rare gases obtained during 1993 to 1994 are given

  1. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boytsov, A. Yu.; Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Katagiri, K.; Noda, K.; Ponkin, D. O.; Ramzdorf, A. Yu.; Salnikov, V. V.; Shutov, V. B.

    2015-08-01

    The type of the Electron String Ion Sources (ESIS) is considered to be the appropriate one to produce pulsed C4+ and C6+ ion beams for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact, the new test ESIS Krion-6T already now provides more than 1010 C4+ ions per pulse and about 5 × 109 C6+ ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable to apply at synchrotrons. It has also been found that Krion-6T can provide more than 1011 C6+ ions per second at the 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. ESIS can be also a suitable type of ion source to produce the 11C radioactive ion beams. A specialized cryogenic cell was experimentally tested at the Krion-2M ESIS for pulse injection of gaseous species into the electron string. It has been shown in experiments with stable methane that the total conversion efficiency of methane molecules to C4+ ions reached 5%÷10%. For cancer therapy with simultaneous irradiation and precise dose control (positron emission tomography) by means of 11C, transporting to the tumor with the primary accelerated 11C4+ beam, this efficiency is preliminarily considered to be large enough to produce the 11C4+ beam from radioactive methane and to inject this beam into synchrotrons.

  2. Ion sources for electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellborg, R.

    1998-01-01

    Maybe the most important part of an electrostatic accelerator system, and also often the most tricky part is the ion source. There has been a rapid growth in activity in ion-source research and development during the last two to three decades. Some of these developments have also been of benefit to electrostatic accelerator users. In this report some of the different types of ion sources used in electrostatic accelerators are described. The list is not complete but more an overview of some of the more commonly used sources. The description is divided into two groups; positive ion sources for single stage electrostatic accelerators and negative ion sources for two stages (i.e. tandem) accelerators

  3. Ion sources for medical accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, W. A.; Chu, W. T.; Leung, K. N.

    1998-02-01

    Advanced injector systems for proton synchrotrons and accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy systems are being developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Multicusp ion sources, particularly those driven by radio frequency, have been tested for these applications. The use of a radio frequency induction discharge provides clean, reliable, and long-life source operation. It has been demonstrated that the multicusp ion source can provide good-quality positive hydrogen ion beams with a monatomic ion fraction higher than 90%. The extractable ion current densities from this type of source can meet the injector requirements for both proton synchrotron and accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy projects.

  4. Molecular ion acceleration using tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Yuichi; Mizuhashi, Kiyoshi; Tajima, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1996-12-01

    In TIARA compound beam radiation system, cluster beams have been produced using 3 MV tandem accelerator (9SDH-2) to supply them to various radiation on injection experiments. Till now, productions of C{sub 2-8}, Si{sub 2-4} and O{sub 2} and their accelerations up to 6 MeV have been succeeded. This study aimed at production and acceleration of B{sub 2-4} and LiF. Anion clusters were produced using the conventional ion source of cesium sputter type. The proportions of atoms, molecules and clusters elicited from the ion source were varied depending on the material`s properties and the operating conditions of ion source such as sample temperature, sputter voltage and the shape of sample. The anion clusters were accelerated toward the high voltage terminal in the center of tandem accelerator, leading to cations through losing their electrons by the collision to N{sub 2} gas in a charge conversion cell at the terminal. Positively charged cluster ions could be obtained by modulating the pressure of N{sub 2} gas. Thus, B{sub 2} (64 nA), B{sub 3} (4.4 nA) and B{sub 4} (2.7 nA) have been produced and their maximum survival probabilities were higher than those of carbon or silicon clusters. In addition, the relationship between beam current and gas pressure was investigated for Bn (n = 2-4) and LiF. (M.N.)

  5. Heavy ion accelerators at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angert, N.

    1984-01-01

    The status of the Unilac heavy ion linear accelerator at GSI, Darmstadt is given. A schematic overall plan view of the Unilac is shown and its systems are described. List of isotopes and intensities accelerated at the Unilac is presented. The experimental possibilities at GSI should be considerably extended by a heavy ion synchrotron (SIS 18) in combination with an experimental storage ring (ESR). A prototype of the rf-accelerating system of the synchrotron has been built and tested. Prototypes for the quadrupole and dipole magnets for the ring are being constructed. The SIS 18 is desigmed for a maximum magnetic rigidity of 18Tm so that neon can be accelerated to 2 GeV/W and uranium to 1 GeV/u. The design allows also the acceleration of protons up to 4.5 GeV. The ESR permits to storage fully stripped uranium ions up to an energy of approximately R50 MeV/u

  6. Heavy ion medical accelerator, HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Satoru

    1993-01-01

    The heavy ion beam is undoutedly suitable for the cancer treatment. The supriority of the heavy ions over the conventional radiations including protons and neutrons comes mainly from physical characteristics of a heavy particle with multiple charges. A straggling angle due to a multiple Coulomb scattering process in a human body is small for heavy ions, and the small scattering angle results in a good dose localization in a transverse direction. An ionization ratio of the heavy ion beam makes a very sharp peak at the ends of their range. The height of the peak is higher for the heavier ions and shows excellent biomedical effects around Ne ions. In order to apply heavy ion beams to cancer treatment, Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) has been constructed at National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The accelerator complex consists of two ion sources, two successive linac tanks, a pair of synchrotron rings, a beam transport system and an irradiation system. An operation frequency is 100 MHz for two linacs, and the ion energy is 6.0 MeV/u at the output end of the linac. The other four experimental rooms are prepared for basic experiments. The synchrotron accelerates ions up to 800 MeV/u for a charge to mass ratio of 1/2. The long beam transport line provides two vertical beams in addition with two horizontal beams for the treatment. The three treatment rooms are prepared one of which is equipped with both horizontal and vertical beam lines. The whole facility will be open for all scientists who have interests in the heavy ion science as well as the biophysics. The conceptual design study of HIMAC started in 1984, and the construction of the accelerator complex was begun in March 1988. The beam acceleration tests of the injector system was successfully completed in March of this year, and tests of the whole system will be finished throughout this fyscal year. (author)

  7. Radioactive ion exchanger fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokonova, Yu.P.; Ivshina, O.A.; Il'ina, O.V.

    1993-01-01

    Properties of some binding agents for fixing radioactive cationites and anionites, namels cement, bitumen, carbamide and polyether resins are analyzed. It is shown that localization of ionites in carbamide resin is not very effective, the same is true of cementing process owing to considerable washing out of cesium-137 (∼ 1.1 x 10 -1 cm) and low water resistance (the samples are destructed when, storage conditions vary). Products of ionite localization in polyether feature a lower washing out (3x10 -2 - 4x10 -2 cm) and a better water resistance (water absorption rate is approximattely 1.5 x 10 -4 cm/day)/ Polyethers despite their high cost, are preferable for processing and transportation of small amounts of the ionites (up to 100 m 3 /year)

  8. Detection systems for radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savajols, H.

    2002-01-01

    Two main methods are used to produce radioactive ion beams: -) the ISOL method (isotope separation on-line) in which the stable beam interacts with a thick target, the reaction products diffuse outside the target and are transferred to a source where they are ionized, a mass separator and a post-accelerator drive the selected radioactive ions to the right energy; -) the in-flight fragmentation method in which the stable beam interacts with a thin target, the reaction products are emitted from the target with a restricted angular distribution and a velocity close to that of the incident beam, the experimenter has to take advantage from the reaction kinetics to get the right particle beam. Characteristic time is far longer with the ISOL method but the beam intensity is much better because of the use of a post-accelerator. In both cases, the beam intensity is lower by several orders of magnitude than in the case of a stable beam. This article presents all the constraints imposed by radioactive beams to the detection systems of the reaction products and gives new technical solutions according to the type of nuclear reaction studied. (A.C.)

  9. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boytsov, A. Yu.; Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Ponkin, D. O.; Ramzdorf, A. Yu.; Salnikov, V. V.; Shutov, V. B. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Katagiri, K.; Noda, K. [National Institute of Radiological Science, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    The type of the Electron String Ion Sources (ESIS) is considered to be the appropriate one to produce pulsed C{sup 4+} and C{sup 6+} ion beams for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact, the new test ESIS Krion-6T already now provides more than 10{sup 10} C{sup 4+} ions per pulse and about 5 × 10{sup 9} C{sup 6+} ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable to apply at synchrotrons. It has also been found that Krion-6T can provide more than 10{sup 11} C{sup 6+} ions per second at the 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. ESIS can be also a suitable type of ion source to produce the {sup 11}C radioactive ion beams. A specialized cryogenic cell was experimentally tested at the Krion-2M ESIS for pulse injection of gaseous species into the electron string. It has been shown in experiments with stable methane that the total conversion efficiency of methane molecules to C{sup 4+} ions reached 5%÷10%. For cancer therapy with simultaneous irradiation and precise dose control (positron emission tomography) by means of {sup 11}C, transporting to the tumor with the primary accelerated {sup 11}C{sup 4+} beam, this efficiency is preliminarily considered to be large enough to produce the {sup 11}C{sup 4+} beam from radioactive methane and to inject this beam into synchrotrons.

  10. Compact ion accelerator source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, Thomas; Persaud, Arun; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali

    2014-04-29

    An ion source includes a conductive substrate, the substrate including a plurality of conductive nanostructures with free-standing tips formed on the substrate. A conductive catalytic coating is formed on the nanostructures and substrate for dissociation of a molecular species into an atomic species, the molecular species being brought in contact with the catalytic coating. A target electrode placed apart from the substrate, the target electrode being biased relative to the substrate with a first bias voltage to ionize the atomic species in proximity to the free-standing tips and attract the ionized atomic species from the substrate in the direction of the target electrode.

  11. Predicting Induced Radioactivity at High Energy Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasso, Alberto

    1999-08-27

    Radioactive nuclides are produced at high-energy electron accelerators by different kinds of particle interactions with accelerator components and shielding structures. Radioactivity can also be induced in air, cooling fluids, soil and groundwater. The physical reactions involved include spallations due to the hadronic component of electromagnetic showers, photonuclear reactions by intermediate energy photons and low-energy neutron capture. Although the amount of induced radioactivity is less important than that of proton accelerators by about two orders of magnitude, reliable methods to predict induced radioactivity distributions are essential in order to assess the environmental impact of a facility and to plan its decommissioning. Conventional techniques used so far are reviewed, and a new integrated approach is presented, based on an extension of methods used at proton accelerators and on the unique capability of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code to handle the whole joint electromagnetic and hadronic cascade, scoring residual nuclei produced by all relevant particles. The radiation aspects related to the operation of superconducting RF cavities are also addressed.

  12. ISOL science at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beene, James R [ORNL; Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Gross, Carl J [ORNL; Jones, K. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Nazarewicz, Witold [ORNL; Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL; Tatum, B Alan [ORNL; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The Holi eld Radioactive Ion Beam Facility, located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is operated as a National User Facility for the U.S. Department of Energy, producing high quality ISOL beams of short-lived, radioactive nuclei for studies of exotic nuclei, astrophysics research, and various societal applications. The primary driver, the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, produces rare isotopes by bombarding highly refractory targets with light ions. The radioactive isotopes are ionized, formed into a beam, mass selected, injected into the 25-MV Tandem, accelerated, and used in experiments. This article reviews HRIBF and its science.

  13. Ion sources for initial use at the Holifield radioactive ion beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory will use the 25-MV tandem accelerator for the acceleration of radioactive ion beams to energies appropriate for research in nuclear physics; negative ion beams are, therefore, required for injection into the tandem accelerator. Because charge exchange is an efficient means for converting initially positive ion beams to negative ion beams, both positive and negative ion sources are viable options for use at the facility; the choice of the type of ion source will depend on the overall efficiency for generating the radioactive species of interest. A high-temperature version of the CERN-ISOLDE positive ion source has been selected and a modified version of the source designed and fabricated for initial use at the HRIBF because of its low emittance, relatively high ionization efficiencies and species versatility, and because it has been engineered for remote installation, removal and servicing as required for safe handling in a high-radiation-level ISOL facility. Prototype plasma-sputter negative ion sources and negative surfaceionization sources are also under design consideration for generating negative radioactive ion beams from high electron-affinity elements. A brief review of the HRIBF will be presented, followed by a detailed description of the design features, operational characteristics, ionization efficiencies, and beam qualities (emittances) of these sources

  14. Optimization of negative ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamela, J.

    1991-01-01

    We have started to study negative ion extraction and acceleration systems in view of designing a 1 MeV D - accelerator. This study is being made with a two-Dimensional code that has been specifically developed in our laboratory and validated by comparison to three sets of experimental data. We believe that the criteria for negative ion accelerator design optimization should be: (i) to provide the best optics; (ii) to reduce the power load on the extraction grid; (iii) to allow operation with low electric fields in order to reduce the problem of breakdowns. We show some results of optics calculations performed for two systems that will be operational in the next months: the CEA-JAERI collaboration at Cadarache and the european DRAGON experiment at Culham. Extrapolations to higher energies of 500 to 1100 keV have also been conducted. All results indicate that the overall accelerator length, whatever be the number of gaps, is constrained by space charge effects (Child-Langmuir). We have combined this constraint with high-voltage hold-off empirical laws. As a result, it appears that accelerating 10 mA/cm 2 of D - at 1 MeV with good optics, as required for NET or ITER, is close to the expected limit of high-voltage hold-off

  15. Development of heavy ion linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomko, V.A.; Khizhnyak, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the known heavy ion accelerators is given. It is stated that cyclic and linear accelerators are the most perspective ones in the energy range up to 10 MeV/nucleon according to universality in respect with the possibility of ion acceleration of the wide mass range. However, according to the accelerated beam intensity of the heavier ions the linear accelerators have considerable advantages over any other types of accelerators. The review of the known heavy ion linac structures permits to make the conclusion that a new modification of an accelerating structure of opposite pins excited on a H-wave is the most perspective one [ru

  16. Accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    1985-10-01

    Large fusion devices will almost certainly produce net energy. However, a successful commercial fusion energy system must also satisfy important engineering and economic constraints. Inertial confinement fusion power plants driven by multi-stage, heavy-ion accelerators appear capable of meeting these constraints. The reasons behind this promising outlook for heavy-ion fusion are given in this report. This report is based on the transcript of a talk presented at the Symposium on Lasers and Particle Beams for Fusion and Strategic Defense at the University of Rochester on April 17-19, 1985

  17. Study of the on line radioactive multicharged ion production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecesne, N.

    1997-01-01

    This work is directly related to the SPIRAL project (Systeme de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Acceleres en Ligne) which will start at GANIL at the end of 1998. The aim of the thesis was to study the on line radioactive multicharged ion beam production stages, i.e. the production and diffusion of the radioactive nuclei in a thick target, their possible transfer up to an ECR ion source and their ionisation. Production cross sections of radioactive neutron rich nuclei, formed by fragmentation of a heavy ion beam in a thick target, were measured. An external target-ECR source system, dedicated to the radioactive noble gases production, and two internal target-ECR source systems, dedicated to the radioactive condensable element production, were built and tested on the SIRa tests bench (Separateur d'Ions Radioactifs). Different detection configurations were elaborated in order to identify the radioactive nuclei and estimate their production yields. Finally, a new method for measuring the overall efficiency of the separator was developed and allowed to study the diffusion properties of radioactive noble gases in various targets. (author)

  18. Status of radioactive ion beams at the HRIBF

    CERN Document Server

    Stracener, D W

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) are produced using the isotope separation on-line technique and are subsequently accelerated up to a few MeV per nucleon for use in nuclear physics experiments. The first RIB experiments at the HRIBF were completed at the end of 1998 using sup 1 sup 7 F beams. Since then other proton-rich ion beams have been developed and a large number of neutron-rich ion beams are now available. The neutron-rich radioactive nuclei are produced via proton-induced fission of uranium in a low-density matrix of uranium carbide. Recently developed RIBs include sup 2 sup 5 Al from a silicon carbide target and isobarically pure beams of neutron-rich Ge, Sn, Br and I isotopes from a uranium carbide target.

  19. Unlimited ion acceleration by radiation pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, S V; Echkina, E Yu; Esirkepov, T Zh; Inovenkov, I N; Kando, M; Pegoraro, F; Korn, G

    2010-04-02

    The energy of ions accelerated by an intense electromagnetic wave in the radiation pressure dominated regime can be greatly enhanced due to a transverse expansion of a thin target. The expansion decreases the number of accelerated ions in the irradiated region resulting in an increase in the ion energy and in the ion longitudinal velocity. In the relativistic limit, the ions become phase locked with respect to the electromagnetic wave resulting in unlimited ion energy gain.

  20. Construction of ion accelerator for ion-surface interaction research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Kenziro; Ohtsuka, Hidewo; Yamada, Rayji; Abe, Tetsuya; Sone, Kazuho

    1977-09-01

    A Cockcroft-Walton type ion accelerator for ion-surface interaction research was installed at Plasma Engineering Laboratory, Division of Thermonuclear Fusion Research, JAERI, in March 1977. Its maximum accelerating voltage is 400 kV. The accelerator has some outstanding features compared with the conventional type. Described are setup of the accelerator specification of the major components, safety system and performance. (auth.)

  1. A radioactive ion beam facility using photofission

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, W T

    1999-01-01

    Use of a high-power electron linac as the driver accelerator for a Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility is proposed. An electron beam of 30 MeV and 100 kW can produce nearly 5x10 sup 1 sup 3 fissions/s from an optimized sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U target and about 60% of this from a natural uranium target. An electron beam can be readily transmitted through a thin window at the exit of the accelerator vacuum system and transported a short distance through air to a water-cooled Bremsstrahlung-production target. The Bremsstrahlung radiation can, in turn, be transported through air to the isotope-production target. This separates the accelerator vacuum system, the Bremsstrahlung target and the isotope-production target, reducing remote handling problems. The electron beam can be scanned over a large target area to reduce the power density on both the Bremsstrahlung and isotope-production targets. These features address one of the most pressing technological challenges of a high-power RIB facility, namely the production o...

  2. Negative ion sources for tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke

    1980-08-01

    Four kinds of negative ion sources (direct extraction Duoplasmatron ion source, radial extraction Penniing ion source, lithium charge exchange ion source and Middleton-type sputter ion source) have been installed in the JAERI tandem accelerator. The ion sources can generate many negative ions ranging from Hydrogen to Uranium with the exception of Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn. Discussions presented in this report include mechanisms of negative ion formation, electron affinity and stability of negative ions, performance of the ion sources and materials used for negative ion production. Finally, the author will discuss difficult problems to be overcome in order to get any negative ion sufficiently. (author)

  3. Selection and design of ion sources for use at the Holifield radioactive ion beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Haynes, D.L.; Mills, G.D.; Olsen, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory will use the 25 MV tandem accelerator for the acceleration of radioactive ion beams to energies appropriate for research in nuclear physics; negative ion beams are, therefore, required for injection into the tandem accelerator. Because charge exchange is an efficient means for converting initially positive ion beams to negative ion beams, both positive and negative ion sources are viable options for use at the facility. The choice of the type of ion source will depend on the overall efficiency for generating the radioactive species of interest. Although direct-extraction negative ion sources are clearly desirable, the ion formation efficiencies are often too low for practical consideration; for this situation, positive ion sources, in combination with charge exchange, are the logical choice. The high-temperature version of the CERN-ISOLDE positive ion source has been selected and a modified version of the source designed and fabricated for initial use at the facility because of its low emittance, relatively high ionization efficiencies, and species versatility, and because it has been engineered for remote installation, removal, and servicing as required for safe handling in a high-radiation-level ISOL facility. The source will be primarily used to generate ion beams from elements with intermediate to low electron affinities. Prototype plasma-sputter negative ion sources and negative surface-ionization sources are under design consideration for generating radioactive ion beams from high-electron-affinity elements. The design features of these sources and expected efficiencies and beam qualities (emittances) will be described in this report

  4. Adsorption of radioactive ions on carnauba-wax aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, A.; Keyser, U. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    A new method based on parallel aerosol size spectrometry and {gamma}-spectrometry is introduced for the measurement of short-lived radioactive ions, fission products or super-heavy elements produced at accelerators. Furthermore a new aerosol generator is presented.The possibility of controlling and changing the aerosol size distribution in the helium aerosol jet produced by the aerosol generator allows the process of the adsorption and transport of radioactive ions on aerosols to be examined for the first time. This is due to the fact that the distribution is surveyed on-line using a negligible part of its total volume and parallel to the transporting flow. The radioactivity of the transported ions is measured by a germanium detector in offline position. In principle, both an on- or offline position with narrow multi-detector geometry (e.g. {beta}{gamma}{gamma}) is possible. (orig.) With 8 figs., 14 refs.

  5. Accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, W.L. Jr.; Sawyer, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Accelerator technology development is presented for heavy ion drivers used in inertial confinement fusion. The program includes construction of low-velocity ''test bed'' accelerator facilities, development of analytical and experimental techniques to characterize ion beam behavior, and the study of ion beam energy deposition

  6. Compact RF ion source for industrial electrostatic ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung, E-mail: hjkwon@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Dae-Il; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongsangbukdo 38180 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex is developing a single-ended electrostatic ion accelerator to irradiate gaseous ions, such as hydrogen and nitrogen, on materials for industrial applications. ELV type high voltage power supply has been selected. Because of the limited space, electrical power, and robust operation, a 200 MHz RF ion source has been developed. In this paper, the accelerator system, test stand of the ion source, and its test results are described.

  7. Compact RF ion source for industrial electrostatic ion accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Dae-Il; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2016-02-01

    Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex is developing a single-ended electrostatic ion accelerator to irradiate gaseous ions, such as hydrogen and nitrogen, on materials for industrial applications. ELV type high voltage power supply has been selected. Because of the limited space, electrical power, and robust operation, a 200 MHz RF ion source has been developed. In this paper, the accelerator system, test stand of the ion source, and its test results are described.

  8. Radioactive ion beam production by the ISOL method for SPIRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landre-Pellemoine, Frederique

    2001-01-01

    This work is directly related to the SPIRAL project (Systeme de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Acceleres en Lignes) of which the start up will begin in September 2001 at GANIL (Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds) in Caen. This thesis primarily concerns the development of radioactive ion production systems (target/ion source) by the thorough study of each production stage of the ISOL (Isotopic Separation On Line) method: target and/or projectile fragmentation production, diffusion out of target material, effusion into the ion source and finally the ionization of the radioactive atoms. A bibliographical research and thermal simulations allowed us to optimize materials and the shape of the production and diffusion targets. A first target was optimized and made reliable for the radioactive noble gases production (argon, neon...). A second target dedicated to the radioactive helium production was entirely designed and realised (from the specifications to the 'off line' and 'on line' tests). Finally, a third target source system was defined for singly-charged radioactive alkaline production. The intensities of secondary beams planned for SPIRAL are presented here. A detailed study of the diffusion effusion efficiency for these various targets showed that the use of a fine microstructure carbon (grain size of 1 μm) improved the diffusion and showed the importance of thickness of the lamella for the short lived isotope effusion. (author) [fr

  9. Radioactive ion beams and techniques for solid state research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we review the most recent and new applications of solid state characterization techniques using radioactive ion beams. For such type ofresearch, high yields of chemically clean ion beams of radioactive isotopesare needed which are provided by the on-line coupling of high resolution isotope separators to particle accelerators, such as the isotope separator on-line (ISOLDE) facility at CERN. These new experiments are performed by an increasing number of solid state groups. They combine nuclear spectroscopic techniques such as Moessbauer, perturbed angular correlations (PAC) and emission channeling with the traditional non-radioactive techniques liked deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Hall effect measurements. Recently isotopes of elements, not available before, were successfully used in new PAC experiments, and the first photoluminescence (PL) measurements, where the element transmutation plays the essential role on the PL peak identification, have been performed. The scope of applications of radioactive ion beams for research in solid state physics will be enlarged in the near future, with the installation at ISOLDE of a post-accelerator device providing radioactive beams with energies ranging from a few keV up to a few MeV. (orig.)

  10. National Centre for Radioactive Ion Beams (NCRIB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintalapudi, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    A dedicated National Centre for RIB (NCRIB) proposed discussed at several forums is presented. The production of (RIB) radioactive ion beams and applications of beams leading to competitive studies in nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, condensed matter, bio-science and radioactive isotope production etc. are mentioned

  11. Ion accelerator based on plasma vircator

    CERN Document Server

    Onishchenko, I N

    2001-01-01

    The conception of a collective ion accelerator is proposed to be developed in the frameworks of STCU project 1569 (NSC KIPT, Ukraine) in coordination with the ISTC project 1629 (VNIEF, Russia). The main processes of acceleration are supposed to be consisted of two stages.First one is the plasma assistance virtual cathode (VC) in which plasma ions are accelerated in a potential well of VC. Along with ion acceleration the relaxation oscillations, caused by diminishing the potential well due to ion compensation, arise that provides the low-frequency (inverse ion transit time) temporal modulation of an intense relativistic electron beam (IREB) current. At the second stage temporally modulated IREB is injected into the spatially periodic magnetic field. The further ion acceleration is realized by the slow space charge wave that arises in IREB due to its simultaneous temporal and spatial modulation.

  12. Bunching and cooling of radioactive ions with REXTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, P; Bollen, G; Forstner, O; Huber, G; Oinonen, M; Zimmer, J

    2002-01-01

    The post-accelerator REX-ISOLDE at ISOLDE/CERN will deliver radioactive ion beams with energies up to 2.2 MeV/u. For this purpose, a Penning trap and an electron-beam ion source are combined with a linear accelerator. REXTRAP—a large gas-filled Penning trap—has started its commissioning phase. First tests have shown that REXTRAP is able to accumulate, cool and bunch stable ISOLDE ion beams covering a large mass range. Fulfilling the REX-ISOLDE demands, it can handle beam intensities from a few hundred up to 1×10 6 ions per pulse at repetition rates up to 50 Hz.

  13. Radioactive ions and atoms in superfluid helium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dendooven, P.G.; Purushothaman, S.; Gloos, K.; Aysto, J.; Takahashi, N.; Huang, W.; Harissopulos, S; Demetriou, P; Julin, R

    2006-01-01

    We are investigating the use of superfluid helium as a medium to handle and manipulate radioactive ions and atoms. Preliminary results on the extraction of positive ions from superfluid helium at temperatures close to 1 K are described. Increasing the electric field up to 1.2 kV/cm did not improve

  14. Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses the following topics on heavy-ion fusion accelerator research: MBE-4: the induction-linac approach; transverse beam dynamics and current amplification; scaling up the results; through ILSE to a driver; ion-source and injector development; and accelerator component research and development

  15. The Pulse Line Ion Accelerator Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Richard J.

    2006-02-15

    The Pulse Line Ion Accelerator concept was motivated by the desire for an inexpensive way to accelerate intense short pulse heavy ion beams to regimes of interest for studies of High Energy Density Physics and Warm Dense Matter. A pulse power driver applied at one end of a helical pulse line creates a traveling wave pulse that accelerates and axially confines the heavy ion beam pulse. Acceleration scenarios with constant parameter helical lines are described which result in output energies of a single stage much larger than the several hundred kilovolt peak voltages on the line, with a goal of 3-5 MeV/meter acceleration gradients. The concept might be described crudely as an ''air core'' induction linac where the PFN is integrated into the beam line so the accelerating voltage pulse can move along with the ions to get voltage multiplication.

  16. Ion acceleration in modulated electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonch-Osmolovskij, A.G.; Dolya, S.N.

    1977-01-01

    A method of ion acceleration in modulated electron beams is considered. Electron density and energy of their rotational motion are relatively low. However the effective ion-accelerating field is not less than 10 MeV/m. The electron and ion numbers in an individual bunch are also relatively small, although the number of produced bunches per time unit is great. Some aspects of realization of the method are considered. Possible parameters of the accelerator are given. At 50 keV electron energy and 1 kA beam current a modulation is realized at a wave length of 30 cm. The ion-accelerating field is 12 MeV/m. The bunch number is 2x10 3 in one pulse at a gun pulse duration of 2 μs. With a pulse repetition frequency of 10 2 Hz the number of accelerated ions can reach 10 13 -10 14 per second

  17. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics: emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction lina; transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions; drift compression experiments on MBE-4 and related emittance; low emittance uniform- density C s + sources for heavy ion fusion accelerator studies; survey of alignment of MBE-4; time-of-flight dependence on the MBE-4 quadrupole voltage; high order calculation of the multiple content of three dimensional electrostatic geometries; an induction linac injector for scaled experiments; induction accelerator test module for HIF; longitudinal instability in HIF beams; and analysis of resonant longitudinal instability in a heavy ion induction linac

  18. Ion acceleration in the plasma source sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsall, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    This note is a calculation of the potential drop for a planar plasma source, across the source sheath, into a uniform plasma region defined by vector E = 0 and/or perhaps ∂ 2 PHI/∂ x 2 = 0. The calculation complements that of Bohm who obtained the potential drop at the other end of a plasma, at a planar collector sheath. The result is a relation between the source ion flux and the source sheath potential drop and the accompanying ion acceleration. This planar source sheath ion acceleration mechanism (or that from a distributed source) can provide the pre-collector-sheath ion acceleration as found necessary by Bohm. 3 refs

  19. Evaluation and analysis of the residual radioactivity for the 15UD Pelletron accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonkawade, R. G.

    2007-01-01

    For the assessment of radiological impact of the accelerators, it will be better to have the documented information on activation of metal parts of the accelerator components. It is very much essential to get reliable data on these subjects. During acceleration of light ion, the residual radioactivity in the accelerator facility was found near the Analyzing Magnet, single slit, Beam Profile Monitors (BPM), Faraday Cups (FC), bellows, beginning of switching magnet bellows, at the target and the ladder. Study with HPGE detector gives an insight of the formation of the short or long lived radionuclides. The different targets used in the light ion experiment were also monitored and proper decommissioning and decontamination steps were followed. This paper presents the data of residual radioactivity in the 15UD Pelletron accelerator infrastructure. (author)

  20. Ion exchange currents in vacuum accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Thorn, R.

    1978-01-01

    Ion exchange currents (microdischarges) have been observed in short lengths of accelerator tube. The occurrence of these discharges can be related to the trajectories of ions in the tube. High-resolution mass spectra of the negative and positive ion components have been obtained. (author)

  1. Radioactive heavy ion secondary beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimbot, R.

    1987-01-01

    The production of secondary radioactive beams at GANIL using the LISE spectrometer is reviewed. The experimental devices, and secondary beam characteristics are summarized. Production of neutron rich secondary beams was studied for the systems Ar40 + Be at 44 MeV/u, and 018 + Be at 45 and 65 MeV/u. Partial results were also obtained for the system Ne22 + Ta at 45 MeV/u. Experiments using secondary beams are classified into two categories: those which correspond to fast transfer of nuclei from the production target to a well shielded observation point; and those in which the radioactive beam interacts with a secondary target

  2. Neutron and proton transmutation-activation cross section libraries to 150 MeV for application in accelerator-driven systems and radioactive ion beam target-design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Chadwick, M.B.; MacFarlane, R.E.; Mashnik, S.; Wilson, W.B.

    1998-05-01

    New transmutation-activation nuclear data libraries for neutrons and protons up to 150 MeV have been created. These data are important for simulation calculations of radioactivity, and transmutation, in accelerator-driven systems such as the production of tritium (APT) and the transmutation of waste (ATW). They can also be used to obtain cross section predictions for the production of proton-rich isotopes in (p,xn) reactions, for radioactive ion beam (RIB) target-design studies. The nuclear data in these libraries stem from two sources: for neutrons below 20 MeV, we use data from the European activation and transmutation file, EAF97; For neutrons above 20 MeV and for protons at all energies we have isotope production cross sections with the nuclear model code HMS-ALICE. This code applies the Monte Carlo Hybrid Simulation theory, and the Weisskopf-Ewing theory, to calculate cross sections. In a few cases, the HMS-ALICE results were replaced by those calculated using the GNASH code for the Los Alamos LA150 transport library. The resulting two libraries, AF150.N and AF150.P, consist of 766 nuclides each and are represented in the ENDF6-format. An outline is given of the new representation of the data. The libraries have been checked with ENDF6 preprocessing tools and have been processed with NJOY into libraries for the Los Alamos transmutation/radioactivity code CINDER. Numerous benchmark figures are presented for proton-induced excitation functions of various isotopes compared with measurements. Such comparisons are useful for validation purposes, and for assessing the accuracy of the evaluated data. These evaluated libraries are available on the WWW at: http://t2.lanl.gov/. 21 refs

  3. Radioactive ion implantation as a tool for wear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagger, C.; Soerensen, G.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with ion implantation of radioactive krypton ions in surfaces with aim of measuring wear of different magnetic materials in sound-heads. The technique is especially suited for a relatively fast comparison of wear-characteristics of materials of varying composition in small inaccessible areas. In the present case utilisation of a 60 KeV accelerator allows determination of a total wear as small as 0.05 μm with an accuracy of 10%. Further the technique yields information of the time dependence of the wear process with an accuracy less than 0.001 μm. (author)

  4. Folded tandem ion accelerator facility at BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Arun; Padmakumar, Sapna; Subrahmanyam, N.B.V.; Singh, V.P.; Bhatt, J.P.; Ware, Shailaja V.; Pol, S.S; Basu, A.; Singh, S.K.; Krishnagopal, S.; Bhagwat, P.V.

    2017-01-01

    The 5.5 MV single stage Van de Graaff (VDG) accelerator was in continuous operation at Nuclear Physics Division (NPD), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) since its inception in 1962. During 1993-96, VDG accelerator was converted to a Folded Tandem Ion Accelerator (FOTIA). The scientists and engineers of NPD, IADD (then a part of NPD) along with several other divisions of BARC joined hands together in designing, fabrication, installation and commissioning of the FOTIA for the maximum terminal voltage of 6 MV. After experiencing the first accelerated ion beam on the target from FOTIA during April 2000, different ion species were accelerated and tested. Now this accelerator FOTIA is in continuous use for different kind of experiments

  5. Cyclotron method for heavy ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gikal, B.N.; Gul'bekyan, G.G.; Kutner, V.B.; Oganesyan, R.Ts.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on heavy ion beams in a wide range of masses (up to uranium) and energies disclose essential potential opportunities for solution of both fundamental scientific and significant economical problems. A cyclotron method for heavy ion acceleration is considered. Development of low and medium energy heavy ion accelerators is revealed. The design of a complex comprising two isochronous cyclotrons which is planned to be constrdcted 1n the JINR is described. The cyclotron complex includes the U-400 and the U-400 M cyclotrons and it is intended for acceleration of both 35-20 MeV/nucleon superheavy ions such as Xe-U and 120 MeV/nucleon light ions. Certain systems of the accelerators are described. Prospects of the U-400 and the U-400 M development are displayed

  6. Experimental studies with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, D.L.; Sree Krishna Murty, G.; Chandrasekhar Rao, M.V.S.

    1991-01-01

    The sources of information presented are essentially taken from the papers reported at several international seminars and those appeared in the Journal of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Production and usage of radioactive ion beams (RIB) in research have received the attention of scientists all over the world during the past six years. The first radioactive ion beams ( 19 Ne) were produced at Bevalac for the purpose of medical research using a primary beam of energy 800 MeV/a.m.u. (author). 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Studies of pear-shaped nuclei using accelerated radioactive beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gaffney, L P; Scheck, M; Hayes, A B; Wenander, F; Albers, M; Bastin, B; Bauer, C; Blazhev, A; Bonig, S; Bree, N; Cederkall, J; Chupp, T; Cline, D; Cocolios, T E; Davinson, T; DeWitte, H; Diriken, J; Grahn, T; Herzan, A; Huyse, M; Jenkins, D G; Joss, D T; Kesteloot, N; Konki, J; Kowalczyk, M; Kroll, Th; Kwan, E; Lutter, R; Moschner, K; Napiorkowski, P; Pakarinen, J; Pfeiffer, M; Radeck, D; Reiter, P; Reynders, K; Rigby, S V; Robledo, L M; Rudigier, M; Sambi, S; Seidlitz, M; Siebeck, B; Stora, T; Thoele, P; Van Duppen, P; Vermeulen, M J; von Schmid, M; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wimmer, K; Wrzosek-Lipska, K; Wu, C Y; Zielinska, M

    2013-01-01

    There is strong circumstantial evidence that certain heavy, unstable atomic nuclei are ‘octupole deformed’, that is, distorted into a pear shape. This contrasts with the more prevalent rugby-ball shape of nuclei with reflection-symmetric, quadrupole deformations. The elusive octupole deformed nuclei are of importance for nuclear structure theory, and also in searches for physics beyond the standard model; any measurable electric-dipole moment (a signature of the latter) is expected to be amplified in such nuclei. Here we determine electric octupole transition strengths (a direct measure of octupole correlations) for short-lived isotopes of radon and radium. Coulomb excitation experiments were performed using accelerated beams of heavy, radioactive ions. Our data on and $^{224}$Ra show clear evidence for stronger octupole deformation in the latter. The results enable discrimination between differing theoretical approaches to octupole correlations, and help to constrain suitable candidates for experimental...

  8. Radioactive ion beam production challenges at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigs, M.J.; Alton, G.D.; Dowling, D.T.; Haynes, D.L.; Jones, C.M.; Juras, R.C.; Lane, S.N.; Mills, G.D.; Mosko, S.W.; Olsen, D.K.; Tatum, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    The radioactive ion beam (RIB) project at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) will provide for reconfiguration of the HHIRF accelerator system to enable provision of low-intensity RIBs for nuclear and astrophysics research. As we have progressed with the design of the reconfiguration, we have encountered several challenges that were not immediately obvious when first contemplating the project. The challenges do not seem insurmountable but should keep life interesting for those of us doing the work. A brief review of the project will allow a better understanding of the challenges in RIB production. Radioactive ion beams will be produced with the Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) postacceleration technique. In particular, radioactive atoms will be produced by reactions in the thick stopping target of an ISOL-type target-ion source assembly using intense beams from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron equipped with a light-ion internal source. This ISOL target-ion source assembly will be mounted on a high-voltage platform with a mass separator. The target ion source will operate at potentials up to 50 kV with respect to the high voltage platform. The radioactive atoms produced by nuclear reactions in the target diffuse to the surface of the heated target material, desorb from this surface, and effuse through a heated transfer tube into an ion source where ionization and extraction take place. Two types of ion sources will be initially considered. A Forced Electron Beam Induced Arc Discharge source, similar to those used by the ISOLDE facility at CERN and by the UNISOR facility at ORNL, will be built to produce positive ions. These positive ions will be focused through an alkali vapor charge-exchange canal to produce negative ions for tandem injection. In addition, a direct negative surface ionization addition or modification to the above source will be built and investigated

  9. Accelerated ion beam research at ATOMKI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, A.Z.

    2009-01-01

    The paper summarizes the studies on accelerated ion beams at ATOMKI and their technical background, their use from chemical analysis to biological, medical, geological, archaeological applications, their advance from material science to micromachining. (TRA)

  10. Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the following topics: research with multiple- beam experiment MBE-4; induction linac systems experiments; and long- range research and development of heavy-ion fusion accelerators

  11. Ion acceleration in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, R.

    1982-09-01

    Experimental informations are used to estimate the time dependence of the current density in the plasma focus and the electromagnetic field is determined from the Maxwell equations. The acceleration of the ions in these fields is studied. A detailed analysis of the acceleration in the compression phase, in the expansion phase and during the evolution of the m=O instability is made. It is shown, that the appearance of fast selffocused quasineutral electron beams, as a result of the betatron acceleration, has a decisive importance in the ion acceleration during the m=O constriction. Models for electromagnetic ion acceleration are described for each phase. A concordance with many experimental results can be observed. (orig.)

  12. Nuclear astrophysics at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    The potential for understanding spectacular stellar explosions such as novae, supernovae, and X-ray bursts will be greatly enhanced by the availability of the low-energy, high-intensity, accelerated beams of proton-rich radioactive nuclei currently being developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These beams will be utilized in absolute cross section measurements of crucial (p, γ) capture reactions in efforts to resolve the substantial qualitative uncertainties in current models of explosive stellar hydrogen burning outbursts. Details of the nuclear astrophysics research program with the unique HRIBF radioactive beams and a dedicated experimental endstation--centered on the Daresbury Recoil Separator--will be presented

  13. National Centre for Radioactive Ion Beams (NCRIB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintalapudi, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Radioactive Ion (nuclear) Beams have become prolific recently. Nuclear physics and associated subjects have staged a comeback to almost the beginning with the advent of RIB. A dedicated National Centre for RIB (NCRIB) proposed, discussed at several forums and under serious consideration is described

  14. Impulsive ion acceleration in earth's outer magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.N.; Belian, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Considerable observational evidence is found that ions are accelerated to high energies in the outer magnetosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. The acceleration often appears to be quite impulsive causing temporally brief (10's of seconds), very intense bursts of ions in the distant plasma sheet as well as in the near-tail region. These ion bursts extend in energy from 10's of keV to over 1 MeV and are closely associated with substorm expansive phase onsets. Although the very energetic ions are not of dominant importance for magnetotail plasma dynamics, they serve as an important tracer population. Their absolute intensity and brief temporal appearance bespeaks a strong and rapid acceleration process in the near-tail, very probably involving large induced electric fields substantially greater than those associated with cross-tail potential drops. Subsequent to their impulsive acceleration, these ions are injected into the outer trapping regions forming ion ''drift echo'' events, as well as streaming tailward away from their acceleration site in the near-earth plasma sheet. Most auroral ion acceleration processes occur (or are greatly enhanced) during the time that these global magnetospheric events are occurring in the magnetotail. A qualitative model relating energetic ion populations to near-tail magnetic reconnection at substorm onset followed by global redistribution is quite successful in explaining the primary observational features. Recent measurements of the elemental composition and charge-states have proven valuable for showing the source (solar wind or ionosphere) of the original plasma population from which the ions were accelerated

  15. Apparatus for neutralization of accelerated ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.; Frank, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    Apparatus is described for neutralization of a beam of accelerated ions, such as hydrogen negative ions (H - ), using relatively efficient strip diode lasers which emit monochromatically at an appropriate wavelength (lambda = 8000 A for H - ions) to strip the excess electrons by photodetachment. A cavity, formed by two or more reflectors spaced apart, causes the laser beams to undergo multiple reflections within the cavity, thus increasing the efficiency and reducing the illumination required to obtain an acceptable percentage (approx. 85%) of neutralization

  16. Heavy ion medical accelerator in chiba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Yamada, S.

    1992-12-01

    The HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) construction project has been promoted by NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences) as one of the projects of 'Comprehensive 10 year Strategy for Cancer Control' HIMAC is the first heavy-ion accelerator dedicated to medicine in the world, and its design parameters are based on the radiological requirements. It consists of two types of ion sources, an RFQ and an Alvarez linacs, dual synchrotron rings, high energy beam transport lines, and irradiation facilities for treatment and experiments. This report mainly describes the outline of the structure and performance of each HIMAC subsystem. (J.P.N.)

  17. Radioactive Ions for Surface Characterization

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The collaboration has completed a set of pilot experiments with the aim to develop techniques for using radioactive nuclei in surface physics. The first result was a method for thermal deposition of isolated atoms (Cd, In, Rb) on clean metallic surfaces. \\\\ \\\\ Then the diffusion history of deposited Cd and In atoms on two model surfaces, Mo(110) and Pd(111), was followed through the electric field gradients (efg) acting at the probe nuclei as measured with the Perturbed Angular Correlation technique. For Mo(110) a rather simple history of the adatoms was inferred from the experiments: Atoms initially landing at terrace sites diffuse from there to ledges and then to kinks, defects always present at real surfaces. The next stage is desorption from the surface. For Pd a scenario that goes still further was found. Following the kink stage the adatoms get incorporated into ledges and finally into the top surface layer. For all these five sites the efg's could be measured.\\\\ \\\\ In preparation for a further series o...

  18. Overview of The Pulse Line Ion Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, R.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Coleman, J.E.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Reginato, L.L.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Caporaso, G.J.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Nelson, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA) concept and its development is presented. In the PLIA concept a pulse power driver applied to one end of a helical pulse line creates a traveling wave pulse that accelerates and axially confines a heavy ion beam pulse The motivation for its development at the IFE-VNL is the acceleration of intense, short pulse, heavy ion beams to regimes of interest for studies of High Energy Density Physics and Warm Dense Matter. Acceleration scenarios with constant parameter helical lines are described which result in output energies of a single stage much larger than the several hundred kilovolt peak voltages on the line, with a goal of 3-5 MeV/meter acceleration gradients. The main attraction of the concept is the very low cost it promises. It might be described crudely as an ''air core'' induction linac where the pulse-forming network is integrated into the beam line so the accelerating voltage pulse can move along with the ions to get voltage multiplication

  19. Heavy ion acceleration at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The Brookhaven AGS is alternating gradient synchrotron, 807 meters in circumference, which was originally designed for only protons. Using the 15 MV Brookhaven Tandem Van de Graaff as an injector, the AGS started to accelerate heavy ions of mass lighter than sulfur. Because of the relatively poor vacuum (∼10 -8 Torr), the AGS is not able to accelerate heavier ions which could not be fully stripped of electrons at the Tandem energy. When the AGS Booster, which is under construction, is completed the operation will be extended to all species of heavy ions including gold and uranium. Because ultra-high vacuum (∼10 -11 Torr) is planned, the Booster can accelerate partially stripped elements. The operational experience, the parameters, and scheme of heavy ion acceleration will be presented in detail from injection to extraction, as well as future injection into the new Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). A future plan to improve intensity of the accelerator will also be presented. 5 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Condensed matter physics with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, H.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the present uses of radioactive ion beams from ISOLDE for condensed matter research is presented. As simple examples of such work, tracer studies of diffusion processes with radioisotopes and blocking/channeling measurements of emitted particles for lattice location are discussed. Especially the application of nuclear hyperfine interaction techniques such as PAC or Moessbauer spectroscopy has become a powerful tool to study local electronic and structural properties at impurities. Recently, interesting information on impurity properties in semiconductors has been obtained using all these methods. The extreme sensitivity of nuclear techniques makes them also well suited for investigations of surfaces, interfaces, and biomolecules. Some ideas for future uses of high energy radioactive ion beams beyond the scope of the present projects are outlined: the study of diffusion in highly immiscible systems by deep implantation, nuclear polarization with the tilted-foil technique, and transmutation doping of wide-bandgap semiconductors. (orig.)

  1. The future of the accelerator mass spectrometry of rare long-lived radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litherland, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Accelerators, originally designed for nuclear physics, can be added to mass spectrometric apparatus to increase the sensitivity so that isotope ratios in the range 10 -12 to 10 -15 can be measured routinely. This significant improvement of high-sensitivity mass spectrometry has been called Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. The present article addresses the basic principles of accelerator mass spectrometry and some recent applications which show its versatility. In particular, it is noted that accelerator mass spectrometry could play an increasing role in the measurement of the levels of long lived radioactivities in the environment, including the actinides, which result from human activities such as the use of nuclear power. To fulfill this promise, continued research and development is necessary to provide ion sources, various types of heavy ion accelerators and peripheral magnetic and electric analysers. (N.K.)

  2. Heavy-ion accelerator mass spectrometry with a 'small' accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steier, P.; Golser, R.; Priller, A.; Vockenhuber, C.; Irlweck, K.; Kutschera, W.; Lichtenstein, V.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: VERA, the Vienna environmental research accelerator, is based on a 3-MV pelletron tandem accelerator and is designed to allow the transport of ions of all elements, from the lightest to the heaviest. The VERA heavy ion program tries to establish measurement methods which work for the long-lived radionuclides where suppression of isobars is not required. Among these are 129 I, 210 Pb, 236 U and all heavier ions where no stable isobars exist. To suppress neighboring masses, the resolution of VERA was increased, both by improving the ion optics of existing elements and by installing a new electrostatic separator after the analyzing magnet. Interfering ions which pass all beam filters are identified with a high-resolution time-of-flight system, using a 0.5 μg/cm 2 DLC (diamond-like carbon) foil in the start detector, which substantially reduces beam straggling. Compared to heavy ion AMS at large tandem accelerators (TV ≥ 8 MV) and for cases where stable isobar interference is absent, it is possible to offset the disadvantage of lower ion energy. Moreover, the more compact facilities like VERA achieve higher stability and reliability and provide advanced computer control. This promises even higher precision and sensitivity for a larger number of samples, which is a prerequisite for research on natural-occurring heavy radioisotopes at environmental levels. First results on the measurement of 210 Pb (half-life 22 a) and 236 U (23 Ma) encourages us to push towards even heavier radionuclides (e.g. 224 Pu, 81 Ma). (author)

  3. Linear induction accelerator for heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1976-01-01

    There is considerable recent interest in the use of high energy heavy ions to irradiate deuterium-tritium pellets in a reactor vessel to constitute a power source at the level of 1 GW or more. Various accelerator configurations involving storage rings have been suggested. This paper discusses how the technology of linear induction accelerators - well known to be matched to high current and short pulse length - may offer significant advantages for this application. (author)

  4. Next generation of relativistic heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunder, H.; Leemann, C.; Selph, F.

    1978-06-01

    Results are presented of exploratory and preliminary studies of a next generation of heavy ion accelerators. The conclusion is reached that useful luminosities are feasible in a colliding beam facility for relativistic heavy ions. Such an accelerator complex may be laid out in such a way as to provide extractebeams for fixed target operation, therefore allowing experimentation in an energy region overlapping with that presently available. These dual goals seem achievable without undue complications, or penalties with respect to cost and/or performance

  5. Heavy-ion-linac post-accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The main features of the tandem-linac system for heavy-ion acceleration are reviewed and illustrated in terms of the technology and performance of the superconducting heavy-ion energy booster at Argonne. This technology is compared briefly with the corresponding technologies of the superconducting linac at Stony Brook and the room-temperature linac at Heidelberg. The performance possibilities for the near-term future are illustrated in terms of the proposed extension of the Argonne booster to form ATLAS

  6. Relativistic ion acceleration by ultraintense laser interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, K.; Koga, J.K.; Nakagawa, K.

    2001-01-01

    There has been a great interest in relativistic particle generation by ultraintense laser interactions with matter. We propose the use of relativistically self-focused laser pulses for the acceleration of ions. Two dimensional PIC simulations are performed, which show the formation of a large positive electrostatic field near the front of a relativistically self-focused laser pulse. Several factors contribute to the acceleration including self-focusing distance, pulse depletion, and plasma density. Ultraintense laser-plasma interactions are capable of generating enormous electrostatic fields of ∼3 TV/m for acceleration of protons with relativistic energies exceeding 1 GeV

  7. Targets for ion sources for RIB generation at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF), now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is based on the use of the well-known on-line isotope separator (ISOL) technique in which radioactive nuclei are produced by fusion type reactions in selectively chosen target materials by high-energy proton, deuteron, or He ion beams from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). Among several major challenges posed by generating and accelerating adequate intensities of radioactive ion beams (RIBs), selection of the most appropriate target material for production of the species of interest is, perhaps, the most difficult. In this report, we briefly review present efforts to select target materials and to design composite target matrix/heat-sink systems that simultaneously incorporate the short diffusion lengths, high permeabilities, and controllable temperatures required to effect maximum diffusion release rates of the short-lived species that can be realized at the temperature limits of specific target materials. We also describe the performance characteristics for a selected number of target ion sources that will be employed for initial use at the HRIBF as well as prototype ion sources that show promise for future use for RIB applications

  8. Pulsed power ion accelerators for inertially confined fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    Current research is described on pulsed power ion accelerators for inertial fusion, i.e., ion diodes and collective accelerators. Particle beam energy and power requirements for fusion, and basic deposition characteristics of charged particle beams are discussed. Ion diodes and collective accelerators for fusion are compared with existing conventional accelerators

  9. Sealed ion accelerator tubes (survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsik, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    The first publications on developing commercial models of small-scale sealed accelerator tubes in which neutrons are generated appeared in the foreign press in 1954 to 1957; they were very brief and were advertising-oriented. The tubes were designed for neutron logging of oil wells instead of ampule neutron sources (Po + Be, Ra + Be). Later, instruments of this type began to be called neutron tubes from the resulting neutron radiation that they gave off. In Soviet Union a neutron tube was developed in 1958 in connection with the development of the pulsed neutron-neutron method of studying the geological profile of oil wells. At that time the tube developed was intended, in the view of its inventors, to replace standard isotope sources with constant neutron yield. A fairly detailed survey of neutron tubes was made in the studies. 8 refs., 8 figs

  10. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

    1981-11-01

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized.

  11. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

    1981-11-01

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized

  12. The research status of induced radioactivity in accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Feng; Deng Daping

    2005-01-01

    The hazards of subsequent-radiation produced by high-energy accelerator must be no ignore. The principle of induced radioactivity and the hazards to the people were introduced in this article. The radiation levels around the treatment head and in the air of the treatment room were discussed thor-oughly. Some effects of the induced radioactivity were also mentioned. At last, the article talks about some problems in present researches and some directions for the following study. (authors)

  13. Folded tandem ion accelerator facility at Trombay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present system, negative ion beams extracted from the SNICS-II source are pre- accelerated up to 150 keV. ..... of PCs with a front-end interface using CAMAC instrumentation and uses QNX real time operating system. There are large ...

  14. Recirculating induction accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.; Deadrick, F.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1993-01-01

    We have recently completed a two-year study of recirculating induction heavy-ion accelerators (recirculators) as low-cost drivers for inertial-fusion-energy power plants. We present here a summary of that study and other recent work on recirculators

  15. Pelletron ion accelerator facilities at Inter University Accelerator Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, S.

    2011-01-01

    Inter University Accelerator Centre has two tandem ion accelerators, 15UD Pelletron and 5SDH-2 Pelletron, for use in different areas of research. Recently Accelerator Mass Spectrometry facility has also been added to to the existing experimental facilities of 15UD Pelletron. In these years many modifications and up gradations have been performed to 15UD Pelletron facility. A new MCSNICS ion source has been procured to produce high currents for AMS program. Two foils stripper assemblies ,one each before and after analyzing magnet, have also been added for producing higher charge state beams for LINAC and for experiments requiring higher charge states of accelerated beams. A new 1.7 MV Pelletron facility has also been recently installed at IUAC and it is equipped with RBS and Channelling experimental facility. There are two beam lines installed in the system and five more beam lines can be added to the system. A clean chemistry laboratory with all the modern facilities has also been developed at IUAC for the chemical processing of samples prior to the AMS measurements. The operational description of the Pelletron facilities, chemical processing of samples, methods of measurements and results of AMS measurements are being presented. (author)

  16. High spin studies with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The variety of new research possibilities afforded by the culmination of the two frontier areas of nuclear structure: high spin and studies far from nuclear stability (utilizing intense radioactive ion beams) are discussed. Topics presented include: new regions of exotic nuclear shape (e.g. superdeformation, hyperdeformation, and reflection-asymmetric shapes); the population of and consequences of populating exotic nuclear configurations; and complete spectroscopy (i.e. the overlap of state of the art low-and high-spin studies in the same nucleus)

  17. High spin studies with radioactive ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, J D [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The variety of new research possibilities afforded by the culmination of the two frontier areas of nuclear structure: high spin and studies far from nuclear stability (utilizing intense radioactive ion beams) are discussed. Topics presented include: new regions of exotic nuclear shape (e.g. superdeformation, hyperdeformation, and reflection-asymmetric shapes); the population of and consequences of populating exotic nuclear configurations; and, complete spectroscopy (i.e. the overlap of state of the art low- and high-spin studies in the same nucleus). (author). 47 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Electron Accelerators for Radioactive Ion Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lia Merminga

    2007-10-10

    The summary of this paper is that to optimize the design of an electron drive, one must: (a) specify carefully the user requirements--beam energy, beam power, duty factor, and longitudinal and transverse emittance; (b) evaluate different machine options including capital cost, 10-year operating cost and delivery time. The author is convinced elegant solutions are available with existing technology. There are several design options and technology choices. Decisions will depend on system optimization, in-house infrastructure and expertise (e.g. cryogenics, SRF, lasers), synergy with other programs.

  19. Heavy Ion Acceleration at J-PARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    SATO, Susumu

    2018-02-01

    J-PARC, the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, is an accelerator, which provides a high-intensity proton beam. Recently as a very attractive project, the acceleration of heavy ions produced by supplementary ion sources, called J-PARC-HI, is seriously contemplated by domestic as well as international communities. The planned facility would accelerate heavy ions up to U92+ with a beam energy 20 AGeV ( of 6.2 AGeV). The highlight of the J-PARC-HI project is its very high beam rate up to 1011 Hz, which will enable the study of very rare events. Taking advantage of this high intensity, J-PARC-HI will carry out frontier studies of new and rare observables in this energy region: (i) nuclear medium modification of chiral property of vector mesons through low-mass di-lepton signal, (ii) QCD critical pointcharacterization through event-by-event fluctuation signals of particle production, (iii) systematic measurements related to the equation of state through collective flow signal or two-particle momentum correlation signal, or (iv) the search of hyper nuclei with multi strangeness including or exceeding S = 3. The current plan of J-PARC-HI aims to carrying out the first experimental measurements in 2025.

  20. Negative hydrogen ion sources for accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehs, D.P.; /Fermilab; Peters, J.; /DESY; Sherman, J.; /Los Alamos

    2005-08-01

    A variety of H{sup -} ion sources are in use at accelerator laboratories around the world. A list of these ion sources includes surface plasma sources with magnetron, Penning and surface converter geometries as well as magnetic-multipole volume sources with and without cesium. Just as varied is the means of igniting and maintaining magnetically confined plasmas. Hot and cold cathodes, radio frequency, and microwave power are all in use, as well as electron tandem source ignition. The extraction systems of accelerator H{sup -} ion sources are highly specialized utilizing magnetic and electric fields in their low energy beam transport systems to produce direct current, as well as pulsed and/or chopped beams with a variety of time structures. Within this paper, specific ion sources utilized at accelerator laboratories shall be reviewed along with the physics of surface and volume H{sup -} production in regard to source emittance. Current research trends including aperture modeling, thermal modeling, surface conditioning, and laser diagnostics will also be discussed.

  1. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE). The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator

  2. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE).The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development. The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator

  3. Energetic ion acceleration at collisionless shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, R. B.; Vlahos, L.

    1985-01-01

    An example is presented from a test particle simulation designed to study ion acceleration at oblique turbulent shocks. For conditions appropriate at interplanetary shocks near 1 AU, it is found that a shock with theta sub B n = 60 deg is capable of producing an energy spectrum extending from 10 keV to approx. 1 MeV in approx 1 hour. In this case total energy gains result primarily from several separate episodes of shock drift acceleration, each of which occurs when particles are scattered back to the shock by magnetic fluctuations in the shock vicinity.

  4. Energetic ion acceleration at collisionless shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, R.B.; Vlahos, L.

    1985-01-01

    An example is presented from a test particle simulation designed to study ion acceleration at oblique turbulent shocks. For conditions appropriate at interplanetary shocks near 1 AU, it is found that a shock with theta sub B n = 60 deg is capable of producing an energy spectrum extending from 10 keV to approx 1 MeV in approx 1 hour. In this case total energy gains result primarily from several separate episodes of shock drift acceleration, each of which occurs when particles are scattered back to the shock by magnetic fluctuations in the shock vicinity

  5. Control Infrastructure for a Pulsed Ion Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persaud, A.; Regis, M. J.; Stettler, M. W.; Vytla, V. K.

    2016-01-01

    We report on updates to the accelerator controls for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment II, a pulsed induction-type accelerator for heavy ions. The control infrastructure is built around a LabVIEW interface combined with an Apache Cassandra backend for data archiving. Recent upgrades added the storing and retrieving of device settings into the database, as well as ZeroMQ as a message broker that replaces LabVIEW's shared variables. Converting to ZeroMQ also allows easy access via other programming languages, such as Python.

  6. Control Infrastructure for a Pulsed Ion Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, A.; Regis, M. J.; Stettler, M. W.; Vytla, V. K.

    2016-10-01

    We report on updates to the accelerator controls for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment II, a pulsed induction-type accelerator for heavy ions. The control infrastructure is built around a LabVIEW interface combined with an Apache Cassandra backend for data archiving. Recent upgrades added the storing and retrieving of device settings into the database, as well as ZeroMQ as a message broker that replaces LabVIEW's shared variables. Converting to ZeroMQ also allows easy access via other programming languages, such as Python.

  7. Linear induction accelerator for heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1976-09-01

    There is considerable recent interest in the use of high energy (γ = 1.1), heavy (A greater than or equal to 100) ions to irradiate deuterium--tritium pellets in a reactor vessel to constitute a power source at the level of 1 GW or more. Various accelerator configurations involving storage rings have been suggested. A discussion is given of how the technology of Linear Induction Accelerators--well known to be matched to high current and short pulse length--may offer significant advantages for this application

  8. Detection systems for radioactive ion beams; Systeme de detection en ions radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savajols, H

    2002-07-01

    Two main methods are used to produce radioactive ion beams: -) the ISOL method (isotope separation on-line) in which the stable beam interacts with a thick target, the reaction products diffuse outside the target and are transferred to a source where they are ionized, a mass separator and a post-accelerator drive the selected radioactive ions to the right energy; -) the in-flight fragmentation method in which the stable beam interacts with a thin target, the reaction products are emitted from the target with a restricted angular distribution and a velocity close to that of the incident beam, the experimenter has to take advantage from the reaction kinetics to get the right particle beam. Characteristic time is far longer with the ISOL method but the beam intensity is much better because of the use of a post-accelerator. In both cases, the beam intensity is lower by several orders of magnitude than in the case of a stable beam. This article presents all the constraints imposed by radioactive beams to the detection systems of the reaction products and gives new technical solutions according to the type of nuclear reaction studied. (A.C.)

  9. CAS Accelerator Physics (Ion Sources) in Slovakia

    CERN Multimedia

    CAS School

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Slovak University of Technology jointly organised a specialised course on ion sources, held at the Hotel Senec, Senec, Slovakia, from 29 May to 8 June, 2012.   Following some background lectures on accelerator physics and the fundamental processes of atomic and plasma physics, the course covered a wide range of topics related to ion sources and highlighted the latest developments in the field. Realistic case studies and topical seminars completed the programme. The school was very successful, with 69 participants representing 25 nationalities. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, reflecting the high standard of the lectures. The case studies were performed with great enthusiasm and produced some excellent results. In addition to the academic programme, the participants were able to take part in a one-day excursion consisting of a guided tour of Bratislava and free time. A welcome event was held at the Hotel Senec, with s...

  10. Heavy-ion accelerator research for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers a most attractive long-term solution to the problem of future energy supplies: The fuel is virtually inexhaustible and the fusion reaction is notably free of long-lived radioactive by-products. Also, because the fuel is in the form of a plasma, there is no solid fuel core that could melt down. The DOE supports two major fusion research programs to exploit these virtues, one based on magnetic confinement and a second on inertial confinement. One part of the program aimed at inertial fusion is known as Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, or HIFAR. In this booklet, the aim is to place this effort in the context of fusion research generally, to review the brief history of heavy-ion fusion, and to describe the current status of the HIFAR program

  11. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source(ECRIS) at ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    Lindroos, M

    2002-01-01

    The development of an efficient charge breeding scheme for the next generation of RIB facilities will have a strong impact on the post-accelerator for several Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) projects at European large scale facilities. At ISOLDE/CERN there will be the unique possibility to carry out experiments with the two possible charge breeding set-ups with a large variety of radioactive isotopes using identical injection conditions. One charge breeding set-up is the Penning trap/EBIS combination which feeds the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator and which is in commissioning now. The second charge breeder is a new ECRIS PHOENIX developed at the ISN ion source laboratory at Grenoble. This ECRIS is now under investigation with a 14 GHz amplifier to characterize its performance. The experiments are accompanied by theoretical studies in computer simulations in order to optimize the capture of the ions in the ECRIS plasma. A second identical PHOENIX ECRIS which is under investigation at the Daresbury Laboratory is avai...

  12. Simulations of multistage intense ion beam acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, S.A.; Poukey, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    An analytic theory for magnetically insulated, multistage acceleration of high intensity ion beams, where the diamagnetic effect due to electron flow is important, has been presented by Slutz and Desjarlais. The theory predicts the existence of two limiting voltages called V 1 (W) and V 2 (W), which are both functions of the injection energy qW of ions entering the accelerating gap. As the voltage approaches V 1 (W), unlimited beam-current density can penetrate the gap without the formation of a virtual anode because the dynamic gap goes to zero. Unlimited beam current density can penetrate an accelerating gap above V 2 (W), although a virtual anode is formed. It was found that the behavior of these limiting voltages is strongly dependent on the electron density profile. The authors have investigated the behavior of these limiting voltages numerically using the 2-D particle-in-cell (PIC) code MAGIC. Results of these simulations are consistent with the superinsulated analytic results. This is not surprising, since the ignored coordinate eliminates instabilities known to be important from studies of single stage magnetically insulated ion diodes. To investigate the effect of these instabilities the authors have simulated the problem with the 3-D PIC code QUICKSILVER, which indicates behavior that is consistent with the saturated model

  13. Light Ion Biomedical Research Accelerator LIBRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    LIBRA is a concept to place a light-ion, charged-particle facility in a hospital environment, and to dedicate it to applications in biology and medicine. There are two aspects of the program envisaged for LIBRA: a basic research effort coupled with a program in clinical applications of accelerated charged particles. The operational environment to be provided for LIBRA is one in which both of these components can coexist and flourish, and one that will promote the transfer of technology and knowledge from one to the other. In order to further investigate the prospects for a Light Ion Biomedical Research Accelerator (LIBRA), discussions are underway with the Merritt Peralta Medical Center MPMC) in Oakland CA, and the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF). In this paper, a brief discussion of the technical requirements for such a facility is given, together with an outline of the accelerator technology required. While still in a preliminary stage, it is possible nevertheless to develop an adequate working description of the type, size, performance and cost of the accelerator facilities required to meet the preliminary goals for LIBRA

  14. The Light Ion Biomedical Research Accelerator (LIBRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, R.A.

    1987-03-01

    LIBRA is a concept to place a light-ion, charged-particle facility in a hospital environment, and to dedicate it to applications in biology and medicine. There are two aspects of the program envisaged for LIBRA: a basic research effort coupled with a program in clinical applications of accelerated charged particles. The operational environment to be provided for LIBRA is one in which both of these components can coexist and flourish, and one that will promote the transfer of technology and knowledge from one to the other. In order to further investigate the prospects for a Light Ion Biomedical Research Accelerator (LIBRA), discussions are underway with the Merritt Peralta Medical Center (MPMC) in Oakland, California, and the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF). In this paper, a brief discussion of the technical requirements for such a facility is given, together with an outline of the accelerator technology required. While still in a preliminary stage, it is possible nevertheless to develop an adequate working description of the type, size, performance and cost of the accelerator facilities required to meet the preliminary goals for LIBRA

  15. Developments in accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1985-01-01

    The long term goal of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is the development of an accelerator with the large beam power, large beam stored-energy, and high brightness needed to implode small deuterium-tritium capsules for fusion power. While studies of an RF linac/storage ring combination as an intertial fusion driver continue in Japan and Europe, the US program in recent times has concentrated on the study of the suitability of linear induction acceleration of ions for this purpose. Novel features required include use of multiple beams, beam current amplification in the linac, and manipulation of long beam bunches with a large velocity difference between head and tail. Recent experiments with an intense bright beam of cesium ions have established that much higher currents can be transported in a long quadrupole system than was believed possible a few years ago. A proof-of-principle ion induction linac to demonstrate beam current amplification with multiple beams is at present being fabricated at LBL

  16. Developments in accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1985-05-01

    The long term goal of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) is the development of an accelerator with the large beam power, large beam stored-energy, and high brightness needed to implode small deuterium-tritium capsules for fusion power. While studies of an rf linac/storage ring combination as an inertial fusion driver continue in Japan and Europe, the US program in recent times has concentrated on the study of the suitability of linear induction acceleration of ions for this purpose. Novel features required include use of multiple beams, beam current amplification in the linac, and manipulation of long beam bunches with a large velocity difference between head and tail. Recent experiments with an intense bright beam of cesium ions have established that much higher currents can be transported in a long quadrupole system than was believed possible a few years ago. A proof-of-principle ion induction linac to demonstrate beam current amplification with multiple beams is at present being fabricated at LBL. 28 refs., 4 figs

  17. Particle acceleration by electromagnetic ion cyclotron turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crew, G.B.; Chang, Tom

    1990-01-01

    The LF EM-turbulence which furnishes energy for the acceleration of ions in various regions of the earth's magnetosphere efficiently accomplishes its transfer of energy from waves to particles through ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) with the left-hand polarized component of the turbulence; the result of this interaction is a heating of the particle distribution. A general theoretical treatment of ICR heating in a weakly inhomogeneous magnetic geometry is presented, en route to a more detailed examination of auroral ion conics' formation. A substantial simplification of the analysis of the altitude-asymptotic form of the conic distribution is obtained via the similarity transformation introduced into the properties of the electric field spectral density and the earth's dipolar magnetic field. 60 refs

  18. Transport and extraction of radioactive ions stopped in superfluid helium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, WX; Dendooven, P; Gloos, K; Takahashi, N; Arutyunov, K; Pekola, JP; Aysto, J

    A new approach to convert a high energy beam to a low energy one, which is essential for the next generation radioactive ion beam facilities, has been proposed and tested at Jyvaskyla, Finland. An open Ra-223 alpha-decay-recoil source has been used to produce radioactive ions in superfluid helium.

  19. Method of solidifying radioactive ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Yuji; Tomita, Toshihide

    1989-01-01

    Spent anion exchange resin formed in nuclear power plants, etc. generally catch only a portion of anions in view of the ion exchange resins capacity and most of the anions are sent while possessing activities to radioactive waste processing systems. Then, the anion exchange resins increase the specific gravity by the capture of the anions. Accordingly, anions are caused to be captured on the anion exchange resin wastes such that the specific gravity of the anion exchange resin wastes is greater than that of the thermosetting resins to be mixed. This enables satisfactory mixing with the thermosetting resins and, in addition, enables to form integral solidification products in which anion exchange resins and cation exchange resins are not locallized separately and which are homogenous and free from cracks. (T.M.)

  20. Radioactive ion beam facility at Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium and its features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintalapudi, S.N.

    1991-01-01

    Use of radioactive ion beams for the study of nuclear structure as well as the astrophysical reaction cross sections become the current interest in physics. A full-fledged facility based on two coupled cyclotrons comprising a compact high current cyclotron and a medium energy cyclotron with an intermediate target and ion source system has been recently commissioned at the Louvain-La-Neuve University in Belgium by its accelerator group and has been successfully used for the measurement of cross sections for the primordial nucleosynthesis reactions of astrophysical interest, directly. A brief description of the system, its operational features together with some details of the target and the ion source arrangement for the production of the radioactive ion beams and their acceleration to energies required for the proposed studies is presented. Description of the reactions studied by the Louvain La Neuve group for astrophysical interest is also given. (author). 20 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Charge breeding of radioactive isotopes at the CARIBU facility with an electron beam ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrasek, R. C.; Dickerson, C. A.; Hendricks, M.; Ostroumov, P.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Scott, R.; Zinkann, G.

    2018-05-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory as part of the californium rare ion breeder upgrade. For the past year, the EBIS-CB has been undergoing commissioning as part of the ATLAS accelerator complex. It has delivered both stable and radioactive beams with A/Q 18% into a single charge state. The operation of this device, challenges during the commissioning phase, and future improvements will be discussed.

  2. Selection of RIB targets using ion implantation at the Holifield radioactive ion beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Dellwo, J.

    1995-01-01

    Among several major challenges posed by generating and accelerating adequate intensities of RIBs, selection of the most appropriate target material is perhaps the most difficult because of the requisite fast and selective thermal release of minute amounts of the short-lived product atoms from the ISOL target in the presence of bulk amounts of target material. Experimental studies are under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) which are designed to measure the time evolution of implanted elements diffused from refractory target materials which are candidates for forming radioactive ion beams (RIBs) at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF). The diffusion coefficients are derived by comparing experimental data with numerical solutions to a one-dimensional form of Fick's second law for ion implanted distributions. In this report, we describe the experimental arrangement, experimental procedures, and provide time release data and diffusion coefficients for releasing ion implanted 37 Cl from Zr 5 Si 3 and 75 As, 79 Br, and 78 Se from Zr 5 Ge 3 and estimates of the diffusion coefficients for 35 Cl, 63 Cu, 65 Cu, 69 Ga and 71 Ga diffused from BN; 35 Cl, 63 Cu, 65 Cu, 69 Ga, 75 As, and 78 Se diffused from C; 35 Cl, 68 Cu, 69 Ga, 75 As, and 78 Se diffused from Ta

  3. Animal experimental investigations of the problem of the decorporation of radioactive metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berner, W.

    1973-01-01

    Basically, it is possible to reduce the radiation exposure by excretion intensification of incorporated radioactive materials. Chelate agents have proved to be particularly effective for the accelerated elimination of radioactive metal ions. The kinetics of the distribution and excretion of 57 CoCl 2 , 65 ZnCl 2 and 203 HgCl 2 on the rat under the influence of the chelating agent penicillamin (D-ββ-dimethylcystein) was investigated and the reduction of the radiation exposure in man was calculated from the animal-experimentally gained data. At various times after the incorporation of metal ions, the whole body radioactivity and, after killing the animals, the radioactivity of the organs liver, kidney, spleen, skeleton, muscles and blood, were measured. From the course of the measured radioactivities with time, the biokinetic data of the radioactive metal ions (effective half-lives, selection factors and their components) were determined by means of regression analyses. The chelating agent was applied at different times before or after incorporation of the radioactive metal ions. (EK/LH) [de

  4. Latest developments at GANIL for stable and radioactive ion beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, P.; Barue, C.; Bajeat, O.; Canet, C.; Clement, E.; Cornell, J. C.; Delahaye, P.; Dubois, M.; Dupuis, M.; Flambard, J. L.; Fraanberg, H.; Frigot, R.; Leboucher, C.; Lecesne, N.; Lecomte, P.; Leherissier, P.; Lemagnen, F.; Leroy, R.; Maunoury, L.; Mery, A.

    2010-01-01

    In the frame of the SPIRAL II (Systeme de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Acceleres en Ligne Partie II) project, several developments of stable and radioactive ion production systems have been started up. In parallel, GANIL has the ambition to preserve the existing stable and radioactive beams and also to increase its range by offering new ones. In order to identify the best directions for this development, a new group called GANISOL has been formed. Its preliminary conclusions and the latest developments at GANIL are presented.

  5. Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The National Energy Strategy calls for a demonstration IFE power plant by the year 2025. The cornerstone of the plan to meet this ambitious goal is research and development for heavy-ion driver technology. A series of successes indicates that the technology being studied by the HIFAR Group -- the induction accelerator -- is a prime candidate for further technology development toward this long-range goal. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions; the understanding of the scaling laws that apply in this hitherto little-explored physics regime; and the validation of new, potentially more economical accelerator strategies. Key specific elements to be addressed include: fundamental physical limits of transverse and longitudinal beam quality; development of induction modules for accelerators, along with multiple-beam hardware, at reasonable cost; acceleration of multiple beams, merging of the beams, and amplification of current without significant dilution of beam quality; final bunching, transport, and focusing onto a small target. In 1992, the HIFAR Program was concerned principally with the next step toward a driver: the design of ILSE, the Induction Linac Systems Experiments. ILSE will address most of the remaining beam-control and beam-manipulation issues at partial driver scale. A few parameters -- most importantly, the line charge density and consequently the size of the ILSE beams -- will be at full driver scale. A theory group closely integrated with the experimental groups continues supporting present-day work and looking ahead toward larger experiments and the eventual driver. Highlights of this long-range, driver-oriented research included continued investigations of longitudinal instability and some new insights into scaled experiments with which the authors might examine hard-to-calculate beam-dynamics phenomena

  6. Laser-driven Ion Acceleration using Nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hauthuille, Luc; Nguyen, Tam; Dollar, Franklin

    2016-10-01

    Interactions of high-intensity lasers with mass-limited nanoparticles enable the generation of extremely high electric fields. These fields accelerate ions, which has applications in nuclear medicine, high brightness radiography, as well as fast ignition for inertial confinement fusion. Previous studies have been performed with ensembles of nanoparticles, but this obscures the physics of the interaction due to the wide array of variables in the interaction. The work presented here looks instead at the interactions of a high intensity short pulse laser with an isolated nanodiamond. Specifically, we studied the effect of nanoparticle size and intensity of the laser on the interaction. A novel target scheme was developed to isolate the nanodiamond. Particle-in-cell simulations were performed using the EPOCH framework to show the sheath fields and resulting energetic ion beams.

  7. Radioactive Ions Production Ring for Beta-Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, E; Wehner, J

    2010-01-01

    Within the FP7 EUROnu program, Work Package 4 addresses the issues of production and acceleration of 8Li and 8B isotopes through the Beta-Beam complex, for the production of electron-neutrino. One of the major critical issues is the production of a high enougth ion ßux, to fulÞll the requirements for physics. In alternative to the direct ISOL production method, a new ap- proach is proposed in [1]. The idea is to use a compact ring for Litium ions at 25 MeV and an internal He or D target, in which the radioactive-isotopes production takes place. The beam is expected to survive for several thousands of turns, therefore cooling in 6D is required and, according this scheme, the ionization cooling provided by the target itself and a suitable RF system would be sufÞcient. We present some preliminary work on the Production ring lat- tice design and cooling issues, for the 7Li ions, and propose plans for future studies, within the EUROnu program.

  8. Recent results on reactions with radioactive beams at RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépine-Szily, A.; Lichtenthäler, R.; Guimarães, V.; Arazi, A.; Barioni, A.; Benjamim, E. A.; de Faria, P. N.; Descouvemont, P.; Gasques, L. R.; E; Leistenschneider; Mendes, D. R., Jr.; Morais, M. C.; Morcelle, V.; Moro, A. M.; Pampa Condori, R.; Pires, K. C. C.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Scarduelli, V.; Shorto, J. M. B.; Zamora, J. C.

    2015-04-01

    We present a quick description of RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion beams in Brazil), which is a superconducting double solenoid system, installed at the Pelletron Laboratory of the University of São Paulo and extends the capabilities of the original Pelletron Tandem Accelerator of 8MV terminal voltage (8UD) by producing secondary beams of unstable nuclei. The experimental program of the RIBRAS covers the study of elastic and inelastic scattering with the objective to study the interaction potential and the reaction mechanisms between weakly bound (RIB) and halo (6He and 8B) projectiles on light, medium and heavy mass targets. With highly purified beams, the study of resonant elastic scattering and resonant transfer reactions, using inverse kinematics and thick targets, have also been included in our recent experimental program.

  9. Prospects for high energy heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemann, C.

    1979-03-01

    The acceleration of heavy ions to relativistic energies (T greater than or equal to 1 GeV/amu) at the beam intensities required for fundamental research falls clearly in the domain of synchrotons. Up to date, such beams have been obtained from machines originally designed as proton acccelerators by means of modified RF-programs, improved vacuum and, most importantly, altered or entirely new injector systems. Similarly, for the future, substantial changes in synchrotron design itself are not foreseen, but rather the judicious application and development of presently known principles and technologies and a choice of parameters optimized with respect to the peculiarities of heavy ions. The low charge to mass ratio, q/A, of very heavy ions demands that superconducting magnets be considered in the interest of the highest energies for a given machine size. Injector brightness will continue to be of highest importance, and although space charge effects such as tune shifts will be increased by a factor q 2 /A compared with protons, advances in linac current and brightness, rather than substantially higher energies are required to best utilize a given synchrotron acceptance. However, high yeilds of fully stripped, very heavy ions demand energies of a few hundred MeV/amu, thus indicating the need for a booster synchrotron, although for entirely different reasons than in proton facilities. Finally, should we consider colliding beams, the high charge of heavy ions will impose severe current limitations and put high demands on system design with regard to such quantities as e.g., wall impedances or the ion induced gas desorption rate, and advanced concepts such as low β insertions with suppressed dispersion and very small crossing angles will be essential to the achievement of useful luminosities

  10. Charge breeding of stable and radioactive ion beams with EBIS/T devices

    CERN Document Server

    Kester, Oliver; Becker, R

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) are an important tool for experiments at the foremost frontier of nuclear physics. The quasi-continuous radioactive beams from target ion sources of RIB-facilities have to be accelerated to energies at and beyond the Coulomb barrier. An efficient acceleration requires a suitable A/q of the ions determined by the accelerator design, which can be reached via the stripping method or by using a charge state breeder like the REX-ISOLDE system. In order to get comparable efficiencies for a charge state breeder with the stripping scheme, the breeding efficiency in one charge state has to be optimized by narrowing the charge state distribution. In addition good beam quality and thus small emittances are required to achieve best transmission in the following accelerator, which is mandatory for high intensity RIBs. For EBIS/T devices the maximum intensity of the radioactive ion beam is a critical issue, and high current EBIS/T devices will be necessary to deal with intensities of second gen...

  11. Measurement of residual radioactivity in cooper exposed to high energy heavy ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eunjoo; Nakamura, Takashi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Uwamino, Yoshitomo; Ito, Sachiko; Fukumura, Akifumi

    1999-03-01

    The residual radioactivities produced by high energy heavy ions have been measured using the heavy ion beams of the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) at National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The spatial distribution of residual radioactivities in 3.5 cm, 5.5 cm and 10 cm thick copper targets of 10 cm x 10 cm size bombarded by 290 MeV/u, 400 MeV/u-{sup 12}C ion beams and 400 MeV/u-{sup 20}Ne ion beam, respectively, were obtained by measuring the gamma-ray activities of 0.5 mm thick copper foil inserted in the target with a high purity Ge detector after about 1 hour to 6 hours irradiation. (author)

  12. Status report on the folded tandem ion accelerator at BARC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Folded tandem ion accelerator; charged particle beams; voltage stability; Rutherford backscattering; ion optics; beam lines. Abstract. The folded tandem ion accelerator (FOTIA) facility set up at BARC has become operational. At present, it is used for elemental analysis studies using the Rutherford backscattering technique.

  13. Heavy ion acceleration at parallel shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Galinsky

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of alpha particle acceleration at parallel shock due to an interaction with Alfvén waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model (Galinsky and Shevchenko, 2000, 2007. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or damped and hence where particles will be pitch-angle scattered. It considers the total distribution function (for the bulk plasma and high energy tail, so no standard assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles are required. The heavy ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves is considered. The contribution of alpha particles to turbulence generation is important because of their relatively large mass-loading parameter Pα=nαmα/npmp (mp, np and mα, nα are proton and alpha particle mass and density that defines efficiency of wave excitation. The energy spectra of alpha particles are found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation.

  14. Radiation safety of Takasaki ion accelerators for advanced radiation in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Susumu; Anazawa, Yutaka

    1991-01-01

    Building layout of Takasaki ion accelerator facility has been started since 1987, with the propulsion of research development of (1) cosmetic environment materials, (2) nuclear fusion reactors, (3) biotechnology, and (4) new functional materials. This paper deals with an AVF cyclotron and a tandem type accelerator, focusing on safety design, radiation safety management, and radioactive waste management. Safety design is discussed in view of radiation shielding and activation countermeasures. Radiation safety management covers radiation monitoring in the workplace, exhaust radioactivity, environment outside the facility, and the other equipments; personal monitoring; and protective management of exposure. For radiation waste management, basic concept and management methods are commented on. (N.K.)

  15. Preliminary shielding estimates for the proposed Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (RIBF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.O.; Gabriel, T.A.; Lillie, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has proposed designing and implementing a new target-ion source for production and injection of negative radioactive ion beams into the Hollifield tandem accelerator. This new facility, referred to as the Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (RIBF), will primarily be used to advance the scientific communities' capabilities for performing state-of-the-art cross-section measurements. Beams of protons or other light, stable ions from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) will be stopped in the RIBF target ion source and the resulting radioactive atoms will be ionized, charge exchanged, accelerated, and injected into the tandem accelerator. The ORIC currently operates with proton energies up to 60 MeV and beam currents up to 100 microamps with a maximum beam power less than 2.0 kW. The proposed RIBF will require upgrading the ORIC to generate proton energies up to 200 MeV and beam currents up to 200 microamps for optimum performance. This report summarizes the results of a preliminary one-dimensional shielding analysis of the proposed upgrade to the ORIC and design of the RIBF. The principal objective of the shielding analysis was to determine the feasibility of such an upgrade with respect to existing shielding from the facility structure, and additional shielding requirements for the 200 MeV ORIC machine and RIBF target room

  16. Mutation spectrum of accelerated heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Matsuse, Michiko; Nakazawa, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Using Drosophila melanogaster which has X-linked white-ivory eye-color mutation w i and two recessive genes of wing-hair mwh and flr transheterozygously located on the third chromosomes, we scored mosaic spots in eye and wing of male flies irradiated with accelerated heavy ions at the period of larvae. Results of two irradiation conditions were compared. One is that all dose were irradiated with one heavy ion spill (irradiation time was about 0.3 sec), and another was that the dose were divided into multi spills (50-100 spills, irradiation time is about 3-6 minutes). The dose was selected that the average hit of the ion to the cell nucleus was about 0.2. If some difference exists, some information must be transmitted from hit cells or the protoplast to the nucleus which is not hit. As a result, the difference was not observed, and any sign of the bystander effect was not detected. (author)

  17. Accelerated physical modelling of radioactive waste migration in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmie, T.F.; De, A.; Mahmud, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    A 100 g-tonne geotechnical centrifuge was used to study the long-term migration of a contaminant and radioactive tracer through a saturated soil medium. The use of the centrifuge simulates the acceleration of travel time in the prototype, which is N times larger than the model, by N 2 , where N is the desired g level. For a 5 h run at 60 g, the test modelled a migration time of about 2 years for a prototype 60 times larger than the small-scale model tested. Iodine 131, used as the tracer, was injected onto the surface of the soil, and was allowed to migrate with a constant head of water through the saturated soil. End window Geiger-Mueller (G-M) tubes were used to measure the count rate of the radioactive tracer flowing through the soil. The time from the peak response of one G-M tube to the other denotes the travel time between the two points in the flow domain. The results obtained using the radioactive tracer are in good agreement with the test performed on the same model setup using potassium permanganate as tracer and with numerical flow net modelling. Radioactive tracers can be useful in the study of nonradioactive contaminants as well, offering a nonintrusive (nondestructive) method of measuring contaminant migration. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  18. Production of light radioactive ion beams (RIB) using inverse kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, J.J.; Sugathan, P.; Madhavan, N.; Madhusudhana Rao, P.V.; Jhingan, A.; Varughese, T.; Barua, S.; Nath, S.; Sinha, A.K.; Kumar, B.; Zacharias, J.

    2005-01-01

    At Nuclear Science Centre (NSC), New Delhi, we have implemented a facility to produce low energy light radioactive ion beams (RIBs) using (p,n) type of reactions in inverse kinematics. For this purpose primary beams from the 15-UD Pelletron accelerator impinged on a thin polypropylene foil mounted on a rotating/linearly moving target assembly. For efficiently separating the secondary beam from primary beam, the existing recoil mass spectrometer (RMS) HIRA was operated with new ion optics. Suitable hardware modifications were also made. Using this facility, we have extracted a 7 Be beam of purity better than 99% and spot-size ∼4 mm in diameter. This 7 Be beam has been utilized in a variety of experiments in the energy range of 15-22 MeV. Typical beam parameters are: intensity 10 4 pps, angular spread ±30 mrad and energy spread ±0.5 MeV. Development of appropriate detector setup/target arrangement were also made to perform these experiments. In this paper, we describe the implementation of this project

  19. High-spin nuclear structure studies with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.

    1992-01-01

    Two important developments in the sixties, namely the advent of heavy-ion accelerators and fabrication of Ge detectors, opened the way for the experimental studies of nuclear properties at high angular momentum. Addition of a new degree of freedom, namely spin, made it possible to observe such fascinating phenomena as occurrences and coexistence of a variety of novel shapes, rise, fall and occasionally rebirth of nuclear collectivity, and disappearance of pairing correlations. Today, with the promise of development of radioactive ion beams (RIB) and construction of the third-generation Ge-detection systems (GAMMASPHERE and EUROBALL), nuclear physicists are poised to explore new and equally fascinating phenomena that have been hitherto inaccessible. With the addition of yet another dimension, namely the isospin, they will be able to observe and verify predictions for exotic shapes as varied as rigid triaxiality, hyperdeformation and triaxial-octupole shapes, or to investigate the T=O pairing correlations. In this paper, the author reviews, separately for neutron-deficient and neutron-rich nuclei, these and a few other new high-spin physics opportunities that may be realized with RIB. Following this discussion, a list of the beam species, intensities and energies that are needed to fulfill these goals is presented. The paper concludes with a description of the experimental techniques and instrumentations that are required for these studies

  20. Spiral loaded cavities for heavy ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempp, A.; Klein, H.

    1976-01-01

    A transmission line theory of the spiral resonator has been performed and the calculated and measured properties will be compared. Shunt impedances up to 50 MΩ/m have been measured. In a number of high power tests the structure has been tested and its electrical and mechanical stability has been investigated. The static frequency shift due to ponderomotoric forces was between 0.2 and 50 kHz/kW dependent on the geometrical parameters of the spirals. The maximum field strength obtained on the axis was 16 MV/m in pulsed operation and 9.2 MV/m in cw, corresponding to a voltage gain per cavity of up to 0.96 MV. The results show that spiral resonators are well suited as heavy ion accelerator cavities. (author)

  1. Production of a radioactive 18F ion beam for nuclear reaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. D.; Nickles, R. J.; Paul, M.; Rehm, K. E.; Jiang, C. L.; Blumenthal, D. J.; Gehring, J.; Henderson, D.; Nolen, J.; Pardo, R. C.; Schiffer, J. P.; Segel, R. E.

    1995-12-01

    A two-stage method for generating a radioactive 18F ion beam has been developed. 18F is produced with a medical cyclotron by 11 MeV proton activation of [ 18O]water, then chemically processed off-line for use in a tandem accelerator ion source. Azeotropic distillation reduces the 18O component by 10 5, with a resulting 18O to 18F beam ratio of about 10 3. The average 18F - beam intensity per synthesis is 1 ppA over 120 min from a cesium vapor, sputter negative ion source (SNICS), with a peak intensity of 4.5 ppA.

  2. Accelerated radiation damage test facility using a 5 MV tandem ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wady, P.T.; Draude, A.; Shubeita, S.M.; Smith, A.D.; Mason, N.; Pimblott, S.M.; Jimenez-Melero, E.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a new irradiation facility that allows to perform accelerated damage tests of nuclear reactor materials at temperatures up to 400 °C using the intense proton (<100 μA) and heavy ion (≈10 μA) beams produced by a 5 MV tandem ion accelerator. The dedicated beam line for radiation damage studies comprises: (1) beam diagnosis and focusing optical components, (2) a scanning and slit system that allows uniform irradiation of a sample area of 0.5–6 cm"2, and (3) a sample stage designed to be able to monitor in-situ the sample temperature, current deposited on the sample, and the gamma spectrum of potential radio-active nuclides produced during the sample irradiation. The beam line capabilities have been tested by irradiating a 20Cr–25Ni–Nb stabilised stainless steel with a 3 MeV proton beam to a dose level of 3 dpa. The irradiation temperature was 356 °C, with a maximum range in temperature values of ±6 °C within the first 24 h of continuous irradiation. The sample stage is connected to ground through an electrometer to measure accurately the charge deposited on the sample. The charge can be integrated in hardware during irradiation, and this methodology removes uncertainties due to fluctuations in beam current. The measured gamma spectrum allowed the identification of the main radioactive nuclides produced during the proton bombardment from the lifetimes and gamma emissions. This dedicated radiation damage beam line is hosted by the Dalton Cumbrian Facility of the University of Manchester.

  3. Development of bipolar pulse accelerator for intense pulsed ion beam acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, Y.; Mitsui, C.; Kitamura, I.; Takahashi, T.; Masugata, K.; Tanoue, H.; Arai, K.

    2003-01-01

    To improve the purity of an intense pulsed ion beams a new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named 'bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA)' was proposed. In the accelerator purity of the beam is expected. To confirm the principle of the accelerator experimental system was developed. The system utilizes B y type magnetically insulated acceleration gap and operated with single polar negative pulse. A coaxial gas puff plasma gun placed in the grounded anode was used as an ion source, and source plasma (nitrogen) of current density approx. = 25 A/cm 2 , duration approx. = 1.5 μs was injected into the acceleration gap. The ions are successfully accelerated from the grounded anode to the drift tube by applying negative pulse of voltage 180 kV, duration 60 ns to the drift tube. Pulsed ion beam of current density approx. = 40 A/cm 2 , duration approx. 60 ns was obtained at 42 mm downstream from the anode surface. (author)

  4. Ion sources development at GANIL for radioactive beams and high charge state ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, R.; Barue, C.; Canet, C.; Dupuis, M.; Flambard, J.L.; Gaubert, G.; Gibouin, S.; Huguet, Y.; Jardin, P.; Lecesne, N.; Leherissier, P.; Lemagnen, F.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Pellemoine-Landre, F.; Rataud, J.P.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Villari, A.C.C.; Maunoury, L.

    2001-01-01

    The GANIL laboratory has in charge the production of ion beams for nuclear and non nuclear physics. This article reviews the last developments that are underway in the fields of radioactive ion beam production, increase of the metallic ion intensities and production of highly charges ion beams. (authors)

  5. 0,01-5 MeV heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, V.P.; Ivanov, A.S.; Nikiforov, S.A.; Svin'in, M.P.; Tarvid, G.V.; Troshikhin, A.G.; Fedotov, M.T.

    1983-01-01

    The results of development of an accelerating complex on the base of the UP-2-1 heavy ion charge exchange accelerator and IMPLANT-500 high-voltage heavy ion accelerator are given. The accelerating complex provides overlapping of the 0.01 MeV to 5 MeV energy range at accelerated beam currents of 10 -3 -10 -6 A order. The structural features of accelerators and their basic units and systems are considered. The UP-2-1 accelerator is designed for researches in the field of experimental physics and applied problem solutions. The IMPLANT-500 accelerator is designed for commercial ion-beam facilities with closed loop of silicon plate treatment

  6. Production of multicharged radioactive ion beams for spiral: studies and realization of the first target-ion source system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maunoury, L.

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of the SPIRAL project, which concerns the production and the acceleration of a multicharged radioactive ions beam, the following part has been studied: production and ionization of the radioactive ions beam. A first target-source (nanogan II), devoted exclusively to the production of multicharged radioactive ions gas type beams, has been studied and tested. The diffusion efficiency has been deduced from the diffusion equations (Fick laws). This efficiency is governed by the following parameters: the temperature, the grains size of the target, the Arrhenius parameters and the radioactive period. Another study concerning the production targets is presented. It deals with the temperature distribution allowing an utilization of more than one month at a temperature of 2400 K. Another development (SPIRAL II) is devoted to the production of high neutron content radioactive atoms created by the uranium fission, from fast neutrons. The neutrons beam is produced by the ''stripping break-up'' of a deutons beam in a converter. (A.L.B.)

  7. Collinear laser spectroscopy on radioactive praseodymium ions and cadmium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froemmgen, Nadja

    2013-01-01

    Collinear laser spectroscopy is a tool for the model independent determination of spins, charge radii and electromagnetic moments of nuclei in ground and long-lived isomeric states. In the context of this thesis a new offline ion source for high evaporating temperatures and an ion beam analysis system were implemented at the TRIGA-LASER Experiment at the Institute for Nuclear Chemistry at the University of Mainz. The main part of the thesis deals with the determination of the properties of radioactive praseodymium and cadmium isotopes by collinear laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE/CERN. The necessary test measurements for the spectroscopy of praseodymium ions have been conducted with the aforementioned offline ion source at the TRIGA-LASER experiment. The spectroscopy of the praseodymium ions was motivated by the observation of a modulation of the electron capture decay rates of hydrogen-like 140 Pr 58+ . The nuclear magnetic moment of the nucleus is, among others, required for the explanation of the so-called GSI Oscillations and has not been studied experimentally before. Additionally, the determined electron capture decay constant of hydrogen-like 140 Pr 58+ is lower than the one of helium-like 140 Pr 57+ . The explanation of this phenomenon requires a positive magnetic moment. During the experiment at the COLLAPS apparatus the magnetic moments of the neutron-deficient isotopes 135 Pr, 136 Pr and 137 Pr could be determined for the first time. Unfortunately, due to a too low production yield the desired isotope 140 Pr could not be studied.The systematic study of cadmium isotopes was motivated by nuclear physics in the tin region. With Z=48 two protons are missing for the shell closure and the isotopes extend from the magic neutron number N=50 to the magic neutron number N=82. The extracted nuclear properties allow tests of different nuclear models in this region. In this thesis the obtained results of the spectroscopy of the cadmium isotopes 106-124,126 Cd and their

  8. A theoretical investigation of the collective acceleration of cluster ions with accelerated potential waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Enjoji, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Motoichi; Noritake, Toshiya

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical treatment of the acceleration of cluster ions for additional heating of fusion plasma using the trapping effect in an accelerated potential wave is described. The conceptual design of the accelerator is the same as that by Enjoji, and the potential wave used is sinusoidal. For simplicity, collisions among cluster ions and the resulting breakups are neglected. The masses of the cluster ions are specified to range from 100 m sub(D) to 1000 m sub(D) (m sub(D): mass of a deuterium atom). Theoretical treatment is carried out only for the injection velocity which coincides with the phase velocity of the applied wave at the entrance of the accelerator. An equation describing the rate for successful acceleration of ions with a certain mass is deduced for the continuous injection of cluster ions. Computation for a typical mass distribution shows that more than 70% of the injected particles are effectively accelerated. (author)

  9. Inertial confinement fusion systems using heavy ion accelerators as drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Godlove, T.F.; Keefe, D.

    1980-03-01

    Heavy ion accelerators are the most recent entrants in the effort to identify a practical driver for inertial confinement fusion. They are of interest because of the expected efficient coupling of ion kinetic energy to the thermal energy needed to implode the pellet and because of the good electrical efficiency of high intensity particle accelerators. The beam intensities required, while formidable, lie within the range that can be studied by extensions of the theories and the technology of modern high energy accelerators

  10. Acceleration of heavy-ion beams at the SF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurada, Yuzo; Yamazaki, Tsutomu.

    1984-10-01

    With the development of the new arc-heated cathode PIG type source, heavy-ion acceleration in the SF cyclotron has been drastically augmented, which means that a stable routine operation is being realized as well as the number of ion species is increasing. Excellent performance is also being exhibited with the arc power supply and gas feeding system required for the operation of the heavy-ion source. At present, the gaseous ions which are being accelerated are as follows: He, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, S, Ar and Xe. In the meantime, the metallic ions which are being accelerated likewise are Li, Be, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, Ca, Ti, Fe and Cu. In this paper, results of mainly the research of heavy-ion acceleration conducted during the period from 1983 to July 1984 are described. (author)

  11. Steady state ion acceleration by a circularly polarized laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaomei; Shen Baifei; Cang Yu; Li Xuemei; Jin Zhangying; Wang Fengchao

    2007-01-01

    The steady state ion acceleration at the front of a cold solid target by a circularly polarized flat-top laser pulse is studied with one-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. A model that ions are reflected by a steady laser-driven piston is used by comparing with the electrostatic shock acceleration. A stable profile with a double-flat-top structure in phase space forms after ions enter the undisturbed region of the target with a constant velocity

  12. Concept for a lead-ion accelerating facility at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billinge, R.; Boltezar, E.; Boussard, D.; Brouzet, E.; Cappi, R.; Raad, B. de; Doble, N.; Grafstroem, P.; Haseroth, H.; Hill, C.E.; Kissler, K.H.; Knott, J.; Linnecar, T.; Nitsch, F.; Poncet, A.; Raich, U.; Rasmussen, N.; Schoenauer, H.; Sherwood, T.R.; Siegel, N.; Tallgren, U.; Tetu, P.; Warner, D.; Weiss, M.

    1990-01-01

    After the successful acceleration of deuterons, alpha particles and in more recent years of oxygen and sulphur ions, interest arose for even heavier particles. This paper describes the problems associated with heavy ions. A proposal is made for a scenario which allows the CERN accelerators to cope with ions heavier than sulphur, e.g. lead. Discussed are the different options for the injector and the necessary upgrading for the circular machines. (orig.)

  13. Collective ion acceleration by means of virtual cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, W.; Faehl, R.J.; Snell, C.; Jones, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments on collective ion acceleration by means of the formation of a virtual cathode have been carried out for a number of years in the Soviet Union and in the United States. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the subject as a possible means of accelerating ions to very high energies. By understanding the physics underlying the acceleration process it may be possible to determine the feasibility of virtual cathode staging for very high energy ion production. For this reason, a theoretical and computational effort is underway at Los Alamos in order to clarify the basic issues of collective ion acceleration by means of virtual cathodes. To support the theoretical effort, simulations were done with the fully electromagnetic and relativistic particle-in-cell code ISIS (in a one-dimensional mode) and the electrostatic one-dimensional code BIGONE. In the simulations, an electron beam of density 6 x 10 11 cm -3 is injected into a one-dimensional box of length L. To supply the necessary ions for collective acceleration, a plasma source containing both ions and electrons was initialized near the emitting boundary. Of prime interest in this study was to understand the dynamics of virtual cathode formation and the dynamics of the acceleration process for the ions. In particular, the question of whether the ions are accelerated by a moving potential well or hydrodynamic pressure due to ambipolar expansion is of primary interest. 3 refs., 5 figs

  14. Power balance limit in collective ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.L.

    1978-01-01

    The power balance limit to the IREB beam front propagation velocity, as first applied to the problem of collective ion acceleration by Olson in 1973, is investigated in view of recent data of Ecker and Putnam. The beam front velocity β/sub f/c as a function of IREB impedance Z is given, showing the dependence on the power balance limit, the ionization front velocity, and the runaway cutoff. The Olson theory predictions, with no fitted parameters, are shown to be in agreement with the data. Further comparisons of β/sub f/ with respect to the IREB electron energy, the IREB current, and the neutral gas pressure are given. Various forms for the power balance limit are discussed; it is shown that inclusion of the secondary electron power loss term results in an essentially negligible correction to β/sub f/ for typical data parameters. The power balance limit used by Ecker and Putnam is shown to be simply a 3-parameter curve fit, wherein the fitted parameters must exceed their allowed physical values to obtain a reasonable fit for β/sub f/ vs Z. Further, it is shown that this curve fitting leads to serious disagreements with other aspects of the data. It is concluded that the original Olson theory adequately accounts for the data, and that the power balance limit for IREB/gas data is typically not significant except for very small values of Z

  15. Diagnostics for studies of novel laser ion acceleration mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senje, Lovisa; Aurand, Bastian; Wahlström, Claes-Göran [Department of Physics, Lund University, P. O. Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Yeung, Mark; Kuschel, Stephan; Rödel, Christian [Helmholtz-Institut Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Wagner, Florian; Roth, Markus [Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Li, Kun; Neumayer, Paul [ExtreMe Matter Institut, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Dromey, Brendan; Jung, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Bagnoud, Vincent [Helmholtz-Institut Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Zepf, Matthew [Helmholtz-Institut Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Kuehl, Thomas [ExtreMe Matter Institut, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Universität Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Diagnostic for investigating and distinguishing different laser ion acceleration mechanisms has been developed and successfully tested. An ion separation wide angle spectrometer can simultaneously investigate three important aspects of the laser plasma interaction: (1) acquire angularly resolved energy spectra for two ion species, (2) obtain ion energy spectra for multiple species, separated according to their charge to mass ratio, along selected axes, and (3) collect laser radiation reflected from and transmitted through the target and propagating in the same direction as the ion beam. Thus, the presented diagnostic constitutes a highly adaptable tool for accurately studying novel acceleration mechanisms in terms of their angular energy distribution, conversion efficiency, and plasma density evolution.

  16. Diagnostics for studies of novel laser ion acceleration mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senje, Lovisa; Aurand, Bastian; Wahlström, Claes-Göran; Yeung, Mark; Kuschel, Stephan; Rödel, Christian; Wagner, Florian; Roth, Markus; Li, Kun; Neumayer, Paul; Dromey, Brendan; Jung, Daniel; Bagnoud, Vincent; Zepf, Matthew; Kuehl, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic for investigating and distinguishing different laser ion acceleration mechanisms has been developed and successfully tested. An ion separation wide angle spectrometer can simultaneously investigate three important aspects of the laser plasma interaction: (1) acquire angularly resolved energy spectra for two ion species, (2) obtain ion energy spectra for multiple species, separated according to their charge to mass ratio, along selected axes, and (3) collect laser radiation reflected from and transmitted through the target and propagating in the same direction as the ion beam. Thus, the presented diagnostic constitutes a highly adaptable tool for accurately studying novel acceleration mechanisms in terms of their angular energy distribution, conversion efficiency, and plasma density evolution

  17. Concept for high-charge-state ion induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.; Perry, M.D.; Caporaso, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    This work describes a particular concept for ion induction linac accelerators using high-charge-state ions produced by an intense, short pulse laser, and compares the costs of a modular driver system producing 6.5 MJ for a variety of ion masses and charge states using a simple but consistent cost model

  18. MEV Energy Electrostatic Accelerator Ion Beam Emittance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    I.G. Ignat’ev; M.I. Zakharets; S.V. Kolinko; D.P. Shulha

    2014-01-01

    The testing equipment was designed, manufactured and tried out permitting measurements of total current, current profile and emittance of an ion beam extracted from the ion beam. MeV energy electrostatic accelerator ion H + beam emittance measurement results are presented.

  19. Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy at TRIUMF-ISAC: the New Frontier of Radioactive Ion Beam Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, G. C.; Andreoiu, C.; Austin, R. A. E.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Becker, J. A.; Bricault, P.; Brown, N.; Chan, S.; Churchman, R.; Colosimo, S.; Coombes, H.; Cross, D.; Demand, G.; Drake, T. E.; Dombsky, M.; Ettenauer, S.; Finlay, P.; Furse, D.; Garnsworthy, A.; Garrett, P. E.; Green, K. L.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Hackman, G.; Kanungo, R.; Kulp, W. D.; Lassen, J.; Leach, K. G.; Leslie, J. R.; Mattoon, C.; Melconian, D.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Phillips, A. A.; Rand, E.; Sarazin, F.; Svensson, C. E.; Sumithrarachchi, S.; Schumaker, M. A.; Triambak, S.; Waddington, J. C.; Walker, P. M.; Williams, S. J.; Wood, J. L.; Wong, J.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2009-03-01

    High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is essential to fully exploit the unique scientific opportunities at the next generation radioactive ion beam facilities such as the TRIUMF Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC). At ISAC the 8π spectrometer and its associated auxiliary detectors is optimize for β-decay studies while TIGRESS an array of segmented clover HPGe detectors has been designed for studies with accelerated beams. This paper gives a brief overview of these facilities and also presents recent examples of the diverse experimental program carried out at the 8π spectrometer.

  20. High-energy acceleration of an intense negative ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Ando, A.; Kaneko, O.

    1995-02-01

    A high-current H - ion beam has been accelerated with the two-stage acceleration. A large negative hydrogen ion source with an external magnetic filter produces more than 10 A of the H - ions from the grid area of 25cm x 50cm with the arc efficiency of 0.1 A/kW by seeding a small amount of cesium. The H - ion current increases according to the 3/2-power of the total beam energy. A 13.6 A of H - ion beam has been accelerated to 125 keV at the operational gas pressure of 3.4 mTorr. The optimum beam acceleration is achieved with nearly the same electric fields in the first and the second acceleration gaps on condition that the ratio of the first acceleration to the extraction electric fields is adjusted for an aspect ratio of the extraction gap. The ratio of the acceleration drain current to the H - ion current is more than 1.7. That is mainly due to the secondary electron generated by the incident H - ions on the extraction grid and the electron suppression grid. The neutralization efficiency was measured and agrees with the theoretical calculation result. (author)

  1. Heavy ion accelerators for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubbia, C.

    1992-01-01

    Particle accelerators are used for accelerating the elementary, stable and separable constituents of matters to relativistic speed. These beams are of fundamental interest in the study on the ultimate constituents of matters and their interaction. Particle accelerators are the most promising driver for the fusion power reactors based on inertial confinement. The principle of inertial confinement fusion, radiation driven indirect drive, the accelerator complex and so on are described. (K.I.)

  2. The radioactive ion beams facility project for the legnaro laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecchio, Luigi B.

    1999-04-01

    In the frame work of the Italian participation to the project of a high intensity proton facility for the energy amplifier and nuclear waste transmutations, LNL is involving in the design and construction of prototypes of the injection system of the 1 GeV linac that consists of a RFQ (5 MeV, 30 mA) followed by a 100 MeV linac. This program has been already financially supported and the work is actually in progress. In this context, the LNL has been proposed a project for the construction of a second generation facility for the production of radioactive ion beams (RIBs) by using the ISOL method. The final goal consists in the production of neutron rich RIBs with masses ranging from 80 to 160 by using primary beams of protons, deuterons and light ions with energy of 100 MeV and 100 kW power. This project is proposed to be developed in about 10 years from now and intermediate milestones and experiments are foreseen and under consideration for the next INFN five year plan (1999-2003). In such period of time is proposed the construction of a proton/deuteron accelerator of 10 MeV energy and 10 mA current, consisting of a RFQ (5 MeV, 30 mA) and a linac (10 MeV, 10 mA), and of a neutron area dedicated to the RIBs production, to the BNCT applications and to the neutron physics. Some remarks on the production methods will be presented. The possibility of producing radioisotopes by means of the fission induced by neutrons will be investigated and the methods of production of neutrons will be discussed.

  3. Physics with energetic radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, W.F.

    1996-01-01

    Beams of short-lived, unstable nuclei have opened new dimensions in studies of nuclear structure and reactions. Such beams also provide key information on reactions that take place in our sun and other stars. Status and prospects of the physics with energetic radioactive beams are summarized

  4. Laser-plasma booster for ion post acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoh D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable ion energy increase is demonstrated for post acceleration by a laser-plasma booster. An intense short-pulse laser generates a strong current by high-energy electrons accelerated, when this intense short-pulse laser illuminates a plasma target. The strong electric current creates a strong magnetic field along the high-energy electron current in plasma. During the increase phase in the magnetic field, a longitudinal inductive electric field is induced for the forward ion acceleration by the Faraday law. Our 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate a remarkable increase in ion energy by several tens of MeV.

  5. Experimental studies of the laser-controlled collective ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destler, W.W.; Rodgers, J.; Segalov, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed experimental studies of a collective acceleration experiment in which a time-sequenced laser-generated ionization channel is used to control the propagation of an intense relativistic electron beamfront are presented. Ions trapped in the potential well at the beamfront are accelerated as the velocity of the beamfront is increased in a manner controlled by the time-dependent axial extent of the ionization channel. Beamfront propagation data for two different accelerating gradients are presented, together with results of ion acceleration studies for both gradients

  6. Design of the radioactive ion beam facility at the LNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migneco, E.; Alba, R.; Calabretta, L.; Ciavola, G.; Cuttone, G.; Di Giacomo, M.; Gammino, S.; Gmaj, P.; Moscatello, M.H.; Raia, G.

    1992-01-01

    At the Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud the existing 15 MV Tandem will be coupled to the Superconducting Cyclotron booster, which will provide light and heavy ion beams in the energy range 100-20 MeV/n. Using these beams, secondary radioactive beams can be produced by projectile fragmentation. A fragment separator will collect the secondary beam produced at energies near that of the projectile and deliver it into the experimental areas. The possibility of using an ECRIS source for the axial injection into the Cyclotron and producing radioactive ions on a thick source placed inside the Tandem preinjector is also discussed. (author) 7 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  7. Method of burning ion-exchange resin contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigenori.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To process spent ion exchange resins to reduce their volume, without increasing the load on a off-gas system and in a stable state and at the same time not leaving any uncombusted portions. Method: The water slurries of the ion exchange resins contaminated with radioactive materials is dehydrated or dry combusted to reduce the water content. A binder is then added to solidify the ion exchange resin. The solidified ion exchange resins are then combusted in a furnace. This prevents the ion exchange resin from being dispersed by air and combustion gases. Furthermore, the solidified ion exchange resins in the form of small pellets burn from the surface inwards. Moreover the binder is carbonized by the combustion heat and promotes combustion to convert the ion exchange resins into a solid mass, making sure that no uncombusted portion is left. (Takahashi, M.)

  8. Ion migration in ocean sediments: subseafloor radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttall, H.E.; Ray, A.K.; Davis, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    In this study of seabed disposal, analytical ion transport models were developed and used to elucidate ion migration through ocean sediments and to study the escape of ions from the ocean floor into the water column. An unsteady state isothermal diffusion model was developed for the region far from the canister to examine the effects of ion diffusion, adsorption, radioactive decay, sediment thickness and canister position. Analytical solutions were derived to represent the transient concentration profiles within the sediment, ion flux and the ion discharge rate to the water column for two types of initial conditions: instantaneous dissolution of the canister and constant canister leakage. Generalized graphs showing ion migration and behavior are presented

  9. High Energy Ion Acceleration by Extreme Laser Radiation Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-14

    published in the internationally leading journal Physical Review Letters. We continued to progress this pionee 15.  SUBJECT TERMS ion therapy, heavy ion ...Thomson parabola spectrometer: To separate and provide a measurement of the charge -to-mass ratio and energy spectrum of the different ion species...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2017-0015 High energy ion acceleration by extreme laser radiation pressure Paul McKenna UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDE VIZ ROYAL COLLEGE

  10. Diagnostics for studies of novel laser ion acceleration mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Senje, Lovisa; Yeung, Mark; Aurand, Bastian; Kuschel, Stephan; Rödel, Christian; Wagner, Florian; Li, Kun; Dromey, Brendan; Bagnoud, Vincent; Neumayer, Paul; Roth, Markus; Wahlström, Claes-Göran; Zepf, Matthew; Kuehl, Thomas; Jung, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic for investigating and distinguishing different laser ion acceleration mechanisms has been developed and successfully tested. An ion separation wide angle spectrometer can simultaneously investigate three important aspects of the laser plasma interaction: (1) acquire angularly resolved energy spectra for two ion species, (2) obtain ion energy spectra for multiple species, separated according to their charge to mass ratio, along selected axes, and (3) collect laser radiation reflecte...

  11. A Study on the Establishment of Radiation Dose Estimation Procedure for Accumulated Radioactive Ions for RAON ISOL System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIM Do Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For purposes of various experiments, RAON heavy ion accelerator facility has been designed in Korea. ISOL is one system of RAON accelerators to generate and separate rare isotopes. Radioactive ions generated from target-proton reactions are separated and accumulated at separation devices. The accumulated isotopes release the gamma radiations; therefore, the radiation safety must be clearly estimated. In this study, a process to evaluate radiations from the accumulated ions was proposed by modifying FISPACT code. The proposed process was validated by comparing a solution of single element decay problem. Using the process, a preliminary study for radiation doses were performed in a virtual separation devise.

  12. 14 MV pelletron accelerator and superconducting ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    The BARC-TIFR 14UD Pelletron Accelerator at Mumbai has completed more than two and a half decade of successful operation. The accelerator is primarily used for basic research in the fields of nuclear, atomic and molecular, condensed matter physics and material science. The application areas include accelerator mass spectrometry, production of track-etch membranes, radioisotopes production, radiation damage studies and secondary neutron production for cross section measurement etc. Over the years, numerous developmental activities have been carried out in-house that have resulted in improving the overall performance and uptime of the accelerator and has also made possible to initiate variety of application oriented programmes. Since the SF 6 pressure vessels have been in operation for about 29 years, a comprehensive refurbishment and retrofitting work is carried out to comply with the safety recommendations. Recently, the beam trials were conducted with 18 GHz superconducting ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) Ion Source system at Van-de-Graaff as per BARC Safety Council permission. Various ion beams with different charge states were extracted and mass analyzed and the beam quality was measured by recording their transverse emittance in situ. Experimental measurements pertaining to projectile X-rays Spectroscopy were carried out using variety of ion beams at variable energies. The superconducting Linac booster provides additional acceleration to the ions from Pelletron injector up to A ∼60 region with E∼5 MeV/A. In order to cover the entire mass range of the elements across the periodic table, an ECR based heavy ion accelerator was initiated under plan project. This heavy ion accelerator essentially comprises of a superconducting ECR ion source, room temperature RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole) followed by superconducting Niobium resonators as accelerating elements. This talk will provide an overview of the developmental activities and the safety features

  13. Installation of the Ion Accelerator for the Surface Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Kim, Han-Sung; Chung, Bo-Hyun; Ahn, Tae-Sung; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Cho-Rong; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, an introduction to the accelerator, an installation status at KOMAC and the operation plan of the accelerator are discussed. A pelletron, which has been used over 25 years at KIGAM, is moved and installed at KOMAC in order to supply a qualified service to ion beam users. The system will be installed in September and component tests will be carried. The operation of the system starts in 2016 after it gets operation license from Nuclear Safety and Security Commission. Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) is operating several ion beam accelerators to provide various ion beams to users. Those are a 100 MeV proton linear accelerator, a 220 keV ion implanter for gaseous ion beams, a 150 keV metal ion implanter and a 20 keV high-current ion implanter. All of those are the machine for user service and it is important to qualify the results of the irradiation conditions for user service. For this reason, an electrostatic tandem accelerator, which has been operating over 25 years at Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), is moved to KOMAC in order to supply the qualified and quantified data on the irradiation species.

  14. Studying the induced radioactivity of a varian clinac 2100C/D accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Feng; Li Hailiang; Deng Daping; Shang Yunying; Jing Zhongjun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To Study the influences of dose, time, distance and irradiation mode on induced radioactivity by measuring a Varian Clinac 2100C/D accelerator. Methods: The induced radioactivity was measured in different dose, time, distance and irradiation mode by using of 450P model dosemeter. The results was analysed. Results: The induced radioactivity is direct ratio with dose, inverse ratio with time and distance. In different irradiation mode, the induced radioactivity is different. Conclusion: The induced radioactivity level of accelerator is related with dose, time, distance and irradiation mode. (authors)

  15. Pulsed vapor source for use in ion sources for heavy-ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiloh, J.; Chupp, W.; Faltens, A.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.; Rosenblum, S.; Tiefenback, M.

    1980-01-01

    A pulsed cesium vapor source for use in ion sources for high-current heavy-ion accelerators is described. The source employs a vacuum spark in Cs and its properties are measured with a hot-filament Cs detector

  16. Laser-driven ion acceleration: methods, challenges and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badziak, J.

    2018-01-01

    The recent development of laser technology has resulted in the construction of short-pulse lasers capable of generating fs light pulses with PW powers and intensities exceeding 1021 W/cm2, and has laid the basis for the multi-PW lasers, just being built in Europe, that will produce fs pulses of ultra-relativistic intensities ~ 1023 - 1024 W/cm2. The interaction of such an intense laser pulse with a dense target can result in the generation of collimated beams of ions of multi-MeV to GeV energies of sub-ps time durations and of extremely high beam intensities and ion fluencies, barely attainable with conventional RF-driven accelerators. Ion beams with such unique features have the potential for application in various fields of scientific research as well as in medical and technological developments. This paper provides a brief review of state-of-the art in laser-driven ion acceleration, with a focus on basic ion acceleration mechanisms and the production of ultra-intense ion beams. The challenges facing laser-driven ion acceleration studies, in particular those connected with potential applications of laser-accelerated ion beams, are also discussed.

  17. Status report of pelletron accelerator and ECR based heavy ion accelerator programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    The BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator is completing twenty seven years of round-the-clock operation, serving diverse users from institutions within and outside DAE. Over the years, various developmental activities and application oriented programs have been initiated at Pelletron Accelerator Facility, resulting into enhanced utilization of the accelerator. We have also been pursuing an ECR based heavy ion accelerator programme under XII th Plan, consisting of an 18 GHz superconducting ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion source and a room temperature RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole) followed by low and high beta superconducting niobium resonator cavities. This talk will provide the current status of Pelletron Accelerator and the progress made towards the ECR based heavy ion accelerator program at BARC. (author)

  18. Collective ion acceleration via laser controlled ionization channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destler, W.W.; O'Shea, P.G.; Rodgers, J.; Segalov, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Initial results from a successful laser-controlled collective ion acceleration experiment at the University of Maryland are presented. In the experiment, positive ions are trapped in the potential well at the head of an intense relativistic electron beam injected at current levels above the space charge limit. Seed ions for acceleration are provided by puff valve injection of a neutral gas cloud localized to within 3 cm of the injection point. Control over the acceleration of the well and the ions is then achieved by means of a laser-generated ionization channel produced by passing the light from a Q-switched ruby laser through a series of partially and fully reflecting mirrors in such a way as to provide time-sequenced laser ionization of a target located on the drift tube wall. Using this system, controlled acceleration of protons at a rate of approximately 40 MV/m has been demonstrated over a distance of about 50 cm

  19. Generation and transport of laser accelerated ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Peter; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kornilov, Vladimir; Spaedtke, Peter [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: LIGHT-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Currently the LIGHT- Project (Laser Ion Generation, Handling and Transport) is performed at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH Darmstadt. Within this project, intense proton beams are generated by laser acceleration, using the TNSA mechanism. After the laser acceleration the protons are transported through the beam pipe by a pulsed power solenoid. To study the transport a VORPAL 3D simulation is compared with CST simulation. A criterion as a function of beam parameters was worked out, to rate the importance of space charge. Furthermore, an exemplary comparison of the solenoid with a magnetic quadrupole-triplet was carried out. In the further course of the LIGHT-Project, it is planned to generate ion beams with higher kinetic energies, using ultra-thin targets. The acceleration processes that can appear are: RPA (Radiation Pressure Acceleration) and BOA (Break-Out Afterburner). Therefore the transport of an ion distribution will be studied, as it emerges from a RPA acceleration.

  20. Development of target ion source systems for radioactive beams at GANIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajeat, O., E-mail: bajeat@ganil.fr [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France); Delahaye, P. [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France); Couratin, C. [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France); LPC Caen, 6 bd Maréchal Juin, 14050 CAEN Cedex (France); Dubois, M.; Franberg-Delahaye, H.; Henares, J.L.; Huguet, Y.; Jardin, P.; Lecesne, N.; Lecomte, P.; Leroy, R.; Maunoury, L.; Osmond, B.; Sjodin, M. [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • For Spiral 1, a febiad ion source has been connected to a graphite target. • For Spiral 2, an oven made with a carbon resistor is under development. • We made some measurement of effusion in the Spiral 2 target. • A laser ion source is under construction. -- Abstract: The GANIL facility (Caen, France) is dedicated to the acceleration of heavy ion beams including radioactive beams produced by the Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) method at the SPIRAL1 facility. To extend the range of radioactive ion beams available at GANIL, using the ISOL method two projects are underway: SPIRAL1 upgrade and the construction of SPIRAL2. For SPIRAL1, a new target ion source system (TISS) using the VADIS FEBIAD ion source coupled to the SPIRAL1 carbon target will be tested on-line by the end of 2013 and installed in the cave of SPIRAL1 for operation in 2015. The SPIRAL2 project is under construction and is being design for using different production methods as fission, fusion or spallation reactions to cover a large area of the chart of nuclei. It will produce among others neutron rich beams obtained by the fission of uranium induced by fast neutrons. The production target made from uranium carbide and heated at 2000 °C will be associated with several types of ion sources. Developments currently in progress at GANIL for each of these projects are presented.

  1. Heavy ion accelerator and associated development activities at IUAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanjilal, D.

    2011-01-01

    A vertical 15UD Pelletron electrostatic tandem accelerator having highest terminal voltage tested up to 16 MV has been in regular operation at Inter-University Accelerator Center (IUAC) for more than two decades. It has been providing consistently various ion beams in the energy range from a few tens of MeV to 270 MeV for scheduled experiments. A superconducting linear accelerator (LINAC) booster module having eight niobium quarter wave resonators has been designed, fabricated and installed successfully. It is fully operational for scheduled experiments. The LINAC module has been tested and used to accelerate energetic heavy ion beams from 15 UD Pelletron. A new type of high temperature superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (HTS-ECRIS) has been designed, fabricated and installed successfully. It has been in regular operation as future source of highly charged ions having higher beam current for the alternate high current injector (HCI) system for the superconducting LINAC. A radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator is being developed to accelerate highly charged particles (A/Q ∼ 6) from HTS-ECRIS to energy of 180 keV/u. The beam will then be accelerated further by drift tube linacs (DTL) to the required velocity for injection of the ion beams in to the existing superconducting LINAC booster. A low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) having permanent magnet ECRIS on high voltage platform and a 1.7 MV Pelletron are being used for regular experiments. Details of various developmental activities related to the heavy ion accelerator and associated systems at Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC) are presented. (author)

  2. Heavy ion accelerator and associated development activities at IUAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanjilal, D.

    2011-01-01

    A vertical 15UD Pelletron electrostatic tandem accelerator having highest terminal voltage tested up to 16 MV has been in regular operation at Inter-University Accelerator Center (IUAC) for more than two decades. It has been providing consistently various ion beams in the energy range from a few tens of MeV to 270MeV for scheduled experiments. A superconducting linear accelerator (LINAC) booster module having eight niobium quarter wave resonators has been designed, fabricated and installed successfully. It is fully operational for scheduled experiments. The LINAC module has been tested and used to accelerate energetic heavy ion beams from 15 UD Pelletron. A new type of high temperature superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (HTS-ECRlS) has been designed, fabricated and installed successfully. lt has been in regular operation as future source of highly charged ions having higher beam current for the alternate high current injector (HCI) system for the superconducting LINAC. A radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator is being developed to accelerate highly charged particles (A/Q ∼ 6) from HTS-ECRIS to energy of 180 keV/u. The beam will then be accelerated further by drift tube linacs (DTL) to the required velocity for injection of the ion beams in to the existing superconducting LINAC booster. A low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) having permanent magnet ECRIS on high voltage platform and a 1.7 MV Pelletron are being used for regular experiments. Details of various developmental activities related to the heavy ion accelerator and associated systems at Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC) are presented. (author)

  3. Engineering systems designs for a recirculating heavy ion induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, M.A.; Barnard, J.J.; Reginato, L.L.; Yu, S.S.

    1991-05-01

    Recirculating heavy ion induction accelerators are being investigated as possible drivers for heavy ion fusion. Part of this investigation has included the generation of a conceptual design for a recirculator system. This paper will describe the overall engineering conceptual design of this recirculator, including discussions of the dipole magnet system, the superconducting quadrupole system and the beam acceleration system. Major engineering issues, evaluation of feasibility, and cost tradeoffs of the complete recirculator system will be presented and discussed. 5 refs., 4 figs

  4. Biological effects of accelerated boron, carbon, and neon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryev, Yu.G.; Ryzhov, N.I.; Popov, V.I.

    1975-01-01

    The biological effects of accelerated boron, carbon, and neon ions on various biological materials were determined. The accelerated ions included 10 B, 11 B, 12 C, 20 Ne, 22 Ne, and 40 Ar. Gamma radiation and x radiation were used as references in the experiments. Among the biological materials used were mammalian cells and tissues, yeasts, unicellular algae (chlorella), and hydrogen bacteria. The results of the investigation are given and the biophysical aspects of the problem are discussed

  5. Resonant ion acceleration by collisionless magnetosonic shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsawa, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Resonant ion acceleration ( the ν/sub rho/xΒ acceleration ) in laminar magnetosonic shock waves is studied by theory and simulation. Theoretical analysis based on a two-fluid model shows that, in laminar shocks, the electric field strength in the direction of the wave normal is about (m/sub i/m/sub e/) 1 2 times large for quasi-perpendicular shocks than that for the quasi-parallel shocks, which is a reflection of the fact that the width of quasi-perpendicular shocks is much smaller than that of the quasi-parallel shocks. Trapped ions can be accelerated up to the speed about ν/sub A/(m/sub i/m/sub e/) 1 2(M/sub A/-1) 3 2 in quasi-perpendicular shocks. Time evolution of self-consistent magnetosonic shock waves is studied by using a 2-12 dimensional fully relativistic, fully electromagnetic particle simulation with full ion and electron dynamics. Even a low-Mach-number shock wave can significantly accelerate trapped ions by the ν/sub rho/xΒ acceleration. The resonant ion acceleration occurs more strongly in quasi-perpendicular shocks, because the magnitude of this acceleration is proportional to the electric field strength

  6. Physics and Technology for the Next Generation of Radioactive Ion Beam Facilities: EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Kadi, Y; Catherall, R; Giles, T; Stora, T; Wenander, F K

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of artificial radioactivity in 1935, nuclear scientists have developed tools to study nuclei far from stability. A major breakthrough came in the eighties when the first high energy radioactive beams were produced at Berkeley, leading to the discovery of neutron halos. The field of nuclear structure received a new impetus, and the major accelerator facilities worldwide rivalled in ingenuity to produce more intense, purer and higher resolution rare isotope beams, leading to our much improved knowledge and understanding of the general evolution of nuclear properties throughout the nuclear chart. However, today, further progress is hampered by the weak beam intensities of current installations which correlate with the difficulty to reach the confines of nuclear binding where new phenomena are predicted, and where the r-process path for nuclear synthesis is expected to be located. The advancement of Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) science calls for the development of so-called next-generation facil...

  7. The prototype of radioactive ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksandrov, A V; Kot, N K; Andrighetto, A; Stroe, L

    2001-01-01

    The design and experimental results of the RIB source prototype are presented.A source will have the container of sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U compounds heated up to 2200-2500 degree C. Vapors of uranium fission obtained when the ion source is irradiated by the high-energy neutron flux, are then ionized and extracted from the source. In the experiments with the prototype loaded by sup 1 sup 2 C the source working temperature 2700 degree C was reached, the carbon ion current 10 nA was obtained. The total operation time of more than 100 hours with no performance degradation was demonstrated.

  8. Limitations of heavy ion synchrotron acceleration for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berley, D.; Danby, G.T.

    1977-01-01

    The potential benefits from heavy ion inertial fusion motivate the rapid development of a program to test the principle. To define the program, accelerator parameters which have not hitherto been commonly considered must be studied interactively with basic questions of space charge limitations and charge exchange. Beam lifetime and power output efficiency may ultimately lead to a linear accelerator as the choice for an ignition device. For proof of principle, however, at power levels way beyond present inertial fusion experience, synchrotrons may have applicability at lower cost. The power and energy which can be delivered by the accelerating system to the reaction chamber are limited by space charge defocussing and intra beam charge exchange scattering, both of which are beam density dependent. These put constraints on linac injector energy, synchrotron aperture, synchrotron magnetic rigidity, acceleration time, ion species and charge to mass ratio. The accelerator system considered is classical. A linear accelerator injects into a synchrotron which accelerates the ion beam to the full energy delivered to the target. The maximum energy deliverable by a synchrotron is treated in section I. The targetting parameters and the energy gained through synchrotron acceleration completely determine the synchrotron aperture. These are discussed in sections II and III. The ion range in material is treated in section IV. The problem of intrabeam scattering is considered in section V. Finally, in section VI is a discussion of examples to meet specified goals

  9. Ion acceleration from relativistic laser nano-target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Daniel

    2012-01-06

    Laser-ion acceleration has been of particular interest over the last decade for fundamental as well as applied sciences. Remarkable progress has been made in realizing laser-driven accelerators that are cheap and very compact compared with conventional rf-accelerators. Proton and ion beams have been produced with particle energies of up to 50 MeV and several MeV/u, respectively, with outstanding properties in terms of transverse emittance and current. These beams typically exhibit an exponentially decaying energy distribution, but almost all advanced applications, such as oncology, proton imaging or fast ignition, require quasimonoenergetic beams with a low energy spread. The majority of the experiments investigated ion acceleration in the target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) regime with comparably thick targets in the {mu}m range. In this thesis ion acceleration is investigated from nm-scaled targets, which are partially produced at the University of Munich with thickness as low as 3 nm. Experiments have been carried out at LANL's Trident high-power and high-contrast laser (80 J, 500 fs, {lambda}=1054 nm), where ion acceleration with these nano-targets occurs during the relativistic transparency of the target, in the so-called Breakout afterburner (BOA) regime. With a novel high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola and ion wide angle spectrometer, thickness dependencies of the ions angular distribution, particle number, average and maximum energy have been measured. Carbon C{sup 6+} energies reached 650 MeV and 1 GeV for unheated and heated targets, respectively, and proton energies peaked at 75 MeV and 120 MeV for diamond and CH{sub 2} targets. Experimental data is presented, where the conversion efficiency into carbon C{sup 6+} (protons) is investigated and found to have an up to 10fold (5fold) increase over the TNSA regime. With circularly polarized laser light, quasi-monoenergetic carbon ions have been generated from the same nm-scaled foil

  10. Ion acceleration from relativistic laser nano-target interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Laser-ion acceleration has been of particular interest over the last decade for fundamental as well as applied sciences. Remarkable progress has been made in realizing laser-driven accelerators that are cheap and very compact compared with conventional rf-accelerators. Proton and ion beams have been produced with particle energies of up to 50 MeV and several MeV/u, respectively, with outstanding properties in terms of transverse emittance and current. These beams typically exhibit an exponentially decaying energy distribution, but almost all advanced applications, such as oncology, proton imaging or fast ignition, require quasimonoenergetic beams with a low energy spread. The majority of the experiments investigated ion acceleration in the target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) regime with comparably thick targets in the μm range. In this thesis ion acceleration is investigated from nm-scaled targets, which are partially produced at the University of Munich with thickness as low as 3 nm. Experiments have been carried out at LANL's Trident high-power and high-contrast laser (80 J, 500 fs, λ=1054 nm), where ion acceleration with these nano-targets occurs during the relativistic transparency of the target, in the so-called Breakout afterburner (BOA) regime. With a novel high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola and ion wide angle spectrometer, thickness dependencies of the ions angular distribution, particle number, average and maximum energy have been measured. Carbon C 6+ energies reached 650 MeV and 1 GeV for unheated and heated targets, respectively, and proton energies peaked at 75 MeV and 120 MeV for diamond and CH 2 targets. Experimental data is presented, where the conversion efficiency into carbon C 6+ (protons) is investigated and found to have an up to 10fold (5fold) increase over the TNSA regime. With circularly polarized laser light, quasi-monoenergetic carbon ions have been generated from the same nm-scaled foil targets at Trident with an

  11. Induced radioactivity in air and water at medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, K.; Takahashi, K.; Nakamura, H.; Toyoda, A.; Iijima, K.; Kosako, K.; Oishi, K.; Nobuhara, F.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of air and water has been evaluated at the 10 and 15 MeV linear electron accelerator facilities. At 15 MeV irradiation, the activity of 10-min-half-life 13 N was observed in the case of the air in the glove box. Air and water samples were also bombarded by 250 MeV protons and 400 MeV/u carbon, and the irradiation dose was 10 Gy at the isocenter. Upon the ion-chamber monitoring of the air sampled from the glove box, 15 O, 13 N, and 11 C activities were mainly observed. At the end of proton and carbon irradiation, the activity of the water was found to be about 10 kBq·cm -3 and several kBq·cm -3 , respectively. From the decay analysis of the induced activity in water, 15 O, 13 N, and 11 C were detected. (author)

  12. Topical problems of accelerator and applied heavy ion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, R.; Deitinghoff, H.; Junior, P.H.; Schempp, A.

    1990-12-01

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named seminar. They deal with high-intensity linacs for heavy ions, the free-electron laser, applications of heavy-ion beams, MEQALAC, the ESR Schottky-diagnosis system, the analysis of GaAs by ion-beam methods, a light-ion synchrotron for cancer therapy, a device for the measurement of the momentum spread of ion beams, the European Hadron facility, the breakdown fields at electrons in high vacuum, a computer program for the calculation of electric quadrupoles, a focusing electrostatic mirror, storage and cooling of Ar beams, the visualization of heavy ion tracks in photographic films, the motion of ions in magnetic fields, the CERN heavy ion program, linear colliders, the beam injection from a linac into a storage ring, negative-ion sources, wake field acceleration, RFQ's, a dense electron target, the matching of a DC beam into the RFQ, electron emission and breakdown in vacuum, and 1-1.5 GeV 300 mA linear accelerator, the production of high-current positive-ion beams, high-current beam experiments at GSI, improvement of the Frankfurt EBIS, the physics of the violin, double layers, beam formation with coupled RFQ's, atomic nitrogen beam for material modification, compact superconducting synchrotron-radiation sources, industrial property rights, a RF ion source for thin film processes, beam-cavity interactions in the RFQ linac, atomic physics with crossed uranium beams, proton linacs, the interdigital H-type structure, injection of H - beams into a RFQ accelerator, the production of MOS devices by ion implantation, the application of RFQ's, the Frankfurt highly-charged ion facility, RF acceleration techniques for beam current drive in tokamaks, space-charge neutralized transport, and storage rings for synchrotron radiation and free electron lasers. (HSI)

  13. Development of bipolar-pulse accelerator for intense pulsed ion beam acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masugata, Katsumi [Department of Electrical and Electronic System Engineering, Toyama University, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: masugata@eng.toyama-u.ac.jp; Shimizu, Yuichro [Department of Electrical and Electronic System Engineering, Toyama University, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Fujioka, Yuhki [Department of Electrical and Electronic System Engineering, Toyama University, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Kitamura, Iwao [Department of Electrical and Electronic System Engineering, Toyama University, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Tanoue, Hisao [National Institute of Advanced Industry Science and Technology, 1-1-1, Umezono, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Arai, Kazuo [National Institute of Advanced Industry Science and Technology, 1-1-1, Umezono, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2004-12-21

    To improve the purity of intense pulsed ion beams, a new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named 'bipolar pulse accelerator' was proposed. To confirm the principle of the accelerator a prototype of the experimental system was developed. The system utilizes By type magnetically insulated acceleration gap and operated with single polar negative pulse. A coaxial gas puff plasma gun was used as an ion source, which was placed inside the grounded anode. Source plasma (nitrogen) of current density {approx}25A/cm2, duration {approx}1.5{mu}s was injected into the acceleration gap by the plasma gun. The ions were successfully accelerated from the grounded anode to the drift tube by applying negative pulse of voltage 240kV, duration 100ns to the drift tube. Pulsed ion beam of current density {approx}40A/cm2, duration {approx}50ns was obtained at 41mm downstream from the anode surface. To evaluate the irradiation effect of the ion beam to solid material, an amorphous silicon thin film of thickness {approx}500nm was used as the target, which was deposited on the glass substrate. The film was found to be poly-crystallized after 4-shots of the pulsed nitrogen ion beam irradiation.

  14. Ion Acceleration by Double Layers with Multi-Component Ion Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Timothy; Aguirre, Evan; Scime, Earl; West Virginia University Team

    2017-10-01

    Current-free double layers (CFDL) models have been proposed to explain observations of magnetic field-aligned ion acceleration in plasmas expanding into divergent magnetic field regions. More recently, experimental studies of the Bohm sheath criterion in multiple ion species plasma reveal an equilibration of Bohm speeds at the sheath-presheath boundary for a grounded plate in a multipole-confined filament discharge. We aim to test this ion velocity effect for CFDL acceleration. We report high resolution ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) measurements using laser induced fluorescence downstream of a CFDL in a helicon plasma. Combinations of argon-helium, argon-krypton, and argon-xenon gases are ionized and measurements of argon or xenon IVDFs are investigated to determine whether ion acceleration is enhanced (or diminished) by the presence of lighter (or heavier) ions in the mix. We find that the predominant effect is a reduction of ion acceleration consistent with increased drag arising from increased gas pressure under all conditions, including constant total gas pressure, equal plasma densities of different ions, and very different plasma densities of different ions. These results suggest that the physics responsible for acceleration of multiple ion species in simple sheaths is not responsible for the ion acceleration observed in these expanding plasmas. Department of Physics, Gettysburg College.

  15. Advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henig, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Since the pioneering work that was carried out 10 years ago, the generation of highly energetic ion beams from laser-plasma interactions has been investigated in much detail in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Creation of ion beams with small longitudinal and transverse emittance and energies extending up to tens of MeV fueled visions of compact, laser-driven ion sources for applications such as ion beam therapy of tumors or fast ignition inertial con finement fusion. However, new pathways are of crucial importance to push the current limits of laser-generated ion beams further towards parameters necessary for those applications. The presented PhD work was intended to develop and explore advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration that reach beyond TNSA. In this spirit, ion acceleration from two novel target systems was investigated, namely mass-limited microspheres and nm-thin, free-standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils. Using such ultrathin foils, a new regime of ion acceleration was found where the laser transfers energy to all electrons located within the focal volume. While for TNSA the accelerating electric field is stationary and ion acceleration is spatially separated from laser absorption into electrons, now a localized longitudinal field enhancement is present that co-propagates with the ions as the accompanying laser pulse pushes the electrons forward. Unprecedented maximum ion energies were obtained, reaching beyond 0.5 GeV for carbon C 6+ and thus exceeding previous TNSA results by about one order of magnitude. When changing the laser polarization to circular, electron heating and expansion were shown to be efficiently suppressed, resulting for the first time in a phase-stable acceleration that is dominated by the laser radiation pressure which led to the observation of a peaked C 6+ spectrum. Compared to quasi-monoenergetic ion beam generation within the TNSA regime, a more than 40 times increase in

  16. Advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henig, Andreas

    2010-04-26

    Since the pioneering work that was carried out 10 years ago, the generation of highly energetic ion beams from laser-plasma interactions has been investigated in much detail in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Creation of ion beams with small longitudinal and transverse emittance and energies extending up to tens of MeV fueled visions of compact, laser-driven ion sources for applications such as ion beam therapy of tumors or fast ignition inertial con finement fusion. However, new pathways are of crucial importance to push the current limits of laser-generated ion beams further towards parameters necessary for those applications. The presented PhD work was intended to develop and explore advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration that reach beyond TNSA. In this spirit, ion acceleration from two novel target systems was investigated, namely mass-limited microspheres and nm-thin, free-standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils. Using such ultrathin foils, a new regime of ion acceleration was found where the laser transfers energy to all electrons located within the focal volume. While for TNSA the accelerating electric field is stationary and ion acceleration is spatially separated from laser absorption into electrons, now a localized longitudinal field enhancement is present that co-propagates with the ions as the accompanying laser pulse pushes the electrons forward. Unprecedented maximum ion energies were obtained, reaching beyond 0.5 GeV for carbon C{sup 6+} and thus exceeding previous TNSA results by about one order of magnitude. When changing the laser polarization to circular, electron heating and expansion were shown to be efficiently suppressed, resulting for the first time in a phase-stable acceleration that is dominated by the laser radiation pressure which led to the observation of a peaked C{sup 6+} spectrum. Compared to quasi-monoenergetic ion beam generation within the TNSA regime, a more than 40 times

  17. Acceleration of beam ions during major radius compression in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.L.; Bitter, M.; Hammett, G.W.

    1985-09-01

    Tangentially co-injected deuterium beam ions were accelerated from 82 keV up to 150 keV during a major radius compression experiment in TFTR. The ion energy spectra and the variation in fusion yield were in good agreement with Fokker-Planck code simulations. In addition, the plasma rotation velocity was observed to rise during compression

  18. Collective ion acceleration by relativistic electron beams in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez, M.; Gisler, G.

    1991-01-01

    A two-dimensional fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code is used to simulate the interaction of a relativistic electron beam injected into a finite-size background neutral plasma. The simulations show that the background electrons are pushed away from the beam path, forming a neutralizing ion channel. Soon after the beam head leaves the plasma, a virtual cathode forms which travels away with the beam. However, at later times a second, quasi-stationary, virtual cathode forms. Its position and strength depends critically on the parameters of the system which critically determines the efficiency of the ion acceleration process. The background ions trapped in the electrostatic well of the virtual cathode are accelerated and at later times, the ions as well as the virtual cathode drift away from the plasma region. The surfing of the ions in the electrostatic well produces an ion population with energies several times the initial electron beam energy. It is found that optimum ion acceleration occurs when the beam-to-plasma density ratio is near unity. When the plasma is dense, the beam is a weak perturbation and accelerates few ions, while when the plasma is tenuous, the beam is not effectively neutralized, and a virtual cathode occurs right at the injection plane. The simulations also show that, at the virtual cathode position, the electron beam is pinched producing a self-focusing phenomena

  19. HEATHER - HElium Ion Accelerator for RadioTHERapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Jordan [Huddersfield U.; Edgecock, Thomas [Huddersfield U.; Green, Stuart [Birmingham U.; Johnstone, Carol [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    A non-scaling fixed field alternating gradient (nsFFAG) accelerator is being designed for helium ion therapy. This facility will consist of 2 superconducting rings, treating with helium ions (He²⁺ ) and image with hydrogen ions (H + 2 ). Currently only carbon ions are used to treat cancer, yet there is an increasing interest in the use of lighter ions for therapy. Lighter ions have reduced dose tail beyond the tumour compared to carbon, caused by low Z secondary particles produced via inelastic nuclear reactions. An FFAG approach for helium therapy has never been previously considered. Having demonstrated isochronous acceleration from 0.5 MeV to 900 MeV, we now demonstrate the survival of a realistic beam across both stages.

  20. Inertial confinement fusion systems using heavy ion accelerators as drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Godlove, T.F.; Keefe, D.

    1980-01-01

    Heavy ion accelerators are the most recent entrants in the effort to identify a practical driver for inertial confinement fusion. They are of interest because of the expected efficient coupling of ion kinetic energy to the thermal energy needed to implode the pellet and because of the good electrical efficiency of high intensity particle accelerators. The beam intensities required, while formidable, lie within the range that can be studied by extensions of the theories and the technology of modern high energy accelerators. (orig.) [de

  1. New heavy-ion-fusion accelerator research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1983-05-01

    This paper will briefly summarize the concepts of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF), especially those aspects that are important to its potential for generating electrical power. It will also note highlights of the various HIF programs throughout the world. Especially significant is that the US Department of Energy (DOE) plans a program, beginning in 1984, aimed at determining the feasibility of using heavy ion accelerators as drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). The new program concentrates on the aspects of accelerator design that are important to ICF, and for this reason is called HIF Accelerator Research

  2. Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Development and Status

    CERN Document Server

    Tatum, Alan

    2005-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) is a national user facility dedicated to nuclear structure, reactions, and nuclear astrophysics research with radioactive ion beams (RIBs) using the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) technique. An integrated strategic plan for physics, experimental systems, and RIB production facilities have been developed and implementation of the plan is under way. Specific research objectives are defined for studying the nature of nucleonic matter, the origin of elements, solar physics, and synthesis of heavy elements. Experimental systems upgrade plans include new detector arrays and beam lines, and expansion and upgrade of existing devices. A multifaceted facility expansion plan includes a $4.75M High Power Target Laboratory (HPTL), presently under construction, to provide a facility for testing new target materials, target geometries, ion sources, and beam preparation techniques. Additional planned upgrades include a second RIB production system (IRIS2), an external axi...

  3. Removal of radioactive ions from nuclear waste solutions by electrodialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, S [Radia Industries Co. Ltd., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan)

    1978-10-01

    Removal of radioactive ions was studied from low and medium level radioactive waste solutions by electrodialysis using ion exchange membranes. The test solutions contained /sup 137/Cs/sup +/, /sup 106/Ru/sup 3 +/ or fission products (F.P.) as active ions and NaCl, Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or Ca(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ as inactive coexisting salts. The decontamination factor of the active ions was in the order: /sup 137/Cs/sup +/ (greater than 99%) > /sup 90/Sr/sup 2 +/ > F.P. > /sup 106/Ru/sup 3 +/. The dialysis time required to attain the saturation was the shortest for monovalent cations K/sup +/, Cs/sup +/ and Na/sup +/, intermediate for divalent cation Sr/sup 2 +/, and the longest for trivalent cation Ru/sup 3 +/. The ratio of the decontamination factor of an active ion eta sub( a) to the desalination factor of an inactive ion eta sub( b) was nearly equal to unity for /sup 24/Na, /sup 42/K, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr. On the other hand, the apparent selective permeability of an active ion (A/sup +/) against Na/sup +/ ion, T sub(Na/sup +/) sup( a) was higher than unity for all the active ions tested, and was in the order of /sup 137/Cs > /sup 90/Sr > /sup 42/K > /sup 24/Na, where T sub(Na/sup +/) sup( a) is defined by the ratio of ..gamma..sub( a) to ..gamma..sub(Na/sup +/) with ..gamma..sub( a) being the ratio of dilution of A in the diluate the ..gamma..sub(Na/sup +/) being that of Na/sup +/ in the same diluate. The decontamination factor of the active ions did not depend significantly on the species and concentration of the coexistent salts or on the concentration of the active ions.

  4. DC and RF ion accelerators for MeV energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanus, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis deals with the transport and acceleration of intense ion beams in single-ended Van de Graaff accelerators and the multiple beam rf accelerator MEQALAC (Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear Accelerator). Ch. 2 discusses several beam-envelope calculation techniques and describes the ion-optical components of a 1 MV, high-current, heavy-ion implantation facility and a 2 MV facility for analyzing purposes. The X-ray level of these accelerators is kept low, such that no shielding is needed, by keeping the energy of the secondary electrons sufficiently low, which is accomplished by a suppression system of small permanent magnets built in the acceleration tubes (ch. 3). Ch.'s 4,5 and 6 cover various aspects of stage II of the MEQALAC project. This stage deals with the parallel acceleration of four high-current N + beams from 40 keV to 1 MeV. Acceleration takes place in 32 rf gaps which are part of a modified interdigital H-resonator. In between the accelerating gaps, small electrostatic quadrupoles are mounted, which oppose the space charge forces of the intense ion beams. The lenses are arranged in a periodic focusing structure. A bucket-type plasma ion source is used, which produces both N + and N 2 + ions. In between the ion source and the MEQALAC section, a Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) section is mounted which provides for the drift space for a buncher. The latter device transforms the extracted dc beams into bunched beams which are accepted by the MEQALAC section. In ch. 4 the transport of ion beams that contain both N + and N 2 + ions, so-called mixed beams, through the LEBT section is discussed and equations for the current limit of a mixed beam are derived. Bunching of mixed N + , N 2 + beams is discussed in ch. 5. Multichannel acceleration of N + ions with the MEQALAC is discussed in ch. 6. (author). 122 refs.; 67 figs.; 1 tab

  5. Accelerator mass spectrometry of 41Ca with a positive-ion source and the UNILAC accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhof, A.; Henning, W.; Mueller, M.; Roeckl, E.; Schuell, D.; Korschinek, G.; Nolte, E.; Paul, M.

    1987-06-01

    We have made first tests investigating the performance characteristics of the UNILAC accelerator system at GSI, in order to explore the sensitivity achievable in accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) of 41 Ca with high-current positive-ion sources. Positively charged Ca 3+ ions of up to about 100 micro-amperes electrical current were injected from a penning-sputter source and, after further stripping to Ca 9+ , accelerated to 14.3 MeV/nucleon. The combination of velocity-focussing accelerator and magnetic ion-beam transport system completely eliminated background from the other calcium isotopes. Full-stripping and detection of 41 Ca 20+ ions with a magnetic spectrograph provides separation from isobaric 41 K and, at present, a level of sensitivity of 41 Ca/Ca ≅ 2x10 -15 . Future improvements and implications for dating of Pleistoscene samples will be discussed. (orig.)

  6. Laser-controlled collective ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shea, P.G.; Destler, W.W.; Rodgers, J.; Segalov, Z.

    1986-01-01

    We report first results from a new collective accelerator experiment in which a laser-controlled channel of ionization is used to control the propagation of the potential well at the front of an intense relativistic electron beam injected at currents above the space-charge limit. The controlled acceleration of protons at the rate of 40 MeV/m over a distance of 45 cm is reported, in good agreement with experimental design values

  7. Radioactive ion beam facilities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The past two decades have seen extraordinarily rapid development of radioactive beam physics throughout the world and in particular in Europe. The important scientific advances have stemmed from a large number of facilities. Previously existing stable beam machines have been adapted to produce rare isotope beams and dedicated facilities have come on-line. This talk gives an overview of the present European installations highlighting their complementary nature. The European roadmap calls for the construction of two next generation facilities: FAIR making use of projectile fragmentation and EURISOL based on the ISOL technique. The future FAIR facility will be described and the path towards EURISOL presented in the light of the construction of 'intermediate' generation facilities SPIRAL2, HIE ISOLDE and SPES and results from the ongoing EURISOL Design Study.

  8. Naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials: 1987 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, J.H.

    1988-03-01

    From time to time, the issue as to whether the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) should seek legislative authority to regulate naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials (NARM) is raised. Because NARM exists in the environment, in homes, in workplaces, in medical institutions, and in consumer products, the issue of Federal controls over NARM is very old and very complex. This report presents a review of NARM sources and uses as well as incidents and problems associated with those materials. A review of previous congressional and Federal agency actions on radiation protection matters, in general, and on NARM, in particular, is provided to develop an understanding of existing Federal regulatory activity in ionizing radiation and in control of NARM. In addition, State controls over NARM are reviewed. Eight questions are examined in terms of whether the NRC should seek legislative authority to regulate NARM. The assessment of these questions serves as the basis for developing and evaluating five options. The evaluation of those options leads to two recommendations

  9. An examination of medical linear accelerator ion-chamber performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karolis, C.; Lee, C.; Rinks, A.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The company ( Radiation Oncology Physics and Engineering Services Pty Ltd) provides medical physics services to four radiotherapy centres in NSW with a total of 6 high energy medical linear accelerators manufactured by three different companies. As part of the services, the stability of the accelerator ion chamber system is regularly examined for constancy and periodically for absolute calibration. Each accelerator ion chamber has exhibited undesirable behaviour from time to time, sometimes leading to its replacement. This presentation describes the performance of the ion chambers for some of the linacs over a period of 12-18 months and the steps taken by the manufacturer to address the problems encountered. As part of our commissioning procedure of new linacs, an absolute calibration of the accelerator output (photon and electron beams) is repeated several times over the period following examination of the physical properties of the radiation beams. These calibrations were undertaken in water using the groups calibrated ion chamber/electrometer system and were accompanied by constancy checks using an acrylic phantom and field instruments. Constancy checks were performed daily for a period of 8 weeks during the initial life of the accelerator and thereafter weekly. For one accelerator, the ion chamber was replaced 6 times in the first eighteen months of its life due to severe drifts in output, found to be due to pressure changes in one half of the chamber In another accelerator, erratic swings of 2% were observed for a period of nine months, particularly with the electron beams, before the manufacturer offered to change the chamber with another constructed from different materials. In yet another accelerator the ion chamber has shown consistent erratic behaviour, but this has not been addressed by the manufacturer. In another popular accelerator, the dosimetry was found to be very stable until some changes in the tuning were introduced resulting in small

  10. Ion and electron Van de Graaff accelerators of Kyoto University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzawa, F.; Imanishi, N.; Tomita, M.; Norisawa, K.; Yoshida, K.; Ohdaira, T.

    1990-01-01

    Two Van de Graaff accelerators are available at the Uji campus of Kyoto University. One is a 4MV machine, which is used for heavy ion acceleration, while the other is a 2MV machine for electron acceleration. These machines have been modified in various parts and currently used very actively in many fields of investigation. Important modifications of the 4MV machine are: use of a newly developed accelerating tube, addition of a charge-changer before the analyzing magnet, renewal of the charging belt, and development of a microbeam system for PIXE and RBS analysis. An attempt is now being made to accelerate micro-particles using the 2MV machine. The new accelerating tube has bucket type electrodes with large accelerating apertures. By charge-changing the accelerated 1+ ions to higher charge states, 2+, 3+, ..., at the entrance of the analyzing magnet, Ar ions with energies of up to 2.73, 6.21, .... MeV can be deflected to the duct. Scanning microbeam PIXE and RBS are powerful tools for analysis of spatial elemental distribution. Calculations suggest that a beam size of about 3 μm can be attained by using an object aperture of 10μm in diameter and controlling the beam divergence within 10μ rad in both directions. (N.K.)

  11. Ion extraction capabilities of two-grid accelerator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovang, D.C.; Wilbur, P.J.

    1984-02-01

    An experimental investigation into the ion extraction capabilities of two-grid accelerator systems common to electrostatic ion thrusters is described. This work resulted in a large body of experimental data which facilitates the selection of the accelerator system geometries and operating parameters necessary to maximize the extracted ion current. Results suggest that the impingement-limited perveance is not dramatically affected by reductions in screen hole diameter to 0.5 mm. Impingement-limited performance is shown to depend most strongly on grid separation distance, accelerator hole diameter ratio, the discharge-to-total accelerating voltage ratio, and the net-to-total accelerating voltage ratio. Results obtained at small grid separation ratios suggest a new grid operating condition where high beam current per hole levels are achieved at a specified net accelerating voltage. It is shown that this operating condition is realized at an optimum ratio of net-to-total accelerating voltage ratio which is typically quite high. The apparatus developed for this study is also shown to be well suited measuring the electron backstreaming and electrical breakdown characteristics of two-grid accelerator systems

  12. The SPS as accelerator of Pb$^{82+}$ ions

    CERN Document Server

    Faugier, A; Bailey, R; Blanchard, R R; Bohl, T; Brouzet, E; Burkhardt, H; Collier, Paul; Cornelis, Karel; de Rijk, G; Ferioli, F; Hilaire, A; Lamont, M; Linnecar, Trevor Paul R; Jonker, M; Niquille, C; Roy, G; Schmickler, Hermann

    1996-01-01

    In 1994 the CERN SPS was used for the first time to accelerate fully stripped ions of the Pb208 isotope from the equivalent proton momentum of 13 GeV/c to 400 GeV/c. In the CERN PS, which was used as injector, the lead was accelerated as Pb53+ ions and then fully stripped in the transfer line from PS to SPS. The radio frequency swing which is needed in order to keep the synchronism during acceleration is too big to have the SPS cavities deliver enough voltage for all frequencies. For that reason a new technique of fixed frequency acceleration was used. With this technique up to 70% of the injected beam could be captured and accelerated up to the extraction energy, the equivalent of 2.2 1010 charges. The beam was extracted over a 5 sec. long spill and was then delivered to different experiments at the same time.

  13. About using of ion accelerators in accelerator driven systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chigrinov, S; Kevitskaya, A; Petlevskij, V; Rutkovskaya, C [Belarussian Academy of Sciences, Minsk-Sosny (Belarus). Radiation Physics and Chemistry Inst.

    1997-12-31

    The prospects of using deuteron and alpha particle beams in Accelerator Driven Molten Salt Breeder for simultaneous production of uranium 233 and of thermal power are discussed, disregarding the problems of reactor construction and design. It is shown that by replacing the proton beam by beams of deuterons or alpha particles the energy cost of one neutron can be reduced from 11.5 MeV down to 9.3-10 MeV. The average energy of neutrons increases from 17.7 MeV to 24.3 MeV or 28.2 MeV, respectively. Thus, the gain in the number of fissile nuclei and in thermal power production of at least 1.2 - 1.3 times can be expected in ACMB. (J.U.). 1 tab., 3 figs., 4 refs.

  14. JAERI electrostatic accelerators for multiple ion beam application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yasuyuki; Tajima, Satoshi; Takada, Isao

    1993-01-01

    An electrostatic accelerators facility of a 3MV tandem accelerator, a 3MV single-ended accelerator and a 400kV ion implanter was completed mainly for materials science and biotechnology research at JAERI, Takasaki. The accelerators can be operated simultaneously for multiple beam application in triple and dual beam modes. The single-ended machine was designed to satisfy an extremely high voltage stability of ±1x10 -5 to provide a submicron microbeam stably. The measured voltage stability and ripple were within the designed value. (author)

  15. Collective acceleration of ions on the basis of resonance surface photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antsiferov, V.V.; Smirnov, G.I.; Telegin, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of ion beam shaping and collective acceleration on the basis of resonance surface ionization are discussed. The principle diagram of the device for collective acceleration of positive ions is given. The method suggested for positive ion acceleration provides the efficiency increase, the design simplification, the size decrease and the increase in the frequency of the collective laser ion accelerator pulses

  16. Health physics aspects of the Yale Heavy Ion Linear Accelerator dismantling project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.W.; Holeman, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    A program for the disassembly of the Yale Heavy Ion Linear Accelerator was initiated January 1, 1975. The object of the disassembly was to render the accelerator complex free of radioactive contamination in order that the area may be used for other University purposes. In addition, any salvage of metal parts was a desirable goal of the dismantling procedure. A systematic removal of all contaminated material began immediately. Portable survey instruments, swipe surveys, and sodium iodide gamma ray spectra were used as indicators of contamination. Apparatus in the direct beam line seemed to pose the most significant hazard to personnel. As beam components were eliminated, radioactive contamination was significantly reduced. Certain accelerator parts had to be machined in order to salvage non-contaminated metal, and the health physics aspects of this procedure are described. Isotopes found in the surveys included 22 Na, 54 Mn, 60 Co, 65 Zn and 75 Se, which were predominately beam activation products of accelerator components. Final surveys indicated the area free of radioactive contamination

  17. Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    A plan for exploring the physics and technology of induction linac development is discussed which involves a series of increasingly sophisticated experiments. The first is the single-beam transport experiment, which has explored the physics of a single space-charge-dominated beam. Second is the multiple-beam experiment in which four independent beams will be transported and accelerated through a multigap accelerating structure. The single-beam transport experiment is described, and some results are given of stability studies and instrumentation studies. The design and fabrication of the multi-beam experiment are described, as well as results of a first round of experiments in which beam-current amplification was observed. Concurrent theoretical work, resulting in a variety of acce-leration schedules and sets of associated voltage waveforms required to implement the experiments, is also reported

  18. Surface and Interface Studies with Radioactive Ions

    CERN Multimedia

    Weber, A

    2002-01-01

    Investigations on the atomic scale of magnetic surfaces and magnetic multilayers were performed by Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. The unique combination of the Booster ISOLDE facility equipped with a UHV beamline and the UHV chamber ASPIC (Apparatus for Surface Physics and Interfaces at CERN) is ideally suited for such microscopic studies. Main advantages are the choice of problem-oriented radioactive probes and the purity of mass-separated beams. The following results were obtained: $\\,$i) Magnetic hyperfine fields (B$_{hf}$) of Se on Fe, Co, Ni surfaces were determined. The results prompted a theoretical study on the B$_{hf}$ values of the 4sp-elements in adatom position on Ni and Fe, confirming our results and predicting unexpected behaviour for the other elements. $\\,$ii) Exemplarily we have determined B$_{hf}$ values of $^{111}$Cd at many different adsorption sites on Ni surfaces. We found a strong dependence on the coordination number of the probes. With decreasing coordination nu...

  19. Radio-tracing 'without' radioactivity: accelerator mass spectrometry in biomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a form of isotope-ratio mass spectrometry that quantifies concentrations of certain long-lived radioisotopes independently of their radioactive decay. AMS is primarily used in the geosciences for determining the age of a material that contains naturally occurring radioisotopes. AMS uses the same high specificity for enriched levels of these radioisotopes in tracing low chemical doses for long periods in biological systems, including humans. AMS provides the safety of low radiative exposure to experimental subjects and investigators, while obtaining attomole sensitivities that are not possible with stable isotope tracers because of their natural isotopic abundances. AMS isotope tracing was first applied to quantifying the genotoxicity of low level environmental chemicals in animals and later in humans. Physiologic concentrations of 14 C-labeled trace nutrients (folate, carotene, and tocopherol) are now measured directly in humans without concern about radiation. The radiative exposure is less than the commonly accepted risks of natural background radiation or the radiation fields found in high altitude air flights. AMS measures very small biological samples (such as 20 microliters of blood) that are easily obtained from human volunteers or model animals at frequent intervals for detailed analysis of kinetic profiles. This high data density enables the construction of compartmental models that elucidate nutrient behavior in tissues that cannot be directly sampled. The pharmaceutical industry is enthusiastic about AMS as a detector for 'micro-dosing' in which the human kinetics of an assuredly non-toxic dose of a candidate drug is tested early in a development project. Molecular tracing uses 3 H or 14 C as common isotopic labels, but AMS contributes to elemental tracing with certain radioisotopes having very long lives, such as 26 AL or 41 Ca. Calcium-41 is a particularly useful isotope in biomedical research because it is used

  20. Selective deuterium ion acceleration using the Vulcan petawatt laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krygier, A. G.; Morrison, J. T.; Kar, S.; Ahmed, H.; Alejo, A.; Clarke, R.; Fuchs, J.; Green, A.; Jung, D.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H.; Norreys, P.; Notley, M.; Oliver, M.; Roth, M.; Vassura, L.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.; Freeman, R. R.

    2015-05-01

    We report on the successful demonstration of selective acceleration of deuterium ions by target-normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) with a high-energy petawatt laser. TNSA typically produces a multi-species ion beam that originates from the intrinsic hydrocarbon and water vapor contaminants on the target surface. Using the method first developed by Morrison et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 030707 (2012)], an ion beam with >99% deuterium ions and peak energy 14 MeV/nucleon is produced with a 200 J, 700 fs, > 10 20 W / cm 2 laser pulse by cryogenically freezing heavy water (D2O) vapor onto the rear surface of the target prior to the shot. Within the range of our detectors (0°-8.5°), we find laser-to-deuterium-ion energy conversion efficiency of 4.3% above 0.7 MeV/nucleon while a conservative estimate of the total beam gives a conversion efficiency of 9.4%.

  1. High current pulsed linear ion accelerators for inertial fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Yonas, G.; Poukey, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    Pulsed ion beams have a number of advantages for use as inertial fusion drivers. Among these are classical interaction with targets and good efficiency of production. As has been pointed out by members of the accelerator community, multistage accelerators are attractive in this context because of lower current requirements, low power flow per energy conversion stage and low beam divergence at higher ion energies. On the other hand, current transport limits in conventional accelerators constrain them to the use of heavy ions at energies much higher than those needed to meet the divergence requirements, resulting in large, costly systems. We have studied methods of neutralizing ion beams with electrons within the accelerator volume to achieve higher currents. The aim is to arrive at an inexpensive accelerator that can advantageously use existing pulsed voltage technology while being conservative enough to achieve a high repetition rate. Typical output parameters for reactor applications would be an 0 + beam of 30 kA at 300 MeV. We will describe reactor scaling studies and the physics of neutralized linear accelerators using magnetic fields to control the electron dynamics. Recent results are discussed from PULSELAC, a five stage multikiloampere device being tested at Sandia Laboratories

  2. The LILIA (laser induced light ions acceleration) experiment at LNF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosteo, S.; Anania, M.P.; Caresana, M.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; De Martinis, C.; Delle Side, D.; Fazzi, A.; Gatti, G.; Giove, D.; Giulietti, D.; Gizzi, L.A.; Labate, L.; Londrillo, P.; Maggiore, M.; Nassisi, V.; Sinigardi, S.; Tramontana, A.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Turchetti, G.

    2014-01-01

    Laser-matter interaction at relativistic intensities opens up new research fields in the particle acceleration and related secondary sources, with immediate applications in medical diagnostics, biophysics, material science, inertial confinement fusion, up to laboratory astrophysics. In particular laser-driven ion acceleration is very promising for hadron therapy once the ion energy will attain a few hundred MeV. The limited value of the energy up to now obtained for the accelerated ions is the drawback of such innovative technique to the real applications. LILIA (laser induced light ions acceleration) is an experiment now running at LNF (Frascati) with the goal of producing a real proton beam able to be driven for significant distances (50–75 cm) away from the interaction point and which will act as a source for further accelerating structure. In this paper the description of the experimental setup, the preliminary results of solid target irradiation and start to end simulation for a post-accelerated beam up to 60 MeV are given

  3. The LILIA (laser induced light ions acceleration) experiment at LNF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, S. [Energy Department, Polytechnic of Milan and INFN, Milan (Italy); Anania, M.P. [INFN LNF Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Caresana, M. [Energy Department, Polytechnic of Milan and INFN, Milan (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [INFN LNS Catania, Catania (Italy); De Martinis, C. [Physics Department, University of Milan and INFN, Milan (Italy); Delle Side, D. [LEAS, University of Salento and INFN, Lecce (Italy); Fazzi, A. [Energy Department, Polytechnic of Milan and INFN, Milan (Italy); Gatti, G. [INFN LNF Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Giove, D. [Physics Department, University of Milan and INFN, Milan (Italy); Giulietti, D. [Physics Department, University of Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Gizzi, L.A.; Labate, L. [INO-CNR and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Londrillo, P. [Physics Department, University of Bologna and INFN, Bologna (Italy); Maggiore, M. [INFN LNL, Legnaro (Italy); Nassisi, V., E-mail: vincenzo.nassisi@le.infn.it [LEAS, University of Salento and INFN, Lecce (Italy); Sinigardi, S. [Physics Department, University of Bologna and INFN, Bologna (Italy); Tramontana, A.; Schillaci, F. [INFN LNS Catania, Catania (Italy); Scuderi, V. [INFN LNS Catania, Catania (Italy); Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Turchetti, G. [Physics Department, University of Bologna and INFN, Bologna (Italy); and others

    2014-07-15

    Laser-matter interaction at relativistic intensities opens up new research fields in the particle acceleration and related secondary sources, with immediate applications in medical diagnostics, biophysics, material science, inertial confinement fusion, up to laboratory astrophysics. In particular laser-driven ion acceleration is very promising for hadron therapy once the ion energy will attain a few hundred MeV. The limited value of the energy up to now obtained for the accelerated ions is the drawback of such innovative technique to the real applications. LILIA (laser induced light ions acceleration) is an experiment now running at LNF (Frascati) with the goal of producing a real proton beam able to be driven for significant distances (50–75 cm) away from the interaction point and which will act as a source for further accelerating structure. In this paper the description of the experimental setup, the preliminary results of solid target irradiation and start to end simulation for a post-accelerated beam up to 60 MeV are given.

  4. Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    This report discusses the following topics: MBE-4: The Induction-Linac Approach; Current Amplification and Acceleration Schedules; Emittance and Current Amplification; Scaling Up the Results; Progress on the Carbon-Arc Source; Injector Development; Progress Towards an ILSE Design; Beam Combination; and Focusing-System Alignment Tolerances

  5. A Variable Energy CW Compact Accelerator for Ion Cancer Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, Carol J. [Fermilab; Taylor, J. [Huddersfield U.; Edgecock, R. [Huddersfield U.; Schulte, R. [Loma Linda U.

    2016-03-10

    Cancer is the second-largest cause of death in the U.S. and approximately two-thirds of all cancer patients will receive radiation therapy with the majority of the radiation treatments performed using x-rays produced by electron linacs. Charged particle beam radiation therapy, both protons and light ions, however, offers advantageous physical-dose distributions over conventional photon radiotherapy, and, for particles heavier than protons, a significant biological advantage. Despite recognition of potential advantages, there is almost no research activity in this field in the U.S. due to the lack of clinical accelerator facilities offering light ion therapy in the States. In January, 2013, a joint DOE/NCI workshop was convened to address the challenges of light ion therapy [1], inviting more than 60 experts from diverse fields related to radiation therapy. This paper reports on the conclusions of the workshop, then translates the clinical requirements into accelerat or and beam-delivery technical specifications. A comparison of available or feasible accelerator technologies is compared, including a new concept for a compact, CW, and variable energy light ion accelerator currently under development. This new light ion accelerator is based on advances in nonscaling Fixed-Field Alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator design. The new design concepts combine isochronous orbits with long (up to 4m) straight sections in a compact racetrack format allowing inner circulating orbits to be energy selected for low-loss, CW extraction, effectively eliminating the high-loss energy degrader in conventional CW cyclotron designs.

  6. Production of C, N, O, and Ne ions by pulsed ion source and acceleration of these ions in the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hisao; Kohara, Shigeo; Kageyama, Tadashi; Kohno, Isao

    1977-01-01

    The heavy ion source, of electron bombarded hot cathode type, is usually operated by applying direct current for arc discharge. In order to accelerate Ne 6+ ion in the cyclotron, a pulsed operation of this source was attempted. Ne 6+ and O 6+ ions were accelerated successfully up to 160 MeV and more than 0.1 μA of these ion were extracted from the cyclotron. C 5+ , Ne 7+ and 22 Ne 6+ ions were also extracted with a modest intensity of beam. The intensity of C 4+ , N 4+ , N 5+ , and O 5+ ions was increased about ten times. (auth.)

  7. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1974--1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, S.

    1977-04-01

    The Bevalac, a versatile high-energy heavy-ion accelerator complex, has been in operation for less than two years. A major purpose for which the Bevalac was constructed was to explore the possibility of heavy-ion teams for therapy for certain forms of cancer. Significant progress has been made in this direction. The National Cancer Institute has recognized the advantages that these and other accelerated particles offer, and heavy ions have been included in a long-term plan for particle therapy that will assess by means of controlled therapeutic tests the value of various modalities. Since accelerated heavy ions became available, the possibility of other contributions, not planned, became apparent. We are developig a new diagnostic method known as heavy-ion radiography that has greatly increased sensitivity for soft-tissue detail and that may become a powerful tool for localizing early tumors and metastases. We have discovered that radioactive beams are formed from fragmentation of stable deflected beams. Use of these autoradioactive beams is just beginning; however, we know that these beams will be helpful in localizing the region in the body where therapy is being delivered. In addition, it has been demonstrated that instant implantation of the radioactive beam allows direct measurements of blood perfusion rates in inaccessible parts of the body, and such a technique may become a new tool for the study of fast hot atom reactions in biochemistry, tracer biology and nuclear medicine. The Bevalac will also be useful for the continuation of previously developed methods for the control of acromegaly, Cushing's disease and, on a research basis, advanced diabetes mellitus with vascular disease. The ability to make small bloodless lesions in the brain and elsewhere with heavy-ion beams has great potential for nervous-system studies and perhaps later for radioneurosurgery

  8. Preliminary design of a 10 MV ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T.J.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A.

    1986-06-01

    At the low energy end of an induction linac HIF driver the beam current is limited by our ability to control space charge by a focusing system. As a consequence, HIF induction accelerator designs feature simultaneous acceleration of many beams in parallel within a single accelerator structure. As the speed of the beams increase, the focusing system changes from electrostatic to magnetic quadrupoles with a corresponding increase in the maximum allowable current. At that point the beams are merged thereby decreasing the cost of the subsequent accelerator structure. The LBL group is developing an experiment to study the physics of merging and of focusing ion beams. In the design, parallel beams of ions (C + , Al + , or Al ++ ) are accelerated to several MV and merged transversely. The merged beams are then further accelerated and the growth in transverse and longitudinal emittance is determined for comparison with theory. The apparatus will then be used to study the problems associated with focusing ion beams to a small spot. Details of the accelerator design and considerations of the physics of combining beams are presented

  9. Study of radio-active ions in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, A.

    1965-01-01

    A comparative study is made of active, deposits of radon and thoron in suspension in the atmosphere by means of α radiation counting, using ZELENY tubes, scattering equipment, filter papers or membranes. It has been possible to show the existence of small and large ions which are negative and positive, as well as of neutral radio-active nuclei; their properties are studied. A theoretical interpretation of the results is presented. The average content of radon (using the Ra A concentration) and of Th B in the air has been determined. The radioactive equilibrium between radon and its daughter products in atmospheric air are examined. The techniques developed for active radon and thoron deposits are applied to the study of artificial radio-activity, the analyses being carried out by means of γ spectrometry. (author) [fr

  10. Moessbauer Effect applications using intense radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Moessbauer Effect is reviewed as a promising tool for a number of new solid state studies when used in combination with radioactive beam/implantation facilities. The usual Moessbauer Effect involves long-lived radioactive parents (days to years) that populate low-lying nuclear excited states that subsequently decay to the ground state. Resonant emission/absorption of recoil-free gamma rays from these states provide information on a number of properties of the host materials. Radioactive ion beams (RIB) produced on-line allow new Moessbauer nuclei to be studied where there is no suitable parent. The technique allows useful sources to be made having extremely low local concentrations. The ability to separate the beams in both Z and A should provide high specific activity ''conventional'' sources, a feature important in some applications such as Moessbauer studies in diamond anvil high pressure cells. Exotic chemistry is proposed using RIB and certain Krypton and Xenon Moessbauer isotopes

  11. Development of a low-energy radioactive ion beam facility for the MARA separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadakis, Philippos, E-mail: philippos.papadakis@jyu.fi; Moore, Iain; Pohjalainen, Ilkka; Sarén, Jan; Uusitalo, Juha [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics (Finland)

    2016-12-15

    A low-energy radioactive ion beam facility for the production and study of nuclei produced close to the proton drip line is under development at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. The facility will take advantage of the mass selectivity of the recently commissioned MARA vacuum-mode mass separator. The ions selected by MARA will be stopped and thermalised in a small-volume gas cell prior to extraction and further mass separation. The gas cell design allows for resonance laser ionisation/spectroscopy both in-gas-cell and in-gas-jet. The facility will include experimental setups allowing ion counting, mass measurement and decay spectroscopy.

  12. Modification of ion chromatograph for analyses of radioactive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curfman, L.L.; Johnson, S.J.

    1979-01-01

    In ion chromatographic analysis, the sample is injected through a sample loop onto an analytical column where separation occurs. The sample then passes through a suppressor column to remove or neutralize background ions. A flow-through conductivity cell is used as a detector. Depending upon column and eluent selection, ion chromatography can be used for anion or cation analyses. Ion chromatography has proven to be a versatile analytical tool for the analysis of anions in Hanford waste samples. These radioactive samples range from caustic high salt solutions to hydrochloric acid dissolutions of insoluble sludges. Instrument modifications which provide safe and convenient handling of these samples without lengthening analysis time or altering instrument performance are described

  13. Studies of the mirrortron ion accelerator concept and its application to heavy-ion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.; Schwager, L.A.; Dougless, S.R.; Jones, B.R.; Lambert, M.A.; Larson, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Mirrortron accelerator is a plasma-based ion accelerator concept that, when implemented, should permit both higher acceleration gradients and higher peak-current capabilities than is possible with conventional induction-type accelerators. Control over the acceleration and focussing of an accelerated beam should approach that achieved in vacuum-field-based ion accelerators. In the Mirrortron a low density (10 10 to 10 11 cm -3 ) ''hot electron'' plasma is confined by a long solenoidal magnetic field capped by ''mirrors''. Acceleration of prebunched ions is accomplished by activating a series of fast-pulsed mirror coils spaced along the acceleration tube. The hot electrons, being repelled by mirror action, leave the plasma ions behind to create a localized region of high electrical gradient (up to of order 100 MV/m). At the Laboratory an experiment and analyses to elucidate the concept and its scaling laws as applied to heavy-ion drivers are underway and will be described. 4 refs., 5 figs

  14. Transport of radioactive ions in soil by electrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, M.F.; Surma, J.E.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-10-01

    An electrokinetic approach is being evaluated for in situ soil remediation at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This approach uses an applied electric field to induce transport of both radioactive and hazardous waste ions in soil. The work discussed in this paper involves the development of a new method to monitor the movement of the radioactive ions within the soil during the electrokinetic process. A closed cell and a gamma counter were used to provide iii situ measurements of 137 Cs and 60 Co movement in Hanford soil. Preliminary results show that for an applied potential of 200 V over approximately 200 hr, 137 Cs and 60 60 were transported a distance of 4 to 5 in. The monitoring technique demonstrated the feasibility of using electrokinetics for soil separation applications

  15. Investigating the contamination of accelerated radioactive beams with an ionization chamber at MINIBALL

    CERN Document Server

    Zidarova, Radostina

    2017-01-01

    My summer student project involved the operation and calibration of an ionization chamber, which was used at MINIBALL for investigating and determining the contamination in post-accelerated radioactive beams used for Coulomb excitation and transfer reaction experiments.

  16. Inclusion of radioactive ion-exchange resins into inorganic binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epimakhov, V.N.; Olejnik, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    The paper is devoted to inclusion of the radioactive ion-exchange resins into the portland, slag-portland and alumina cements. The degree of filling the solidified products achieves 7-10, 12 and 18.9-19.7% correspondingly under conservation of sufficient strength (not less 5 MPa). The coefficient of waste volume increasing during solidification does not exceed 1.5 under consideration of addition of 10 mass % of clay into aluminia cement [ru

  17. Use of molecular ion beams from a tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faibis, A.; Goldring, G.; Hass, M.; Kaim, R.; Plesser, I.; Vager, Z.

    1981-01-01

    A large variety of positive molecular ion beams can be produced by gaseous charge exchange in the terminal of a tandem accelerator. After acceleration the molecules are usually dissociated by passage through a thin foil. Measurements of the break-up products provide a way to study both the structure of incident ions and the effects of electronic potentials on the internuclear interaction inside the foil. Beam intensities of a few picoamperes are quite adequate for these measurements, and the relatively high energy obtained by use of a tandem accelerator has the advantage of minimizing multiple scattering effects in the foil. The main difficulty in using the molecular beams lies in the large magnetic rigidity of singly-charged heavy molecular ions

  18. New heavy-ion accelerator facility at Oak Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelson, P.H.

    1974-01-01

    Funds were obtained to establish a new national heavy-ion facility to be located at Oak Ridge. The principal component of this facility is a 25-MW tandem designed specifically for good heavy-ion acceleration, which will provide high quality beams of medium weight ions for nuclear research by itself. The tandem beams will also be injected into ORIC for additional energy gain, so that usable beams for nuclear physics research can be extended to about A = 160. A notable feature of the tandem is that it will be of the ''folded'' type, in which both the negative and positive accelerating tubes are contained in the same column. The accelerator system, the experimental lay-out, and the time schedule for the project are discussed

  19. Low- to medium-β cavities for heavy ion acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facco, Alberto

    2017-02-01

    Acceleration of low- and medium-β heavy ions by means of superconducting (SC) linear accelerators (linacs) was made possible by the development, during four decades, of a particular class of cavities characterized by low operation frequency, several different shapes and different electromagnetic modes of operation. Their performance, initially rather poor in operating accelerators, have steadily increased along with the technological progress and nowadays the gap with the high-β, elliptical cavities is close to be filled. Initially confined to a very small number of applications, this family of cavities evolved in many directions becoming one of the most widespread in linacs. Nowadays it is present in the majority of superconducting radio-frequency ion linac projects worldwide. An overview of low- and medium-β SC cavities for heavy ions, focused on their recent evolution and achievements, will be given.

  20. A study of light ion accelerators for cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelec, K.

    1997-07-01

    This review addresses several issues, such as possible advantages of light ion therapy compared to protons and conventional radiation, the complexity of such a system and its possible adaptation to a hospital environment, and the question of cost-effectiveness compared to other modalities for cancer treatment or to other life saving procedures. Characteristics and effects of different types of radiation on cells and organisms will be briefly described; this will include conventional radiation, protons and light ions. The status of proton and light ion cancer therapy will then be described, with more emphasis on the latter; on the basis of existing experience the criteria for the use of light ions will be listed and areas of possible medical applications suggested. Requirements and parameters of ion beams for cancer treatment will then be defined, including ion species, energy and intensity, as well as parameters of the beam when delivered to the target (scanning, time structure, energy spread). Possible accelerator designs for light ions will be considered, including linear accelerators, cyclotrons and synchrotrons and their basic features given; this will be followed by a review of existing and planned facilities for light ions. On the basis of these considerations a tentative design for a dedicated light ion facility will be suggested, a facility that would be hospital based, satisfying the clinical requirements, simple to operate and reliable, concluding with its cost-effectiveness in comparison with other modalities for treatment of cancer

  1. 6 MV Folded Tandem Ion Accelerator facility at BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The 6 MV Folded Tandem Ion Accelerator (FOTIA) facility is operational round the clock and accelerated beams of both light and heavy ions are being used extensively by various divisions of BARC, Universities, lIT Bombay and other R and D labs across the country. The FOTIA is an upgraded version of the old 5.5 MV single stage Van-de-Graaff accelerator (1962-1992). Since its commissioning in the year 2000, the poor beam transmission through the 180 deg folding magnet was a matter of concern. A systematic study for beam transmission through the accelerator was carried out and progressive modifications in folding magnet chamber, foil stripper holder and improvement in average vacuum level through the accelerator have resulted in large improvement of beam transmission leading to up to 2.0 micro-amp analyzed proton beams on target. Now the utilization of the beams from the accelerator has increased many folds for basic and applied research in the fields of atomic and nuclear physics, material science and radiation biology etc. Few new beam lines after the indigenously developed 5-port switching magnet are added and the experimental setup for PIXE, PIGE, External PIXE, 4 neutron detector, Proton Induced Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PIPAS) setup and the general purpose scattering chamber etc have been commissioned in the beam hall. The same team has developed a Low Energy Accelerator Facility (LEAF) which delivers negative ions of light and heavy ions for application in implantation, irradiation damage studies in semiconductor devices and testing of new beam line components being developed for Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) programme at BARC. The LEAF has been developed as stand alone facility and can deliver beam quickly with minimum intervention of the operator. Few more features are being planned to deliver uniform scanned beams on large targets. (author)

  2. Long-pulse induction acceleration of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Firth, M.; Keefe, D.; Rosenblum, S.S.

    1983-03-01

    A long-pulse induction acceleration unit has been installed in the high-current Cs + beam line at LBL and has accelerated heavy ions. A maximum energy gain of 250 keV for 1.5 μs is possible. The unit comprises 12 independent modules which may be used to synthesize a variety of waveforms by varying the triggering times of the low-voltage trigger generators

  3. Long-pulse induction acceleration of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltons, A.; Firth, M.; Keefe, D.; Rosenblum, S.

    1983-01-01

    A long-pulse induction acceleration unit has been installed in the high-current Cs + beam line at LBL and has accelerated heavy ions. A maximum energy gain of 250 keV for 1.5 μs is possible. The unit comprises 12 independent modules which may be used to synthesize a variety of waveforms by varying the triggering times of the low voltage trigger generators

  4. Long-pulse induction acceleration of heavy-ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Firth, M.; Keefe, D.; Rosenblum, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    A long-pulse induction acceleration unit has been installed in the high-current Cs + beam line at LBL and has accelerated heavy ions. A maximum energy gain of 250 keV for 1.5 μs is possible. The unit comprises 12 independent modules which may be used to synthesize a variety of waveforms by varying the triggering times of the low voltage trigger generators

  5. Transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvey, T.; Eylon, S.; Fessenden, T.J.; Hahn, K.; Henestroza, E.

    1991-01-01

    Current amplification of heavy ion beams is an integral feature of the induction linac approach to heavy ion fusion. As part of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research program at LBL the authors have been studying the evolution of the transverse emittance of ion beams while they are undergoing current amplification, achieved by longitudinal bunch compression and acceleration. Experiments are conducted on MBE-4, a four beam Cs + induction linac. The space-charge dominated beams of MBE-4 are focused by electrostatic quadrupoles while they are accelerated from nominally 200 keV up to ∼ 1 MEV by 24 accelerating gaps. Initially the beams have currents of typically 4 mA to 10 mA per beam. Early experimental results showed a growth of the normalized emittance by a factor of 2 while the beam current was amplified by up to 9 times its initial value. The authors will discuss the results of recent experiments in which a mild bunch length compression rate, more typical of that required by a fusion driver, has shown that the normalized emittance can be maintained at its injection value (0.03 mm-mr) during acceleration

  6. Heavy ion linear accelerator for radiation damage studies of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutsaev, Sergey V.; Mustapha, Brahim; Ostroumov, Peter N.; Nolen, Jerry; Barcikowski, Albert; Pellin, Michael; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2017-03-01

    A new eXtreme MATerial (XMAT) research facility is being proposed at Argonne National Laboratory to enable rapid in situ mesoscale bulk analysis of ion radiation damage in advanced materials and nuclear fuels. This facility combines a new heavy-ion accelerator with the existing high-energy X-ray analysis capability of the Argonne Advanced Photon Source. The heavy-ion accelerator and target complex will enable experimenters to emulate the environment of a nuclear reactor making possible the study of fission fragment damage in materials. Material scientists will be able to use the measured material parameters to validate computer simulation codes and extrapolate the response of the material in a nuclear reactor environment. Utilizing a new heavy-ion accelerator will provide the appropriate energies and intensities to study these effects with beam intensities which allow experiments to run over hours or days instead of years. The XMAT facility will use a CW heavy-ion accelerator capable of providing beams of any stable isotope with adjustable energy up to 1.2 MeV/u for U-238(50+) and 1.7 MeV for protons. This energy is crucial to the design since it well mimics fission fragments that provide the major portion of the damage in nuclear fuels. The energy also allows damage to be created far from the surface of the material allowing bulk radiation damage effects to be investigated. The XMAT ion linac includes an electron cyclotron resonance ion source, a normal-conducting radio-frequency quadrupole and four normal-conducting multi-gap quarter-wave resonators operating at 60.625 MHz. This paper presents the 3D multi-physics design and analysis of the accelerating structures and beam dynamics studies of the linac.

  7. Heavy ion linear accelerator for radiation damage studies of materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsaev, Sergey V; Mustapha, Brahim; Ostroumov, Peter N; Nolen, Jerry; Barcikowski, Albert; Pellin, Michael; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2017-03-01

    A new eXtreme MATerial (XMAT) research facility is being proposed at Argonne National Laboratory to enable rapid in situ mesoscale bulk analysis of ion radiation damage in advanced materials and nuclear fuels. This facility combines a new heavy-ion accelerator with the existing high-energy X-ray analysis capability of the Argonne Advanced Photon Source. The heavy-ion accelerator and target complex will enable experimenters to emulate the environment of a nuclear reactor making possible the study of fission fragment damage in materials. Material scientists will be able to use the measured material parameters to validate computer simulation codes and extrapolate the response of the material in a nuclear reactor environment. Utilizing a new heavy-ion accelerator will provide the appropriate energies and intensities to study these effects with beam intensities which allow experiments to run over hours or days instead of years. The XMAT facility will use a CW heavy-ion accelerator capable of providing beams of any stable isotope with adjustable energy up to 1.2 MeV/u for 238 U 50+ and 1.7 MeV for protons. This energy is crucial to the design since it well mimics fission fragments that provide the major portion of the damage in nuclear fuels. The energy also allows damage to be created far from the surface of the material allowing bulk radiation damage effects to be investigated. The XMAT ion linac includes an electron cyclotron resonance ion source, a normal-conducting radio-frequency quadrupole and four normal-conducting multi-gap quarter-wave resonators operating at 60.625 MHz. This paper presents the 3D multi-physics design and analysis of the accelerating structures and beam dynamics studies of the linac.

  8. Ion Acceleration in Plasmas with Alfven Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnychenko, O.Ya.; Lutsenko, V.V.; White, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of elliptically polarized Alfven waves on thermal ions are investigated. Both regular oscillations and stochastic motion of the particles are observed. It is found that during regular oscillations the energy of the thermal ions can reach magnitudes well exceeding the plasma temperature, the effect being largest in low-beta plasmas (beta is the ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure). Conditions of a low stochasticity threshold are obtained. It is shown that stochasticity can arise even for waves propagating along the magnetic field provided that the frequency spectrum is non-monochromatic. The analysis carried out is based on equations derived by using a Lagrangian formalism. A code solving these equations is developed. Steady-state perturbations and perturbations with the amplitude slowly varying in time are considered

  9. Resolving key heavy-ion fusion target issues with relativistic heavy-ion research accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Heavy-ion accelerators designed for relativistic nuclear research experiments can also be adapted for target research in heavy-ion driver inertial fusion. Needle-shaped plasmas can be created that are adequate for studying basic properties of matter at high energy density. Although the ion range is very long, the specific deposited power nevertheless increases with kinetic energy, as the focus spot can be made smaller and more ions can be accumulated in larger rings

  10. Ion acceleration with ultra intense and ultra short laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floquet, V.

    2012-01-01

    Accelerating ions/protons can be done using short laser pulse (few femto-seconds) focused on few micrometers area on solid target (carbon, aluminum, plastic...). The electromagnetic field intensity reached on target (≥10 18 W.cm -2 ) allows us to turn the solid into a hot dense plasma. The dynamic motion of the electrons is responsible for the creation of intense static electric field at the plasma boundaries. These electric fields accelerate organic pollutants (including protons) located at the boundaries. This acceleration mechanism known as the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) has been the topic of the research presented in this thesis.The goal of this work has been to study the acceleration mechanism and to increase the maximal ion energy achievable. Indeed, societal application such as proton therapy requires proton energy up to few hundreds of MeV. To proceed, we have studied different target configurations allowing us to increase the laser plasma coupling and to transfer as much energy as possible to ions (target with microspheres deposit, foam target, grating). Different experiments have also dealt with generating a pre-plasma on the target surface thanks to a pre-pulse. On the application side, fluorescent material such as CdWO 4 has been studied under high flux rate of protons. These high flux rates have been, up to now, beyond the conventional accelerators capabilities. (author) [fr

  11. Investigation of charge balance in ion accelerator TEMP–4M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khailov, I P; Pak, V G

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a study on the balance of charge in accelerator TEMP–4M operating in double-pulse mode with resistance load and ion diode. Crucially, it was found, that during the switching there is no losses of accumulated charge. It means, that all accumulated charge transferred to the load. However when the charge is transferred from the Marx generator to Blumlein line the half of accumulated charge is lost. Calibration of diagnostic equipment showed a good agreement between the calculated and experimental values of voltage and current. It means, that our diagnostic system is correct for registration parameters of the ion accelerator. A distinctive feature of the ion accelerators with self-magnetically insulated diode is that there is no need to use additional energy source for the creation of an external magnetic field. That's why the efficiency of ion diodes with an external magnetic field is not more than 10–15%. The efficiency of energy conversion in self-magnetically insulated diodes will be determined by not only the efficiency of the diode, but the energy losses in the units of the accelerator. The aim of the researches is the analysis of the balance of charge in units of the ion beams pulsed generator and definition of the most significant channels of energy loss

  12. Acceleration ion focusing (IFR) and transport experiments with the recirculating linear accelerator (RLA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Smith, D.L.; Puokey, J.W.; Bennett, L.F.; Wagner, J.S.; Olson, W.R.; George, M.; Turman, B.N.; Prestwich, K.R.; Struve, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    The focusing and transport of intense relativistic electron beams in the Sandia Laboratories Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA) is accomplished with the aid of an ion focusing channel (IFR). We report here experiments evaluating the beam generation in the injector and its subsequent acceleration and transport through the first post-accelerating cavity. Two injectors and one type of post-accelerating cavity were studied. Beams of 6-20 kA current were injected and successfully transported and accelerated through the cavity. The transport efficiencies were 90% - 100%, and the beam Gaussian profile (4 MeV injector) and radius (5 mm) remained the same through acceleration. We describe the RLA, present the experimental results and compare them with numerical simulations. (Author) 3 refs., 7 figs

  13. Ion Acceleration by Laser Plasma Interaction from Cryogenic Microjets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Propp, Adrienne [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-08-16

    Processes that occur in extreme conditions, such as in the center of stars and large planets, can be simulated in the laboratory using facilities such as SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These facilities allow scientists to investigate the properties of matter by observing their interactions with high-power lasers. Ion acceleration from laser plasma interaction is gaining greater attention today due to its widespread potential applications, including proton beam cancer therapy and fast ignition for energy production. Typically, ion acceleration is achieved by focusing a high power laser on thin foil targets through a mechanism called Target Normal Sheath Acceleration. However, this mechanism is not ideal for creating the high-energy proton beams needed for future applications. Based on research and recent experiments, we hypothesized that a pure liquid cryogenic jet would be an ideal target for exploring new regimes of ion acceleration. Furthermore, it would provide a continuous, pure target, unlike metal foils which are consumed in the interaction and easily contaminated. In an effort to test this hypothesis, we used the 527 nm split beam, frequency-doubled TITAN laser at JLF. Data from the cryogenic jets was limited due to the flow of current up the jet into the nozzle during the interaction, heating the jet and damaging the orifice. However, we achieved a pure proton beam with evidence of a monoenergetic feature. Furthermore, data from gold and carbon wires showed surprising and interesting results. Preliminary analysis of data from two ion emission diagnostics, Thomson parabola spectrometers (TPs) and radio chromic films (RCFs), suggests that shockwave acceleration occurred rather than target normal sheath acceleration, the standard mechanism of ion acceleration. Upon completion of the experiment at TITAN, I researched the possibility of transforming our liquid cryogenic

  14. Ion Acceleration by Laser Plasma Interaction from Cryogenic Microjets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propp, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    Processes that occur in extreme conditions, such as in the center of stars and large planets, can be simulated in the laboratory using facilities such as SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These facilities allow scientists to investigate the properties of matter by observing their interactions with high-power lasers. Ion acceleration from laser plasma interaction is gaining greater attention today due to its widespread potential applications, including proton beam cancer therapy and fast ignition for energy production. Typically, ion acceleration is achieved by focusing a high power laser on thin foil targets through a mechanism called Target Normal Sheath Acceleration. However, this mechanism is not ideal for creating the high-energy proton beams needed for future applications. Based on research and recent experiments, we hypothesized that a pure liquid cryogenic jet would be an ideal target for exploring new regimes of ion acceleration. Furthermore, it would provide a continuous, pure target, unlike metal foils which are consumed in the interaction and easily contaminated. In an effort to test this hypothesis, we used the 527 nm split beam, frequency-doubled TITAN laser at JLF. Data from the cryogenic jets was limited due to the flow of current up the jet into the nozzle during the interaction, heating the jet and damaging the orifice. However, we achieved a pure proton beam with evidence of a monoenergetic feature. Furthermore, data from gold and carbon wires showed surprising and interesting results. Preliminary analysis of data from two ion emission diagnostics, Thomson parabola spectrometers (TPs) and radio chromic films (RCFs), suggests that shockwave acceleration occurred rather than target normal sheath acceleration, the standard mechanism of ion acceleration. Upon completion of the experiment at TITAN, I researched the possibility of transforming our liquid cryogenic

  15. Phase-of-flight method for setting the accelerating fields in the ion linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvortsov, S.V.; Lomize, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    For setting amplitudes and phases of accelerating fields in multiresonator ion accelerators presently Δt-procedure is used. The determination and setting of two unknown parameters of RF-field (amplitude and phase) in n-resonator is made according to the two increments of particle time-of-flight, measured experimentally: according to the change of the particle time-of-flight Δt 1 in the n-resonator, during the field switching in the resonator, and according to the change of Δt 2 of the time-of-flight in (n+1) resonator without RF-field with the switching of accelerating field in the n-resonator. When approaching the accelerator exit the particle energy increases, relative energy increment decreases and the accuracy of setting decreases. To enchance the accuracy of accelerating fields setting in a linear ion accelerator a phase-of-flight method is developed, in which for the setting of accelerating fields the measured time-of-flight increment Δt only in one resonator is used (the one in which the change of amplitude and phase is performed). Results of simulation of point bunch motion in the IYaI AN USSR linear accelerator are presented

  16. Heavy ion acceleration strategies in the AGS accelerator complex -- 1994 Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, L.A.; Benjamin, J.; Blaskiewicz, M.

    1995-01-01

    The strategies invoked to satisfy the injected beam specifications for the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) continue to evolve, in the context of the yearly AGS fixed target heavy ion physics runs. The primary challenge is simply producing the required intensity. The acceleration flexibility available particularly in the Booster main magnet power supply and rf accelerating systems, together with variations in the charge state delivered from the Tandem van de Graaff, and accommodation by the AGS main magnet and rf systems allow the possibility for a wide range of options. The yearly physics run provides the opportunity for exploration of these options with the resulting significant evolution in the acceleration plan. This was particularly true in 1994 with strategies involving three different charge states and low and high acceleration rates employed in the Booster. The present status of this work will be presented

  17. Observations of transverse ion acceleration in the topside auroral ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbe, G.P.; Arnoldy, R.L.; Moore, T.E.; Kintner, P.M.; Vago, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Data obtained from a sounding rocket flight which reached an apogee of 927 km and passed through several auroral arcs are reported. During portions of the flight when the rocket was not in an energetic auroral structure, the ion data are fit to a Maxwellian function which yields the plasma parameters. Throughout the middle portion of the flight when above 700 km altitude, ion distributions having a superthermal tail were measured. These ion distributions generally coexisted with a cold thermal core distribution and peaked at pitch angles slightly greater than 90 degree, which identifies them as conic distributions. These ions can be modeled using a bi-Maxwellian distribution function with a perpendicular (to B) temperature about 10 times greater than the parallel temperature of 0.15 eV. When the rocket was immersed in energetic auroral electron precipitation, two other ion distributions were observed. Transversely accelerated ions which represented bulk heating of the ambient population were observed. Transversely accelerated ions which represented bulk heating of the ambient population were observed continuously in these arcs. The characteristic perpendicular energy of the transversely bulk heated ions reached as high as 3 eV compared to typically less than 0.4 eV during nonauroral times. Cold ions flowing down the magnetic field were also continuously observed when the rocket was immersed in auroral electron precipitation and had downward speeds between 3 and 5 km/s. If one balances electric and collisional forces, these speeds translate to an electric field pointing into the atmosphere of magnitude 0.01 mV/m. A close correlation between auroral electron precipitation, measured electrostatic oxygen cyclotron waves, cold downflowing ions and transversely bulk heated ions will be shown

  18. Proton and Ion Sources for High Intensity Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Scrivens, R

    2004-01-01

    Future high intensity ion accelerators, including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the European Spallation Source (ESS), the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) etc, will require high current and high duty factor sources for protons and negative hydrogen ions. In order to achieve these goals, a comparison of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance, radio-frequency and Penning ion sources, among others, will be made. For each of these source types, the present operational sources will be compared to the state-of-the-art research devices with special attention given to reliability and availability. Finally, the future research and development aims will be discussed.

  19. Radioactive airborne species formed in the air in high energy accelerator tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.

    2005-01-01

    Many radioactive airborne species have been observed in the air of high energy accelerator tunnels during machine operation. Radiation protection against these induced airborne radioactivities is one of the key issues for radiation safety, especially at high-energy and high-intense proton accelerators such as the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, Joint project of KEK and JAERI), which is now under construction at the TOKAI site of JAERI. Information on the chemical forms and particle sizes of airborne radioactivities is essential for the estimation of internal doses. For that purpose, the study on radioactive airborne species formed in the air of beam-line tunnels at high-energy accelerators have been extensively conducted by our group. For Be-7, Na-24, S-38, Cl-38,-39, C-11, and N-13, formed by various types of nuclear reactions including nuclear spallation reactions, their aerosol and gaseous fractions are determined by a filter technique. A parallel plate diffusion battery is used for the measurement of aerosol size distributions, and the formation of radioactive aerosols is explained by the attachment of radionuclides to ambient non-radioactive aerosols which are formed through radiation induced reactions. The chemical forms of gaseous species are also determined by using a selective collection method based on a filter technique. A review is given of the physico-chemical properties of these airborne radionuclides produced in the air of accelerator beam-line tunnels.

  20. Reaching for highest ion beam intensities through laser ion acceleration and beam compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Dennis; Brabetz, Christian; Blazevic, Abel; Bagnoud, Vincent; Weih, Simon [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Jahn, Diana; Ding, Johannes; Roth, Markus [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Kroll, Florian; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Tom [Helmholtzzentrum Dresden Rossendorf (Germany); Collaboration: LIGHT-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Laser ion acceleration provides access to ion sources with unique properties. To use these capabilities the LIGHT collaboration (Laser Ion Generation Handling and Transport) was founded. The aim of this collaboration is the beam transport and manipulation of laser accelerated ions with conventional accelerator structures. Therefor a dedicated beam line has been build up at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung. With this beam line the manipulation of the transversal and also the longitudinal beam parameters has been achieved. It has been shown that laser generated ion beams can be transported over more than 6 meters and pulses shorter than 300 ps can be generated at this distance. This Talk will give an overview over the recent developments and plans of the LIGHT collaboration.

  1. Design study of electron cyclotron resonance-ion plasma accelerator for heavy ion cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Sugimoto, S.; Sasai, K.; Hattori, T.

    2014-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance-Ion Plasma Accelerator (ECR-IPAC) device, which theoretically can accelerate multiple charged ions to several hundred MeV with short acceleration length, has been proposed. The acceleration mechanism is based on the combination of two physical principles, plasma electron ion adiabatic ejection (PLEIADE) and Gyromagnetic Autoresonance (GYRAC). In this study, we have designed the proof of principle machine ECR-IPAC device and simulated the electromagnetic field distribution generating in the resonance cavity. ECR-IPAC device consisted of three parts, ECR ion source section, GYRAC section, and PLEIADE section. ECR ion source section and PLEIADE section were designed using several multi-turn solenoid coils and sextupole magnets, and GYRAC section was designed using 10 turns coil. The structure of ECR-IPAC device was the cylindrical shape, and the total length was 1024 mm and the maximum diameter was 580 mm. The magnetic field distribution, which maintains the stable acceleration of plasma, was generated on the acceleration center axis throughout three sections. In addition, the electric field for efficient acceleration of electrons was generated in the resonance cavity by supplying microwave of 2.45 GHz

  2. The intense neutron generator and future factory type ion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W B

    1968-07-01

    A neutron factory is likely to sell its product in the form of isotopes. To ay neutron factories are nuclear reactors. Ion accelerators may also produce isotopes by direct interaction and, at high enough energies, mesons and hyperons. The challenge of the electrical production of neutrons goes far beyond the isotope market. It challenges the two popular concepts for long term large scale energy, the fast breeder reactor and controlled thermonuclear fusion. For this use about 4% of nuclear generated power would be applied in a feedback loop generating extra neutrons. Competition rests on operating and processing costs. The Intense Neutron Generator proposal now cancelled would have been full scale for such a use, but much further advance in accelerator engineering is required and anticipated. Perhaps most promising is the application of the ion drag principle in which rings of fast electrons are accelerated along their axis dragging ions with them by electrostatic attraction. Due to the much larger mass of the ions they can acquire much higher energy than the electrons and the process could be efficient. Such accelerators have not yet been made but experimental and theoretical studies are promising. (author)

  3. The intense neutron generator and future factory type ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.B.

    1968-01-01

    A neutron factory is likely to sell its product in the form of isotopes. To ay neutron factories are nuclear reactors. Ion accelerators may also produce isotopes by direct interaction and, at high enough energies, mesons and hyperons. The challenge of the electrical production of neutrons goes far beyond the isotope market. It challenges the two popular concepts for long term large scale energy, the fast breeder reactor and controlled thermonuclear fusion. For this use about 4% of nuclear generated power would be applied in a feedback loop generating extra neutrons. Competition rests on operating and processing costs. The Intense Neutron Generator proposal now cancelled would have been full scale for such a use, but much further advance in accelerator engineering is required and anticipated. Perhaps most promising is the application of the ion drag principle in which rings of fast electrons are accelerated along their axis dragging ions with them by electrostatic attraction. Due to the much larger mass of the ions they can acquire much higher energy than the electrons and the process could be efficient. Such accelerators have not yet been made but experimental and theoretical studies are promising. (author)

  4. Energy spectrum of neutrals formed in an ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    This work presents an estimate of the energy distribution of the neutrals formed in the ion beam accelerator. However it does not determine the fraction of those neutrals which leave the neutral beam injector and go on into the reactor. To do that, more details of the beam line performance are needed

  5. ELIMAIA: A Laser-Driven Ion Accelerator for Multidisciplinary Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Margarone

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The main direction proposed by the community of experts in the field of laser-driven ion acceleration is to improve particle beam features (maximum energy, charge, emittance, divergence, monochromaticity, shot-to-shot stability in order to demonstrate reliable and compact approaches to be used for multidisciplinary applications, thus, in principle, reducing the overall cost of a laser-based facility compared to a conventional accelerator one and, at the same time, demonstrating innovative and more effective sample irradiation geometries. The mission of the laser-driven ion target area at ELI-Beamlines (Extreme Light Infrastructure in Dolní Břežany, Czech Republic, called ELI Multidisciplinary Applications of laser-Ion Acceleration (ELIMAIA , is to provide stable, fully characterized and tuneable beams of particles accelerated by Petawatt-class lasers and to offer them to the user community for multidisciplinary applications. The ELIMAIA beamline has been designed and developed at the Institute of Physics of the Academy of Science of the Czech Republic (IoP-ASCR in Prague and at the National Laboratories of Southern Italy of the National Institute for Nuclear Physics (LNS-INFN in Catania (Italy. An international scientific network particularly interested in future applications of laser driven ions for hadrontherapy, ELI MEDical applications (ELIMED, has been established around the implementation of the ELIMAIA experimental system. The basic technology used for ELIMAIA research and development, along with envisioned parameters of such user beamline will be described and discussed.

  6. Plasma arc pyrolysis of radioactive ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, C.A.; Toguri, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on two ion exchange resins (IRN 77 and IRN 78) which were pyrolysed in a plasma-arc furnace. Both continuous and batch tests were performed. Volume reduction ratios of 10 to 1 and 10 to 3.5 were achieved for IRN 78 and IRN 77 respectively. The product of the resin pyrolysis was a char which contained the radioactive elements such as cobalt. The off-gases consisted of mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide. There was a relatively small amount of dust in the off-gases. At the present time radioactive ion exchange resign is being kept in storage. The volume of this waste is increasing and it is important that the volume be reduce. The volume reduction ratio should be of the order of ten-to-one. Also, it is required that the radioactive elements can be collected or fixed in a form which could easily be disposed of. Plasma arc treatment offers considerable potential for the processing of the waste

  7. Laser-ablation-based ion source characterization and manipulation for laser-driven ion acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, P.; Metzkes-Ng, J.; Brack, F.-E.; Cowan, T. E.; Kraft, S. D.; Obst, L.; Rehwald, M.; Schlenvoigt, H.-P.; Schramm, U.; Zeil, K.

    2018-05-01

    For laser-driven ion acceleration from thin foils (∼10 μm–100 nm) in the target normal sheath acceleration regime, the hydro-carbon contaminant layer at the target surface generally serves as the ion source and hence determines the accelerated ion species, i.e. mainly protons, carbon and oxygen ions. The specific characteristics of the source layer—thickness and relevant lateral extent—as well as its manipulation have both been investigated since the first experiments on laser-driven ion acceleration using a variety of techniques from direct source imaging to knife-edge or mesh imaging. In this publication, we present an experimental study in which laser ablation in two fluence regimes (low: F ∼ 0.6 J cm‑2, high: F ∼ 4 J cm‑2) was applied to characterize and manipulate the hydro-carbon source layer. The high-fluence ablation in combination with a timed laser pulse for particle acceleration allowed for an estimation of the relevant source layer thickness for proton acceleration. Moreover, from these data and independently from the low-fluence regime, the lateral extent of the ion source layer became accessible.

  8. Ion Beam Facilities at the National Centre for Accelerator based Research using a 3 MV Pelletron Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, T.; Patel, Shiv P.; Chandra, P.; Bajpai, P. K.

    A 3.0 MV (Pelletron 9 SDH 4, NEC, USA) low energy ion accelerator has been recently installed as the National Centre for Accelerator based Research (NCAR) at the Department of Pure & Applied Physics, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur, India. The facility is aimed to carried out interdisciplinary researches using ion beams with high current TORVIS (for H, He ions) and SNICS (for heavy ions) ion sources. The facility includes two dedicated beam lines, one for ion beam analysis (IBA) and other for ion implantation/ irradiation corresponding to switching magnet at +20 and -10 degree, respectively. Ions with 60 kV energy are injected into the accelerator tank where after stripping positively charged ions are accelerated up to 29 MeV for Au. The installed ion beam analysis techniques include RBS, PIXE, ERDA and channelling.

  9. Thin and thick targets for radioactive ion beam production at SPIRAL1 facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, P.; Bajeat, O.; Delahaye, P.; Dubois, M.; Kuchi, V.; Maunoury, L.

    2018-05-01

    The upgrade of the Système de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Accélérés en Ligne (SPIRAL1) facility will deliver its new Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) by summer 2017. The goal of the upgrade is an improvement of the performances of the installation in terms of isotopes species and ion charge states [1]. Ion beams are produced using the Isotope Separator On Line Method, consisting in an association of a primary beam of stable ions, a hot target and an ion source. The primary beam impinges on the material of the target. Radioactive isotopes are produced by nuclear reactions and propagate up to the source, where they are ionized and accelerated to create a RIB. One advantage of SPIRAL1 driver is the variety of its available primary beams, from carbon to uranium with energies up to 95 MeV/A. Within the SPIRAL1 upgrade, they will be combined with targets made of a large choice of materials, extending in this way the number of possible nuclear reactions (fusion-evaporation, transfer, fragmentation) for producing a wider range of isotopes, up to regions of the nuclide chart still scarcely explored. Depending on the reaction process, on the collision energy and on the primary beam power, thin and thick targets are used. As their functions can be different, their design must cope with specific constraints which will be described. After a presentation of the goals of present and future SPIRAL1 Target Ion Source System, the main target features, studies and designs under progress are presented.

  10. Polarized secondary radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaika, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods of polarized radioactive nuclei beam production: a) a method nuclear interaction of the non-polarized or polarized charged projectiles with target nuclei; b) a method of polarization of stopped reaction radioactive products in a special polarized ion source with than following acceleration; c) a polarization of radioactive nuclei circulating in a storage ring are considered. Possible life times of the radioactive ions for these methods are determined. General schemes of the polarization method realizations and depolarization problems are discussed

  11. The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beams Facility (HRIBF) - getting ready to do experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapira, D.; Lewis, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The conversion of the HHIRF facility to a Radioactive Ion Beam facility started in 1994. In this ISOL type facility the Cyclotron has been re-fitted as a driver providing high intensity proton beams which react with the target from which the radioactive products are extracted and then accelerated in the Tandem Electrostatic Accelerator to the desired energy for nuclear science studies. Facilities for nuclear physics experiments are at different stages of development: A Recoil Mass Spectrometer (RMS) with a complement of detectors at the focal plane and around the target is used primarily for nuclear structure studies. A large recoil separator combining velocity and momentum selection, with its complement of focal plane detectors, will be dedicated to measurements relevant to nuclear astrophysics. The Enge Split Pole spectrograph is being re-fitted for operation in a gas filled mode, making it a more versatile tool for nuclear reaction studies. With the new experimental equipment being commissioned and the prospects of running experiments with low intensity radioactive beams a significant effort to develop equipment for beam diagnostics is underway. Some of the efforts and results in developing beam diagnostic tools will be described

  12. Staging of RF-accelerating Units in a MEMS-based Ion Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, A.; Seidl, P. A.; Ji, Q.; Feinberg, E.; Waldron, W. L.; Schenkel, T.; Ardanuc, S.; Vinayakumar, K. B.; Lal, A.

    Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear Accelerators (MEQALACs) provide an opportunity to realize compact radio- frequency (RF) accelerator structures that can deliver very high beam currents. MEQALACs have been previously realized with acceleration gap distances and beam aperture sizes of the order of centimeters. Through advances in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) fabrication, MEQALACs can now be scaled down to the sub-millimeter regime and batch processed on wafer substrates. In this paper we show first results from using three RF stages in a compact MEMS-based ion accelerator. The results presented show proof-of-concept with accelerator structures formed from printed circuit boards using a 3 × 3 beamlet arrangement and noble gas ions at 10 keV. We present a simple model to describe the measured results. We also discuss some of the scaling behaviour of a compact MEQALAC. The MEMS-based approach enables a low-cost, highly versatile accelerator covering a wide range of currents (10 μA to 100 mA) and beam energies (100 keV to several MeV). Applications include ion-beam analysis, mass spectrometry, materials processing, and at very high beam powers, plasma heating.

  13. Accelerators for heavy ion inertial fusion: Progress and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Friedman, A.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1994-08-01

    The Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Program is the principal part of the Inertial Fusion Energy Program in the Office of Fusion Energy of the U.S. Department of Energy. The emphasis of the Heavy Ion Program is the development of accelerators for fusion power production. Target physics research and some elements of fusion chamber development are supported in the much larger Inertial Confinement Fusion Program, a dual purpose (defense and energy) program in the Defense Programs part of the Department of Energy. The accelerator research program will establish feasibility through a sequence of scaled experiments that will demonstrate key physics and engineering issues at low cost compared to other fusion programs. This paper discusses progress in the accelerator program and outlines how the planned research will address the key economic issues of inertial fusion energy

  14. Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Godlove, T.D.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Keefe, D.

    1985-01-01

    In October 1983, a Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research programme (HIFAR) was established under the Office of Energy Research of the United States Department of Energy. The programme goal over the next several years is to establish a data base in accelerator physics and technology that can allow the potential of heavy ion fusion to be accurately assessed. Three new developments have taken place in the HIFAR programme. First, a decision has been made to concentrate the experimental programme on the development of multiple-beam induction linacs. Second, new beam transport experiments over a large number of quadrupole elements show that stable beam propagation occurs for significantly higher beam currents than had been believed possible a few years ago. Third, design calculations now show that a test accelerator of modest size and cost can come within a factor of three of testing almost all of the physics and technical issues appropriate to a power plant driver. (author)

  15. Beam dynamics studies of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.

    1995-04-01

    A driver-scale injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator project has been built at LBL. This machine has exceeded the design goals of high voltage (> 2 MV), high current (> 0.8 A of K + ) and low normalized emittance (< 1 π mm-mr). The injector consists of a 750 keV diode pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ) which provides strong (alternating gradient) focusing for the space-charge dominated beam and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. The fully 3-D PIC code WARP together with EGUN and POISSON were used to design the machine and analyze measurements of voltage, current and phase space distributions. A comparison between beam dynamics characteristics as measured for the injector and corresponding computer calculations will be presented

  16. Status report on electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba

    CERN Document Server

    Kitagawa, A; Sekiguchi, M; Yamada, S; Jincho, K; Okada, T; Yamamoto, M; Hattori, T G; Biri, S; Baskaran, R; Sakata, T; Sawada, K; Uno, K

    2000-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) is not only dedicated to cancer therapy, it is also utilized with various ion species for basic experiments of biomedical science, physics, chemistry, etc. Two electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are installed for production of gaseous ions. One of them, the NIRS-ECR, is a 10 GHz ECR ion source, and is mainly operated to produce C/sup 4+/ ions for daily clinical treatment. This source realizes good reproducibility and reliability and it is easily operated. The other source, the NIRS-HEC, is an 18 GHz ECR ion source that is expected to produce heavier ion species. The output ion currents of the NIRS-ECR and the NIRS-HEC are 430e mu A for C/sup 4+/ and 1.1e mA for Ar/sup 8+/, respectively. (14 refs).

  17. Micro structure processing on plastics by accelerated hydrogen molecular ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Nishikawa, H.

    2017-08-01

    A proton has 1836 times the mass of an electron and is the lightest nucleus to be used for accelerator in material modification. We can setup accelerator with the lowest acceleration voltage. It is preferable characteristics of Proton Beam Writer (PBW) for industrial applications. On the contrary ;proton; has the lowest charge among all nuclei and the potential impact to material is lowest. The object of this research is to improve productivity of the PBW for industry application focusing on hydrogen molecular ions. These ions are generated in the same ion source by ionizing hydrogen molecule. There is no specific ion source requested and it is suitable for industrial use. We demonstrated three dimensional (3D) multilevel micro structures on polyester base FPC (Flexible Printed Circuits) using proton, H2+ and H3+. The reactivity of hydrogen molecular ions is much higher than that of proton and coincident with the level of expectation. We can apply this result to make micro devices of 3D multilevel structures on FPC.

  18. Applications of inorganic ion-exchange materials in managing radioactivity wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiaheng; Li Xingliang; Li Shoujian

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces the application of abio-ion exchange materials in managing radioactivity wastewater, which would be useful for latter research of new inorganic materials that used in managing radioactivity wastewater. (authors)

  19. Radioactive ion beam development for the SPIRAL 2 project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichard, A.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study of radioactive ion beam production by the ISOL method for the SPIRAL 2 project. The production of light ion beams is studied and the potential in-target yields of two beams are appraised. The neutron-rich 15 C yield in an oxide target is estimated with simulations (MCNPx, EAF-07) and experimental data bases; the neutron-deficient 14 O yield is estimated thanks to a new measurement of the 12 C( 3 He, n) 14 O reaction excitation function. Based on thermal simulations, a first design of the production target is presented. This thermal study gives the necessary answers for the detailed design of the system able to reach a production yield 140 times higher than with SPIRAL 1. The production of radioactive ion beams coming from fissions in the UCx target is also studied and more particularly effusion and ionisation processes. A global study and an off-line tests campaign allow essential knowledge to the design of the surface ionisation source for SPIRAL 2 to be acquired. A first prototype of this ion source dedicated to alkali and alkaline-earth element production has been built and a thermal calibration performed. Ionisation efficiency and time response of the target-ion source system have been measured at different target temperatures and for different noble gases. These measurements allow evaluation of the impact of effusion and ionisation processes on the production efficiency of different alkali and noble gases isotopes as a function of their half-life. (author) [fr

  20. Selection of targets and ion sources for RIB generation at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    In this report, the authors describe the performance characteristics for a selected number of target ion sources that will be employed for initial use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) as well as prototype ion sources that show promise for future use for RIB applications. A brief review of present efforts to select target materials and to design composite target matrix/heat-sink systems that simultaneously incorporate the short diffusion lengths, high permeabilities, and controllable temperatures required to effect fast and efficient diffusion release of the short-lived species is also given

  1. Development of a radioactive ion beam test stand at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, J.; Freedman, S.J.; Fujikawa, B.; Gough, R.A.; Lyneis, C.M.; Vetter, P.; Wutte, D.; Xie, Z.Q.

    1998-01-01

    For the on-line production of a 14 O + ion beam, an integrated target--transfer line ion source system is now under development at LBNL. 14 O is produced in the form of CO in a high temperature carbon target using a 20 MeV 3 He beam from the LBNL 88'' Cyclotron via the reaction 12 C( 3 He,n) 14 O. The neutral radioactive CO molecules diffuse through an 8 m room temperature stainless steel line from the target chamber into a cusp ion source. The molecules are dissociated, ionized and extracted at energies of 20 to 30 keV and mass separated with a double focusing bending magnet. The different components of the setup are described. The release and transport efficiency for the CO molecules from the target through the transfer line was measured for various target temperatures. The ion beam transport efficiencies and the off-line ion source efficiencies for Ar, O 2 and CO are presented. Ionization efficiencies of 28% for Ar + , 1% for CO, 0.7% for O + , 0.33 for C + have been measured

  2. Preliminary research results for the generation and diagnostics of high power ion beams on FLASH II accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hailiang; Qiu Aici; Sun Jianfeng; He Xiaoping; Tang Junping; Wang Haiyang; Li Jingya; Ren Shuqing; Ouyang Xiaoping; Zhang Guoguang; Li Hongyu

    2004-01-01

    The preliminary experimental results of the generation and diagnostics of high-power ion beams on FLASH II accelerator are reported. The high-power ion beams presently are being produced in a pinched diode. The method for enhancing the ratio of ion to electron current is to increase the electron residing time by pinching the electron flow. Furthermore, electron beam pinching can be combined with electron reflexing to achieve ion beams with even higher efficiency and intensity. The anode plasma is generated by anode foil bombarded with electron and anode foil surface flashover. In recent experiments on FLASH II accelerator, ion beams have been produced with a current of 160 kA and an energy of 500 keV corresponding to an ion beam peak power of about 80 GW. The ion number and current of high power ion beams were determined by monitoring delayed radioactivity from nuclear reactions induced in a 12 C target by the proton beams. The prompt γ-rays and diode Bremsstrahlung X-rays were measured with a PIN semi-conductor detector and a plastic scintillator detector. The current density distribution of ion beam was measured with a biased ion collector array. The ion beams were also recorded with a CR-39 detector. (authors)

  3. Development of exploding wire ion source for intense pulsed heavy ion beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Y.; Murata, T.; Ito, H.; Masugata, K.

    2012-01-01

    A Novel exploding wire type ion source device is proposed as a metallic ion source of intense pulsed heavy ion beam (PHIB) accelerator. In the device multiple shot operations is realized without breaking the vacuum. The basic characteristics of the device are evaluated experimentally with an aluminum wire of diameter 0.2 mm, length 25 mm. Capacitor bank of capacitance 3 μF, charging voltage 30 kV was used and the wire was successfully exploded by a discharge current of 15 kA, rise time 5.3 μs. Plasma flux of ion current density around 70 A/cm 2 was obtained at 150 mm downstream from the device. The drift velocity of ions evaluated by a time-of-flight method was 2.7x10 4 m/sec, which corresponds to the kinetic energy of 100 eV for aluminum ions. From the measurement of ion current density distribution ion flow is found to be concentrated to the direction where ion acceleration gap is placed. From the experiment the device is found to be acceptable for applying PHIB accelerator. (author)

  4. The light ion pulsed power induction accelerator for ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Olson, R.E.; Olson, C.L.; Smith, D.L.; Bennett, L.F.

    1994-01-01

    Our Engineering Test Facility (ETF) driver concept is based on HERMES III and RHEPP technologies. Actually, it is a scaled-down version of the LMF design incorporating repetition rate capabilities of up to 10 Hz CW. The preconceptual design presented here provides 200-TW peak power to the ETF target during 10 ns, equal to 2-MJ total ion beam energy. Linear inductive voltage addition driving a self-magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) is utilized to generate the 36-MV peak voltage needed for lithium ion beams. The ∼ 3-MA ion current is achieved by utilizing many accelerating modules in parallel. Since the current per module is relatively modest (∼300 kA), two-stage or one-stage extraction diodes can be utilized for the generation of singly charged lithium ions. The accelerating modules are arranged symmetrically around the fusion chamber in order to provide uniform irradiation onto the ETF target. In addition, the modules are fired in a programmed sequence in order to generate the optimum power pulse shape onto the target. This design utilizes RHEPP accelerator modules as the principal power source

  5. Radiation pressure acceleration: The factors limiting maximum attainable ion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bulanov, S. V. [KPSI, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); A. M. Prokhorov Institute of General Physics RAS, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M. [KPSI, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Pegoraro, F. [Physics Department, University of Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, CNR, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is a highly efficient mechanism of laser-driven ion acceleration, with near complete transfer of the laser energy to the ions in the relativistic regime. However, there is a fundamental limit on the maximum attainable ion energy, which is determined by the group velocity of the laser. The tightly focused laser pulses have group velocities smaller than the vacuum light speed, and, since they offer the high intensity needed for the RPA regime, it is plausible that group velocity effects would manifest themselves in the experiments involving tightly focused pulses and thin foils. However, in this case, finite spot size effects are important, and another limiting factor, the transverse expansion of the target, may dominate over the group velocity effect. As the laser pulse diffracts after passing the focus, the target expands accordingly due to the transverse intensity profile of the laser. Due to this expansion, the areal density of the target decreases, making it transparent for radiation and effectively terminating the acceleration. The off-normal incidence of the laser on the target, due either to the experimental setup, or to the deformation of the target, will also lead to establishing a limit on maximum ion energy.

  6. SIS: an accelerator installation for heavy ions of high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two major sections of the report cover the scientific experimental program and the accelerator installation. Topics covered in the first include: heavy ion physics in the medium energy region; nuclear physics at relativistic energies; atomic physics loss and capture cross sections for electrons; spectroscopy of few-electron systems; atomic collision processes; biological experiments; nuclear track techniques in biology; and experiments with protons and secondary radiation. The second includes: concept for the total installation; technical description of the SIS 12; technical description of the SIS 100; status of the UNILAC injector; development options for the SIS installations; properties of the heavy ion beam; and structural work and technical supply provisions. In this SIS project proposal, an accelerator installation based on two synchrotrons is described with which atomic nuclei up to uranium can be accelerated to energies of more than 10 GeV/μ. With the SIS 12, which is the name of the first stage, heavy ion physics at intermediate energies can be pursued up to 500 MeV/μ. The second stage, a larger synchrotron, the SIS 100, has a diameter of 250 m. With this device, it is proposed to open up the domain of relativistic heavy ion physics up to 14 GeV/μ (for intermediate mass particles) and 10 GeV/μ (for uranium)

  7. Generation of monoenergetic ion beams with a laser accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfotenhauer, Sebastian M.

    2009-01-01

    A method for the generation of monoenergetic proton and ion beams from a laser-based particle accelerator is presented. This method utilizes the unique space-charge effects occurring during relativistic laser-plasma interactions on solid targets in combination with a dot-like particle source. Due to this unique interaction geometry, MeV proton beams with an intrinsically narrow energy spectrum were obtained, for the first time, from a micrometer-scale laser accelerator. Over the past three years, the acceleration scheme has been consistently improved to enhance both the maximum particle energy and the reliability of the setup. The achieved degree of reliability allowed to derive the first scaling laws specifically for monoenergetic proton beams. Furthermore, the acceleration scheme was expanded on other target materials, enabling the generation of monoenergetic carbon beams. The experimental work was strongly supported by the parallel development of a complex theoretical model, which fully accounts for the observations and is in excellent agreement with numerical simulations. The presented results have an extraordinarily broad scope way beyond the current thesis: The availability of monoenergetic ion beams from a compact laser-plasma beam source - in conjunction with the unique properties of laser-produced particle beams - addresses a number of outstanding applications in fundamental research, material science and medical physics, and will help to shape a new generation of accelerators. (orig.)

  8. Generation of monoenergetic ion beams with a laser accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfotenhauer, Sebastian M.

    2009-01-29

    A method for the generation of monoenergetic proton and ion beams from a laser-based particle accelerator is presented. This method utilizes the unique space-charge effects occurring during relativistic laser-plasma interactions on solid targets in combination with a dot-like particle source. Due to this unique interaction geometry, MeV proton beams with an intrinsically narrow energy spectrum were obtained, for the first time, from a micrometer-scale laser accelerator. Over the past three years, the acceleration scheme has been consistently improved to enhance both the maximum particle energy and the reliability of the setup. The achieved degree of reliability allowed to derive the first scaling laws specifically for monoenergetic proton beams. Furthermore, the acceleration scheme was expanded on other target materials, enabling the generation of monoenergetic carbon beams. The experimental work was strongly supported by the parallel development of a complex theoretical model, which fully accounts for the observations and is in excellent agreement with numerical simulations. The presented results have an extraordinarily broad scope way beyond the current thesis: The availability of monoenergetic ion beams from a compact laser-plasma beam source - in conjunction with the unique properties of laser-produced particle beams - addresses a number of outstanding applications in fundamental research, material science and medical physics, and will help to shape a new generation of accelerators. (orig.)

  9. Method of separating radioactive nuclides from ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazunori; Saikoku, Masami; Taneta, Daisuke; Yagi, Takuro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to safely process radioactive nuclides from spent ion exchange resins by using existent processing facilities. Method: Ion exchange resins in aqueous medium are at first placed to the ultrasonic wave irradiation site and put into such a state where clads and resins are easily separatable from each other by weakening the bonding force between them. Since the clads are magnetic material such as Fe 3 O 4 or NiFe 2 O 4 , the clads can be collected in the direction of the magnetic force by exerting the magnetic field simultaneously. The collected clads are transported by means of the aqueous medium to a collecting tank by removing the effect of magnetic field, for example, by interrupting the current supply to the electromagnet. Finally, they were subjected to stabilization and fixation into inorganic hardening agent such as cement hardener. Thus, processions can be made safely by using existent facilities. (Takahashi, M.)

  10. Direct Reaction Experimental Studies with Beams of Radioactive Tin Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ahn, S.H. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Allmond, James M [ORNL; Ayres, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Baugher, T. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bazin, D. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Beene, James R [ORNL; Berryman, J. S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bey, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Cartegni, L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chae, K. Y. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)/Sungkyunkwan University, Korea; Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers University; Gade, A. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Garcia-Ruiz, R.F. [Instituut voor Kernen Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, B-3001, Leuven, Belgium; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz [ORNL; Howard, Meredith E [ORNL; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University (TTU); Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Manning, Brett M [ORNL; Matos, M. [Louisiana State University; McDaniel, S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Miller, D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; O' Malley, Patrick [Rutgers University; Padgett, S [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Padilla-Rodal, Elizabeth [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM); Pain, Steven D [ORNL; Pittman, S. T. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Radford, David C [ORNL; Ratkiewicz, Andrew J [ORNL; Schmitt, Kyle [ORNL; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL; Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL; Stroberg, S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Tostevin, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Weisshaar, D. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wimmer, K. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL)/Central Michigan University; Winkler, R. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2015-01-01

    The tin chain of isotopes provides a unique region in which to investigate the evolution of single-particle structure, spreading from N = 50 at Sn-100, through 10 stable isotopes and the N = 82 shell closure at Sn-132 out into the r-process path. Direct reactions performed on radioactive ion beams are sensitive spectroscopic tools for studying exotic nuclei. Here we present one experiment knocking out neutrons from tin isotopes that are already neutron deficient and two reactions that add a neutron to neutron-rich Sn-130. Both techniques rely on selective particle identification and the measurement of gamma rays in coincidence with charged ions. We present the goals of the two experiments and the particle identification for the channels of interest. The final results will be presented in future publications.

  11. A linear radiofrequency ion trap for accumulation, bunching, and emittance improvement of radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herfurth, F.; Dilling, J.; Kellerbauer, A.

    2000-05-01

    An ion beam cooler and buncher has been developed for the manipulation of radioactive ion beams. The gas-filled linear radiofrequency ion trap system is installed at the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN. Its purpose is to accumulate the 60-keV continuous ISOLDE ion beam with high efficiency and to convert it into low-energy low-emittance ion pulses. The efficiency was found to exceed 10% in agreement with simulations. A more than 10-fold reduction of the ISOLDE beam emittance can be achieved. The system has been used successfully for first on-line experiments. Its principle, setup and performance will be discussed. (orig.)

  12. Particle size of radioactive aerosols generated during machine operation in high-energy proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oki, Yuichi; Kanda, Yukio; Kondo, Kenjiro; Endo, Akira

    2000-01-01

    In high-energy accelerators, non-radioactive aerosols are abundantly generated due to high radiation doses during machine operation. Under such a condition, radioactive atoms, which are produced through various nuclear reactions in the air of accelerator tunnels, form radioactive aerosols. These aerosols might be inhaled by workers who enter the tunnel just after the beam stop. Their particle size is very important information for estimation of internal exposure doses. In this work, focusing on typical radionuclides such as 7 Be and 24 Na, their particle size distributions are studied. An aluminum chamber was placed in the EP2 beam line of the 12-GeV proton synchrotron at High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). Aerosol-free air was introduced to the chamber, and aerosols formed in the chamber were sampled during machine operation. A screen-type diffusion battery was employed in the aerosol-size analysis. Assuming that the aerosols have log-normal size distributions, their size distributions were obtained from the radioactivity concentrations at the entrance and exit of the diffusion battery. Radioactivity of the aerosols was measured with Ge detector system, and concentrations of non-radioactive aerosols were obtained using condensation particle counter (CPC). The aerosol size (radius) for 7 Be and 24 Na was found to be 0.01-0.04 μm, and was always larger than that for non-radioactive aerosols. The concentration of non-radioactive aerosols was found to be 10 6 - 10 7 particles/cm 3 . The size for radioactive aerosols was much smaller than ordinary atmospheric aerosols. Internal doses due to inhalation of the radioactive aerosols were estimated, based on the respiratory tract model of ICRP Pub. 66. (author)

  13. Ion acceleration by radiation pressure in thin and thick targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macchi, Andrea, E-mail: macchi@df.unipi.i [CNR/INFM/polyLAB, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ' Enrico Fermi' , Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Benedetti, Carlo, E-mail: Carlo.Benedetti@bo.infn.i [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-08-01

    Radiation Pressure Acceleration (RPA) by circularly polarized laser pulses is emerging as a promising way to obtain efficient acceleration of ions. We briefly review theoretical work on the topic, aiming at characterizing suitable experimental scenarios. We discuss the two reference cases of RPA, namely the thick target ('Hole Boring') and the (ultra)thin target ('Light Sail') regimes. The different scaling laws of the two regimes, the related experimental challenges and their suitability for foreseen applications are discussed.

  14. Improved beam-energy calibration technique for heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, A.M.J.; Garcia, A.; Gil, Salvador

    1989-01-01

    A simple technique for beam energy calibration of heavy-ion accelerators is presented. A thin hydrogenous target was bombarded with 12 C and 19 F, and the energies of the protons knocked out, elastically were measured at several angles using two detectors placed at equal angles on opposite sides of the beam. The use of these two detectors cancels the largest errors due to uncertainties in the angle and position at which the beam hits the target. An application of this energy calibration method to an electrostatic accelerator is described and the calibration constant of the analyzing magnet was obtained with an estimated error of 0.4 (Author) [es

  15. Injection and laser acceleration of ions based on the resonant surface photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antsiferov, V.V.; Smirnov, G.I.; Telegin, G.G.

    1993-01-01

    The collective effects have been investigated of the injection and acceleration of the ion beams due to the resonant surface photoionization. The considered scheme of the laser accelerator allows to obtain positive ions with relativistic velocities. 11 refs., 2 figs

  16. Experimental study of ion heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, S.C.

    2000-01-28

    This dissertation reports an experimental study of ion heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection, which is the annihilation and topological rearrangement of magnetic flux in a conductive plasma. Reconnection is invoked often to explain particle heating and acceleration in both laboratory and naturally occurring plasmas. However, a simultaneous account of reconnection and its associated energy conversion has been elusive due to the extreme inaccessibility of reconnection events, e.g. in the solar corona, the Earth's magnetosphere, or in fusion research plasmas. Experiments for this work were conducted on MRX (Magnetic Reconnection Experiment), which creates a plasma environment allowing the reconnection process to be isolated, reproduced, and diagnosed in detail. Key findings of this work are the identification of local ion heating during magnetic reconnection and the determination that non-classical effects must provide the heating mechanism. Measured ion flows are sub-Alfvenic and can provide only slight viscous heating, and classical ion-electron interactions can be neglected due to the very long energy equipartition time. The plasma resistivity in the reconnection layer is seen to be enhanced over the classical value, and the ion heating is observed to scale with the enhancement factor, suggesting a relationship between the magnetic energy dissipation mechanism and the ion heating mechanism. The observation of non-classical ion heating during reconnection has significant implications for understanding the role played by non-classical dissipation mechanisms in generating fast reconnection. The findings are relevant for many areas of space and laboratory plasma research, a prime example being the currently unsolved problem of solar coronal heating. In the process of performing this work, local measurements of ion temperature and flows in a well-characterized reconnection layer were obtained for the first time in either laboratory or observational

  17. Experimental study of ion heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, S.C.

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation reports an experimental study of ion heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection, which is the annihilation and topological rearrangement of magnetic flux in a conductive plasma. Reconnection is invoked often to explain particle heating and acceleration in both laboratory and naturally occurring plasmas. However, a simultaneous account of reconnection and its associated energy conversion has been elusive due to the extreme inaccessibility of reconnection events, e.g. in the solar corona, the Earth's magnetosphere, or in fusion research plasmas. Experiments for this work were conducted on MRX (Magnetic Reconnection Experiment), which creates a plasma environment allowing the reconnection process to be isolated, reproduced, and diagnosed in detail. Key findings of this work are the identification of local ion heating during magnetic reconnection and the determination that non-classical effects must provide the heating mechanism. Measured ion flows are sub-Alfvenic and can provide only slight viscous heating, and classical ion-electron interactions can be neglected due to the very long energy equipartition time. The plasma resistivity in the reconnection layer is seen to be enhanced over the classical value, and the ion heating is observed to scale with the enhancement factor, suggesting a relationship between the magnetic energy dissipation mechanism and the ion heating mechanism. The observation of non-classical ion heating during reconnection has significant implications for understanding the role played by non-classical dissipation mechanisms in generating fast reconnection. The findings are relevant for many areas of space and laboratory plasma research, a prime example being the currently unsolved problem of solar coronal heating. In the process of performing this work, local measurements of ion temperature and flows in a well-characterized reconnection layer were obtained for the first time in either laboratory or observational

  18. Selective deuterium ion acceleration using the Vulcan petawatt laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krygier, A. G. [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palasiseau (France); Physics Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Morrison, J. T. [Propulsion Systems Directorate, Air Force Research Lab, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Kar, S., E-mail: s.kar@qub.ac.uk; Ahmed, H.; Alejo, A.; Green, A.; Jung, D. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Clarke, R.; Notley, M. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Fuchs, J.; Vassura, L. [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, École Polytechnique, 91128 Palasiseau (France); Kleinschmidt, A.; Roth, M. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H. [The John Adams Institute, Blackett Laboratory, Department of Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Norreys, P. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Oliver, M. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Zepf, M. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Helmholtz Institute Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Borghesi, M. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines Project, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Freeman, R. R. [Physics Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We report on the successful demonstration of selective acceleration of deuterium ions by target-normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) with a high-energy petawatt laser. TNSA typically produces a multi-species ion beam that originates from the intrinsic hydrocarbon and water vapor contaminants on the target surface. Using the method first developed by Morrison et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 030707 (2012)], an ion beam with >99% deuterium ions and peak energy 14 MeV/nucleon is produced with a 200 J, 700 fs, >10{sup 20}W/cm{sup 2} laser pulse by cryogenically freezing heavy water (D{sub 2}O) vapor onto the rear surface of the target prior to the shot. Within the range of our detectors (0°–8.5°), we find laser-to-deuterium-ion energy conversion efficiency of 4.3% above 0.7 MeV/nucleon while a conservative estimate of the total beam gives a conversion efficiency of 9.4%.

  19. Selective deuterium ion acceleration using the Vulcan petawatt laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krygier, A. G.; Morrison, J. T.; Kar, S.; Ahmed, H.; Alejo, A.; Green, A.; Jung, D.; Clarke, R.; Notley, M.; Fuchs, J.; Vassura, L.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Roth, M.; Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H.; Norreys, P.; Oliver, M.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.; Freeman, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the successful demonstration of selective acceleration of deuterium ions by target-normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) with a high-energy petawatt laser. TNSA typically produces a multi-species ion beam that originates from the intrinsic hydrocarbon and water vapor contaminants on the target surface. Using the method first developed by Morrison et al. [Phys. Plasmas 19, 030707 (2012)], an ion beam with >99% deuterium ions and peak energy 14 MeV/nucleon is produced with a 200 J, 700 fs, >10 20 W/cm 2 laser pulse by cryogenically freezing heavy water (D 2 O) vapor onto the rear surface of the target prior to the shot. Within the range of our detectors (0°–8.5°), we find laser-to-deuterium-ion energy conversion efficiency of 4.3% above 0.7 MeV/nucleon while a conservative estimate of the total beam gives a conversion efficiency of 9.4%

  20. Predicting induced radioactivity for the accelerator operations at the Taiwan Photon Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, R J; Jiang, S H

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of induced radioactivity due to the operations of a 3-GeV electron accelerator at the Taiwan Photon Source (TPS). According to the beam loss analysis, the authors set two representative irradiation conditions for the activation analysis. The FLUKA Monte Carlo code has been used to predict the isotope inventories, residual activities, and remanent dose rates as a function of time. The calculation model itself is simple but conservative for the evaluation of induced radioactivity in a light source facility. This study highlights the importance of beam loss scenarios and demonstrates the great advantage of using FLUKA in comparing the predicted radioactivity with corresponding regulatory limits. The calculated results lead to the conclusion that, due to fairly low electron consumption, the radioactivity induced in the accelerator components and surrounding concrete walls of the TPS is rather moderate and manageable, while the possible activation of air and cooling water in the tunnel and their environmental releases are negligible.

  1. An overview of negative hydrogen ion sources for accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faircloth, Dan; Lawrie, Scott

    2018-02-01

    An overview of high current (>1 mA) negative hydrogen ion (H-) sources that are currently used on particle accelerators. The current understanding of how H- ions are produced is summarised. Issues relating to caesium usage are explored. The different ways of expressing emittance and beam currents are clarified. Source technology naming conventions are defined and generalised descriptions of each source technology are provided. Examples of currently operating sources are outlined, with their current status and future outlook given. A comparative table is provided.

  2. Ion exchangers in radioactive waste management: natural Iranian zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilchi, A; Maalek, B; Khanchi, A; Ghanadi Maragheh, M; Bagheri, A; Savoji, K

    2006-01-01

    Five samples of natural zeolites from different parts of Iran were chosen for this study. In order to characterize and determine their structures, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrometry were carried out for each sample. The selective absorption properties of each zeolite were found by calculating the distribution coefficient (K(d)) of various simulated wastes which were prepared by spiking the radionuclides with (131)I, (99)Mo, (153)Sm, (140)La and (147)Nd. All the zeolite samples used in this study had extremely high absorption value towards (140)La; clinoptolite from Mianeh and analsite from Ghalehkhargoshi showed good absorption for (147)Nd; clinoptolite from Semnan and clinoptolite from Firozkoh showed high absorption for (153)Sm; mesolite from Arababad Tabas showed good absorption for (99)Mo; and finally mesolite from Arababad Tabas, clinoptolite from Semnan and clinoptolite from Firozkoh could be used to selectively absorb (131)I from the stimulated waste which was prepared. The natural zeolites chosen for these studies show a similar pattern to those synthetic ion exchangers in the literature and in some cases an extremely high selectivity towards certain radioactive elements. Hence the binary separation of radioactive elements could easily be carried out. Furthermore, these zeolites, which are naturally occurring ion exchangers, are viable economically and extremely useful alternatives in this industry.

  3. Universal method for effusive-flow characterization target ion source/vapor transport systems for radioactive ion beam generation (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Bilheux, J.-C.; Liu, Y.; Cole, J. A.; Williams, C.

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide interest in the use of accelerated radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for exploring reactions important in understanding the structure of the nucleus and nuclear astrophysical phenomena has motivated the construction of facilities dedicated to their production and acceleration. Many facilities utilize the isotope-separator-on-line (ISOL) method in which species of interest are generated within a solid or liquid target matrix. Experimentally useful RIBs are often difficult to generate by this technique because of the times required for diffusion from the interior of the target material, and to effusively transport the species of interest to the ion source following diffusion release in relation to its lifetime. Therefore, these delay times must be minimized. We have developed an experimental method that can be used to determine effusive-flow times of arbitrary geometry target/vapor transport systems. The technique utilizes a fast valve to measure effusive-flow times as short as 0.1 ms for any chemically active or inactive species through any target system, independent of size, geometry and materials of construction. In this report, we provide a theoretical basis for effusive flow through arbitrary geometry vapor transport systems, describe a universal experimental apparatus for measuring effusive-flow times, and provide time spectra for noble gases through prototype RIB target/vapor-transport systems

  4. Ion effects in future circular and linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1995-05-01

    In this paper, the author discusses ion effects relevant to future storage rings and linear colliders. The author first reviews the conventional ion effects observed in present storage rings and then discusses how these effects will differ in the next generation of rings and linacs. These future accelerators operate in a new regime because of the high current long bunch trains and the very small transverse beam emittances. Usually, storage rings are designed with ion clearing gaps to prevent ion trapping between bunch trains or beam revolutions. Regardless, ions generated within a single bunch train can have significant effects. The same is true in transport lines and linacs, where typical vacuum pressures are relatively high. Amongst other effects, the author addresses the tune spreads due to the ions and the resulting filamentation which can severely limit emittance correction techniques in future linear colliders, the bunch-to-bunch coupling due to the ions which can cause a multi-bunch instability with fast growth rates, and the betatron coupling and beam halo creation which limit the vertical emittance and beam lifetimes

  5. A continuous acceleration tube of ions under 200 KV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongodin, G.

    1954-01-01

    The realization of an Van de Graaff accelerator required, for the preliminary studies, the construction of a small proton accelerator, functioning at 200 kV in order to resolve some parasitic effects inherent to the accelerators tubes. The aim of this report is to describe the different organs of the accelerator tube, to explain the operating system and to encode their characteristics. The report first presents the ion source and the beam buncher permitting to inject in the accelerator tube particles of about 9 kV and very batched in a thin beam of circular section. Then the study explain the tube characteristics considered like optic system. A method to obtain precise calculation of particle trajectories is exposed. Aberrations of the system were discussed and balance of the currents on all electrodes inside the tube for different regimes of working were provided. The influence of the residual pressure in the tube were explained. The report finally ends on a part of the fundamental problem of the straining occurring inside the tubes accelerators under high tension. (M.B.) [fr

  6. Bipolar pulse generator for intense pulsed ion beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, H.; Igawa, K.; Kitamura, I.; Masugata, K.

    2007-01-01

    A new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named ''bipolar pulse accelerator'' (BPA) has been proposed in order to improve the purity of intense pulsed ion beams. To confirm the principle of the BPA, we developed a bipolar pulse generator for the bipolar pulse experiment, which consists of a Marx generator and a pulse forming line (PFL) with a rail gap switch on its end. In this article, we report the first experimental result of the bipolar pulse and evaluate the electrical characteristics of the bipolar pulse generator. When the bipolar pulse generator was operated at 70% of the full charge condition of the PFL, the bipolar pulse with the first (-138 kV, 72 ns) and the second pulse (+130 kV, 70 ns) was successfully obtained. The evaluation of the electrical characteristics indicates that the developed generator can produce the bipolar pulse with fast rise time and sharp reversing time

  7. Upgrading the Lyon cluster ion accelerator by a radiofrequency quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.O.; Schempp, A.

    1987-02-01

    The design is presented of an RFQ with variable final energy suitable to post-accelerate cluster ions from the Lyon electrostatic cluster-ion accelerator in the mass ranges from 1 to 25 μ and 1 to 50 μ to kinetic energies of 1.32-2.5 MeV and 2.64-5.0 MeV for cw and pulsed operation, respectively. Furthermore, a beam line is described which matches the electrostatically preaccelerated beam to the RFQ by use of electrostatic quadrupole triplets. When used without RFQ this beam line serves to improve beam parameters on the target, such as the particle flux density or beam divergence. The estimated costs of this project are about DM 345 000.- or FF 1 200 000.- without VAT. (orig.) [de

  8. Status report on the heavy ion accelerator facility at TIFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, B.

    2006-01-01

    The 14 UD Pelletron Accelerator has been delivering heavy ion beams for experimental programs in Nuclear Physics and other fields. During the year beam was delivered for 72% of the time remaining after completion of certain infrastructural activities. Various developmental activities were also taken up in the laboratories associated with the Pelletron. The Superconducting Linac being constructed as a booster for the heavy ion beams from the Pelletron is in an advanced state of completion. Five of the seven cryostat modules have been assembled and tested with beam from the Pelletron. The last two remaining modules are being assembled. A new experimental beam hall has been constructed for utilization of the accelerated beam from the Linac and beam transport to one of the target areas has been carried out. (author)

  9. MIAMI: Microscope and ion accelerator for materials investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinks, J. A.; Berg, J. A. van den; Donnelly, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    A transmission electron microscope (TEM) with in situ ion irradiation has been built at the University of Salford, U.K. The system consists of a Colutron G-2 ion source connected to a JEOL JEM-2000FX TEM via an in-house designed and constructed ion beam transport system. The ion source can deliver ion energies from 0.5 to 10 keV for singly charged ions and can be floated up to 100 kV to allow acceleration to higher energies. Ion species from H to Xe can be produced for the full range of energies allowing the investigation of implantation with light ions such as helium as well as the effects of displacing irradiation with heavy inert or self-ions. The ability to implant light ions at energies low enough such that they come to rest within the thickness of a TEM sample and to also irradiate with heavier species at energies sufficient to cause large numbers of atomic displacements makes this facility ideally suited to the study of materials for use in nuclear environments. TEM allows the internal microstructure of a sample to be imaged at the nanoscale. By irradiating in situ it is possible to observe the dynamic evolution of radiation damage which can occur during irradiation as a result of competing processes within the system being studied. Furthermore, experimental variables such as temperature can be controlled and maintained throughout both irradiation and observation. This combination of capabilities enables an understanding of the underlying atomistic processes to be gained and thus gives invaluable insights into the fundamental physics governing the response of materials to irradiation. Details of the design and specifications of the MIAMI facility are given along with examples of initial experimental results in silicon and silicon carbide.

  10. Double-layer ion acceleration triggered by ion magnetization in expanding radiofrequency plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W.; Fujiwara, Tamiya

    2010-01-01

    Ion energy distribution functions downstream of the source exit in magnetically expanding low-pressure plasmas are experimentally investigated for four source tube diameters ranging from about 5 to 15 cm. The magnetic-field threshold corresponding to a transition from a simple expanding plasma to a double layer-containing plasma is observed to increase with a decrease in the source tube diameter. The results demonstrate that for the four geometries, the double layer and the accelerated ion beam form when the ion Larmour radius in the source becomes smaller than the source tube radius, i.e., when the ions become magnetized in the source tube.

  11. Emittance growth from rotated quadrupoles in heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    We derive a set of moment equations which incorporates linear quadrupolar focusing and space-charge defocusing, in the presence of rotational misalignments of the quadrupoles about the direction of beam propagation. Although the usual beam emittance measured relative to fixed transverse x and y coordinate axes is not constant, a conserved emittance-like quantity has been found. Implications for alignment tolerances in accelerators for heavy-ion inertial fusion are discussed

  12. Design study of an accelerator for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, T.; Noda, A.; Tokuda, N.; Hirao, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Design of a demonstration accelerator for heavy ion fusion based on a synchrotron system is briefly described. The proposed complex system of injector linac, rapid cycling synchrotron and five accumulation rings can produce a peak current 1.6 kA, peak power 32 TW and total energy 0.3 MJ. Investigations of the intrabeam scattering give a lifetime of the beam longer than the fusion cycle time of 1 sec

  13. Fast neutron scintillation spectrometer in a heavy ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, M.V.; Gavrilov, B.P.; Ivannikova, L.L.; Kozulin, Eh.M.; Mozhaev, A.N.; Tyurin, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Scintillation fast neutron spectrometer in a heavy ion accelerator is described in short. The spectrometer is used to measure characteristics of neutrons emitted in heavy ion interaction with different nuclei. Experiment was performed on the base of particle flight from 0.7 up to 2 m. Within the angle range of 0-150 deg. The technique is based on recording of two-dimensional neutron spectra obtained due to combination of the time-of-flight method and the method of recoil proton energy detection. Two measuring channels were used in the spectrometer. Each channel comprise both amplitude and time tracks. Detector on the base microchannel plates (MCP) generated a signal in passing the next ion bunch was used in order to obtain the time mark. Data from the scintillation block are recorded with respect to three parameters: recoil proton amplitude, time of neutron or γ-quantum arrival in respect of MCP-sensor pulse. Apparatus is carried out within the CAMAC standard. The spectrometer calibration within the 1-20 MeV neutron range was conducted in the Van-de-Graaf accelerator, and for higher energies - with the use of lightguides. Spectrometer time resolution for neutron energies of 0.5-50 MeV constituted 1.5-1.8 ns. The above measuring of neutron spectra from 1 /H2C+ 181 Ta and sup(20, 22)Ne+sup(181)Ta reaction have revealed a possibility of the experiment organization in heavy ion accelerators in the presence of strong neutron and γ-fields. Organization of multi-dimensional analysis combining two methods allows one to separate accelerator cycle, a region of the most reliable information, free of a low-energy gamma background and limited both by a dynamic threshold and a region of permissible energy values

  14. Dedicated medical ion accelerator design study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    Results and conclusions are reported from a design study for a dedicated medical accelerator. Basing efforts on the current consensus regarding medical requirements, the resulting demands on accelerator and beam delivery systems were analyzed, and existing accelerator technology was reviewed to evaluate the feasibility of meeting these demands. This general analysis was augmented and verified by preparing detailed preliminary designs for sources of therapeutic beams of neutrons, protons and heavy ions. The study indicates that circular accelerators are the most desirable and economical solutions for such sources. Synchrotrons are clearly superior for beams of helium and heavier ions, while synchrotrons and cyclotrons seem equally well suited for protons although they have different strengths and weaknesses. Advanced techniques of beam delivery are of utmost importance in fully utilizing the advantages of particle beams. Several issues are invloved here. First, multi-treatment room arrangements are essential for making optimal use of the high dose rate capabilities of ion accelerators. The design of corresponding beam switching systems, the principles of which are already developed for physics experimental areas, pose no problems. Second, isocentric beam delivery substantially enhances flexibility of dose delivery. After several designs for such devices were completed, it was concluded that high field magnets are necessary to keep size, bulk and cost acceptable. Third, and most important, is the generation of large, homogeneous radiation fields. This is presently accomplished with the aid of scattering foils, occluding rings, collimators, ridge filters, and boluses. A novel approach, three-dimensional beam scanning, was developed here, and the most demanding components of such a system (fast-scanning magnet and power supply) were built and tested

  15. Heavy-ion acceleration with a superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    This year, 1988, is the tenth anniversary of the first use of RF superconductivity to accelerate heavy ions. In June 1978, the first two superconducting resonators of the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) were used to boost the energy of a 19 F beam from the tandem, and by September 1978 a 5-resonator linac provided an 16 O beam for a nuclear-physics experiment. Since then, the superconducting linac has grown steadily in size and capability until now there are 42 accelerating structures and 4 bunchers. Throughout this period, the system was used routinely for physics research, and by now the total time with beam on target is 35,000 hours. Lessons learned from this long running experience and some key technical developments that made it possible are reviewed in this paper. 19 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. LIGHT - from laser ion acceleration to future applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Markus; Light Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Creation of high intensity multi-MeV ion bunches by high power lasers became a reliable tool during the last 15 years. The laser plasma source provides for TV/m accelerating field gradients and initially sub-ps bunch lengths. However, the large envelope divergence and the continuous exponential energy spectrum are substential drawbacks for many possible applications. To face this problem, the LIGHT collaboration was founded (Laser Ion Generation, Handling and Transport). The collaboration consists of several university groups and research centers, namely TU Darmstadt, JWGU Frankfurt, HI Jena, HZDR Dresden and GSI Darmstadt. The central goal is building a test beamline for merging laser ion acceleration with conventional accelerator infrastructure at the GSI facility. In the latest experiments, low divergent proton bunches with a central energy of up to 10 MeV and containing >109 particles could be provided at up to 2.2 m behind the plasma source, using a pulsed solenoid. In a next step, a radiofrequency cavity will be added to the beamline for phase rotation of these bunches, giving access to sub-ns bunch lengths and reaching highest intensities. An overview of the LIGHT objectives and the recent experimental results will be given. This work was supported by HIC4FAIR.

  17. Superconducting accelerating structures for very low velocity ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.; Shepard, K.W.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Fuerst, J.D.; Waldschmidt, G.; /Argonne; Gonin, I.V.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents designs for four types of very-low-velocity superconducting accelerating cavity capable of providing several MV of accelerating potential per cavity, and suitable for particle velocities in the range 0.006 < v/c < 0.06. Superconducting TEM-class cavities have been widely applied to CW acceleration of ion beams. SC linacs can be formed as an array of independently-phased cavities, enabling a variable velocity profile to maximize the output energy for each of a number of different ion species. Several laboratories in the US and Europe are planning exotic beam facilities based on SC linacs. The cavity designs presented here are intended for the front-end of such linacs, particularly for the post-acceleration of rare isotopes of low charge state. Several types of SC cavities have been developed recently to cover particle velocities above 0.06c. Superconducting four-gap quarter-wave resonators for velocities 0.008 < {beta} = v/c < 0.05 were developed about two decades ago and have been successfully operated at the ATLAS SC linac at Argonne National Laboratory. Since that time, progress in simulation tools, cavity fabrication and processing have increased SC cavity gradients by a factor of 3-4. This paper applies these tools to optimize the design of a four-gap quarter-wave resonator for exotic beam facilities and other low-velocity applications.

  18. Simulating electron clouds in heavy-ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Covo, M. Kireeff; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J.-L.; Stoltz, P.; Veitzer, S.

    2005-01-01

    Contaminating clouds of electrons are a concern for most accelerators of positively charged particles, but there are some unique aspects of heavy-ion accelerators for fusion and high-energy density physics which make modeling such clouds especially challenging. In particular, self-consistent electron and ion simulation is required, including a particle advance scheme which can follow electrons in regions where electrons are strongly magnetized, weakly magnetized, and unmagnetized. The approach to such self-consistency is described, and in particular a scheme for interpolating between full-orbit (Boris) and drift-kinetic particle pushes that enables electron time steps long compared to the typical gyroperiod in the magnets. Tests and applications are presented: simulation of electron clouds produced by three different kinds of sources indicates the sensitivity of the cloud shape to the nature of the source; first-of-a-kind self-consistent simulation of electron-cloud experiments on the high-current experiment [L. R. Prost, P. A. Seidl, F. M. Bieniosek, C. M. Celata, A. Faltens, D. Baca, E. Henestroza, J. W. Kwan, M. Leitner, W. L. Waldron, R. Cohen, A. Friedman, D. Grote, S. M. Lund, A. W. Molvik, and E. Morse, 'High current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion', Physical Review Special Topics, Accelerators and Beams 8, 020101 (2005)], at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, in which the machine can be flooded with electrons released by impact of the ion beam on an end plate, demonstrate the ability to reproduce key features of the ion-beam phase space; and simulation of a two-stream instability of thin beams in a magnetic field demonstrates the ability of the large-time-step mover to accurately calculate the instability

  19. Hertzian spectroscopy application to excited states in accelerated ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, M L

    1974-01-01

    Accelerated ion beams enables the application of optical hertzian spectrometry methods to be extended to research on the excited states of free ionic systems. The photon beat method has proved especially simple to apply in beam foil geometry because of the unidirectional beam velocity while the beam gas device is suitable for experiments of the energy level crossing type. Only the resonance technique involving direct application of high-frequency magnetic fields poses serious problems because of the high HF powers necessary. So far structure intervals have been measured in ions carrying up to three charges (seven in the special case of Lamb shift measurements) with a precision of a few percent. Study of hydrogen-like or helium-like ions of high Z allows the fundamental calculations of quantum electrodynamics to be checked with regard to the Lamb shift or the spontaneous emission theory. In more complex electronic systems, optical spectroscopy of accelerated ion beams gives wavelengths with a resolution reaching 10/sup -5/, lifetimes with an accuracy better than 10% when the cascade effects are properly studied, and Lande factors with a precision of several % under present technical conditions. The photon beat method concerns hyperfine nuclear effects in light atoms of Z < = 20. (FR)

  20. Repetitive pulse accelerator technology for light ion inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttram, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    Successful ignition of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) pellet is calculated to require that several megajoules of energy be deposited in the pellet's centimeter-sized shell within 10 ns. This implies a driver power of several hundreds of terawatts and power density around 100 TW/cm 2 . The Sandia ICF approach is to deposit the energy with beams of 30 MV lithium ions. The first accelerator capable of producing these beams (PBFA II, 100 TW) will be used to study beam formation and target physics on a single pulse basis. To utilize this technology for power production, repetitive pulsing at rates that may be as high as 10 Hz will be required. This paper will overview the technologies being studied for a repetitively pulsed ICF accelerator. As presently conceived, power is supplied by rotating machinery providing 16 MJ in 1 ms. The generator output is transformed to 3 MV, then switched into a pulse compression system using laser triggered spark gaps. These must be synchronized to about 1 ns. Pulse compression is performed with saturable inductor switches, the output being 40 ns, 1.5 MV pulses. These are transformed to 30 MV in a self-magnetically insulated cavity adder structure. Space charge limited ion beams are drawn from anode plasmas with electron counter streaming being magnetically inhibited. The ions are ballistically focused into the entrances of guiding discharge channels for transport to the pellet. The status of component development from the prime power to the ion source will be reviewed

  1. Enhanced ion acceleration in transition from opaque to transparent plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, R.; Fiuza, F.; Glenzer, S.

    2018-04-01

    Using particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate ion acceleration in the interaction of high intensity lasers with plasmas which transition from opaque to transparent during the interaction process. We show that the highest ion energies are achieved when the laser traverses the target around the peak intensity and re-heats the electron population responsible for the plasma expansion, enhancing the corresponding sheath electric field. This process can lead to an increase of up to 2x in ion energy when compared with the standard Target Normal Sheath Acceleration in opaque targets under the same laser conditions. A theoretical model is developed to predict the optimal target areal density as a function of laser intensity and pulse duration. A systematic parametric scan for a wide range of target densities and thicknesses is performed in 1D, 2D and 3D and shown consistent with the theory and with recent experimental results. These results open the way for a better optimization of the ion energy in future laser–solid experiments.

  2. Activation of accelerator construction materials by heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katrík, P., E-mail: p.katrik@gsi.de [GSI Darmstadt, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 (Germany); Mustafin, E. [GSI Darmstadt, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 (Germany); Hoffmann, D.H.H. [TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 9, D-64289 (Germany); Pavlovič, M. [FEI STU Bratislava, Ilkovičova 3, SK-81219 (Slovakia); Strašík, I. [GSI Darmstadt, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Activation data for an aluminum target irradiated by 200 MeV/u {sup 238}U ion beam are presented in the paper. The target was irradiated in the stacked-foil geometry and analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The purpose of the experiment was to study the role of primary particles, projectile fragments, and target fragments in the activation process using the depth profiling of residual activity. The study brought information on which particles contribute dominantly to the target activation. The experimental data were compared with the Monte Carlo simulations by the FLUKA 2011.2c.0 code. This study is a part of a research program devoted to activation of accelerator construction materials by high-energy (⩾200 MeV/u) heavy ions at GSI Darmstadt. The experimental data are needed to validate the computer codes used for simulation of interaction of swift heavy ions with matter.

  3. Repetitive pulse accelerator technology for light ion inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttram, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper will overview the technologies being studied for a repetitively pulsed ICF accelerator. As presently conceived, power is supplied by rotating machinery providing 16 MJ in 1 ms. The generator output is transformed to 3 MV, then switched into a pulse compression system using laser triggered spark gaps. These must be synchronized to about 1 ns. Pulse compression is performed with saturable inductor switches, the output being 40 ns, 1.5 MV pulses. These are transformed to 30 MV in a self-magnetically insulated cavity adder structure. Space charge limited ion beams are drawn from anode plasmas with electron counter streaming being magnetically inhibited. The ions are ballistically focused into the entrances of guiding discharge channels for transport to the pellet. The status of component development from the prime power to the ion source will be reviewed

  4. Role of resistivity gradient in laser-driven ion acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gizzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It was predicted that, when a fast electron beam with some angular spread is normally incident on a resistivity gradient, magnetic field generation can occur that can inhibit beam propagation [A. R. Bell et al., Phys. Rev. E 58, 2471 (1998PLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.58.2471]. This effect can have consequences on the laser-driven ion acceleration. In the experiment reported here, we compare ion emission from laser irradiated coated and uncoated metal foils and we show that the ion beam from the coated target has a much smaller angular spread. Detailed hybrid numerical simulations confirm that the inhibition of fast electron transport through the resistivity gradient may explain the observed effect.

  5. Acceleration of heavy ions to relativistic energies and their use in physics and biomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.G.

    1977-01-01

    The uses of accelerated heavy ions in physics and biomedicine are listed. The special properties of high energy heavy ions and their fields of applications, the desirable ions and energies, requirements for a relativistic heavy ion accelerator, and AGS and Bevalac parameters are discussed. 26 references

  6. Acceleration of cluster and molecular ions by TIARA 3 MV tandem accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Saitoh, Y; Tajima, S

    2000-01-01

    We succeeded in accelerating molecular and cluster ions (B sub 2 sub - sub 4 , C sub 2 sub - sub 1 sub 0 , O sub 2 , Al sub 2 sub - sub 4 , Si sub 2 sub - sub 4 , Cu sub 2 sub - sub 3 , Au sub 2 sub - sub 3 , LiF, and AlO) to MeV energies with high-intensity beam currents by means of a 3 MV tandem accelerator in the TIARA facility. These cluster ions were generated by a cesium sputter-type negative ion source. We tested three types of carbon sputter cathodes in which graphite powder was compressed with different pressures. The pressure difference affected the generating ratio of clusters generated to single atom ions extracted from the source and it appeared that the high-density cathode was suitable. We also investigated the optimum gas pressure for charge exchange in the tandem high-voltage terminal. Clusters of larger size tend to require lower pressure than do smaller ones. In addition, we were able to obtain doubly charged AlO molecular ions. (authors)

  7. Ultra-relativistic ion acceleration in the laser-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yongsheng; Wang Naiyan; Tang Xiuzhang; Shi Yijin; Xueqing Yan

    2012-01-01

    An analytical relativistic model is proposed to describe the relativistic ion acceleration in the interaction of ultra-intense laser pulses with thin-foil plasmas. It is found that there is a critical value of the ion momentum to make sure that the ions are trapped by the light sail and accelerated in the radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) region. If the initial ion momentum is smaller than the critical value, that is in the classical case of RPA, the potential has a deep well and traps the ions to be accelerated, as the same described before by simulation results [Eliasson et al., New J. Phys. 11, 073006 (2009)]. There is a new ion acceleration region different from RPA, called ultra-relativistic acceleration, if the ion momentum exceeds the critical value. In this case, ions will experience a potential downhill. The dependence of the ion momentum and the self-similar variable at the ion front on the acceleration time has been obtained. In the ultra-relativistic limit, the ion momentum at the ion front is proportional to t 4/5 , where t is the acceleration time. In our analytical hydrodynamical model, it is naturally predicted that the ion distribution from RPA is not monoenergetic, although the phase-stable acceleration mechanism is effective. The critical conditions of the laser and plasma parameters which identify the two acceleration modes have been achieved.

  8. Ultra-relativistic ion acceleration in the laser-plasma interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Yongsheng; Wang Naiyan; Tang Xiuzhang; Shi Yijin [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Xueqing Yan [Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-09-15

    An analytical relativistic model is proposed to describe the relativistic ion acceleration in the interaction of ultra-intense laser pulses with thin-foil plasmas. It is found that there is a critical value of the ion momentum to make sure that the ions are trapped by the light sail and accelerated in the radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) region. If the initial ion momentum is smaller than the critical value, that is in the classical case of RPA, the potential has a deep well and traps the ions to be accelerated, as the same described before by simulation results [Eliasson et al., New J. Phys. 11, 073006 (2009)]. There is a new ion acceleration region different from RPA, called ultra-relativistic acceleration, if the ion momentum exceeds the critical value. In this case, ions will experience a potential downhill. The dependence of the ion momentum and the self-similar variable at the ion front on the acceleration time has been obtained. In the ultra-relativistic limit, the ion momentum at the ion front is proportional to t{sup 4/5}, where t is the acceleration time. In our analytical hydrodynamical model, it is naturally predicted that the ion distribution from RPA is not monoenergetic, although the phase-stable acceleration mechanism is effective. The critical conditions of the laser and plasma parameters which identify the two acceleration modes have been achieved.

  9. Towards polarization measurements of laser-accelerated helium-3 ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engin, Ilhan

    2015-08-28

    In the framework of this thesis, preparatory investigations for the spin-polarization measurement of {sup 3}He ions from laser-induced plasmas have been performed. Therefore, experiments aiming at an efficient laser-induced ion acceleration out of a {sup 4}He gas target were carried out at two high-intensity laser facilities: the Arcturus laser at Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf as well as PHELIX at GSI Darmstadt. The scientific goal of both experiments was to investigate the ion-acceleration process in underdense plasmas by measuring the ion energy spectra and the angular distribution of the ion signal around the gas-jet target. Laser-accelerated MeV-He-ions could successfully be detected. The main acceleration direction at large angles with regard to the laser propagation direction was determined. In a second step, unpolarized {sup 3}He gas was attached in order to cross-check the experimental results with those of {sup 4}He. With the help of the achieved ion yield data, the expected rates of the fusion reaction D({sup 3}He,p){sup 4}He in the polarized case have been estimated: the information regarding the fusion proton yield from this nuclear reaction allows an experimentally based estimation for future experiments with pre-polarized {sup 3}He gas as plasma target. The experimental data is in line with supporting Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations performed on the Juelich supercomputers. For this purpose, the simulated target was defined as a neutral gas. The use of pre-polarized {sup 3}He gas demands a special preparation of a polarized {sup 3}He target for laser-acceleration experiments. This layout includes an (external) homogeneous magnetic holding field (field strength of ∝1.4 mT) for storing the pre-polarized gas for long time durations inside the PHELIX target chamber. For this purpose, a precise Halbach array consisting of horizontally arranged rings with built-in permanent magnets had to be designed, optimized, and constructed to deliver high

  10. The Effusive-Flow Properties of Target/Vapor-Transport Systems for Radioactive Ion Beam Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kawai, Yoko; Liu, Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive atoms produced by the ISOL technique must diffuse from a target, effusively flow to an ion source, be ionized, be extracted, and be accelerated to research energies in a time commensurate with the lifetime of the species of interest. We have developed a fast valve system (closing time ~100 us) that can be used to accurately measure the effusion times of chemically active or inactive species through arbitrary geometry and size vapor transport systems with and without target material in the reservoir. The effusive flow times are characteristic of the system and thus serve as figures of merit for assessing the quality of a given vapor transport system as well as for assessing the permeability properties of a given target design. This article presents effusive flow data for noble gases flowing through a target reservoir and ion source system routinely used to generate radioactive species at the HRIBF with and without disks of 6 times and 10 times compressed Reticulated Vitreous Carbon Foam (RVCF) with...

  11. Ambipolar ion acceleration in an expanding magnetic nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longmier, Benjamin W; Carter, Mark D; Cassady, Leonard D; Chancery, William J; Diaz, Franklin R Chang; Glover, Tim W; Ilin, Andrew V; McCaskill, Greg E; Olsen, Chris S; Squire, Jared P [Ad Astra Rocket Company, 141 W. Bay Area Blvd, Webster, TX (United States); Bering, Edgar A III [Department of Physics and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, 617 Science and Research Building 1, Houston, TX (United States); Hershkowitz, Noah [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI (United States)

    2011-02-15

    The helicon plasma stage in the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR (registered)) VX-200i device was used to characterize an axial plasma potential profile within an expanding magnetic nozzle region of the laboratory based device. The ion acceleration mechanism is identified as an ambipolar electric field produced by an electron pressure gradient, resulting in a local axial ion speed of Mach 4 downstream of the magnetic nozzle. A 20 eV argon ion kinetic energy was measured in the helicon source, which had a peak magnetic field strength of 0.17 T. The helicon plasma source was operated with 25 mg s{sup -1} argon propellant and 30 kW of RF power. The maximum measured values of plasma density and electron temperature within the exhaust plume were 1 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} and 9 eV, respectively. The measured plasma density is nearly an order of magnitude larger than previously reported steady-state helicon plasma sources. The exhaust plume also exhibits a 95% to 100% ionization fraction. The size scale and spatial location of the plasma potential structure in the expanding magnetic nozzle region appear to follow the size scale and spatial location of the expanding magnetic field. The thickness of the potential structure was found to be 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} {lambda}{sub De} depending on the local electron temperature in the magnetic nozzle, many orders of magnitude larger than typical laboratory double layer structures. The background plasma density and neutral argon pressure were 10{sup 15} m{sup -3} and 2 x 10{sup -5} Torr, respectively, in a 150 m{sup 3} vacuum chamber during operation of the helicon plasma source. The agreement between the measured plasma potential and plasma potential that was calculated from an ambipolar ion acceleration analysis over the bulk of the axial distance where the potential drop was located is a strong confirmation of the ambipolar acceleration process.

  12. Studies of ion acceleration in a one meter laser controlled collective accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destler, W.W.; Rodgers, J.; Striffler, C.D.; Yao, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The basic concept behind the Laser Controlled Beam-front Experiment has been described in detail in previous reports. In the experiment, control over the propagation of a virtual cathode at the front of an intense relativistic electron beam is achieved by a time-sequenced plasma channel produced by laser-target interactions. Ions are trapped and accelerated by the very strong electric fields (50-400 MV/m) at the virtual cathode

  13. Advances in the disposal of radioactive ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    During the last several years, more stringent regulations have been imposed on the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. In particular, the disposal of high-activity ion exchange resins has been affected by the recent requirements intended to enhance waste stability. High-activity resins must now be either solidified or placed in a ''high-integrity'' container. The allowable levels of free liquids in the containers have also been reduced. Solidification of resins has long been applied at nuclear power stations, but new designs in high-integrity containers and dewatering techniques to enhance the waste stability and ensure regulatory compliance have been developed and are being introduced for use at power stations

  14. Design of systems for handling radioactive ion exchange resin beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.A.; Story, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    The flow of slurries in pipes is a complex phenomenon. There are little slurry data available on which to base the design of systems for radioactive ion exchange resin beads and, as a result, the designs vary markedly in operating plants. With several plants on-line, the opportunity now exists to evaluate the designs of systems handling high activity spent resin beads. Results of testing at Robbins and Meyers Pump Division to quantify the behavior of resin bead slurries are presented. These tests evaluated the following slurry parameters; resin slurry velocity, pressure drop, bead degradation, and slurry concentration effects. A discussion of the general characteristics of resin bead slurries is presented along with a correlation to enable the designer to establish the proper flowrate for a given slurry composition and flow regime as a function of line size. Guidelines to follow in designing a resin handling system are presented

  15. Basic Design Study on 1-MV Electrostatic Accelerator for ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yongsub; Kim, Kyeryung; Lee, Chanyoung

    2014-01-01

    The KOMAC (KOrea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) has electrostatic ion accelerators whose terminal voltages are less than 100kV. To extend ion beam irradiations with higher energy ions for industrial purposes, an electrostatic accelerator of 1-MV terminal voltage should have been studied. For industrial applications, the most important features of the accelerator are high current and high reliability for high irradiation dose and high through-put with high current and long irradiation time. The basic study on 1-MV electrostatic ion accelerator for industrial applications has been done. The key components are a high voltage power supply, an ion source, and an accelerating column. The feasibility study for fabrication is being performed. Especially the R and D for ion source is required. The 1-MV ion accelerator will be constructed with domestic companies and installed in the beam application research building, which is under construction in the site of KOMAC at Gyeongju

  16. Accelerator Driven Sub-Critical System for the Radioactive Waste Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramovic, I.; Pesic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel discharged from nuclear power plants is the main problem during design of radioactive waste disposal. Most of the hazard stems from only a few chemical elements. The radiotoxicity of these elements can be efficiently reduced using partitioning and transmutation in fast reactors and accelerator driven subcritical systems. (author)

  17. Superconducting accelerating structures for very low velocity ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents designs for four types of very-low-velocity superconducting (SC accelerating cavity capable of providing several MV of accelerating potential per cavity, and suitable for particle velocities in the range 0.006acceleration of ion beams. SC linacs can be formed as an array of independently phased cavities, enabling a variable velocity profile to maximize the output energy for each of a number of different ion species. Several laboratories in the U.S. and Europe are planning exotic beam facilities based on SC linacs. The cavity designs presented here are intended for the front end of such linacs, particularly for the postacceleration of rare isotopes of low charge state. Several types of SC cavities have been developed recently to cover particle velocities above 0.06c. Superconducting four-gap quarter-wave resonators for velocities 0.008<β=v/c<0.05 were developed about two decades ago and have been successfully operated at the ATLAS SC linac at Argonne National Laboratory. Since that time, progress in simulation tools, cavity fabrication, and processing have increased SC cavity gradients by a factor of 3–4. This paper applies these tools to optimize the design of a four-gap quarter-wave resonator for exotic beam facilities and other low-velocity applications.

  18. Experimental methods in radioactive ion-beam target/ion source development and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welton, R.F.; Alton, G.D.; Cui, B.; Murray, S.N.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed off-line experimental techniques and apparatuses that permit direct measurement of effusive-flow delay times and ionization efficiencies for nearly any chemically reactive element in high-temperature target/ion sources (TIS) commonly used for on-line radioactive ion-beam (RIB) generation. The apparatuses include a hot Ta valve for effusive-flow delay-time measurements, a cooled molecular injection system for determination of ionization efficiencies, and a gas flow measurement/control system for introducing very low, well-defined molecular flows into the TIS. Measurements are performed on a test stand using molecular feed compounds containing stable complements of the radioactive nuclei of interest delivered to the TIS at flow rates commensurate with on-line RIB generation. In this article, the general techniques are described and effusive-flow delay times and ionization efficiency measurements are reported for fluorine in an electron-beam plasma target/ion source developed for RIB generation and operated in both positive- and negative-ion extraction modes. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  19. Beam brilliance investigation of high current ion beams at GSI heavy ion accelerator facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonin, A A; Hollinger, R

    2014-02-01

    In this work the emittance measurements of high current Ta-beam provided by VARIS (Vacuum Arc Ion Source) ion source are presented. Beam brilliance as a function of beam aperture at various extraction conditions is investigated. Influence of electrostatic ion beam compression in post acceleration gap on the beam quality is discussed. Use of different extraction systems (single aperture, 7 holes, and 13 holes) in order to achieve more peaked beam core is considered. The possible ways to increase the beam brilliance are discussed.

  20. Mutagenesis in human cells with accelerated H and Fe ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Amy

    1994-01-01

    The overall goals of this research were to determine the risks of mutation induction and the spectra of mutations induced by energetic protons and iron ions at two loci in human lymphoid cells. During the three year grant period the research has focused in three major areas: (1) the acquisition of sufficient statistics for human TK6 cell mutation experiments using Fe ions (400 MeV/amu), Fe ions (600 MeV/amu) and protons (250 MeV/amu); (2) collection of thymidine kinase- deficient (tk) mutants or hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase deficient (hprt) mutants induced by either Fe 400 MeV/amu, Fe 600 MeV/amu, or H 250 MeV/amu for subsequent molecular analysis; and (3) molecular characterization of mutants isolated after exposure to Fe ions (600 MeV/amu). As a result of the shutdown of the BEVALAC heavy ion accelerator in December 1992, efforts were rearranged somewhat in time to complete our dose-response studies and to complete mutant collections in particular for the Fe ion beams prior to the shutdown. These goals have been achieved. A major effort was placed on collection, re-screening, and archiving of 3 different series of mutants for the various particle beam exposures: tk-ng mutants, tk-sg mutants, and hprt-deficient mutants. Where possible, groups of mutants were isolated for several particle fluences. Comparative analysis of mutation spectra has occured with characterization of the mutation spectrum for hprt-deficient mutants obtained after exposure of TK6 cells to Fe ions (600 MeV/amu) and a series of spontaneous mutants.

  1. Source of polarized ions for the JINR accelerator complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, A. S.; Donets, D. E.; Fimushkin, V. V.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Kutuzova, L. V.; Prokofichev, Yu V.; Shutov, V. B.; Turbabin, A. V.; Zubets, V. N.

    2017-12-01

    The JINR atomic beam type polarized ion source is described. Results of tests of the plasma ionizer with a storage cell and of tuning of high frequency transition units are presented. The source was installed in a linac injector hall of NUCLOTRON in May 2016. The source has been commissioned and used in the NUCLOTRON runs in 2016 and February - March 2017. Polarized and unpolarized deuteron beams were produced as well as polarized protons for acceleration in the NUCLOTRON. Polarized deuteron beam with pulsed current up to 2 mA has been produced. Deuteron beam polarization of 0.6-0.9 of theoretical values for different modes of high frequency transition units operation has been measured with the NUCLOTRON ring internal polarimeter for the accelerated deuteron and proton beams.

  2. Materials science and biophysics applications at the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, U., E-mail: uwahl@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-12-15

    The ISOLDE isotope separator facility at CERN provides a variety of radioactive ion beams, currently more than 800 different isotopes from {approx}70 chemical elements. The radioisotopes are produced on-line by nuclear reactions from a 1.4 GeV proton beam with various types of targets, outdiffusion of the reaction products and, if possible, chemically selective ionisation, followed by 60 kV acceleration and mass separation. While ISOLDE is mainly used for nuclear and atomic physics studies, applications in materials science and biophysics account for a significant part (currently {approx}15%) of the delivered beam time, requested by 18 different experiments. The ISOLDE materials science and biophysics community currently consists of {approx}80 scientists from more than 40 participating institutes and 21 countries. In the field of materials science, investigations focus on the study of semiconductors and oxides, with the recent additions of nanoparticles and metals, while the biophysics studies address the toxicity of metal ions in biological systems. The characterisation methods used are typical radioactive probe techniques such as Moessbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, emission channeling, and tracer diffusion studies. In addition to these 'classic' methods of nuclear solid state physics, also standard semiconductor analysis techniques such as photoluminescence or deep level transient spectroscopy profit from the application of radioactive isotopes, which helps them to overcome their chemical 'blindness' since the nuclear half life of radioisotopes provides a signal that changes in time with characteristic exponential decay or saturation curves. In this presentation an overview will be given on the recent research activities in materials science and biophysics at ISOLDE, presenting some of the highlights during the last five years, together with a short outlook on the new developments under way.

  3. Accelerated ions as a tool in atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansteen, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the aspects of atomic physics which are being brought into focus by the construction and completion of a new generation of heavy-ion accelerators are dealt with. Various types of processes occurring in the overlapping electron clouds are visualised in an elementary way, using among others, some recent observations on the formation of quasi-molecules and quasi-atoms. Phenomena connected with the inner electron shells in superheavy atoms are touched upon, in particular those processes possibly leading to the production of positrons. In such cases the crucial importance of an atomic Coulomb excitation mechanism is stressed. In conclusion the view is emphasized that inner shell ionization phenomena in heavy ion collisions form a bridge between processes originating respectively from nuclear and atomic physics. (Auth.)

  4. Feasibility of using laser ion accelerators in proton therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, S V

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of using the laser plasma as a source of the high-energy ions for the proton radiation therapy is discussed. The proposal is based on the recent inventions of the effective ions acceleration in the experiments and through numerical modeling of the powerful laser radiation interaction with the gaseous and solid state targets. The principal peculiarity of the dependence of the protons energy losses in the tissues (the Bragg peak of losses) facilities the solution of one of the most important problems of the radiation therapy, which consists in realizing the tumor irradiation by sufficiently high and homogeneous dose with simultaneous minimization of the irradiation level, relative to the healthy and neighbouring tissues and organs

  5. Report of the Accelerator Group: the light-ion injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Good progress was made on the various sub-systems of the light-ion injector cyclotron SPC1. The radio-frequency system, which consists of the two resonators (each with a 25 kW power amplifier) and the stabilization and control system was completed. Orbit calculations were used to determine the phase selection attainable from the combined axial and radial slits, and also to give an indication of the momentum selection which could be achieved using the radial slits. The detail design of all the extraction elements, i.e. the eletrostatic extraction channel EEK and two magnetic channel MEK1 and MEK2 has been completed. On the 15th December 1983, the first beams of ions were accelerated in SPC1. The following subsystems of SPC1 are discussed: magnets, radio-frequency systems, orbit calculations of the phase section, extraction process, vacuum system and beam diagnostics

  6. Growth of nanocomposite films from accelerated C60 ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukha, V E; Zubarev, E N; Drozdov, A N; Pugachov, A T; Jeong, S H; Nam, S C

    2012-01-01

    A beam of accelerated C 60 ions is used to deposit superhard (∼50 GPa) carbon films that exhibit high index plasticity (∼0.13-0.14) and high conductivity (up to 3000 S m -1 ). Transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are subsequently used to study the microstructure and bond character of the deposited films. The films consist of textured graphite nanocrystals and diamond-like amorphous carbon (DLC). The graphene plane of the nanocrystals is aligned perpendicular to the film surface. It is shown that sp 2 bonds dominate in the films. The percentage of sp 3 bonds depends on the ion energy and the substrate temperature, and does not exceed 40%. The obtained results suggest that a new nanocomposite material consisting of oriented graphite nanocrystals reinforced by a DLC matrix is synthesized. A simple model is proposed to correlate the excellent mechanical properties with the observed structure. (paper)

  7. Improved ion acceleration via laser surface plasma waves excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigongiari, A. [CEA/DSM/LSI, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); TIPS/LULI, Université Paris 6, CNRS, CEA, Ecole Polytechnique, 3, rue Galilée, 94200 Ivry-sur-Seine (France); Raynaud, M. [CEA/DSM/LSI, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Riconda, C. [TIPS/LULI, Université Paris 6, CNRS, CEA, Ecole Polytechnique, 3, rue Galilée, 94200 Ivry-sur-Seine (France); Héron, A. [CPHT, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2013-05-15

    The possibility of enhancing the emission of the ions accelerated in the interaction of a high intensity ultra-short (<100 fs) laser pulse with a thin target (<10λ{sub 0}), via surface plasma wave excitation is investigated. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are performed for laser intensities ranging from 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} Wcm{sup −2}μm{sup 2}. The surface wave is resonantly excited by the laser via the coupling with a modulation at the target surface. In the cases where the surface wave is excited, we find an enhancement of the maximum ion energy of a factor ∼2 compared to the cases where the target surface is flat.

  8. Development of a dual ion beam system with single accelerator for materials studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazumichi; Nishimura, Eiichi; Hashimoto, Tsuneyuki

    1986-01-01

    The dual ion beam accelerator system has been developed for simulation studies of neutron radiation damage of structural materials for nuclear fusion and fission reactors. One accelerator is used to accelerate two different kinds of ions, which are generated in the ion source simultaneously. One of these ions is selected alternatively by switching the magnetic field of the analyzing magnet, and is then accelerated to the desired energy value. The system is controlled by a microcomputer. The accelerator used in the system is a conventional 400 kV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator. The performance test by the acceleration of He + and Ar + shows that the system is capable of accelerating two ions alternatively with a switching time of less than 22 s. The beam current obtained with the microcomputer control is more than 98% of the current obtained by manual operation. (orig.)

  9. Vacuum improvements for ultra high charge state ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.; Clark, D.J.; Guy, A.; Lundgren, S.A

    1998-06-01

    The installation of a second cryo panel has significantly improved the vacuum in the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutral pressure in the extraction region decreased from 1.2 x 10 -6 down to about 7 x 10 -7 Torr. The vacuum improvement reduces beam loss from charge changing collisions and enhances the cyclotron beam transmission, especially for the high charge state heavy ions. Tests with improved vacuum show the cyclotron transmission increased more than 50% (from 5.7% to 9.0%) for a Xe 27+ at 603 MeV, more than doubled for a Bi 41+ beam (from 1.9% to 4.6%) at 904 MeV and tripled for a U 47+ beam (from 1.2% to 3.6%) at 1,115 MeV. At about 5 NeV/nucleon 92 enA (2.2 pnA) for Bi 41+ and 14 enA (0.3 pnA) for U 47+ were extracted ut of the 88-Inch Cyclotron Ion beams with charge states as high as U 64+ have been produced by the LBNL AECR-U ion source and accelerated through the cyclotron for the first time. The beam losses for a variety of ultra high charge state ions were measured as a function of cyclotron pressure and compared with the calculations from the existing models

  10. Vacuum improvements for ultra high charge state ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.; Clark, D.J.; Guy, A.; Lundgren, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The installation of a second cryo panel has significantly improved the vacuum in the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutral pressure in the extraction region decreased from 1.2 x 10 -6 down to about 7 x 10 -7 Torr. The vacuum improvement reduces beam loss from charge changing collisions and enhances the cyclotron beam transmission, especially for the high charge state heavy ions. Tests with improved vacuum show the cyclotron transmission increased more than 50% (from 5.7% to 9.0%) for a Xe 27+ at 603 MeV, more than doubled for a Bi 41+ beam (from 1.9% % to 4.6%) at 904 MeV and tripled for a U 47+ beam (from 1.2% to 3.6%) at 1115 MeV. At about 5 MeV/nucleon 92 enA (2.2 pnA) for Bi 41+ and 14 enA (0.3 pnA) for U 47+ were extracted out of the 88-Inch Cyclotron Ion beams with charge states as high as U 64+ have been produced by the LBNL AECR-U ion source and accelerated through the cyclotron for the first time. The beam losses for a variety of ultra high charge state ions were measured as a function of cyclotron pressure and compared with the calculations from the existing models. (authors)

  11. Visualization of complex DNA damage along accelerated ions tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Elena; Boreyko, Alla; Bulanova, Tatiana; Ježková, Lucie; Zadneprianetc, Mariia; Smirnova, Elena

    2018-04-01

    The most deleterious DNA lesions induced by ionizing radiation are clustered DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Clustered or complex DNA damage is a combination of a few simple lesions (single-strand breaks, base damage etc.) within one or two DNA helix turns. It is known that yield of complex DNA lesions increases with increasing linear energy transfer (LET) of radiation. For investigation of the induction and repair of complex DNA lesions, human fibroblasts were irradiated with high-LET 15N ions (LET = 183.3 keV/μm, E = 13MeV/n) and low-LET 60Co γ-rays (LET ≈ 0.3 keV/μm) radiation. DNA DSBs (γH2AX and 53BP1) and base damage (OGG1) markers were visualized by immunofluorecence staining and high-resolution microscopy. The obtained results showed slower repair kinetics of induced DSBs in cells irradiated with accelerated ions compared to 60Co γ-rays, indicating induction of more complex DNA damage. Confirming previous assumptions, detailed 3D analysis of γH2AX/53BP1 foci in 15N ions tracks revealed more complicated structure of the foci in contrast to γ-rays. It was shown that proteins 53BP1 and OGG1 involved in repair of DNA DSBs and modified bases, respectively, were colocalized in tracks of 15N ions and thus represented clustered DNA DSBs.

  12. The wondrous world of transport and acceleration of intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebenlist, F.

    1987-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of the transport, bunching and acceleration of intense ion beams in periodic focusing channels is described. The aim is to show the feasibility of accelerating high current ion beams with a Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear ACcelerator (MEQALAC). 83 refs.; 51 figs.; 3 tabs

  13. Measurement of heat load density profile on acceleration grid in MeV-class negative ion accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Junichi; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Umeda, Naotaka; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Miyamoto, Kenji; Yoshida, Masafumi; Nishikiori, Ryo; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tobari, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    To understand the physics of the negative ion extraction/acceleration, the heat load density profile on the acceleration grid has been firstly measured in the ITER prototype accelerator where the negative ions are accelerated to 1 MeV with five acceleration stages. In order to clarify the profile, the peripheries around the apertures on the acceleration grid were separated into thermally insulated 34 blocks with thermocouples. The spatial resolution is as low as 3 mm and small enough to measure the tail of the beam profile with a beam diameter of ∼16 mm. It was found that there were two peaks of heat load density around the aperture. These two peaks were also clarified to be caused by the intercepted negative ions and secondary electrons from detailed investigation by changing the beam optics and gas density profile. This is the first experimental result, which is useful to understand the trajectories of these particles.

  14. Measurement of heat load density profile on acceleration grid in MeV-class negative ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiratsuka, Junichi, E-mail: hiratsuka.junichi@jaea.go.jp; Hanada, Masaya; Kojima, Atsushi; Umeda, Naotaka; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Yoshida, Masafumi; Nishikiori, Ryo; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Tobari, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Miyamoto, Kenji [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    To understand the physics of the negative ion extraction/acceleration, the heat load density profile on the acceleration grid has been firstly measured in the ITER prototype accelerator where the negative ions are accelerated to 1 MeV with five acceleration stages. In order to clarify the profile, the peripheries around the apertures on the acceleration grid were separated into thermally insulated 34 blocks with thermocouples. The spatial resolution is as low as 3 mm and small enough to measure the tail of the beam profile with a beam diameter of ∼16 mm. It was found that there were two peaks of heat load density around the aperture. These two peaks were also clarified to be caused by the intercepted negative ions and secondary electrons from detailed investigation by changing the beam optics and gas density profile. This is the first experimental result, which is useful to understand the trajectories of these particles.

  15. Experimental Study of an ion cyclon resonance accelerator presentation of his thesis

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsell, C T

    1999-01-01

    The Ion Cyclotron Resonance Accelerator (ICRA) uses the operating principles of cyclotrons and gyrotrons. The novel geometry of the ICRA allows an ion beam to drift axially while being accelerated in the azimuthal direction. Previous work on electron cyclotron resonance acceleration used waveguide modes to accelerate an electron beam [5]. This research extends cyclotron resonance acceleration to ions by using a high field superconducting magnet and an rf driven magnetron operating at a harmonic of the cyclotron frequency. The superconducting solenoid provides an axial magnetic field for radial confinement and an rf driven magnetron provides azimuthal electric fields for acceleration. The intent of the ICRA concept is to create an ion accelerator which is simple, compact, lightweight, and inexpensive. Furthermore, injection and extraction are inherently simple since the beam drifts through the acceleration region. However, use of this convenient geometry leads to an accelerated beam with a large energy spread....

  16. Sequestration Resins for Accelerating Removal of Radioactive Contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frattini, Paul-L.; Wells, Daniel-M.; Garcia, Susan-E.; Richard, Kohlmann; Asay, Roger; Yengoyan, Leon

    2012-09-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is developing sequestration resins that can be used in the treatment of nuclear plant water streams for the enhanced removal of ionic cobalt. EPRI is focusing on three key areas of success: 1. Plant safety. The resins that are synthesized must be fully tested to determine that no leachable species or decomposition products (in the event of a resin bed failure) would be introduced to the plant. 2. Acceptable system performance. The resins are currently being synthesized in a powdered form for use in the reactor water clean-up and fuel pool clean-up systems that utilize pre-coatable filter elements. The resins must have effective flocking behavior; uniform application over the underlay resin and efficient removal from the septa elements after use. Bead type resins are also under development. 3. Enhanced cobalt removal. The resins are expected to out-perform the currently used ion exchange resins in the removal of ionic cobalt. During nuclear plant maintenance or refueling outages, current ion exchange resins may require several days to reduce concentrations of cobalt (for example, radio-cobalt 60 Co and 58 Co) and other activated corrosion products to safe levels in reactor coolant streams. This performance limitation often delays key maintenance activities. EPRI's resins are expected to provide at least a three-fold increase in removal capacity in light water reactor coolants. These resins also offer the potential for higher overall removal efficiencies reducing occupational exposures and waste management costs. This paper addresses issues from the range of novel resin development for radio-cobalt removal from synthesis at the bench-top level through scale-up to demonstration of use in an actual operating nuclear power plant. (authors)

  17. Modeling of multi-species ion transport in cement-based materials for radioactive waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, X.Y.; Li, K.F.; Dangla, P.

    2015-01-01

    Through the conservations of heat and ions mass, a thermo-hydro-ionic model is established for radionuclide ions transport in cement-based porous barrier materials in radwaste disposal. This model is applied to the design and the safety assessment of a high-integrity container (HIC) used for near surface disposal of low- and intermediate-level radwaste. Five working cases are investigated in the safety assessment considering the internal nuclide ion release, internal heating and pressure accumulation, and external leaching. Comparative analysis shows that leaching increases concrete porosity from external side of container, internal heating of 10 K increase can considerably accelerate the nuclide transport process, and the internal pressure increases the transport rate to limited extent. It is shown that each increment of 10 mm in wall thickness will reduce the radioactivity release by 1.5 to 2 times. Together with the mechanical resistance of HIC under impact actions, the thickness of 100 mm is finally retained for design

  18. Ion beam production and study of radioactive isotopes with the laser ion source at ISOLDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosseev, Valentin; Chrysalidis, Katerina; Day Goodacre, Thomas; Marsh, Bruce; Rothe, Sebastian; Seiffert, Christoph; Wendt, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    At ISOLDE the majority of radioactive ion beams are produced using the resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS). This ion source is based on resonant excitation of atomic transitions by wavelength tunable laser radiation. Since its installation at the ISOLDE facility in 1994, the RILIS laser setup has been developed into a versatile remotely operated laser system comprising state-of-the-art solid state and dye lasers capable of generating multiple high quality laser beams at any wavelength in the range of 210-950 nm. A continuous programme of atomic ionization scheme development at CERN and at other laboratories has gradually increased the number of RILIS-ionized elements. At present, isotopes of 40 different elements have been selectively laser-ionized by the ISOLDE RILIS. Studies related to the optimization of the laser-atom interaction environment have yielded new laser ion source types: the laser ion source and trap and the versatile arc discharge and laser ion source. Depending on the specific experimental requirements for beam purity or versatility to switch between different ionization mechanisms, these may offer a favourable alternative to the standard hot metal cavity configuration. In addition to its main purpose of ion beam production, the RILIS is used for laser spectroscopy of radioisotopes. In an ongoing experimental campaign the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of long isotopic chains have been measured by the extremely sensitive in-source laser spectroscopy method. The studies performed in the lead region were focused on nuclear deformation and shape coexistence effects around the closed proton shell Z = 82. The paper describes the functional principles of the RILIS, the current status of the laser system and demonstrated capabilities for the production of different ion beams including the high-resolution studies of short-lived isotopes and other applications of RILIS lasers for ISOLDE experiments. This article belongs to the Focus on

  19. Unlimited Energy Gain in the Laser-Driven Radiation Pressure Dominant Acceleration of Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Bulanov, S. V.; Echkina, E. Yu.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Inovenkov, I. N.; Kando, M.; Pegoraro, F.; Korn, G.

    2009-01-01

    The energy of the ions accelerated by an intense electromagnetic wave in the radiation pressure dominated regime can be greatly enhanced due to a transverse expansion of a thin target. The expansion decreases the number of accelerated ions in the irradiated region increasing the energy and the longitudinal velocity of remaining ions. In the relativistic limit, the ions become phase-locked with respect to the electromagnetic wave resulting in the unlimited ion energy gain. This effect and the ...

  20. A 1MeV, 1A negative ion accelerator test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, M.; Dairaku, M.; Inoue, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Ohara, Y.; Okumura, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Yokoyama, K.

    1995-01-01

    For the Proof-of-Principle test of negative ion acceleration up to 1 MeV, the beam energy required for ITER, a negative ion test facility named MeV Test Facility (MTF) and an ion source/accelerator have been designed and constructed. They are designed to produce a 1 MeV H- beam at a low source pressure of 0.13Pa. The MTF has a power supply system, which constituts of a 1MV, 1A, 60 s Cockcroft-Walton type dc high energy generator and power supplies for negative ion generation and extraction (ion source power supplies). The negative ion source/accelerator is composed of a cesiated volume source and a 5-stage, multi-aperture, electrostatic accelerator. The MTF and the ion source/accelerator have been completed, and the accelertion test up to 1 MeV of the H- ions has started. (orig.)

  1. The Radioactive Ion Beams in Brazil (RIBRAS) facility. Description, program, main results, future plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepine-Szily, A.; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Guimaraes, V. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brazil) is a facility installed at the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo (IFUSP), Brazil. The RIBRAS system consists of two superconducting solenoids and uses the ''in-flight method'' to produce radioactive ion beams using the primary beam provided by the 8UD Pelletron Tandem of IFUSP. The ion beams produced so far by RIBRAS are {sup 6}He, {sup 8}Li, {sup 7}Be, {sup 10}Be, {sup 8}B, {sup 12}B with intensities that can vary from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 6} pps. Initially the experimental program covered the study of elastic and inelastic scattering with the objective to study the interaction potential and the reaction mechanisms between weakly bound (RIB) and halo ({sup 6}He and {sup 8}B) projectiles on light, medium and heavy mass targets. With highly purified beams, the study of resonant elastic scattering and resonant transfer reactions, using inverse kinematics and thick targets, has also been included in our experimental program. Also, transfer reactions of astrophysical interest and fusion reactions induced by halo nuclei are part of the near-future research program. Our recent results on elastic scattering, alpha-particle production and total reaction cross sections, as well as the resonant elastic and transfer reactions, are presented. Our plans for the near future are related to the installation of a new beam line and a cave for gamma-ray detection. We intend to place in operation a large area neutron detector available in our laboratory. The long-range plans could be the move of the RIBRAS system to the more energetic beam line of the LINAC post-accelerator (10MeV/nucleon primary beams) still in construction in our laboratory. (orig.)

  2. The Radioactive Ion Beams in Brazil (RIBRAS) facility. Description, program, main results, future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépine-Szily, A.; Lichtenthäler, R.; Guimarães, V.

    2014-08-01

    RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brazil) is a facility installed at the Institute of Physics of the University of São Paulo (IFUSP), Brazil. The RIBRAS system consists of two superconducting solenoids and uses the "in-flight method" to produce radioactive ion beams using the primary beam provided by the 8UD Pelletron Tandem of IFUSP. The ion beams produced so far by RIBRAS are 6He, 8Li, 7Be, 10Be, 8B, 12B with intensities that can vary from 104 to 106 pps. Initially the experimental program covered the study of elastic and inelastic scattering with the objective to study the interaction potential and the reaction mechanisms between weakly bound (RIB) and halo (6He and 8B projectiles on light, medium and heavy mass targets. With highly purified beams, the study of resonant elastic scattering and resonant transfer reactions, using inverse kinematics and thick targets, has also been included in our experimental program. Also, transfer reactions of astrophysical interest and fusion reactions induced by halo nuclei are part of the near-future research program. Our recent results on elastic scattering, alpha-particle production and total reaction cross sections, as well as the resonant elastic and transfer reactions, are presented. Our plans for the near future are related to the installation of a new beam line and a cave for gamma-ray detection. We intend to place in operation a large area neutron detector available in our laboratory. The long-range plans could be the move of the RIBRAS system to the more energetic beam line of the LINAC post-accelerator (10MeV/nucleon primary beams) still in construction in our laboratory.

  3. Operation and control of ion-exchange processes for treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emelity, L.A.

    1967-01-01

    A manual dealing with the application of ion-exchange materials to the treatment of radioactive wastes and reviewing the facilities currently using this method. This book is one of three commissioned by the IAEA on the principal methods of concentrating radioactive wastes. The content of this document is: (i) Historical review related to removal of radioactivity; (ii) Principles of ion exchange (iii) Ion-exchange materials; (iv) Limitations of ion exchangers; (v) Application of ion exchange to waste processing; (vi) Operational procedures and experiences; (vii) Cost-of-treatment by ion-exchange. The document also gives a list of producers of ion-exchange material and defines some relevant terms. 101 refs, 31 figs, 27 tabs

  4. Operation and control of ion-exchange processes for treatment of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emelity, L A [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1967-12-01

    A manual dealing with the application of ion-exchange materials to the treatment of radioactive wastes and reviewing the facilities currently using this method. This book is one of three commissioned by the IAEA on the principal methods of concentrating radioactive wastes. The content of this document is: (i) Historical review related to removal of radioactivity; (ii) Principles of ion exchange (iii) Ion-exchange materials; (iv) Limitations of ion exchangers; (v) Application of ion exchange to waste processing; (vi) Operational procedures and experiences; (vii) Cost-of-treatment by ion-exchange. The document also gives a list of producers of ion-exchange material and defines some relevant terms. 101 refs, 31 figs, 27 tabs.

  5. Dynamic behavior of IREB in a collective ion acceleration experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine, T.A.; Rhee, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report an experimental study of dynamic behavior of net current in conjunction with collective ion acceleration. In the presence of neutral gas, either puffed in or released from the anode foil, the IREB injected is subject to the charge and current neutralizations, resulting in a complicated time and space dependent beam distribution in the drift tube. To investigate the dynamic behavior of the current in the drift tube, typically a 0.5 MeV, 70 kA, 100 ns electron beam of 2.54 cm diam is injected through a foil anode into a drift tube of 15 cm diam. Reproducibility of experiment was improved by using a specially designed anode system with a foil changer which allowed the production of many shots of high current electron beam without disturbing the vacuum condition. The net currents were measured by a Rogowski coil built in the anode system, and a movable Faraday cup along the drift tube. The ions accelerated were diagnosed mainly by a Thomson spectrometer system placed at the end of the drift tube

  6. Technology development for recirculating heavy-ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, M.A.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1993-01-01

    The open-quotes recirculator,close quotes a recirculating heavy-ion accelerator has been identified as a promising approach for an inertial fusion driver. System studies have been conducted to evaluate the recirculator on the basis of feasibility and cost. The recirculator has been shown to have significant cost advantages over other potential driver schemes, but some of the performance requirements exceed the capabilities of present technology. The system studies identified the high leverage areas where advances in technology will significantly impact the cost and performance of a recirculator. One of the high leverage areas is the modulator system which generates the acceleration potentials in the induction cells. The modulator system must be capable of generating the acceleration potentials at peak repetition rates in excess of 100 kHz with variable pulse widths. LLNL is developing a modulator technology capable of driving induction cells using the latest in solid state MOSFET technology. A small scale modulator has been built and tested to prove the concept and the next version is presently being designed. The objective is to demonstrate a modulator operating at 5 kV, 1 kA, with 0.2--1 μs pulse widths while driving an induction cell at >100 kHz within the next year. This paper describes the recirculator, the technology requirements necessary to implement it and the modulator system development that is being pursued to meet these requirements

  7. Basic atomic interactions of accelerated heavy ions in matter atomic interactions of heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstikhina, Inga; Winckler, Nicolas; Shevelko, Viacheslav

    2018-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the recent experimental and theoretical results on interactions of heavy ions with gaseous, solid and plasma targets from the perspective of atomic physics. The topics discussed comprise stopping power, multiple-electron loss and capture processes, equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state fractions in penetration of fast ion beams through matter including relativistic domain. It also addresses mean charge-states and equilibrium target thickness in ion-beam penetrations, isotope effects in low-energy electron capture, lifetimes of heavy ion beams, semi-empirical formulae for effective cross sections. The book is intended for researchers and graduate students working in atomic, plasma and accelerator physics.

  8. Auroral ion acceleration from lower hybrid solitary structures: A summary of sounding rocket observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, K. A.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Kintner, P. M.; Schuck, P.; Bonnell, J. W.; Coffey, V.

    In this paper we present a review of sounding rocket observations of the ion acceleration seen in nightside auroral zone lower hybrid solitary structures. Observations from Topaz3, Amicist, and Phaze2 are presented on various spatial scales, including the two-point measurements of the Amicist mission. From this collection of observations we will demonstrate the following characteristics of transverse acceleration of ions (TAI) in lower hybrid solitary structures (LHSS). The ion acceleration process is narrowly confined to 90° pitch angle, in spatially confined regions of up to a few hundred meters across B. The acceleration process does not affect the thermal core of the ambient distribution and does not directly create a measurable effect on the ambient ion population outside the LHSS themselves. This precludes observation with these data of any nonlinear feedback between the ion acceleration and the existence or evolution of the density irregularities on which these LHSS events grow. Within the LHSS region the acceleration process creates a high-energy tail beginning at a few times the thermal ion speed. The ion acceleration events are closely associated with localized wave events. Accelerated ions bursts are also seen without a concurrent observation of a localized wave event, for two possible reasons. In some cases, the pitch angles of the accelerated tail ions are elevated above perpendicular; that is, the acceleration occurred below the observer and the mirror force has begun to act upon the distribution, moving it upward from the source. In other cases, the accelerated ion structure is spatially larger than the wave event structure, and the observation catches only the ion event. The occurrence rate of these ion acceleration events is related to the ambient environment in two ways: its altitude dependence can be modeled with the parameter B2/ne, and it is highest in regions of intense VLF activity. The cumulative ion outflow from these LHSS TAI is

  9. Submicro and Nano Structured Porous Materials for the Production of High-Intensity Exotic Radioactive Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, Sandrina; Stora, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    ISOLDE, the CERN Isotope Separator On-line DEvice is a unique source of low energy beams of radioactive isotopes - atomic nuclei that have too many or too few neutrons to be stable. The facility is like a small ‘chemical factory’, giving the possibility of changing one element to another, by selecting the atomic mass of the required isotope beam in the mass separator, rather as the ‘alchemists’ once imagined. It produces a total of more than 1000 different isotopes from helium to radium, with half-lives down to milliseconds, by impinging a 1.4 GeV proton beam from the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) onto special targets, yielding a wide variety of atomic fragments. Different components then extract the nuclei and separate them according to mass. The post-accelerator REX (Radioactive beam EXperiment) at ISOLDE accelerates the radioactive beams up to 3 MeV/u for many experiments. A wide international user radioactive ion beam (RIB) community investigates fundamental aspects of nuclear physics, particle...

  10. Linear induction accelerator requirements for ion fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, G.

    1998-01-01

    Fast ignition (fast heating of DT cores afief compression) reduces driver energy (by 10 X or more) by reducing the implosion velocity and energy for a given fuel compression ratio. For any type of driver that can deliver the ignition energy fast enough, fast ignition increases the target gain compared to targets using fast implosions for central ignition, as long as the energy to heat the core after compression is comparable to or less than the slow compression energy, and as long as the coupling efficiency of the fast ignitor beam to heat the core is comparable to the overall efficiency of compressing the core (in terms of beam energy-to-DT-efficiency). Ion driven fast ignition, compared to laser-driven fast ignition, has the advantage of direct (dE/dx) deposition of beam energy to the DT, eliminating inefficiencies for conversion into hot electrons, and direct ion heating also has a more favorable deposition profile with the Bragg-peak near the end of an ion range chosen to be deep inside a compressed DT core. While Petawatt laser experiments at LLNL have demonstrated adequate light-to-hot-electron conversion efficiency, it is not yet known if light and hot electrons can channel deeply enough to heat a small portion of a IOOOxLD compressed DT core to ignition. On the other hand, lasers with chirped-pulse amplification giving thousand-fold pulse compressions have been demonstrated to produce the short pulses, small focal spots and Petawatt peak powers approaching those required for fast ignition, whereas ion accelerators that can produce sufficient beam quality for similar compression ratios and focal spot sizes of ion bunches have not yet been demonstrated, where an imposed coherent velocity tilt plays the analogous role for beam compression as does frequency chirp with lasers. Accordingly, it is the driver technology, not the target coupling physics, that poses the main challenge to ion-driven fast ignition. As the mainline HIF program is concentrating on

  11. Low-energy radioactive ion beam production of 22Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duy, N.N.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Teranishi, T.; Iwasa, N.; Kwon, Y.K.; Khiem, L.H.; Kim, Y.H.; Song, J.S.; Hu, J.; Ayyad, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The 22 Mg nucleus plays an important role in nuclear astrophysics, specially in the 22 Mg(α,p) 25 Al and proton capture 22 Mg(p,γ) 23 Al reactions. It is believed that 22 Mg is a waiting point in the αp-process of nucleosynthesis in novae. We proposed a direct measurement of the 22 Mg+α resonance reaction in inverse kinematics using a radioactive ion (RI) beam. A 22 Mg beam of 3.73 MeV/u was produced at CRIB (Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) low-energy RI Beam) facility of the University of Tokyo located at RIKEN (Japan) in 2011. In this paper we present the results about the production of the 22 Mg beam used for the direct measurement of the scattering reaction 22 Mg(α,α) 22 Mg, and the stellar reaction 22 Mg(α,p) 25 Al in the energy region concerning an astrophysical temperature of T 9 =1–3 GK

  12. Accelerated radiation damage test facility using a 5 MV tandem ion accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wady, P. T.; Draude, A.; Shubeita, S. M.; Smith, A. D.; Mason, N.; Pimblott, S. M.; Jimenez-Melero, E.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a new irradiation facility that allows to perform accelerated damage tests of nuclear reactor materials at temperatures up to 400 °C using the intense proton (spectrum of potential radio-active nuclides produced during the sample irradiation. The beam line capabilities have been tested by irradiating a 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stabilised stainless steel with a 3 MeV proton beam to a dose level of 3 dpa. The irradiation temperature was 356 °C, with a maximum range in temperature values of ±6 °C within the first 24 h of continuous irradiation. The sample stage is connected to ground through an electrometer to measure accurately the charge deposited on the sample. The charge can be integrated in hardware during irradiation, and this methodology removes uncertainties due to fluctuations in beam current. The measured gamma spectrum allowed the identification of the main radioactive nuclides produced during the proton bombardment from the lifetimes and gamma emissions. This dedicated radiation damage beam line is hosted by the Dalton Cumbrian Facility of the University of Manchester.

  13. Modification of semiconductor materials using laser-produced ion streams additionally accelerated in the electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, M.; Badziak, B.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Pisarek, M.

    2009-01-01

    The laser-produced ion stream may be attractive for direct ultra-low-energy ion implantation in thin layer of semiconductor for modification of electrical and optical properties of semiconductor devices. Application of electrostatic fields for acceleration and formation of laser-generated ion stream enables to control the ion stream parameters in broad energy and current density ranges. It also permits to remove the useless laser-produced ions from the ion stream designed for implantation. For acceleration of ions produced with the use of a low fluence repetitive laser system (Nd:glass: 2 Hz, pulse duration: 3.5 ns, pulse energy:∼0.5 J, power density: 10 10 W/cm 2 ) in IPPLM the special electrostatic system has been prepared. The laser-produced ions passing through the diaphragm (a ring-shaped slit in the HV box) have been accelerated in the system of electrodes. The accelerating voltage up to 40 kV, the distance of the diaphragm from the target, the diaphragm diameter and the gap width were changed for choosing the desired parameters (namely the energy band of the implanted ions) of the ion stream. The characteristics of laser-produced Ge ion streams were determined with the use of precise ion diagnostic methods, namely: electrostatic ion energy analyser and various ion collectors. The laser-produced and post-accelerated Ge ions have been used for implantation into semiconductor materials for nanocrystal fabrication. The characteristics of implanted samples were measured using AES

  14. A new approach to characterize very-low-level radioactive waste produced at hadron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaffora, Biagio; Magistris, Matteo; Chevalier, Jean-Pierre; Luccioni, Catherine; Saporta, Gilbert; Ulrici, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive waste is produced as a consequence of preventive and corrective maintenance during the operation of high-energy particle accelerators or associated dismantling campaigns. Their radiological characterization must be performed to ensure an appropriate disposal in the disposal facilities. The radiological characterization of waste includes the establishment of the list of produced radionuclides, called “radionuclide inventory”, and the estimation of their activity. The present paper describes the process adopted at CERN to characterize very-low-level radioactive waste with a focus on activated metals. The characterization method consists of measuring and estimating the activity of produced radionuclides either by experimental methods or statistical and numerical approaches. We adapted the so-called Scaling Factor (SF) and Correlation Factor (CF) techniques to the needs of hadron accelerators, and applied them to very-low-level metallic waste produced at CERN. For each type of metal we calculated the radionuclide inventory and identified the radionuclides that most contribute to hazard factors. The methodology proposed is of general validity, can be extended to other activated materials and can be used for the characterization of waste produced in particle accelerators and research centres, where the activation mechanisms are comparable to the ones occurring at CERN. - Highlights: • We developed a radiological characterization process for radioactive waste produced at particle accelerators. • We used extensive numerical experimentations and statistical analysis to predict a complete list of radionuclides in activated metals. • We used the new approach to characterize and dispose of more than 420 t of very-low-level radioactive waste.

  15. Regulation of naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials. A Task Force review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, D.A.; Lubenau, J.O.; Cool, W.S.; Cunningham, L.J.; Mapes, J.R.; Schwartz, S.A.; Smith, D.A.

    1977-06-01

    The use of accelerator-produced radioisotopes (NARM), particularly in medicine, is growing rapidly. One NARM radioisotope, 226 Ra, is one of the most hazardous of radioactive materials, and 226 Ra is used by about 1 / 5 of all radioactive material users. Also, there are about 85,000 medical treatments using 226 Ra each year. All of the 25 Agreement States and 5 non-Agreement States have licensing programs covering NARM users. The Agreement States' programs for regulating NARM are comparable to their programs for regulating byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials under agreements with NRC. But there are 7 states who exercise no regulatory control over NARM users, and the remaining States have control programs which are variable in scope. There are no national, uniformly applied programs to regulate the design, fabrication and quality of sources and devices containing NARM or consumer products containing NARM which are distributed in interstate commerce. Naturally occurring radioactive material (except source material) associated with the nuclear fuel cycle is only partially subject to NRC regulation, i.e., when it is associated with source or special nuclear material being used under an active NRC license. The Task Force recommends that the NRC seek legislative authority to regulate naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials for the reason that these materials present significant radiation exposure potential and present controls are fragmentary and non-uniform at both the State and Federal level

  16. Development of a simple, low cost, indirect ion beam fluence measurement system for ion implanters, accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, K.; Balaji, S.; Saravanan, K.; Navas, J.; David, C.; Panigrahi, B. K.

    2018-02-01

    We developed a simple, low cost user-friendly automated indirect ion beam fluence measurement system for ion irradiation and analysis experiments requiring indirect beam fluence measurements unperturbed by sample conditions like low temperature, high temperature, sample biasing as well as in regular ion implantation experiments in the ion implanters and electrostatic accelerators with continuous beam. The system, which uses simple, low cost, off-the-shelf components/systems and two distinct layers of in-house built softwarenot only eliminates the need for costly data acquisition systems but also overcomes difficulties in using properietry software. The hardware of the system is centered around a personal computer, a PIC16F887 based embedded system, a Faraday cup drive cum monitor circuit, a pair of Faraday Cups and a beam current integrator and the in-house developed software include C based microcontroller firmware and LABVIEW based virtual instrument automation software. The automatic fluence measurement involves two important phases, a current sampling phase lasting over 20-30 seconds during which the ion beam current is continuously measured by intercepting the ion beam and the averaged beam current value is computed. A subsequent charge computation phase lasting 700-900 seconds is executed making the ion beam to irradiate the samples and the incremental fluence received by the sampleis estimated usingthe latest averaged beam current value from the ion beam current sampling phase. The cycle of current sampling-charge computation is repeated till the required fluence is reached. Besides simplicity and cost-effectiveness, other important advantages of the developed system include easy reconfiguration of the system to suit customisation of experiments, scalability, easy debug and maintenance of the hardware/software, ability to work as a standalone system. The system was tested with different set of samples and ion fluences and the results were verified using

  17. Single event simulation for memories using accelerated ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakagawa, Y.; Shiono, N.; Mizusawa, T.; Sekiguchi, M.; Sato, K.; Sugai, I.; Hirao, Y.; Nishimura, J.; Hattori, T.

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the error immunity of the LSI memories from cosmic rays in space, an irradiation test using accelerated heavy ions is performed. The sensitive regions for 64 K DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) and 4 K SRAM (Static Random Access Memory) are determined from the irradiation test results and the design parameters of the devices. The observed errors can be classified into two types. One is the direct ionization type and the other is the recoil produced error type. Sensitive region is determined for the devices. Error rate estimation methods for both types are proposed and applied to those memories used in space. The error rate of direct ionization exceeds the recoil type by 2 or 3 orders. And the direct ionization is susceptible to shield thickness. (author)

  18. Prospects for studies of ground-state proton decays with the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, K.S.

    1994-01-01

    By using radioactive ions from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory it should be possible to identify many new ground-state proton emitters in the mass region from Sn to Pb. During this production and search process the limits of stability on the proton-rich side of the nuclidic chart will be delineated for a significant fraction of medium-weight elements and our understanding of the proton-emission process will be expanded and improved

  19. Resistance-driven bunching mode of an accelerated ion pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    Amplification of a longitudinal perturbation of an ion pulse in a linear induction accelerator is calculated. The simplified accelerator model consists only of an applied field (E/sub a/), distributed gap impedance per meter (R) and beam-pipe capacity per meter (C). The beam is treated as a cold, one-dimensional fluid. It is found that normal mode frequencies are nearly real, with only a very small damping rate proportional to R. This result is valid for a general current profile and is not restricted to small R. However, the mode structure exhibits spatial amplification from pulse head to tail by the factor exp(RCLv/sub o//2), where L is pulse length and v 0 is drift velocity. This factor is very large for typical HIF parameters. An initially small disturbance, when expanded in terms of the normal modes, is found to oscillate with maximum amplitude proportional to the amplification factor. Unlike the analogous problem in a circular machine, linear growth is limited in amplitude bntegrating the void fraction profile and comparing the cross-sectionally averaged void fraction with direct measurements using two quick closing valves. Results on the calibration of combinations of full-flow turbine meters, Pitot tube rakes and gamma densitometers for measuring cross-sectionally averaged mass velocity in steady steam-water flow are presented. The results are interpreted ntation

  20. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hyojae, E-mail: lkcom@ibs.re.kr; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  1. Recommendation for a injector-cyclotron and ion sources for the acceleration of heavy ions and polarized protons and deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botha, A.H.; Cronje, P.M.; Du Toit, Z.B.; Nel, W.A.G.; Celliers, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    It was decided to accelerate both heavy and light ions with the open-sector cyclotron. The injector SPS1, was used for light ions and SPS2 for heavy ions. Provision was also made for the acceleration of polarized neutrons. To enable this, the injector must have an axial injection system. The working of a source of polarized ions and inflectors for an axial injection system is discussed. The limitations of the open-sector cyclotron on the acceleration of heavy ions are also dealt with. The following acceleration/ion source combinations are discussed: i) The open-sector cyclotron and a k=40 injector cyclotron with a Penning ion source, and a stripper between the injector and the open-sector cyclotron and also a source of polarized protons and deuterons; ii) The acceleration/ion source combination with the addition of electron beam ion sources; iii) The open-sector cyclotron and a k=11 injector cyclotron with a electron beam ion source and a source of polarized protons and deuterons

  2. Ion source memory in {sup 36}Cl accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavetich, Stefan; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg [HZDR, Dresden (Germany); Arnold, Maurice; Aumaitre, Georges; Bourles, Didier; Martschini, Martin [ASTER, Aix-en-Provence (France); Buchriegler, Josef; Golser, Robin; Keddadouche, Karim; Steier, Peter [VERA, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    Since the DREAMS (Dresden Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) facility went operational in 2011, constant effort was put into enabling routine measurements of long-lived radionuclides as {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca. For precise AMS-measurements of the volatile element Cl the key issue is the minimization of the long term memory effect. For this purpose one of the two original HVE sources was mechanically modified, allowing the usage of bigger cathodes with individual target apertures. Additionally a more open geometry was used to improve the vacuum level. To evaluate this improvement in comparison to other up-to-date ion sources, a small inter-laboratory comparison had been initiated. The long-term memory effect in the Cs sputter ion sources of the AMS facilities VERA, ASTER and DREAMS had been investigated by running samples of natural {sup 35}Cl/{sup 37}Cl-ratio and samples containing highly enriched {sup 35}Cl({sup 35}Cl/{sup 37}Cl > 500). Primary goals of the research are the time constants of the recovery from the contaminated sample ratio to the initial ratio of the sample and the level of the long-term memory effect in the sources.

  3. The steering and manipulation of ion beams for low-energy heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beanland, D.G.; Freeman, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    Both electrostatic and magnetic fields are used in low-energy accelerators. Electrostatic fields are essential in the acceleration stages and they are commonly used for ion beam scanning and focussing. Magnetic fields are only infrequently used as lenses, but they are essential for mass analysis and are sometimes employed for beam steering. The electrostatic mirror is a versatile and compact lens which has hitherto received little attention for the controlled manipulation of heavy ions. In addition to energy analysis it can be used to steer, focus and scan such beams and its flexibility and usefulness can be further increased by shaping the electrostatic field in the mirror space. The use of a computer programme to model the focussing behaviour of a variety of lens shapes is described and it is shown that the focal properties of the mirror can be controlled to produce a parallel, convergent or divergent output beam. The use of mirrors for two-dimensional beam focusing is also outlined. To permit the use of the mirror system with heavy ions an apertured front plate, without field-defining gauzes, was utilized. In consequence an additional electrode was incorporated in the lens structure to prevent penetration of the positive electric field along the beam axes outside the mirror space. This factor and the compact design of the mirror, contributed to the minimisation of space-charge defocussing effects which normally militate against the use of such electrostatic lenses with high intensity ion beams. The results of experiments confirming the computer predictions are briefly described and, in conclusion some possible applications of electrostatic mirrors in electromagnetic isotope separators and low energy accelerators are outlined. (Auth.)

  4. Long-pulse beam acceleration of MeV-class H(-) ion beams for ITER NB accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, N; Kashiwagi, M; Taniguchi, M; Tobari, H; Watanabe, K; Dairaku, M; Yamanaka, H; Inoue, T; Kojima, A; Hanada, M

    2014-02-01

    In order to realize neutral beam systems in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor whose target is to produce a 1 MeV, 200 A/m(2) during 3600 s D(-) ion beam, the electrostatic five-stages negative ion accelerator so-called "MeV accelerator" has been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. To extend pulse length, heat load of the acceleration grids was reduced by controlling the ion beam trajectory. Namely, the beam deflection due to the residual magnetic field of filter magnet was suppressed with the newly developed extractor with a 0.5 mm off-set aperture displacement. The new extractor improved the deflection angle from 6 mrad to 1 mrad, resulting in the reduction of direct interception of negative ions from 23% to 15% of the total acceleration power, respectively. As a result, the pulse length of 130 A/m(2), 881 keV H(-) ion beam has been successfully extended from a previous value of 0.4 s to 8.7 s. This is the first long pulse negative ion beam acceleration over 100 MW/m(2).

  5. Application of ion exchange processes for the treatment of radioactive waste and management of spent ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the ion exchange technologies currently used and under development in nuclear industry, in particular for waste management practices, along with the experience gained in their application and with the subsequent handling, treatment and conditioning of spent ion exchange media for long term storage and/or disposal. The increased role of inorganic ion exchangers for treatment of radioactive liquid waste, both in nuclear power plant operations and in the fuel reprocessing sector, is recognised in this report. The intention of this report is to consolidate the previous publications, document recent developments and describe the state of the art in the application of ion exchange processes for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste and the management of spent ion exchange materials

  6. Radiation protection challenges in the management of radioactive waste from high-energy accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrici, Luisa; Algoet, Yvon; Bruno, Luca; Magistris, Matteo

    2015-04-01

    The European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) has operated high-energy accelerators for fundamental physics research for nearly 60 y. The side-product of this activity is the radioactive waste, which is mainly generated as a result of preventive and corrective maintenance, upgrading activities and the dismantling of experiments or accelerator facilities. Prior to treatment and disposal, it is common practice to temporarily store radioactive waste on CERN's premises and it is a legal requirement that these storage facilities are safe and secure. Waste treatment typically includes sorting, segregation, volume and size reduction and packaging, which will depend on the type of component, its chemical composition, residual activity and possible surface contamination. At CERN, these activities are performed in a dedicated waste treatment centre under the supervision of the Radiation Protection Group. This paper gives an overview of the radiation protection challenges in the conception of a temporary storage and treatment centre for radioactive waste in an accelerator facility, based on the experience gained at CERN. The CERN approach consists of the classification of waste items into 'families' with similar radiological and physical-chemical properties. This classification allows the use of specific, family-dependent techniques for radiological characterisation and treatment, which are simultaneously efficient and compliant with best practices in radiation protection. The storage was planned on the basis of radiological and other possible hazards such as toxicity, pollution and fire load. Examples are given of technical choices for the treatment and radiological characterisation of selected waste families, which could be of interest to other accelerator facilities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Design of an Acceleration / Deceleration Lens System for Ion Beam Focusing Emerging from Penning Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khabeary, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, design of the deceleration lens system has been done by using SIMION 3D version 7.0 computer program. A parallel beam of singly charged argon ions of diameter 2. mm with energy of 5 KeV emerging from Penning ion source was started at a distance of 140 mm before entering the Einzel lens system (three cylinder electrodes ). In order to design this deceleration lens system, two and three cylinder lenses with different parameters are studied. Ion beam emittance as a function of the gap width of the deceleration lens system has been studied for singly charged argon ion trajectories. Influence of the deceleration voltage applied on the deceleration electrode with different voltages of the four electrodes on the ion beam emittance has been investigated with gap widths of 3, 7, 9, 11 and 15 nun. The deceleration lens system was also used as an acceleration lens system by changing and optimising the voltage on each electrode of the deceleration lens system and of the intermediate electrode of the Einzel lens

  8. Possibilities of basic and applied researches using low energy ion beams accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Roberto

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The availability of ion sources that allow to accelerate heavy and light ions, and the new compact accelerators have opened interesting possibilities for using in basic and applied research, Some of the research lines such as material, environmental, archaeology, bio-medicine are shown

  9. Simulation of collective ion acceleration in a slow cyclotron beam mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faehl, R.J.; Shanahan, W.R.; Godfrey, B.B.

    1979-01-01

    The use of slow cyclotron beam waves is examined as a means of accelerating ions in intense relativistic electron beams. Field magnitudes of between 10 5 -and 10 6 V/cm seem achievable in the near term, and while these will never reach the levels of beam front mechanisms, such as virtual cathodes, they will easily exceed conventional ion acceleration sources

  10. Meqalac Results - Multichannel Rf Acceleration of Nitrogen-Ions to 1 Mev

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojke, R. G. C.; Bannenberg, J. G.; Vijftigschild, A. J. M.; Giskes, F. G.; Ficke, H. G.; Klein, H.; Thomae, R. W.; Schempp, A.; Weis, T.; van Amersfoort, P. W.; Urbanus, W. H.

    1991-01-01

    In the MEQALAC (Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Linear Accelerator) multiple N+ ion beams are accelerated in 32 rf gaps, which are part of a modified interdigital-H-resonator operating at 25 MHz. The transverse focusing of the intense ion beams is achieved by means of sets of miniaturized

  11. High-performance control system for a heavy-ion medical accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, H.D.; Magyary, S.B.; Sah, R.C.

    1983-03-01

    A high performance control system is being designed as part of a heavy ion medical accelerator. The accelerator will be a synchrotron dedicated to clinical and other biomedical uses of heavy ions, and it will deliver fully stripped ions at energies up to 800 MeV/nucleon. A key element in the design of an accelerator which will operate in a hospital environment is to provide a high performance control system. This control system will provide accelerator modeling to facilitate changes in operating mode, provide automatic beam tuning to simplify accelerator operations, and provide diagnostics to enhance reliability. The control system being designed utilizes many microcomputers operating in parallel to collect and transmit data; complex numerical computations are performed by a powerful minicomputer. In order to provide the maximum operational flexibility, the Medical Accelerator control system will be capable of dealing with pulse-to-pulse changes in beam energy and ion species.

  12. Alignment of Ion Accelerator for Surface Analysis using Theodolite and Laser Tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Tae Sung; Seo, Dong Hyuk; Kim, Dae Il; Kim, Han Sung; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The method of ion accelerator alignment is used two ways which are a theodolite and laser tracker. For the alignment and maintenance of the proton linear accelerator, the laser tracker is typically used at KOMAC. While the device for alignment by using laser tracker is not installed in all ion accelerator components, it was used in parallel in two methods. In this paper, alignment methods are introduced and the result and comparison of each alignment method are presented. The ion accelerator for surface analysis has aligned using theodolite and laser tracker. The two ways for alignment have advantage as well as weakness. But alignment using laser tracker is stronger than using theodolite. Because it is based on alignment and position data and it is more detailed. Also since the beam distribution is smaller than accelerator component that is direction of beam progress, main component (ex. Magnet, Chamber, Pelletron tank, etc.) alignment using laser tracker is enough to align the ion accelerator.

  13. High-performance control system for a heavy-ion medical accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, H.D.; Magyary, S.B.; Sah, R.C.

    1983-03-01

    A high performance control system is being designed as part of a heavy ion medical accelerator. The accelerator will be a synchrotron dedicated to clinical and other biomedical uses of heavy ions, and it will deliver fully stripped ions at energies up to 800 MeV/nucleon. A key element in the design of an accelerator which will operate in a hospital environment is to provide a high performance control system. This control system will provide accelerator modeling to facilitate changes in operating mode, provide automatic beam tuning to simplify accelerator operations, and provide diagnostics to enhance reliability. The control system being designed utilizes many microcomputers operating in parallel to collect and transmit data; complex numerical computations are performed by a powerful minicomputer. In order to provide the maximum operational flexibility, the Medical Accelerator control system will be capable of dealing with pulse-to-pulse changes in beam energy and ion species

  14. Ion acceleration at the earth's bow shock: A review of observations in the upstream region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    Positive ions are accelerated at or near the earth's bow shock and propagate into the upstream region. Two distinctly different population of these ions, distinguished by their greatly different spectral and angular widths, can be identified there. The type of ion population observed in the upstream region is strongly correlated with the presence or absence of long-period compresive waves in the solar wind. Very few ions are accelerated in the vicinity of the shock to energies much above about 100 keV. It is not yet clear whether the most energetic ions (i.e. those near 100 keV) are accelerated at the shock or in the broad disturbed region upstream from the shock. In either case stochastic acceleration by turbulent electrostatic fields seems to be the most viable candidate for the acceleration of the most energetic particles

  15. Ion acceleration at the earth's bow shock: a review of observations in the upstream region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    Positive ions are accelerated at or near the earth's bow shock and propagate into the upstream region. Two distinctly different populations of these ions, distinguished by their greatly different spectral and angular widths, can be identified there. The type of ion population observed in the upstream region is strongly correlated with the presence or absence of long-period compressive waves in the solar wind. Very few ions are accelerated in the vicinity of the shock to energies much above about 100 keV. It is not yet clear whether the most energetic ions (i.e., those near 100 keV) are accelerated at the shock or in broad disturbed region upstream from the shock. In either case stochastic acceleration by turbulent electrostatic fields seems to be the most viable candidate for the acceleration of the most energetic particles

  16. Shaping laser accelerated ions for future applications – The LIGHT collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busold, S.; Almomani, A.; Bagnoud, V.; Barth, W.; Bedacht, S.; Blažević, A.; Boine-Frankenheim, O.

    2014-01-01

    The generation of intense ion beams from high-intensity laser-generated plasmas has been the focus of research for the last decade. In the LIGHT collaboration the expertise of heavy ion accelerator scientists and laser and plasma physicists has been combined to investigate the prospect of merging these ion beams with conventional accelerator technology and exploring the possibilities of future applications. We report about the goals and first results of the LIGHT collaboration to generate, handle and transport laser driven ion beams. This effort constitutes an important step in research for next generation accelerator technologies

  17. Shaping laser accelerated ions for future applications – The LIGHT collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busold, S., E-mail: s.busold@gsi.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstraße 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Almomani, A. [Institut für angewandte Physik, Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Max von Laue Straße 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Bagnoud, V. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstraße 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, D-07734 Jena (Germany); Barth, W. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstraße 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bedacht, S. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstraße 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Blažević, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstraße 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, D-07734 Jena (Germany); Boine-Frankenheim, O. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstraße 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institut für Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstraße 8, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2014-03-11

    The generation of intense ion beams from high-intensity laser-generated plasmas has been the focus of research for the last decade. In the LIGHT collaboration the expertise of heavy ion accelerator scientists and laser and plasma physicists has been combined to investigate the prospect of merging these ion beams with conventional accelerator technology and exploring the possibilities of future applications. We report about the goals and first results of the LIGHT collaboration to generate, handle and transport laser driven ion beams. This effort constitutes an important step in research for next generation accelerator technologies.

  18. Electromagnetic computer simulations of collective ion acceleration by a relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez, M.; Gisler, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    A 2.5 electromagnetic particle-in-cell computer code is used to study the collective ion acceleration when a relativistic electron beam is injected into a drift tube partially filled with cold neutral plasma. The simulations of this system reveals that the ions are subject to electrostatic acceleration by an electrostatic potential that forms behind the head of the beam. This electrostatic potential develops soon after the beam is injected into the drift tube, drifts with the beam, and eventually settles to a fixed position. At later times, this electrostatic potential becomes a virtual cathode. When the permanent position of the electrostatic potential is at the edge of the plasma or further up, then ions are accelerated forward and a unidirectional ion flow is obtained otherwise a bidirectional ion flow occurs. The ions that achieve higher energy are those which drift with the negative potential. When the plasma density is varied, the simulations show that optimum acceleration occurs when the density ratio between the beam (n b ) and the plasma (n o ) is unity. Simulations were carried out by changing the ion mass. The results of these simulations corroborate the hypothesis that the ion acceleration mechanism is purely electrostatic, so that the ion acceleration depends inversely on the charge particle mass. The simulations also show that the ion maximum energy increased logarithmically with the electron beam energy and proportional with the beam current

  19. Nuclear reactions with 11C and 14O radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Fanqing

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) have been shown to be a useful tool for studying proton-rich nuclides near and beyond the proton dripline and for evaluating nuclear models. To take full advantage of RIBs, Elastic Resonance Scattering in Inverse Kinematics with Thick Targets (ERSIKTT), has proven to be a reliable experimental tool for investigations of proton unbound nuclei. Following several years of effort, Berkeley Experiments with Accelerated Radioactive Species (BEARS), a RIBs capability, has been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. The current BEARS provides two RIBs: a 11C beam of up to 2x108 pps intensity on target and an 14O beam of up to 3x104 pps intensity. While the development of the 11C beam has been relatively easy, a number of challenges had to be overcome to obtain the 14O beam. The excellent 11C beam has been used to investigate several reactions. The first was the 197Au(11C,xn)208-xnAt reaction, which was used to measure excitation functions for the 4n to 8n exit channels. The measured cross sections were generally predicted quite well using the fusion-evaporation code HIVAP. Possible errors in the branching ratios of ?? decays from At isotopes as well as the presence of incomplete fusion reactions probably contribute to specific overpredictions. 15F has been investigated by the p(14O,p)14O reaction with the ERSIKTT technology. Several 14O+p runs have been performed. Excellent energy calibration was obtained using resonances from the p(14N,p)14N reaction in inverse kinematics, and comparing the results to those obtained earlier with normal kinematics. The differences between 14N+p and 14O+p in the stopping power function have been evaluated for better energy calibration. After careful calibration, the energy levels of 15F were fitted with an R-matrix calculation. Spins and parities were assigned to the two observed resonances. This new measurement of the 15F ground state supports the disappearance of the Z = 8

  20. Suppression of X-radiation from 2 MeV ion electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat'ev, I.G.; Miroshnichenko, V.I.; Sirenko, A.M.; Storizhko, V.E.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents results concerning studies of X-radiation from 2 MeV ion electrostatic accelerator 'Sokol' used for nuclear microprobe analysis. The radiation protection system of the accelerator was developed and tested. Tests of the system of the accelerator show that it reduces doses rate by two orders of magnitude

  1. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1990--September 30, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, induction acceleration, is being studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: (1) beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; (2) development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; (3) acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; (4) final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target

  2. Transmission electron microscope interfaced with ion accelerators and its application to materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hiroaki; Naramoto, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Hojou, Kiichi; Furuno, Shigemi; Tsukamoto, Tetsuo

    1997-03-01

    We have developed the transmission/analytical electron microscope interfaced with two sets of ion accelerators (TEM-Accelerators Facility) at JAERI-Takasaki. The facility is expected to provide quantitative insights into radiation effects, such as damage evolution, irradiation-induced phase transformation and their stability, through in-situ observation and analysis under ion and/or electron irradiation. The TEM-Accelerators Facility and its application to materials research are reviewed. (author)

  3. Advance in the study of removal of cesium from radioactive wastewater by inorganic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Songping; Wang Xiaowei; Du Zhihui

    2014-01-01

    The excellent performance in the removal of cesium from radioactive wastewater by inorganic ion exchangers has received extensive attention due to their characteristic physico-chemical features. The paper summarized research progress of removal of cesium by different inorganic ion exchangers such as silicoaluminate, salts of hetero polyacid, hexacyanoferrate, insoluble salts of acid with multivalent metals, insoluble hydrous oxides of multivalent metals and silicotitanate and reviewed several removal systems of cesium by inorganic ion exchangers which might offer China some reference in treatment and disposal of radioactive wastewater. (authors)

  4. Ion current prediction model considering columnar recombination in alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Susumu; Hirata, Yosuke; Izumi, Mikio; Sano, Akira; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Aoyama, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    We present a reinforced ion current prediction model in alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation. Although our previous model explained the qualitative trend of the measured ion current values, the absolute values of the theoretical curves were about two times as large as the measured values. In order to accurately predict the measured values, we reinforced our model by considering columnar recombination and turbulent diffusion, which affects columnar recombination. Our new model explained the considerable ion loss in the early stage of ion diffusion and narrowed the gap between the theoretical and measured values. The model also predicted suppression of ion loss due to columnar recombination by spraying a high-speed air flow near a contaminated surface. This suppression was experimentally investigated and confirmed. In conclusion, we quantitatively clarified the theoretical relation between alpha radioactivity and ion current in laminar flow and turbulent pipe flow. (author)

  5. Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion: Summary Report of the Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, P.A.; Barnard, J.J.

    2011-04-29

    The Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion was held at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory May 23-26, 2011. The workshop began with plenary sessions to review the state of the art in HIF (heavy ion fusion), followed by parallel working groups, and concluded with a plenary session to review the results. There were five working groups: IFE (inertial fusion energy) targets, RF approach to HIF, induction accelerator approach to HIF, chamber and driver interface, ion sources and injectors.

  6. Recent developments of ion sources for life-science studies at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitagawa, A.; Drentje, A. G.; Fujita, T.; Muramatsu, M. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fukushima, K.; Shiraishi, N.; Suzuki, T.; Takahashi, K.; Takasugi, W. [Accelerator Engineering Corporation, Chiba (Japan); Biri, S.; Rácz, R. [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/C, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Kawagoe (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    With about 1000-h of relativistic high-energy ion beams provided by Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, about 70 users are performing various biology experiments every year. A rich variety of ion species from hydrogen to xenon ions with a dose rate of several Gy/min is available. Carbon, iron, silicon, helium, neon, argon, hydrogen, and oxygen ions were utilized between 2012 and 2014. Presently, three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) and one Penning ion source are available. Especially, the two frequency heating techniques have improved the performance of an 18 GHz ECRIS. The results have satisfied most requirements for life-science studies. In addition, this improved performance has realized a feasible solution for similar biology experiments with a hospital-specified accelerator complex.

  7. The state of development of an intense resonance electron-ion accelerator based on Doppler effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, A.M.; Ivanov, B.I.; Butenko, V.I.; Ognivenko, V.V.; Onishchenko, I.N.; Prishchepov, V.P.

    1996-01-01

    An intense ion accelerator has been proposed and now is being developed in which accelerating and focusing electric fields in a slow wave structure are excited by an intense electron beam using the anomalous and the normal Doppler effects. The results of theoretical studies and computer simulations show the advantage of this acceleration method that will make it possible to obtain acceleration rates of the order of 10 - 100 MeV/m, and ion beam energies and currents of the order of 10-100 MeV, 1-10 A. The project and technical documentation of an experimental accelerating installation were worked out. Currently, the 5 MeV accelerator-injector URAL-5 is in operation; preliminary experiments on a small installation have been carried out; experimental investigations of an accelerating RF resonator model (in 1/2 scaling) are being performed; the accelerating test installation is being manufactured. (author). 1 tab. 12 fig., 6 refs

  8. The state of development of an intense resonance electron-ion accelerator based on Doppler effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, A M; Ivanov, B I; Butenko, V I; Ognivenko, V V; Onishchenko, I N; Prishchepov, V P [Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    An intense ion accelerator has been proposed and now is being developed in which accelerating and focusing electric fields in a slow wave structure are excited by an intense electron beam using the anomalous and the normal Doppler effects. The results of theoretical studies and computer simulations show the advantage of this acceleration method that will make it possible to obtain acceleration rates of the order of 10 - 100 MeV/m, and ion beam energies and currents of the order of 10-100 MeV, 1-10 A. The project and technical documentation of an experimental accelerating installation were worked out. Currently, the 5 MeV accelerator-injector URAL-5 is in operation; preliminary experiments on a small installation have been carried out; experimental investigations of an accelerating RF resonator model (in 1/2 scaling) are being performed; the accelerating test installation is being manufactured. (author). 1 tab. 12 fig., 6 refs.

  9. Volumetric change of simulated radioactive waste glass irradiated by electron accelerator. [Silica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Seichi; Furuya, Hirotaka; Inagaki, Yaohiro; Kozaka, Tetsuo; Sugisaki, Masayasu

    1987-11-01

    Density changes of simulated radioactive waste glasses, silica glass and Pyrex glass irradiated by an electron accelerator were measured by a ''sink-float'' technique. The density changes of the waste and silica glasses were less than 0.05 %, irradiated at 2.0 MeV up to the fluence of 1.7 x 10/sup 17/ ecm/sup 2/, while were remarkably smaller than that of Pyrex glass of 0.18 % shrinkage. Precision of the measurements in the density changes of the waste glass was lower than that of Pyrex glass possibly because of the inhomogeneity of the waste glass

  10. Accelerators for Medicine

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    This lecture will review the different applications of particle accelerators to the medical field, from cancer treatment with beams of accelerator-produced particles (photons, electrons, protons, ions and neutrons) to the generation of radioactive isotopes used in medical diagnostics, in cancer therapy and in the new domain of theragnostics. For each application will be outlined the state of the art, the potential, and the accelerator challenges to be faced to meet the increasing demand for therapeutic procedures based on accelerators.

  11. Titanium carbide-carbon porous nanocomposite materials for radioactive ion beam production: processing, sintering and isotope release properties

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081922; Stora, Thierry

    2017-01-26

    The Isotope Separator OnLine (ISOL) technique is used at the ISOLDE - Isotope Separator OnLine DEvice facility at CERN, to produce radioactive ion beams for physics research. At CERN protons are accelerated to 1.4 GeV and made to collide with one of two targets located at ISOLDE facility. When the protons collide with the target material, nuclear reactions produce isotopes which are thermalized in the bulk of the target material grains. During irradiation the target is kept at high temperatures (up to 2300 °C) to promote diffusion and effusion of the produced isotopes into an ion source, to produce a radioactive ion beam. Ti-foils targets are currently used at ISOLDE to deliver beams of K, Ca and Sc, however they are operated at temperatures close to their melting point which brings target degradation, through sintering and/or melting which reduces the beam intensities over time. For the past 10 years, nanostructured target materials have been developed and have shown improved release rates of the produced i...

  12. The fingerprint method for characterization of radioactive waste in hadron accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Magistris, M

    2008-01-01

    Beam losses are responsible for material activation in most of the components of particle accelerators. The activation is caused by several nuclear processes and varies with the irradiation history and the characteristics of the material (namely chemical composition and size). Once at the end of their operational lifetime, these materials require radiological characterization. The radionuclide inventory depends on the particle spectrum, the irradiation history and the chemical composition of the material. As long as these factors are known and the material cross-sections are available, the induced radioactivity can be calculated analytically. However, these factors vary widely among different items of waste and sometimes they are only partially known. The European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN, Geneva) has been operating accelerators for high-energy physics for 50 years. Different methods for the evaluation of the radionuclide inventory are currently under investigation at CERN, including the so-calle...

  13. Measurement of radioactivity in air at the linear accelerator of Kyoto University reactor facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikebe, Yukimasa; Shimo, Michikuni

    1976-01-01

    It is well-known that the induced activities from a number of nuclides are generated in air during the operation of high energy accelerators. Of these, measurements were performed with the linear accelerator of Kyoto University reactor facility for the purpose of the clarification of the production mechanism and behavior of radioactive aerosols. The concentration in air and the size distribution of 13 N aerosols which have aerosols as the carrier among 13 N produced by the γ-n reaction of 14 N were measured with filter packs and by diffusion method, respectively. The density of number and size distribution of non-radioactive aerosols were measured to understand the production mechanism and behavior of 13 N aerosols. For the aerosol number density, Aitken nucleus number was measured with a Pollak counter. The results obtained show that (1) under the operating condition of the linear accelerator at that measurement time, 13 N aerosol concentration was (2 to 50) x 10 -13 Ci/cm 3 while 13 N gas component concentration was (1 to 25) x 10 -12 Ci/cm 3 , i.e. the ratio was approximately 1 : 10 (2) the average size of 13 N aerosols was 0.01 to 0.04 μm, and it was found that there was positive correlation to relative humidity; (3) during the operation of the accelerator, the generation of aerosols 10 to 100 times as much as the background level was observed. The size distribution of aerosols showed a peak around 0.01 μm; and others. Examination was carried out regarding a 13 N aerosol production model based on the sticking of aerosol-free 13 N to aerosols. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  14. Design and fabrication of a Transverse Field Focussing (TFF) 180 keV negative ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuk, C.A.; Anderson, O.A.; Owren, H.M.; Paterson, J.A.; Purgalis, P.

    1985-11-01

    The 180 keV Transverse Field Focussing (TFF) negative ion accelerator described is the final component of a negative ion based neutral beam acceleration system which is being developed as proof-of-principle demonstration of a radiation hardened neutral beamline. The 180 keV beamline consists of: a surface conversion negative ion source, a 80 keV pre-accelerator, a TFF pumping, matching, and transport section, and the 180 keV TFF accelerator presented. This beamline is expected to provide 1 A of H - at 180 keV. In the design of the accelerator, particular importance was given to the rigidity of the accelerator electrode mounting structures and to the electrical isolation of the electrodes along with their related cooling lines. An optical alignment scheme was developed to assemble and to insure precision alignment of the electrodes

  15. POLYMERS CONTAINING Cu NANOPARTICLES IRRADIATED BY LASER TO ENHANCE THE ION ACCELERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariapompea Cutroneo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Target Normal Sheath Acceleration method was employed at PALS to accelerate ions from laser-generated plasma at intensities above 1015 W/cm2. Laser parameters, irradiation conditions and target geometry and composition control the plasma properties and the electric field driving the ion acceleration. Cu nanoparticles deposited on the polymer promote resonant absorption effects increasing the plasma electron density and enhancing the proton acceleration. Protons can be accelerated in forward direction at kinetic energies up to about 3.5 MeV. The optimal target thickness, the maximum acceleration energy and the angular distribution of emitted particles have been measured using ion collectors, X-ray CCD streak camera, SiC detectors and Thomson Parabola Spectrometer.

  16. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1--September 30, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification --both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target

  17. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, October 1, 1987--March 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification -- both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of beams; and final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target

  18. Characteristics of bipolar-pulse generator for intense pulsed heavy ion beam acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igawa, K.; Tomita, T.; Kitamura, I.; Ito, H.; Masugata, K.

    2006-01-01

    Intense pulsed heavy ion beams are expected to be applied to the implantation technology for semiconductor materials. In the application it is very important to purify the ion beam. In order to improve the purity of an intense pulsed ion beams we have proposed a new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named 'bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA)'. A prototype of the experimental system has been developed to perform proof of principle experiments of the accelerator. A bipolar pulse generator has been designed for the generation of the pulsed ion beam with the high purity via the bipolar pulse acceleration and the electrical characteristics of the generator were evaluated. The production of the bipolar pulse has been confirmed experimentally. (author)

  19. Ion response to relativistic electron bunches in the blowout regime of laser-plasma accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, K I; Rozmus, W; Bychenkov, V Yu; Naseri, N; Capjack, C E; Brantov, A V

    2010-11-05

    The ion response to relativistic electron bunches in the so called bubble or blowout regime of a laser-plasma accelerator is discussed. In response to the strong fields of the accelerated electrons the ions form a central filament along the laser axis that can be compressed to densities 2 orders of magnitude higher than the initial particle density. A theory of the filament formation and a model of ion self-compression are proposed. It is also shown that in the case of a sharp rear plasma-vacuum interface the ions can be accelerated by a combination of three basic mechanisms. The long time ion evolution that results from the strong electrostatic fields of an electron bunch provides a unique diagnostic of laser-plasma accelerators.

  20. A combined thermal dissociation and electron impact ionization source for radioactive ion beam generationa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Williams, C.

    1996-01-01

    The probability for simultaneously dissociating and efficiently ionizing the individual atomic constituents of molecular feed materials with conventional, hot-cathode, electron-impact ion sources is low and consequently, the ion beams from these sources often appear as mixtures of several molecular sideband beams. This fragmentation process leads to dilution of the intensity of the species of interest for radioactive ion beam (RIB) applications where beam intensity is at a premium. We have conceived an ion source that combines the excellent molecular dissociation properties of a thermal dissociator and the high ionization efficiency characteristics of an electron impact ionization source that will, in principle, overcome this handicap. The source concept will be evaluated as a potential candidate for use for RIB generation at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility, now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The design features and principles of operation of the source are described in this article. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. Study of the Fixation and Migration of Radioactive Cations in a Natural Ion-Exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baetsle, L. [Centre d' Etudes de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)

    1960-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the behaviour of Sr90 and Cs137 on natural ion-exchangers such as lignite and soil. Lignite is a substance which is found in large quantities near the Belgian Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN) at Mol and is particularly useful in the processing of radioactive liquid wastes because of its ion-exchange properties. The physical and chemical characteristics of lignite which have a bearing on ion exchange are given in section 1 of this paper. The various ion equilibria which affect the processing of.radioactive liquid wastes are studied in section 2, which also lists the basic factors required for calculating the rate of saturation of a lignite column. The speed of ion migration in the soil is studied along the same lines as for lignite.

  2. Constraints due to the production of radioactive ion beams in the SPIRAL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, R.; Huguet, Y.; Jardin, P.; Marry, C.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Villari, A.C.C.

    1997-01-01

    The radioactive ion beams that will be delivered by the SPIRAL facility will be produced by the interaction of a stable high energy and high intensity primary ion beam delivered by the GANIL cyclotrons with a carbon target heated to 2000 deg C. During this interaction, some radioactive atoms will be created and will diffuse out of the target before entering into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source where they will be ionized and extracted. The production of radioactive ion beams with this method implies high radiation fields that activate and can damage materials located in the neighborhood of the target. Therefore, the production system which is composed of the permanent magnet ECR ion source coupled to a graphite target will be changed after two weeks of irradiation. As this ensemble will be very radioactive, this operation has to be supervised by remote control. The radiation levels around the target-ion source system and a detailed description of the different precautions that have been taken for safety and for prevention of contamination and irradiation are presented. (author)

  3. A guide to radiation and radioactivity levels near high energy particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    An estimate of likely radiation and radioactivity levels is needed at the design stage of an accelerator for deciding the radiation safety features to be incorporated in the infrastructure of the machine and for predicting where radiation damage possibilities will have to be taken into account. Both these aspects can have a significant influence on the machine layout and cost. Failure to make a reasonable assessment at the right time may have far reaching consequences for future costs. The purpose of this guide is to bring together basic data and methods that have been found useful in assessing radiation situations around accelerators and to provide a practical means of arriving at the radiation and induced radioactivity levels that could occur under a wide variety of circumstances. An attempt is made to present the information in a direct and unambiguous way with sufficient confidence that the necessity for large safety factors is avoided. In many cases assumptions and simplifications have been made and reliance placed on extrapolating from experimental data into regions where the basic physics is too complicated to make meaningful absolute calculations. Wherever possible such extrapolations have been tied to real or otherwise acceptable data originating from independent sources. (Author)

  4. Storage ion trap of an 'In-Flight Capture' type for precise mass measurement of radioactive nuclear reaction products and fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarantin, N.I.

    2001-01-01

    Data on nuclear masses provide a basis for creating and testing various nuclear models. A tandem system of FLNR comprised of the U-400M cyclotron, the COMBAS magnetic separator and the mass-spectrometric ion trap of an 'in-flight capture' type is considered as a possible complex for producing of the short-lived nuclei in fragmentation reactions by heavy ions and for precise mass measurement of these nuclei. The plan of scientific and technical FLNR research includes a project DRIBs for producing beams of accelerated radioactive nuclear reaction products and photofission fragments. This project proposes also precise mass measurements of the fission fragment with the help of the ion trap. The in-flight entrance of the ions and their capture in the mass-spectrometric ion trap using the monochromatizing degrader, the static electric and magnetic fields and a new invention, a magnetic unidirectional transporting ventil, is considered

  5. Transport and acceleration of the high-current ion beam in magneto-isolated gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karas', V.I.; Kornilov, E.A.; Manuilenko, O.V.; Fedorovskaya, O.V.; Tarakanov, V.P.

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of transportation and acceleration of the high-current ion beam in the magneto-isolated gap has been demonstrated. Found the parameters of the system and beams (the magnetic field produced by the coils with opposing currents, the size of the system, and the parameters of the beams), under which the uniform acceleration of the high-current ion beam all along the gap length is realized. It is shown that the quality of the ion beam, during transport and acceleration, at the exit of the gap is acceptable for many technological applications.

  6. DEVELOPING THE PHYSICS DESIGN FOR NDCX-II, A UNIQUE PULSE-COMPRESSING ION ACCELERATOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Grote, D.P.; Lund, S.M.; Sharp, W.M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J.-Y.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Logan, B.G.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.; Gilson, E.P.; Kaganovich, I.

    2009-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (a collaboration of LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL) is using intense ion beams to heat thin foils to the 'warm dense matter' regime at ∼ + ions to ∼1 ns while accelerating it to 3-4 MeV over ∼15 m. Strong space charge forces are incorporated into the machine design at a fundamental level. We are using analysis, an interactive 1D PIC code (ASP) with optimizing capabilities and centroid tracking, and multi-dimensional Warpcode PIC simulations, to develop the NDCX-II accelerator. This paper describes the computational models employed, and the resulting physics design for the accelerator.

  7. 2D electron density profile measurement in tokamak by laser-accelerated ion-beam probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y H; Yang, X Y; Lin, C; Wang, L; Xu, M; Wang, X G; Xiao, C J

    2014-11-01

    A new concept of Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic has been proposed, of which the key is to replace the electrostatic accelerator of traditional HIBP by a laser-driven ion accelerator. Due to the large energy spread of ions, the laser-accelerated HIBP can measure the two-dimensional (2D) electron density profile of tokamak plasma. In a preliminary simulation, a 2D density profile was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm, and with the error below 15% in the core region. Diagnostics of 2D density fluctuation is also discussed.

  8. Investigation on target normal sheath acceleration through measurements of ions energy distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudisco, S., E-mail: tudisco@lns.infn.it; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Mascali, D.; Schillaci, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Altana, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Lanzalone, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Enna “Kore,” Via delle Olimpiadi, 94100 Enna (Italy); Muoio, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Messina, Viale F.S. D’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina (Italy); Brandi, F. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Cristoforetti, G.; Ferrara, P.; Fulgentini, L.; Koester, P. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Labate, L.; Gizzi, L. A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); and others

    2016-02-15

    An experimental campaign aiming at investigating the ion acceleration mechanisms through laser-matter interaction in femtosecond domain has been carried out at the Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory facility with a laser intensity of up to 2 × 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. A Thomson parabola spectrometer was used to obtain the spectra of the ions of the different species accelerated. Here, we show the energy spectra of light-ions and we discuss their dependence on structural characteristics of the target and the role of surface and target bulk in the acceleration process.

  9. Investigation on target normal sheath acceleration through measurements of ions energy distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tudisco, S.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Mascali, D.; Schillaci, F.; Altana, C.; Lanzalone, G.; Muoio, A.; Brandi, F.; Cristoforetti, G.; Ferrara, P.; Fulgentini, L.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Gizzi, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental campaign aiming at investigating the ion acceleration mechanisms through laser-matter interaction in femtosecond domain has been carried out at the Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory facility with a laser intensity of up to 2 × 10 19 W/cm 2 . A Thomson parabola spectrometer was used to obtain the spectra of the ions of the different species accelerated. Here, we show the energy spectra of light-ions and we discuss their dependence on structural characteristics of the target and the role of surface and target bulk in the acceleration process

  10. High-quality laser-accelerated ion beams for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, Zoltan; Keitel, Christoph H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Salamin, Yousef I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); American University of Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-07-01

    Cancer radiation therapy requires accelerated ion beams of high energy sharpness and a narrow spatial profile. As shown recently, linearly and radially polarized, tightly focused and thus extremely strong laser beams should permit the direct acceleration of light atomic nuclei up to energies that may offer the potentiality for medical applications. Radially polarized beams have better emittance than their linearly polarized counterparts. We put forward the direct laser acceleration of ions, once the refocusing of ion beams by external fields is solved or radially polarized laser pulses of sufficient power can be generated.

  11. A neutron beam facility for radioactive ion beams and other applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecchio, L. B.

    1999-06-01

    In the framework of the Italian participation in the project of a high intensity proton facility for the energy amplifier and nuclear waste transmutations, LNL is involved in the design and construction of same prototypes of the injection system of the 1 GeV linac that consists of a RFQ (5 MeV, 30 mA) followed by a 100 MeV linac. This program has already been supported financially and the work is in progress. In this context LNL has proposed a project for the construction of a second generation facility for the production of radioactive ion beams (RIBs) by means of the ISOL method. The final goal is the production of neutron rich RIBs with masses ranging from 30 to 150 by using primary beams of protons, deuterons and light ions with energy of 100 MeV and 100 kW power. This project is expected to be developed in about 10 years from new and intermediate milestones and experiments are foreseen and under consideration for the next INFN five year plan (1999-2003). During that period the construction of a proton/deuteron accelerator of 10 MeV energy and 10 mA current, consisting of a RFQ (5 MeV, 30 mA) and a linac (10 MeV, 10 mA), and of a neutron area dedicated to the RIBs production and to the neutron physics, is proposed. Some remarks on the production methods will be presented. The possibility of producing radioisotopes by means of the fission induced by neutrons will be investigated and the methods of production of neutrons will be discussed. Besides the RIBs production, neutron beams for the BNCT applications and neutron physics are also planned.

  12. Characteristics of the magnetic wall reflection model on ion acceleration in gas-puff z pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, M.; Takasugi, K.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic wall reflection model was examined with the numerical simulation of the trajectory calculation of particles. This model is for the ions accelerated by some current-independent mechanism. The trajectory calculation showed angle dependency of highest velocities of accelerated particles. This characteristics is of the magnetic wall reflection model, not of the other current-independent acceleration mechanism. Thomson parabola measurements of accelerated ions produced in the gas-puff z-pinch experiments were carried out for the verification of the angle dependency. (author)

  13. Coulomb-driven energy boost of heavy ions for laser-plasma acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braenzel, J; Andreev, A A; Platonov, K; Klingsporn, M; Ehrentraut, L; Sandner, W; Schnürer, M

    2015-03-27

    An unprecedented increase of kinetic energy of laser accelerated heavy ions is demonstrated. Ultrathin gold foils have been irradiated by an ultrashort laser pulse at a peak intensity of 8×10^{19}  W/  cm^{2}. Highly charged gold ions with kinetic energies up to >200  MeV and a bandwidth limited energy distribution have been reached by using 1.3 J laser energy on target. 1D and 2D particle in cell simulations show how a spatial dependence on the ion's ionization leads to an enhancement of the accelerating electrical field. Our theoretical model considers a spatial distribution of the ionization inside the thin target, leading to a field enhancement for the heavy ions by Coulomb explosion. It is capable of explaining the energy boost of highly charged ions, enabling a higher efficiency for the laser-driven heavy ion acceleration.

  14. Heavy ions acceleration in RF wells of 2-frequency electromagnetic field and in the inverted FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzergach, A.I.; Kabanov, V.S.; Nikulin, M.G.; Vinogradov, S.V.

    1995-03-01

    Last results of the study of heavy ions acceleration by electrons trapped in moving 2-frequency 3-D RF wells are described. A linearized theoretical model of ions acceleration in a polarized spheroidal plasmoid is proposed. The equilibrium state of this plasmoid is described by the modified microcanonical distribution of the Courant-Snyder invariant (open-quotes quasienergyclose quotes of electrons). Some new results of computational simulation of the acceleration process are given. The method of computation takes into account the given cylindrical field E 011 (var-phi,r,z) and the self fields of electrons and ions. The results of the computation at relatively short time intervals confirm the idea and estimated parameters of acceleration. The heavy ion accelerator using this principle may be constructed with the use of compact cm band iris-loaded and biperiodical waveguides with double-sided 2-frequency RF feeding. It can accelerate heavy ions with a charge number Z i from small initial energies ∼ 50 keV/a.u. with the rate ∼ Z i · 10 MeV/m. Semirelativistic ions may be accelerated with similar rate also in the inverted FEL

  15. A cylindrical Penning trap for capture, mass selective cooling, and bunching of radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault-Hartmann, H.; Bollen, G.; Beck, D.; Koenig, M.; Kluge, H.-J.; Schwarz, S.; Schark, E.; Stein, J.; Szerypo, J.

    1997-01-01

    A Penning trap ion accumulator, cooler, and buncher for low-energy ion beams has been developed for the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. A cylindrical electrode configuration is used for the creation of a nested trapping potential. This is required for efficient accumulation of externally produced ions and for high-mass selectivity by buffer gas cooling. The design goal of a mass resolving power of about 1 x 10 5 has been achieved. Isobar separation has been demonstrated for radioactive rare-earth ion beams delivered by the ISOLDE on-line mass separator. (orig.)

  16. A cylindrical Penning trap for capture, mass selective cooling, and bunching of radioactive ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Raimbault-Hartmann, H; Bollen, G; König, M; Kluge, H J; Schark, E; Stein, J; Schwarz, S; Szerypo, J

    1997-01-01

    A Penning trap ion accumulator, cooler, and buncher for low energy ion beams has been developed for the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. A cylindrical electrode configuration is used for the creation of a nested trapping potential. This is required for efficient accumulation of externally produced ions and for high mass selectivity by buffer gas cooling. The design goal of a mass resolving power of about $1\\cdot 10^{5}$ has been achieved. Isobar separation has been demonstrated for radioactive rare earth ion beams delivered by the ISOLDE on-line mass separator.

  17. Design for simultaneous acceleration of stable and unstable beams in a superconducting heavy-ion linear accelerator for RISP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwon; Son, Hyock-Jun; Park, Young-Ho

    2017-11-01

    The post-accelerator of isotope separation on-line (ISOL) system for rare isotope science project (RISP) is a superconducting linear accelerator (SC-linac) with a DC equivalent voltage of around 160 MV. An isotope beam extracted from the ISOL is in a charge state of 1+ and its charge state is increased to n+ by charge breeding with an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The charge breeding takes tens of ms and the pulse width of extracted beam from the EBIS is tens of μs, which operates at up to 30 Hz. Consequently a large portion of radio frequency (rf) time of the post SC-linac is unused. The post-linac is equipped also with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for stable ion acceleration. Thanks to the large phase acceptance of SC-linac, it is possible to accelerate simultaneously both stable and radioisotope ions with a similar charge to mass ratio by sharing rf time. This operation scheme is implemented for RISP with the addition of an electric chopper and magnetic kickers. The facility will be capable of providing the users of the ISOL and in-flight fragmentation (IF) systems with different beams simultaneously, which would help nuclear science users in obtaining a beam time as high-precision measurements often need long hours.

  18. 2D accelerator design for SITEX negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whealton, J.H.; Raridon, R.J.; McGaffey, R.W.; McCollough, D.H.; Stirling, W.L.; Dagenhart, W.K.

    1983-01-01

    Solving the Poisson-Vlasov equations where the magnetic field, B, is assumed constant, we optimize the optical system of a SITEX negative ion source in infinite slot geometry. Algorithms designed to solve the above equations were modified to include the curved emitter boundary data appropriate to a negative ion source. Other configurations relevant to negative ion sources are examined

  19. Dynamic analysis of an accelerator-based subcritical radioactive waste burning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woosley, M.L. Jr.; Rydin, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    There has been a recent revival of interest in accelerator-driven subcritical fluid-fueled systems for radioactive waste management. This motivates the need for dynamic analysis of the nuclear kinetics of such systems. A physical description of the Los Alamos Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) concept is provided. This system is used as the basis for the kinetic study in this research. The current approach to the dynamic simulation of an accelerator-driven subcritical fluid-fueled system includes four functional blocks: A discrete ordinates model is used to calculate the flux distribution for the source-driven system (DORT); A nodal convection model is used to calculate time-dependent isotope and temperature distributions which impact reactivity (ABCcore); A nodal importance weighting model is used to calculate the reactivity impact of temperature and isotope distributions and to feed this information back to the time-dependent nodal convection model (ABCvip); A transient driver simulates system transients and records simulation data (ABCtrans). Specific transients which have been analyzed with the current modeling system are discussed. These transients include loss-of-flow and loss-of-cooling accidents, xenon and samarium transients, and cold-plug and overfueling events. The results of various transients have uncovered unpredictable behavior, unresolved design issues, and the need for active control. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  20. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1985-September 30, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    The heavy ion accelerator is profiled. Energy losses, currents, kinetic energy, beam optics, pulse models and mechanical tolerances are included in the discussion. In addition, computational efforts and an energy analyzer are described. 37 refs., 27 figs

  1. Performance of MBE-4: An experimental multiple beam induction linear accelerator for heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, A.I.; Fessenden, T.J.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.H.; Meuth, H.

    1988-06-01

    An experimental induction linac, called MBE-4, has been constructed to demonstrate acceleration and current amplification of multiple heavy ion beams. This work is part of a program to study the use of such an accelerator as a driver for heavy ion inertial fusion. MBE-4 is 16m long and accelerates four space-charge-dominated beams of singly-charged cesium ions, in this case from 200 keV to 700 keV, amplifying the current in each beam from 10mA by a factor of nine. Construction of the experiment was completed late in 1987 and we present the results of detailed measurements of the longitudinal beam dynamics. Of particular interest is the contribution of acceleration errors to the growth of current fluctuations and to the longitudinal emittance. The effectiveness of the longitudinal focusing, accomplished by means of the controlled time dependence of the accelerating fields, is also discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  2. Changes in acceleration rate of chloride ions depending on climatic conditions. Influence of rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corvo, F.; Arroyave, C.; Autie, M.; Minotas, J.; Balmaseda, J.; Delgado, J.; Haces, C.

    2003-01-01

    Mild steel,copper and aluminum samples were exposed outdoors in two atmospheric test stations located in Havana, Cuba and Medellin, colombia. Two parallel group of samples were formed, one for each station. They were submitted to accelerated outdoor test by intermittent spraying of a salt solution (SCAB test) according to ISO 11474.98, receiving also the influence of the open atmosphere. The acceleration of corrosion rate of the three metals caused by the presence of chloride ions in both stations was determined. As expected, steel shows the higher corrosion rate and acceleration by chlorides, particularly at Cuban corrosion station. A remarkable difference in the acceleration rate of chloride ions for mild steel and copper between Cuban and Colombian acceleration rate of chloride ions of steel and copper. Steel corrosion products were analysed by Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Water absorption was also studied. The presence of magnetite, goethite and other Iron compounds was determined. (Author) 10 refs

  3. Development of intense high-energy noble gas ion beams from in-terminal ion injector of tandem accelerator using an ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, M., E-mail: matsuda.makoto@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai Research and Development Center, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nakanoya, T.; Hanashima, S.; Takeuchi, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai Research and Development Center, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2011-10-21

    An ECRIS-based heavy ion injector was constructed in the high-voltage terminal of JAEA-Tokai Tandem Accelerator to develop new beam species of highly charged noble gas ions. This work was associated with a lot of development to operate the ion source on the 20UR Pelletron high voltage terminal in high pressure SF{sub 6} gas environment. Highly charged ions of N, O, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe have been accelerated satisfactorily. Operating data integrated during many years long beam delivery service are summarized.

  4. MODELING AN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE SOLUTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.; Hamm, Luther; Aleman, Sebastian; Michael, Johnston

    2008-01-01

    The performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde ion-exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline radioactive waste solutions has been investigated through computer modeling. Cesium adsorption isotherms were obtained by fitting experimental data using a thermodynamic framework. Results show that ion-exchange is an efficient method for cesium removal from highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions. On average, two 1300 liter columns operating in series are able to treat 690,000 liters of waste with an initial cesium concentration of 0.09 mM in 11 days achieving a decontamination factor of over 50,000. The study also tested the sensitivity of ion-exchange column performance to variations in flow rate, temperature and column dimensions. Modeling results can be used to optimize design of the ion exchange system

  5. Laser photodetachment of radioactive ions: towards the determination of the electronegativity of astatine

    CERN Multimedia

    Rothe, Sebastian; Welander, Jakob Emanuel; Chrysalidis, Katerina; Day Goodacre, Thomas; Fedosseev, Valentine; Fiotakis, Spyridon; Forstner, Oliver; Heinke, Reinhard Matthias; Johnston, Karl; Kron, Tobias; Koester, Ulli; Liu, Yuan; Marsh, Bruce; Ringvall Moberg, Annie; Rossel, Ralf Erik; Seiffert, Christoph; Studer, Dominik; Wendt, Klaus; Hanstorp, Dag

    2017-01-01

    Negatively charged ions are mainly stabilized through the electron correlation effect. A measure of the stability of a negative ion is the electron affinity, which the energy gain by attaching an electron to a neutral atom. This fundamental quantity is, due to the almost general lack of bound excited states, the only atomic property that can be determined with high accuracy for negative ions. We will present the results of the first laser photodetachment studies of radioactive negative ions at CERN-ISOLDE. The photodetachment threshold for the radiogenic iodine isotope 128I was measured successfully, demonstrating the performance of the upgraded GANDALPH experimental beam line. The first detection of photo-detached astatine atoms marks a milestone towards the determination of the EA of this radioactive element.

  6. Direction for the Future - Successive Acceleration of Positive and Negative Ions Applied to Space Propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Aanesland, A.; Popelier, L.; Chabert, P.

    2013-12-16

    Electrical space thrusters show important advantages for applications in outer space compared to chemical thrusters, as they allow a longer mission lifetime with lower weight and propellant consumption. Mature technologies on the market today accelerate positive ions to generate thrust. The ion beam is neutralized by electrons downstream, and this need for an additional neutralization system has some drawbacks related to stability, lifetime and total weight and power consumption. Many new concepts, to get rid of the neutralizer, have been proposed, and the PEGASES ion-ion thruster is one of them. This new thruster concept aims at accelerating both positive and negative ions to generate thrust, such that additional neutralization is redundant. This chapter gives an overview of the concept of electric propulsion and the state of the development of this new ion-ion thruster.

  7. Accelerator and Ion Beam Tradeoffs for Studies of Warm Dense Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.; Briggs, R.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Davidson, R.C.; Friedman, A.; Grisham, L.; Lee, E.P.; Lee, R.W.; Logan, B.G.; Olson, C.L.; Rose, D.V.; Santhanam, P.; Sessler, A.M.; Staples, J.W.; Tabak, M.; Welch, D.R.; Wurtele, J.S.; Yu, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    One approach for heating a target to ''Warm Dense Matter'' conditions (similar, for example, to the interiors of giant planets or certain stages in inertial confinement fusion targets), is to use intense ion beams as the heating source (see refs.[6] and [7] and references therein for motivation and accelerator concepts). By consideration of ion beam phase-space constraints, both at the injector, and at the final focus, and consideration of simple equations of state and relations for ion stopping, approximate conditions at the target foil may be calculated. Thus, target temperature and pressure may be calculated as a function of ion mass, ion energy, pulse duration, velocity tilt, and other accelerator parameters. We connect some of these basic parameters to help search the extensive parameter space including ion mass, ion energy, total charge in beam pulse, beam emittance, target thickness and density

  8. Development of ECR ion source for the HIMAC medical accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, A.; Yamada, S.; Sekiguchi, M.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the ECR ion source for the HIMAC injector is reported. The HIMAC facility has two types of the ion source, one is the PIG ion source and the other is the ECR ion source. The ECR ion source is especially expected long lifetime, easy operation, and easy maintenance for the medical use. Now, the system of the ion source is under construction. However, the tests of fundamental performances have been started. In the present tests, the output electrical currents of Ions are 1300 eμA of He 1+ , 210 eμA of Ne 3+ , and 100 eμA of Ar 6+ . And the good stability of the extracted beam is acquired. These performances satisfied the requirements for the radiotherapy. (author)

  9. On the Acceleration and Anisotropy of Ions Within Magnetotail Dipolarizing Flux Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Runov, Andrei; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Artemyev, Anton V.; Birn, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Dipolarizing flux bundles (DFBs), earthward propagating structures with enhanced northward magnetic field Bz, are usually believed to carry a distinctly different plasma population from that in the ambient magnetotail plasma sheet. The ion distribution functions within the DFB, however, have been recently found to be largely controlled by the ion adiabaticity parameter κ in the ambient plasma sheet outside the DFB. According to these observations, the ambient κ values of 2-3 usually correspond to a strong perpendicular anisotropy of suprathermal ions within the DFB, whereas for lower κ values the DFB ions become more isotropic. Here we utilize a simple, test particle model to explore the nature of the anisotropy and its dependence on the ambient κ values. We find that the anisotropy originates from successive ion reflections and reentries to the DFB, during which the ions are consecutively accelerated in the perpendicular direction by the DFB-associated electric field. This consecutive acceleration may be interrupted, however, when magnetic field lines are highly curved in the ambient plasma sheet. In this case, the ion trajectories become stochastic outside the DFB, which makes the reflected ions less likely to return to the DFB for another cycle of acceleration; as a consequence, the perpendicular ion anisotropy does not appear. Given that the DFB ions are a free energy source for instabilities when they are injected toward Earth, our simple model (that reproduces most observational features on the anisotropic DFB ion distributions) may shed new lights on the coupling process between magnetotail and inner magnetosphere.

  10. An experimental program for collective acceleration of ions using intense relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, T.; Raychowdhury, P.; Iyengar, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    A program of collective ion acceleration using intense relativistic electron beam (IREB) of 0.25-1MeV, 6-80kA, 60ns on the Kilo Ampere Linear Injector (KALI) systems to accelerate light and heavy ions to high energies approaching GeV with currents over tens of amperes, is envisaged in this report. The accelerator will make use of the intense space-charge field of electron beam in vacuum for accelerating ions which are injected into it. For ion injection, various alternatives, such as, localized gas puff, dielectric insert, laser plasma, etc. have been considered as present and long-term objectives. Among the variety of diagnostic methods chosen for characterizing the accelerated ions include range-energy in foil, CR-39 track detector, nuclear activation technique and time-of-flight for energy and species determination; ion Faraday cup for current measurement; and Thomson parabola analyzer for determining the post-acceleration charge-state. In the proposed MAHAKALI collective accelerator, protons of energy over 10 MeV and higher charge state metal ions around a GeV are predicted using a REB of 1MeV, 30kA, 60ns from KALI-5000. In present experiments using KALI-200 with REB parameters of 250keV, 60kA, 80ns, protons over a MeV and carbon and fluorine ions respectively for 12MeV and 16MeV in significant currents have been accelerated. (author). 35 refs., figs., tabs

  11. Heating and acceleration of solar wind ions by turbulent wave spectrum in inhomogeneous expanding plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofman, Leon, E-mail: Leon.Ofman@nasa.gov [Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Visiting, Department of Geosciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Ozak, Nataly [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Viñas, Adolfo F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2016-03-25

    Near the Sun (< 10R{sub s}) the acceleration, heating, and propagation of the solar wind are likely affected by the background inhomogeneities of the magnetized plasma. The heating and the acceleration of the solar wind ions by turbulent wave spectrum in inhomogeneous plasma is studied using a 2.5D hybrid model. The hybrid model describes the kinetics of the ions, while the electrons are modeled as massless neutralizing fluid in an expanding box approach. Turbulent magnetic fluctuations dominated by power-law frequency spectra, which are evident from in-situ as well as remote sensing measurements, are used in our models. The effects of background density inhomogeneity across the magnetic field on the resonant ion heating are studied. The effect of super-Alfvénic ion drift on the ion heating is investigated. It is found that the turbulent wave spectrum of initially parallel propagating waves cascades to oblique modes, and leads to enhanced resonant ion heating due to the inhomogeneity. The acceleration of the solar wind ions is achieved by the parametric instability of large amplitude waves in the spectrum, and is also affected by the inhomogeneity. The results of the study provide the ion temperature anisotropy and drift velocity temporal evolution due to relaxation of the instability. The non-Maxwellian velocity distribution functions (VDFs) of the ions are modeled in the inhomogeneous solar wind plasma in the acceleration region close to the Sun.

  12. Targets for production of high-intensity radioactive ion-beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagebo, E.; Hoff, P.; Steffensen, K.

    1991-01-01

    The recent developments of target systems for production of high intensity radioactive ion-beams at the ISOLDE mass separators is described. Methods for chemically selective production through separation of molecular ions are outlined and the effects of the addition of reactive gases has been studied. Results and further possible applications in the light element region are discussed. (author) 10 refs.; 9 figs.; 1 tab

  13. Heavy ion beam factory for material science based on the KEK digital accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Ken, E-mail: takayama@post.kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatusda, Yokohama, Knagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Adachi, Toshikazu [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Arai, Teruo; Arakawa, Dai [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Asao, Hiroyuki [NEC Network-Sensor, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8501 (Japan); Barata, Yuji; Harada, Shinya [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Tokyo City University, Todoroki, Tokyo 158-8586 (Japan); Horioka, Kazuhiko [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatusda, Yokohama, Knagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Iwata, Taiki; Kadokura, Eiichi; Kwakubo, Tadamichi; Kubo, Tomio [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Leo, Kwee Wah [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Liu, Xingguaung [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatusda, Yokohama, Knagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Mochiki, Koichi [Tokyo City University, Todoroki, Tokyo 158-8586 (Japan); Munemoto, Naoya [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatusda, Yokohama, Knagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Nakanishi, Hiroshi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Okada, Yoshihito [NEC Network-Sensor, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8501 (Japan); Okamura, Katsuya [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); and others

    2013-11-01

    The KEK digital accelerator (DA) is an alternative to high-voltage electrostatic accelerators and conventional cyclotrons and synchrotrons, which are commonly used as swift heavy ion beam drivers. Compared with conventional accelerators, KEK-DA is capable of delivering a wider variety of ion species with various energies, as a result of its intrinsic properties. It is expected to serve as a heavy ion beam factory for research in materials science. Plans for its utilization include unique application programs, such as laboratory-based space science using virtual cosmic rays, heavy-ion mutagenesis in microorganisms, deep ion implantation, and modification of materials, which may be categorized into systematic studies of the spatial and temporal evolution of the locally and highly excited states of materials.

  14. Prompt acceleration of ions by oblique turbulent shocks in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, R. B.; Vlahos, L.

    1985-01-01

    Solar flares often accelerate ions and electrons to relativistic energies. The details of the acceleration process are not well understood, but until recently the main trend was to divide the acceleration process into two phases. During the first phase elctrons and ions are heated and accelerated up to several hundreds of keV simultaneously with the energy release. These mildly relativistic electrons interact with the ambient plasma and magnetic fields and generate hard X-ray and radio radiation. The second phase, usually delayed from the first by several minutes, is responsible for accelerating ions and electrons to relativistic energies. Relativistic electrons and ions interact with the solar atmosphere or escape from the Sun and generate gamma ray continuum, gamma ray line emission, neutron emission or are detected in space by spacecraft. In several flares the second phase is coincident with the start of a type 2 radio burst that is believed to be the signature of a shock wave. Observations from the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft have shown, for the first time, that several flares accelerate particles to all energies nearly simultaneously. These results posed a new theoretical problem: How fast are shocks and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence formed and how quickly can they accelerate ions to 50 MeV in the lower corona? This problem is discussed.

  15. Prompt acceleration of ions by oblique turbulent shocks in solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, R.B.; Vlahos, L.

    1985-01-01

    Solar flares often accelerate ions and electrons to relativistic energies. The details of the acceleration process are not well understood, but until recently the main trend was to divide the acceleration process into two phases. During the first phase elctrons and ions are heated and accelerated up to several hundreds of keV simultaneously with the energy release. These mildly relativistic electrons interact with the ambient plasma and magnetic fields and generate hard x-ray and radio radiation. The second phase, usually delayed from the first by several minutes, is responsible for accelerating ions and electrons to relativistic energies. Relativistic electrons and ions interact with the solar atmosphere or escape from the Sun and generate gamma ray continuum, gamma ray line emission, neutron emission or are detected in space by spacecraft. In several flares the second phase is coincident with the start of a type 2 radio burst that is believed to be the signature of a shock wave. Observations from the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft have shown, for the first time, that several flares accelerate particles to all energies nearly simultaneously. These results posed a new theoretical problem: How fast are shocks and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence formed and how quickly can they accelerate ions to 50 MeV in the lower corona. This problem is discussed

  16. Modification of 300kV RF Ion Source for 1-MV Electrostatic Accelerator at KOMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae-Il; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Park, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2015-01-01

    The specifications of the 1-MV electrostatic accelerator are shown as below. High voltage power supply is electron transformer rectifier (ELV) type which was developed in Nuclear Physics Institute (Novosibirsk) for industrial electron accelerators. And accelerator column consists of alumina and metal electrode rings were 0.5m-long brazed structure which can be installed horizontally. In case of ion source for 1-MV electrostatic accelerator, it is chosen a thonemann type rf ion source and 300-kV test-stand was made up to confirm the stable operating conditions. High voltage power supply is fabricated by domestic company, and its operation has been confirming at KOMAC site. Equally, the ion source of 300-kV test-stand should be modified to install into the high voltage power supply. In this paper, modification of ion source of 300-kV test-stand for 1-MV electrostatic accelerator is presented and its processes are considered. 300-kV RF ion source and power supply are testing for the 1-MV electrostatic accelerator and trying for combination between them. The 1-MV electrostatic accelerator will be fabricated with domestic companies and tested in the beam application research building at KOMAC

  17. Modification of 300kV RF Ion Source for 1-MV Electrostatic Accelerator at KOMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae-Il; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Park, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Yong-Sub [KOMAC, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The specifications of the 1-MV electrostatic accelerator are shown as below. High voltage power supply is electron transformer rectifier (ELV) type which was developed in Nuclear Physics Institute (Novosibirsk) for industrial electron accelerators. And accelerator column consists of alumina and metal electrode rings were 0.5m-long brazed structure which can be installed horizontally. In case of ion source for 1-MV electrostatic accelerator, it is chosen a thonemann type rf ion source and 300-kV test-stand was made up to confirm the stable operating conditions. High voltage power supply is fabricated by domestic company, and its operation has been confirming at KOMAC site. Equally, the ion source of 300-kV test-stand should be modified to install into the high voltage power supply. In this paper, modification of ion source of 300-kV test-stand for 1-MV electrostatic accelerator is presented and its processes are considered. 300-kV RF ion source and power supply are testing for the 1-MV electrostatic accelerator and trying for combination between them. The 1-MV electrostatic accelerator will be fabricated with domestic companies and tested in the beam application research building at KOMAC.

  18. New structure for accelerating heavy ions; Une nouvelle structure acceleratrice d'ions lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-06-01

    A new type of accelerating structure is described which is particular suited to heavy ions (high wavelength, high shunt impedance, small size). Its properties are analyzed and compared to those of other structures (more particularly the lines). It is shown that a mode of operation exists of which the shunt impedance in the station mode has 80 per cent of its value for the progressive mode. Finally results are given obtained with a small experimental apparatus which uses this structure. (author) [French] On decrit un nouveau type de structure acceleratrice, particulierement appropriee aux ions lourds (grande longueur d'onde, forte impedance-shunt, faibles dimensions). Ses proprietes sont analysees et comparees a celles d'autres structures (plus particulierement les lignes). On met en evidence un mode de fonctionnement pour lequel l'impedance shunt en regime stationnaire vaut 80 pour cent de l'impedance shunt en regime progressif. Enfin on decrit les resultats obtenus a l'aide d'une petite machine experimentale mettant en oeuvre cette structure. (auteur)

  19. MMS Observations of Protons and Heavy Ions Acceleration at Plasma Jet Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, F.; Retino, A.; Zimbardo, G.; Cozzani, G.; Breuillard, H.; Le Contel, O.; Alexandrova, A.; Mirioni, L.; Cohen, I. J.; Turner, D. L.; Perri, S.; Greco, A.; Mauk, B.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Ergun, R.; Giles, B. L.; Fuselier, S. A.; Moore, T. E.; Burch, J.

    2017-12-01

    Plasma jet fronts in the Earth's magnetotail are kinetic-scale boundaries separating hot fast plasma jets, generally attributed to reconnection outflows, from colder ambient plasma. Jet fronts are typically associated with a sharp increase of the vertical component of the magnetic field Bz, an increase of the plasma temperature and a drop of plasma density. Spacecraft observations and numerical simulations indicate that jet fronts are sites of major ion acceleration. The exact acceleration mechanisms as well as the dependence of such mechanisms on ion composition are not fully understood, yet. Recent high-resolution measurements of ion distribution functions in the magnetotail allow for the first time to study the acceleration mechanisms in detail. Here, we show several examples of jet fronts and discuss ion acceleration therein. We show fronts that propagate in the mid-tail magnetotail both as isolated laminar boundaries and as multiple boundaries embedded in strong magnetic fluctuations and turbulence. We also show fronts in the near-Earth jet braking region, where they interact with the dipolar magnetic field and are significantly decelerated/diverted. Finally, we study the acceleration of different ion species (H+, He++, O+) at different types of fronts and we discuss possible different acceleration mechanisms and how they depend on the ion species.

  20. Ion accelerator applications in medicine and cultural heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denker, A.; Cordini, D.; Heufelder, J.; Homeyer, H.; Kluge, H.; Simiantonakis, I.; Stark, R.; Weber, A.

    2007-01-01

    Formerly, accelerator laboratories were mainly dedicated to nuclear physics. Today, they are used in up-coming research fields and applications like material analysis and material science as well as biology, medicine or archaeology. Practical applications have been developed, involving hospitals, industry and even humanists in the use of accelerators. This paper focuses on some medical and analytical applications of the HMI accelerator facility, especially for eye tumour therapy and archaeology. The innovation of techniques to measure the dose distribution, the development of an automated monitoring procedure allowing an improved and accelerated patient positioning, and the implementation of a modern treatment planning system will be presented first. In the second part, the employment of accelerators in better understanding of our cultural heritage will be shown

  1. Use of heavy ion accelerators in fusion reactor-related radiation-damage studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.; Dobson, D.A.

    1974-01-01

    The heavy-ion accelerator has become an important tool in the study of the fundamentals of radiation damage in fission- and fusion-reactor materials. Present facilities for such studies within the Materials Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory are provided by two complementary accelerator systems. Examples of the work carried out are discussed

  2. Breakdowns and solutions in 15 UD pelletron ion accelerator facility at Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, R.; Singh, P.; Suraj; Nishal, S.M.; Panwar, N.S.; Singh, M.P.; Kumar, R.; Prasad, J.; Sota, M.; Patel, V.P.; Sharma, R.P.; Kumar, Pankaj; Devi, K.D.; Ojha, S.; Gargari, S.; Chopra, S.; Kanjilal, D.

    2013-01-01

    15UD Pelletron accelerator, installed in Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, is a tandem ion accelerator and is performing well since its commissioning. Constant efforts have been put to keep high uptime and better performance of the accelerator for more than two decades. In recent years, the facility was improved by many modifications and up gradations. It has also gone through a few major breakdowns related to charging system and fiber optic cables. Out of two charging systems, one system failed and devices housed in tank stopped working due to the damage of fiber optic cables. The reasons for both of these breakdowns were studied thoroughly. The entire charging system and fiber optic cable network have been rebuilt and tested. The diagnostic techniques and maintenance methods for these two breakdowns will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  3. Magnetic field structure of the U-120 cyclotron for heavy ions acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwabe, J.; Starzewski, J.

    1975-01-01

    The proposed magnetic structure makes possible the acceleration, in quasi-isochronous conditions, of ions having the ratio Z/A=0,665 - 0,1 on the U-120 cyclotron in Cracow. Simultaneously, significant improvement of the accelerated beam emittance, decrease in energy scattering down to a value of about 10 -3 , and an increase in the maximum accelerated beam energy may be obtained. (author)

  4. Design studies of heavy ion linear accelerators constructed of independently phased spiral resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, R.H.; Armstrong, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary design studies are reported for two linear accelerators for heavy ions. One accelerator is a high-intensity machine which would operate with 100 percent duty factor and would produce tin ions with 6.1 MeV/A. Alternatively, it could be operated under pulsed conditions with 25 percent duty factor and would then accelerate uranium ions to 8.1 MeV/A, tin ions to 10.5 MeV/A, and all lighter ions to higher velocities. It would be injected with a positive multicharge ion source and a 4-MV single-ended dc generator. Also, design studies are reported for small postaccelerator injected by a model FN tandem. Both accelerators use three-drift-tube spiral resonators operating at room temperature. Magnetic quadrupole singlets are placed between all resonators to provide radial focussing. Each resonator is independently phased according to the velocity of the ion to be accelerated. The ability to adjust the phase of each resonator permits variations in final energy and other beam properties with great flexibility. (U.S.)

  5. Regulation of naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolling, L.A.; Lubenau, J.O.; Nussbaumer, D.A.

    1984-10-01

    In 1977, NRC published a report (NUREG-0301) of a task force review of the need for, and feasibility of, the Federal government regulating naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials (NARM). Since that time, the Federal regulatory role has not significantly changed but State calls for increased Federal involvment have continued. In 1983, a National Governors' Association report on the NRC Agreement State program recommended amendment of the Atomic Energy Act to authorize NRC regulation of these materials. Based on that recommendation, and with the cooperation of the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc., NRC staff undertook a review of the current status of use and regulation of NARM. This report contains the results of that review. 10 references

  6. Radioactive core ions of microclusters, ``snowballs`` in superfluid helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, N. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Shimoda, T. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Fujita, Y. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Miyatake, H. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Mizoi, Y. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kobayashi, H. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Sasaki, M. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Shirakura, T. [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Itahashi, T. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Mitsuoka, S. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Matsukawa, T. [Naruto Univ. of Education, Tokushima (Japan); Ikeda, N. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Morinobu, S. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Hinde, D.J. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Physical Sciences; Asahi, K. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Ueno, H. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Izumi, H. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-01

    Short-lived beta-ray emitters, {sup 12}B, sustaining nuclear spin polarization were introduced into superfluid helium. The nuclear polarization of {sup 12}B was observed via measurement of beta-ray asymmetry. It was found that the nuclear polarization was preserved throughout the lifetime of {sup 12}B (20.3 ms). This suggests that the ``snowball``, an aggregation of helium atoms produced around an alien ion, constitutes a suitable milieu for freezing-out the nuclear spin of the core ion and that most likely the solidification takes place at the interior of the aggregation. (orig.).

  7. Radioactive core ions of microclusters, ''snowballs'' in superfluid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, N.; Mitsuoka, S.; Matsukawa, T.; Ikeda, N.; Morinobu, S.; Hinde, D.J.; Asahi, K.; Ueno, H.; Izumi, H.

    1996-01-01

    Short-lived beta-ray emitters, 12 B, sustaining nuclear spin polarization were introduced into superfluid helium. The nuclear polarization of 12 B was observed via measurement of beta-ray asymmetry. It was found that the nuclear polarization was preserved throughout the lifetime of 12 B (20.3 ms). This suggests that the ''snowball'', an aggregation of helium atoms produced around an alien ion, constitutes a suitable milieu for freezing-out the nuclear spin of the core ion and that most likely the solidification takes place at the interior of the aggregation. (orig.)

  8. Treatment of radioactive wastewaters by chemical precipitation and ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Begovich, J.M.; Brown, C.H. Jr.; Campbell, D.O.; Collins, E.D.

    1987-01-01

    Precipitation and ion exchange methods are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to decontaminate wastewaters containing small amounts of 90 Sr and 137 Cs while minimizing waste generation. Distribution coefficients have been determined for strontium and cesium as functions of Ca, Na, and Mg concentrations from bench- and pilot-scale data for ion exchange resins and zeolites using actual wastewaters. Models have been used to estimate the total amount of waste that would be generated at full-scale operation. Based on these data, four process flowsheets are being tested at full-scale. 14 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs

  9. The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, J.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The status of the new Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which is slated to start its scientific program late this year is discussed, as is the new experimental equipment which is being constructed at this facility. Information on the early scientific program also is given.

  10. The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The status of the new Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which is slated to start its scientific program late this year is discussed, as is the new experimental equipment which is being constructed at this facility. Information on the early scientific program also is given

  11. High-current heavy-ion accelerator system and its application to material modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Naoki; Takeda, Yoshihiko; Lee, C.G.; Umeda, Naoki; Okubo, Nariaki; Iwamoto, Eiji

    2001-01-01

    A high-current heavy-ion accelerator system has been developed to realize intense particle fluxes for material modification. The facility of a tandem accelerator attained 1 mA-class ion current both for negative low-energy ions and positive high-energy ions. The negative ion source of the key device is of the plasma-sputter type, equipped with mutli-cusp magnets and Cs supply. The intense negative ions are either directly used for material irradiation at 60 keV or further accelerated up to 6 MeV after charge transformation. Application of negative ions, which alleviates surface charging, enables us to conduct low-energy high-current irradiation on insulating substrates. Since positive ions above the MeV range are irrelevant for Coulomb repulsion, the facility as a whole meets the needs of high-current irradiation onto insulators over a wide energy range. Application of high flux ions provides technological merits not only for efficient implantation but also for essentially different material kinetics, which may become an important tool of material modification. Other advantages of the system are co-irradiation by intense laser and in-situ detection of kinetic processes. For examples of material modifications, we present nanoparticle fabrication in insulators, and synergistic phenomena by co-irradiation due to ions and photons. (author)

  12. A detailed examination of laser-ion acceleration mechanisms in the relativistic transparency regime using tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, David J.; Yin, Lin; Albright, Brian J.; Nystrom, William; Bird, Robert

    2018-04-01

    We present a particle-in-cell study of linearly polarized laser-ion acceleration systems, in which we use both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) simulations to characterize the ion acceleration mechanisms in targets which become transparent to the laser pulse during irradiation. First, we perform a target length scan to optimize the peak ion energies in both 2D and 3D, and the predictive capabilities of 2D simulations are discussed. Tracer analysis allows us to isolate the acceleration into stages of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA), hole boring (HB), and break-out afterburner (BOA) acceleration, which vary in effectiveness based on the simulation parameters. The thinnest targets reveal that enhanced TNSA is responsible for accelerating the most energetic ions, whereas the thickest targets have ions undergoing successive phases of HB and TNSA (in 2D) or BOA and TNSA (in 3D); HB is not observed to be a dominant acceleration mechanism in the 3D simulations. It is in the intermediate optimal regime, both when the laser breaks through the target with appreciable amplitude and when there is enough plasma to form a sustained high density flow, that BOA is most effective and is responsible for the most energetic ions. Eliminating the transverse laser spot size effects by performing a plane wave simulation, we can isolate with greater confidence the underlying physics behind the ion dynamics we observe. Specifically, supplemented by wavelet and FFT analyses, we match the post-transparency BOA acceleration with a wave-particle resonance with a high-amplitude low-frequency electrostatic wave of increasing phase velocity, consistent with that predicted by the Buneman instability.

  13. Colorimetric detection and removal of radioactive Co ions using sodium alginate-based composite beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Daigeun; Jo, Ara; Yang, Hee-Man; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Lee, Kune-Woo; Lee, Taek Seung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Organic/inorganic hybridized alginate beads were newly synthesized via sol-gel chemistry. • Interaction between the azopyridine and metal ion is the main cause of Co ion detection. • The beads showed improved stability and least leakage of azopyridine during use. • Removal of Co ion was assessed by the ion-exchange of carboxylate groups in alginate. • The beads with dual functions of detection and removal of Co ion were successfully accomplished. - Abstract: We demonstrate a simple method for the visual determination and removal of Co ions using a bead-shaped, capturing probe based on hybridized sodium alginate. For Co ions, the designed protocol consisted of three main constituents: an azopyridine-based Co ion-probe for visual detection; sodium alginate as an adsorbent for the Co ion and a bead construct for removal and structure; silica as a linker for the probe and the alginate, leading to a robust structure. When the composite beads were exposed to Co ions, the yellow color of the beads turned to intensive violet and the color intensity was associated with the Co ion concentration. The color variation was quantified using red-green-blue (RGB) color values that were obtained with a scanner and evaluated with Photoshop. The technique achieved both visual recognition with obvious color change of the beads and efficient removal of the radioactive 60 Co ion. The sensing and removal of any radioactive isotope could be achieved with an appropriate sensing probe, to provide a simple and universal platform for remediation.

  14. Colorimetric detection and removal of radioactive Co ions using sodium alginate-based composite beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Daigeun; Jo, Ara [Organic and Optoelectronic Materials Laboratory, Department of Organic Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hee-Man; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Lee, Kune-Woo [Decontamination and Decommissioning Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Taek Seung, E-mail: tslee@cnu.ac.kr [Organic and Optoelectronic Materials Laboratory, Department of Organic Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Organic/inorganic hybridized alginate beads were newly synthesized via sol-gel chemistry. • Interaction between the azopyridine and metal ion is the main cause of Co ion detection. • The beads showed improved stability and least leakage of azopyridine during use. • Removal of Co ion was assessed by the ion-exchange of carboxylate groups in alginate. • The beads with dual functions of detection and removal of Co ion were successfully accomplished. - Abstract: We demonstrate a simple method for the visual determination and removal of Co ions using a bead-shaped, capturing probe based on hybridized sodium alginate. For Co ions, the designed protocol consisted of three main constituents: an azopyridine-based Co ion-probe for visual detection; sodium alginate as an adsorbent for the Co ion and a bead construct for removal and structure; silica as a linker for the probe and the alginate, leading to a robust structure. When the composite beads were exposed to Co ions, the yellow color of the beads turned to intensive violet and the color intensity was associated with the Co ion concentration. The color variation was quantified using red-green-blue (RGB) color values that were obtained with a scanner and evaluated with Photoshop. The technique achieved both visual recognition with obvious color change of the beads and efficient removal of the radioactive {sup 60}Co ion. The sensing and removal of any radioactive isotope could be achieved with an appropriate sensing probe, to provide a simple and universal platform for remediation.

  15. Proceedings of the Workshop on relativistic heavy ion physics at present and future accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csoergoe, T.; Hegyi, S.; Lukacs, B.; Zimanyi, J.

    1991-09-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Budapest Workshop on relativistic heavy ion physics at present and future accelerators. The topics includes experimental heavy ion physics, particle phenomenology, Bose-Einstein correlations, relativistic transport theory, quark-gluon plasma rehadronization, astronuclear physics, leptonpair production and intermittency. All contributions were indexed separately for the INIS database. (G.P.)

  16. Development of heavy-ion accelerators as drivers for inertially confined fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1979-06-01

    The commercialization of inertial confinement fusion is discussed in terms of power costs. A chapter on heavy ion accelerators covers the prinicpal components, beam loss mechanisms, and theoretical considerations. Other tyopics discussed include the following: (1) heavy ion fusion implementation plan, (2) driver with accumulator rings fed by an rf LINAC, (3) single pass driver with an induction LINAC, and (4) implementation scenarios

  17. A proposal for study of ion-beam induced chemical reactions using JAERI tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    Problems in ion-beam induced chemical reactions using JAERI Tandem Accelerator were discussed. Research philosophy, some proposed experiments which are based on measurements during ion-beam bombardment, and main features of the experimental apparatus are briefly described in this report. (author)

  18. Simulation studies of acceleration of heavy ions and their elemental compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toida, Mieko; Ohsawa, Yukiharu

    1996-07-01

    By using a one-dimensional, electromagnetic particle simulation code with full ion and electron dynamics, we have studied the acceleration of heavy ions by a nonlinear magnetosonic wave in a multi-ion-species plasma. First, we describe the mechanism of heavy ion acceleration by magnetosonic waves. We then investigate this by particle simulations. The simulation plasma contains four ion species: H, He, O, and Fe. The number density of He is taken to be 10% of that of H, and those of O and Fe are much lower. Simulations confirm that, as in a single-ion-species plasma, some of the hydrogens can be accelerated by the longitudinal electric field formed in the wave. Furthermore, they show that magnetosonic waves can accelerate all the particles of all the heavy species (He, O, and Fe) by a different mechanism, i.e., by the transverse electric field. The maximum speeds of the heavy species are about the same, of the order of the wave propagation speed. These are in good agreement with theoretical prediction. These results indicate that, if high-energy ions are produced in the solar corona through these mechanisms, the elemental compositions of these heavy ions can be similar to that of the background plasma, i.e., the corona

  19. First phase plan for experimental study of heavy-ion inertial fusion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Toshiyuki; Okamura, Masahiro; Oguri, Yoshiyuki; Aida, Toshihiro; Takeuchi, Kouichi; Sasa, Kimikazu; Itoh, Takashi; Okada, Masashi; Takahashi, Yousuke; Ishii, Yasuyuki.

    1993-01-01

    We propose the basic experiment plan of driver for heavy-ion inertial fusion by heavy-ion linac [1-3] system and the heavy-ion cooler synchrotron. As the first phase of planning, we will improve old heavy-ion accelerator system that accelerate small intensity around Cl ion with charge to mass ratio of 1/4 up to 2.4 MeV/amu. The injector of the system will exchange from the 1.6 MV Peletron Tandem accelerator to an RFQ type linac with an ECR heavy-ion source. According to building up the power sources of RF and focusing magnet, then it is able to accelerate intense around Xe ion with charge to mass ratio of 1/6 up to 2.4 MeV/amu. At the next stage of it, we will construct a heavy-ion cooler synchrotron having magneticrigidity of 3 or 6 Tm and begin to study about HIF driver. (author)

  20. Recent radioactive ion beam program at RIKEN and related topics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent experimental programs at RIKEN concerning RI beams are reviewed. RIKEN has the ring cyclotron (RRC) with high intense heavy-ion beams and large acceptance fragment separator, RIPS. The complex can provide high intense RI-beams. By using the high intense RI-beams, a variety of experiments have been ...